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Sample records for linked subunits show

  1. Subunits of the Snf1 kinase heterotrimer show interdependence for association and activity.

    Elbing, Karin; Rubenstein, Eric M; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2006-09-08

    The Snf1 kinase and its mammalian orthologue, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), function as heterotrimers composed of a catalytic alpha-subunit and two non-catalytic subunits, beta and gamma. The beta-subunit is thought to hold the complex together and control subcellular localization whereas the gamma-subunit plays a regulatory role by binding to and blocking the function of an auto-inhibitory domain (AID) present in the alpha-subunit. In addition, catalytic activity requires phosphorylation by a distinct upstream kinase. In yeast, any one of three Snf1-activating kinases, Sak1, Tos3, or Elm1, can fulfill this role. We have previously shown that Sak1 is the only Snf1-activating kinase that forms a stable complex with Snf1. Here we show that the formation of the Sak1.Snf1 complex requires the beta- and gamma-subunits in vivo. However, formation of the Sak1.Snf1 complex is not necessary for glucose-regulated phosphorylation of the Snf1 activation loop. Snf1 kinase purified from cells lacking the beta-subunits do not contain any gamma-subunit, indicating that the Snf1 kinase does not form a stable alphagamma dimer in vivo. In vitro kinase assays using purified full-length and truncated Snf1 proteins demonstrate that the kinase domain, which lacks the AID, is significantly more active than the full-length Snf1 protein. Addition of purified beta- and gamma-subunits could stimulate the kinase activity of the full-length alpha-subunit but only when all three subunits were present, suggesting an interdependence of all three subunits for assembly of a functional complex.

  2. N-linked glycans are required on epithelial Na+ channel subunits for maturation and surface expression.

    Kashlan, Ossama B; Kinlough, Carol L; Myerburg, Michael M; Shi, Shujie; Chen, Jingxin; Blobner, Brandon M; Buck, Teresa M; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Hughey, Rebecca P; Kleyman, Thomas R

    2018-03-01

    Epithelial Na + channel (ENaC) subunits undergo N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum where they assemble into an αβγ complex. Six, 13, and 5 consensus sites (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) for N-glycosylation reside in the extracellular domains of the mouse α-, β-, and γ-subunits, respectively. Because the importance of ENaC N-linked glycans has not been fully addressed, we examined the effect of preventing N-glycosylation of specific subunits on channel function, expression, maturation, and folding. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes or Fischer rat thyroid cells with αβγ-ENaC lacking N-linked glycans on a single subunit reduced ENaC activity as well as the inhibitory response to extracellular Na + . The lack of N-linked glycans on the β-subunit also precluded channel activation by trypsin. However, channel activation by shear stress was N-linked glycan independent, regardless of which subunit was modified. We also discovered that the lack of N-linked glycans on any one subunit reduced the total and surface levels of cognate subunits. The lack of N-linked glycans on the β-subunit had the largest effect on total levels, with the lack of N-linked glycans on the γ- and α-subunits having intermediate and modest effects, respectively. Finally, channels with wild-type β-subunits were more sensitive to limited trypsin proteolysis than channels lacking N-linked glycans on the β-subunit. Our results indicate that N-linked glycans on each subunit are required for proper folding, maturation, surface expression, and function of the channel.

  3. Organization of Subunits in the Membrane Domain of the Bovine F-ATPase Revealed by Covalent Cross-linking.

    Lee, Jennifer; Ding, ShuJing; Walpole, Thomas B; Holding, Andrew N; Montgomery, Martin G; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2015-05-22

    The F-ATPase in bovine mitochondria is a membrane-bound complex of about 30 subunits of 18 different kinds. Currently, ∼85% of its structure is known. The enzyme has a membrane extrinsic catalytic domain, and a membrane intrinsic domain where the turning of the enzyme's rotor is generated from the transmembrane proton-motive force. The domains are linked by central and peripheral stalks. The central stalk and a hydrophobic ring of c-subunits in the membrane domain constitute the enzyme's rotor. The external surface of the catalytic domain and membrane subunit a are linked by the peripheral stalk, holding them static relative to the rotor. The membrane domain contains six additional subunits named ATP8, e, f, g, DAPIT (diabetes-associated protein in insulin-sensitive tissues), and 6.8PL (6.8-kDa proteolipid), each with a single predicted transmembrane α-helix, but their orientation and topography are unknown. Mutations in ATP8 uncouple the enzyme and interfere with its assembly, but its roles and the roles of the other five subunits are largely unknown. We have reacted accessible amino groups in the enzyme with bifunctional cross-linking agents and identified the linked residues. Cross-links involving the supernumerary subunits, where the structures are not known, show that the C terminus of ATP8 extends ∼70 Å from the membrane into the peripheral stalk and that the N termini of the other supernumerary subunits are on the same side of the membrane, probably in the mitochondrial matrix. These experiments contribute significantly toward building up a complete structural picture of the F-ATPase. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Organization of Subunits in the Membrane Domain of the Bovine F-ATPase Revealed by Covalent Cross-linking*

    Lee, Jennifer; Ding, ShuJing; Walpole, Thomas B.; Holding, Andrew N.; Montgomery, Martin G.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The F-ATPase in bovine mitochondria is a membrane-bound complex of about 30 subunits of 18 different kinds. Currently, ∼85% of its structure is known. The enzyme has a membrane extrinsic catalytic domain, and a membrane intrinsic domain where the turning of the enzyme's rotor is generated from the transmembrane proton-motive force. The domains are linked by central and peripheral stalks. The central stalk and a hydrophobic ring of c-subunits in the membrane domain constitute the enzyme's rotor. The external surface of the catalytic domain and membrane subunit a are linked by the peripheral stalk, holding them static relative to the rotor. The membrane domain contains six additional subunits named ATP8, e, f, g, DAPIT (diabetes-associated protein in insulin-sensitive tissues), and 6.8PL (6.8-kDa proteolipid), each with a single predicted transmembrane α-helix, but their orientation and topography are unknown. Mutations in ATP8 uncouple the enzyme and interfere with its assembly, but its roles and the roles of the other five subunits are largely unknown. We have reacted accessible amino groups in the enzyme with bifunctional cross-linking agents and identified the linked residues. Cross-links involving the supernumerary subunits, where the structures are not known, show that the C terminus of ATP8 extends ∼70 Å from the membrane into the peripheral stalk and that the N termini of the other supernumerary subunits are on the same side of the membrane, probably in the mitochondrial matrix. These experiments contribute significantly toward building up a complete structural picture of the F-ATPase. PMID:25851905

  5. Linking GABA(A) receptor subunits to alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion and recovery from acute alcohol intoxication.

    Blednov, Y A; Benavidez, J M; Black, M; Chandra, D; Homanics, G E; Rudolph, U; Harris, R A

    2013-04-01

    GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-R) are important for ethanol actions and it is of interest to link individual subunits with specific ethanol behaviors. We studied null mutant mice for six different GABA(A)-R subunits (α1, α2, α3, α4, α5 and δ). Only mice lacking the α2 subunit showed reduction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to ethanol. These results are in agreement with data from knock-in mice with mutation of the ethanol-sensitive site in the α2-subunit (Blednov et al., 2011). All together, they indicate that aversive property of ethanol is dependent on ethanol action on α2-containing GABA(A)-R. Deletion of the α2-subunit led to faster recovery whereas absence of the α3-subunit slowed recovery from ethanol-induced incoordination (rotarod). Deletion of the other four subunits did not affect this behavior. Similar changes in this behavior for the α2 and α3 null mutants were found for flurazepam motor incoordination. However, no differences in recovery were found in motor-incoordinating effects of an α1-selective modulator (zolpidem) or an α4-selective agonist (gaboxadol). Therefore, recovery of rotarod incoordination is under control of two GABA(A)-R subunits: α2 and α3. For motor activity, α3 null mice demonstrated higher activation by ethanol (1 g/kg) whereas both α2 (-/-) and α3 (-/Y) knockout mice were less sensitive to ethanol-induced reduction of motor activity (1.5 g/kg). These studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at GABAergic synapses containing α2 subunit are important for specific behavioral effects of ethanol which may be relevant to the genetic linkage of the α2 subunit with human alcoholism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. LINKING GABAA RECEPTOR SUBUNITS TO ALCOHOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION AND RECOVERY FROM ACUTE ALCOHOL INTOXICATION

    Blednov, Y.A.; Benavidez, J.M.; Black, M.; Chandra, D.; Homanics, G.E.; Rudolph, U.; Harris, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    GABA type A receptors (GABAA-R) are important for ethanol actions and it is of interest to link individual subunits with specific ethanol behaviors. We studied null mutant mice for six different GABAA-R subunits (α1, α2, α3, α4, α5 and δ). Only mice lacking the α2 subunit showed reduction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to ethanol. These results are in agreement with data from knock-in mice with mutation of the ethanol-sensitive site in the α2-subunit (Blednov et al., 2011) and indicate this aversive property of ethanol is dependent on ethanol action on α2-containing GABAA-R. Deletion of the α2-subunit led to faster recovery whereas absence of the α3-subunit slowed recovery from ethanol-induced incoordination (rotarod). Deletion of the other four subunits did not affect this behavior. Similar changes in this behavior for the α2 and α3 null mutants were found for flurazepam motor-incoordination. However, no differences in recovery were found in motor-incoordinating effects of an α1-selective modulator (zolpidem) or an α4-selective agonist (gaboxadol). Therefore, recovery of rotarod incoordination is under control of two GABAA-R subunits: α2 and α3. For motor activity, α3 null mice demonstrated higher activation by ethanol (1 g/kg) whereas both α2 and α3 (-/-) knockout mice were less sensitive to ethanol-induced reduction of motor activity (1.5 g/kg). These studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at GABAergic synapses containing α2 subunit are important for specific behavioral effects of ethanol which may be relevant to the genetic linkage of the α2 subunit with human alcoholism. PMID:23147414

  7. Cross-linking of L5 protein to 5 S RNA in rat liver 60-S subunits by ultraviolet irradiation

    Terao, K.; Uchiumi, T.; Ogata, K.

    1980-01-01

    After rat liver 60-S ribosomal subunits were irradiated with ultraviolet light at 254 nm, they were treated with EDTA and then subjected to sucrose density-gradient centrifugation to isolate 5 S RNA-protein complex. When 5 S RNA-protein was analyzed by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis which dissociated noncovalent 5 S RNA-protein, two protein bands were observed. The one showed a slower mobility than the protein band (L5) of 5 S RNA-protein from non-irradiated 60 S subunit and the other showed the same mobility as L5 protein. Since the former band was shown to be specific to ultraviolet-irradiation, it was considered as cross-linked 5 S RNA-protein. After the two protein bands were iodinated with 125 I, labeled protein was extracted and treated with RNAase. Thereafter, it was analyzed by two-dimensional acrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiography. The results indicate that the protein component of cross-linked 5 S RNA-protein is L5 protein (ribosomal protein); these proteins are designated according to the proposed uniform nomenclature. (Auth.)

  8. NDUFA4 Mutations Underlie Dysfunction of a Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit Linked to Human Neurological Disease

    Robert D.S. Pitceathly

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The molecular basis of cytochrome c oxidase (COX, complex IV deficiency remains genetically undetermined in many cases. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed in a consanguineous pedigree with isolated COX deficiency linked to a Leigh syndrome neurological phenotype. Unexpectedly, affected individuals harbored homozygous splice donor site mutations in NDUFA4, a gene previously assigned to encode a mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit. Western blot analysis of denaturing gels and immunocytochemistry revealed undetectable steady-state NDUFA4 protein levels, indicating that the mutation causes a loss-of-function effect in the homozygous state. Analysis of one- and two-dimensional blue-native polyacrylamide gels confirmed an interaction between NDUFA4 and the COX enzyme complex in control muscle, whereas the COX enzyme complex without NDUFA4 was detectable with no abnormal subassemblies in patient muscle. These observations support recent work in cell lines suggesting that NDUFA4 is an additional COX subunit and demonstrate that NDUFA4 mutations cause human disease. Our findings support reassignment of the NDUFA4 protein to complex IV and suggest that patients with unexplained COX deficiency should be screened for NDUFA4 mutations.

  9. Glutamate Cysteine Ligase—Modulatory Subunit Knockout Mouse Shows Normal Insulin Sensitivity but Reduced Liver Glycogen Storage

    Lavoie, Suzie

    2016-04-21

    Glutathione (GSH) deficits have been observed in several mental or degenerative illness, and so has the metabolic syndrome. The impact of a decreased glucose metabolism on the GSH system is well-known, but the effect of decreased GSH levels on the energy metabolism is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity to insulin in the mouse knockout (KO) for the modulatory subunit of the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM), the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis. Compared to wildtype (WT) mice, GCLM-KO mice presented with reduced basal plasma glucose and insulin levels. During an insulin tolerance test, GCLM-KO mice showed a normal fall in glycemia, indicating normal insulin secretion. However, during the recovery phase, plasma glucose levels remained lower for longer in KO mice despite normal plasma glucagon levels. This is consistent with a normal counterregulatory hormonal response but impaired mobilization of glucose from endogenous stores. Following a resident-intruder stress, during which stress hormones mobilize glucose from hepatic glycogen stores, KO mice showed a lower hyperglycemic level despite higher plasma cortisol levels when compared to WT mice. The lower hepatic glycogen levels observed in GCLM-KO mice could explain the impaired glycogen mobilization following induced hypoglycemia. Altogether, our results indicate that reduced liver glycogen availability, as observed in GCLM-KO mice, could be at the origin of their lower basal and challenged glycemia. Further studies will be necessary to understand how a GSH deficit, typically observed in GCLM-KO mice, leads to a deficit in liver glycogen storage.

  10. Glutamate Cysteine Ligase—Modulatory Subunit Knockout Mouse Shows Normal Insulin Sensitivity but Reduced Liver Glycogen Storage

    Lavoie, Suzie; Steullet, Pascal; Kulak, Anita; Preitner, Frederic; Do, Kim Q.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) deficits have been observed in several mental or degenerative illness, and so has the metabolic syndrome. The impact of a decreased glucose metabolism on the GSH system is well-known, but the effect of decreased GSH levels on the energy metabolism is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity to insulin in the mouse knockout (KO) for the modulatory subunit of the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM), the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis. Compared to wildtype (WT) mice, GCLM-KO mice presented with reduced basal plasma glucose and insulin levels. During an insulin tolerance test, GCLM-KO mice showed a normal fall in glycemia, indicating normal insulin secretion. However, during the recovery phase, plasma glucose levels remained lower for longer in KO mice despite normal plasma glucagon levels. This is consistent with a normal counterregulatory hormonal response but impaired mobilization of glucose from endogenous stores. Following a resident-intruder stress, during which stress hormones mobilize glucose from hepatic glycogen stores, KO mice showed a lower hyperglycemic level despite higher plasma cortisol levels when compared to WT mice. The lower hepatic glycogen levels observed in GCLM-KO mice could explain the impaired glycogen mobilization following induced hypoglycemia. Altogether, our results indicate that reduced liver glycogen availability, as observed in GCLM-KO mice, could be at the origin of their lower basal and challenged glycemia. Further studies will be necessary to understand how a GSH deficit, typically observed in GCLM-KO mice, leads to a deficit in liver glycogen storage.

  11. Characterization and charge distribution of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on secreted mouse thyrotropin and free alpha-subunits

    Gesundheit, N.; Gyves, P.W.; DeCherney, G.S.; Stannard, B.S.; Winston, R.L.; Weintraub, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    Mouse hemipituitaries in vitro secrete TSH, composed of an alpha-beta heterodimer, as well as excess (free) alpha-subunits. By dual metabolic labeling with [35S]sulfate and [3H]mannose, we have characterized oligosaccharides from secreted TSH alpha, TSH beta, and free alpha-subunits released from the apoprotein by enzymatic deglycosylation. Oligosaccharides from each subunit displayed a distinct anion exchange HPLC profile due to a specific pattern of sialylation and sulfation. Six species were obtained from TSH alpha (with two glycosylation sites), including neutral oligosaccharides as well as those with one or two negative charges. For TSH beta (with one glycosylation site) at least eight oligosaccharide species were noted, representing nearly every permutation of sialylation and sulfation; approximately 30% contained three or more negative charges. Analysis of [3H]mannose-labeled oligosaccharides on Concanavalin-A-agarose showed 85% binding for those from TSH alpha, 70% for free alpha, and 50% for those from TSH beta. These data demonstrate that oligosaccharides from secreted TSH beta were more sialylated and sulfated, consistent with a more complex branching pattern, than those from TSH alpha. Oligosaccharides from free alpha-subunit were more sialylated than those from TSH alpha, and the net negative charge was intermediate between those of TSH alpha and TSH beta. Although great microheterogeneity is present even at the single glycosylation site on the beta-subunit of secreted TSH, a pattern of sialylation and sulfation could be discerned

  12. RAD21L, a novel cohesin subunit implicated in linking homologous chromosomes in mammalian meiosis.

    Lee, Jibak; Hirano, Tatsuya

    2011-01-24

    Cohesins are multi-subunit protein complexes that regulate sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis and meiosis. Here we identified a novel kleisin subunit of cohesins, RAD21L, which is conserved among vertebrates. In mice, RAD21L is expressed exclusively in early meiosis: it apparently replaces RAD21 in premeiotic S phase, becomes detectable on the axial elements in leptotene, and stays on the axial/lateral elements until mid pachytene. RAD21L then disappears, and is replaced with RAD21. This behavior of RAD21L is unique and distinct from that of REC8, another meiosis-specific kleisin subunit. Remarkably, the disappearance of RAD21L at mid pachytene correlates with the completion of DNA double-strand break repair and the formation of crossovers as judged by colabeling with molecular markers, γ-H2AX, MSH4, and MLH1. RAD21L associates with SMC3, STAG3, and either SMC1α or SMC1β. Our results suggest that cohesin complexes containing RAD21L may be involved in synapsis initiation and crossover recombination between homologous chromosomes.

  13. The nonenzymatic subunit of pseutarin C, a prothrombin activator from eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) venom, shows structural similarity to mammalian coagulation factor V.

    Rao, Veena S; Swarup, Sanjay; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2003-08-15

    Pseutarin C is a group C prothrombin activator from the venom of the eastern brown snake Pseudonaja textilis. It is a multi-subunit protein complex consisting of catalytic and nonenzymatic subunits similar to coagulation factor Xa and factor Va, respectively. Here we describe the complete sequence of the nonenzymatic subunit. Based on the partial amino acid sequence of the nonenzymatic subunit, degenerate primers were designed. Using a "walking" strategy based on sequentially designed primers, we determined the complete cDNA sequence of the nonenzymatic subunit. The cDNA encodes a protein of 1461 amino acid residues, which includes a 30-residue signal peptide, a mature protein of 1430 amino acid residues, and a stop codon. cDNA blot analysis showed a single transcript of approximately 4.6 kb. The deduced amino acid sequence shows approximately 50% identity to mammalian factor V and by homology has a similar domain structure consisting of domains A1-A2-B-A3-C1-C2. Interestingly, the B domain of pseutarin C is shorter than that of mammalian factor V (FV). Although most of the proteolytic activation sites are conserved, 2 of 3 proteolytic sites cleaved by activated protein C are mutated, and thus activated protein C is not able to inactivate this procoagulant toxin. The predicted posttranslational modifications, including disulfide bonds, N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and sulfation, in pseutarin C are significantly different compared with bovine factor V. Thus, our data demonstrate that the nonenzymatic subunit of group C prothrombin activators is structurally similar to mammalian FV.

  14. Analysis of the role of COP9 Signalosome (CSN subunits in K562; the first link between CSN and autophagy

    Bunce Christopher M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The COP9/signalosome (CSN is a highly conserved eight subunit complex that, by deneddylating cullins in cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligases, regulates protein degradation. Although studied in model human cell lines such as HeLa, very little is known about the role of the CSN in haemopoietic cells. Results Greater than 95% knockdown of the non-catalytic subunit CSN2 and the deneddylating subunit CSN5 of the CSN was achieved in the human myeloid progenitor cell line K562. CSN2 knockdown led to a reduction of both CSN5 protein and mRNA whilst CSN5 knockdown had little effect on CSN2. Both knockdowns inhibited CSN deneddylase function as demonstrated by accumulation of neddylated Cul1. Furthermore, both knockdowns resulted in the sequential loss of Skp2, Cdc4 and β-TrCP F-box proteins. These proteins were rescued by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, indicating the autocatalytic degradation of F-box proteins upon loss of CSN2 or CSN5. Interestingly, altered F-box protein gene expression was also observed in CSN2 and CSN5 knockdowns, suggesting a potential role of the CSN in regulating F-box protein transcription. Loss of either CSN subunit dramatically reduced cell growth but resulted in distinct patterns of cell death. CSN5 knockdown caused mitotic defects, G2/M arrest and apoptotic cell death. CSN2 knockdown resulted in non-apoptotic cell death associated with accumulation of both the autophagy marker LC3-II and autophagic vacuoles. Treatment of vector control K562 cells with the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1 recapitulated the growth kinetics, vacuolar morphology and LC3-II accumulation of CSN2 knockdown cells indicating that the cellular phenotype of CSN2 cells arises from autophagy inhibition. Finally, loss of CSN2 was associated with the formation of a CSN5 containing subcomplex. Conclusion We conclude that CSN2 is required for CSN integrity and the stability of individual CSN subunits, and postulate

  15. A potential link between insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation: Association of Rab10-GTP with the exocyst subunit Exoc6/6b

    Sano, Hiroyuki; Peck, Grantley R. [Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Blachon, Stephanie [Hybrigenics Services SAS, 3-5 Impasse Reille, 75014 Paris (France); Lienhard, Gustav E., E-mail: gustav.e.lienhard@dartmouth.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2015-09-25

    Insulin increases glucose transport in fat and muscle cells by stimulating the exocytosis of specialized vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4. This process, which is referred to as GLUT4 translocation, increases the amount of GLUT4 at the cell surface. Previous studies have provided evidence that insulin signaling increases the amount of Rab10-GTP in the GLUT4 vesicles and that GLUT4 translocation requires the exocyst, a complex that functions in the tethering of vesicles to the plasma membrane, leading to exocytosis. In the present study we show that Rab10 in its GTP form binds to Exoc6 and Exoc6b, which are the two highly homologous isotypes of an exocyst subunit, that both isotypes are found in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that knockdown of Exoc6, Exoc6b, or both inhibits GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that the association of Rab10-GTP with Exoc6/6b is a molecular link between insulin signaling and the exocytic machinery in GLUT4 translocation. - Highlights: • Insulin stimulates the fusion of vesicles containing GLUT4 with the plasma membrane. • This requires vesicular Rab10-GTP and the exocyst plasma membrane tethering complex. • We find that Rab10-GTP associates with the Exoc6 subunit of the exocyst. • We find that knockdown of Exoc6 inhibits fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the membrane. • The interaction of Rab10-GTP with Exoc6 potentially links signaling to exocytosis.

  16. DNAJC21 Mutations Link a Cancer-Prone Bone Marrow Failure Syndrome to Corruption in 60S Ribosome Subunit Maturation.

    Tummala, Hemanth; Walne, Amanda J; Williams, Mike; Bockett, Nicholas; Collopy, Laura; Cardoso, Shirleny; Ellison, Alicia; Wynn, Rob; Leblanc, Thierry; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Kelsell, David P; van Heel, David A; Payne, Elspeth; Plagnol, Vincent; Dokal, Inderjeet; Vulliamy, Tom

    2016-07-07

    A substantial number of individuals with bone marrow failure (BMF) present with one or more extra-hematopoietic abnormality. This suggests a constitutional or inherited basis, and yet many of them do not fit the diagnostic criteria of the known BMF syndromes. Through exome sequencing, we have now identified a subgroup of these individuals, defined by germline biallelic mutations in DNAJC21 (DNAJ homolog subfamily C member 21). They present with global BMF, and one individual developed a hematological cancer (acute myeloid leukemia) in childhood. We show that the encoded protein associates with rRNA and plays a highly conserved role in the maturation of the 60S ribosomal subunit. Lymphoblastoid cells obtained from an affected individual exhibit increased sensitivity to the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D and reduced amounts of rRNA. Characterization of mutations revealed impairment in interactions with cofactors (PA2G4, HSPA8, and ZNF622) involved in 60S maturation. DNAJC21 deficiency resulted in cytoplasmic accumulation of the 60S nuclear export factor PA2G4, aberrant ribosome profiles, and increased cell death. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that mutations in DNAJC21 cause a cancer-prone BMF syndrome due to corruption of early nuclear rRNA biogenesis and late cytoplasmic maturation of the 60S subunit. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Small-angle scattering studies show distinct conformations of calmodulin in its complexes with two peptides based on the regulatory domain of the catalytic subunit of phosphorylase kinase

    Trewhella, J.; Blumenthal, D.K.; Rokop, S.E.; Seeger, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering have been used to study the solution structures of calmodulin complexed with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 342-366 and 301-326, designated PhK5 and PhK13, respectively, in the regulatory domain of the catalytic subunit of skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase. The scattering data show that binding of PhK5 to calmodulin induces a dramatic contraction of calmodulin, similar to that previously observed when calmodulin is complexed with the calmodulin-binding domain peptide from rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. In contrast, calmodulin remains extended upon binding PhK13. In the presence of both peptides, calmodulin also remains extended. Apparently, the presence of PhK13 inhibits calmodulin from undergoing the PhK5-induced contraction. These data indicate that there is a fundamentally different type of calmodulin-target enzyme interaction in the case of the catalytic subunit of phosphorylase kinase compared with that for myosin light chain kinase

  18. Mutation in rod PDE6 linked to congenital stationary night blindness impairs the enzyme inhibition by its gamma-subunit.

    Muradov, Khakim G; Granovsky, Alexey E; Artemyev, Nikolai O

    2003-03-25

    Photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6) is the effector enzyme in the vertebrate visual transduction cascade. The activity of rod PDE6 catalytic alpha- and beta-subunits is blocked in the dark by two inhibitory Pgamma-subunits. The inhibition is released upon light-stimulation of photoreceptor cells. Mutation H258N in PDE6beta has been linked to congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) in a large Danish family (Rambusch pedigree) (Gal, A., Orth, U., Baehr, W., Schwinger, E., and Rosenberg, T. (1994) Nat. Genet. 7, 64-67.) We have analyzed the consequences of this mutation for PDE6 function using a Pgamma-sensitive PDE6alpha'/PDE5 chimera, Chi16. Biochemical analysis of the H257N mutant, an equivalent of PDE6betaH258N, demonstrates that this substitution does not alter the ability of chimeric PDE to dimerize or the enzyme's catalytic properties. The sensitivity of H257N to a competitive inhibitor zaprinast was also unaffected. However, the mutant displayed a significant impairment in the inhibitory interaction with Pgamma, which was apparent from a approximately 20-fold increase in the K(i) value (46 nM) and incomplete maximal inhibition. The inhibitory defect of H257N is not due to perturbation of noncatalytic cGMP binding to the PDE6alpha' GAF domains. The noncatalytic cGMP-binding characteristics of the H257N mutant were similar to those of the parent PDE6alpha'/PDE5 chimera. Since rod PDE6 in the Rambusch CSNB is a catalytic heterodimer of the wild-type PDE6alpha and mutant PDE6beta, Chi16 and H257N were coexpressed, and a heterodimeric PDE, Chi16/H257N, was isolated. It displayed two Pgamma inhibitory sites with the K(i) values of 5 and 57 nM. Our results support the hypothesis that mutation H258N in PDE6beta causes CSNB through incomplete inhibition of PDE6 activity by Pgamma, which leads to desensitization of rod photoreceptors.

  19. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Read Pukkila-Worley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  20. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Feinbaum, Rhonda L; McEwan, Deborah L; Conery, Annie L; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-05-01

    Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  1. Ovarian cycle-linked plasticity of δ-GABAA receptor subunits in hippocampal interneurons affects γ oscillations in vivo

    Albert Miklos Barth

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors containing δ subunits (δ-GABAARs are GABA-gated ion channels with extra- and perisynaptic localization, strong sensitivity to neurosteroids (NS, and a high degree of plasticity. In selective brain regions they are expressed on specific principal cells and interneurons (INs, and generate a tonic conductance that controls neuronal excitability and oscillations. Plasticity of δ-GABAARs in principal cells has been described during states of altered NS synthesis including acute stress, puberty, ovarian cycle, pregnancy and the postpartum period, with direct consequences on neuronal excitability and network dynamics. The defining network events implicated in cognitive function, memory formation and encoding are γ oscillations (30-120 Hz, a well-timed loop of excitation and inhibition between principal cells and PV-expressing INs (PV+INs. The δ-GABAARs of INs can modify γ oscillations, and a lower expression of δ-GABAARs on INs during pregnancy alters γ frequency recorded in vitro. The ovarian cycle is another physiological event with large fluctuations in NS levels and δ-GABAARs. Stages of the cycle are paralleled by swings in memory performance, cognitive function, and mood in both humans and rodents. Here we show δ-GABAARs changes during the mouse ovarian cycle in hippocampal cell types, with enhanced expression during diestrus in principal cells and specific INs. The plasticity of δ-GABAARs on PV-INs decreases the magnitude of γ oscillations continuously recorded in area CA1 throughout several days in vivo during diestrus and increases it during estrus. Such recurring changes in γ magnitude were not observed in non-cycling wild-type (WT females, cycling females lacking δ-GABAARs only on PV-INs (PV-Gabrd-/-, and in male mice during a time course equivalent to the ovarian cycle. Our findings may explain the impaired memory and cognitive performance experienced by women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS or premenstrual

  2. Haptoglobin preferentially binds β but not α subunits cross-linked hemoglobin tetramers with minimal effects on ligand and redox reactions.

    Jia, Yiping; Wood, Francine; Buehler, Paul W; Alayash, Abdu I

    2013-01-01

    Human hemoglobin (Hb) and haptoglobin (Hp) exhibit an extremely high affinity for each other, and the dissociation of Hb tetramers into dimers is generally believed to be a prerequisite for complex formation. We have investigated Hp interactions with native Hb, αα, and ββ cross-linked Hb (ααXLHb and ββXLHb, respectively), and rapid kinetics of Hb ligand binding as well as the redox reactivity in the presence of and absence of Hp. The quaternary conformation of ββ subunit cross-linking results in a higher binding affinity than that of αα subunit cross-linked Hb. However, ββ cross-linked Hb exhibits a four fold slower association rate constant than the reaction rate of unmodified Hb with Hp. The Hp contact regions in the Hb dimer interfaces appear to be more readily exposed in ββXLHb than ααXLHb. In addition, apart from the functional changes caused by chemical modifications, Hp binding does not induce appreciable effects on the ligand binding and redox reactions of ββXLHb. Our findings may therefore be relevant to the design of safer Hb-based oxygen therapeutics by utilizing this preferential binding of ββXLHb to Hp. This may ultimately provide a safe oxidative inactivation and clearance pathway for chemically modified Hbs in circulation.

  3. [Expression of proteasome subunits PSMB5 and PSMB9 mRNA in hippocampal neurons in experimental diabetes mellitus: link with apoptosis and necrosis].

    Lebid', Iu V; Dosenko, V Ie; Skybo, H H

    2010-01-01

    There is a huge body of evidence showing that long-termed diabetes mellitus is followed with hippocampal dysfunction. The goal of this work was to investigate the expression of proteasome subunits PSMB5 and PSMB9 mRNA in CA1, CA2 and CA3 areas of hippocampus in parallel with processes of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) in development dynamics of streptozotocine-induced diabetes. We have studied hippocampal neurons using chromatine dye Hoechst-33342 and immunohistochemical detection of apoptotic cell death marker caspase-3. At day 3 and 7 after injection of streptozotocine we have performed visualization of caspase-3-immunopositive neurons showing signs of neurodegeneration in hippocampal sections using confocal microscope Olympus FV1000. The rate of proteasome subunits PSMB5 and PSMB9 mRNA expression was determined with RT-PCR. The results indicated elevation of PSMB9 mRNA content (from 4807 +/- 0.392 arbU up to 20,023 +/- 4949 arbU on day 3 and up to 20,253 +/- 5141 arbU on day 7). A maximal number of cells with signs of chromatin condensation was observed at day 3 and day 7 in CA2 and CA3 area (11.51% and 12.49% respectively). That indicates an intensification of proapoptotic processes. Summarizing the results presented above we can conclude that during the first week of diabetes mellitus development, hippocampal cells undergo the process of impairment and degeneration.

  4. A genetic link between epigenetic repressor AS1-AS2 and a putative small subunit processome in leaf polarity establishment of Arabidopsis

    Yoko Matsumura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the DEAD-box RNA helicase family is ubiquitous in eukaryotes, its developmental role remains unelucidated. Here, we report that cooperative action between the Arabidopsis nucleolar protein RH10, an ortholog of human DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX47, and the epigenetic repressor complex of ASYMMETRIC-LEAVES1 (AS1 and AS2 (AS1-AS2 is critical to repress abaxial (ventral genes ETT/ARF3 and ARF4, which leads to adaxial (dorsal development in leaf primordia at shoot apices. Double mutations of rh10-1 and as2 (or as1 synergistically up-regulated the abaxial genes, which generated abaxialized filamentous leaves with loss of the adaxial domain. DDX47 is part of the small subunit processome (SSUP that mediates rRNA biogenesis. In rh10-1 we found various defects in SSUP-related events, such as: accumulation of 35S/33S rRNA precursors; reduction in the 18S/25S ratio; and nucleolar hypertrophy. Double mutants of as2 with mutations of genes that encode other candidate SSUP-related components such as nucleolin and putative rRNA methyltransferase exhibited similar synergistic defects caused by up-regulation of ETT/ARF3 and ARF4. These results suggest a tight link between putative SSUP and AS1-AS2 in repression of the abaxial-determining genes for cell fate decisions for adaxial development.

  5. MID1 and MID2 homo- and heterodimerise to tether the rapamycin-sensitive PP2A regulatory subunit, Alpha 4, to microtubules: implications for the clinical variability of X-linked Opitz GBBB syndrome and other developmental disorders

    Cox Timothy C

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Opitz GBBB syndrome present with a variable array of developmental defects including craniofacial, cardiac, and genital anomalies. Mutations in the X-linked MID1 gene, which encodes a microtubule-binding protein, have been found in ~50% of Opitz GBBB syndrome patients consistent with the genetically heterogeneous nature of the disorder. A protein highly related to MID1, called MID2, has also been described that similarly associates with microtubules. Results To identify protein partners of MID1 and MID2 we undertook two separate yeast two-hybrid screens. Using this system we identified Alpha 4, a regulatory subunit of PP2-type phosphatases and a key component of the rapamycin-sensitive signaling pathway, as a strong interactor of both proteins. Analysis of domain-specific deletions has shown that the B-boxes of both MID1 and MID2 mediate the interaction with Alpha 4, the first demonstration in an RBCC protein of a specific role for the B-box region. In addition, we show that the MID1/2 coiled-coil motifs mediate both homo- and hetero-dimerisation, and that dimerisation is a prerequisite for association of the MID-Alpha 4 complex with microtubules. Conclusions Our findings not only implicate Alpha 4 in the pathogenesis of Opitz GBBB syndrome but also support our earlier hypothesis that MID2 is a modifier of the X-linked phenotype. Of further note is the observation that Alpha 4 maps to Xq13 within the region showing linkage to FG (Opitz-Kaveggia syndrome. Overlap in the clinical features of FG and Opitz GBBB syndromes warrants investigation of Alpha 4 as a candidate for causing FG syndrome.

  6. Distinct α subunit variations of the hypothalamic GABAA receptor triplets (αβγ are linked to hibernating state in hamsters

    Alò Raffaella

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structural arrangement of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR is known to be crucial for the maintenance of cerebral-dependent homeostatic mechanisms during the promotion of highly adaptive neurophysiological events of the permissive hibernating rodent, i.e the Syrian golden hamster. In this study, in vitro quantitative autoradiography and in situ hybridization were assessed in major hypothalamic nuclei. Reverse Transcription Reaction-Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR tests were performed for specific GABAAR receptor subunit gene primers synthases of non-hibernating (NHIB and hibernating (HIB hamsters. Attempts were made to identify the type of αβγ subunit combinations operating during the switching ON/OFF of neuronal activities in some hypothalamic nuclei of hibernators. Results Both autoradiography and molecular analysis supplied distinct expression patterns of all α subunits considered as shown by a strong (p 1 ratio (over total α subunits considered in the present study in the medial preoptic area (MPOA and arcuate nucleus (Arc of NHIBs with respect to HIBs. At the same time α2 subunit levels proved to be typical of periventricular nucleus (Pe and Arc of HIB, while strong α4 expression levels were detected during awakening state in the key circadian hypothalamic station, i.e. the suprachiasmatic nucleus (Sch; 60%. Regarding the other two subunits (β and γ, elevated β3 and γ3 mRNAs levels mostly characterized MPOA of HIBs, while prevalently elevated expression concentrations of the same subunits were also typical of Sch, even though this time during the awakening state. In the case of Arc, notably elevated levels were obtained for β3 and γ2 during hibernating conditions. Conclusion We conclude that different αβγ subunits are operating as major elements either at the onset of torpor or during induction of the arousal state in the Syrian golden hamster. The identification of a brain regional

  7. A UV-Induced Genetic Network Links the RSC Complex to Nucleotide Excision Repair and Shows Dose-Dependent Rewiring

    Rohith Srivas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient repair of UV-induced DNA damage requires the precise coordination of nucleotide excision repair (NER with numerous other biological processes. To map this crosstalk, we generated a differential genetic interaction map centered on quantitative growth measurements of >45,000 double mutants before and after different doses of UV radiation. Integration of genetic data with physical interaction networks identified a global map of 89 UV-induced functional interactions among 62 protein complexes, including a number of links between the RSC complex and several NER factors. We show that RSC is recruited to both silenced and transcribed loci following UV damage where it facilitates efficient repair by promoting nucleosome remodeling. Finally, a comparison of the response to high versus low levels of UV shows that the degree of genetic rewiring correlates with dose of UV and reveals a network of dose-specific interactions. This study makes available a large resource of UV-induced interactions, and it illustrates a methodology for identifying dose-dependent interactions based on quantitative shifts in genetic networks.

  8. The methanolic extract of Cordycepts militaris (L.) Link fruiting body shows antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antihuman tumor cell lines properties

    Reis, F.S.; Barros, L.; Calhelha, R.C.; Ciric, A.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Sokovic, M.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Being Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link recognized as a medicinal and edible mushroom, this work intends to reveal new interesting bioactive molecules that could be isolated from this species. Hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds were analyzed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different

  9. Cooperative protein structural dynamics of homodimeric hemoglobin linked to water cluster at subunit interface revealed by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering

    Jong Goo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Homodimeric hemoglobin (HbI consisting of two subunits is a good model system for investigating the allosteric structural transition as it exhibits cooperativity in ligand binding. In this work, as an effort to extend our previous study on wild-type and F97Y mutant HbI, we investigate structural dynamics of a mutant HbI in solution to examine the role of well-organized interfacial water cluster, which has been known to mediate intersubunit communication in HbI. In the T72V mutant of HbI, the interfacial water cluster in the T state is perturbed due to the lack of Thr72, resulting in two less interfacial water molecules than in wild-type HbI. By performing picosecond time-resolved X-ray solution scattering experiment and kinetic analysis on the T72V mutant, we identify three structurally distinct intermediates (I1, I2, and I3 and show that the kinetics of the T72V mutant are well described by the same kinetic model used for wild-type and F97Y HbI, which involves biphasic kinetics, geminate recombination, and bimolecular CO recombination. The optimized kinetic model shows that the R-T transition and bimolecular CO recombination are faster in the T72V mutant than in the wild type. From structural analysis using species-associated difference scattering curves for the intermediates, we find that the T-like deoxy I3 intermediate in solution has a different structure from deoxy HbI in crystal. In addition, we extract detailed structural parameters of the intermediates such as E-F distance, intersubunit rotation angle, and heme-heme distance. By comparing the structures of protein intermediates in wild-type HbI and the T72V mutant, we reveal how the perturbation in the interfacial water cluster affects the kinetics and structures of reaction intermediates of HbI.

  10. Identification of a new adapter protein that may link the common beta subunit of the receptor for granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-3, and IL-5 to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Jücker, M; Feldman, R A

    1995-11-17

    Binding of human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) to its receptor induces the rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI 3-kinase). As hGM-CSF receptor (hGMR) does not contain a consensus sequence for binding of PI 3-kinase, hGMR must use a distinct mechanism for its association with and activation of PI 3-kinase. Here, we describe the identification of a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein of 76-85 kDa (p80) that associates with the common beta subunit of hGMR and with the SH2 domains of the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase in hGM-CSF-stimulated cells. Src/Yes and Lyn were tightly associated with the p80.PI 3-kinase complex, suggesting that p80 and other phosphotyrosyl proteins present in the complex were phosphorylated by Src family kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation of p80 was only detected in hGM-CSF or human interleukin-3-stimulated cells, suggesting that activation of p80 might be specific for signaling via the common beta subunit. We postulate that p80 functions as an adapter protein that may participate in linking the hGM-CSF receptor to the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

  11. A tetranucleotide repeat (D4S1652) is linked to facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and shows no linkage disequilibrium with the disease

    Mathews, K.D.; Bailey, H.L.; Mills, K.A. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant dystrophy which is associated with a deletion in a subtelomeric repeat element on 4q35. The gene has not yet been identified. The probe detecting this deletion (D4F104S1) is not chromosome 4-specific, and at least one large family has been identified which is not linked to chromosome 4. Thus, persymptomatic/prenatal diagnosis can only be provided to families that are proven to be chromosome 4-linked or where a new mutation is demonstrated. The markers available to demonstrate linkage to chromosome 4, D4S139, D4S163, and D4F35S1, are VNTRs. We have used D4S1652, a tetranucleotide repeat recently identified by the Cooperative Human Linkage Center, in our FSHD families. We found it is completely linked to the 4q35 VNTRs and to the disease phenotype. Physical mapping, using radiation hybrids and somatic cell hybrids, places D4S1652 between D4S139, an interval of approximately 1 Mb. We have used D4S1652 to look for linkage disequilibrium in our FSHD patient population. This result is of interest because of our hypothesis that the deletion in the subtelomeric repeat element alters transcription of a more proximal gene through a position effect. Previously available markers have been unsatisfactory for this experiment because of difficulty comparing numerous VNTR alleles across families. We observed 4, easily distinguished, D4S1652 alleles in our families. We studied 14 chromosomes associated with disease phenotype and 55 chromosomes from nontransmitting parents. We found no evidence for linkage disequilibrium ({chi}{sup 2}=1.313, nonsignificant). This result will need confirmation with a larger patient population, but is consistent with the clinical observation that there is a high rate of a new mutation in this disorder.

  12. Identification of cross-linked amino acids in the protein pair HmaL23-HmaL29 from the 50S ribosomal subunit of the archaebacterium Haloarcula marismortui.

    Bergmann, U; Wittmann-Liebold, B

    1993-03-23

    50S ribosomal subunits from the extreme halophilic archaebacterium Haloarcula marismortui were treated with the homobifunctional protein-protein cross-linking reagents diepoxybutane (4 A) and dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) (12 A). The dominant product with both cross-linking reagents was identified on the protein level as HmaL23-HmaL29, which is homologous to the protein pair L23-L29 from Escherichia coli [Walleczek, J., Martin, T., Redl, B., Stöffler-Meilicke, M., & Stöffler, G. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 4099-4105] and from Bacillus stearothermophilus [Brockmöller, J., & Kamp, R. M. (1986) Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 367, 925-935]. To reveal the exact cross-linking site in HmaL23-HmaL29, the cross-linked complex was purified on a preparative scale by conventional and high-performance liquid chromatography. After endoproteolytic fragmentation of the protein pair, the amino acids engaged in cross-link formation were unambiguously identified by N-terminal sequence analysis and mass spectrometry of the cross-linked peptides. The cross-link is formed between lysine-57 in the C-terminal region of HmaL29 and the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal serine in protein HmaL23, irrespective of the cross-linking reagent. This result demonstrates that the N-terminal region of protein HmaL23 and the C-terminal domain of HmaL29 are highly flexible so that the distance between the two polypeptide chains can vary by at least 8 A. Comparison of our cross-linking results with those obtained with B. stearothermophilus revealed that the fine structure within this ribosomal domain is at least partially conserved.

  13. The α1, α2, α3, and γ2 subunits of GABAA receptors show characteristic spatial and temporal expression patterns in rhombencephalic structures during normal human brain development

    Stojanovic, Tamara; Capo, Ivan; Aronica, Eleonora; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Höger, Harald; Sieghart, Werner; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Milenkovic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult mammalian brain, mediating its actions chiefly via a pentameric chloride ion channel, the GABAA receptor. Nineteen different subunits (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ε, π, θ, ρ1-3) can give rise to multiple receptor subtypes

  14. Corticosterone stress response shows long-term repeatability and links to personality in free-living Nazca boobies.

    Grace, Jacquelyn K; Anderson, David J

    2014-11-01

    The concept of "coping styles", or consistently different responses to stressors, is of broad interest in behavioral ecology and biomedicine. Two critical predictions of this concept are individual consistency of neurophysiological and behavioral responses (relative to population variability) and a negative relationship between aggression/proactivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Recent studies failed to provide strong support for these predictions, especially outside of strictly controlled conditions, and long-term measures to test the first prediction are rare. Here, we demonstrate individual repeatability across 2-3years of maximum circulating corticosterone concentration [CORT] and area under the [CORT] response curve (AUCI) during a standard capture-restraint test in wild, free-living adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti). We also show that the stress response predicts the personality traits aggression and anxiety in these birds (measured in the wild); however, the strength of these results was weak. Maximum [CORT] and AUCI showed higher repeatability between years than baseline [CORT]. After controlling breeding status, sex, mass, date sampled, and their interactions, baseline [CORT] was most closely related to personality traits, followed by AUCI, and then maximum [CORT]. The direction of these relationships depended on whether the testing context was social or non-social. [CORT] parameters had little to no relationship with cross-context plasticity in personality traits. Our results generally affirm two critical predictions of coping styles, but match the emerging trend that these relationships are weak in the wild, and may depend on testing context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunodominant role of CCHA subunit of Concholepas hemocyanin is associated with unique biochemical properties.

    Becker, María Inés; Fuentes, Alejandra; Del Campo, Miguel; Manubens, Augusto; Nova, Esteban; Oliva, Harold; Faunes, Fernando; Valenzuela, María Antonieta; Campos-Vallette, Marcelo; Aliaga, Alvaro; Ferreira, Jorge; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno

    2009-03-01

    Hemocyanin, the oxygen transporter metallo-glycoprotein from mollusks, shows strong relationship between its notable structural features and intrinsic immunomodulatory effects. Here we investigated the individual contribution of CCHA and CCHB subunits from Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH) to in vivo humoral immune response and their pre-clinical evaluation as immunotherapeutic agent in a mice bladder cancer model, in relation to their biochemical properties. To this end, subunits were purified and well characterized. Homogeneous subunits were obtained by anionic exchange chromatography, and its purity assessed by electrophoretic and immunochemical methods. While each CCH subunit contains eight functional units showing partial cross reaction, the vibrational spectral analysis showed several spectral differences, suggesting structural differences between them. In addition, we demonstrated differences in the carbohydrate content: CCHA had a 3.6% w/w sugar with both N- and O-linked moieties. In turn, CCHB had a 2.5% w/w sugar with N-linked, while O-linked moieties were nearly absent. Considering these differences, it was not possible to predict a priori whether the immunogenic and immunotherapeutic properties of subunits might be similar. Surprisingly, both subunits by itself induced a humoral response, and showed an antitumor effect in the bladder carcinoma cell line MBT-2. However, when immunologic parameters were analyzed, CCHA showed better efficiency than CCHB. No allergic reactions or any toxic effects were observed in mice treated with CCHA, sustaining its potential therapeutic use. Our study supports that CCHA subunit accounts for the most important features involved in the immunogenicity of CCH, such as better hydrophilicity and higher content of carbohydrates.

  16. Catalytic Subunit 1 of Protein Phosphatase 2A Is a Subunit of the STRIPAK Complex and Governs Fungal Sexual Development.

    Beier, Anna; Teichert, Ines; Krisp, Christoph; Wolters, Dirk A; Kück, Ulrich

    2016-06-21

    The generation of complex three-dimensional structures is a key developmental step for most eukaryotic organisms. The details of the molecular machinery controlling this step remain to be determined. An excellent model system to study this general process is the generation of three-dimensional fruiting bodies in filamentous fungi like Sordaria macrospora Fruiting body development is controlled by subunits of the highly conserved striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex, which has been described in organisms ranging from yeasts to humans. The highly conserved heterotrimeric protein phosphatase PP2A is a subunit of STRIPAK. Here, catalytic subunit 1 of PP2A was functionally characterized. The Δpp2Ac1 strain is sterile, unable to undergo hyphal fusion, and devoid of ascogonial septation. Further, PP2Ac1, together with STRIPAK subunit PRO22, governs vegetative and stress-related growth. We revealed in vitro catalytic activity of wild-type PP2Ac1, and our in vivo analysis showed that inactive PP2Ac1 blocks the complementation of the sterile deletion strain. Tandem affinity purification, followed by mass spectrometry and yeast two-hybrid analysis, verified that PP2Ac1 is a subunit of STRIPAK. Further, these data indicate links between the STRIPAK complex and other developmental signaling pathways, implying the presence of a large interconnected signaling network that controls eukaryotic developmental processes. The insights gained in our study can be transferred to higher eukaryotes and will be important for understanding eukaryotic cellular development in general. The striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex is highly conserved from yeasts to humans and is an important regulator of numerous eukaryotic developmental processes, such as cellular signaling and cell development. Although functional insights into the STRIPAK complex are accumulating, the detailed molecular mechanisms of single subunits are only partially understood

  17. Catalytic Subunit 1 of Protein Phosphatase 2A Is a Subunit of the STRIPAK Complex and Governs Fungal Sexual Development

    Anna Beier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generation of complex three-dimensional structures is a key developmental step for most eukaryotic organisms. The details of the molecular machinery controlling this step remain to be determined. An excellent model system to study this general process is the generation of three-dimensional fruiting bodies in filamentous fungi like Sordaria macrospora. Fruiting body development is controlled by subunits of the highly conserved striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK complex, which has been described in organisms ranging from yeasts to humans. The highly conserved heterotrimeric protein phosphatase PP2A is a subunit of STRIPAK. Here, catalytic subunit 1 of PP2A was functionally characterized. The Δpp2Ac1 strain is sterile, unable to undergo hyphal fusion, and devoid of ascogonial septation. Further, PP2Ac1, together with STRIPAK subunit PRO22, governs vegetative and stress-related growth. We revealed in vitro catalytic activity of wild-type PP2Ac1, and our in vivo analysis showed that inactive PP2Ac1 blocks the complementation of the sterile deletion strain. Tandem affinity purification, followed by mass spectrometry and yeast two-hybrid analysis, verified that PP2Ac1 is a subunit of STRIPAK. Further, these data indicate links between the STRIPAK complex and other developmental signaling pathways, implying the presence of a large interconnected signaling network that controls eukaryotic developmental processes. The insights gained in our study can be transferred to higher eukaryotes and will be important for understanding eukaryotic cellular development in general.

  18. Flexible Connectors between Capsomer Subunits that Regulate Capsid Assembly.

    Hasek, Mary L; Maurer, Joshua B; Hendrix, Roger W; Duda, Robert L

    2017-08-04

    Viruses build icosahedral capsids of specific size and shape by regulating the spatial arrangement of the hexameric and pentameric protein capsomers in the growing shell during assembly. In the T=7 capsids of Escherichia coli bacteriophage HK97 and other phages, 60 capsomers are hexons, while the rest are pentons that are correctly positioned during assembly. Assembly of the HK97 capsid to the correct size and shape has been shown to depend on specific ionic contacts between capsomers. We now describe additional ionic interactions within capsomers that also regulate assembly. Each is between the long hairpin, the "E-loop," that extends from one subunit to the adjacent subunit within the same capsomer. Glutamate E153 on the E-loop and arginine R210 on the adjacent subunit's backbone alpha-helix form salt bridges in hexamers and pentamers. Mutations that disrupt these salt bridges were lethal for virus production, because the mutant proteins assembled into tubes or sheets instead of capsids. X-ray structures show that the E153-R210 links are flexible and maintained during maturation despite radical changes in capsomer shape. The E153-R210 links appear to form early in assembly to enable capsomers to make programmed changes in their shape during assembly. The links also prevent flattening of capsomers and premature maturation. Mutant phenotypes and modeling support an assembly model in which flexible E153-R210 links mediate capsomer shape changes that control where pentons are placed to create normal-sized capsids. The E-loop may be conserved in other systems in order to play similar roles in regulating assembly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas exchange at whole plant level shows that a less conservative water use is linked to a higher performance in three ecologically distinct pine species

    Salazar-Tortosa, D.; Castro, J.; Rubio de Casas, R.; Viñegla, B.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Villar-Salvador, P.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation in large areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming will affect plant growth and survival. However, the impact of climatic conditions will differ across species depending on their stomatal response to increasing aridity, as this will ultimately affect the balance between carbon assimilation and water loss. In this study, we monitored gas exchange, growth and survival in saplings of three widely distributed European pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. nigra and P. sylvestris) with contrasting distribution and ecological requirements in order to ascertain the relationship between stomatal control and plant performance. The experiment was conducted in a common garden environment resembling rainfall and temperature conditions that two of the three species are expected to encounter in the near future. In addition, gas exchange was monitored both at the leaf and at the whole-plant level using a transient-state closed chamber, which allowed us to model the response of the whole plant to increased air evaporative demand (AED). P. sylvestris was the species with lowest survival and performance. By contrast, P. halepensis showed no mortality, much higher growth (two orders of magnitude), carbon assimilation (ca. 14 fold higher) and stomatal conductance and water transpiration (ca. 4 fold higher) than the other two species. As a consequence, P. halepensis exhibited higher values of water-use efficiency than the rest of the species even at the highest values of AED. Overall, the results strongly support that the weaker stomatal control of P. halepensis, which is linked to lower stem water potential, enabled this species to maximize carbon uptake under drought stress and ultimately outperform the more water conservative P. nigra and P. sylvestris. These results suggest that under a hotter drought scenario P. nigra and P. sylvestris would very likely suffer increased mortality, whereas P. halepensis could maintain

  20. Soybean glycinin subunits: Characterization of physicochemical and adhesion properties.

    Mo, Xiaoqun; Zhong, Zhikai; Wang, Donghai; Sun, Xiuzhi

    2006-10-04

    Soybean proteins have shown great potential for applications as renewable and environmentally friendly adhesives. The objective of this work was to study physicochemical and adhesion properties of soy glycinin subunits. Soybean glycinin was extracted from soybean flour and then fractionated into acidic and basic subunits with an estimated purity of 90 and 85%, respectively. Amino acid composition of glycinin subunits was determined. The high hydrophobic amino acid content is a major contributor to the solubility behavior and water resistance of the basic subunits. Acidic subunits and glycinin had similar solubility profiles, showing more than 80% solubility at pH 2.0-4.0 or 6.5-12.0, whereas basic subunits had considerably lower solubility with the minimum at pH 4.5-8.0. Thermal analysis using a differential scanning calorimeter suggested that basic subunits form new oligomeric structures with higher thermal stability than glycinin but no highly ordered structures present in isolated acidic subunits. The wet strength of basic subunits was 160% more than that of acidic subunits prepared at their respective isoelectric points (pI) and cured at 130 degrees C. Both pH and the curing temperature significantly affected adhesive performance. High-adhesion water resistance was usually observed for adhesives from protein prepared at their pI values and cured at elevated temperatures. Basic subunits are responsible for the water resistance of glycinin and are a good starting material for the development of water-resistant adhesives.

  1. Sequence and properties of HMW subunit 1Bx20 from pasta wheat (Triticum durum) which is associated with poor end use properties.

    Shewry, P R; Gilbert, S M; Savage, A W J; Tatham, A S; Wan, Y-F; Belton, P S; Wellner, N; D'Ovidio, R; Békés, F; Halford, N G

    2003-02-01

    The gene encoding high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunit 1Bx20 was isolated from durum wheat cv. Lira. It encodes a mature protein of 774 amino acid residues with an M(r) of 83,913. Comparison with the sequence of subunit 1Bx7 showed over 96% identity, the main difference being the substitution of two cysteine residues in the N-terminal domain of subunit 1Bx7 with tyrosine residues in 1Bx20. Comparison of the structures and stabilities of the two subunits purified from wheat using Fourier-transform infra-red and circular dichroism spectroscopy showed no significant differences. However, incorporation of subunit 1Bx7 into a base flour gave increased dough strength and stability measured by Mixograph analysis, while incorporation of subunit 1Bx20 resulted in small positive or negative effects on the parameters measured. It is concluded that the different effects of the two subunits could relate to the differences in their cysteine contents, thereby affecting the cross-linking and hence properties of the glutenin polymers.

  2. Myristoylated α subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins

    Buss, J.E.; Mumby, S.M.; Casey, P.J.; Gilman, A.G.; Sefton, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Antisera directed against specific subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) were used to immunoprecipitate these polypeptides from metabolically labeled cells. This technique detects, in extracts of a human astrocytoma cell line, the α subunits of G/sub s/ (stimulatory) (α 45 and α 52 ), a 41-kDa subunit of G/sub i/ (inhibitory) (α 41 ), a 40-kDa protein (α 40 ), and the 36-kDa β subunit. No protein that comigrated with the α subunit of G 0 (unknown function) (α 39 ) was detected. In cells grown in the presence of [ 3 H]myristic acid, α 41 and α 40 contained 3 H label, while the β subunit did not. Chemical analysis of lipids attached covalently to purified α 41 and α 39 from bovine brain also revealed myristic acid. Similar analysis of brain G protein β and γ subunits and of G/sub t/ (Transducin) subunits (α, β, and γ) failed to reveal fatty acids. The fatty acid associated with α 41 , α 40 , and α 39 was stable to treatment with base, suggesting that the lipid is linked to the polypeptide via an amide bond. These GTP binding proteins are thus identified as members of a select group of proteins that contains myristic acid covalently attached to the peptide backbone. Myristate may play an important role in stabilizing interactions of G proteins with phospholipid or with membrane-bound proteins

  3. Monoclonal antibodies to molluskan hemocyanin from Concholepas concholepas demonstrate common and specific epitopes among subunits.

    Oliva, Harold; Moltedo, Bruno; De Ioannes, Pablo; Faunes, Fernando; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2002-10-01

    We studied the reactivity of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the hemocyanin from the Chilean marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas (CCH). This protein has been successfully used as a carrier to produce antibodies to haptens and peptides. All MAbs (13) belonging to IgG subclass exhibit dissociation constants (K(d)) from 1 x 10(-7) M to 1 x 10(-9) M. MAbs were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) using CCH treated with different procedures, including dissociation into CCH-A and CCH-B subunits, Western blot, enzymatic digestion, chemical deglycosylation, and thermal denaturation. MAbs were classified into three categories, according to subunit specificity by ELISA. The epitope distribution shows that CCH subunits display common epitopes (group I, 5 MAbs, 1H5, 2A8, 3A5, 3B3, and 3E3), as well as specific epitopes for CCH-A subunits (group II, 3 MAbs, 1B8, 4D8, and 8E5) and for CCH-B subunits (group III, 5 MAbs, 1A4, 1E4, 2H10, 3B7, and 7B4). The results can be summarized as follows: (1). six antibodies react with thermal denatured CCH, suggesting that they recognize linear epitopes, whereas seven recognize conformational epitopes; (2). oxidation of carbohydrate moieties does not affect the binding of the MAbs; (3). enzymatic digestion of CCH decreases the reactivity of all antibodies irrespective of the protease used (elastase or trypsin); (4). bringing together the above data, in addition to epitopic complementarity analysis, we identified 12 different epitopes on the CCH molecule recognized by these MAbs. The anti-CCH MAbs presented here can be useful tools to understand the subunit organization of the CCH and its complex structure, which can explain its immunogenic and immunostimulating properties in mammals.

  4. Aegilops tauschii Accessions with Geographically Diverse Origin Show Differences in Chromosome Organization and Polymorphism of Molecular Markers Linked to Leaf Rust and Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes.

    Majka, Maciej; Kwiatek, Michał T; Majka, Joanna; Wiśniewska, Halina

    2017-01-01

    Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14) is a diploid wild species which is reported as a donor of the D-genome of cultivated bread wheat. The main goal of this study was to examine the differences and similarities in chromosomes organization among accessions of Ae. tauschii with geographically diversed origin, which is believed as a potential source of genes, especially determining resistance to fungal diseases (i.e., leaf rust and powdery mildew) for breeding of cereals. We established and compared the fluorescence in situ hybridization patterns of 21 accessions of Ae. tauschii using various repetitive sequences mainly from the BAC library of wheat cultivar Chinese Spring. Results obtained for Ae. tauschii chromosomes revealed many similarities between analyzed accessions, however, some hybridization patterns were specific for accessions, which become from cognate regions of the World. The most noticeable differences were observed for accessions from China which were characterized by presence of distinct signals of pTa-535 in the interstitial region of chromosome 3D, less intensity of pTa-86 signals in chromosome 2D, as well as lack of additional signals of pTa-86 in chromosomes 1D, 5D, or 6D. Ae. tauschii of Chinese origin appeared homogeneous and separate from landraces that originated in western Asia. Ae. tauschii chromosomes showed similar hybridization patterns to wheat D-genome chromosomes, but some differences were also observed among both species. What is more, we identified reciprocal translocation between short arm of chromosome 1D and long arm of chromosome 7D in accession with Iranian origin. High polymorphism between analyzed accessions and extensive allelic variation were revealed using molecular markers associated with resistance genes. Majority of the markers localized in chromosomes 1D and 2D showed the diversity of banding patterns between accessions. Obtained results imply, that there is a moderate or high level of polymorphism in the genome of Ae

  5. The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of β2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of α-subunit in BK potassium channels

    Morera, Francisco J.; Alioua, Abderrahmane; Kundu, Pallob; Salazar, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Carlos; Martinez, Agustin D.; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia; Latorre, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The BK channel is one of the most broadly expressed ion channels in mammals. In many tissues, the BK channel pore-forming α-subunit is associated to an auxiliary β-subunit that modulates the voltage- and Ca2+-dependent activation of the channel. Structural components present in β-subunits that are important for the physical association with the α-subunit are yet unknown. Here, we show through co-immunoprecipitation that the intracellular C-terminus, the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and the extracellular loop of the β2-subunit are dispensable for association with the α-subunit pointing transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) as responsible for the interaction. Indeed, the TOXCAT assay for transmembrane protein–protein interactions demonstrated for the first time that TM1 of the β2-subunit physically binds to the transmembrane S1 domain of the α-subunit. PMID:22710124

  6. Binary Toxin Subunits of Lysinibacillus sphaericus Are Monomeric and Form Heterodimers after In Vitro Activation.

    Wahyu Surya

    Full Text Available The binary toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been successfully used for controlling mosquito-transmitted diseases. An activation step shortens both subunits BinA and BinB before their interaction with membranes and internalization in midgut cells, but the precise role of this activation step is unknown. Herein, we show conclusively using three orthogonal biophysical techniques that protoxin subunits form only monomers in aqueous solution. However, in vitro activated toxins readily form heterodimers. This oligomeric state did not change after incubation of these heterodimers with detergent. These results are consistent with the evidence that maximal toxicity in mosquito larvae is achieved when the two subunits, BinA and BinB, are in a 1:1 molar ratio, and directly link proteolytic activation to heterodimerization. Formation of a heterodimer must thus be necessary for subsequent steps, e.g., interaction with membranes, or with a suitable receptor in susceptible mosquito species. Lastly, despite existing similarities between BinB C-terminal domain with domains 3 and 4 of pore-forming aerolysin, no aerolysin-like SDS-resistant heptameric oligomers were observed when the activated Bin subunits were incubated in the presence of detergents or lipidic membranes.

  7. Highly conserved small subunit residues influence rubisco large subunit catalysis.

    Genkov, Todor; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2009-10-30

    The chloroplast enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. With a deeper understanding of its structure-function relationships and competitive inhibition by O(2), it may be possible to engineer an increase in agricultural productivity and renewable energy. The chloroplast-encoded large subunits form the active site, but the nuclear-encoded small subunits can also influence catalytic efficiency and CO(2)/O(2) specificity. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, the 10 most conserved residues in all small subunits were substituted with alanine by transformation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks the small subunit gene family. All the mutant strains were able to grow photosynthetically, indicating that none of the residues is essential for function. Three of the substitutions have little or no effect (S16A, P19A, and E92A), one primarily affects holoenzyme stability (L18A), and the remainder affect catalysis with or without some level of associated structural instability (Y32A, E43A, W73A, L78A, P79A, and F81A). Y32A and E43A cause decreases in CO(2)/O(2) specificity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco, all but one (Glu-92) of the conserved residues are in contact with large subunits and cluster near the amino- or carboxyl-terminal ends of large subunit alpha-helix 8, which is a structural element of the alpha/beta-barrel active site. Small subunit residues Glu-43 and Trp-73 identify a possible structural connection between active site alpha-helix 8 and the highly variable small subunit loop between beta-strands A and B, which can also influence Rubisco CO(2)/O(2) specificity.

  8. Human Pol ζ purified with accessory subunits is active in translesion DNA synthesis and complements Pol η in cisplatin bypass.

    Lee, Young-Sam; Gregory, Mark T; Yang, Wei

    2014-02-25

    DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ) is a eukaryotic B-family DNA polymerase that specializes in translesion synthesis and is essential for normal embryogenesis. At a minimum, Pol ζ consists of a catalytic subunit Rev3 and an accessory subunit Rev7. Mammalian Rev3 contains >3,000 residues and is twice as large as the yeast homolog. To date, no vertebrate Pol ζ has been purified for biochemical characterization. Here we report purification of a series of human Rev3 deletion constructs expressed in HEK293 cells and identification of a minimally catalytically active human Pol ζ variant. With a tagged form of an active Pol ζ variant, we isolated two additional accessory subunits of human Pol ζ, PolD2 and PolD3. The purified four-subunit Pol ζ4 (Rev3-Rev7-PolD2-PolD3) is much more efficient and more processive at bypassing a 1,2-intrastrand d(GpG)-cisplatin cross-link than the two-subunit Pol ζ2 (Rev3-Rev7). We show that complete bypass of cisplatin lesions requires Pol η to insert dCTP opposite the 3' guanine and Pol ζ4 to extend the primers.

  9. Hemocyanin of the molluscan Concholepas concholepas exhibits an unusual heterodecameric array of subunits.

    De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno; Oliva, Harold; Pacheco, Rodrigo; Faunes, Fernando; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2004-06-18

    We describe here the structure of the hemocyanin from the Chilean gastropod Concholepas concholepas (CCH), emphasizing some attributes that make it interesting among molluscan hemocyanins. CCH exhibits a predominant didecameric structure as revealed by electron microscopy and a size of 8 MDa by gel filtration, and, in contrast with other mollusc hemocyanins, its stabilization does not require additional Ca(2+) and/or Mg(2+) in the medium. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies, analyses by a MonoQ FPLC column, and Western blots with specific monoclonal antibodies showed that CCH is made by two subunits noncovalently linked, named CCH-A and CCH-B, with molecular masses of 405 and 350 kDa, respectively. Interestingly, one of the subunits undergoes changes within the macromolecule; we demonstrated that CCH-A has an autocleavage site that under reducing conditions is cleaved to yield two polypeptides, CCH-A1 (300 kDa) and CCH-A2 (108 kDa), whereas CCH-B remains unchanged. The CCH-A nick occurs at 4 degrees C, increases at 37 degrees C, and is not inhibited by the addition of protease inhibitors and/or divalent cations. Since the CCH structure is a heterodimer, we investigated whether subunits would be either intermingled, forming heterodecamers, or assembled as two homogeneous decamers. Light scattering and electron microscope studies of the in vitro reassociation of purified CCH subunits demonstrated that the sole addition of Mg(2+) is needed for its reassembly into the native decameric molecule; no homodecamer reorganization was found with either CCH-A or CCH-B subunits alone. Our evidence showed that C. concholepas hemocyanin is an unusual example of heterodecameric organization.

  10. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B bind to the SH2 domains of phospholipase C-gamma.

    Gurd, J W; Bissoon, N

    1997-08-01

    The NMDA receptor has recently been found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine. To assess the possible connection between tyrosine phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor and signaling pathways in the postsynaptic cell, we have investigated the relationship between tyrosine phosphorylation and the binding of NMDA receptor subunits to the SH2 domains of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma). A glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein containing both the N- and the C-proximal SH2 domains of PLC-gamma was bound to glutathione-agarose and reacted with synaptic junctional proteins and glycoproteins. Tyrosine-phosphorylated PSD-GP180, which has been identified as the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, bound to the SH2-agarose beads in a phosphorylation-dependent fashion. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific for individual NMDA receptor subunits showed that both NR2A and NR2B subunits bound to the SH2-agarose. No binding occurred to GST-agarose lacking an associated SH2 domain, indicating that binding was specific for the SH2 domains. The binding of receptor subunits increased after the incubation of synaptic junctions with ATP and decreased after treatment of synaptic junctions with exogenous protein tyrosine phosphatase. Immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that NR2A and NR2B were phosphorylated on tyrosine and further that tyrosine phosphorylation of each of the subunits was increased after incubation with ATP. The results demonstrate that NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B will bind to the SH2 domains of PLC-gamma and that isolated synaptic junctions contain endogenous protein tyrosine kinase(s) that can phosphorylate both NR2A and NR2B receptor subunits, and suggest that interaction of the tyrosine-phosphorylated NMDA receptor with proteins that contain SH2 domains may serve to link it to signaling pathways in the postsynaptic cell.

  11. 4.0-A resolution cryo-EM structure of the mammalian chaperonin TRiC/CCT reveals its unique subunit arrangement.

    Cong, Yao; Baker, Matthew L; Jakana, Joanita; Woolford, David; Miller, Erik J; Reissmann, Stefanie; Kumar, Ramya N; Redding-Johanson, Alyssa M; Batth, Tanveer S; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Ludtke, Steven J; Frydman, Judith; Chiu, Wah

    2010-03-16

    The essential double-ring eukaryotic chaperonin TRiC/CCT (TCP1-ring complex or chaperonin containing TCP1) assists the folding of approximately 5-10% of the cellular proteome. Many TRiC substrates cannot be folded by other chaperonins from prokaryotes or archaea. These unique folding properties are likely linked to TRiC's unique heterooligomeric subunit organization, whereby each ring consists of eight different paralogous subunits in an arrangement that remains uncertain. Using single particle cryo-EM without imposing symmetry, we determined the mammalian TRiC structure at 4.7-A resolution. This revealed the existence of a 2-fold axis between its two rings resulting in two homotypic subunit interactions across the rings. A subsequent 2-fold symmetrized map yielded a 4.0-A resolution structure that evinces the densities of a large fraction of side chains, loops, and insertions. These features permitted unambiguous identification of all eight individual subunits, despite their sequence similarity. Independent biochemical near-neighbor analysis supports our cryo-EM derived TRiC subunit arrangement. We obtained a Calpha backbone model for each subunit from an initial homology model refined against the cryo-EM density. A subsequently optimized atomic model for a subunit showed approximately 95% of the main chain dihedral angles in the allowable regions of the Ramachandran plot. The determination of the TRiC subunit arrangement opens the way to understand its unique function and mechanism. In particular, an unevenly distributed positively charged wall lining the closed folding chamber of TRiC differs strikingly from that of prokaryotic and archaeal chaperonins. These interior surface chemical properties likely play an important role in TRiC's cellular substrate specificity.

  12. The subunit structure of the extracellular hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Arndt, Marcio H.L.; Naves, Cristiani F.; Xavier, Luciana P.; Santoro, Marcelo M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata was purified to homogeneity by a two step purification protocol using a gel filtration column (Superose 6 HR/Pharmacia ) followed by an anion exchange chromatography (MONO-Q Sepharose/Pharmacia). The dissociation products were analysed by a 5 - 15 % Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS-PAGE) giving a band of 270 K Daltons and a band of 180 K Daltons after reduction with β-mercaptoethanol. The same profile was obtained in a 3.5 % Agarose gel electrophoresis containing SDS (SDS-AGE) showing additional bands of higher molecular weight. These bands were proposed to be monomers, dimers and trimers and, after reduction in a Bidimensional SDS-AGE, the proposed monomers and dimers were decomposed in two and four bands that were interpreted as 1 - 4 chains. The hemoglobin was digested by four different proteases ( Thrombin, Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Subtilisin ) showing several equivalent fragments with molecular weights multiples of its minimum molecular weight ( 17.7 K Daltons). The circular dichroism spectrum of the protein showed a characteristic high α-helix content. We proposed that this hemoglobin is a pentamer of approx. 360 K Daltons subunits each formed by two 180 K Daltons chains linked in pairs by disulfide bridges and each of these chains comprises ten Heme binding domains. These data were compared to other Planorbidae extracellular hemoglobins. Up to now, the quaternary structure of this hemoglobin (shape and disposition of the subunits) is unknown. It is intended to elucidate its structure by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering in Brazilian National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (LNLS). (author)

  13. Redox regulation of the MED28 and MED32 mediator subunits is important for development and senescence.

    Shaikhali, Jehad; Davoine, Céline; Björklund, Stefan; Wingsle, Gunnar

    2016-05-01

    Mediator is a conserved multi-protein complex that acts as a bridge between promoter-bound transcriptional regulators and RNA polymerase II. While redox signaling is important in adjusting plant metabolism and development, the involvement of Mediator in redox homeostasis and regulation only recently started to emerge. Our previous results show that the MED10a, MED28, and MED32 Mediator subunits form various types of covalent oligomers linked by intermolecular disulfide bonds in vitro. To link that with biological significance we have characterized Arabidopsis med32 and med28 mutants and found that they are affected in root development and senescence, phenotypes possibly associated to redox changes.

  14. Linkage of genes for laminin B1 and B2 subunits on chromosome 1 in mouse.

    Elliott, R W; Barlow, D; Hogan, B L

    1985-08-01

    We have used cDNA clones for the B1 and B2 subunits of laminin to find restriction fragment length DNA polymorphisms for the genes encoding these polypeptides in the mouse. Three alleles were found for LamB2 and two for LamB1 among the inbred mouse strains. The segregation of these polymorphisms among recombinant inbred strains showed that these genes are tightly linked in the central region of mouse Chromosome 1 between Sas-1 and Ly-m22, 7.4 +/- 3.2 cM distal to the Pep-3 locus. There is no evidence in the mouse for pseudogenes for these proteins.

  15. Increased Expression of Laminin Subunit Alpha 1 Chain by dCas9-VP160

    Perrin, Arnaud; Rousseau, Jo?l; Tremblay, Jacques P.

    2016-01-01

    Laminin-111 protein complex links the extracellular matrix to integrin α7β1 in sarcolemma, thus replacing in dystrophic muscles links normally insured by the dystrophin complex. Laminin-111 injection in mdx mouse stabilized sarcolemma, restored serum creatine kinase to wild-type levels, and protected muscles from exercised-induced damages. These results suggested that increased laminin-111 is a potential therapy for DMD. Laminin subunit beta 1 and laminin subunit gamma 1 are expressed in adul...

  16. Influvac, a trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine.

    Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Fabiano, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Influenza represents a major sanitary and socio-economic burden and vaccination is universally considered the most effective strategy for preventing the disease and its complications. Traditional influenza vaccines have been on the market since the late 1940s, with million of doses administered annually worldwide, and demonstrated a substantial efficacy and safety. The trivalent inactivated subunit vaccine has been available for more than 25 years and has been studied in healthy children, adults and the elderly and in people affected by underlying chronic medical conditions. We describe vaccine technology focusing on subunit vaccine production procedures and mode of action and provide updated information on efficacy and safety available data. A review of efficacy and safety data in healthy subjects and in high risk populations from major sponsor- and investigator-driven studies. The vaccine showed a good immunogenicity and a favorable safety profile in all target groups. In the panorama of actually available influenza vaccines, trivalent inactivated subunit vaccine represents a well-established tool for preventing flu and the associated complications.

  17. Cloning, sequence determination, and expression of the genes encoding the subunits of the nickel-containing 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin reducing hydrogenase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum ΔH

    Alex, L.A.; Reeve, J.N.; Orme-Johnson, W.H.; Walsh, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    The genes frhA (1,217 bp), frhB (845 bp), and frhG (710 bp) encoding the three known subunits, α, β, and γ, of the 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin (F 420 ) reducing hydrogenase (FRH) from the thermophilic methanogen Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum ΔH have been cloned, sequenced, and shown to be tightly linked, indicative of a single transcriptional unit. The DNA sequence contains a fourth open reading frame, designated frhD (476 bp), encoding a polypeptide (δ) that does not copurify with the active enzyme. Expression of the frh gene cluster in Escherichia coli shows that four polypeptides are synthesized. When analyzed by SDS-PAGE, the proteins migrate with mobilities consistent with their calculated molecular weights. In order to understand the mechanism of H 2 oxidation by this enzyme, localization of redox cofactors (Ni, Fe/S, FAD) to specific subunits and information on their structure is needed. This has been hindered due to the refractory nature of the enzyme to denaturation methods needed in order to obtain individual subunits with cofactors intact. In this paper they discuss the possible localization of the redox cofactors as implicated from the DNA-derived protein sequences of the subunits. The amino acid sequences of the subunits of the FRH are compared with those of other Ni-containing hydrogenases, including the methyl viologen reducing hydrogenase (MVH) of M. thermoautotrophicum ΔH

  18. Characterization of fimbrial subunits from Bordetella species

    Mooi, F.R.; Heide, H.G.J. van der; Avest, A.R. ter; Welinder, K.G.; Livey, I.; Zeijst, B.A.M. van der; Gaastra, W.

    Using antisera raised against serotype 2 and 3 fimbrial subunits from Bordetella pertussis, serologically related polypeptides were detected in Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella avium strains. The two B. pertussis fimbrial subunits, and three of the serologically

  19. Translation activity of chimeric ribosomes composed of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis or Geobacillus stearothermophilus subunits

    Sayaka Tsuji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome composition, consisting of rRNA and ribosomal proteins, is highly conserved among a broad range of organisms. However, biochemical studies focusing on ribosomal subunit exchangeability between organisms remain limited. In this study, we show that chimeric ribosomes, composed of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis or E. coli and Geobacillus stearothermophilus subunits, are active for β-galactosidase translation in a highly purified E. coli translation system. Activities of the chimeric ribosomes showed only a modest decrease when using E. coli 30 S subunits, indicating functional conservation of the 50 S subunit between these bacterial species.

  20. Probing the functional subunits of the tonoplast H+-ATPase

    Randall, S.K.; Lai, S.; Sze, H.

    1986-01-01

    The tonoplast ATPase of oat roots is composed of at least three polypeptides of 72, 60, and 16 kDa. The 16 kDA polypeptide covalently binds N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and is postulated to be a component of the proton channel. Initial studies to identify other subunits indicate that both the 72 and 60 kDa subunits covalently bind 14 C]-7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and [ 14 C]N-ethylamleimide, inhibitors of the tonoplast ATPase. ATP prevents binding of these inhibitors suggesting that both the 72 and 60 kDa subunits are involved in substrate binding. Polyclonal antibody has been made to the 72 kDa subunit. Western blot analysis of tonoplast vesicles reveals single reactive polypeptide (72 kDa). The antibody shows no cross-reactivity towards either the mitochondrial F 1 -ATPase or the plasma membrane ATPase. This antibody specifically inhibits ATP hydrolysis and ATP-dependent H + pumping in native tonoplast vesicles. The authors conclude that the 72 kDa subunit is intimately associated with the catalytic (or ATP-binding) site

  1. CSNAP Is a Stoichiometric Subunit of the COP9 Signalosome

    Shelly Rozen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly conserved COP9 signalosome (CSN complex is a key regulator of all cullin-RING-ubiquitin ligases (CRLs, the largest family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Until now, it was accepted that the CSN is composed of eight canonical components. Here, we report the discovery of an additional integral and stoichiometric subunit that had thus far evaded detection, and we named it CSNAP (CSN acidic protein. We show that CSNAP binds CSN3, CSN5, and CSN6, and its incorporation into the CSN complex is mediated through the C-terminal region involving conserved aromatic residues. Moreover, depletion of this small protein leads to reduced proliferation and a flattened and enlarged morphology. Finally, on the basis of sequence and structural properties shared by both CSNAP and DSS1, a component of the related 19S lid proteasome complex, we propose that CSNAP, the ninth CSN subunit, is the missing paralogous subunit of DSS1.

  2. Germline but macrophage-tropic CYBB mutations in kindreds with X-linked predisposition to tuberculous mycobacterial diseases

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Germline mutations in the human CYBB gene, encoding the gp91phox subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, impair the respiratory burst of phagocytes and result in X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. We report two kindreds in which otherwise healthy male adults show X-linked recessive Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. These patients harbor mutations in CYBB that profoundly reduce the respiratory burst in monocyte-derived macrophages, but not in monocyte...

  3. Subunit Stoichiometry of Human Muscle Chloride Channels

    Fahlke, Christoph; Knittle, Timothy; Gurnett, Christina A.; Campbell, Kevin P.; George, Alfred L.

    1997-01-01

    Voltage-gated Cl? channels belonging to the ClC family appear to function as homomultimers, but the number of subunits needed to form a functional channel is controversial. To determine subunit stoichiometry, we constructed dimeric human skeletal muscle Cl? channels in which one subunit was tagged by a mutation (D136G) that causes profound changes in voltage-dependent gating. Sucrose-density gradient centrifugation experiments indicate that both monomeric and dimeric hClC-1 channels in their ...

  4. Characterization of the alpha and beta subunits of casein kinase 2 by far-UV CD spectroscopy

    Issinger, O G; Brockel, C; Boldyreff, B

    1992-01-01

    Although Chou-Fasman calculations of the secondary structure of recombinant casein kinase 2 subunits alpha and beta suggest they have a similar overall conformation, circular dichroism (CD) studies show that substantial differences in the conformation of the two subunits exist. In addition......, no changes in the far-UV CD spectrum of the alpha subunit are observed in the presence of casein or the synthetic decapeptide substrate RRRDDDSDDD. Furthermore, the alpha-helical structure of the alpha subunit (but not the beta subunit) can be increased in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of heparin...

  5. Distinct forms of the β subunit of GTP-binding regulatory proteins identified by molecular cloning

    Fong, H.K.W.; Amatruda, T.T. III; Birren, B.W.; Simon, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    Two distinct β subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins have been identified by cDNA cloning and are referred to as β 1 and β 1 subunits. The bovine transducin β subunit (β 1 ) has been cloned previously. The author now isolated and analyzed cDNA clones that encode the β 2 subunit from bovine adrenal, bovine brain, and a human myeloid leukemia cell line, HL-60. The 340-residue M/sub r/ 37,329 Β 2 protein is 90% identical with β 1 in predicted amino acid sequence, and it is also organized as a series of repetitive homologous segments. The major mRNA that encodes the bovine β 2 subunit is 1.7 kilobases in length. It is expressed at lower levels than β 1 subunit mRNA in all tissues examined. The β 1 and β 2 messages are expressed in cloned human cell lines. Hybridization of cDNA probes to bovine DNA showed that β 1 and β 2 are encoded by separate genes. The amino acid sequences for the bovine and human β 2 subunit are identical, as are the amino acid sequences for the bovine and human β 1 subunit. This evolutionary conservation suggests that the two β subunits have different roles in the signal transduction process

  6. Immunochemical analysis of Micrococcus lysodeikticus (luteus) F1-ATPase and its subunits.

    Urban, C; Salton, M R

    1983-08-31

    The F1-ATPase from Micrococcus lysodeikticus has been purified to 95% protein homogeneity in this laboratory and as all other bacterial F1S, possesses five distinct subunits with molecular weights ranging from 60 000 to 10 000 (Huberman, M. and Salton, M.R.J. (1979) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 547, 230-240). In this communication, we demonstrate the immunochemical reactivities of antibodies to native and SDS-dissociated subunits with the native and dissociated F1-ATPase and show that: (1) the antibodies generated to the native or SDS-dissociated subunits react with the native molecule; (2) all of the subunits comprising the F1 are antigenically unique as determined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and the Ouchterlony double-diffusion techniques; (3) antibodies to the SDS-denatured individual delta- and epsilon-subunits can be used to destabilize the interaction of these specific subunits with the rest of the native F1; and (4) all subunit antibodies as well as anti-native F1 were found to inhibit ATPase activity to varying degrees, the strongest inhibition being seen with antibodies to the total F1 and anti-alpha- and anti-beta-subunit antibodies. The interaction of specific subunit antibodies may provide a new and novel way to study further and characterize the catalytic portions of F1-ATPases and in general may offer an additional method for the examination of multimeric proteins.

  7. Role of the Rubisco Small Subunit

    Spreitzer, Robert Joseph [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CO2 fixation in photosynthesis. However, it is a slow enzyme, and O2 competes with CO2 at the active site. Oxygenation initiates the photorespiratory pathway, which also results in the loss of CO2. If carboxylation could be increased or oxygenation decreased, an increase in net CO2 fixation would be realized. Because Rubisco provides the primary means by which carbon enters all life on earth, there is much interest in engineering Rubisco to increase the production of food and renewable energy. Rubisco is located in the chloroplasts of plants, and it is comprised of two subunits. Much is known about the chloroplast-gene-encoded large subunit (rbcL gene), which contains the active site, but much less is known about the role of the nuclear-gene-encoded small subunit in Rubisco function (rbcS gene). Both subunits are coded by multiple genes in plants, which makes genetic engineering difficult. In the eukaryotic, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, it has been possible to eliminate all the Rubisco genes. These Rubisco-less mutants can be maintained by providing acetate as an alternative carbon source. In this project, focus has been placed on determining whether the small subunit might be a better genetic-engineering target for improving Rubisco. Analysis of a variable-loop structure (βA-βB loop) of the small subunit by genetic selection, directed mutagenesis, and construction of chimeras has shown that the small subunit can influence CO2/O2 specificity. X-ray crystal structures of engineered chimeric-loop enzymes have indicated that additional residues and regions of the small subunit may also contribute to Rubisco function. Structural dynamics of the small-subunit carboxyl terminus was also investigated. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the most-conserved small-subunit residues has identified a

  8. Differential regulation of thyrotropin subunit apoprotein and carbohydrate biosynthesis by thyroid hormone

    Taylor, T.; Weintraub, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of TSH apoprotein and carbohydrate biosynthesis by thyroid hormone was studied by incubating pituitaries from normal and hypothyroid (3 weeks post-thyroidectomy) rats in medium containing [ 14 C]alanine and [ 3 H] glucosamine. After 6 h, samples were sequentially treated with anti-TSH beta to precipitate TSH and free TSH beta, anti-LH beta to clear the sample of LH and free LH beta, then anti-LH alpha to precipitate free alpha-subunit. Total proteins were acid precipitated. All precipitates were subjected to electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, which were then sliced and assayed by scintillation spectrometry. In hypothyroid pituitaries plus medium, [ 14 C]alanine incorporation in combined and free beta-subunits was 26 times normal and considerably greater than the 3.4-fold increase seen in total protein; combined and free alpha-subunits showed no specific increase in apoprotein synthesis. [ 3 H]Glucosamine incorporation in combined alpha- and beta-subunits in hypothyroid samples was 13 and 21 times normal, respectively, and was greater than the 1.9-fold increase in total protein; free alpha-subunit showed no specific increase in carbohydrate synthesis. The glucosamine to alanine ratio, reflecting relative glycosylation of newly synthesized molecules, was increased in hypothyroidism for combined alpha-subunits, but not for combined beta-subunits, free alpha-subunits, or total proteins. In summary, short term hypothyroidism selectively stimulated TSH beta apoprotein synthesis and carbohydrate synthesis of combined alpha- and beta-subunits. Hypothyroidism also increased the relative glycosylation of combined alpha-subunit. Thus, thyroid hormone deficiency appears to alter the rate-limiting step in TSH assembly (i.e. beta-subunit synthesis) as well as the carbohydrate structure of TSH, which may play important roles in its biological function

  9. Structural characterization of recombinant crustacyanin subunits from the lobster Homarus americanus

    Ferrari, Michele; Folli, Claudia; Pincolini, Elisa; McClintock, Timothy S.; Rössle, Manfred; Berni, Rodolfo; Cianci, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The two recombinant apo subunits H1 and H2 from H. americanus have been structurally characterized. Reconstitution studies with astaxanthin reproduced the bathochromic shift of 85–95 nm typical of the natural crustacyanin subunits. Crustacean crustacyanin proteins are linked to the production and modification of carapace colour, with direct implications for fitness and survival. Here, the structural and functional properties of the two recombinant crustacyanin subunits H 1 and H 2 from the American lobster Homarus americanus are reported. The two subunits are structurally highly similar to the corresponding natural apo crustacyanin CRTC and CRTA subunits from the European lobster H. gammarus. Reconstitution studies of the recombinant crustacyanin proteins H 1 and H 2 with astaxanthin reproduced the bathochromic shift of 85–95 nm typical of the natural crustacyanin subunits from H. gammarus in complex with astaxanthin. Moreover, correlations between the presence of crustacyanin genes in crustacean species and the resulting carapace colours with the spectral properties of the subunits in complex with astaxanthin confirmed this genotype–phenotype linkage

  10. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel β1/β1B Subunits Regulate Cardiac Physiology and Pathophysiology

    Nnamdi Edokobi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myocyte contraction is initiated by a set of intricately orchestrated electrical impulses, collectively known as action potentials (APs. Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs are responsible for the upstroke and propagation of APs in excitable cells, including cardiomyocytes. NaVs consist of a single, pore-forming α subunit and two different β subunits. The β subunits are multifunctional cell adhesion molecules and channel modulators that have cell type and subcellular domain specific functional effects. Variants in SCN1B, the gene encoding the Nav-β1 and -β1B subunits, are linked to atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, e.g., Brugada syndrome, as well as to the early infantile epileptic encephalopathy Dravet syndrome, all of which put patients at risk for sudden death. Evidence over the past two decades has demonstrated that Nav-β1/β1B subunits play critical roles in cardiac myocyte physiology, in which they regulate tetrodotoxin-resistant and -sensitive sodium currents, potassium currents, and calcium handling, and that Nav-β1/β1B subunit dysfunction generates substrates for arrhythmias. This review will highlight the role of Nav-β1/β1B subunits in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology.

  11. GABAA Receptors Containing ρ1 Subunits Contribute to In Vivo Effects of Ethanol in Mice

    Blednov, Yuri A.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Black, Mendy; Leiter, Courtney R.; Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth; Johnson, David; Borghese, Cecilia M.; Hanrahan, Jane R.; Johnston, Graham A. R.; Chebib, Mary; Harris, R. Adron

    2014-01-01

    GABAA receptors consisting of ρ1, ρ2, or ρ3 subunits in homo- or hetero-pentamers have been studied mainly in retina but are detected in many brain regions. Receptors formed from ρ1 are inhibited by low ethanol concentrations, and family-based association analyses have linked ρ subunit genes with alcohol dependence. We determined if genetic deletion of ρ1 in mice altered in vivo ethanol effects. Null mutant male mice showed reduced ethanol consumption and preference in a two-bottle choice test with no differences in preference for saccharin or quinine. Null mutant mice of both sexes demonstrated longer duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR), and males were more sensitive to ethanol-induced motor sedation. In contrast, ρ1 null mice showed faster recovery from acute motor incoordination produced by ethanol. Null mutant females were less sensitive to ethanol-induced development of conditioned taste aversion. Measurement of mRNA levels in cerebellum showed that deletion of ρ1 did not change expression of ρ2, α2, or α6 GABAA receptor subunits. (S)-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid (“ρ1” antagonist), when administered to wild type mice, mimicked the changes that ethanol induced in ρ1 null mice (LORR and rotarod tests), but the ρ1 antagonist did not produce these effects in ρ1 null mice. In contrast, (R)-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid (“ρ2” antagonist) did not change ethanol actions in wild type but produced effects in mice lacking ρ1 that were opposite of the effects of deleting (or inhibiting) ρ1. These results suggest that ρ1 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol, and a role for ρ2 may be revealed when ρ1 is deleted. We also found that ethanol produces similar inhibition of function of recombinant ρ1 and ρ2 receptors. These data indicate that ethanol action on GABAA receptors containing ρ1/ρ2 subunits may be important for specific effects of ethanol in vivo. PMID:24454882

  12. GABAA receptors containing ρ1 subunits contribute to in vivo effects of ethanol in mice.

    Yuri A Blednov

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors consisting of ρ1, ρ2, or ρ3 subunits in homo- or hetero-pentamers have been studied mainly in retina but are detected in many brain regions. Receptors formed from ρ1 are inhibited by low ethanol concentrations, and family-based association analyses have linked ρ subunit genes with alcohol dependence. We determined if genetic deletion of ρ1 in mice altered in vivo ethanol effects. Null mutant male mice showed reduced ethanol consumption and preference in a two-bottle choice test with no differences in preference for saccharin or quinine. Null mutant mice of both sexes demonstrated longer duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR, and males were more sensitive to ethanol-induced motor sedation. In contrast, ρ1 null mice showed faster recovery from acute motor incoordination produced by ethanol. Null mutant females were less sensitive to ethanol-induced development of conditioned taste aversion. Measurement of mRNA levels in cerebellum showed that deletion of ρ1 did not change expression of ρ2, α2, or α6 GABAA receptor subunits. (S-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid ("ρ1" antagonist, when administered to wild type mice, mimicked the changes that ethanol induced in ρ1 null mice (LORR and rotarod tests, but the ρ1 antagonist did not produce these effects in ρ1 null mice. In contrast, (R-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid ("ρ2" antagonist did not change ethanol actions in wild type but produced effects in mice lacking ρ1 that were opposite of the effects of deleting (or inhibiting ρ1. These results suggest that ρ1 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol, and a role for ρ2 may be revealed when ρ1 is deleted. We also found that ethanol produces similar inhibition of function of recombinant ρ1 and ρ2 receptors. These data indicate that ethanol action on GABAA receptors containing ρ1/ρ2 subunits may be important for specific effects of ethanol in vivo.

  13. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  14. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All political...

  15. Expression of alpha and beta subunit isoforms of Na,K-ATPase in the mouse inner ear and changes with mutations at the Wv or Sld loci.

    Schulte, B A; Steel, K P

    1994-07-01

    Mice homozygous for mutations at the viable dominant spotting (Wv) and Steel-dickie (Sld) loci exhibit a similar phenotype which includes deafness. The auditory dysfunction derives from failure of the stria vascularis to develop normally and to generate a high positive endocochlear potential (EP). Because strial function is driven by Na,K-ATPase its expression was investigated in inner ears of Wv/Wv and Sld/Sld mice and their wild-type littermates by immunostaining with antisera against four of the enzyme's subunit isoforms. Wild-type mice from two different genetic backgrounds showed an identical distribution of subunit isoforms among inner ear transport cells. Several epithelial cell types coexpressed the alpha 1 and beta 1 subunits. Vestibular dark cells showed no reactivity for beta 1 but expressed abundant beta 2, whereas, strial marginal cells stained strongly for both beta isoforms. The only qualitative difference between mutant and wild-type mice was the absence of beta 1 subunit in marginal cells of the mutant's stria. However, it is unlikely that this difference accounts for failure of mutants to generate a high EP because the beta 1 subunit is not present in the stria vascularis of either rats or gerbils with normal EP values. Strong immunostaining for Na,K-ATPase in lateral wall fibrocytes of normal mice along with diminished immunoreactivity in the mutants supports the concept that these strategically located transport fibrocytes actively resorb K+ leaked across Reissner's membrane into scala vestibuli or effluxed from hair cells and nerves into scala tympani. It is further speculated that the resorbed K+ normally is siphoned down its concentration gradient into the intrastrial space through gap junctions between fibrocytes and strial basal and intermediate cells where it is recycled back to endolymph via marginal cells. Thus, failure of mutants to generate a positive EP could be explained by the absence of intermediate cells which may form the final

  16. Therapeutic potential of Mediator complex subunits in metabolic diseases.

    Ranjan, Amol; Ansari, Suraiya A

    2018-01-01

    The multisubunit Mediator is an evolutionary conserved transcriptional coregulatory complex in eukaryotes. It is needed for the transcriptional regulation of gene expression in general as well as in a gene specific manner. Mediator complex subunits interact with different transcription factors as well as components of RNA Pol II transcription initiation complex and in doing so act as a bridge between gene specific transcription factors and general Pol II transcription machinery. Specific interaction of various Mediator subunits with nuclear receptors (NRs) and other transcription factors involved in metabolism has been reported in different studies. Evidences indicate that ligand-activated NRs recruit Mediator complex for RNA Pol II-dependent gene transcription. These NRs have been explored as therapeutic targets in different metabolic diseases; however, they show side-effects as targets due to their overlapping involvement in different signaling pathways. Here we discuss the interaction of various Mediator subunits with transcription factors involved in metabolism and whether specific interaction of these transcription factors with Mediator subunits could be potentially utilized as therapeutic strategy in a variety of metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Lysosomal Storage of Subunit c of Mitochondrial ATP Synthase in Brain-Specific Atp13a2-Deficient Mice.

    Sato, Shigeto; Koike, Masato; Funayama, Manabu; Ezaki, Junji; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ueno, Takashi; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-12-01

    Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS) is an autosomal recessive form of early-onset parkinsonism linked to the PARK9 locus. The causative gene for KRS is Atp13a2, which encodes a lysosomal type 5 P-type ATPase. We recently showed that KRS/PARK9-linked mutations lead to several lysosomal alterations, including reduced proteolytic processing of cathepsin D in vitro. However, it remains unknown how deficiency of Atp13a2 is connected to lysosomal impairments. To address this issue, we analyzed brain tissues of Atp13a2 conditional-knockout mice, which exhibited characteristic features of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, including accumulation of lipofuscin positive for subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, suggesting that a common pathogenic mechanism underlies both neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of subunit linkages in an engineered homodimeric binding protein to α-synuclein.

    Gauhar, Aziz; Shaykhalishahi, Hamed; Gremer, Lothar; Mirecka, Ewa A; Hoyer, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    Aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (α-syn) has been implicated in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, collectively referred to as synucleinopathies. The β-wrapin AS69 is a small engineered binding protein to α-syn that stabilizes a β-hairpin conformation of monomeric α-syn and inhibits α-syn aggregation at substoichiometric concentrations. AS69 is a homodimer whose subunits are linked via a disulfide bridge between their single cysteine residues, Cys-28. Here we show that expression of a functional dimer as a single polypeptide chain is achievable by head-to-tail linkage of AS69 subunits. Choice of a suitable linker is essential for construction of head-to-tail dimers that exhibit undiminished α-syn affinity compared with the solely disulfide-linked dimer. We characterize AS69-GS3, a head-to-tail dimer with a glycine-serine-rich linker, under oxidized and reduced conditions in order to evaluate the impact of the Cys28-disulfide bond on structure, stability and α-syn binding. Formation of the disulfide bond causes compaction of AS69-GS3, increases its thermostability, and is a prerequisite for high-affinity binding to α-syn. Comparison of AS69-GS3 and AS69 demonstrates that head-to-tail linkage promotes α-syn binding by affording accelerated disulfide bond formation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Acetylcholine Receptor: Complex of Homologous Subunits

    Raftery, Michael A.; Hunkapiller, Michael W.; Strader, Catherine D.; Hood, Leroy E.

    1980-06-01

    The acetylcholine receptor from the electric ray Torpedo californica is composed of five subunits; two are identical and the other three are structurally related to them. Microsequence analysis of the four polypeptides demonstrates amino acid homology among the subunits. Further sequence analysis of both membrane-bound and Triton-solubilized, chromatographically purified receptor gave the stoichiometry of the four subunits (40,000:50,000:60,000:65,000 daltons) as 2:1:1:1, indicating that this protein is a pentameric complex with a molecular weight of 255,000 daltons. Genealogical analysis suggests that divergence from a common ancestral gene occurred early in the evolution of the receptor. This shared ancestry argues that each of the four subunits plays a functional role in the receptor's physiological action.

  20. Comparison of cDNA-derived protein sequences of the human fibronectin and vitronectin receptor α-subunits and platelet glycoprotein IIb

    Fitzgerald, L.A.; Poncz, M.; Steiner, B.; Rall, S.C. Jr.; Bennett, J.S.; Phillips, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The fibronectin receptor (FnR), the vitronectin receptor (VnR), and the platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complex are members of a family of cell adhesion receptors, which consist of noncovalently associated α- and β-subunits. The present study was designed to compare the cDNA-derived protein sequences of the α-subunits of human FnR, VnR, and platelet GP IIb. cDNA clones for the α-subunit of the FnR (FnR/sub α/) were obtained from a human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cell library by using an oligonucleotide probe designed from a peptide sequence of platelet GP IIb. cDNA clones for platelet GP IIb were isolated from a cDNA expression library of human erythroleukemia cells by using antibodies. cDNA clones of the VnR α-subunit (VnR/sub α/) were obtained from the HUVE cell library by using an oligonucleotide probe from the partial cDNA sequence for the VnR/sub α/. Translation of these sequences showed that the FNR/sub α/, the VnR/sub α/, and GP IIb are composed of disulfide-linked large (858-871 amino acids) and small (137-158 amino acids) chains that are posttranslationally processed from a single mRNA. A single hydrophobic segment located near the carboxyl terminus of each small chain appears to be a transmembrane domain. The large chains appear to be entirely extracellular, and each contains four repeated putative Ca 2+ -binding domains of about 30 amino acids that have sequence similarities to other Ca 2+ -binding proteins. The identity among the protein sequences of the three receptor α-subunits ranges from 36.1% to 44.5%, with the Ca 2+ -binding domains having the greatest homology. These proteins apparently evolved by a process of gene duplication

  1. Involvement of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and of HA95 in pre-mRNA splicing

    Kvissel, Anne-Katrine; Orstavik, Sigurd; Eikvar, Sissel; Brede, Gaute; Jahnsen, Tore; Collas, Philippe; Akusjaervi, Goeran; Skalhegg, Bjorn Steen

    2007-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is a holoenzyme consisting of two catalytic (C) subunits bound to a regulatory (R) subunit dimer. Stimulation by cAMP dissociates the holoenzyme and causes translocation to the nucleus of a fraction of the C subunit. Apart from transcription regulation, little is known about the function of the C subunit in the nucleus. In the present report, we show that both Cα and Cβ are localized to spots in the mammalian nucleus. Double immunofluorescence analysis of splicing factor SC35 with the C subunit indicated that these spots are splicing factor compartments (SFCs). Using the E1A in vivo splicing assay, we found that catalytically active C subunits regulate alternative splicing and phosphorylate several members of the SR-protein family of splicing factors in vitro. Furthermore, nuclear C subunits co-localize with the C subunit-binding protein homologous to AKAP95, HA95. HA95 also regulates E1A alternative splicing in vivo, apparently through its N-terminal domain. Localization of the C subunit to SFCs and the E1A splicing pattern were unaffected by cAMP stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that the nuclear PKA C subunit co-locates with HA95 in SFCs and regulates pre-mRNA splicing, possibly through a cAMP-independent mechanism

  2. Protein kinase A regulatory subunit distribution in medulloblastoma

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Denaro, Luca; Redaelli, Marco; D'Avella, Domenico; Caretta, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies showed a differential distribution of the four regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinases inside the brain, that changed in rodent gliomas: therefore, the distribution of these proteins inside the brain can give information on the functional state of the cells. Our goal was to examine human brain tumors to provide evidence for a differential distribution of protein kinase A in different tumors. The distribution of detergent insoluble regulatory (R1 and R2) and catalytic subunits of cAMP dependent kinases was examined in pediatric brain tumors by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent cAMP analogues binding. R2 is organized in large single dots in medulloblastomas, while it has a different appearance in other tumors. Fluorescent cAMP labelling was observed only in medulloblastoma. A different distribution of cAMP dependent protein kinases has been observed in medulloblastoma

  3. The Subunit Principle in Scar Face Revision.

    Elshahat, Ahmed; Lashin, Riham

    2017-06-01

    Facial scaring is considered one of the most difficult cosmetic problems for any plastic surgeon to solve. The condition is more difficult if the direction of the scar is not parallel to relaxed skin tension lines. Attempts to manage this difficult situation included revisions using geometric designs, Z plasties or W plasties to camouflage the straight line visible scaring. The use of long-lasting resorbable sutures was tried too. Recently, the use of botulinum toxin during revision improved the results. Fractional CO2 lasers, microfat grafts, and platelet-rich plasma were added to the armamentarium. The scar is least visible if placed in the junction between the facial subunits. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of the subunit principle to improve the results of scar revision. Four patients were included in this study. Tissue expansion of the intact part of the subunit allowed shifting the scar to the junction between the affected subunit and the adjacent one. Tissue expansion, delivery of the expanders, and advancement of the flaps were successful in all patients. The fact that this is a 2-stage procedure and sacrifices some of the intact skin from the affected facial subunit, makes this technique reserved to patients with ugly facial scars who are ambitious to improve their appearance.

  4. Neutron Scattering and the 30 S Ribosomal Subunit of E. Coli

    Moore, P. B.; Engelman, D. M.; Langer, J. A.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Schindler, D. G.; Schoenborn, B. P.; Sillers, I. Y.; Yabuki, S.

    1982-06-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in the study of the internal organization of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli by neutron scattering since 1975. A map of that particle showing the position of 14 of the subunit's 21 proteins is presented, and the methods currently used for collecting and analyzing such data are discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of extending the interpretation of neutron mapping data beyond the limits practical today.

  5. Neutron scattering and the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli

    Moore, P.B.; Engelman, D.M.; Langer, J.A.; Ramakrishnan, V.R.; Schindler, D.G.; Schoenborn, B.P.; Sillers, I.Y.; Yabuki, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in the study of the internal organization of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli by neutron scattering since 1975. A map of that particle showing the position of 14 of the subunit's 21 proteins is presented, and the methods currently used for collecting and analyzing such data are discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of extending the interpretation of neutron mapping data beyond the limits practical today. 30 references, 5 figures

  6. Linked data management

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  7. Radioimmunoassay of TSH subunits in thyroid diseases and endocrine opthalmopahty

    Eder, W.

    1982-01-01

    Highly sensitive radioimmunoassays of hTSH sub-units were developed. The hormone preparations were labelled with 125-iodine according to a modified chloramine -T method, and purified by chromatography using biogel P6 and P60. Rabbit antisera were used as antibodies. Separation of the antibody-bound and of the free antigens was carried out via the double antibody method. The antiserum required for this purpose was obtained from a goat. The sensitivity of the assay was influenced by changing the protein content of the buffer, the incubation volume, the tracer amounts, the incubation time and the incubation temperature. For hTSH-α, the lowest detectable limit was found to be 50 pg/ml, for hTSH-#betta# 20 pg/ml. Thus, the sub-units could be determined for 98% of the patients under review. The #betta#-TSH radioimmunoassay is largely specific, TSH cross-reacts to a degree of 5%. The computerized evoluation was carried out by means of Spline approximation using the Siemens 4004 computer. Precision and accurateness are in compliance with generally accpted criteria. The serum levels of α and #betta# sub-units showed no discordancy with regard to TSH. In all groups of patients examined, the levels of the hormone-specific #betta#-chain were found to be exclusively dependent upon the actual thyroid activity. (orig.) [de

  8. A molecular breadboard: Removal and replacement of subunits in a hepatitis B virus capsid.

    Lee, Lye Siang; Brunk, Nicholas; Haywood, Daniel G; Keifer, David; Pierson, Elizabeth; Kondylis, Panagiotis; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Jacobson, Stephen C; Jarrold, Martin F; Zlotnick, Adam

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein is a model system for studying assembly and disassembly of icosahedral structures. Controlling disassembly will allow re-engineering the 120 subunit HBV capsid, making it a molecular breadboard. We examined removal of subunits from partially crosslinked capsids to form stable incomplete particles. To characterize incomplete capsids, we used two single molecule techniques, resistive-pulse sensing and charge detection mass spectrometry. We expected to find a binomial distribution of capsid fragments. Instead, we found a preponderance of 3 MDa complexes (90 subunits) and no fragments smaller than 3 MDa. We also found 90-mers in the disassembly of uncrosslinked HBV capsids. 90-mers seem to be a common pause point in disassembly reactions. Partly explaining this result, graph theory simulations have showed a threshold for capsid stability between 80 and 90 subunits. To test a molecular breadboard concept, we showed that missing subunits could be refilled resulting in chimeric, 120 subunit particles. This result may be a means of assembling unique capsids with functional decorations. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  9. Immunochemical aspects of crotoxim and its subunits

    Nakazone, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Crotamine and crotoxin with the subunits - phospholipase A and crotapotin - were obtained by purification from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Interaction studies of the subunits using crotalic antiserum, indicated that: crotoxin is formed of crotapotin and phospholipase A with the molar ratio of 1 to 1; using crotapotin 125 I the presence of a soluble complex was shown with the same antiserum. Immunological precipitation reactions demonstrated that crotapotin is antigenic: crotapotin and phospholipase A presented similar antigenic determinants; crotoxin antiserum reacted with each one of the submits; when the subunits are mixed to form synthetic crotoxin some antigenic determinants are masked in the process of interaction. Crotamine, interacted with crotapotin 1:1, without hidden antigenic determinants crotapotin antigenic site seems to be formed by, at least, one lysine. Enzimatical activity of phospholipase A apreared to be dependent on some reaction conditions when its arginine residues are blocked. Tyrosines of phospholipase A are more susceptible to labelling with 131 I than crotapotin. Gama irradiation of aqueous solutions of the subunits produced modifications in the ultraviolet spectra. A decrease of the enzymatic activity occured as a function of radiation dosis. Immunological activities of crotapotin and phospholipase A were not altered [pt

  10. Chlamydia abortus YhbZ, a truncated Obg family GTPase, associates with the Escherichia coli large ribosomal subunit.

    Polkinghorne, Adam; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    The stringent stress response is vital for bacterial survival under adverse environmental conditions. Obligate intracellular Chlamydia lack key stringent response proteins, but nevertheless can interrupt the cell cycle and enter stasis or persistence upon amino acid starvation. A possible key protein retained is YhbZ, a homologue of the ObgE guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) superfamily connecting the stringent stress response to ribosome maturation. Curiously, chlamydial YhbZ lacks the ObgE C-terminal domain thought to be essential for binding the large ribosomal subunit. We expressed recombinant Chlamydia abortus YhbZ and showed it to be a functional GTPase, with similar activity to other Obg GTPase family members. As Chlamydia are resistant to genetic manipulation, we performed heterologous expression and gradient centrifugation experiments in Escherichia coli and found that, despite the missing C-terminal domain, C. abortus YhbZ co-fractionates with the E. coli 50S large ribosomal subunit. In addition, overexpression of chlamydial YhbZ in E. coli leads to growth defects and elongation, as reported for other Obg members. YhbZ did not complement an E. coli obgE temperature-sensitive mutant, indicating the C-terminal acidic domain may have an additional role. This data supports a role for YhbZ linking the chlamydial stress response to ribosome function and cellular growth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isoforms of U1-70k control subunit dynamics in the human spliceosomal U1 snRNP.

    Helena Hernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most human protein-encoding genes contain multiple exons that are spliced together, frequently in alternative arrangements, by the spliceosome. It is established that U1 snRNP is an essential component of the spliceosome, in human consisting of RNA and ten proteins, several of which are post-translationally modified and exist as multiple isoforms. Unresolved and challenging to investigate are the effects of these post translational modifications on the dynamics, interactions and stability of the particle. Using mass spectrometry we investigate the composition and dynamics of the native human U1 snRNP and compare native and recombinant complexes to isolate the effects of various subunits and isoforms on the overall stability. Our data reveal differential incorporation of four protein isoforms and dynamic interactions of subunits U1-A, U1-C and Sm-B/B'. Results also show that unstructured post-translationally modified C-terminal tails are responsible for the dynamics of Sm-B/B' and U1-C and that their interactions with the Sm core are controlled by binding to different U1-70k isoforms and their phosphorylation status in vivo. These results therefore provide the important functional link between proteomics and structure as well as insight into the dynamic quaternary structure of the native U1 snRNP important for its function.

  12. DNA-repair protein hHR23a alters its protein structure upon binding proteasomal subunit S5a

    Walters, Kylie J.; Lech, Patrycja J.; Goh, Amanda M.; Wang, Qinghua; Howley, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    The Rad23 family of proteins, including the human homologs hHR23a and hHR23b, stimulates nucleotide excision repair and has been shown to provide a novel link between proteasome-mediated protein degradation and DNA repair. In this work, we illustrate how the proteasomal subunit S5a regulates hHR23a protein structure. By using NMR spectroscopy, we have elucidated the structure and dynamic properties of the 40-kDa hHR23a protein and show it to contain four structured domains connected by flexible linker regions. In addition, we reveal that these domains interact in an intramolecular fashion, and by using residual dipolar coupling data in combination with chemical shift perturbation analysis, we present the hHR23a structure. By itself, hHR23a adopts a closed conformation defined by the interaction of an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain with two ubiquitin-associated domains. Interestingly, binding of the proteasomal subunit S5a disrupts the hHR23a interdomain interactions and thereby causes it to adopt an opened conformation. PMID:14557549

  13. Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles.

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Murshudov, Garib N; Sachse, Carsten; Löwe, Jan

    2015-07-02

    Active segregation of Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments. ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments. Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles. Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods, we investigate the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro and in cells, revealing at near-atomic resolution how subunits and filaments come together to produce the simplest known mitotic machinery. To understand the mechanism of dynamic instability, we determine structures of ParM filaments in different nucleotide states. The structure of filaments bound to the ATP analogue AMPPNP is determined at 4.3 Å resolution and refined. The ParM filament structure shows strong longitudinal interfaces and weaker lateral interactions. Also using electron cryomicroscopy, we reconstruct ParM doublets forming antiparallel spindles. Finally, with whole-cell electron cryotomography, we show that doublets are abundant in bacterial cells containing low-copy-number plasmids with the ParMRC locus, leading to an asynchronous model of R1 plasmid segregation.

  14. Proteasome (Prosome Subunit Variations during the Differentiation of Myeloid U937 Cells

    Laurent Henry

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available 20S proteasomes (prosomes/multicatalytic proteinase are protein particles built of 28 subunits in variable composition. We studied the changes in proteasome subunit composition during the differentiation of U937 cells induced by phorbol‐myristate‐acetate or retinoic acid plus 1,25‐dihydroxy‐cholecalciferol by western blot, flow cytometry and immuno‐fluorescence. p25K (C3, p27K (IOTA and p30/33K (C2 subunits were detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of undifferentiated cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated a biphasic decrease in proteasome subunits detection during differentiation induced by RA+VD. PMA caused an early transient decrease in these subunits followed by a return to their control level, except for p30/33K, which remained low. Immuno‐fluorescence also showed differences in the cytolocalization of the subunits, with a particular decrease in antigen labeling in the nucleus of RA+VD‐induced cells, and a scattering in the cytoplasm and a reorganization in the nucleus of PMA‐induced cells. Small amounts of proteasomal proteins were seen on the outer membrane of non‐induced cells; these membrane proteins disappeared when treated with RA+VD, whereas some increased on PMA‐induced cells. The differential changes in the distribution and type of proteasomes in RA+VD and PMA‐induced cells indicate that, possibly, 20S proteasomes may play a role in relation to the mechanisms of differentiation and the inducer used.

  15. Involvement of proteasomal subunits zeta and iota in RNA degradation.

    Petit, F; Jarrousse, A S; Dahlmann, B; Sobek, A; Hendil, K B; Buri, J; Briand, Y; Schmid, H P

    1997-01-01

    We have identified two distinct subunits of 20 S proteasomes that are associated with RNase activity. Proteasome subunits zeta and iota, eluted from two-dimensional Western blots, hydrolysed tobacco mosaic virus RNA, whereas none of the other subunits degraded this substrate under the same conditions. Additionally, proteasomes were dissociated by 6 M urea, and subunit zeta, containing the highest RNase activity, was isolated by anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Purified subunit zeta migrated as a single spot on two-dimensional PAGE with a molecular mass of approx. 28 kDa. Addition of anti-(subunit zeta) antibodies led to the co-precipitation of this proteasome subunit and nuclease activity. This is the first evidence that proteasomal alpha-type subunits are associated with an enzymic activity, and our results provide further evidence that proteasomes may be involved in cellular RNA metabolism. PMID:9337855

  16. Decreased surface expression of the δ subunit of the GABAA receptor contributes to reduced tonic inhibition in dentate granule cells in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    Zhang, Nianhui; Peng, Zechun; Tong, Xiaoping; Lindemeyer, A Kerstin; Cetina, Yliana; Huang, Christine S; Olsen, Richard W; Otis, Thomas S; Houser, Carolyn R

    2017-11-01

    While numerous changes in the GABA system have been identified in models of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), alterations in subunits of the GABA A receptors (GABA A Rs) that mediate tonic inhibition are particularly intriguing. Considering the key role of tonic inhibition in controlling neuronal excitability, reduced tonic inhibition could contribute to FXS-associated disorders such as hyperactivity, hypersensitivity, and increased seizure susceptibility. The current study has focused on the expression and function of the δ subunit of the GABA A R, a major subunit involved in tonic inhibition, in granule cells of the dentate gyrus in the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model of FXS. Electrophysiological studies of dentate granule cells revealed a marked, nearly four-fold, decrease in tonic inhibition in the Fmr1 KO mice, as well as reduced effects of two δ subunit-preferring pharmacological agents, THIP and DS2, supporting the suggestion that δ subunit-containing GABA A Rs are compromised in the Fmr1 KO mice. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a small but statistically significant decrease in δ subunit labeling in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus in Fmr1 KO mice compared to wildtype (WT) littermates. The discrepancy between the large deficits in GABA-mediated tonic inhibition in granule cells in the Fmr1 KO mice and only modest reductions in immunolabeling of the δ subunit led to studies of surface expression of the δ subunit. Cross-linking experiments followed by Western blot analysis demonstrated a small, non-significant decrease in total δ subunit protein in the hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice, but a four-fold decrease in surface expression of the δ subunit in these mice. No significant changes were observed in total or surface expression of the α4 subunit protein, a major partner of the δ subunit in the forebrain. Postembedding immunogold labeling for the δ subunit demonstrated a large, three-fold, decrease in the number of symmetric synapses with

  17. Distribution of the a2, a3, and a5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the chick brain

    Torrão A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are ionotropic receptors comprised of a and ß subunits. These receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system, and previous studies have revealed specific patterns of localization for some nAChR subunits in the vertebrate brain. In the present study we used immunohistochemical methods and monoclonal antibodies to localize the a2, a3, and a5 nAChR subunits in the chick mesencephalon and diencephalon. We observed a differential distribution of these three subunits in the chick brain, and showed that the somata and neuropil of many central structures contain the a5 nAChR subunit. The a2 and a3 subunits, on the other hand, exhibited a more restricted distribution than a5 and other subunits previously studied, namely a7, a8 and ß2. The patterns of distribution of the different nAChR subunits suggest that neurons in many brain structures may contain several subtypes of nAChRs and that in a few regions one particular subtype may determine the cholinergic nicotinic responses

  18. Show-Bix &

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  19. The biosynthesis and processing of high molecular weight precursors of soybean glycinin subunits.

    Barton, K A; Thompson, J F; Madison, J T; Rosenthal, R; Jarvis, N P; Beachy, R N

    1982-06-10

    The predominant storage protein of soybean seed, glycinin, is composed of two heterogeneous classes of related subunits, the acidics (Mr approximately 38,000) and the basics (Mr approximately 22,000). Immunoreaction of polypeptides translated in vitro from isolated seed mRNA using antibodies prepared against either purified acidic or basic subunit groups precipitated precursor polypeptides of Mr = 60,000 to Mr = 63,000. High pressure liquid chromatography fingerprinting of trypsin-generated fragments from in vitro synthesized precursors showed fragments specific to both acidic and basic subunits. No mature acidic or basic subunits were detected in vitro translation reactions by either immunoprecipitation or high pressure liquid chromatography fingerprinting. Pulse-labeling of cotyledons growing in culture with [3H]glycine showed rapid accumulation of label in glycinin precursors of Mr = 59,000 to Mr = 62,000. Although in vivo synthesized precursors had slightly greater electrophoretic mobility than in vitro synthesized precursors, little label initially appeared in mature glycinin subunits. After several hours of continued cotyledon growth in absence of label, precursors were processed and label accumulated in both acidic and basic subunit groups. Recombinant plasmids were prepared by reverse transcription of soybean seed mRNA, and clones which encode glycinin precursors were identified by heteroduplex-hybridization of translatable messages. Northern blot analysis of seed mRNA shows the mRNA-encoding glycinin precursors to migrate at Mr = 0.71 X 10(6) on agarose gels, corresponding to approximately 2050 nucleotides. This is sufficiently large to encode a polypeptide consisting of both a glycinin acidic and basic subunit.

  20. Molecular cloning of the human casein kinase II α subunit

    Meisner, H.; Heller-Harrison, R.; Buxton, J.; Czech, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    A human cDNA encoding the α subunit of casein kinase II and a partial cDNA encoding the rat homologue were isolated by using a Drosophila casein kinase II cDNA probe. The 2.2-kb human cDNA contains a 1.2-kb open reading frame, 150 nucleotides of 5' leader, and 850 nucleotides of 3' noncoding region. Except for the first 7 deduced amino acids that are missing in the rat cDNA, the 328 amino acids beginning with the amino terminus are identical between human and rat. The Drosophila enzyme sequence is 90% identical with the human casein kinase II sequence, and there is only a single amino acid difference between the published partial bovine sequence and the human sequence. In addition, the C-terminus of the human cDNA has an extra 53 amino acids not present in Drosophila. Northern analysis of rat and human RNA showed predominant bands of 5.5, 3.1, and 1.8 kb. In rat tissues, brain and spleen had the highest levels of casein kinase II α subunit specific RNA, while skeletal muscle showed the lowest. Southern analysis of human cultured cell and tissue genomic DNA using the full-length cDNA probe revealed two bands with restriction enzymes that have no recognition sites within the cDNA and three to six bands with enzymes having single internal sites. These results are consistent with the possibility that two genes encode the α subunits

  1. Expression Profile of the Integrin Receptor Subunits in the Guinea Pig Sclera.

    Wang, Kevin K; Metlapally, Ravikanth; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2017-06-01

    The ocular dimensional changes in myopia reflect increased scleral remodeling, and in high myopia, loss of scleral integrity leads to biomechanical weakening and continued scleral creep. As integrins, a type of cell surface receptors, have been linked to scleral remodeling, they represent potential targets for myopia therapies. As a first step, this study aimed to characterize the integrin subunits at the messenger RNA level in the sclera of the guinea pig, a more recently added but increasingly used animal model for myopia research. Primers for α and β integrin subunits were designed using NCBI/UCSC Genome Browser and Primer3 software tools. Total RNA was extracted from normal scleral tissue and isolated cultured scleral fibroblasts, as well as liver and lung, as reference tissues, all from guinea pig. cDNA was produced by reverse transcription, PCR was used to amplify products of predetermined sizes, and products were sequenced using standard methods. Guinea pig scleral tissue expressed all known integrin alpha subunits except αD and αE. The latter integrin subunits were also not expressed by cultured guinea pig scleral fibroblasts; however, their expression was confirmed in guinea pig liver. In addition, isolated cultured fibroblasts did not express integrin subunits αL, αM, and αX. This difference between results for cultured cells and intact sclera presumably reflects the presence in the latter of additional cell types. Both guinea pig scleral tissue and isolated scleral fibroblasts expressed all known integrin beta subunits. All results were verified through sequencing. The possible contributions of integrins to scleral remodeling make them plausible targets for myopia prevention. Data from this study will help guide future ex vivo and in vitro studies directed at understanding the relationship between scleral integrins and ocular growth regulation in the guinea pig model for myopia.

  2. Muscular subunits transplantation for facial reanimation

    Hazan André Salo Buslik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present an alternative technique for reconstruction of musculocutaneous damages in the face transferring innervated subsegments(subunits of the latissimus dorsi flap for replacement of various facial mimetic muscles. METHODS: One clinical case of trauma with skin and mimetic muscles damage is described as an example of the technique. The treatment was performed with microsurgical transfer of latissimus dorsi muscle subunits. Each subunit present shape and dimensions of the respective mimetic muscles replaced. The origin, insertions and force vectors for the mimicmuscle lost were considered. Each subsegment has its own arterial and venous supply with a motor nerve component for the muscular unit. RESULTS: Pre and one year postoperative photos registration of static and dynamic mimic aspects, as well as digital electromyography digital data of the patients were compared. The transplanted muscular units presented myoeletric activity, fulfilling both the functional and cosmetic aspect. CONCLUSION: This technique seems to be a promising way to deal with the complex musculocutaneous losses of the face as well as facial palsy.

  3. Evaluation of peptide designing strategy against subunit reassociation in mucin 1: A steered molecular dynamics approach.

    J Lesitha Jeeva Kumari

    Full Text Available Subunit reassociation in mucin 1, a breast cancer tumor marker, is reported as one of the critical factors for its cytoplasmic activation. Inhibition of its heterodimeric association would therefore result in loss of its function and alter disease progression. The present study aimed at evaluating peptide inhibitor designing strategies that may serve as antagonist against this receptor-ligand alliance. Several peptides and their derivatives were designed based on native residues, subunit interface, hydrogen bonding and secondary structure. Docking studies with the peptides were carried on the receptor subunit and their binding affinities were evaluated using steered molecular dynamics simulation and umbrella sampling. Our results showed that among all the different classes of peptides evaluated, the receptor based peptide showed the highest binding affinity. This result was concurrent with the experimental observation that the receptor-ligand alliance in mucin 1 is highly specific. Our results also show that peptide ligand against this subunit association is only stabilized through native residue inter-protein interaction irrespective of the peptide structure, peptide length and number of hydrogen bonds. Consistency in binding affinity, pull force and free energy barrier was observed with only the receptor derived peptides which resulted in favorable interprotein interactions at the interface. Several observations were made and discussed which will eventually lead to designing efficient peptide inhibitors against mucin 1 heterodimeric subunit reassociation.

  4. Requirement of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit β2 in the Maintenance of Spiral Ganglion Neurons during Aging

    Bao, Jianxin; Lei, Debin; Du, Yafei; Ohlemiller, Kevin K.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Role, Lorna W.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is a major health concern for the elderly. Loss of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the primary sensory relay of the auditory system, is associated consistently with presbycusis. The causative molecular events responsible for age-related loss of SGNs are unknown. Recent reports directly link age-related neuronal loss in cerebral cortex with the loss of high-affinity nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In cochlea, cholinergic synapses are made by olivocochlear efferent fibers on the outer hair cells that express α9 nAChR subunits and on the peripheral projections of SGNs that express α2, α4 –7, and β2–3 nAChR subunits. A significantly decreased expression of the β2 nAChR subunit in SGNs was found specifically in mice susceptible to presbycusis. Furthermore, mice lacking the β2 nAChR subunit (β2−/−), but not mice lacking the α5 nAChR subunit (α5−/−), have dramatic hearing loss and significant reduction in the number of SGNs. Our findings clearly established a requirement for β2 nAChR subunit in the maintenance of SGNs during aging. PMID:15788760

  5. Effect of HMM Glutenin Subunits on Wheat Quality Attributes

    Daniela Horvat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutenin is a group of polymeric gluten proteins. Glutenin molecules consist of glutenin subunits linked together with disulphide bonds and having higher (HMM-GS and lower (LMM-GS molecular mass. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the influence of HMM-GS on flour processing properties. Seven bread wheat genotypes with contrasting quality attributes and different HMM-GS composition were analyzed during three years. The composition and quantity of HMM-GS were determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, respectively. The quality diversity among genotypes was estimated by the analysis of wheat grain, and flour and bread quality parameters. The presence of HMM glutenin subunits 1 and 2* at Glu-A1 and the subunits 5+10 at Glu-D1 loci, as well as a higher proportion of total HMM-GS, had a positive effect on wheat quality. Cluster analysis of the three groups of data (genotype and HMM-GS, flour and bread quality, and dough rheology yielded the same hierarchical structure for the first top three levels, and similarity of the corresponding dendrograms was proved by the principal eigenvalues of the corresponding Euclidian distance matrices. The obtained similarity in classification based on essentially different types of measurements reflects strong natural association between genetic data, product quality and physical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to effectively reduce large data set into lower dimensions of latent variables amenable for the analysis. PCA analysis of the total set of data (15 variables revealed a very strong interrelationship between the variables. The first three PCA components accounted for 96 % of the total variance, which was significant to the level of 0.05 and was considered as the level of experimental error. These data imply that the quality of wheat cultivars can be contributed to HMM-GS data and should be taken into account in breeding programs assisted by computer models with the aim to

  6. Site-directed cross-linking: establishing the dimeric structure of the aspartate receptor of bacterial chemotaxis

    Milligan, D.L.; Koshland, D.E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteine residues introduced at specific locations in the aspartate receptor of Salmonella typhimurium provide anchor points for cross-linking and serve as chemical markers for structural studies of this oligomeric receptor. These markers have been used to measure the rate of subunit exchange between oligomeric receptors and to show that ligand binding inhibits this exchange. The cysteine-containing receptors can be oxidatively cross-linked to completion within the oligomeric receptor, indicating that the receptor has an even number of subunits. Based on this observation, a technique has been developed that can be used to determine the oligomeric structure of proteins under a variety of experimental conditions. The technique involves the measurement of the effect of dilution by cysteineless receptor subunits on cross-linking and reveals that the aspartate receptor is dimeric in detergent solution, in a mixed-micelle system, and in reconstituted membrane vesicles. Binding of aspartate does not change the oligomeric structure of the receptor, indicating that transmembrane signaling occurs within an oligomeric receptor of constant size

  7. Analysis of Maxi-K alpha subunit splice variants in human myometrium

    Morrison John J

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (Maxi-K channels are implicated in the modulation of human uterine contractions and myometrial Ca2+ homeostasis. However, the regulatory mechanism(s governing the expression of Maxi-K channels with decreased calcium sensitivity at parturition are unclear. The objectives of this study were to investigate mRNA expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit, and that of its splice variants, in human non-pregnant and pregnant myometrium, prior to and after labour onset, to determine whether altered expression of these splice variants is associated with decreased calcium sensitivity observed at labour onset. Methods Myometrial biopsies were obtained at hysterectomy (non-pregnant, NP, and at Caesarean section, at elective (pregnant not-in-labour, PNL and intrapartum (pregnant in-labour, PL procedures. RNA was extracted from all biopsies and quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate for possible differential expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit, and that of its splice variants, between these functionally-distinct myometrial tissue sets. Results RT-PCR analysis identified the presence of a 132 bp and an 87 bp spliced exon of the Maxi-K alpha subunit in all three myometrial tissue sets. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated a decrease in the expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit with labour onset. While there was no change in the proportion of Maxi-K alpha subunits expressing the 87 bp spliced exon, the proportion of alpha subunits expressing the 132 bp spliced exon was significantly increased with labour onset, compared to both non-pregnant and pregnant not-in-labour tissues. An increased proportion of 132 bp exon-containing alpha subunit variants with labour onset is of interest, as channels expressing this spliced exon have decreased calcium and voltage sensitivities. Conclusions Our findings suggest that decreased Maxi-K alpha subunit mRNA expression in human myometrium at

  8. Oncogenic exon 2 mutations in Mediator subunit MED12 disrupt allosteric activation of cyclin C-CDK8/19.

    Park, Min Ju; Shen, Hailian; Spaeth, Jason M; Tolvanen, Jaana H; Failor, Courtney; Knudtson, Jennifer F; McLaughlin, Jessica; Halder, Sunil K; Yang, Qiwei; Bulun, Serdar E; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Schenken, Robert S; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Boyer, Thomas G

    2018-03-30

    Somatic mutations in exon 2 of the RNA polymerase II transcriptional Mediator subunit MED12 occur at high frequency in uterine fibroids (UFs) and breast fibroepithelial tumors as well as recurrently, albeit less frequently, in malignant uterine leimyosarcomas, chronic lymphocytic leukemias, and colorectal cancers. Previously, we reported that UF-linked mutations in MED12 disrupt its ability to activate cyclin C (CycC)-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) in Mediator, implicating impaired Mediator-associated CDK8 activity in the molecular pathogenesis of these clinically significant lesions. Notably, the CDK8 paralog CDK19 is also expressed in myometrium, and both CDK8 and CDK19 assemble into Mediator in a mutually exclusive manner, suggesting that CDK19 activity may also be germane to the pathogenesis of MED12 mutation-induced UFs. However, whether and how UF-linked mutations in MED12 affect CDK19 activation is unknown. Herein, we show that MED12 allosterically activates CDK19 and that UF-linked exon 2 mutations in MED12 disrupt its CDK19 stimulatory activity. Furthermore, we find that within the Mediator kinase module, MED13 directly binds to the MED12 C terminus, thereby suppressing an apparent UF mutation-induced conformational change in MED12 that otherwise disrupts its association with CycC-CDK8/19. Thus, in the presence of MED13, mutant MED12 can bind, but cannot activate, CycC-CDK8/19. These findings indicate that MED12 binding is necessary but not sufficient for CycC-CDK8/19 activation and reveal an additional step in the MED12-dependent activation process, one critically dependent on MED12 residues altered by UF-linked exon 2 mutations. These findings confirm that UF-linked mutations in MED12 disrupt composite Mediator-associated kinase activity and identify CDK8/19 as prospective therapeutic targets in UFs. © 2018 Park et al.

  9. Talking with TV shows

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  10. Talk Show Science.

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  11. Obesity in show cats.

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  13. The testis-specific Cα2 subunit of PKA is kinetically indistinguishable from the common Cα1 subunit of PKA

    Herberg Friedrich W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two variants of the α-form of the catalytic (C subunit of protein kinase A (PKA, designated Cα1 and Cα2, are encoded by the PRKACA gene. Whereas Cα1 is ubiquitous, Cα2 expression is restricted to the sperm cell. Cα1 and Cα2 are encoded with different N-terminal domains. In Cα1 but not Cα2 the N-terminal end introduces three sites for posttranslational modifications which include myristylation at Gly1, Asp-specific deamidation at Asn2 and autophosphorylation at Ser10. Previous reports have implicated specific biological features correlating with these modifications on Cα1. Since Cα2 is not modified in the same way as Cα1 we tested if they have distinct biochemical activities that may be reflected in different biological properties. Results We show that Cα2 interacts with the two major forms of the regulatory subunit (R of PKA, RI and RII, to form cAMP-sensitive PKAI and PKAII holoenzymes both in vitro and in vivo as is also the case with Cα1. Moreover, using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR, we show that the interaction patterns of the physiological inhibitors RI, RII and PKI were comparable for Cα2 and Cα1. This is also the case for their potency to inhibit catalytic activities of Cα2 and Cα1. Conclusion We conclude that the regulatory complexes formed with either Cα1 or Cα2, respectively, are indistinguishable.

  14. Recombinant egg drop syndrome subunit vaccine offers an alternative to virus propagation in duck eggs.

    Gutter, B; Fingerut, E; Gallili, G; Eliahu, D; Perelman, B; Finger, A; Pitcovski, J

    2008-02-01

    Egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus vaccines are routinely produced in embryonated duck eggs (Solyom et al., 1982). This procedure poses the risk of dissemination of pathogens, such as avian influenza virus, as the eggs used are not from specific pathogen free birds. To address this problem, the knob and part of the shaft domain of the fibre protein of the EDS virus (termed knob-s) were expressed in Escherichia coli and assessed as a subunit vaccine. A single vaccination with the recombinant protein induced the production of anti-EDS virus antibodies, as detected by haemagglutination inhibition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization tests, for at least 20 weeks. A positive correlation was demonstrated between these three assays. A dose-response assessment showed that the vaccine was effective over the range of 2 to 64 microg protein per dose. Two vaccinations with the recombinant protein, administered before the onset of lay, induced high haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres, comparable with those induced by an inactivated whole-virus vaccine. The vaccine did not have any adverse effects on egg production, quality or weight. The present study has shown that two vaccinations with the recombinant knob-s protein elicited high neutralizing antibody titres that persisted for more than 50 weeks of lay.

  15. The energy show

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  16. SDS-PAGE Electrophoretic Property of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and its β-subunit

    Gam, Lay-Harn; Latiff, Aishah

    2005-01-01

    The microheterogeneity property of hCG with regards to its sialic acid contents resulted in variable mobility of the glycoprotein in SDS-PAGE. The intact hCG molecule is composed of two dissimilar subunits, namely α- and β-subunits. The identification of hCG bands in SDS-PAGE was accomplished by the immunoblotting experiment, whereby the antibody directed toward the specific region of β-subunit of hCG was used. The data shows that the different mobility of intact hCG was attributed to the dif...

  17. Operative Links

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  18. A charged residue at the subunit interface of PCNA promotes trimer formation by destabilizing alternate subunit interactions

    Freudenthal, Bret D.; Gakhar, Lokesh; Ramaswamy, S.; Washington, M. Todd

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an essential accessory factor in DNA replication and repair, is a ring-shaped homotrimer. A novel nontrimeric structure of E113G-mutant PCNA protein is reported, which shows that this protein forms alternate subunit interactions. It is concluded that the charged side chain of Glu113 promotes normal trimer formation by destabilizing these alternate subunit interactions. Eukaryotic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an essential replication accessory factor that interacts with a variety of proteins involved in DNA replication and repair. Each monomer of PCNA has an N-terminal domain A and a C-terminal domain B. In the structure of the wild-type PCNA protein, domain A of one monomer interacts with domain B of a neighboring monomer to form a ring-shaped trimer. Glu113 is a conserved residue at the subunit interface in domain A. Two distinct X-ray crystal structures have been determined of a mutant form of PCNA with a substitution at this position (E113G) that has previously been studied because of its effect on translesion synthesis. The first structure was the expected ring-shaped trimer. The second structure was an unanticipated nontrimeric form of the protein. In this nontrimeric form, domain A of one PCNA monomer interacts with domain A of a neighboring monomer, while domain B of this monomer interacts with domain B of a different neighboring monomer. The B–B interface is stabilized by an antiparallel β-sheet and appears to be structurally similar to the A–B interface observed in the trimeric form of PCNA. The A–A interface, in contrast, is primarily stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. Because the E113G substitution is located on this hydrophobic surface, the A–A interface should be less favorable in the case of the wild-type protein. This suggests that the side chain of Glu113 promotes trimer formation by destabilizing these possible alternate subunit interactions

  19. Fungal mediator tail subunits contain classical transcriptional activation domains.

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2015-04-01

    Classical activation domains within DNA-bound eukaryotic transcription factors make weak interactions with coactivator complexes, such as Mediator, to stimulate transcription. How these interactions stimulate transcription, however, is unknown. The activation of reporter genes by artificial fusion of Mediator subunits to DNA binding domains that bind to their promoters has been cited as evidence that the primary role of activators is simply to recruit Mediator. We have identified potent classical transcriptional activation domains in the C termini of several tail module subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis Mediator, while their N-terminal domains are necessary and sufficient for their incorporation into Mediator but do not possess the ability to activate transcription when fused to a DNA binding domain. This suggests that Mediator fusion proteins actually are functioning in a manner similar to that of a classical DNA-bound activator rather than just recruiting Mediator. Our finding that deletion of the activation domains of S. cerevisiae Med2 and Med3, as well as C. dubliniensis Tlo1 (a Med2 ortholog), impairs the induction of certain genes shows these domains function at native promoters. Activation domains within coactivators are likely an important feature of these complexes and one that may have been uniquely leveraged by a common fungal pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Thermostable cross-protective subunit vaccine against Brucella species.

    Cherwonogrodzky, John W; Barabé, Nicole D; Grigat, Michelle L; Lee, William E; Poirier, Robert T; Jager, Scott J; Berger, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 10(5) CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Complementary DNA and derived amino acid sequence of the α subunit of human complement protein C8: evidence for the existence of a separate α subunit messenger RNA

    Rao, A.G.; Howard, O.M.Z.; Ng, S.C.; Whitehead, A.S.; Colten, H.R.; Sodetz, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The entire amino acid sequence of the α subunit (M/sub r/ 64,000) of the eight component of complement (C8) was determined by characterizing cDNA clones isolated from a human liver cDNA library. Two clones with overlapping inserts of net length 2.44 kilobases (kb) were isolated and found to contain the entire α coding region [1659 base pairs (bp)]. The 5' end consists of an untranslated region and a leader sequence of 30 amino acids. This sequence contains an apparent initiation Met, signal peptide, and propeptide which ends with an arginine-rich sequence that is characteristic of proteolytic processing sites found in the pro form of protein precursors. The 3' untranslated region contains two polyadenylation signals and a poly(A)sequence. RNA blot analysis of total cellular RNA from the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 revealed a message size of ∼2.5 kb. Features of the 5' and 3' sequences and the message size suggest that a separate mRNA codes for α and argues against the occurrence of a single-chain precursor form of the disulfide-linked α-λ subunit found in mature C8. Analysis of the derived amino acid sequence revealed several membrane surface seeking domains and a possible transmembrane domain. Analysis of the carbohydrate composition indicates 1 or 2 asparagine-linked but no O-linked oligosaccharide chains, a result consistent with predictions from the amino acid sequence. Most significantly, it exhibits a striking overall homology to human C9, with values of 24% on the basis of identity and 46% when conserved substitutions are allowed. As described in an accompanying report this homology also extends to the β subunit of C8

  2. Kinetic pathway of 40S ribosomal subunit recruitment to hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site.

    Fuchs, Gabriele; Petrov, Alexey N; Marceau, Caleb D; Popov, Lauren M; Chen, Jin; O'Leary, Seán E; Wang, Richard; Carette, Jan E; Sarnow, Peter; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2015-01-13

    Translation initiation can occur by multiple pathways. To delineate these pathways by single-molecule methods, fluorescently labeled ribosomal subunits are required. Here, we labeled human 40S ribosomal subunits with a fluorescent SNAP-tag at ribosomal protein eS25 (RPS25). The resulting ribosomal subunits could be specifically labeled in living cells and in vitro. Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between RPS25 and domain II of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES), we measured the rates of 40S subunit arrival to the HCV IRES. Our data support a single-step model of HCV IRES recruitment to 40S subunits, irreversible on the initiation time scale. We furthermore demonstrated that after binding, the 40S:HCV IRES complex is conformationally dynamic, undergoing slow large-scale rearrangements. Addition of translation extracts suppresses these fluctuations, funneling the complex into a single conformation on the 80S assembly pathway. These findings show that 40S:HCV IRES complex formation is accompanied by dynamic conformational rearrangements that may be modulated by initiation factors.

  3. The complete structure of the large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome.

    Greber, Basil J; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; Bieri, Philipp; Leitner, Alexander; Schmitz, Nikolaus; Aebersold, Ruedi; Ban, Nenad

    2014-11-13

    Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) are extensively modified ribosomes of bacterial descent specialized for the synthesis and insertion of membrane proteins that are critical for energy conversion and ATP production inside mitochondria. Mammalian mitoribosomes, which comprise 39S and 28S subunits, have diverged markedly from the bacterial ribosomes from which they are derived, rendering them unique compared to bacterial, eukaryotic cytosolic and fungal mitochondrial ribosomes. We have previously determined at 4.9 Å resolution the architecture of the porcine (Sus scrofa) 39S subunit, which is highly homologous to the human mitoribosomal large subunit. Here we present the complete atomic structure of the porcine 39S large mitoribosomal subunit determined in the context of a stalled translating mitoribosome at 3.4 Å resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and chemical crosslinking/mass spectrometry. The structure reveals the locations and the detailed folds of 50 mitoribosomal proteins, shows the highly conserved mitoribosomal peptidyl transferase active site in complex with its substrate transfer RNAs, and defines the path of the nascent chain in mammalian mitoribosomes along their idiosyncratic exit tunnel. Furthermore, we present evidence that a mitochondrial tRNA has become an integral component of the central protuberance of the 39S subunit where it architecturally substitutes for the absence of the 5S ribosomal RNA, a ubiquitous component of all cytoplasmic ribosomes.

  4. Structural analysis of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase genes in invertebrates.

    Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution of protein and RNA in the 30S ribosomal subunit

    Ramakrishnan, V.

    1986-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the small ribosomal subunit has a sedimentation coefficient of 30S, and consists of a 16S RNA molecule of 1541 nucleotides complexed with 21 proteins. Over the last few years, a controversy has emerged regarding the spatial distribution of RNA and protein in the 30S subunit. Contrast variation with neutron scattering was used to suggest that the RNA was located in a central core of the subunit and the proteins mainly in the periphery, with virtually no separation between the centers of mass of protein and RNA. However, these findings are incompatible with the results of efforts to locate individual ribosomal proteins by immune electron microscopy and triangulation with interprotein distance measurements. The conflict between these two views is resolved in this report of small-angle neutron scattering measurements on 30S subunits with and without protein S1, and on subunits reconstituted from deuterated 16S RNA and unlabeled proteins. The results show that (i) the proteins and RNA are intermingled, with neither component dominating at the core or the periphery, and (ii) the spatial distribution of protein and RNA is asymmetrical, with a separation between their centers of mass of about 25 angstroms

  6. Identification of novel transcriptional regulators of PKA subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by quantitative promoter-reporter screening.

    Pautasso, Constanza; Reca, Sol; Chatfield-Reed, Kate; Chua, Gordon; Galello, Fiorella; Portela, Paula; Zaremberg, Vanina; Rossi, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling is a broad pathway that plays important roles in the transduction of environmental signals triggering precise physiological responses. However, how PKA achieves the cAMP-signal transduction specificity is still in study. The regulation of expression of subunits of PKA should contribute to the signal specificity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae PKA holoenzyme contains two catalytic subunits encoded by TPK1, TPK2 and TPK3 genes, and two regulatory subunits encoded by BCY1 gene. We studied the activity of these gene promoters using a fluorescent reporter synthetic genetic array screen, with the goal of systematically identifying novel regulators of expression of PKA subunits. Gene ontology analysis of the identified modulators showed enrichment not only in the category of transcriptional regulators, but also in less expected categories such as lipid and phosphate metabolism. Inositol, choline and phosphate were identified as novel upstream signals that regulate transcription of PKA subunit genes. The results support the role of transcription regulation of PKA subunits in cAMP specificity signaling. Interestingly, known targets of PKA phosphorylation are associated with the identified pathways opening the possibility of a reciprocal regulation. PKA would be coordinating different metabolic pathways and these processes would in turn regulate expression of the kinase subunits. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Human aldolase B subunit-specific radioimmunoassay

    Asaka, M.; Alpert, E.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay was developed for the direct quantification of aldolase B in human serum and tissues. The method is a double-antibody radioimmunoassay technique using radioiodinated aldolase B homopolymer as ligand, chicken antibodies to aldolase B and rabbit antibodies to chicken IgG. This radioimmunoassay was shown to be specific for the aldolase B subunit, with no cross-reactivity with either human aldolase A subunit or homopolymeric human aldolase C (C 4 ). The lowest measurable amount by this method was 2 ng/ml. Aldolase B is predominantly found in normal liver tissue, with relatively-high aldolase B levels also observed in kidney. Aldolase B levels in the serum obtained from 11 normal subjects ranged from 23 to 38 ng/ml, with a mean of 28.5 +- 9.2 (S.D.) ng/ml. Almost all of patients with hepatitis had serum aldolase B levels greater than 30 ng/ml. In cancer patients, serum aldolase B was slightly elevated in patients with metastatic liver cancer and primary lever cell carcinoma, whereas no elevation of serum aldolase B was shown in patients without liver metastasis. (Auth.)

  8. The NH2-terminal php domain of the alpha subunit of the Escherichia coli replicase binds the epsilon proofreading subunit.

    Wieczorek, Anna; McHenry, Charles S

    2006-05-05

    The alpha subunit of the replicase of all bacteria contains a php domain, initially identified by its similarity to histidinol phosphatase but of otherwise unknown function (Aravind, L., and Koonin, E. V. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 3746-3752). Deletion of 60 residues from the NH2 terminus of the alpha php domain destroys epsilon binding. The minimal 255-residue php domain, estimated by sequence alignment with homolog YcdX, is insufficient for epsilon binding. However, a 320-residue segment including sequences that immediately precede the polymerase domain binds epsilon with the same affinity as the 1160-residue full-length alpha subunit. A subset of mutations of a conserved acidic residue (Asp43 in Escherichia coli alpha) present in the php domain of all bacterial replicases resulted in defects in epsilon binding. Using sequence alignments, we show that the prototypical gram+ Pol C, which contains the polymerase and proofreading activities within the same polypeptide chain, has an epsilon-like sequence inserted in a surface loop near the center of the homologous YcdX protein. These findings suggest that the php domain serves as a platform to enable coordination of proofreading and polymerase activities during chromosomal replication.

  9. The calcium channel β2 (CACNB2 subunit repertoire in teleosts

    Mueller Rachel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiomyocyte contraction is initiated by influx of extracellular calcium through voltage-gated calcium channels. These oligomeric channels utilize auxiliary β subunits to chaperone the pore-forming α subunit to the plasma membrane, and to modulate channel electrophysiology 1. Several β subunit family members are detected by RT-PCR in the embryonic heart. Null mutations in mouse β2, but not in the other three β family members, are embryonic lethal at E10.5 due to defects in cardiac contractility 2. However, a drawback of the mouse model is that embryonic heart rhythm is difficult to study in live embryos due to their intra-uterine development. Moreover, phenotypes may be obscured by secondary effects of hypoxia. As a first step towards developing a model for contributions of β subunits to the onset of embryonic heart rhythm, we characterized the structure and expression of β2 subunits in zebrafish and other teleosts. Results Cloning of two zebrafish β2 subunit genes (β2.1 and β2.2 indicated they are membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK-family genes. Zebrafish β2 genes show high conservation with mammals within the SH3 and guanylate kinase domains that comprise the "core" of MAGUK proteins, but β2.2 is much more divergent in sequence than β2.1. Alternative splicing occurs at the N-terminus and within the internal HOOK domain. In both β2 genes, alternative short ATG-containing first exons are separated by some of the largest introns in the genome, suggesting that individual transcript variants could be subject to independent cis-regulatory control. In the Tetraodon nigrovidis and Fugu rubripes genomes, we identified single β2 subunit gene loci. Comparative analysis of the teleost and human β2 loci indicates that the short 5' exon sequences are highly conserved. A subset of 5' exons appear to be unique to teleost genomes, while others are shared with mammals. Alternative splicing is temporally and

  10. Showing Value (Editorial

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  11. Suppression of 19S proteasome subunits marks emergence of an altered cell state in diverse cancers.

    Tsvetkov, Peter; Sokol, Ethan; Jin, Dexter; Brune, Zarina; Thiru, Prathapan; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Garraway, Levi A; Gupta, Piyush B; Santagata, Sandro; Whitesell, Luke; Lindquist, Susan

    2017-01-10

    The use of proteasome inhibitors to target cancer's dependence on altered protein homeostasis has been greatly limited by intrinsic and acquired resistance. Analyzing data from thousands of cancer lines and tumors, we find that those with suppressed expression of one or more 19S proteasome subunits show intrinsic proteasome inhibitor resistance. Moreover, such proteasome subunit suppression is associated with poor outcome in myeloma patients, where proteasome inhibitors are a mainstay of treatment. Beyond conferring resistance to proteasome inhibitors, proteasome subunit suppression also serves as a sentinel of a more global remodeling of the transcriptome. This remodeling produces a distinct gene signature and new vulnerabilities to the proapoptotic drug, ABT-263. This frequent, naturally arising imbalance in 19S regulatory complex composition is achieved through a variety of mechanisms, including DNA methylation, and marks the emergence of a heritably altered and therapeutically relevant state in diverse cancers.

  12. Reactivation of the chloroplast CF1-ATPase beta subunit by trace amounts of the CF1 alpha subunit suggests a chaperonin-like activity for CF1 alpha.

    Avni, A; Avital, S; Gromet-Elhanan, Z

    1991-04-25

    Incubation of tobacco and lettuce thylakoids with 2 M LiCl in the presence of MgATP removes the beta subunit from their CF1-ATPase (CF1 beta) together with varying amounts of the CF1 alpha subunit (CF1 alpha). These 2 M LiCl extracts, as with the one obtained from spinach thylakoids (Avital, S., and Gromet-Elhanan, Z. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 7067-7072), could form active hybrid ATPases when reconstituted into inactive beta-less Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores. Pure CF1 beta fractions that have been isolated from these extracts could not form such active hybrids by themselves, but could do so when supplemented with trace amounts (less than 5%) of CF1 alpha. A mitochondrial F1-ATPase alpha subunit was recently reported to be a heat-shock protein, having two amino acid sequences that show a highly conserved identity with sequences found in molecular chaperones (Luis, A. M., Alconada, A., and Cuezva, J. M. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 7713-7716). These sequences are also conserved in CF1 alpha isolated from various plants, but not in F1 beta subunits. The above described reactivation of CF1 beta by trace amounts of CF1 alpha could thus be due to a chaperonin-like function of CF1 alpha, which involves the correct, active folding of isolated pure CF1 beta.

  13. Subunit stoichiometry of the chloroplast photosystem I complex

    Bruce, B.D.; Malkin, R.

    1988-01-01

    A native photosystem I (PS I) complex and a PS I core complex depleted of antenna subunits has been isolated from the uniformly 14 C-labeled aquatic higher plant, Lemna. These complexes have been analyzed for their subunit stoichiometry by quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis methods. The results for both preparations indicate that one copy of each high molecular mass subunit is present per PS I complex and that a single copy of most low molecular mass subunits is also present. These results suggest that iron-sulfur center X, an early PS I electron acceptor proposed to bind to the high molecular mass subunits, contains a single [4Fe-4S] cluster which is bound to a dimeric structure of high molecular mass subunits, each providing 2 cysteine residues to coordinate this cluster

  14. Autoinactivation of the stargazin-AMPA receptor complex: subunit-dependency and independence from physical dissociation.

    Artur Semenov

    Full Text Available Agonist responses and channel kinetics of native α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA receptors are modulated by transmembrane accessory proteins. Stargazin, the prototypical accessory protein, decreases desensitization and increases agonist potency at AMPA receptors. Furthermore, in the presence of stargazin, the steady-state responses of AMPA receptors show a gradual decline at higher glutamate concentrations. This "autoinactivation" has been assigned to physical dissociation of the stargazin-AMPA receptor complex and suggested to serve as a protective mechanism against overactivation. Here, we analyzed autoinactivation of GluA1-A4 AMPA receptors (all flip isoform expressed in the presence of stargazin. Homomeric GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4 channels showed pronounced autoinactivation indicated by the bell-shaped steady-state dose response curves for glutamate. In contrast, homomeric GluA2i channels did not show significant autoinactivation. The resistance of GluA2 to autoinactivation showed striking dependence on the splice form as GluA2-flop receptors displayed clear autoinactivation. Interestingly, the resistance of GluA2-flip containing receptors to autoinactivation was transferred onto heteromeric receptors in a dominant fashion. To examine the relationship of autoinactivation to physical separation of stargazin from the AMPA receptor, we analyzed a GluA4-stargazin fusion protein. Notably, the covalently linked complex and separately expressed proteins expressed a similar level of autoinactivation. We conclude that autoinactivation is a subunit and splice form dependent property of AMPA receptor-stargazin complexes, which involves structural rearrangements within the complex rather than any physical dissociation.

  15. Transcriptional regulators of Na, K-ATPase subunits

    Zhiqin eLi; Sigrid A Langhans

    2015-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic alpha-subunit, the beta-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during developme...

  16. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    Gueret, C.D.M.; de Boer, V.; Schlobach, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. The linked data community proudly emphasizes the economic and societal impact such technology shows. But a closer look proves that the design and deployment of

  17. Porous Cross-Linked Polyimide-Urea Networks

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Nguyen, Baochau N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Porous cross-linked polyimide-urea networks are provided. The networks comprise a subunit comprising two anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomers in direct connection via a urea linkage. The oligomers (a) each comprise a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine and a terminal anhydride group and (b) are formulated with 2 to 15 of the repeating units. The subunit was formed by reaction of the diamine and a diisocyanate to form a diamine-urea linkage-diamine group, followed by reaction of the diamine-urea linkage-diamine group with the dianhydride and the diamine to form the subunit. The subunit has been cross-linked via a cross-linking agent, comprising three or more amine groups, at a balanced stoichiometry of the amine groups to the terminal anhydride groups. The subunit has been chemically imidized to yield the porous cross-linked polyimide-urea network. Also provided are wet gels, aerogels, and thin films comprising the networks, and methods of making the networks.

  18. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta

    Machaalani, R., E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Ghazavi, E. [Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology), The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hinton, T. [School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology), The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Waters, K.A. [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Hennessy, A. [School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, NSW 2751 (Australia); Heart Research Institute, 7 Eliza St Newtown, NSW 2042 (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8). Our data show that all 16 subunit mRNAs are expressed in the normal, non-diseased human placenta and that the expression of α2, α3, α4, α9, β2 and β4 subunits is greater than the other subunits. For mRNA, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased expression of the α9 subunit, and decreased expression of the δ subunit. At the protein level, expression of both α9 and δ was increased. Thus, cigarette smoking in pregnancy is sufficient to regulate nAChR subunits in the placenta, specifically α9 and δ subunits, and could contribute to the adverse effects of vasoconstriction and decreased re-epithelialisation (α9), and increased calcification and apoptosis (δ), seen in the placentas of smoking women. - Highlights: • All 16 mammalian nAChR subunits are expressed in the human placenta. • Cigarette smoking increases α9 mRNA and protein in the placenta. • Cigarette smoking decreases δ mRNA but increases δ protein in the placenta.

  19. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta

    Machaalani, R.; Ghazavi, E.; Hinton, T.; Waters, K.A.; Hennessy, A.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8). Our data show that all 16 subunit mRNAs are expressed in the normal, non-diseased human placenta and that the expression of α2, α3, α4, α9, β2 and β4 subunits is greater than the other subunits. For mRNA, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased expression of the α9 subunit, and decreased expression of the δ subunit. At the protein level, expression of both α9 and δ was increased. Thus, cigarette smoking in pregnancy is sufficient to regulate nAChR subunits in the placenta, specifically α9 and δ subunits, and could contribute to the adverse effects of vasoconstriction and decreased re-epithelialisation (α9), and increased calcification and apoptosis (δ), seen in the placentas of smoking women. - Highlights: • All 16 mammalian nAChR subunits are expressed in the human placenta. • Cigarette smoking increases α9 mRNA and protein in the placenta. • Cigarette smoking decreases δ mRNA but increases δ protein in the placenta

  20. Stability of influenza sub-unit vaccine. Does a couple of days outside the refrigerator matter?

    Coenen, F; Tolboom, J T B M; Frijlink, H W

    2006-01-01

    In this study 27 full scale production batches of influenza sub-unit vaccine were evaluated on their stability. The batches varied with respect to the strains they contained and regarding the presence of the preservative thiomersal in the solution. The stability study showed that haemagglutinin

  1. Genetic mapping and validation of the loci controlling 7S α' and 11S A-type storage protein subunits in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.].

    Boehm, Jeffrey D; Nguyen, Vi; Tashiro, Rebecca M; Anderson, Dale; Shi, Chun; Wu, Xiaoguang; Woodrow, Lorna; Yu, Kangfu; Cui, Yuhai; Li, Zenglu

    2018-03-01

    Four soybean storage protein subunit QTLs were mapped using bulked segregant analysis and an F 2 population, which were validated with an F 5 RIL population. The storage protein globulins β-conglycinin (7S subunit) and glycinin (11S subunits) can affect the quantity and quality of proteins found in soybean seeds and account for more than 70% of the total soybean protein. Manipulating the storage protein subunits to enhance soymeal nutrition and for desirable tofu manufacturing characteristics are two end-use quality goals in soybean breeding programs. To aid in developing soybean cultivars with desired seed composition, an F 2 mapping population (n = 448) and an F 5 RIL population (n = 180) were developed by crossing high protein cultivar 'Harovinton' with the breeding line SQ97-0263_3-1a, which lacks the 7S α', 11S A 1 , 11S A 2 , 11S A 3 and 11S A 4 subunits. The storage protein composition of each individual in the F 2 and F 5 populations were profiled using SDS-PAGE. Based on the presence/absence of the subunits, genomic DNA bulks were formed among the F 2 plants to identify genomic regions controlling the 7S α' and 11S protein subunits. By utilizing polymorphic SNPs between the bulks characterized with Illumina SoySNP50K iSelect BeadChips at targeted genomic regions, KASP assays were designed and used to map QTLs causing the loss of the subunits. Soybean storage protein QTLs were identified on Chromosome 3 (11S A 1 ), Chromosome 10 (7S α' and 11S A 4 ), and Chromosome 13 (11S A 3 ), which were also validated in the F 5 RIL population. The results of this research could allow for the deployment of marker-assisted selection for desired storage protein subunits by screening breeding populations using the SNPs linked with the subunits of interest.

  2. Cloning, chromosomal localization, and functional expression of the alpha 1 subunit of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel from normal human heart

    Schultz, D; Mikala, G; Yatani, A; Engle, D B; Iles, D E; Segers, B; Sinke, R J; Weghuis, D O; Klöckner, U; Wakamori, M

    1993-01-01

    A unique structural variant of the cardiac L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha 1 subunit cDNA was isolated from libraries derived from normal human heart mRNA. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant homology to other calcium channel alpha 1 subunits. However, differences from

  3. Subcellular compartmentation, interdependency and dynamics of the cyclic AMP-dependent PKA subunits during pathogenic differentiation in rice blast.

    Selvaraj, Poonguzhali; Tham, Hong Fai; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Naqvi, Naweed I

    2017-08-01

    The cAMP-dependent PKA signalling plays a central role in growth, asexual development and pathogenesis in fungal pathogens. Here, we functionally characterised RPKA, the regulatory subunit of cAMP/PKA and studied the dynamics and organisation of the PKA subunits in the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The RPKA subunit was essential for proper vegetative growth, asexual sporulation and surface hydrophobicity in M. oryzae. A spontaneous suppressor mutation, SMR19, that restored growth and conidiation in the RPKA deletion mutant was isolated and characterised. SMR19 enhanced conidiation and appressorium formation but failed to suppress the pathogenesis defects in rpkAΔ. The PKA activity was undetectable in the mycelial extracts of SMR19, which showed a single mutation (val242leu) in the highly conserved active site of the catalytic subunit (CPKA) of cAMP/PKA. The two subunits of cAMP/PKA showed different subcellular localisation patterns with RpkA being predominantly nucleocytoplasmic in conidia, while CpkA was largely cytosolic and/or vesicular. The CpkA anchored RpkA in cytoplasmic vesicles, and localisation of PKA in the cytoplasm was governed by CpkA in a cAMP-dependant or independent manner. We show that there exists a tight regulation of PKA subunits at the level of transcription, and the cAMP signalling is differentially compartmentalised in a stage-specific manner in rice blast. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cardiomyocyte-Specific Ablation of Med1 Subunit of the Mediator Complex Causes Lethal Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Mice.

    Jia, Yuzhi; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Schipma, Matthew J; Liu, Jing; Shete, Varsha; Liu, Ning; Sato, Tatsuya; Thorp, Edward B; Barger, Philip M; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Viswakarma, Navin; Kanwar, Yashpal S; Ardehali, Hossein; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Reddy, Janardan K

    2016-01-01

    Mediator, an evolutionarily conserved multi-protein complex consisting of about 30 subunits, is a key component of the polymerase II mediated gene transcription. Germline deletion of the Mediator subunit 1 (Med1) of the Mediator in mice results in mid-gestational embryonic lethality with developmental impairment of multiple organs including heart. Here we show that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Med1 in mice (csMed1-/-) during late gestational and early postnatal development by intercrossing Med1fl/fl mice to α-MyHC-Cre transgenic mice results in lethality within 10 days after weaning due to dilated cardiomyopathy-related ventricular dilation and heart failure. The csMed1-/- mouse heart manifests mitochondrial damage, increased apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. Global gene expression analysis revealed that loss of Med1 in heart down-regulates more than 200 genes including Acadm, Cacna1s, Atp2a2, Ryr2, Pde1c, Pln, PGC1α, and PGC1β that are critical for calcium signaling, cardiac muscle contraction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor regulated energy metabolism. Many genes essential for oxidative phosphorylation and proper mitochondrial function such as genes coding for the succinate dehydrogenase subunits of the mitochondrial complex II are also down-regulated in csMed1-/- heart contributing to myocardial injury. Data also showed up-regulation of about 180 genes including Tgfb2, Ace, Atf3, Ctgf, Angpt14, Col9a2, Wisp2, Nppa, Nppb, and Actn1 that are linked to cardiac muscle contraction, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and myocardial injury. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cardiac specific deletion of Med1 in adult mice using tamoxifen-inducible Cre approach (TmcsMed1-/-), results in rapid development of cardiomyopathy and death within 4 weeks. We found that the key findings of the csMed1-/- studies described above are highly reproducible in TmcsMed1-/- mouse heart

  5. Photoinduced reduction of the medial FeS center in the hydrogenase small subunit HupS from Nostoc punctiforme.

    Raleiras, Patrícia; Hammarström, Leif; Lindblad, Peter; Styring, Stenbjörn; Magnuson, Ann

    2015-07-01

    The small subunit from the NiFe uptake hydrogenase, HupSL, in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133, has been isolated in the absence of the large subunit (P. Raleiras, P. Kellers, P. Lindblad, S. Styring, A. Magnuson, J. Biol. Chem. 288 (2013) 18,345-18,352). Here, we have used flash photolysis to reduce the iron-sulfur clusters in the isolated small subunit, HupS. We used ascorbate as electron donor to the photogenerated excited state of Ru(II)-trisbipyridine (Ru(bpy)3), to generate Ru(I)(bpy)3 as reducing agent. Our results show that the isolated small subunit can be reduced by the Ru(I)(bpy)3 generated through flash photolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene expression patterns of oxidative phosphorylation complex I subunits are organized in clusters.

    Yael Garbian

    Full Text Available After the radiation of eukaryotes, the NUO operon, controlling the transcription of the NADH dehydrogenase complex of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complex I, was broken down and genes encoding this protein complex were dispersed across the nuclear genome. Seven genes, however, were retained in the genome of the mitochondrion, the ancient symbiote of eukaryotes. This division, in combination with the three-fold increase in subunit number from bacteria (N = approximately 14 to man (N = 45, renders the transcription regulation of OXPHOS complex I a challenge. Recently bioinformatics analysis of the promoter regions of all OXPHOS genes in mammals supported patterns of co-regulation, suggesting that natural selection favored a mechanism facilitating the transcriptional regulatory control of genes encoding subunits of these large protein complexes. Here, using real time PCR of mitochondrial (mtDNA- and nuclear DNA (nDNA-encoded transcripts in a panel of 13 different human tissues, we show that the expression pattern of OXPHOS complex I genes is regulated in several clusters. Firstly, all mtDNA-encoded complex I subunits (N = 7 share a similar expression pattern, distinct from all tested nDNA-encoded subunits (N = 10. Secondly, two sub-clusters of nDNA-encoded transcripts with significantly different expression patterns were observed. Thirdly, the expression patterns of two nDNA-encoded genes, NDUFA4 and NDUFA5, notably diverged from the rest of the nDNA-encoded subunits, suggesting a certain degree of tissue specificity. Finally, the expression pattern of the mtDNA-encoded ND4L gene diverged from the rest of the tested mtDNA-encoded transcripts that are regulated by the same promoter, consistent with post-transcriptional regulation. These findings suggest, for the first time, that the regulation of complex I subunits expression in humans is complex rather than reflecting global co-regulation.

  7. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Foged, Camilla; Korsholm, Karen Smith

    2016-01-01

    be classified into delivery systems or immunostimulators. Liposomes are versatile delivery systems for antigens, and they can carefully be customized towards desired immune profiles by combining them with immunostimulators and optimizing their composition, physicochemical properties and antigen-loading mode......The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens...... of immunostimulators and antigens, respectively, into liposomes, and the choice of immunostimulator should ideally be based on knowledge regarding the specific PRR expression profile of the target APCs. Here, we review state-of-the-art formulation approaches employed for the inclusion of immunostimulators and subunit...

  8. Human C4orf14 interacts with the mitochondrial nucleoid and is involved in the biogenesis of the small mitochondrial ribosomal subunit.

    He, J; Cooper, H M; Reyes, A; Di Re, M; Kazak, L; Wood, S R; Mao, C C; Fearnley, I M; Walker, J E; Holt, I J

    2012-07-01

    The bacterial homologue of C4orf14, YqeH, has been linked to assembly of the small ribosomal subunit. Here, recombinant C4orf14 isolated from human cells, co-purified with the small, 28S subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome and the endogenous protein co-fractionated with the 28S subunit in sucrose gradients. Gene silencing of C4orf14 specifically affected components of the small subunit, leading to decreased protein synthesis in the organelle. The GTPase of C4orf14 was critical to its interaction with the 28S subunit, as was GTP. Therefore, we propose that C4orf14, with bound GTP, binds to components of the 28S subunit facilitating its assembly, and GTP hydrolysis acts as the release mechanism. C4orf14 was also found to be associated with human mitochondrial nucleoids, and C4orf14 gene silencing caused mitochondrial DNA depletion. In vitro C4orf14 is capable of binding to DNA. The association of C4orf14 with mitochondrial translation factors and the mitochondrial nucleoid suggests that the 28S subunit is assembled at the mitochondrial nucleoid, enabling the direct transfer of messenger RNA from the nucleoid to the ribosome in the organelle.

  9. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    Signe Tandrup Schmidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce protective immunity, and they are often combined with adjuvants to ensure robust immune responses. Adjuvants are capable of enhancing and/or modulating immune responses by exposing antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APCs concomitantly with conferring immune activation signals. Few adjuvant systems have been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI. Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly be classified into delivery systems or immunostimulators. Liposomes are versatile delivery systems for antigens, and they can carefully be customized towards desired immune profiles by combining them with immunostimulators and optimizing their composition, physicochemical properties and antigen-loading mode. Immunostimulators represent highly diverse classes of molecules, e.g., lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, and they are ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which are differentially expressed on APC subsets. Different formulation strategies might thus be required for incorporation of immunostimulators and antigens, respectively, into liposomes, and the choice of immunostimulator should ideally be based on knowledge regarding the

  10. Isolation of amino acid activating subunit-pantetheine protein complexes: Their role in chain elongation in tyrocidine synthesis

    Lee, Sung G.; Lipmann, Fritz

    1977-01-01

    Dissociation of the multienzymes of tyrocidine synthesis by prolonged incubation of crude extracts of Bacillus brevis (Dubos strain, ATCC 8185) has yielded, on Sephadex G-100 chromatography, two fractions of amino acid activating subunits, a larger one of 70,000 daltons and a smaller one of 90,000 daltons; the latter was a complex consisting of the 70,000 dalton subunit and the pantetheine-carrying protein of about 20,000 daltons. When it dissociated, the intermediate enzyme, which activates three amino acids, contained two-thirds of the subunits in the 70,000 dalton and one-third in the 90,000 dalton fraction; the heavy enzyme, which activates six amino acids, contained five-sixths of the subunits in the former fraction and one-sixth in the latter. Both fractions showed ATP-PPi exchange with all amino acids that are activated by the respective polyenzymes. With proline as an example, the 70,000 dalton subunit exhibited a single low-affinity binding site, which should correspond to the peripheral thiol acceptor site, whereas the 90,000 dalton subunit showed both a low-affinity binding site and an additional high-affinity site for proline; the high-affinity site is attributed to the pantetheine present on the pantetheine-carrying protein, and suggests that amino acids are translocated from the peripheral SH to the pantetheine-carrying moiety during chain elongation. This was confirmed by the observation that the 90,000 dalton complex, when incubated with the light enzyme in the presence of phenylalanine and proline, produced DPhe-Pro dipeptide that cyclized into DPhe-Pro diketopiperazine, but the 70,000 dalton activating subunit, when similarly incubated, did not. After subunit dissociation, however, no further elongation occurred after the transfer from phenylalanine to proline. Images PMID:196286

  11. A conserved phenylalanine as a relay between the α5 helix and the GDP binding region of heterotrimeric Gi protein α subunit.

    Kaya, Ali I; Lokits, Alyssa D; Gilbert, James A; Iverson, Tina M; Meiler, Jens; Hamm, Heidi E

    2014-08-29

    G protein activation by G protein-coupled receptors is one of the critical steps for many cellular signal transduction pathways. Previously, we and other groups reported that the α5 helix in the G protein α subunit plays a major role during this activation process. However, the precise signaling pathway between the α5 helix and the guanosine diphosphate (GDP) binding pocket remains elusive. Here, using structural, biochemical, and computational techniques, we probed different residues around the α5 helix for their role in signaling. Our data showed that perturbing the Phe-336 residue disturbs hydrophobic interactions with the β2-β3 strands and α1 helix, leading to high basal nucleotide exchange. However, mutations in β strands β5 and β6 do not perturb G protein activation. We have highlighted critical residues that leverage Phe-336 as a relay. Conformational changes are transmitted starting from Phe-336 via β2-β3/α1 to Switch I and the phosphate binding loop, decreasing the stability of the GDP binding pocket and triggering nucleotide release. When the α1 and α5 helices were cross-linked, inhibiting the receptor-mediated displacement of the C-terminal α5 helix, mutation of Phe-336 still leads to high basal exchange rates. This suggests that unlike receptor-mediated activation, helix 5 rotation and translocation are not necessary for GDP release from the α subunit. Rather, destabilization of the backdoor region of the Gα subunit is sufficient for triggering the activation process. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Development of a Subunit Vaccine for Contagious Bovine ...

    Their work has set the stage for commercial development of a sub-unit vaccine. ... The sub-unit vaccine will be cost-effective, easy to produce, and safe. How it will make a ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards.

  13. Activity-dependent control of NMDA receptor subunit composition at hippocampal mossy fibre synapses.

    Carta, Mario; Srikumar, Bettadapura N; Gorlewicz, Adam; Rebola, Nelson; Mulle, Christophe

    2018-02-15

    CA3 pyramidal cells display input-specific differences in the subunit composition of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Although at low density, GluN2B contributes significantly to NMDAR-mediated EPSCs at mossy fibre synapses. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDARs triggers a modification in the subunit composition of synaptic NMDARs by insertion of GluN2B. GluN2B subunits are essential for the expression of LTP of NMDARs at mossy fibre synapses. Single neurons express NMDA receptors (NMDARs) with distinct subunit composition and biophysical properties that can be segregated in an input-specific manner. The dynamic control of the heterogeneous distribution of synaptic NMDARs is crucial to control input-dependent synaptic integration and plasticity. In hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells from mice of both sexes, we found that mossy fibre (MF) synapses display a markedly lower proportion of GluN2B-containing NMDARs than associative/commissural synapses. The mechanism involved in such heterogeneous distribution of GluN2B subunits is not known. Here we show that long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDARs, which is selectively expressed at MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses, triggers a modification in the subunit composition of synaptic NMDARs by insertion of GluN2B. This activity-dependent recruitment of GluN2B at mature MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses contrasts with the removal of GluN2B subunits at other glutamatergic synapses during development and in response to activity. Furthermore, although expressed at low levels, GluN2B is necessary for the expression of LTP of NMDARs at MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses. Altogether, we reveal a previously unknown activity-dependent regulation and function of GluN2B subunits that may contribute to the heterogeneous plasticity induction rules in CA3 pyramidal cells. © 2017 Centre Nationnal de la Recherche Scientifique. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  14. Positive modulation of delta-subunit containing GABAA receptors in mouse neurons

    Vardya, Irina; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Nieto-Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    δ-subunit containing extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors are potential targets for modifying neuronal activity in a range of brain disorders. With the aim of gaining more insight in synaptic and extrasynaptic inhibition, we used a new positive modulator, AA29504, of δ-subunit containing GABA(A) recep......δ-subunit containing extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors are potential targets for modifying neuronal activity in a range of brain disorders. With the aim of gaining more insight in synaptic and extrasynaptic inhibition, we used a new positive modulator, AA29504, of δ-subunit containing GABA......(A) receptors in mouse neurons in vitro and in vivo. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were carried out in the dentate gyrus in mouse brain slices. In granule cells, AA29504 (1 μM) caused a 4.2-fold potentiation of a tonic current induced by THIP (1 μM), while interneurons showed a potentiation of 2.6-fold......-free environment using Ca²⁺ imaging in cultured neurons, AA29504 showed GABA(A) receptor agonism in the absence of agonist. Finally, AA29504 exerted dose-dependent stress-reducing and anxiolytic effects in mice in vivo. We propose that AA29504 potentiates δ-containing GABA(A) receptors to enhance tonic inhibition...

  15. Studies on the subunits of human glycoprotein hormones in relation to reproduction

    Hagen, C.

    1977-01-01

    In this review summarising present knowledge of the biological and immunological activity of the subunits of human glycoprotein hormones, the specificity of the α-subunit and β-subunit radioimmunoassays are discussed. The crossreaction studies performed with the α-subunit radioimmunoassays are aummarised in one table while those with the β-subunit radioimmunoassays are presented in a second table. (JIW)

  16. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  17. Multiple repair pathways mediate tolerance to chemotherapeutic cross-linking agents in vertebrate cells.

    Nojima, Kuniharu; Hochegger, Helfrid; Saberi, Alihossein; Fukushima, Toru; Kikuchi, Koji; Yoshimura, Michio; Orelli, Brian J; Bishop, Douglas K; Hirano, Seiki; Ohzeki, Mioko; Ishiai, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takata, Minoru; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Yamazoe, Mitsuyoshi; Kawamoto, Takuo; Araki, Kasumi; Takahashi, Jun A; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takeda, Shunichi; Sonoda, Eiichiro

    2005-12-15

    Cross-linking agents that induce DNA interstrand cross-links (ICL) are widely used in anticancer chemotherapy. Yeast genetic studies show that nucleotide excision repair (NER), Rad6/Rad18-dependent postreplication repair, homologous recombination, and cell cycle checkpoint pathway are involved in ICL repair. To study the contribution of DNA damage response pathways in tolerance to cross-linking agents in vertebrates, we made a panel of gene-disrupted clones from chicken DT40 cells, each defective in a particular DNA repair or checkpoint pathway, and measured the sensitivities to cross-linking agents, including cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin), mitomycin C, and melphalan. We found that cells harboring defects in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), Fanconi anemia complementation groups (FANC), or homologous recombination displayed marked hypersensitivity to all the cross-linking agents, whereas NER seemed to play only a minor role. This effect of replication-dependent repair pathways is distinctively different from the situation in yeast, where NER seems to play a major role in dealing with ICL. Cells deficient in Rev3, the catalytic subunit of TLS polymerase Polzeta, showed the highest sensitivity to cisplatin followed by fanc-c. Furthermore, epistasis analysis revealed that these two mutants work in the same pathway. Our genetic comprehensive study reveals a critical role for DNA repair pathways that release DNA replication block at ICLs in cellular tolerance to cross-linking agents and could be directly exploited in designing an effective chemotherapy.

  18. Operative Links

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  19. NADP+ binding to the regulatory subunit of methionine adenosyltransferase II increases intersubunit binding affinity in the hetero-trimer.

    Beatriz González

    Full Text Available Mammalian methionine adenosyltransferase II (MAT II is the only hetero-oligomer in this family of enzymes that synthesize S-adenosylmethionine using methionine and ATP as substrates. Binding of regulatory β subunits and catalytic α2 dimers is known to increase the affinity for methionine, although scarce additional information about this interaction is available. This work reports the use of recombinant α2 and β subunits to produce oligomers showing kinetic parameters comparable to MAT II purified from several tissues. According to isothermal titration calorimetry data and densitometric scanning of the stained hetero-oligomer bands on denatured gels, the composition of these oligomers is that of a hetero-trimer with α2 dimers associated to single β subunits. Additionally, the regulatory subunit is able to bind NADP(+ with a 1:1 stoichiometry, the cofactor enhancing β to α2-dimer binding affinity. Mutants lacking residues involved in NADP(+ binding and N-terminal truncations of the β subunit were able to oligomerize with α2-dimers, although the kinetic properties appeared altered. These data together suggest a role for both parts of the sequence in the regulatory role exerted by the β subunit on catalysis. Moreover, preparation of a structural model for the hetero-oligomer, using the available crystal data, allowed prediction of the regions involved in β to α2-dimer interaction. Finally, the implications that the presence of different N-terminals in the β subunit could have on MAT II behavior are discussed in light of the recent identification of several splicing forms of this subunit in hepatoma cells.

  20. Dis3- and exosome subunit-responsive 3′ mRNA instability elements

    Kiss, Daniel L.; Hou, Dezhi; Gross, Robert H.; Andrulis, Erik D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Successful use of a novel RNA-specific bioinformatic tool, RNA SCOPE. ► Identified novel 3′ UTR cis-acting element that destabilizes a reporter mRNA. ► Show exosome subunits are required for cis-acting element-mediated mRNA instability. ► Define precise sequence requirements of novel cis-acting element. ► Show that microarray-defined exosome subunit-regulated mRNAs have novel element. -- Abstract: Eukaryotic RNA turnover is regulated in part by the exosome, a nuclear and cytoplasmic complex of ribonucleases (RNases) and RNA-binding proteins. The major RNase of the complex is thought to be Dis3, a multi-functional 3′–5′ exoribonuclease and endoribonuclease. Although it is known that Dis3 and core exosome subunits are recruited to transcriptionally active genes and to messenger RNA (mRNA) substrates, this recruitment is thought to occur indirectly. We sought to discover cis-acting elements that recruit Dis3 or other exosome subunits. Using a bioinformatic tool called RNA SCOPE to screen the 3′ untranslated regions of up-regulated transcripts from our published Dis3 depletion-derived transcriptomic data set, we identified several motifs as candidate instability elements. Secondary screening using a luciferase reporter system revealed that one cassette—harboring four elements—destabilized the reporter transcript. RNAi-based depletion of Dis3, Rrp6, Rrp4, Rrp40, or Rrp46 diminished the efficacy of cassette-mediated destabilization. Truncation analysis of the cassette showed that two exosome subunit-sensitive elements (ESSEs) destabilized the reporter. Point-directed mutagenesis of ESSE abrogated the destabilization effect. An examination of the transcriptomic data from exosome subunit depletion-based microarrays revealed that mRNAs with ESSEs are found in every up-regulated mRNA data set but are underrepresented or missing from the down-regulated data sets. Taken together, our findings imply a potentially novel mechanism of m

  1. Sub-unit Specific Regulation of Type-A GABAergic Receptors during Post-Natal Development of the Auditory Cortex

    Liisa A. Tremere

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The GABA-A receptor has been strongly implicated in the organization and function of cortical sensory circuits in the adult mammal. In the present work, changes in the expression patterns of select GABA-A subunits were examined as a function of development. The RNA expression profiles for three subunit types were studied, α1, β2/3 and δ at four developmental time points, (p0, p15, p30 and p90. The o1, β2/3 subunits were present at birth and following a modest increase early in life; mRNA expression for these subunits were found at stable levels throughout life. The expression pattern for the δ subunit showed the most dramatic changes in the number of positive cells as a function of age. In early life, p0 through p15 expression of mRNA for the δ subunit was quite low but increased in later life, p30 and p90. Together these data suggest that much of the potential for inhibitory connectivity is laid down in the pre and early post-natal periods.

  2. Scandinavian links

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  3. Habenular expression of rare missense variants of the β4 nicotinic receptor subunit alters nicotine consumption

    Marta A Ślimak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster, encoding the α5, α3 and β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subunits, has been linked to nicotine dependence. The habenulo-interpeduncular (Hb-IPN tract is particularly enriched in α3β4 nAChRs. We recently showed that modulation of these receptors in the medial habenula (MHb in mice altered nicotine consumption. Given that β4 is rate-limiting for receptor activity and that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CHRNB4 have been linked to altered risk of nicotine dependence in humans, we were interested in determining the contribution of allelic variants of β4 to nicotine receptor activity in the MHb. We screened for missense SNPs with allele frequencies > 0.0005 and introduced the corresponding substitutions in Chrnb4. Fourteen variants were analyzed by co-expression with α3. We found that β4A90I and β4T374I variants, previously shown to associate with reduced risk of smoking, and an additional variant β4D447Y, significantly increased nicotine-evoked current amplitudes, while β4R348C, the mutation most frequently encountered in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS, showed reduced nicotine currents. We employed lentiviruses to express β4 or β4 variants in the MHb. Immunoprecipitation studies confirmed that β4 lentiviral-mediated expression leads to specific upregulation of α3β4 but not β2 nAChRs in the Mhb. Mice injected with the β4-containing virus showed pronounced aversion to nicotine as previously observed in transgenic Tabac mice overexpressing Chrnb4 at endogenous sites including the MHb. Habenular expression of the β4 gain-of-function allele T374I also resulted in strong aversion, while transduction with the β4 loss-of function allele R348C failed to induce nicotine aversion. Altogether, these data confirm the critical role of habenular β4 in nicotine consumption, and identify specific SNPs in CHRNB4 that modify nicotine-elicited currents and alter nicotine

  4. The δ subunit of RNA polymerase guides promoter selectivity and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Weiss, Andy; Ibarra, J Antonio; Paoletti, Jessica; Carroll, Ronan K; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2014-04-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, and particularly the Firmicutes, the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) complex contains an additional subunit, termed the δ factor, or RpoE. This enigmatic protein has been studied for more than 30 years for various organisms, but its function is still not well understood. In this study, we investigated its role in the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. We showed conservation of important structural regions of RpoE in S. aureus and other species and demonstrated binding to core RNAP that is mediated by the β and/or β' subunits. To identify the impact of the δ subunit on transcription, we performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis and observed 191 differentially expressed genes in the rpoE mutant. Ontological analysis revealed, quite strikingly, that many of the downregulated genes were known virulence factors, while several mobile genetic elements (SaPI5 and prophage SA3usa) were strongly upregulated. Phenotypically, the rpoE mutant had decreased accumulation and/or activity of a number of key virulence factors, including alpha toxin, secreted proteases, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). We further observed significantly decreased survival of the mutant in whole human blood, increased phagocytosis by human leukocytes, and impaired virulence in a murine model of infection. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the δ subunit of RNAP is a critical component of the S. aureus transcription machinery and plays an important role during infection.

  5. Unassigned MURF1 of kinetoplastids codes for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2

    Burger Gertraud

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we conducted a large-scale similarity-free function prediction of mitochondrion-encoded hypothetical proteins, by which the hypothetical gene murf1 (maxicircle unidentified reading frame 1 was assigned as nad2, encoding subunit 2 of NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I of the respiratory chain. This hypothetical gene occurs in the mitochondrial genome of kinetoplastids, a group of unicellular eukaryotes including the causative agents of African sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis. In the present study, we test this assignment by using bioinformatics methods that are highly sensitive in identifying remote homologs and confront the prediction with available biological knowledge. Results Comparison of MURF1 profile Hidden Markov Model (HMM against function-known profile HMMs in Pfam, Panther and TIGR shows that MURF1 is a Complex I protein, but without specifying the exact subunit. Therefore, we constructed profile HMMs for each individual subunit, using all available sequences clustered at various identity thresholds. HMM-HMM comparison of these individual NADH subunits against MURF1 clearly identifies this hypothetical protein as NAD2. Further, we collected the relevant experimental information about kinetoplastids, which provides additional evidence in support of this prediction. Conclusion Our in silico analyses provide convincing evidence for MURF1 being a highly divergent member of NAD2.

  6. Conservation of the TRAPPII-specific subunits of a Ypt/Rab exchanger complex

    Yoo Eunice

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ypt/Rab GTPases and their GEF activators regulate intra-cellular trafficking in all eukaryotic cells. In S. cerivisiae, the modular TRAPP complex acts as a GEF for the Golgi gatekeepers: Ypt1 and the functional pair Ypt31/32. While TRAPPI, which acts in early Golgi, is conserved from fungi to animals, not much is known about TRAPPII, which acts in late Golgi and consists of TRAPPI plus three additional subunits. Results Here, we show a phylogenetic analysis of the three TRAPPII-specific subunits. One copy of each of the two essential subunits, Trs120 and Trs130, is present in almost every fully sequenced eukaryotic genome. Moreover, the primary, as well as the predicted secondary, structure of the Trs120- and Trs130-related sequences are conserved from fungi to animals. The mammalian orthologs of Trs120 and Trs130, NIBP and TMEM1, respectively, are candidates for human disorders. Currently, NIBP is implicated in signaling, and TMEM1 is suggested to have trans-membrane domains (TMDs and to function as a membrane channel. However, we show here that the yeast Trs130 does not function as a trans-membrane protein, and the human TMEM1 does not contain putative TMDs. The non-essential subunit, Trs65, is conserved only among many fungi and some unicellular eukaryotes. Multiple alignment analysis of each TRAPPII-specific subunit revealed conserved domains that include highly conserved amino acids. Conclusion We suggest that the function of both NIBP and TMEM1 in the regulation of intra-cellular trafficking is conserved from yeast to man. The conserved domains and amino acids discovered here can be used for functional analysis that should help to resolve the differences in the assigned functions of these proteins in fungi and animals.

  7. Bioenergetic Consequences of FLAG Tag Addition to the C-Terminus of Subunit 8 of Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondrial ATP Synthase

    I MADE ARTIKA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The yeast mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase is a multisubunit complex that contains at least 17 different subunits. Subunit 8 of yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase is a hydrophobic protein of 48 amino acids encoded by the mitochondrial ATP8 gene. Subunit 8 has three distinct domains; an N-terminal domain, a central hydrophobic domain and a C-terminal domain. FLAG tag addition to subunit 8 protein potentially facilitate elucidation of its topology, structure, and function. It has been shown that following incorporation of FLAG tag to its C-terminus, subunit 8 still assemble into functional ATP synthase complex. In order to analyze bioenergetic consequences of the FLAG tag addition, a yeast strain expressing FLAG tagged-subunit 8 was subjected to cellular respiration assays. Results obtained showed that addition of FLAG tag to the C-terminus of subunit 8 does not impair its proper functioning. The FLAG tag system, therefore, can be employed to study subunit 8′s detailed structure, topology, and function.

  8. The light subunit of system bo,+ is fully functional in the absence of the heavy subunit

    Reig, Núria; Chillarón, Josep; Bartoccioni, Paola; Fernández, Esperanza; Bendahan, Annie; Zorzano, Antonio; Kanner, Baruch; Palacín, Manuel; Bertran, Joan

    2002-01-01

    The heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a type II glycoprotein and a non-glycosylated polytopic membrane protein. System bo,+ exchanges dibasic for neutral amino acids. It is composed of rBAT and bo,+AT, the latter being the polytopic membrane subunit. Mutations in either of them cause malfunction of the system, leading to cystinuria. bo,+AT-reconstituted systems from HeLa or MDCK cells catalysed transport of arginine that was totally dependent on the presence of one of the bo...

  9. Seismic link at plate boundary

    time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link ... Triggering causes changes in the Coulomb stress on a specified fault, which is ... work link shows that the alignment of the links is parallel to the Honshu Trench ...

  10. Modulation of NMDA Receptor Properties and Synaptic Transmission by the NR3A Subunit in Mouse Hippocampal and Cerebrocortical Neurons

    Tong, Gary; Takahashi, Hiroto; Tu, Shichun; Shin, Yeonsook; Talantova, Maria; Zago, Wagner; Xia, Peng; Nie, Zhiguo; Goetz, Thomas; Zhang, Dongxian; Lipton, Stuart A.; Nakanishi, Nobuki

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the NR3A subunit with NR1/NR2 in Xenopus oocytes or mammalian cell lines leads to a reduction in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced currents and decreased Mg2+ sensitivity and Ca2+ permeability compared with NR1/NR2 receptors. Consistent with these findings, neurons from NR3A knockout (KO) mice exhibit enhanced NMDA-induced currents. Recombinant NR3A can also form excitatory glycine receptors with NR1 in the absence of NR2. However, the effects of NR3A on channel properties in neurons and synaptic transmission have not been fully elucidated. To study physiological roles of NR3A subunits, we generated NR3A transgenic (Tg) mice. Cultured NR3A Tg neurons exhibited two populations of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) channels, reduced Mg2+ sensitivity, and decreased Ca2+ permeability in response to NMDA/glycine, but glycine alone did not elicit excitatory currents. In addition, NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in NR3A Tg hippocampal slices showed reduced Mg2+ sensitivity, consistent with the notion that NR3A subunits incorporated into synaptic NMDARs. To study the function of endogenous NR3A subunits, we compared NMDAR-mediated EPSCs in NR3A KO and WT control mice. In NR3A KO mice, the ratio of the amplitudes of the NMDAR-mediated component to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isox-azolepropionic acid receptor-mediated component of the EPSC was significantly larger than that seen in WT littermates. This result suggests that NR3A subunits contributed to the NMDAR-mediated component of the EPSC in WT mice. Taken together, these results show that NR3A subunits contribute to NMDAR responses from both synaptic and extra-synaptic receptors, likely composed of NR1, NR2, and NR3 subunits. PMID:18003876

  11. Interaction of the regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase with PATZ1 (ZNF278)

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Ravatn, Roald; Kudoh, Kazuya; Alabanza, Leah; Chin, Khew-Voon

    2010-01-01

    The effects of cAMP in cell are predominantly mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which is composed of two genetically distinct subunits, catalytic (C) and regulatory (R), forming a tetrameric holoenzyme R 2 C 2 . The only known function for the R subunit is that of inhibiting the activity of the C subunit kinase. It has been shown that overexpression of RIα, but not the C subunit kinase, is associated with neoplastic transformation. In addition, it has also been demonstrated that mutation in the RIα, but not the C subunit is associated with increased resistance to the DNA-damaging anticancer drug cisplatin, thus suggesting that the RIα subunit of PKA may have functions independent of the kinase. We show here that the RIα subunit interacts with a BTB/POZ domain zinc-finger transcription factor, PATZ1 (ZNF278), and co-expression with RIα results in its sequestration in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic/nuclear translocation is inducible by cAMP. C-terminus deletion abolishes PATZ1 interaction with RIα and results in its localization in the nucleus. PATZ1 transactivates the cMyc promoter and the presence of cAMP and co-expression with RIα modulates its transactivation. Moreover, PATZ1 is aberrantly expressed in cancer. Taken together, our results showed a potentially novel mechanism of cAMP signaling mediated through the interaction of RIα with PATZ1 that is independent of the kinase activity of PKA, and the aberrant expression of PATZ1 in cancer point to its role in cell growth regulation.

  12. Interaction of the regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase with PATZ1 (ZNF278)

    Yang, Weng-Lang [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY 11030 (United States); Ravatn, Roald [Department of Medicine, University of Toledo, College of Medicine, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Kudoh, Kazuya [Department of Medicine, University of Toledo, College of Medicine, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan); Alabanza, Leah [Department of Medicine, University of Toledo, College of Medicine, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Chin, Khew-Voon, E-mail: khew-voon.chin@utoledo.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Toledo, College of Medicine, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The effects of cAMP in cell are predominantly mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which is composed of two genetically distinct subunits, catalytic (C) and regulatory (R), forming a tetrameric holoenzyme R{sub 2}C{sub 2}. The only known function for the R subunit is that of inhibiting the activity of the C subunit kinase. It has been shown that overexpression of RI{alpha}, but not the C subunit kinase, is associated with neoplastic transformation. In addition, it has also been demonstrated that mutation in the RI{alpha}, but not the C subunit is associated with increased resistance to the DNA-damaging anticancer drug cisplatin, thus suggesting that the RI{alpha} subunit of PKA may have functions independent of the kinase. We show here that the RI{alpha} subunit interacts with a BTB/POZ domain zinc-finger transcription factor, PATZ1 (ZNF278), and co-expression with RI{alpha} results in its sequestration in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic/nuclear translocation is inducible by cAMP. C-terminus deletion abolishes PATZ1 interaction with RI{alpha} and results in its localization in the nucleus. PATZ1 transactivates the cMyc promoter and the presence of cAMP and co-expression with RI{alpha} modulates its transactivation. Moreover, PATZ1 is aberrantly expressed in cancer. Taken together, our results showed a potentially novel mechanism of cAMP signaling mediated through the interaction of RI{alpha} with PATZ1 that is independent of the kinase activity of PKA, and the aberrant expression of PATZ1 in cancer point to its role in cell growth regulation.

  13. rRNA maturation in yeast cells depleted of large ribosomal subunit proteins.

    Gisela Pöll

    Full Text Available The structural constituents of the large eukaryotic ribosomal subunit are 3 ribosomal RNAs, namely the 25S, 5.8S and 5S rRNA and about 46 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins. They assemble and mature in a highly dynamic process that involves more than 150 proteins and 70 small RNAs. Ribosome biogenesis starts in the nucleolus, continues in the nucleoplasm and is completed after nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation of the subunits in the cytoplasm. In this work we created 26 yeast strains, each of which conditionally expresses one of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU proteins. In vivo depletion of the analysed LSU r-proteins was lethal and led to destabilisation and degradation of the LSU and/or its precursors. Detailed steady state and metabolic pulse labelling analyses of rRNA precursors in these mutant strains showed that LSU r-proteins can be grouped according to their requirement for efficient progression of different steps of large ribosomal subunit maturation. Comparative analyses of the observed phenotypes and the nature of r-protein-rRNA interactions as predicted by current atomic LSU structure models led us to discuss working hypotheses on i how individual r-proteins control the productive processing of the major 5' end of 5.8S rRNA precursors by exonucleases Rat1p and Xrn1p, and ii the nature of structural characteristics of nascent LSUs that are required for cytoplasmic accumulation of nascent subunits but are nonessential for most of the nuclear LSU pre-rRNA processing events.

  14. Potential of Cationic Liposomes as Adjuvants/Delivery Systems for Tuberculosis Subunit Vaccines.

    Khademi, Farzad; Taheri, Ramezan Ali; Momtazi-Borojeni, Amir Abbas; Farnoosh, Gholamreza; Johnston, Thomas P; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2018-04-27

    The weakness of the BCG vaccine and its highly variable protective efficacy in controlling tuberculosis (TB) in different age groups as well as in different geographic areas has led to intense efforts towards the development and design of novel vaccines. Currently, there are several strategies to develop novel TB vaccines. Each strategy has its advantages and disadvantages. However, the most important of these strategies is the development of subunit vaccines. In recent years, the use of cationic liposome-based vaccines has been considered due to their capacity to elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses against TB infections. In this review, we aim to evaluate the potential for cationic liposomes to be used as adjuvants/delivery systems for eliciting immune responses against TB subunit vaccines. The present review shows that cationic liposomes have extensive applications either as adjuvants or delivery systems, to promote immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) subunit vaccines. To overcome several limitations of these particles, they were used in combination with other immunostimulatory factors such as TDB, MPL, TDM, and Poly I:C. Cationic liposomes can provide long-term storage of subunit TB vaccines at the injection site, confer strong electrostatic interactions with APCs, potentiate both humoral and cellular (CD4 and CD8) immune responses, and induce a strong memory response by the immune system. Therefore, cationic liposomes can increase the potential of different TB subunit vaccines by serving as adjuvants/delivery systems. These properties suggest the use of cationic liposomes to produce an efficient vaccine against TB infections.

  15. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    Pfister, K Kevin; Shah, Paresh R; Hummerich, Holger; Russ, Andreas; Cotton, James; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; King, Stephen M; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  16. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    K Kevin Pfister

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  17. Increased Expression of Laminin Subunit Alpha 1 Chain by dCas9-VP160

    Arnaud Perrin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Laminin-111 protein complex links the extracellular matrix to integrin α7β1 in sarcolemma, thus replacing in dystrophic muscles links normally insured by the dystrophin complex. Laminin-111 injection in mdx mouse stabilized sarcolemma, restored serum creatine kinase to wild-type levels, and protected muscles from exercised-induced damages. These results suggested that increased laminin-111 is a potential therapy for DMD. Laminin subunit beta 1 and laminin subunit gamma 1 are expressed in adult human muscle, but laminin subunit alpha 1 (LAMA1 gene is expressed only during embryogenesis. We thus developed an alternative method to laminin-111 protein repeated administration by inducing expression of the endogenous mouse Lama1 gene. This was done with the CRSPR/Cas9 system, i.e., by targeting the Lama1 promoter with one or several gRNAs and a dCas9 coupled with the VP160 transcription activation domain. Lama1 mRNA (qRT-PCR and proteins (immunohistochemistry and western blot were not detected in the control C2C12 myoblasts and in control muscles. However, significant expression was observed in cells transfected and in mouse muscles electroporated with plasmids coding for dCas9-VP160 and a gRNA. Larger synergic increases were observed by using two or three gRNAs. The increased Lama1 expression did not modify the expression of the α7 and β1 integrins. Increased expression of Lama1 by the CRISPR/Cas9 system will have to be further investigated by systemic delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 components to verify whether this could be a treatment for several myopathies.

  18. Increased Expression of Laminin Subunit Alpha 1 Chain by dCas9-VP160.

    Perrin, Arnaud; Rousseau, Joël; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2017-03-17

    Laminin-111 protein complex links the extracellular matrix to integrin α7β1 in sarcolemma, thus replacing in dystrophic muscles links normally insured by the dystrophin complex. Laminin-111 injection in mdx mouse stabilized sarcolemma, restored serum creatine kinase to wild-type levels, and protected muscles from exercised-induced damages. These results suggested that increased laminin-111 is a potential therapy for DMD. Laminin subunit beta 1 and laminin subunit gamma 1 are expressed in adult human muscle, but laminin subunit alpha 1 (LAMA1) gene is expressed only during embryogenesis. We thus developed an alternative method to laminin-111 protein repeated administration by inducing expression of the endogenous mouse Lama1 gene. This was done with the CRSPR/Cas9 system, i.e., by targeting the Lama1 promoter with one or several gRNAs and a dCas9 coupled with the VP160 transcription activation domain. Lama1 mRNA (qRT-PCR) and proteins (immunohistochemistry and western blot) were not detected in the control C2C12 myoblasts and in control muscles. However, significant expression was observed in cells transfected and in mouse muscles electroporated with plasmids coding for dCas9-VP160 and a gRNA. Larger synergic increases were observed by using two or three gRNAs. The increased Lama1 expression did not modify the expression of the α7 and β1 integrins. Increased expression of Lama1 by the CRISPR/Cas9 system will have to be further investigated by systemic delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 components to verify whether this could be a treatment for several myopathies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Subunit association as the stabilizing determinant for archaeal methionine adenosyltransferases.

    Garrido, Francisco; Alfonso, Carlos; Taylor, John C; Markham, George D; Pajares, María A

    2009-07-01

    Archaea contain a class of methionine adenosyltransferases (MATs) that exhibit substantially higher stability than their mesophilic counterparts. Their sequences are highly divergent, but preserve the essential active site motifs of the family. We have investigated the origin of this increased stability using chemical denaturation experiments on Methanococcus jannaschii MAT (Mj-MAT) and mutants containing single tryptophans in place of tyrosine residues. The results from fluorescence, circular dichroism, hydrodynamic, and enzyme activity measurements showed that the higher stability of Mj-MAT derives largely from a tighter association of its subunits in the dimer. Local fluorescence changes, interpreted using secondary structure predictions, further identify the least stable structural elements as the C-terminal ends of beta-strands E2 and E6, and the N-terminus of E3. Dimer dissociation however requires a wider perturbation of the molecule. Additional analysis was initially hindered by the lack of crystal structures for archaeal MATs, a limitation that we overcame by construction of a 3D-homology model of Mj-MAT. This model predicts preservation of the chain topology and three-domain organization typical of this family, locates the least stable structural elements at the flat contact surface between monomers, and shows that alterations in all three domains are required for dimer dissociation.

  20. Vaccine profile of herpes zoster (HZ/su) subunit vaccine.

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Heineman, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) causes an often severe and painful rash in older people and may be complicated by prolonged pain (postherpetic neuralgia; PHN) and by dissemination in immune-compromised patients. HZ results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, often associated with age-related or other causes of decreased T cell immunity. A live attenuated vaccine boosts this immunity and provides partial protection against HZ, but this decreases with age and declines over 8 years. Areas covered: A new HZ subunit (HZ/su) vaccine combines a key surface VZV glycoprotein (E) with a T cell-boosting adjuvant system (AS01 B ) and is administered by two intramuscular injections two months apart. Expert commentary: HZ/su showed excellent efficacy of ~90% in immunocompetent adults ≥50 and ≥70 years of age, respectively, in the ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 phase III controlled trials. Efficacy was unaffected by advancing age and persisted for >3 years. Approximately 9.5% of subjects had severe, but transient (1-2 days) injection site pain, swelling or redness. Compliance with both vaccine doses was high (95%). The vaccine will have a major impact on HZ management. Phase I-II trials showed safety and immunogenicity in severely immunocompromised patients. Phase III trial results are expected soon.

  1. Heterodimerization with the β1 subunit directs the α2 subunit of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase to calcium-insensitive cell-cell contacts in HEK293 cells: Interaction with Lin7a.

    Hochheiser, Julia; Haase, Tobias; Busker, Mareike; Sömmer, Anne; Kreienkamp, Hans-Jürgen; Behrends, Sönke

    2016-12-15

    Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase is a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of an α and a β subunit. Two different α subunits (α 1 and α 2 ) give rise to two heterodimeric enzymes α 1 /β 1 and α 2 /β 1 . Both coexist in a wide range of tissues including blood vessels and the lung, but expression of the α 2 /β 1 form is generally much lower and approaches levels similar to the α 1 /β 1 form in the brain only. In the present paper, we show that the α 2 /β 1 form interacts with Lin7a in mouse brain synaptosomes based on co-precipitation analysis. In HEK293 cells, we found that the overexpressed α 2 /β 1 form, but not the α 1 /β 1 form is directed to calcium-insensitive cell-cell contacts. The isolated PDZ binding motif of an amino-terminally truncated α 2 subunit was sufficient for cell-cell contact localization. For the full length α 2 subunit with the PDZ binding motif this was only the case in the heterodimer configuration with the β 1 subunit, but not as isolated α 2 subunit. We conclude that the PDZ binding motif of the α 2 subunit is only accessible in the heterodimer conformation of the mature nitric oxide-sensitive enzyme. Interaction with Lin7a, a small scaffold protein important for synaptic function and cell polarity, can direct this complex to nectin based cell-cell contacts via MPP3 in HEK293 cells. We conclude that heterodimerization is a prerequisite for further protein-protein interactions that direct the α 2 /β 1 form to strategic sites of the cell membrane with adjacent neighbouring cells. Drugs increasing the nitric oxide-sensitivity of this specific form may be particularly effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptional regulators of Na, K-ATPase subunits

    Zhiqin eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Na,K-ATPase classically serves as an ion pump creating an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane that is essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also functions as a receptor, a signal transducer and a cell adhesion molecule. With such diverse roles, it is understandable that the Na,K-ATPase subunits, the catalytic alpha-subunit, the beta-subunit and the FXYD proteins, are controlled extensively during development and to accommodate physiological needs. The spatial and temporal expression of Na,K-ATPase is partially regulated at the transcriptional level. Numerous transcription factors, hormones, growth factors, lipids and extracellular stimuli modulate the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase subunits. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression. With the ever growing knowledge about diseases associated with the malfunction of Na,K-ATPase, this review aims at summarizing the best-characterized transcription regulators that modulate Na,K-ATPase subunit levels. As abnormal expression of Na,K-ATPase subunits have been observed in many carcinoma, we will also discuss transcription factors that are associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a crucial step in the progression of many tumors to malignant disease.

  3. Structural basis of subunit selectivity for competitive NMDA receptor antagonists with preference for GluN2A over GluN2B subunits

    Lind, Genevieve E.; Mou, Tung-Chung; Tamborini, Lucia; Pomper, Martin G.; De Micheli, Carlo; Conti, Paola; Pinto, Andrea; Hansen, Kasper B. (JHU); (Milan); (Montana)

    2017-07-31

    NMDA-type glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that contribute to excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Most NMDA receptors comprise two glycine-binding GluN1 and two glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits (GluN2A–D). We describe highly potent (S)-5-[(R)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (ACEPC) competitive GluN2 antagonists, of which ST3 has a binding affinity of 52 nM at GluN1/2A and 782 nM at GluN1/2B receptors. This 15-fold preference of ST3 for GluN1/2A over GluN1/2B is improved compared with NVP-AAM077, a widely used GluN2A-selective antagonist, which we show has 11-fold preference for GluN1/2A over GluN1/2B. Crystal structures of the GluN1/2A agonist binding domain (ABD) heterodimer with bound ACEPC antagonists reveal a binding mode in which the ligands occupy a cavity that extends toward the subunit interface between GluN1 and GluN2A ABDs. Mutational analyses show that the GluN2A preference of ST3 is primarily mediated by four nonconserved residues that are not directly contacting the ligand, but positioned within 12 Å of the glutamate binding site. Two of these residues influence the cavity occupied by ST3 in a manner that results in favorable binding to GluN2A, but occludes binding to GluN2B. Thus, we reveal opportunities for the design of subunit-selective competitive NMDA receptor antagonists by identifying a cavity for ligand binding in which variations exist between GluN2A and GluN2B subunits. This structural insight suggests that subunit selectivity of glutamate-site antagonists can be mediated by mechanisms in addition to direct contributions of contact residues to binding affinity.

  4. Ocular myasthenia gravis induced by human acetylcholine receptor ϵ subunit immunization in HLA DR3 transgenic mice.

    Wu, Xiaorong; Tuzun, Erdem; Saini, Shamsher S; Wang, Jun; Li, Jing; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Huda, Ruksana; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2015-12-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOM) are preferentially involved in myasthenia gravis (MG) and acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody positive MG patients may occasionally present with isolated ocular symptoms. Although experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) induced by whole AChR immunization closely mimics clinical and immunopathological aspects of MG, EOM are usually not affected. We have previously developed an EAMG model, which imitates EOM symptoms of MG by immunization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic mice with α or γ-subunits of human AChR (H-AChR). To investigate the significance of the ϵ-subunit in ocular MG, we immunized HLA-DR3 and HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice with recombinant H-AChR ϵ-subunit expressed in Escherichia coli. HLA-DR3 transgenic mice showed significantly higher clinical ocular and generalized MG severity scores and lower grip strength values than HLA-DQ8 mice. H-AChR ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DR3 transgenic mice had higher serum anti-AChR antibody (IgG, IgG1, IgG2b, IgG2c and IgM) levels, neuromuscular junction IgG and complement deposit percentages than ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice. Control mice immunized with E. coli extract or complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) did not show clinical and immunopathological features of ocular and generalized EAMG. Lymph node cells of ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DR3 mice showed significantly higher proliferative responses than those of ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DQ8 mice, crude E. coli extract-immunized and CFA-immunized transgenic mice. Our results indicate that the human AChR ϵ-subunit is capable of inducing myasthenic muscle weakness. Diversity of the autoimmune responses displayed by mice expressing different HLA class II molecules suggests that the interplay between HLA class II alleles and AChR subunits might have a profound impact on the clinical course of MG. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adult naked mole-rat brain retains the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2D associated with hypoxia tolerance in neonatal mammals.

    Peterson, Bethany L; Park, Thomas J; Larson, John

    2012-01-11

    Adult naked mole-rats show a number of systemic adaptations to a crowded underground habitat that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide. Remarkably, brain slice tissue from adult naked mole-rats also is extremely tolerant to oxygen deprivation as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under hypoxic conditions as well as by a delayed neuronal depolarization during anoxia. These characteristics resemble hypoxia tolerance in brain slices from neonates in a variety of mammal species. An important component of neonatal tolerance to hypoxia involves the subunit composition of NMDA receptors. Neonates have a high proportion of NMDA receptors with GluN2D subunits which are protective because they retard calcium entry into neurons during hypoxic episodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that adult naked mole-rats retain a protective, neonatal-like, NMDA receptor subunit profile. We used immunoblotting to assess age-related changes in NMDA receptor subunits in naked mole-rats and mice. The results show that adult naked mole-rat brain retains a much greater proportion of the hypoxia-protective GluN2D subunit compared to adult mice. However, age-related changes in other subunits (GluN2A and GluN2B) from the neonatal period to adulthood were comparable in mice and naked mole-rats. Hence, adult naked mole-rat brain only retains the neonatal NMDA receptor subunit that is associated with hypoxia tolerance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterisation of the human NMDA receptor subunit NR3A glycine binding site

    Nilsson, A; Duan, J; Mo-Boquist, L-L

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we characterise the binding site of the human N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR3A. Saturation radioligand binding of the NMDA receptor agonists [(3)H]-glycine and [(3)H]-glutamate showed that only glycine binds to human NR3A (hNR3A) with high affinity (K(d)=535nM (277...

  7. Isolation and characterization of human cDNA clones encoding the α and the α' subunits of casein kinase II

    Lozeman, F.J.; Litchfield, D.W.; Piening, C.; Takio, Koji; Walsh, K.A.; Krebs, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    Casein kinase II is a widely distributed protein serine/threonine kinase. The holoenzyme appears to be a tetramer, containing two α or α' subunits (or one of each) and two β subunits. Complementary DNA clones encoding the subunits of casein kinase II were isolated from a human T-cell λgt 10 library using cDNA clones isolated from Drosophila melanogasten. One of the human cDNA clones (hT4.1) was 2.2 kb long, including a coding region of 1176 bp preceded by 156 bp (5' untranslated region) and followed by 871 bp (3' untranslated region). The hT4.1 close was nearly identical in size and sequence with a cDNA clone from HepG2 human hepatoma cultured cells. Another of the human T-cell cDNA clones (hT9.1) was 1.8 kb long, containing a coding region of 1053 bp preceded by 171 by (5' untranslated region) and followed by 550 bp (3' untranslated region). Amino acid sequences deduced from these two cDNA clones were about 85% identical. Most of the difference between the two encoded polypeptides was in the carboxy-terminal region, but heterogeneity was distributed throughout the molecules. Partial amino acid sequence was determined in a mixture of α and α' subunits from bovine lung casein kinase II. The bovine sequences aligned with the 2 human cDNA-encoded polypeptides with only 2 discrepancies out of 535 amino acid positions. This confirmed that the two human T-cell cDNA clones encoded the α and α' subunits of casein kinase II. These studies show that there are two distinct catalytic subunits for casein II (α and α') and that the sequence of these subunits is largely conserved between the bovine and the human

  8. Mutation in mitochondrial complex IV subunit COX5A causes pulmonary arterial hypertension, lactic acidemia, and failure to thrive.

    Baertling, Fabian; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Al-Senaidi, Khalfan; Joshi, Niranjan P; Venselaar, Hanka; van den Brand, Mariël Am; Nijtmans, Leo Gj; Rodenburg, Richard Jt

    2017-06-01

    COX5A is a nuclear-encoded subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase). We present patients with a homozygous pathogenic variant in the COX5A gene. Clinical details of two affected siblings suffering from early-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension, lactic acidemia, failure to thrive, and isolated complex IV deficiency are presented. We show that the variant lies within the evolutionarily conserved COX5A/COX4 interface domain, suggesting that it alters the interaction between these two subunits during complex IV biogenesis. In patient skin fibroblasts, the enzymatic activity and protein levels of complex IV and several of its subunits are reduced. Lentiviral complementation rescues complex IV deficiency. The monomeric COX1 assembly intermediate accumulates demonstrating a function of COX5A in complex IV biogenesis. A potential therapeutic lead is demonstrated by showing that copper supplementation leads to partial rescue of complex IV deficiency in patient fibroblasts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Synaptic Changes in AMPA Receptor Subunit Expression in Cortical Parvalbumin Interneurons in the Stargazer Model of Absence Epilepsy

    Nadia K. Adotevi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feedforward inhibition is essential to prevent run away excitation within the brain. Recent evidence suggests that a loss of feed-forward inhibition in the corticothalamocortical circuitry may underlie some absence seizures. However, it is unclear if this aberration is specifically linked to loss of synaptic excitation onto local fast-spiking parvalbumin-containing (PV+ inhibitory interneurons, which are responsible for mediating feedforward inhibition within cortical networks. We recently reported a global tissue loss of AMPA receptors (AMPARs, and a specific mistrafficking of these AMPARs in PV+ interneurons in the stargazer somatosensory cortex. The current study was aimed at investigating if cellular changes in AMPAR expression were translated into deficits in receptors at specific synapses in the feedforward inhibitory microcircuit. Using western blot immunolabeling on biochemically isolated synaptic fractions, we demonstrate a loss of AMPAR GluA1–4 subunits in the somatosensory cortex of stargazers compared to non-epileptic control mice. Furthermore, using double post-embedding immunogold-cytochemistry, we show a loss of GluA1–4-AMPARs at excitatory synapses onto cortical PV+ interneurons. Altogether, these data indicate a loss of synaptic AMPAR-mediated excitation of cortical PV+ inhibitory neurons. As the cortex is considered the site of initiation of spike wave discharges (SWDs within the corticothalamocortical circuitry, loss of AMPARs at cortical PV+ interneurons likely impairs feed-forward inhibitory output, and contributes to the generation of SWDs and absence seizures in stargazers.

  10. DNA binding properties of the small cascade subunit Csa5.

    Michael Daume

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems provide immunity against viral attacks in archaeal and bacterial cells. Type I systems employ a Cas protein complex termed Cascade, which utilizes small CRISPR RNAs to detect and degrade the exogenic DNA. A small sequence motif, the PAM, marks the foreign substrates. Previously, a recombinant type I-A Cascade complex from the archaeon Thermoproteus tenax was shown to target and degrade DNA in vitro, dependent on a native PAM sequence. Here, we present the biochemical analysis of the small subunit, Csa5, of this Cascade complex. T. tenax Csa5 preferentially bound ssDNA and mutants that showed decreased ssDNA-binding and reduced Cascade-mediated DNA cleavage were identified. Csa5 oligomerization prevented DNA binding. Specific recognition of the PAM sequence was not observed. Phylogenetic analyses identified Csa5 as a universal member of type I-A systems and revealed three distinct groups. A potential role of Csa5 in R-loop stabilization is discussed.

  11. Editing modifies the GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha3

    Ohlson, Johan; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Haussler, David

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) pre-mRNA editing by the ADAR enzyme family has the potential to increase the variety of the proteome. This editing by adenosine deamination is essential in mammals for a functional brain. To detect novel substrates for A-to-I editing we have used an experimental method...... to find selectively edited sites and combined it with bioinformatic techniques that find stem-loop structures suitable for editing. We present here the first verified editing candidate detected by this screening procedure. We show that Gabra-3, which codes for the alpha3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor......, is a substrate for editing by both ADAR1 and ADAR2. Editing of the Gabra-3 mRNA recodes an isoleucine to a methionine. The extent of editing is low at birth but increases with age, reaching close to 100% in the adult brain. We therefore propose that editing of the Gabra-3 mRNA is important for normal brain...

  12. Pituitary glycoprotein hormone a-subunit secretion by cirrhotic patients

    Oliveira M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretion of the a-subunit of pituitary glycoprotein hormones usually follows the secretion of intact gonadotropins and is increased in gonadal failure and decreased in isolated gonadotropin deficiency. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of the a-subunit in the serum of patients with cirrhosis of the liver and to compare the results obtained for eugonadal cirrhotic patients with those obtained for cirrhotic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Forty-seven of 63 patients with cirrhosis (74.6% presented hypogonadism (which was central in 45 cases and primary in 2, 7 were eugonadal, and 9 women were in normal menopause. The serum a-subunit was measured by the fluorimetric method using monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity with LH, TSH, FSH and hCG was 6.5, 1.2, 4.3 and 1.1%, respectively, with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV of less than 5% and an interassay CV of 5%, and sensitivity limit of 4 ng/l. The serum a-subunit concentration ranged from 36 to 6253 ng/l, with a median of 273 ng/l. The median was 251 ng/l for patients with central hypogonadism and 198 ng/l for eugonadal patients. The correlation between the a-subunit and basal LH levels was significant both in the total sample (r = 0.48, P<0.01 and in the cirrhotic patients with central hypogonadism (r = 0.33, P = 0.02. Among men with central hypogonadism there was a negative correlation between a-subunit levels and total testosterone levels (r = 0.54, P<0.01 as well as free testosterone levels (r = -0.53, P<0.01. In conclusion, although the a-subunit levels are correlated with LH levels, at present they cannot be used as markers for hypogonadism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.

  13. Basal Glutathionylation of Na,K-ATPase α-Subunit Depends on Redox Status of Cells during the Enzyme Biosynthesis

    Vladimir A. Mitkevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses induce oxidative stress and cause S-glutathionylation of Cys residues of the host and viral proteins. Changes in cell functioning during viral infection may be associated with glutathionylation of a number of key proteins including Na,K-ATPase which creates a gradient of sodium and potassium ions. It was found that Na,K-ATPase α-subunit has a basal glutathionylation which is not abrogated by reducing agent. We have shown that acute hypoxia leads to increase of total glutathionylation level of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit; however, basal glutathionylation of α-subunit increases under prolonged hypoxia only. The role of basal glutathionylation in Na,K-ATPase function remains unclear. Understanding significance of basal glutathionylation is complicated by the fact that there are no X-ray structures of Na,K-ATPase with the identified glutathione molecules. We have analyzed all X-ray structures of the Na,K-ATPase α-subunit from pig kidney and found that there are a number of isolated cavities with unresolved electron density close to the relevant cysteine residues. Analysis of the structures showed that this unresolved density in the structure can be occupied by glutathione associated with cysteine residues. Here, we discuss the role of basal glutathionylation of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit and provide evidence supporting the view that this modification is cotranslational.

  14. Basal Glutathionylation of Na,K-ATPase α-Subunit Depends on Redox Status of Cells during the Enzyme Biosynthesis.

    Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Poluektov, Yuri M; Burnysheva, Ksenia M; Lakunina, Valentina A; Anashkina, Anastasia A; Makarov, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    Many viruses induce oxidative stress and cause S-glutathionylation of Cys residues of the host and viral proteins. Changes in cell functioning during viral infection may be associated with glutathionylation of a number of key proteins including Na,K-ATPase which creates a gradient of sodium and potassium ions. It was found that Na,K-ATPase α-subunit has a basal glutathionylation which is not abrogated by reducing agent. We have shown that acute hypoxia leads to increase of total glutathionylation level of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit; however, basal glutathionylation of α-subunit increases under prolonged hypoxia only. The role of basal glutathionylation in Na,K-ATPase function remains unclear. Understanding significance of basal glutathionylation is complicated by the fact that there are no X-ray structures of Na,K-ATPase with the identified glutathione molecules. We have analyzed all X-ray structures of the Na,K-ATPase α-subunit from pig kidney and found that there are a number of isolated cavities with unresolved electron density close to the relevant cysteine residues. Analysis of the structures showed that this unresolved density in the structure can be occupied by glutathione associated with cysteine residues. Here, we discuss the role of basal glutathionylation of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit and provide evidence supporting the view that this modification is cotranslational.

  15. [Molecular cloning of activin betaA subunit mature peptide from peafowl and its application in taxonomy and phylogeny].

    Zou, Fang-Dong; Tong, Xin-Xin; Yue, Bi-Song

    2005-03-01

    The sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide have been amplified from white peafowl, blue peafowl (pavo cristatus) and green peafowl (pavo muticus) genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of degenerate primers. The target fragments were cloned into the vector pMD18-T and sequenced. The length of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide is 345bp, which encoded a peptide of 115 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide demonstrated that the identity of nucleotide is 98.0% between blue peaflowl and green peafowl, and the identity of that is 98.8% between blue peaflowl and white peafow. Sequences comparison in NCBI revealed that the sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides of different species are highly conserved during evolution process. In addition, the restriction enzyme map of activins is high similar between white peafowl and blue peafowl. Phylogenetic tree was constructed with Mega 2 and Clustalxldx software. The result showed that white peafowl has a closer relationship to blue peafowl than to green peafowl. Considered the nucleotide differences of peafowls' activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides, a highly conserved region, we supported that white peafowl was derived from blue peafowl, and it is more possible the hybrid but just the product of color mutation, or maybe as a subspecies of Pavo genus.

  16. An ATP synthase harboring an atypical γ-subunit is involved in ATP synthesis in tomato fruit chromoplasts.

    Pateraki, Irini; Renato, Marta; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín; Boronat, Albert

    2013-04-01

    Chromoplasts are non-photosynthetic plastids specialized in the synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids. During fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts in a process characterized by the degradation of the thylakoid membranes, and by the active synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids. This transition renders chromoplasts unable to photochemically synthesize ATP, and therefore these organelles need to obtain the ATP required for anabolic processes through alternative sources. It is widely accepted that the ATP used for biosynthetic processes in non-photosynthetic plastids is imported from the cytosol or is obtained through glycolysis. In this work, however, we show that isolated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit chromoplasts are able to synthesize ATP de novo through a respiratory pathway using NADPH as an electron donor. We also report the involvement of a plastidial ATP synthase harboring an atypical γ-subunit induced during ripening, which lacks the regulatory dithiol domain present in plant and algae chloroplast γ-subunits. Silencing of this atypical γ-subunit during fruit ripening impairs the capacity of isolated chromoplast to synthesize ATP de novo. We propose that the replacement of the γ-subunit present in tomato leaf and green fruit chloroplasts by the atypical γ-subunit lacking the dithiol domain during fruit ripening reflects evolutionary changes, which allow the operation of chromoplast ATP synthase under the particular physiological conditions found in this organelle. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY OF INACTIVATED OF SUBUNIT INFLUENZA VACCINE AT MASS VACCINATION OF CHILDREN

    Yu.Z. Gendon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of infantile mass vaccination with inactivated subunit influenza vaccine (Influvac. It shows that vaccination of 57–72% of children aged 3–17 from organized collectives residing in Mytishchi and Orekhovoczuevo districts of Moscow region was accompanied with nearly triple reduce of flu rates vs. Narofominsk and Odintsovo districts where vaccination was occasional (< 1% of children. The efficiency of the vaccination made 63,7%. Low reactogenicity of the influenza vaccine was recorded. Its convenient packing allows vaccination of large number of children in a short time. The article justifies the necessity of yearly vaccinations even in case of similarity of flu virus strain.Key words: children, mass vaccination, subunit flu vaccine, safety.

  18. A CK2 site is reversibly phosphorylated in the photosystem II subunit CP29.

    Testi, M G; Croce, R; Polverino-De Laureto, P; Bassi, R

    1996-12-16

    Protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism in the regulation of protein function. In chloroplast thylakoids several photosystem II subunits, including the major antenna light-harvesting complex II and several core complex components, are reversibly phosphorylated depending on the redox state of the electron carriers. A previously unknown reversible phosphorylation event has recently been described on the CP29 subunit which leads to conformational changes and protection from cold stress (Bergantino, E., Dainese, P., Cerovic, Z. Sechi, S. and Bassi, R. (1995) J. Biol Chem. 270, 8474-8481). In this study, we have identified the phosphorylation site on the N-terminal, stroma-exposed domain, showing that it is located in a sequence not homologous to the other members of the Lhc family. The phosphorylated sequence is unique in chloroplast membranes since it meets the requirements for CK2 (casein kinase II) kinases. The possibility that this phosphorylation is involved in a signal transduction pathway is discussed.

  19. Cytoplasmic Dynein Regulation by Subunit Heterogeneity and Its Role in Apical Transport

    Tai, Andrew W.; Chuang, Jen-Zen; Sung, Ching-Hwa

    2001-01-01

    Despite the existence of multiple subunit isoforms for the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein, it has not yet been directly shown that dynein complexes with different compositions exhibit different properties. The 14-kD dynein light chain Tctex-1, but not its homologue RP3, binds directly to rhodopsin's cytoplasmic COOH-terminal tail, which encodes an apical targeting determinant in polarized epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We demonstrate that Tctex-1 and RP3 compete for binding to dynein intermediate chain and that overexpressed RP3 displaces endogenous Tctex-1 from dynein complexes in MDCK cells. Furthermore, replacement of Tctex-1 by RP3 selectively disrupts the translocation of rhodopsin to the MDCK apical surface. These results directly show that cytoplasmic dynein function can be regulated by its subunit composition and that cytoplasmic dynein is essential for at least one mode of apical transport in polarized epithelia. PMID:11425878

  20. LEGO-NMR spectroscopy: a method to visualize individual subunits in large heteromeric complexes.

    Mund, Markus; Overbeck, Jan H; Ullmann, Janina; Sprangers, Remco

    2013-10-18

    Seeing the big picture: Asymmetric macromolecular complexes that are NMR active in only a subset of their subunits can be prepared, thus decreasing NMR spectral complexity. For the hetero heptameric LSm1-7 and LSm2-8 rings NMR spectra of the individual subunits of the complete complex are obtained, showing a conserved RNA binding site. This LEGO-NMR technique makes large asymmetric complexes accessible to detailed NMR spectroscopic studies. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of Creative Commons the Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  1. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin βE subunit

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ushiro, Yuuki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2006-01-01

    Activins, TGF-β superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin β subunit genes, βC and βE, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin βE subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells

  2. Tuning of the Na,K-ATPase by the beta subunit

    Hilbers, Florian; Kopec, Wojciech; Isaksen, Toke Jost

    2016-01-01

    The vital gradients of Na(+) and K(+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells are maintained by the Na,K-ATPase, an αβ enzyme complex, whose α subunit carries out the ion transport and ATP hydrolysis. The specific roles of the β subunit isoforms are less clear, though β2 is essential for motor...... to the cerebellar Na(+) and K(+) gradients....... physiology in mammals. Here, we show that compared to β1 and β3, β2 stabilizes the Na(+)-occluded E1P state relative to the outward-open E2P state, and that the effect is mediated by its transmembrane domain. Molecular dynamics simulations further demonstrate that the tilt angle of the β transmembrane helix...

  3. Immunoproteasome subunit ß5i/LMP7-deficiency in atherosclerosis.

    Hewing, Bernd; Ludwig, Antje; Dan, Cristian; Pötzsch, Max; Hannemann, Carmen; Petry, Andreas; Lauer, Dilyara; Görlach, Agnes; Kaschina, Elena; Müller, Dominik N; Baumann, Gert; Stangl, Verena; Stangl, Karl; Wilck, Nicola

    2017-10-17

    Management of protein homeostasis by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is critical for atherosclerosis development. Recent studies showed controversial results on the role of immunoproteasome (IP) subunit β5i/LMP7 in maintenance of protein homeostasis under cytokine induced oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of β5i/LMP7-deficiency on the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis as a chronic inflammatory, immune cell driven disease. LDLR -/- LMP7 -/- and LDLR -/- mice were fed a Western-type diet for either 6 or 24 weeks to induce early and advanced stage atherosclerosis, respectively. Lesion burden was similar between genotypes in both stages. Macrophage content and abundance of polyubiquitin conjugates in aortic root plaques were unaltered by β5i/LMP7-deficiency. In vitro experiments using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) showed that β5i/LMP7-deficiency did not influence macrophage polarization or accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and cell survival upon hydrogen peroxide and interferon-γ treatment. Analyses of proteasome core particle composition by Western blot revealed incorporation of standard proteasome subunits in β5i/LMP7-deficient BMDM and spleen. Chymotrypsin-, trypsin- and caspase-like activities assessed by using short fluorogenic peptides in BMDM whole cell lysates were similar in both genotypes. Taken together, deficiency of IP subunit β5i/LMP7 does not disturb protein homeostasis and does not aggravate atherogenesis in LDLR -/- mice.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression of heteromeric ACCase subunit genes from Jatropha curcas.

    Gu, Keyu; Chiam, Huihui; Tian, Dongsheng; Yin, Zhongchao

    2011-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) catalyzes the biotin-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA, which is the essential first step in the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids. ACCase exists as a multi-subunit enzyme in most prokaryotes and the chloroplasts of most plants and algae, while it is present as a multi-domain enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum of most eukaryotes. The heteromeric ACCase of higher plants consists of four subunits: an α-subunit of carboxyltransferase (α-CT, encoded by accA gene), a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP, encoded by accB gene), a biotin carboxylase (BC, encoded by accC gene) and a β-subunit of carboxyltransferase (β-CT, encoded by accD gene). In this study, we cloned and characterized the genes accA, accB1, accC and accD that encode the subunits of heteromeric ACCase in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas), a potential biofuel plant. The full-length cDNAs of the four subunit genes were isolated from a Jatropha cDNA library and by using 5' RACE, whereas the genomic clones were obtained from a Jatropha BAC library. They encode a 771 amino acid (aa) α-CT, a 286-aa BCCP1, a 537-aa BC and a 494-aa β-CT, respectively. The single-copy accA, accB1 and accC genes are nuclear genes, while the accD gene is located in chloroplast genome. Jatropha α-CT, BCCP1, BC and β-CT show high identity to their homologues in other higher plants at amino acid level and contain all conserved domains for ACCase activity. The accA, accB1, accC and accD genes are temporally and spatially expressed in the leaves and endosperm of Jatropha plants, which are regulated by plant development and environmental factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subunits of highly Fluorescent Protein R-Phycoerythrin as Probes for Cell Imaging and Single-Molecule Detection

    Isailovic, Dragan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    bodies, fluorescent holo-subunits were formed after incubation of E. coli cells with PEB. Spectroscopic characterization of holo-subunits confirmed that the attachment of PEB chromophore to apo-subunits yielded holo-subunits containing both PEB and urobilin (UB). Fluorescence and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy showed polar location of holo-subunit inclusion bodies in E. coli cells. In another example, R-PE apo-subunits were genetically fused to cytoplasmic and periplasmic versions of E. coli maltose binding protein (MBP). Fluorescent proteins formed after attachment of PEB to MBP-subunit fusions in vitro and in vivo contained PEB as the sole chromophore, were soluble, and displayed high orange fluorescence. Fluorescence microscopy showed that fusions are located either throughout cells or at cell poles. In addition, cells containing fluorescent holo-subunits or MBP-subunit fusions were up to ten times brighter than control cells as measured by flow cytometry. Results show that the fluorescent proteins formed after non-enzymatic attachment of PEB to R-PE subunit fusions could be used as reporters of gene expression and protein localization in cells as well as fluorescence labels in flow cytometry. Finally, we demonstrated a high-throughput method able to record emission fluorescence spectra of individual cells containing fluorescent proteins. Upon excitation with a 488 mn argon-ion laser many bacterial cells were imaged by a 20X microscope objective while they moved through a capillary tube. Fluorescence was dispersed by a transmission diffraction grating, and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera simultaneously recorded the zero and the first orders of the fluorescence from each cell. Single-cell fluorescence spectra were reconstructed from the distance between zero-order and first-order maxima as well as the length and the pixel intensity distribution of the first-order images. By using this approach, the emission spectrum of E. coli

  6. Unexpected High Digestion Rate of Cooked Starch by the Ct-Maltase-Glucoamylase Small Intestine Mucosal α-Glucosidase Subunit

    Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Nichols, Buford L.; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Avery, Stephen E.; Sim, Lyann; Rose, David R.; Naim, Hassan Y.; Hamaker, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    For starch digestion to glucose, two luminal α-amylases and four gut mucosal α-glucosidase subunits are employed. The aim of this research was to investigate, for the first time, direct digestion capability of individual mucosal α-glucosidases on cooked (gelatinized) starch. Gelatinized normal maize starch was digested with N- and C-terminal subunits of recombinant mammalian maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) of varying amounts and digestion periods. Without the aid of α-amylase, Ct-MGAM demonstrated an unexpected rapid and high digestion degree near 80%, while other subunits showed 20 to 30% digestion. These findings suggest that Ct-MGAM assists α-amylase in digesting starch molecules and potentially may compensate for developmental or pathological amylase deficiencies. PMID:22563462

  7. Release of newly synthesized nucleoplasmic ribosomal subunits or their precursor particles from isolated nuclei of regenerating rat liver

    Usami, K; Ogata, K [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1930-06-16

    The authors present the time course of the labeling of RNA and protein moieties of these particles in vivo as well as the pattern of one-dimensional acrylamide gel electrophoresis of their protein moieties labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine in vivo, which shows that released 60 S particles are newly synthesized ribosomal large subunits or their precursor particles in the nucleoplasm on their way from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm. It appears likely that released 40 S particles contain newly synthesized ribosomal small subunits or their precursors in the nucleoplasm.

  8. Heteromeric Slick/Slack K+ channels show graded sensitivity to cell volume changes.

    Tejada, Maria A; Hashem, Nadia; Calloe, Kirstine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2017-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes. Slick has been shown to be regulated by cell volume changes, whereas Slack is insensitive. α-subunits of these channels form homomeric as well as heteromeric channels. It is the aim of this work to explore whether the subunit composition of the Slick/Slack heteromeric channel affects the response to osmotic challenges. In order to provide with the adequate water permeability to the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, mRNA of aquaporin 1 was co-expressed with homomeric or heteromeric Slick and Slack α-subunits. Oocytes were superfused with hypotonic or hypertonic buffers and changes in currents were measured by two-electrode voltage clamp. This work presents the first heteromeric K+ channel with a characteristic graded sensitivity to small and fast changes in cell volume. Our results show that the cell volume sensitivity of Slick/Slack heteromeric channels is dependent on the number of volume sensitive Slick α-subunits in the tetrameric channels, giving rise to graded cell volume sensitivity. Regulation of the subunit composition of a channel may constitute a novel mechanism to determine volume sensitivity of cells.

  9. Role of regulatory subunits and protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) in determining nuclear localization and activity of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A.

    Wiley, J C; Wailes, L A; Idzerda, R L; McKnight, G S

    1999-03-05

    Regulation of protein kinase A by subcellular localization may be critical to target catalytic subunits to specific substrates. We employed epitope-tagged catalytic subunit to correlate subcellular localization and gene-inducing activity in the presence of regulatory subunit or protein kinase inhibitor (PKI). Transiently expressed catalytic subunit distributed throughout the cell and induced gene expression. Co-expression of regulatory subunit or PKI blocked gene induction and prevented nuclear accumulation. A mutant PKI lacking the nuclear export signal blocked gene induction but not nuclear accumulation, demonstrating that nuclear export is not essential to inhibit gene induction. When the catalytic subunit was targeted to the nucleus with a nuclear localization signal, it was not sequestered in the cytoplasm by regulatory subunit, although its activity was completely inhibited. PKI redistributed the nuclear catalytic subunit to the cytoplasm and blocked gene induction, demonstrating that the nuclear export signal of PKI can override a strong nuclear localization signal. With increasing PKI, the export process appeared to saturate, resulting in the return of catalytic subunit to the nucleus. These results demonstrate that both the regulatory subunit and PKI are able to completely inhibit the gene-inducing activity of the catalytic subunit even when the catalytic subunit is forced to concentrate in the nuclear compartment.

  10. A comparative analysis of the heterotrimeric G-protein Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits in the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum

    Gummer Joel P A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been well established that the Gα subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein in the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum is required for a variety of phenotypes including pathogenicity, melanisation and asexual differentiation. The roles though of the Gγ and Gβ subunits though were unclear. The objective of this study was to identify and understand the role of these subunits and assess their requirement for pathogenicity and development. Results G-protein Gγ and Gβ subunits, named Gga1 and Gba1 respectively, were identified in the Stagonospora nodorum genome by comparative analysis with known fungal orthologues. A reverse genetics technique was used to study the role of these and revealed that the mutant strains displayed altered in vitro growth including a differential response to a variety of exogenous carbon sources. Pathogenicity assays showed that Stagonospora nodorum strains lacking Gba1 were essentially non-pathogenic whilst Gga1-impaired strains displayed significantly slower growth in planta. Subsequent sporulation assays showed that like the previously described Gα subunit mutants, both Gba1 and Gga1 were required for asexual sporulation with neither mutant strain being able to differentiate either pycnidia nor pycnidiospores under normal growth conditions. Continued incubation at 4°C was found to complement the mutation in each of the G-protein subunits with nearly wild-type levels of pycnidia recovered. Conclusion This study provides further evidence on the significance of cAMP-dependent signal transduction for many aspects of fungal development and pathogenicity. The observation that cold temperatures can complement the G-protein sporulation defect now provides an ideal tool by which asexual differentiation can now be dissected.

  11. GABAA receptor subunit expression changes in the human Alzheimer's disease hippocampus, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus.

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Calvo-Flores Guzmán, Beatriz; Pandya, Madhavi; Turner, Clinton; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L

    2018-02-27

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA type A receptors (GABA A Rs) are severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the distribution and subunit composition of GABA A Rs in the AD brain are not well understood. This is the first comprehensive study to show brain region- and cell layer-specific alterations in the expression of the GABA A R subunits α1-3, α5, β1-3 and γ2 in the human AD hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus (STG). In late-stage AD tissue samples using immunohistochemistry we found significant alteration of all investigated GABA A Rs subunits except for α3 and β1 that were well preserved. The most prominent changes include an increase in GABA A R α1 expression associated with AD in all layers of the CA3 region, in the stratum (str.) granulare and hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG). We found a significant increase in GABA A R α2 expression in the str. oriens of the CA1-3, str. radiatum of the CA2,3 and decrease in the str. pyramidale of the CA1 region in AD cases. In AD there was a significant increase in GABA A R α5 subunit expression in str. pyramidale, str. oriens of the CA1 region and decrease in the STG. We also found a significant decrease in the GABA A R β3 subunit immunoreactivity in the str. oriens of the CA2, str. granulare and str. moleculare of the DG. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the expression of the GABA A R subunits shows brain region- and layer-specific alterations in AD, and these changes could significantly influence and alter GABA A R function in the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Function and structure in phage Qbeta RNA replicase. Association of EF-Tu-Ts with the other enzyme subunits

    Blumenthal, T; Young, R A; Brown, S

    1976-01-01

    alters its quaternary structure: the EF-Tu-Ts cannot be covalently attached to the other enzyme subunits with bifunctional cross-linking reagents in the presence of RNA. This conformational change is not influenced by ionic strength. The addition of Qbeta RNA to the enzyme, does not result in the release...... for one another increases with increasing ionic strength. The enzyme is capable of initiation of RNA synthesis with synthetic templates only when in the low ionic strength conformation. Elongation of initiated polynucleotide chains is not affectedby ionic strength. Addition of Qbeta RNA to the enzyme also...... of EF-Tu-Ts from the other enzyme subunits: whereas free EF-Tu-Ts binds GDP independently of salt concentration, this binding by Qbeta replicase is sensitive to high ionic strength and remains so in the presence of Qbeta RNA. Furthermore, RNA does not allow the release of EF-Ts from EF-Tu by GTP...

  13. Novel subunit structure observed for noncooperative hemoglobin from Urechis caupo.

    Kolatkar, P R; Meador, W E; Stanfield, R L; Hackert, M L

    1988-03-05

    Tetrameric hemoglobin from the "fat innkeeper" worm Urechis caupo possesses a novel subunit arrangement having an "inside out" quaternary structure in that the G/H helices are located on the outer surface of the tetramer. A 5-A resolution crystal structure reveals that although the individual subunits are beta-like, having a distinct D helix and the general myoglobin fold, the subunit contacts are very different from those previously observed for hemoglobins. Furthermore, the hemoglobin from U. caupo is also quite different from the unusual hemoglobin tetramer from clam which also has its G/H helices on the outer surface but with the hemes in close proximity through E-F helical contacts (Royer, W. E., Jr., Love, W. E., and Fenderson, F. F. (1985) Nature 316, 277-280).

  14. Dynamic properties of motor proteins with two subunits

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; III, Hubert Phillips

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of motor protein molecules consisting of two subunits is investigated using simple discrete stochastic models. Exact steady-state analytical expressions are obtained for velocities and dispersions for any number of intermediate states and conformations between the corresponding binding states of proteins. These models enable us to provide a detailed description and comparison of two different mechanisms of the motion of motor proteins along the linear tracks: the hand-over-hand mechanism, when the motion of subunits alternate; and the inchworm mechanism, when one subunit is always trailing another one. It is shown that the proteins in the hand-over-hand mechanism move faster and fluctuate more than the molecules in the inchworm mechanism. The effect of external forces on dynamic properties of motor proteins is also discussed. Finally, a quantitative method, based on experimental observations for single motor proteins, is proposed for distinguishing between two mechanisms of motion

  15. Cholera Toxin B: One Subunit with Many Pharmaceutical Applications

    Keegan J. Baldauf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholera, a waterborne acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains prevalent in underdeveloped countries and is a serious health threat to those living in unsanitary conditions. The major virulence factor is cholera toxin (CT, which consists of two subunits: the A subunit (CTA and the B subunit (CTB. CTB is a 55 kD homopentameric, non-toxic protein binding to the GM1 ganglioside on mammalian cells with high affinity. Currently, recombinantly produced CTB is used as a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine, as the protein induces potent humoral immunity that can neutralize CT in the gut. Additionally, recent studies have revealed that CTB administration leads to the induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. This review will cover the potential of CTB as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. We will also summarize various recombinant expression systems available for recombinant CTB bioproduction.

  16. Thermostable Subunit Vaccines for Pulmonary Delivery: How Close Are We?

    Foged, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    , such as influenza, tuberculosis, and Ebola, for which no good universal vaccines exist. At least two pharmaceutical improvements are expected to help filling this gap: i) The development of thermostable vaccine dosage forms, and ii) the full exploitation of the adjuvant technology for subunit vaccines to potentiate...... strong immune responses. This review highlights the status and recent advances in formulation and pulmonary delivery of thermostable human subunit vaccines. Such vaccines are very appealing from compliance, distribution and immunological point of view: Being non-invasive, inhalable vaccines are self...... immunity. Here, I review state of the art and perspectives in formulation design and processing methods for powder-based subunit vaccines intended for pulmonary administration, and present dry powder inhaler technologies suitable for translating these vaccines into clinical trials....

  17. Crystal structure of a C-terminal deletion mutant of human protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit

    Ermakova, Inessa; Boldyreff, Brigitte; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2003-01-01

    structure of a C-terminal deletion mutant of human CK2alpha was solved and refined to 2.5A resolution. In the crystal the CK2alpha mutant exists as a monomer in agreement with the organization of the subunits in the CK2 holoenzyme. The refined structure shows the helix alphaC and the activation segment, two...

  18. Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays at 2.1 A resolution

    Niefind, K; Guerra, B; Pinna, L A

    1998-01-01

    CK2alpha is the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2, an acidophilic and constitutively active eukaryotic Ser/Thr kinase involved in cell proliferation. A crystal structure, at 2.1 A resolution, of recombinant maize CK2alpha (rmCK2alpha) in the presence of ATP and Mg2+, shows the enzyme in an ...

  19. The regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 regulates cell-cycle progression at the onset of mitosis

    Yde, C W; Olsen, B B; Meek, D

    2008-01-01

    25 dual-specificity phosphatase family members. In somatic cells, Wee1 is downregulated by phosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated degradation to ensure rapid activation of CDK1 at the beginning of M phase. Here, we show that downregulation of the regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 by RNA...

  20. Tuning of the Na,K-ATPase by the beta subunit

    Hilbers, Florian; Kopec, Wojciech; Isaksen, Toke Jost; Holm, Thomas Hellesøe; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin; Nissen, Poul; Khandelia, Himanshu; Poulsen, Hanne

    2016-02-01

    The vital gradients of Na+ and K+ across the plasma membrane of animal cells are maintained by the Na,K-ATPase, an αβ enzyme complex, whose α subunit carries out the ion transport and ATP hydrolysis. The specific roles of the β subunit isoforms are less clear, though β2 is essential for motor physiology in mammals. Here, we show that compared to β1 and β3, β2 stabilizes the Na+-occluded E1P state relative to the outward-open E2P state, and that the effect is mediated by its transmembrane domain. Molecular dynamics simulations further demonstrate that the tilt angle of the β transmembrane helix correlates with its functional effect, suggesting that the relative orientation of β modulates ion binding at the α subunit. β2 is primarily expressed in granule neurons and glomeruli in the cerebellum, and we propose that its unique functional characteristics are important to respond appropriately to the cerebellar Na+ and K+ gradients.

  1. Dual functions of a small regulatory subunit in the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex.

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Phillips, Charles B; Ranaghan, Matthew; Tsai, Chen-Wei; Wu, Yujiao; Willliams, Carole; Miller, Christopher

    2016-04-21

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, a process crucial for bioenergetics and Ca(2+) signaling, is catalyzed by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. The uniporter is a multi-subunit Ca(2+)-activated Ca(2+) channel, with the Ca(2+) pore formed by the MCU protein and Ca(2+)-dependent activation mediated by MICU subunits. Recently, a mitochondrial inner membrane protein EMRE was identified as a uniporter subunit absolutely required for Ca(2+) permeation. However, the molecular mechanism and regulatory purpose of EMRE remain largely unexplored. Here, we determine the transmembrane orientation of EMRE, and show that its known MCU-activating function is mediated by the interaction of transmembrane helices from both proteins. We also reveal a second function of EMRE: to maintain tight MICU regulation of the MCU pore, a role that requires EMRE to bind MICU1 using its conserved C-terminal polyaspartate tail. This dual functionality of EMRE ensures that all transport-competent uniporters are tightly regulated, responding appropriately to a dynamic intracellular Ca(2+) landscape.

  2. Localization in the Nucleolus and Coiled Bodies of Protein Subunits of the Ribonucleoprotein Ribonuclease P

    Jarrous, Nayef; Wolenski, Joseph S.; Wesolowski, Donna; Lee, Christopher; Altman, Sidney

    1999-01-01

    The precise location of the tRNA processing ribonucleoprotein ribonuclease P (RNase P) and the mechanism of its intranuclear distribution have not been completely delineated. We show that three protein subunits of human RNase P (Rpp), Rpp14, Rpp29 and Rpp38, are found in the nucleolus and that each can localize a reporter protein to nucleoli of cells in tissue culture. In contrast to Rpp38, which is uniformly distributed in nucleoli, Rpp14 and Rpp29 are confined to the dense fibrillar component. Rpp29 and Rpp38 possess functional, yet distinct domains required for subnucleolar localization. The subunit Rpp14 lacks such a domain and appears to be dependent on a piggyback process to reach the nucleolus. Biochemical analysis suggests that catalytically active RNase P exists in the nucleolus. We also provide evidence that Rpp29 and Rpp38 reside in coiled bodies, organelles that are implicated in the biogenesis of several other small nuclear ribonucleoproteins required for processing of precursor mRNA. Because some protein subunits of RNase P are shared by the ribosomal RNA processing ribonucleoprotein RNase MRP, these two evolutionary related holoenzymes may share common intranuclear localization and assembly pathways to coordinate the processing of tRNA and rRNA precursors. PMID:10444065

  3. Mediator Subunit Med28 Is Essential for Mouse Peri-Implantation Development and Pluripotency.

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available The multi-subunit mammalian Mediator complex acts as an integrator of transcriptional regulation by RNA Polymerase II, and has emerged as a master coordinator of development and cell fate determination. We previously identified the Mediator subunit, MED28, as a cytosolic binding partner of merlin, the Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2 tumor suppressor, and thus MED28 is distinct in having a cytosolic role as an NF2 interacting protein as well as a nuclear role as a Mediator complex subunit. Although limited in vitro studies have been performed on MED28, its in vivo function remains unknown. Employing a knockout mouse model, we describe for the first time the requirement for Med28 in the developing mouse embryo. Med28-deficiency causes peri-implantation lethality resulting from the loss of pluripotency of the inner cell mass accompanied by reduced expression of key pluripotency transcription factors Oct4 and Nanog. Further, overexpression of Med28 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts enhances the efficiency of their reprogramming to pluripotency. Cre-mediated inactivation of Med28 in induced pluripotent stem cells shows that Med28 is required for their survival. Intriguingly, heterozygous loss of Med28 results in differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into extraembryonic trophectoderm and primitive endoderm lineages. Our findings document the essential role of Med28 in the developing embryo as well as in acquisition and maintenance of pluripotency during reprogramming.

  4. Subunit vaccine candidates against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Marana, Moonika Haahr; Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Skov, Jakob; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Holm Mattsson, Andreas; Dalsgaard, Inger; Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis and a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Injection vaccination with commercial mineral oil-adjuvanted bacterin vaccines has been partly successful in preventing the disease but in Danish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) aquaculture furunculosis outbreaks still occur. In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain A449 and identified potential protective protein antigens that were tested by in vivo challenge trial. A total of 14 proteins were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and prepared in 3 different subunit vaccine combinations to immunize 3 groups of rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. The fish were exposed to virulent A. salmonicida 7 weeks after immunization. To assess the efficacy of the subunit vaccines we evaluated the immune response in fish after immunization and challenge infection by measuring the antibody levels and monitoring the survival of fish in different groups. The survival of fish at 3 weeks after challenge infection showed that all 3 groups of fish immunized with 3 different protein combinations exhibited significantly lower mortalities (17-30%) compared to the control groups (48% and 56%). The ELISA results revealed significantly elevated antibody levels in fish against several protein antigens, which in some cases were positively correlated to the survival.

  5. Short communication: molecular characterization of dog and cat p65 subunits of NF-kappaB.

    Ishikawa, Shingo; Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Li, Gebin; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays an important role in the immune system. The p65 subunit is an important part of NF-κB unit, and studies of dog and cat p65 subunits of NF-κB (dp65 and cp65) are important in understanding their immune function. In this study, we described the molecular characterization of dp65 and cp65. The dp65 and cp65 complementary DNA encoded 542 and 555 amino acids, respectively, showing a high sequence homology with the mammalian p65 subunit (>87.5%). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the p65 messenger RNA is highly expressed in the dog stomach and cat heart and adipose tissue. Functional NF-κB promoter-luciferase reporter vectors revealed that our isolated dp65 and cp65 cDNA encodes a functionally active protein. Transiently expressed dp65 and cp65 up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels in dog and cat, respectively. These findings suggest that dp65 and cp65 play important roles in regulating immune function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High Affinity IgE-Fc Receptor alpha and gamma Subunit Interactions

    Rashid, A.; Housden, J. E. M.; Sabban, S.; Helm, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between the subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc and RI) and its ability to mediate transmembrane signaling. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, UK, from 2008 to 2009. Methodology: The approach employed was to create a chimera (human alpha-gamma-gamma) using the extracellular (EC) domain of the human high affinity IgE receptor. The alpha subunit (huFc and RIalpha) of IgE receptor was spliced onto the rodent gamma TM and cytoplasmic domain (CD). This was transfected into the Rat Basophilic Leukemia cell line in order to assess the possibility of selectively activating cells transfected with this single pass construct for antigen induced mediator release. Results: The RBLs cell lines transfected with the huFc and RIalpha/gamma/gamma cDNA constructs were assessed for the cell surface expression of the huFc and RIalpha subunit and the response to the antigenic stimulus by looking for degranulation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilisation. The results obtained showed the absence of huFc and RIalpha subunit expression on the surface of transfected cells as seen by flowcytometric studies, beta-hexosaminidase assays and intracellular calcium mobilisation studies. Conclusion: In the present study the grounds for non-expression of huFc and RIalpha/gamma/gamma cDNA remains elusive but may be due to the fact that the human-rodent chimeric receptors are assembled differently than the endogenous rodent receptors as seen in study in which COS 7 cells were transfected with human/rat chimeric complexes. (author)

  7. Behavioural endophenotypes in mice lacking the auxiliary GABAB receptor subunit KCTD16.

    Cathomas, Flurin; Sigrist, Hannes; Schmid, Luca; Seifritz, Erich; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Pryce, Christopher R

    2017-01-15

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and is implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. The GABA B receptors are G-protein coupled receptors consisting of principle subunits and auxiliary potassium channel tetramerization domain (KCTD) subunits. The KCTD subunits 8, 12, 12b and 16 are cytosolic proteins that determine the kinetics of the GABA B receptor response. Previously, we demonstrated that Kctd12 null mutant mice (Kctd12 -/- ) exhibit increased auditory fear learning and that Kctd12 +/- mice show altered circadian activity, as well as increased intrinsic excitability in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. KCTD16 has been demonstrated to influence neuronal excitability by regulating GABA B receptor-mediated gating of postsynaptic ion channels. In the present study we investigated for behavioural endophenotypes in Kctd16 -/- and Kctd16 +/- mice. Compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, auditory and contextual fear conditioning were normal in both Kctd16 -/- and Kctd16 +/- mice. When fear memory was tested on the following day, Kctd16 -/- mice exhibited less extinction of auditory fear memory relative to WT and Kctd16 +/- mice, as well as more contextual fear memory relative to WT and, in particular, Kctd16 +/- mice. Relative to WT, both Kctd16 +/- and Kctd16 -/- mice exhibited normal circadian activity. This study adds to the evidence that auxillary KCTD subunits of GABA B receptors contribute to the regulation of behaviours that could constitute endophenotypes for hyper-reactivity to aversive stimuli in neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The morphological and chemical characteristics of striatal neurons immunoreactive for the alpha1-subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in the rat.

    Waldvogel, H J; Kubota, Y; Trevallyan, S C; Kawaguchi, Y; Fritschy, J M; Mohler, H; Faull, R L

    1997-10-01

    The distribution, morphology and chemical characteristics of neurons immunoreactive for the alpha1-subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in the striatum of the basal ganglia in the rat brain were investigated at the light, confocal and electron microscope levels using single, double and triple immunohistochemical labelling techniques. The results showed that alpha1-subunit immunoreactive neurons were sparsely distributed throughout the rat striatum. Double and triple labelling results showed that all the alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons were positive for glutamate decarboxylase and immunoreactive for the beta2,3 and gamma2 subunits of the GABA(A) receptor. Three types of alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the striatum on the basis of cellular morphology and chemical characteristics. The most numerous alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons were medium-sized, aspiny neurons with a widely branching dendritic tree. They were parvalbumin-negative and were located mainly in the dorsolateral regions of the striatum. Electron microscopy showed that these neurons had an indented nuclear membrane, typical of striatal interneurons, and were surrounded by small numbers of axon terminals which established alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive synaptic contacts with the soma and dendrites. These cells were classified as type 1 alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons and comprised 75% of the total population of alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons in the striatum. The remaining alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons comprised of a heterogeneous population of large-sized neurons localized in the ventral and medial regions of the striatum. The most numerous large-sized cells were parvalbumin-negative, had two to three relatively short branching dendrites and were designated type 2 alpha1-subunit-immunoreactive neurons. Electron microscopy showed that the type 2 neurons were characterized by a highly convoluted nuclear membrane and were sparsely covered with small axon

  9. Subunit Stabilization and Polyethylene Glycolation of Cocaine Esterase Improves In Vivo Residence Time

    Narasimhan, Diwahar; Collins, Gregory T.; Nance, Mark R.; Nichols, Joseph; Edwald, Elin; Chan, Jimmy; Ko, Mei-Chuan; Woods, James H.; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K. (Michigan)

    2012-03-15

    No small-molecule therapeutic is available to treat cocaine addiction, but enzyme-based therapy to accelerate cocaine hydrolysis in serum has gained momentum. Bacterial cocaine esterase (CocE) is the fastest known native enzyme that hydrolyzes cocaine. However, its lability at 37 C has limited its therapeutic potential. Cross-linking subunits through disulfide bridging is commonly used to stabilize multimeric enzymes. Herein we use structural methods to guide the introduction of two cysteine residues within dimer interface of CocE to facilitate intermolecular disulfide bond formation. The disulfide-crosslinked enzyme displays improved thermostability, particularly when combined with previously described mutations that enhance stability (T172R-G173Q). The newly modified enzyme yielded an extremely stable form of CocE (CCRQ-CocE) that retained greater than 90% of its activity after 41 days at 37 C, representing an improvement of more than 4700-fold over the wild-type enzyme. CCRQ-CocE could also be modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, which improved its in vivo residence time from 24 to 72 h, as measured by a cocaine lethality assay, by self-administration in rodents, and by measurement of inhibition of cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects in rhesus monkeys. PEG-CCRQ elicited negligible immune response in rodents. Subunit stabilization and PEGylation has thus produced a potential protein therapeutic with markedly higher stability both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. [Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA of the rpc10+ gene encoding the smallest subunit of nuclear RNA polymerases of Schizosaccharomyces pombe].

    Shpakovskiĭ, G V; Lebedenko, E N

    1997-05-01

    The full-length cDNA of the rpc10+ gene encoding mini-subunit Rpc10, which is common for all three nuclear RNA polymerases of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, was cloned and sequenced. The Rpc10 subunit of Sz. pombe and its homologs from S. cerevisiae and H. sapiens are positively charged proteins with a highly conserved C-terminal region and an invariant zinc-binding domain (Zn-finger) of a typical amino acid composition: YxCx2Cx12RCx2CGxR. Functional tests of heterospecific complementation, using tetrad analysis or plasmid shuffling, showed that the Rpc10 subunit of Sz. pombe can successfully replace the homologous ABC10 alpha subunit in nuclear RNA polymerases I-III of S. cerevisiae.

  11. The PKA-C3 catalytic subunit is required in two pairs of interneurons for successful mating of Drosophila.

    Cassar, Marlène; Sunderhaus, Elizabeth; Wentzell, Jill S; Kuntz, Sara; Strauss, Roland; Kretzschmar, Doris

    2018-02-06

    Protein kinase A (PKA) has been shown to play a role in a plethora of cellular processes ranging from development to memory formation. Its activity is mediated by the catalytic subunits whereby many species express several paralogs. Drosophila encodes three catalytic subunits (PKA-C1-3) and whereas PKA-C1 has been well studied, the functions of the other two subunits were unknown. PKA-C3 is the orthologue of mammalian PRKX/Pkare and they are structurally more closely related to each other than to other catalytic subunits within their species. PRKX is expressed in the nervous system in mice but its function is also unknown. We now show that the loss of PKA-C3 in Drosophila causes copulation defects, though the flies are active and show no defects in other courtship behaviours. This phenotype is specifically due to the loss of PKA-C3 because PKA-C1 cannot replace PKA-C3. PKA-C3 is expressed in two pairs of interneurons that send projections to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum and the mushroom bodies and that synapse onto motor neurons in the ventral nerve cord. Rescue experiments show that expression of PKA-C3 in these interneurons is sufficient for copulation, suggesting a role in relaying information from the sensory system to motor neurons to initiate copulation.

  12. NF-κB p50 subunit knockout impairs late LTP and alters long term memory in the mouse hippocampus

    Oikawa Kensuke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB is a transcription factor typically expressed with two specific subunits (p50, p65. Investigators have reported that NF-κB is activated during the induction of in vitro long term potentiation (LTP, a paradigm of synaptic plasticity and correlate of memory, suggesting that NF-κB may be necessary for some aspects of memory encoding. Furthermore, NF-κB has been implicated as a potential requirement in behavioral tests of memory. Unfortunately, very little work has been done to explore the effects of deleting specific NF-κB subunits on memory. Studies have shown that NF-κB p50 subunit deletion (p50−/− leads to memory deficits, however some recent studies suggest the contrary where p50−/− mice show enhanced memory in the Morris water maze (MWM. To more critically explore the role of the NF-κB p50 subunit in synaptic plasticity and memory, we assessed long term spatial memory in vivo using the MWM, and synaptic plasticity in vitro utilizing high frequency stimuli capable of eliciting LTP in slices from the hippocampus of NF-κB p50−/− versus their controls (p50+/+. Results We found that the lack of the NF-κB p50 subunit led to significant decreases in late LTP and in selective but significant alterations in MWM tests (i.e., some improvements during acquisition, but deficits during retention. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that the NF-κ p50 subunit is required in long term spatial memory in the hippocampus.

  13. Comparison of mouse, guinea pig and rabbit models for evaluation of plague subunit vaccine F1+rV270.

    Qi, Zhizhen; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Qingwen; Ren, Lingling; Dai, Ruixia; Wu, Benchuan; Wang, Tang; Zhu, Ziwen; Yang, Yonghai; Cui, Baizhong; Wang, Zuyun; Wang, Hu; Qiu, Yefeng; Guo, Zhaobiao; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2010-02-10

    In this study, a new subunit vaccine that comprised native F1 and recombinant rV270 was evaluated for protective efficacy using mouse, guinea pig and rabbit models in comparison with the live attenuated vaccine EV76. Complete protection against challenging with 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) of virulent Yersinia pestis strain 141 was observed for mice immunized with the subunit vaccines and EV76 vaccine. In contrast, the subunit vaccine recipes VII (F1-20 microg+rV270-10 microg) and IX (F1-40 microg+rV270-20 microg) and EV76 vaccine provided 86%, 79% and 93% protection against the same level of challenge in guinea pigs and 100%, 83% and 100% protection in rabbits, respectively. The immunized mice with the vaccines had significantly higher IgG titres than the guinea pigs and rabbits, and the immunized guinea pigs developed significantly higher IgG titres than the rabbits, but the anti-F1 response in guinea pigs was more variable than in the mice and rabbits, indicating that guinea pig is not an ideal model for evaluating protective efficacy of plague subunit vaccine, instead the rabbits could be used as an alternative model. All the immunized animals with EV76 developed a negligible IgG titre to rV270 antigen. Furthermore, analysis of IgG subclasses in the immunized animals showed a strong response for IgG1, whereas those receiving EV76 immunization demonstrated predominant production of IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes. The subunit vaccine and EV76 vaccine are able to provide protection for animals against Y. pestis challenge, but the subunit vaccines have obvious advantages over EV76 in terms of safety of use. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex-linked dominant

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  15. Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunits in Human Adipose Tissue

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Bondioni, Sara; Alberti, Luisella; Gilardini, Luisa; Invitti, Cecilia; Corbetta, Sabrina; Zappa, Marco A.; Ferrero, Stefano; Lania, Andrea G.; Bosari, Silvano; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—In human adipocytes, the cAMP-dependent pathway mediates signals originating from β-adrenergic activation, thus playing a key role in the regulation of important metabolic processes, i.e., lipolysis and thermogenesis. Cyclic AMP effects are mainly mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), whose R2B regulatory isoform is the most expressed in mouse adipose tissue, where it protects against diet-induced obesity and fatty liver development. The aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in R2B expression, PKA activity, and lipolysis in adipose tissues from obese and nonobese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The expression of the different PKA regulatory subunits was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time PCR in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples from 20 nonobese and 67 obese patients. PKA activity and glycerol release were evaluated in total protein extract and adipocytes isolated from fresh tissue samples, respectively. RESULTS—Expression techniques showed that R2B was the most abundant regulatory protein, both at mRNA and protein level. Interestingly, R2B mRNA levels were significantly lower in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues from obese than nonobese patients and negatively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Moreover, both basal and stimulated PKA activity and glycerol release were significantly lower in visceral adipose tissue from obese patients then nonobese subjects. CONCLUSIONS—Our results first indicate that, in human adipose tissue, there are important BMI-related differences in R2B expression and PKA activation, which might be included among the multiple determinants involved in the different lipolytic response to β-adrenergic activation in obesity. PMID:19095761

  16. P. berghei telomerase subunit TERT is essential for parasite survival.

    Agnieszka A Religa

    Full Text Available Telomeres define the ends of chromosomes protecting eukaryotic cells from chromosome instability and eventual cell death. The complex regulation of telomeres involves various proteins including telomerase, which is a specialized ribonucleoprotein responsible for telomere maintenance. Telomeres of chromosomes of malaria parasites are kept at a constant length during blood stage proliferation. The 7-bp telomere repeat sequence is universal across different Plasmodium species (GGGTTT/CA, though the average telomere length varies. The catalytic subunit of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT, is present in all sequenced Plasmodium species and is approximately three times larger than other eukaryotic TERTs. The Plasmodium RNA component of TERT has recently been identified in silico. A strategy to delete the gene encoding TERT via double cross-over (DXO homologous recombination was undertaken to study the telomerase function in P. berghei. Expression of both TERT and the RNA component (TR in P. berghei blood stages was analysed by Western blotting and Northern analysis. Average telomere length was measured in several Plasmodium species using Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis. TERT and TR were detected in blood stages and an average telomere length of ∼ 950 bp established. Deletion of the tert gene was performed using standard transfection methodologies and we show the presence of tert- mutants in the transfected parasite populations. Cloning of tert- mutants has been attempted multiple times without success. Thorough analysis of the transfected parasite populations and the parasite obtained from extensive parasite cloning from these populations provide evidence for a so called delayed death phenotype as observed in different organisms lacking TERT. The findings indicate that TERT is essential for P. berghei cell survival. The study extends our current knowledge on telomere biology in malaria parasites and validates further

  17. Differences in the phenotypic effects of mutations in homologous MrpA and MrpD subunits of the multi-subunit Mrp-type Na+/H+ antiporter.

    Morino, Masato; Ogoda, Shinichiro; Krulwich, Terry Ann; Ito, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Mrp antiporters are the sole antiporters in the Cation/Proton Antiporter 3 family of transporter databases because of their unusual structural complexity, 6-7 hydrophobic proteins that function as a hetero-oligomeric complex. The two largest and homologous subunits, MrpA and MrpD, are essential for antiport activity and have direct roles in ion transport. They also show striking homology with proton-conducting, membrane-embedded Nuo subunits of respiratory chain complex I of bacteria, e.g., Escherichia coli. MrpA has the closest homology to the complex I NuoL subunit and MrpD has the closest homology to the complex I NuoM and N subunits. Here, introduction of mutations in MrpD, in residues that are also present in MrpA, led to defects in antiport function and/or complex formation. No significant phenotypes were detected in strains with mutations in corresponding residues of MrpA, but site-directed changes in the C-terminal region of MrpA had profound effects, showing that the MrpA C-terminal region has indispensable roles in antiport function. The results are consistent with a divergence in adaptations that support the roles of MrpA and MrpD in secondary antiport, as compared to later adaptations supporting homologs in primary proton pumping by the respiratory chain complex I.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of human recombinant thyrotropin (rec-hTSH) with a chimeric β-subunit (rec-hTSHβ-CTPE hCGβ)

    Murata, Yoko.

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant hTSH is now successfully being used in clinical studies of thyroid cancer. Because of its therapeutic potential, we have constructed a longer acting analog of hTSH by fusing the carboxy terminal extension peptide (CTEP) of hCGβ onto hTSHβ. When coexpressed either with α-subunit complementary DNA or α-minigene in African green monkey (Cos-7) and human embryonic kidney (293) cells, the chimera was fully bioactive in vitro and exhibited enhanced in vivo potency associated with a prolonged plasma half-life. The addition of 29 amino acids with 4 O-linked oligosaccharide chains did not affect the assembly and secretion of chimeric TSH. Wild type (WT) and chimeric hTSH secreted by Cos-7 and 293 cells displayed wide differences in their plasma half-lives, presumably due to the difference in the terminal sialic acid and sulfate of their oligosaccharide chains. Chimeric and WT hTSH secreted by both cell lines demonstrated similar bioactivity in cAMP production, with some differences in [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation. Chimeric hTSH secreted by Cos-7 appears to be more active than that secreted by 293 cells, as judged by growth assay. Cos-7 produced chimeric hTSH showed the maximum increase in half-life, indicating the importance of sialic acid in prolonging half-life and in vivo potency. Sulfation of both subunits, predominantly β and to a lesser extent α, appears to be responsible, at least in part, for the increased metabolic clearance of WT and chimeric TSH secreted by 293 cells. Apart from its therapeutic potential, chimeric TSH produced in various cell lines can be used as a tool to delineate the roles of sulfate and sialic acid in the in vivo clearance and, thereby in the in vivo bioactivity. (author). 104 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Heteromeric Slick/Slack K+ channels show graded sensitivity to cell volume changes

    Tejada, Maria A; Hashem, Nadia; Callø, Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes....... Slick has been shown to be regulated by cell volume changes, whereas Slack is insensitive. α-subunits of these channels form homomeric as well as heteromeric channels. It is the aim of this work to explore whether the subunit composition of the Slick/Slack heteromeric channel affects the response...... to osmotic challenges. In order to provide with the adequate water permeability to the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, mRNA of aquaporin 1 was co-expressed with homomeric or heteromeric Slick and Slack α-subunits. Oocytes were superfused with hypotonic or hypertonic buffers and changes in currents...

  20. Evaluation of subunit vaccines against feline immunodeficiency virus infection

    Horzinek, M.C.; Verschoor, E.J.; Willemse, M.J.; Stam, J.G.; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Pouwels, H.; Chalmers, S.K.; Sondermeijer, P.J.; Hesselink, W.; Ronde, A. de

    1996-01-01

    Subunit vaccines prepared against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection were evaluated in two trials. First, cats were immunized with bacterial expression products of an envelope fragment that contained the V3 neutralization domain of the FIV surface protein fused to either galactokinase

  1. Partial agonists and subunit selectivity at NMDA receptors

    Risgaard, Rune; Hansen, Kasper Bø; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius

    2010-01-01

    Subunit-selective ligands for glutamate receptors remains an area of interest as glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and involved in a number of diseased states in the central nervous system (CNS). Few subtype-selective ligands are known, especially among the N...

  2. α-4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphisms exhibit ...

    Background: Smoking behavior is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Nicotine is the major addictive substance in cigarettes. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are thought to play an important role in nicotine addiction of smokers. One of the genes, α-4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ...

  3. Structural interaction of novel dendrimer and subunits with water

    Preferred Customer

    interaction study with solvents are essential [4-6] and several subunits are used for .... slowed down the viscous flow with higher excess limiting viscosities of the 2,4,6- ..... Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th ed.; Wiley: New York; 1989; p 300. 14.

  4. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  5. Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of hemoglobin and its isolated subunits

    Hoy, G.R.; Cook, D.C.; Berger, R.L.; Friedman, F.K.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of 90% enriched 57Fe hemoglobin and its isolated subunits have been prepared. Moessbauer spectroscopic measurements have been made on three such samples. Sample one contained contributions of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and carbonmonoxyhemoglobin. This sample was studied from a temperature of 90 K down to 230 mK. Measurements were also made at 4.2 K using a small applied magnetic field of 1.0 T. In general, the measured quadrupole splittings and isomer shifts for each component agreed with previous measurements on single component samples in the literature, and thus demonstrated that chemically enriched hemoglobin has not been altered. The second and third samples were isolated alpha and beta subunits, respectively. We have found measurable Moessbauer spectral differences between the HbO 2 sites in the alpha subunit sample and the beta subunit sample. The measured Moessbauer spectral areas indicate that the iron ion has the largest mean-square displacement at the deoxy Hb sites as compared to that at the oxy- and carbonmonoxy Hb sites. The mean-square displacement at the HbO 2 sites is the smallest

  6. Single-subunit oligosaccharyltransferases of Trypanosoma brucei display different and predictable peptide acceptor specificities.

    Jinnelov, Anders; Ali, Liaqat; Tinti, Michele; Güther, Maria Lucia S; Ferguson, Michael A J

    2017-12-08

    Trypanosoma brucei causes African trypanosomiasis and contains three full-length oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) genes; two of which, Tb STT3A and Tb STT3B, are expressed in the bloodstream form of the parasite. These OSTs have different peptide acceptor and lipid-linked oligosaccharide donor specificities, and trypanosomes do not follow many of the canonical rules developed for other eukaryotic N -glycosylation pathways, raising questions as to the basic architecture and detailed function of trypanosome OSTs. Here, we show by blue-native gel electrophoresis and stable isotope labeling in cell culture proteomics that the Tb STT3A and Tb STT3B proteins associate with each other in large complexes that contain no other detectable protein subunits. We probed the peptide acceptor specificities of the OSTs in vivo using a transgenic glycoprotein reporter system and performed glycoproteomics on endogenous parasite glycoproteins using sequential endoglycosidase H and peptide: N -glycosidase-F digestions. This allowed us to assess the relative occupancies of numerous N -glycosylation sites by endoglycosidase H-resistant N -glycans originating from Man 5 GlcNAc 2 -PP-dolichol transferred by Tb STT3A, and endoglycosidase H-sensitive N -glycans originating from Man 9 GlcNAc 2 -PP-dolichol transferred by Tb STT3B. Using machine learning, we assessed the features that best define Tb STT3A and Tb STT3B substrates in vivo and built an algorithm to predict the types of N -glycan most likely to predominate at all the putative N -glycosylation sites in the parasite proteome. Finally, molecular modeling was used to suggest why Tb STT3A has a distinct preference for sequons containing and/or flanked by acidic amino acid residues. Together, these studies provide insights into how a highly divergent eukaryote has re-wired protein N -glycosylation to provide protein sequence-specific N -glycan modifications. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD007236, PXD007267

  7. Dynamic Coupling and Allosteric Networks in the α Subunit of Heterotrimeric G Proteins.

    Yao, Xin-Qiu; Malik, Rabia U; Griggs, Nicholas W; Skjærven, Lars; Traynor, John R; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Grant, Barry J

    2016-02-26

    G protein α subunits cycle between active and inactive conformations to regulate a multitude of intracellular signaling cascades. Important structural transitions occurring during this cycle have been characterized from extensive crystallographic studies. However, the link between observed conformations and the allosteric regulation of binding events at distal sites critical for signaling through G proteins remain unclear. Here we describe molecular dynamics simulations, bioinformatics analysis, and experimental mutagenesis that identifies residues involved in mediating the allosteric coupling of receptor, nucleotide, and helical domain interfaces of Gαi. Most notably, we predict and characterize novel allosteric decoupling mutants, which display enhanced helical domain opening, increased rates of nucleotide exchange, and constitutive activity in the absence of receptor activation. Collectively, our results provide a framework for explaining how binding events and mutations can alter internal dynamic couplings critical for G protein function. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Reconstitution of active human core Mediator complex reveals a pivotal role of the MED14 subunit

    Cevher, Murat A.; Shi, Yi; Li, Dan; Chait, Brian T.; Malik, Sohail; Roeder, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Mediator complex is a critical coactivator for RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-mediated transcription. Here, we report the reconstitution of a functional 15-subunit human core Mediator complex and its characterization by functional assays and chemical cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry (CX-MS). Whereas the reconstituted head and middle modules can stably associate, only with incorporation of MED14 into the bi-modular complex does it acquire basal and coactivator functions. This results from a dramatically enhanced ability of MED14-containing complexes to associate with Pol II. Altogether, our analyses identify MED14 as both an architectural and a functional backbone of the Mediator complex. We further establish a conditional requirement for metazoan-specific MED26 that becomes evident in the presence of heterologous nuclear factors. This general approach paves the way for systematically dissecting the multiple layers of functionalities associated with the Mediator complex. PMID:25383669

  9. Reconstitution of active human core Mediator complex reveals a critical role of the MED14 subunit.

    Cevher, Murat A; Shi, Yi; Li, Dan; Chait, Brian T; Malik, Sohail; Roeder, Robert G

    2014-12-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Mediator complex is a critical coactivator for RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-mediated transcription. Here we report the reconstitution of a functional 15-subunit human core Mediator complex and its characterization by functional assays and chemical cross-linking coupled to MS (CX-MS). Whereas the reconstituted head and middle modules can stably associate, basal and coactivator functions are acquired only after incorporation of MED14 into the bimodular complex. This results from a dramatically enhanced ability of MED14-containing complexes to associate with Pol II. Altogether, our analyses identify MED14 as both an architectural and a functional backbone of the Mediator complex. We further establish a conditional requirement for metazoan-specific MED26 that becomes evident in the presence of heterologous nuclear factors. This general approach paves the way for systematic dissection of the multiple layers of functionality associated with the Mediator complex.

  10. Role of cytochrome B in the processing of the subunits of complex III in the yeast mitochondria

    Sen, K.G.

    1986-01-01

    The work described in this dissertation deals with the effect of cytochrome b on the biogenesis and assembly of the subunits of complex III in the mitochondrial membrane of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cytochrome b-mutants (Box mutants of S. cerevisiae form an excellent system to study such a role of cytochome B. The amounts of cytochrome c 1 in the mitochrondria, as determined both spectroscopically and immunologically, were not affected by the absence of cytochrome b. Pulse labelling of the cells with ( 35 S) methionine in the presence of CCCP showed the accumulation of the precursors to the core protein I and the iron-sulfur protein in similar amounts in the mutant Box 6-2 and the wild type cells. Synthesis of the iron sulfur protein and the cytochrome c 1 by in vitro translation of mRNA isolated from wild type and mutant Box 6-2 in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, also confirmed that the synthesis of the nuclear encoded subunits was not affected in the mutants. Pulse labeling of the cells in the absence of CCCP and subsequent chase with cold methionine, however, showed much less of the mature subunits of core protein I and the iron-sulfur protein in the mitochrondria of the mutant cells relative to the wild type. These results indicate that cytochrome b is necessary for the proper processing of certain subunits of complex III

  11. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    Ben-Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12 in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63 were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the

  12. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  13. Measuring performance at trade shows

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  14. Effect of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits, and subunits of gliadin on physicochemical parameters of different wheat genotypes

    Mariana Souza Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification of functional properties of wheat flour by specific tests allows genotypes with appropriate characteristics to be selected for specific industrial uses. The objective of wheat breeding programs is to improve the quality of germplasm bank in order to be able to develop wheat with suitable gluten strength and extensibility for bread making. The aim of this study was to evaluate 16 wheat genotypes by correlating both glutenin subunits of high and low molecular weight and gliadin subunits with the physicochemical characteristics of the grain. Protein content, sedimentation volume, sedimentation index, and falling number values were analyzed after the grains were milled. Hectoliter weight and mass of 1000 seeds were also determined. The glutenin and gliadin subunits were separated using polyacrylamide gel in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The data were evaluated using variance analysis, Pearson's correlation, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis. The IPR 85, IPR Catuara TM, T 091015, and T 091069 genotypes stood out from the others, which indicate their possibly superior grain quality with higher sedimentation volume, higher sedimentation index, and higher mass of 1000 seeds; these genotypes possessed the subunits 1 (Glu-A1, 5 + 10 (Glu-D1, c (Glu-A3, and b (Glu-B3, with exception of T 091069 genotype that possessed the g allele instead of b in the Glu-B3.

  15. Exercise induced upregulation of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene expression in Thoroughbred horses

    Jeong-Woong Park

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was performed to reveal the molecular structure and expression patterns of horse glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM genes whose products form glutamate cysteine ligase, which were identified as differentially expressed genes in the previous study. Methods We performed bioinformatics analyses, and gene expression assay with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR for horse GCLC and GCLM genes in muscle and blood leukocytes of Thoroughbred horses Results Expression of GCLC showed the same pattern in both blood and muscle tissues after exercise. Expression of GCLC increased in the muscle and blood of Thoroughbreds, suggesting a tissue-specific regulatory mechanism for the expression of GCLC. In addition, expression of the GCLM gene increased after exercise in both the blood and muscle of Thoroughbreds. Conclusion We established the expression patterns of GCLC and GCLM in the skeletal muscle and blood of Thoroughbred horses in response to exercise. Further study is now warranted to uncover the functional importance of these genes in exercise and recovery in racehorses.

  16. Orientation of the calcium channel beta relative to the alpha(12.2 subunit is critical for its regulation of channel activity.

    Iuliia Vitko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ca(vbeta subunits of high voltage-activated Ca(2+ channels control the trafficking and biophysical properties of the alpha(1 subunit. The Ca(vbeta-alpha(1 interaction site has been mapped by crystallographic studies. Nevertheless, how this interaction leads to channel regulation has not been determined. One hypothesis is that betas regulate channel gating by modulating movements of IS6. A key requirement for this direct-coupling model is that the linker connecting IS6 to the alpha-interaction domain (AID be a rigid structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study tests this hypothesis by altering the flexibility and orientation of this region in alpha(12.2, then testing for Ca(vbeta regulation using whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Flexibility was induced by replacement of the middle six amino acids of the IS6-AID linker with glycine (PG6. This mutation abolished beta2a and beta3 subunits ability to shift the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation, and the ability of beta2a to produce non-inactivating currents. Orientation of Ca(vbeta with respect to alpha(12.2 was altered by deletion of 1, 2, or 3 amino acids from the IS6-AID linker (Bdel1, Bdel2, Bdel3, respectively. Again, the ability of Ca(vbeta subunits to regulate these biophysical properties were totally abolished in the Bdel1 and Bdel3 mutants. Functional regulation by Ca(vbeta subunits was rescued in the Bdel2 mutant, indicating that this part of the linker forms beta-sheet. The orientation of beta with respect to alpha was confirmed by the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that the orientation of the Ca(vbeta subunit relative to the alpha(12.2 subunit is critical, and suggests additional points of contact between these subunits are required for Ca(vbeta to regulate channel activity.

  17. Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit in swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus: molecular cloning, characterization, and expression under low salinity stress

    Han, Xiaolin; Liu, Ping; Gao, Baoquan; Wang, Haofeng; Duan, Yafei; Xu, Wenfei; Chen, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Na+/K+-ATPases are membrane-associated enzymes responsible for the active transport of Na+ and K+ ions across cell membranes, generating chemical and electrical gradients. These enzymes' α-subunit provides catalytic function, binding and hydrolyzing ATP, and itself becoming phosphorylated during the transport cycle. In this study, Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit cDNA was cloned from gill tissue of the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end methods. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA had a full-length of 3 833 base pairs (bp), with an open reading frame of 3 120 bp, 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 317 bp, and 3' UTR of 396 bp. The sequence encoded a 1 039 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 115.57 kDa and with estimated pI of 5.21. It was predicted here to possess all expected features of Na+/K+-ATPase members, including eight transmembrane domains, putative ATP-binding site, and phosphorylation site. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that the P. trituberculatus α-subunit possessed an overall identity of 75%-99% to that of other organisms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this α-subunit was in the same category as those of crustaceans. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that this α-subunit's transcript were most highly expressed in gill and lowest in muscle. RT-PCR analysis also revealed that α-subunit expression in crab gill decreased after 2 and 6 h, but increased after 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. In addition, α-subunit expression in hepatopancreas of crab decreased after 2-72 h. These facts indicated that the crab's Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit was potentially involved in the observed acute response to low salinity stress.

  18. Similarities in transcription factor IIIC subunits that bind to the posterior regions of internal promoters for RNA polymerase III

    Matsutani Sachiko

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase III (RNAP III transcribes the genes for small RNAs like tRNAs, 5S rRNA, and several viral RNAs, and short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs. The genes for these RNAs and SINEs have internal promoters that consist of two regions. These two regions are called the A and B blocks. The multisubunit transcription factor TFIIIC is required for transcription initiation of RNAP III; in transcription of tRNAs, the B-block binding subunit of TFIIIC recognizes a promoter. Although internal promoter sequences are conserved in eukaryotes, no evidence of homology between the B-block binding subunits of vertebrates and yeasts has been reported previously. Results Here, I reported the results of PSI-BLAST searches using the B-block binding subunits of human and Shizosacchromyces pombe as queries, showing that the same Arabidopsis proteins were hit with low E-values in both searches. Comparison of the convergent iterative alignments obtained by these PSI-BLAST searches revealed that the vertebrate, yeast, and Arabidopsis proteins have similarities in their N-terminal one-third regions. In these regions, there were three domains with conserved sequence similarities, one located in the N-terminal end region. The N-terminal end region of the B-block binding subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tentatively identified as a HMG box, which is the DNA binding motif. Although I compared the alignment of the N-terminal end regions of the B-block binding subunits, and their homologs, with that of the HMG boxes, it is not clear whether they are related. Conclusion Molecular phylogenetic analyses using the small subunit rRNA and ubiquitous proteins like actin and α-tubulin, show that fungi are more closely related to animals than either is to plants. Interestingly, the results obtained in this study show that, with respect to the B-block binding subunits of TFIIICs, animals appear to be evolutionarily closer to plants

  19. Similarities in transcription factor IIIC subunits that bind to the posterior regions of internal promoters for RNA polymerase III.

    Matsutani, Sachiko

    2004-08-09

    In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) transcribes the genes for small RNAs like tRNAs, 5S rRNA, and several viral RNAs, and short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs). The genes for these RNAs and SINEs have internal promoters that consist of two regions. These two regions are called the A and B blocks. The multisubunit transcription factor TFIIIC is required for transcription initiation of RNAP III; in transcription of tRNAs, the B-block binding subunit of TFIIIC recognizes a promoter. Although internal promoter sequences are conserved in eukaryotes, no evidence of homology between the B-block binding subunits of vertebrates and yeasts has been reported previously. Here, I reported the results of PSI-BLAST searches using the B-block binding subunits of human and Shizosacchromyces pombe as queries, showing that the same Arabidopsis proteins were hit with low E-values in both searches. Comparison of the convergent iterative alignments obtained by these PSI-BLAST searches revealed that the vertebrate, yeast, and Arabidopsis proteins have similarities in their N-terminal one-third regions. In these regions, there were three domains with conserved sequence similarities, one located in the N-terminal end region. The N-terminal end region of the B-block binding subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tentatively identified as a HMG box, which is the DNA binding motif. Although I compared the alignment of the N-terminal end regions of the B-block binding subunits, and their homologs, with that of the HMG boxes, it is not clear whether they are related. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using the small subunit rRNA and ubiquitous proteins like actin and alpha-tubulin, show that fungi are more closely related to animals than either is to plants. Interestingly, the results obtained in this study show that, with respect to the B-block binding subunits of TFIIICs, animals appear to be evolutionarily closer to plants than to fungi.

  20. Off-pathway assembly of fimbria subunits is prevented by chaperone CfaA of CFA/I fimbriae from enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    Bao, Rui; Liu, Yang; Savarino, Stephen J; Xia, Di

    2016-12-01

    The assembly of the class 5 colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae of enterotoxigenic E. coli was proposed to proceed via the alternate chaperone-usher pathway. Here, we show that in the absence of the chaperone CfaA, CfaB, the major pilin subunit of CFA/I fimbriae, is able to spontaneously refold and polymerize into cyclic trimers. CfaA kinetically traps CfaB to form a metastable complex that can be stabilized by mutations. Crystal structure of the stabilized complex reveals distinctive interactions provided by CfaA to trap CfaB in an assembly competent state through donor-strand complementation (DSC) and cleft-mediated anchorage. Mutagenesis indicated that DSC controls the stability of the chaperone-subunit complex and the cleft-mediated anchorage of the subunit C-terminus additionally assist in subunit refolding. Surprisingly, over-stabilization of the chaperone-subunit complex led to delayed fimbria assembly, whereas destabilizing the complex resulted in no fimbriation. Thus, CfaA acts predominantly as a kinetic trap by stabilizing subunit to avoid its off-pathway self-polymerization that results in energetically favorable trimers and could serve as a driving force for CFA/I pilus assembly, representing an energetic landscape unique to class 5 fimbria assembly. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Arabidopsis mediator complex subunits MED16, MED14, and MED2 regulate mediator and RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes.

    Hemsley, Piers A; Hurst, Charlotte H; Kaliyadasa, Ewon; Lamb, Rebecca; Knight, Marc R; De Cothi, Elizabeth A; Steele, John F; Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Mediator16 (MED16; formerly termed SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 [SFR6]) subunit of the plant Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex regulates cold-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, acting downstream of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors to recruit the core Mediator complex to cold-regulated genes. Here, we use loss-of-function mutants to show that RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes requires MED16, MED2, and MED14 subunits. Transcription of genes known to be regulated via CBFs binding to the C-repeat motif/drought-responsive element promoter motif requires all three Mediator subunits, as does cold acclimation-induced freezing tolerance. In addition, these three subunits are required for low temperature-induced expression of some other, but not all, cold-responsive genes, including genes that are not known targets of CBFs. Genes inducible by darkness also required MED16 but required a different combination of Mediator subunits for their expression than the genes induced by cold. Together, our data illustrate that plants control transcription of specific genes through the action of subsets of Mediator subunits; the specific combination defined by the nature of the stimulus but also by the identity of the gene induced.

  2. Nucleolar Proteome Analysis and Proteasomal Activity Assays Reveal a Link between Nucleolus and 26S Proteasome in A. thaliana

    Montacié, Charlotte; Durut, Nathalie; Opsomer, Alison; Palm, Denise; Comella, Pascale; Picart, Claire; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Pontvianne, Frederic; Carapito, Christine; Schleiff, Enrico; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2017-01-01

    In all eukaryotic cells, the nucleolus is functionally and structurally linked to rRNA synthesis and ribosome biogenesis. This compartment contains as well factors involved in other cellular activities, but the functional interconnection between non-ribosomal activities and the nucleolus (structure and function) still remains an open question. Here, we report a novel mass spectrometry analysis of isolated nucleoli from Arabidopsis thaliana plants using the FANoS (Fluorescence Assisted Nucleolus Sorting) strategy. We identified many ribosome biogenesis factors (RBF) and proteins non-related with ribosome biogenesis, in agreement with the recognized multi-functionality of the nucleolus. Interestingly, we found that 26S proteasome subunits localize in the nucleolus and demonstrated that proteasome activity and nucleolus organization are intimately linked to each other. Proteasome subunits form discrete foci in the disorganized nucleolus of nuc1.2 plants. Nuc1.2 protein extracts display reduced proteasome activity in vitro compared to WT protein extracts. Remarkably, proteasome activity in nuc1.2 is similar to proteasome activity in WT plants treated with proteasome inhibitors (MG132 or ALLN). Finally, we show that MG132 treatment induces disruption of nucleolar structures in WT but not in nuc1.2 plants. Altogether, our data suggest a functional interconnection between nucleolus structure and proteasome activity. PMID:29104584

  3. Isolation of the pituitary gonadotrophic α-subunit hormone of the giant amazonian fish: pirarucu (Arapaima gigas).

    Faria, M T; Carvalho, R F; Sevilhano, T C A; Oliveira, N A J; Silva, C F P; Oliveira, J E; Soares, C R J; Garcez, R; Santo, P R E; Bartolini, P

    2013-06-01

    The cDNAs of the α-subunit of the pituitary gonadotrophic hormones (GTHα) of fish of the order Osteoglossiformes or the superorder Osteoglossomorpha have never been sequenced. For a better understanding the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of PGHα in fish and for future biotechnological synthesis of the gonadotrophic hormones (ag-FSH and ag-LH), of Arapaima gigas, one of the largest freshwater fishes of the world, its GTHα cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcriptase and the polymerase chain reaction starting from total pituitary RNA. The ag-GTHα-subunit was found to be encoded by 348 bp, corresponding to a protein of 115 amino acids, with a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids and a mature peptide of 91 amino acids. Ten cysteine residues, responsible for forming 5 disulfide linkages, 2 putative N-linked glycosylation sites and 3 proline residues, were found to be conserved on the basis of the known sequences of vertebrate gonadotrophic hormones. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the amino acid sequences of 38 GTHα-subunits, revealed the highest identity of A. gigas with members of the Acipenseriformes, Anguilliformes, Siluriformes and Cypriniformes (87.1-89.5 %) and the lowest with Gadiformes and Cyprinodontiformes (55.0 %). The obtained phylogenetic tree agrees with previous analysis of teleostei, since A. gigas, of the order of Osteoglossiformes, appears as the sister group of Clupeocephala, while Elopomorpha forms the most basal group of all other teleosts.

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... of many drugs, which can alter judgment and inhibition and lead people to engage in impulsive and ... easily copy and paste to help show your support for Learn the Link . Be sure to check ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol ... After the Party Posters: We have developed posters with our campaign ...

  7. Conservation of complete trimethylation of lysine-43 in the rotor ring of c-subunits of metazoan adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthases.

    Walpole, Thomas B; Palmer, David N; Jiang, Huibing; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2015-04-01

    The rotors of ATP synthases turn about 100 times every second. One essential component of the rotor is a ring of hydrophobic c-subunits in the membrane domain of the enzyme. The rotation of these c-rings is driven by a transmembrane proton-motive force, and they turn against a surface provided by another membrane protein, known as subunit a. Together, the rotating c-ring and the static subunit a provide a pathway for protons through the membrane in which the c-ring and subunit a are embedded. Vertebrate and invertebrate c-subunits are well conserved. In the structure of the bovine F1-ATPase-c-ring subcomplex, the 75 amino acid c-subunit is folded into two transmembrane α-helices linked by a short loop. Each bovine rotor-ring consists of eight c-subunits with the N- and C-terminal α-helices forming concentric inner and outer rings, with the loop regions exposed to the phospholipid head-group region on the matrix side of the inner membrane. Lysine-43 is in the loop region and its ε-amino group is completely trimethylated. The role of this modification is unknown. If the trimethylated lysine-43 plays some important role in the functioning, assembly or degradation of the c-ring, it would be expected to persist throughout vertebrates and possibly invertebrates also. Therefore, we have carried out a proteomic analysis of c-subunits across representative species from different classes of vertebrates and from invertebrate phyla. In the twenty-nine metazoan species that have been examined, the complete methylation of lysine-43 is conserved, and it is likely to be conserved throughout the more than two million extant metazoan species. In unicellular eukaryotes and prokaryotes, when the lysine is conserved it is unmethylated, and the stoichiometries of c-subunits vary from 9-15. One possible role for the trimethylated residue is to provide a site for the specific binding of cardiolipin, an essential component of ATP synthases in mitochondria. © 2015 by The American

  8. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  9. Multimeric and trimeric subunit SP-D are interconvertible structures with distinct ligand interaction

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Hoegh, Silje V; Leth-Larsen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    -D compared to Met11 SP-D. Multimerization has proven important for enhancement of microbial phagocytosis. In the present study defined multimeric forms of Met11Thr SP-D were isolated from human amniotic fluid. Implementation of ManNAc-affinity chromatography allowed high recovery of natural trimeric SP......-D multimers. Trimeric SP-D subunits also showed greater binding to endogenous lipoproteins: LDL, oxLDL, and HDL, than multimeric SP-D. In conclusion, purified trimeric and multimeric SP-D represent separate and only partly interconvertible molecular populations with distinct biochemical properties....

  10. Mice Lacking the Alpha9 Subunit of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Exhibit Deficits in Frequency Difference Limens and Sound Localization

    Amanda Clause

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound processing in the cochlea is modulated by cholinergic efferent axons arising from medial olivocochlear neurons in the brainstem. These axons contact outer hair cells in the mature cochlea and inner hair cells during development and activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors composed of α9 and α10 subunits. The α9 subunit is necessary for mediating the effects of acetylcholine on hair cells as genetic deletion of the α9 subunit results in functional cholinergic de-efferentation of the cochlea. Cholinergic modulation of spontaneous cochlear activity before hearing onset is important for the maturation of central auditory circuits. In α9KO mice, the developmental refinement of inhibitory afferents to the lateral superior olive is disturbed, resulting in decreased tonotopic organization of this sound localization nucleus. In this study, we used behavioral tests to investigate whether the circuit anomalies in α9KO mice correlate with sound localization or sound frequency processing. Using a conditioned lick suppression task to measure sound localization, we found that three out of four α9KO mice showed impaired minimum audible angles. Using a prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response paradigm, we found that the ability of α9KO mice to detect sound frequency changes was impaired, whereas their ability to detect sound intensity changes was not. These results demonstrate that cholinergic, nicotinic α9 subunit mediated transmission in the developing cochlear plays an important role in the maturation of hearing.

  11. Schedule of NMDA receptor subunit expression and functional channel formation in the course of in vitro-induced neurogenesis.

    Varju, P; Schlett, K; Eisel, U; Madarász, E

    2001-06-01

    NE-7C2 neuroectodermal cells derived from forebrain vesicles of p53-deficient mouse embryos (E9) produce neurons and astrocytes in vitro if induced by all-trans retinoic acid. The reproducible morphological stages of neurogenesis were correlated with the expression of various NMDA receptor subunits. RT-PCR studies revealed that GluRepsilon1 and GluRepsilon4 subunit mRNAs were transcribed by both non-induced and neuronally differentiated cells. GluRepsilon3 subunit mRNAs were not synthesized by NE-7C2 cells and increased numbers of messages from the GluRepsilon2 gene were detected only after neural network formation. The presence of the GluRzeta1 protein was detected throughout neural induction, whereas retinoic acid-induced neuron formation elevated the amount of exon 21 (C1)- and exon 22 (C2)-containing GluRzeta1 mRNAs and resulted in the appearance of exon 5 (N1)-containing transcripts. NMDA-elicited Ca(2+)-signals were detected only in cells displaying neuronal morphology, but preceding the appearance of synapsin-I immunoreactivity. Our findings demonstrated that, in spite of the presence of subunits necessary for channel formation, functional channels were formed by NE-7C2 cells no sooner than the time of neurite maturation. The data show that the cell line provides a suitable model to analyse the mechanisms involved in NMDA receptor gene expression before the appearance of synaptic communication.

  12. HCV IRES domain IIb affects the configuration of coding RNA in the 40S subunit's decoding groove.

    Filbin, Megan E; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) uses a structured internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNA to recruit the translation machinery to the viral RNA and begin protein synthesis without the ribosomal scanning process required for canonical translation initiation. Different IRES structural domains are used in this process, which begins with direct binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit to the IRES RNA and involves specific manipulation of the translational machinery. We have found that upon initial 40S subunit binding, the stem-loop domain of the IRES that contains the start codon unwinds and adopts a stable configuration within the subunit's decoding groove. This configuration depends on the sequence and structure of a different stem-loop domain (domain IIb) located far from the start codon in sequence, but spatially proximal in the IRES•40S complex. Mutation of domain IIb results in misconfiguration of the HCV RNA in the decoding groove that includes changes in the placement of the AUG start codon, and a substantial decrease in the ability of the IRES to initiate translation. Our results show that two distal regions of the IRES are structurally communicating at the initial step of 40S subunit binding and suggest that this is an important step in driving protein synthesis.

  13. Electrophysiology and Beyond: Multiple roles of Na+ channel β subunits in development and disease

    Patino, Gustavo A.; Isom, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) β subunits are not “auxiliary.” These multifunctional molecules not only modulate Na+ current (INa), but also function as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) – playing roles in aggregation, migration, invasion, neurite outgrowth, and axonal fasciculation. β subunits are integral members of VGSC signaling complexes at nodes of Ranvier, axon initial segments, and cardiac intercalated disks, regulating action potential propagation through critical intermolecular and cell-cell communication events. At least in vitro, many β subunit cell adhesive functions occur both in the presence and absence of pore-forming VGSC α subunits, and in vivo β subunits are expressed in excitable as well as non-excitable cells, thus β subunits may play important functional roles on their own, in the absence of α subunits. VGSC β1 subunits are essential for life and appear to be especially important during brain development. Mutations in β subunit genes result in a variety of human neurological and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, some cancer cells exhibit alterations in β subunit expression during metastasis. In short, these proteins, originally thought of as merely accessory to α subunits, are critical players in their own right in human health and disease. Here we discuss the role of VGSC β subunits in the nervous system. PMID:20600605

  14. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  15. Ribosomal binding region for the antibiotic tiamulin: stoichiometry, subunit location, and affinity for various analogs.

    Högenauer, G; Ruf, C

    1981-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis experiments with a highly purified preparation of labeled tiamulin, a semisynthetic derivative of the antibiotic pleuromutilin, and Escherichia coli ribosomes allowed the determination of two binding sites for the drug. The binding reaction showed a cooperative effect. Of the two subunits, the 50S particle was able to bind the antibiotic in a 1:1 stoichiometry. Hence, the 50S subunit contributed predominantly to the binding energy which held the antibiotic to the ribosomes. The 30S subunit, showing no strong affinity for the drug, may be needed for the generation of the second binding site in the 70S particle. If depleted of ammonium ions, 70S ribosomes lost their binding capacity for the antibiotic. The attachment sites for tiamulin could be restored by heating the ribosomes to 40 degrees C in the presence of either ammonium ions or the antibiotic. Other pleuromutilin derivatives displaced labeled tiamulin from its ribosomal binding sites. By quantifying this competition, the relative affinity of various pleuromutilin derivatives for E. coli ribosomes was determined. The binding correlated with the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these compounds against E. coli. When compared with the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these compounds against E. coli. When compared with the minimal inhibitory concentrations against E. coli. When compared with the minimal inhibitory concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus, the correlation was less strict, but the same trend prevailed. These results suggest that the antibacterial activities of various pleuromutilin derivatives on a given test organism are mainly determined by the strength of binding to the ribosomes within the bacterial cell. PMID:6751216

  16. Architecture of the large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome.

    Greber, Basil J; Boehringer, Daniel; Leitner, Alexander; Bieri, Philipp; Voigts-Hoffmann, Felix; Erzberger, Jan P; Leibundgut, Marc; Aebersold, Ruedi; Ban, Nenad

    2014-01-23

    Mitochondrial ribosomes synthesize a number of highly hydrophobic proteins encoded on the genome of mitochondria, the organelles in eukaryotic cells that are responsible for energy conversion by oxidative phosphorylation. The ribosomes in mammalian mitochondria have undergone massive structural changes throughout their evolution, including ribosomal RNA shortening and acquisition of mitochondria-specific ribosomal proteins. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of the 39S large subunit of the porcine mitochondrial ribosome determined by cryo-electron microscopy at 4.9 Å resolution. The structure, combined with data from chemical crosslinking and mass spectrometry experiments, reveals the unique features of the 39S subunit at near-atomic resolution and provides detailed insight into the architecture of the polypeptide exit site. This region of the mitochondrial ribosome has been considerably remodelled compared to its bacterial counterpart, providing a specialized platform for the synthesis and membrane insertion of the highly hydrophobic protein components of the respiratory chain.

  17. Testing experimental subunit furunculosis vaccines for rainbow trout

    Marana, Moonika H.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) is the etiological agent of typical furunculosis in salmonid fish. The disease causes bacterial septicemia and is a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide, inducing high morbidity and mortality. In this study we vaccinated rainbow...... trout with subunit vaccines containing protein antigens that were selected based on an in silico antigen discovery approach. Thus, the proteome of AS strain A449 was analyzed by an antigen discovery platform and its proteins consequently ranked by their predicted ability to evoke protective immune...... response against AS. Fourteen proteins were prepared in 3 different experimental subunit vaccine combinations and used to vaccinate rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. We tested the proteins for their ability to elicit antibody production and protection. Thus, fish were exposed to virulent...

  18. Mapping of the Mouse Actin Capping Protein Beta Subunit Gene

    Cooper John A

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capping protein (CP, a heterodimer of α and β subunits, is found in all eukaryotes. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments in vitro and controls actin assembly and cell motility in vivo. Vertebrates have three isoforms of CPβ produced by alternatively splicing from one gene; lower organisms have one gene and one isoform. Results We isolated genomic clones corresponding to the β subunit of mouse CP and identified its chromosomal location by interspecies backcross mapping. Conclusions The CPβ gene (Cappb1 mapped to Chromosome 4 between Cdc42 and D4Mit312. Three mouse mutations, snubnose, curly tail, and cribriform degeneration, map in the vicinity of the β gene.

  19. Amino acid substitutions in subunit 9 of the mitochondrial ATPase complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sequence analysis of a series of revertants of an oli1 mit- mutant carrying an amino acid substitution in the hydrophilic loop of subunit 9.

    Willson, T A; Nagley, P

    1987-09-01

    This work concerns a biochemical genetic study of subunit 9 of the mitochondrial ATPase complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subunit 9, encoded by the mitochondrial oli1 gene, contains a hydrophilic loop connecting two transmembrane stems. In one particular oli1 mit- mutant 2422, the substitution of a positively charged amino acid in this loop (Arg39----Met) renders the ATPase complex non-functional. A series of 20 revertants, selected for their ability to grow on nonfermentable substrates, has been isolated from mutant 2422. The results of DNA sequence analysis of the oli1 gene in each revertant have led to the recognition of three groups of revertants. Class I revertants have undergone a same-site reversion event: the mutant Met39 is replaced either by arginine (as in wild-type) or lysine. Class II revertants maintain the mutant Met39 residue, but have undergone a second-site reversion event (Asn35----Lys). Two revertants showing an oligomycin-resistant phenotype carry this same second-site reversion in the loop region together with a further amino acid substitution in either of the two membrane-spanning segments of subunit 9 (either Gly23----Ser or Leu53----Phe). Class III revertants contain subunit 9 with the original mutant 2422 sequence, and additionally carry a recessive nuclear suppressor, demonstrated to represent a single gene. The results on the revertants in classes I and II indicate that there is a strict requirement for a positively charged residue in the hydrophilic loop close to the boundary of the lipid bilayer. The precise location of this positive charge is less stringent; in functional ATPase complexes it can be found at either residue 39 or 35. This charged residue is possibly required to interact with some other component of the mitochondrial ATPase complex. These findings, together with hydropathy plots of subunit 9 polypeptides from normal, mutant and revertant strains, led to the conclusion that the hydrophilic loop in normal subunit 9

  20. Induction of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in human dendritic cells by a cholera toxin B subunit-proinsulin vaccine.

    Jacques C Mbongue

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC interact with naïve T cells to regulate the delicate balance between immunity and tolerance required to maintain immunological homeostasis. In this study, immature human dendritic cells (iDC were inoculated with a chimeric fusion protein vaccine containing the pancreatic β-cell auto-antigen proinsulin linked to a mucosal adjuvant the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB-INS. Proteomic analysis of vaccine inoculated DCs revealed strong up-regulation of the tryptophan catabolic enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO1. Increased biosynthesis of the immunosuppressive enzyme was detected in DCs inoculated with the CTB-INS fusion protein but not in DCs inoculated with proinsulin, CTB, or an unlinked combination of the two proteins. Immunoblot and PCR analyses of vaccine treated DCs detected IDO1mRNA by 3 hours and IDO1 protein synthesis by 6 hours after vaccine inoculation. Determination of IDO1 activity in vaccinated DCs by measurement of tryptophan degradation products (kynurenines showed increased tryptophan cleavage into N-formyl kynurenine. Vaccination did not interfere with monocytes differentiation into DC, suggesting the vaccine can function safely in the human immune system. Treatment of vaccinated DCs with pharmacological NF-κB inhibitors ACHP or DHMEQ significantly inhibited IDO1 biosynthesis, suggesting a role for NF-κB signaling in vaccine up-regulation of dendritic cell IDO1. Heat map analysis of the proteomic data revealed an overall down-regulation of vaccinated DC functions, suggesting vaccine suppression of DC maturation. Together, our experimental data indicate that CTB-INS vaccine induction of IDO1 biosynthesis in human DCs may result in the inhibition of DC maturation generating a durable state of immunological tolerance. Understanding how CTB-INS modulates IDO1 activity in human DCs will facilitate vaccine efficacy and safety, moving this immunosuppressive strategy closer to clinical applications for prevention

  1. ASIC subunit ratio and differential surface trafficking in the brain.

    Wu, Junjun; Xu, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Yu-Qing; Xu, Jiangping; Hu, Youjia; Zha, Xiang-ming

    2016-01-08

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are key mediators of acidosis-induced responses in neurons. However, little is known about the relative abundance of different ASIC subunits in the brain. Such data are fundamental for interpreting the relative contribution of ASIC1a homomers and 1a/2 heteromers to acid signaling, and essential for designing therapeutic interventions to target these channels. We used a simple biochemical approach and semi-quantitatively determined the molar ratio of ASIC1a and 2 subunits in mouse brain. Further, we investigated differential surface trafficking of ASIC1a, ASIC2a, and ASIC2b. ASIC1a subunits outnumber the sum of ASIC2a and ASIC2b. There is a region-specific variation in ASIC2a and 2b expression, with cerebellum and striatum expressing predominantly 2b and 2a, respectively. Further, we performed surface biotinylation and found that surface ASIC1a and ASIC2a ratio correlates with their total expression. In contrast, ASIC2b exhibits little surface presence in the brain. This result is consistent with increased co-localization of ASIC2b with an ER marker in 3T3 cells. Our data are the first semi-quantitative determination of relative subunit ratio of various ASICs in the brain. The differential surface trafficking of ASICs suggests that the main functional ASICs in the brain are ASIC1a homomers and 1a/2a heteromers. This finding provides important insights into the relative contribution of various ASIC complexes to acid signaling in neurons.

  2. Molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit of the Chinese soft-shell turtle Pelodiscus sinensis, and its gene expression.

    Chien, Jung-Tsun; Shen, San-Tai; Lin, Yao-Sung; Yu, John Yuh-Lin

    2005-04-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a member of the pituitary glycoprotein hormone family. These hormones are composed of two dissimilar subunits, alpha and beta. Very little information is available regarding the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of FSHbeta in reptilian species. For better understanding of the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of FSH molecule, we have isolated and sequenced the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis, Family of Trionychidae) FSHbeta precursor molecule by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) methods. The cloned Chinese soft-shell turtle FSHbeta cDNA consists of 602-bp nucleotides, including 34-bp nucleotides of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 396-bp of the open reading frame, and 3'-UTR of 206-bp nucleotides. It encodes a 131-amino acid precursor molecule of FSHbeta subunit with a signal peptide of 20 amino acids followed by a mature protein of 111 amino acids. Twelve cysteine residues, forming six disulfide bonds within beta-subunit and two putative asparagine-linked glycosylation sites, are also conserved in the Chinese soft-shell turtle FSHbeta subunit. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Chinese soft-shell turtle FSHbeta shares identities of 97% with Reeves's turtle (Family of Bataguridae), 83-89% with birds, 61-70% with mammals, 63-66% with amphibians and 40-58% with fish. By contrast, when comparing the FSHbeta with the beta-subunits of the Chinese soft-shell turtle luteinizing hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone, the homologies are as low as 38 and 39%, respectively. A phylogenetic tree including reptilian species of FSHbeta subunits, is presented for the first time. Out of various tissues examined, FSHbeta mRNA was only expressed in the pituitary gland and can be up-regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone in pituitary tissue culture as estimated by fluorescence real-time PCR analysis.

  3. PRDM16 enhances nuclear receptor-dependent transcription of the brown fat-specific Ucp1 gene through interactions with Mediator subunit MED1.

    Iida, Satoshi; Chen, Wei; Nakadai, Tomoyoshi; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki; Roeder, Robert G

    2015-02-01

    PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) induces expression of brown fat-specific genes in brown and beige adipocytes, although the underlying transcription-related mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, in vitro studies show that PRDM16, through its zinc finger domains, directly interacts with the MED1 subunit of the Mediator complex, is recruited to the enhancer of the brown fat-specific uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) gene through this interaction, and enhances thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-driven transcription in a biochemically defined system in a Mediator-dependent manner, thus providing a direct link to the general transcription machinery. Complementary cell-based studies show that upon forskolin treatment, PRDM16 induces Ucp1 expression in undifferentiated murine embryonic fibroblasts, that this induction depends on MED1 and TR, and, consistent with a direct effect, that PRDM16 is recruited to the Ucp1 enhancer. Related studies have defined MED1 and PRDM16 interaction domains important for Ucp1 versus Ppargc1a induction by PRDM16. These results reveal novel mechanisms for PRDM16 function through the Mediator complex. © 2015 Iida et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Mediator subunit18 controls flowering time and floral organ identity in Arabidopsis.

    Zhengui Zheng

    Full Text Available Mediator is a conserved multi-protein complex that plays an important role in regulating transcription by mediating interactions between transcriptional activator proteins and RNA polymerase II. Much evidence exists that Mediator plays a constitutive role in the transcription of all genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. However, evidence is mounting that specific Mediator subunits may control the developmental regulation of specific subsets of RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Although the Mediator complex has been extensively studied in yeast and mammals, only a few reports on Mediator function in flowering time control of plants, little is known about Mediator function in floral organ identity. Here we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, MEDIATOR SUBUNIT 18 (MED18 affects flowering time and floral organ formation through FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and AGAMOUS (AG. A MED18 loss-of-function mutant showed a remarkable syndrome of later flowering and altered floral organ number. We show that FLC and AG mRNA levels and AG expression patterns are altered in the mutant. Our results support parallels between the regulation of FLC and AG and demonstrate a developmental role for Mediator in plants.

  5. Global Proteome Analysis Identifies Active Immunoproteasome Subunits in Human Platelets*

    Klockenbusch, Cordula; Walsh, Geraldine M.; Brown, Lyda M.; Hoffman, Michael D.; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Kast, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new functions for platelets, particularly in inflammation and immunity, has expanded the role of these anucleate cell fragments beyond their primary hemostatic function. Here, four in-depth human platelet proteomic data sets were generated to explore potential new functions for platelets based on their protein content and this led to the identification of 2559 high confidence proteins. During a more detailed analysis, consistently high expression of the proteasome was discovered, and the composition and function of this complex, whose role in platelets has not been thoroughly investigated, was examined. Data set mining resulted in identification of nearly all members of the 26S proteasome in one or more data sets, except the β5 subunit. However, β5i, a component of the immunoproteasome, was identified. Biochemical analyses confirmed the presence of all catalytically active subunits of the standard 20S proteasome and immunoproteasome in human platelets, including β5, which was predominantly found in its precursor form. It was demonstrated that these components were assembled into the proteasome complex and that standard proteasome as well as immunoproteasome subunits were constitutively active in platelets. These findings suggest potential new roles for platelets in the immune system. For example, the immunoproteasome may be involved in major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) peptide generation, as the MHC I machinery was also identified in our data sets. PMID:25146974

  6. Global proteome analysis identifies active immunoproteasome subunits in human platelets.

    Klockenbusch, Cordula; Walsh, Geraldine M; Brown, Lyda M; Hoffman, Michael D; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Kast, Juergen

    2014-12-01

    The discovery of new functions for platelets, particularly in inflammation and immunity, has expanded the role of these anucleate cell fragments beyond their primary hemostatic function. Here, four in-depth human platelet proteomic data sets were generated to explore potential new functions for platelets based on their protein content and this led to the identification of 2559 high confidence proteins. During a more detailed analysis, consistently high expression of the proteasome was discovered, and the composition and function of this complex, whose role in platelets has not been thoroughly investigated, was examined. Data set mining resulted in identification of nearly all members of the 26S proteasome in one or more data sets, except the β5 subunit. However, β5i, a component of the immunoproteasome, was identified. Biochemical analyses confirmed the presence of all catalytically active subunits of the standard 20S proteasome and immunoproteasome in human platelets, including β5, which was predominantly found in its precursor form. It was demonstrated that these components were assembled into the proteasome complex and that standard proteasome as well as immunoproteasome subunits were constitutively active in platelets. These findings suggest potential new roles for platelets in the immune system. For example, the immunoproteasome may be involved in major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) peptide generation, as the MHC I machinery was also identified in our data sets. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The UL5 and UL52 subunits of the herpes simplex virus type 1 helicase-primase subcomplex exhibit a complex interdependence for DNA binding.

    Biswas, N; Weller, S K

    2001-05-18

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes a heterotrimeric helicase-primase complex composed of the products of the UL5, UL52, and UL8 genes. The UL5 protein contains seven motifs found in all members of helicase Superfamily 1 (SF1), and the UL52 protein contains several conserved motifs found in primases; however, the contributions of each subunit to the biochemical activities of the subcomplex are not clear. In this work, the DNA binding properties of wild type and mutant subcomplexes were examined using single-stranded, duplex, and forked substrates. A gel mobility shift assay indicated that the UL5-UL52 subcomplex binds more efficiently to the forked substrate than to either single strand or duplex DNA. Although nucleotides are not absolutely required for DNA binding, ADP stimulated the binding of UL5-UL52 to single strand DNA whereas ATP, ADP, and adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) stimulated the binding to a forked substrate. We have previously shown that both subunits contact single-stranded DNA in a photocross-linking assay (Biswas, N., and Weller, S. K. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 8068-8076). In this study, photocross-linking assays with forked substrates indicate that the UL5 and UL52 subunits contact the forked substrates at different positions, UL52 at the single-stranded DNA tail and UL5 near the junction between single-stranded and double-stranded DNA. Neither subunit was able to cross-link a forked substrate when 5-iododeoxyuridine was located within the duplex portion. Photocross-linking experiments with subcomplexes containing mutant versions of UL5 and wild type UL52 indicated that the integrity of the ATP binding region is important for DNA binding of both subunits. These results support our previous proposal that UL5 and UL52 exhibit a complex interdependence for DNA binding (Biswas, N., and Weller, S. K. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 8068-8076) and indicate that the UL52 subunit may play a more active role in helicase activity than had previously been

  8. Mechanism of the modulation of BK potassium channel complexes with different auxiliary subunit compositions by the omega-3 fatty acid DHA.

    Hoshi, Toshinori; Tian, Yutao; Xu, Rong; Heinemann, Stefan H; Hou, Shangwei

    2013-03-19

    Large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels are well known for their functional versatility, which is bestowed in part by their rich modulatory repertoire. We recently showed that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in oily fish lower blood pressure by activating vascular BK channels made of Slo1+β1 subunits. Here we examined the action of DHA on BK channels with different auxiliary subunit compositions. Neuronal Slo1+β4 channels were just as well activated by DHA as vascular Slo1+β1 channels. In contrast, the stimulatory effect of DHA was much smaller in Slo1+β2, Slo1+LRRC26 (γ1), and Slo1 channels without auxiliary subunits. Mutagenesis of β1, β2, and β4 showed that the large effect of DHA in Slo1+β1 and Slo1+β4 is conferred by the presence of two residues, one in the N terminus and the other in the first transmembrane segment of the β1 and β4 subunits. Transfer of this amino acid pair from β1 or β4 to β2 introduces a large response to DHA in Slo1+β2. The presence of a pair of oppositely charged residues at the aforementioned positions in β subunits is associated with a large response to DHA. The Slo1 auxiliary subunits are expressed in a highly tissue-dependent fashion. Thus, the subunit composition-dependent stimulation by DHA demonstrates that BK channels are effectors of omega-3 fatty acids with marked tissue specificity.

  9. Molecular Insights into the Potential Insecticidal Interaction of β-Dihydroagarofuran Derivatives with the H Subunit of V-ATPase

    Jielu Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Celangulin V (CV, one of dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters isolated from Chinese bittersweet (Celastrus angulatus Maxim, is famous natural botanical insecticide. Decades of research suggests that is displays excellent insecticidal activity against some insects, such as Mythimna separata Walker. Recently, it has been validated that the H subunit of V-ATPase is one of the target proteins of the insecticidal dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters. As a continuation of the development of new pesticides from these natural products, a series of β-dihydroagarofuran derivatives have been designed and synthesized. The compound JW-3, an insecticidal derivative of CV with a p-fluorobenzyl group, exhibits higher insecticidal activity than CV. In this study, the potential inhibitory effect aused by the interaction of JW-3 with the H subunit of V-ATPase c was verified by confirmatory experiments at the molecular level. Both spectroscopic techniques and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements showed the binding of JW-3 to the subunit H of V-ATPase was specific and spontaneous. In addition, the possible mechanism of action of the compound was discussed. Docking results indicated compound JW-3 could bind well in ‘the interdomain cleft’ of the V-ATPase subunit H by the hydrogen bonding and make conformation of the ligand–protein complex become more stable. All results are the further validations of the hypothesis, that the target protein of insecticidal dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters and their β-dihydroagarofuran derivatives is the subunit H of V-ATPase. The results also provide new ideas for developing pesticides acting on V-ATPase of insects.

  10. CMG helicase and DNA polymerase ε form a functional 15-subunit holoenzyme for eukaryotic leading-strand DNA replication.

    Langston, Lance D; Zhang, Dan; Yurieva, Olga; Georgescu, Roxana E; Finkelstein, Jeff; Yao, Nina Y; Indiani, Chiara; O'Donnell, Mike E

    2014-10-28

    DNA replication in eukaryotes is asymmetric, with separate DNA polymerases (Pol) dedicated to bulk synthesis of the leading and lagging strands. Pol α/primase initiates primers on both strands that are extended by Pol ε on the leading strand and by Pol δ on the lagging strand. The CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) helicase surrounds the leading strand and is proposed to recruit Pol ε for leading-strand synthesis, but to date a direct interaction between CMG and Pol ε has not been demonstrated. While purifying CMG helicase overexpressed in yeast, we detected a functional complex between CMG and native Pol ε. Using pure CMG and Pol ε, we reconstituted a stable 15-subunit CMG-Pol ε complex and showed that it is a functional polymerase-helicase on a model replication fork in vitro. On its own, the Pol2 catalytic subunit of Pol ε is inefficient in CMG-dependent replication, but addition of the Dpb2 protein subunit of Pol ε, known to bind the Psf1 protein subunit of CMG, allows stable synthesis with CMG. Dpb2 does not affect Pol δ function with CMG, and thus we propose that the connection between Dpb2 and CMG helps to stabilize Pol ε on the leading strand as part of a 15-subunit leading-strand holoenzyme we refer to as CMGE. Direct binding between Pol ε and CMG provides an explanation for specific targeting of Pol ε to the leading strand and provides clear mechanistic evidence for how strand asymmetry is maintained in eukaryotes.

  11. The cytochrome oxidase subunit I and subunit III genes in Oenothera mitochondria are transcribed from identical promoter sequences

    Hiesel, Rudolf; Schobel, Werner; Schuster, Wolfgang; Brennicke, Axel

    1987-01-01

    Two loci encoding subunit III of the cytochrome oxidase (COX) in Oenothera mitochondria have been identified from a cDNA library of mitochondrial transcripts. A 657-bp sequence block upstream from the open reading frame is also present in the two copies of the COX subunit I gene and is presumably involved in homologous sequence rearrangement. The proximal points of sequence rearrangements are located 3 bp upstream from the COX I and 1139 bp upstream from the COX III initiation codons. The 5'-termini of both COX I and COX III mRNAs have been mapped in this common sequence confining the promoter region for the Oenothera mitochondrial COX I and COX III genes to the homologous sequence block. ImagesFig. 5. PMID:15981332

  12. Differential association of protein subunits with the human RNase MRP and RNase P complexes.

    Welting, Tim J M; Kikkert, Bastiaan J; van Venrooij, Walther J; Pruijn, Ger J M

    2006-07-01

    RNase MRP is a eukaryotic endoribonuclease involved in nucleolar and mitochondrial RNA processing events. RNase MRP is a ribonucleoprotein particle, which is structurally related to RNase P, an endoribonuclease involved in pre-tRNA processing. Most of the protein components of RNase MRP have been reported to be associated with RNase P as well. In this study we determined the association of these protein subunits with the human RNase MRP and RNase P particles by glycerol gradient sedimentation and coimmunoprecipitation. In agreement with previous studies, RNase MRP sedimented at 12S and 60-80S. In contrast, only a single major peak was observed for RNase P at 12S. The analysis of individual protein subunits revealed that hPop4 (also known as Rpp29), Rpp21, Rpp20, and Rpp25 only sedimented in 12S fractions, whereas hPop1, Rpp40, Rpp38, and Rpp30 were also found in 60-80S fractions. In agreement with their cosedimentation with RNase P RNA in the 12S peak, coimmunoprecipitation with VSV-epitope-tagged protein subunits revealed that hPop4, Rpp21, and in addition Rpp14 preferentially associate with RNase P. These data show that hPop4, Rpp21, and Rpp14 may not be associated with RNase MRP. Furthermore, Rpp20 and Rpp25 appear to be associated with only a subset of RNase MRP particles, in contrast to hPop1, Rpp40, Rpp38, and Rpp30 (and possibly also hPop5), which are probably associated with all RNase MRP complexes. Our data are consistent with a transient association of Rpp20 and Rpp25 with RNase MRP, which may be inversely correlated to its involvement in pre-rRNA processing.

  13. Immunodiagnostic Value of Echinococcus Granulosus Recombinant B8/1 Subunit of Antigen B.

    Savardashtaki, Amir; Sarkari, Bahador; Arianfar, Farzane; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh

    2017-06-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), as a chronic parasitic disease, is a major health problem in many countries. The performance of the currently available serodiagnostic tests for the diagnosis of CE is unsatisfactory. The current study aimed at sub-cloning a gene, encoding the B8/1 subunit of antigen B (AgB) from Echinococcus granulosus, using gene optimization for the immunodiagnosis of human CE. The coding sequence for AgB8/1 subunit of Echinococcus granulosus was selected from GenBank and was gene-optimized. The sequence was synthesized and inserted into pGEX-4T-1 vector. Purification was performed with GST tag affinity column. Diagnostic performance of the produced recombinant antigen, native antigen B and a commercial ELISA kit were further evaluated in an ELISA system, using a panel of sera from CE patients and controls. SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the protein of interest had a high expression level and purity after GST tag affinity purification. Western blotting verified the immunoreactivity of the produced recombinant antigen with the sera of CE patients. In an ELISA system, the sensitivity and specificity (for human CE diagnosis) of the recombinant antigen, native antigen B and commercial kit were respectively 93% and 92%, 87% and 90% and 97% and 95%. The produced recombinant antigen showed a high diagnostic value which can be recommended for serodiagnosis of CE in Iran and other CE-endemic areas. Utilizing the combination of other subunits of AgB8 would improve the performance value of the introduced ELISA system.

  14. Depletion of Mediator Kinase Module Subunits Represses Superenhancer-Associated Genes in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Kuuluvainen, Emilia; Domènech-Moreno, Eva; Niemelä, Elina H; Mäkelä, Tomi P

    2018-06-01

    In cancer, oncogene activation is partly mediated by acquired superenhancers, which therefore represent potential targets for inhibition. Superenhancers are enriched for BRD4 and Mediator, and both BRD4 and the Mediator MED12 subunit are disproportionally required for expression of superenhancer-associated genes in stem cells. Here we show that depletion of Mediator kinase module subunit MED12 or MED13 together with MED13L can be used to reduce expression of cancer-acquired superenhancer genes, such as the MYC gene, in colon cancer cells, with a concomitant decrease in proliferation. Whereas depletion of MED12 or MED13/MED13L caused a disproportional decrease of superenhancer gene expression, this was not seen with depletion of the kinases cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK8) and CDK19. MED12-MED13/MED13L-dependent superenhancer genes were coregulated by β-catenin, which has previously been shown to associate with MED12. Importantly, β-catenin depletion caused reduced binding of MED12 at the MYC superenhancer. The effect of MED12 or MED13/MED13L depletion on cancer-acquired superenhancer gene expression was more specific than and partially distinct from that of BRD4 depletion, with the most efficient inhibition seen with combined targeting. These results identify a requirement of MED12 and MED13/MED13L for expression of acquired superenhancer genes in colon cancer, implicating these Mediator subunits as potential therapeutic targets for colon cancer, alone or together with BRD4. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Sodium Channel β2 Subunits Prevent Action Potential Propagation Failures at Axonal Branch Points.

    Cho, In Ha; Panzera, Lauren C; Chin, Morven; Hoppa, Michael B

    2017-09-27

    Neurotransmitter release depends on voltage-gated Na + channels (Na v s) to propagate an action potential (AP) successfully from the axon hillock to a synaptic terminal. Unmyelinated sections of axon are very diverse structures encompassing branch points and numerous presynaptic terminals with undefined molecular partners of Na + channels. Using optical recordings of Ca 2+ and membrane voltage, we demonstrate here that Na + channel β2 subunits (Na v β2s) are required to prevent AP propagation failures across the axonal arborization of cultured rat hippocampal neurons (mixed male and female). When Na v β2 expression was reduced, we identified two specific phenotypes: (1) membrane excitability and AP-evoked Ca 2+ entry were impaired at synapses and (2) AP propagation was severely compromised with >40% of axonal branches no longer responding to AP-stimulation. We went on to show that a great deal of electrical signaling heterogeneity exists in AP waveforms across the axonal arborization independent of axon morphology. Therefore, Na v β2 is a critical regulator of axonal excitability and synaptic function in unmyelinated axons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels are fulcrums of neurotransmission that convert electrical inputs into chemical outputs in the form of vesicle fusion at synaptic terminals. However, the role of the electrical signal, the presynaptic action potential (AP), in modulating synaptic transmission is less clear. What is the fidelity of a propagating AP waveform in the axon and what molecules shape it throughout the axonal arborization? Our work identifies several new features of AP propagation in unmyelinated axons: (1) branches of a single axonal arborization have variable AP waveforms independent of morphology, (2) Na + channel β2 subunits modulate AP-evoked Ca 2+ -influx, and (3) β2 subunits maintain successful AP propagation across the axonal arbor. These findings are relevant to understanding the flow of excitation in the

  16. genetic overexpression of NR2B subunit enhances social recognition memory for different strains and species.

    Jacobs, Stephanie A; Tsien, Joe Z

    2012-01-01

    The ability to learn and remember conspecifics is essential for the establishment and maintenance of social groups. Many animals, including humans, primates and rodents, depend on stable social relationships for survival. Social learning and social recognition have become emerging areas of interest for neuroscientists but are still not well understood. It has been established that several hormones play a role in the modulation of social recognition including estrogen, oxytocin and arginine vasopression. Relatively few studies have investigated how social recognition might be improved or enhanced. In this study, we investigate the role of the NMDA receptor in social recognition memory, specifically the consequences of altering the ratio of the NR2B:NR2A subunits in the forebrain regions in social behavior. We produced transgenic mice in which the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor was overexpressed postnatally in the excitatory neurons of the forebrain areas including the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. We investigated the ability of both our transgenic animals and their wild-type littermate to learn and remember juvenile conspecifics using both 1-hr and 24-hr memory tests. Our experiments show that the wild-type animals and NR2B transgenic mice preformed similarly in the 1-hr test. However, transgenic mice showed better performances in 24-hr tests of recognizing animals of a different strain or animals of a different species. We conclude that NR2B overexpression in the forebrain enhances social recognition memory for different strains and animal species.

  17. Primary structure and subcellular localization of two fimbrial subunit-like proteins involved in the biosynthesis of K99 fibrillae.

    Roosendaal, E; Jacobs, A A; Rathman, P; Sondermeyer, C; Stegehuis, F; Oudega, B; de Graaf, F K

    1987-09-01

    Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the distal part of the fan gene cluster encoding the proteins involved in the biosynthesis of the fibrillar adhesin, K99, revealed the presence of two structural genes, fanG and fanH. The amino acid sequence of the gene products (FanG and FanH) showed significant homology to the amino acid sequence of the fibrillar subunit protein (FanC). Introduction of a site-specific frameshift mutation in fanG or fanH resulted in a simultaneous decrease in fibrillae production and adhesive capacity. Analysis of subcellular fractions showed that, in contrast to the K99 fibrillar subunit (FanC), both the FanH and the FanG protein were loosely associated with the outer membrane, possibly on the periplasmic side, but were not components of the fimbriae themselves.

  18. NDUFAF7 methylates arginine 85 in the NDUFS2 subunit of human complex I.

    Rhein, Virginie F; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2013-11-15

    Complex I (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mammalian mitochondria is an L-shaped assembly of 44 subunits. One arm is embedded in the inner membrane with the other protruding ∼100 Å into the matrix of the organelle. The extrinsic arm contains binding sites for NADH and the primary electron acceptor FMN, and it provides a scaffold for seven iron-sulfur clusters that form an electron pathway linking FMN to the terminal electron acceptor, ubiquinone, which is bound in the region of the junction between the arms. The membrane arm contains four antiporter-like domains, probably energetically coupled to the quinone site and involved in pumping protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space contributing to the proton motive force. Complex I is put together from preassembled subcomplexes. Their compositions have been characterized partially, and at least 12 extrinsic assembly factor proteins are required for the assembly of the complex. One such factor, NDUFAF7, is predicted to belong to the family of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases characterized by the presence in their structures of a seven-β-strand protein fold. In the present study, the presence of NDUFAF7 in the mitochondrial matrix has been confirmed, and it has been demonstrated that it is a protein methylase that symmetrically dimethylates the ω-N(G),N(G') atoms of residue Arg-85 in the NDUFS2 subunit of complex I. This methylation step occurs early in the assembly of complex I and probably stabilizes a 400-kDa subcomplex that forms the initial nucleus of the peripheral arm and its juncture with the membrane arm.

  19. NDUFAF7 Methylates Arginine 85 in the NDUFS2 Subunit of Human Complex I*

    Rhein, Virginie F.; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Complex I (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mammalian mitochondria is an L-shaped assembly of 44 subunits. One arm is embedded in the inner membrane with the other protruding ∼100 Å into the matrix of the organelle. The extrinsic arm contains binding sites for NADH and the primary electron acceptor FMN, and it provides a scaffold for seven iron-sulfur clusters that form an electron pathway linking FMN to the terminal electron acceptor, ubiquinone, which is bound in the region of the junction between the arms. The membrane arm contains four antiporter-like domains, probably energetically coupled to the quinone site and involved in pumping protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space contributing to the proton motive force. Complex I is put together from preassembled subcomplexes. Their compositions have been characterized partially, and at least 12 extrinsic assembly factor proteins are required for the assembly of the complex. One such factor, NDUFAF7, is predicted to belong to the family of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases characterized by the presence in their structures of a seven-β-strand protein fold. In the present study, the presence of NDUFAF7 in the mitochondrial matrix has been confirmed, and it has been demonstrated that it is a protein methylase that symmetrically dimethylates the ω-NG,NG′ atoms of residue Arg-85 in the NDUFS2 subunit of complex I. This methylation step occurs early in the assembly of complex I and probably stabilizes a 400-kDa subcomplex that forms the initial nucleus of the peripheral arm and its juncture with the membrane arm. PMID:24089531

  20. Multiple thyrotropin β-subunit and thyrotropin receptor-related genes arose during vertebrate evolution.

    Gersende Maugars

    Full Text Available Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH is composed of a specific β subunit and an α subunit that is shared with the two pituitary gonadotropins. The three β subunits derive from a common ancestral gene through two genome duplications (1R and 2R that took place before the radiation of vertebrates. Analysis of genomic data from phylogenetically relevant species allowed us to identify an additional Tshβ subunit-related gene that was generated through 2R. This gene, named Tshβ2, present in cartilaginous fish, little skate and elephant shark, and in early lobe-finned fish, coelacanth and lungfish, was lost in ray-finned fish and tetrapods. The absence of a second type of TSH receptor (Tshr gene in these species suggests that both TSHs act through the same receptor. A novel Tshβ sister gene, named Tshβ3, was generated through the third genomic duplication (3R that occurred early in the teleost lineage. Tshβ3 is present in most teleost groups but was lostin tedraodontiforms. The 3R also generated a second Tshr, named Tshrb. Interestingly, the new Tshrb was translocated from its original chromosomic position after the emergence of eels and was then maintained in its new position. Tshrb was lost in tetraodontiforms and in ostariophysians including zebrafish although the latter species have two TSHs, suggesting that TSHRb may be dispensable. The tissue distribution of duplicated Tshβs and Tshrs was studied in the European eel. The endocrine thyrotropic function in the eel would be essentially mediated by the classical Tshβ and Tshra, which are mainly expressed in the pituitary and thyroid, respectively. Tshβ3 and Tshrb showed a similar distribution pattern in the brain, pituitary, ovary and adipose tissue, suggesting a possible paracrine/autocrine mode of action in these non-thyroidal tissues. Further studies will be needed to determine the binding specificity of the two receptors and how these two TSH systems are interrelated.

  1. Oligomeric stability of Rapana venosa hemocyanin (RvH) and its structural subunits.

    Dolashka-Angelova, Pavlina; Schwarz, Heinz; Dolashki, Aleksandar; Stevanovic, Stefan; Fecker, Miriam; Saeed, Muhammad; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2003-03-21

    The two structural subunits RvH1 and RvH2 were separated after overnight dialysis of Rapana venosa Hc against 130 mM Gly/NaOH buffer, pH 9.6, on an ion exchange column Hiload 26/10 Sepharose Q using a fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. The reassociation characteristics of these two RvH isoforms and the native molecule were studied in buffers with different pH values and concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Reassociation of mixed RvH subunits was performed over a period of several days using a stabilizing buffer (SB) of pH 7.0 containing different concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. After 2 days of dialysis, an RvH subunit mixture of didecamers and multidecamers was observed in the presence of 100 mM CaCl(2) and MgCl(2), though RvH1 and RvH2 are biochemically and immunologically different and have also different dissociation properties. The reassociation, performed at pH 9.6 with 2 mM CaCl(2) and MgCl(2) at 4 degrees C over a period of one to several weeks, led to the formation of decameric oligomers, while didecamers formed predominantly in the SB at pH 7.0. Higher concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions led to a more rapid reassociation of RvH1 resulting in long stable multidecamers and helical tubules, which were stable and slowly dissociated into shorter multidecamers and decamers at higher pH values. The reassociation of the RvH2 structural subunit in the same buffers processed slowly and yielded didecamers, shorter tubule polymers and long multidecamers which are less stable at higher pH values. The stability of RvH isoforms under varying ionic conditions is compared with the stability of keyhole limpet (KLH, Megathura crenulata) hemocyanin (KLH) and Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH) isoforms. The process of dissociation and reassociation is connected with changes of the fluorescence intensity at 600 nm, which can be explained by differences in opalescence of the solutions of these two isoforms. The solutions of longer tubule

  2. Increased expression of the auxiliary beta(2-subunit of ventricular L-type Ca(2+ channels leads to single-channel activity characteristic of heart failure.

    Roger Hullin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased activity of single ventricular L-type Ca(2+-channels (L-VDCC is a hallmark in human heart failure. Recent findings suggest differential modulation by several auxiliary beta-subunits as a possible explanation.By molecular and functional analyses of human and murine ventricles, we find that enhanced L-VDCC activity is accompanied by altered expression pattern of auxiliary L-VDCC beta-subunit gene products. In HEK293-cells we show differential modulation of single L-VDCC activity by coexpression of several human cardiac beta-subunits: Unlike beta(1 or beta(3 isoforms, beta(2a and beta(2b induce a high-activity channel behavior typical of failing myocytes. In accordance, beta(2-subunit mRNA and protein are up-regulated in failing human myocardium. In a model of heart failure we find that mice overexpressing the human cardiac Ca(V1.2 also reveal increased single-channel activity and sarcolemmal beta(2 expression when entering into the maladaptive stage of heart failure. Interestingly, these animals, when still young and non-failing ("Adaptive Phase", reveal the opposite phenotype, viz: reduced single-channel activity accompanied by lowered beta(2 expression. Additional evidence for the cause-effect relationship between beta(2-subunit expression and single L-VDCC activity is provided by newly engineered, double-transgenic mice bearing both constitutive Ca(V1.2 and inducible beta(2 cardiac overexpression. Here in non-failing hearts induction of beta(2-subunit overexpression mimicked the increase of single L-VDCC activity observed in murine and human chronic heart failure.Our study presents evidence of the pathobiochemical relevance of beta(2-subunits for the electrophysiological phenotype of cardiac L-VDCC and thus provides an explanation for the single L-VDCC gating observed in human and murine heart failure.

  3. Cyclic AMP regulation of the human glycoprotein hormone α-subunit gene is mediated by an 18-base-pair element

    Silver, B.J.; Bokar, J.A.; Virgin, J.B.; Vallen, E.A.; Milsted, A.; Nilson, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    cAMP regulates transcription of the gene encoding the α-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the choriocarcinoma cells (BeWo). To define the sequences required for regulation by cAMP, the authors inserted fragments from the 5' flanking region of the α-subunit gene into a test vector containing the simian virus 40 early promoter (devoid of its enhancer) linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. Results from transient expression assays in BeWo cells indicated that a 1500-base-pair (bp) fragment conferred cAMP responsiveness on the CAT gene regardless of position or orientation of the insert relative to the viral promoter. A subfragment extending from position -169 to position -100 had the same effect on cAMP-induced expression. Furthermore, the entire stimulatory effect could be achieved with an 18-bp synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide corresponding to a direct repeat between position -146 and -111. In the absence of cAMP, the α-subunit 5' flanking sequence also enhanced transcription from the simian virus 40 early promoter. They localized this enhancer activity to the same -169/-100 fragment containing the cAMP response element. The 18-bp element alone, however, had no effect on basal expression. Thus, this short DNA sequence serves as a cAMP response element and also functions independently of other promoter-regulatory elements located in the 5' flanking sequence of the α-subunit gene

  4. Conservation of RNA sequence and cross-linking ability in ribosomes from a higher eukaryote: photochemical cross-linking of the anticodon of P site bound tRNA to the penultimate cytidine of the UACACACG sequence in Artemia salina 18S rRNA

    Ciesiolka, J.; Nurse, K.; Klein, J.; Ofengand, J.

    1985-01-01

    The complex of Artemia salina ribosomes and Escherichia coli acetylvalyl-tRNA could be cross-linked by irradiation with near-UV light. Cross-linking required the presence of the codon GUU, GUA being ineffective. The acetylvalyl group could be released from the cross-linked tRNA by treatment with puromycin, demonstrating that cross-linking had occurred at the P site. This was true both for pGUU- and also for poly(U2,G)-dependent cross-linking. All of the cross-linking was to the 18S rRNA of the small ribosomal subunit. Photolysis of the cross-link at 254 nm occurred with the same kinetics as that for the known cyclobutane dimer between this tRNA and Escherichia coli 16S rRNA. T1 RNase digestion of the cross-linked tRNA yielded an oligonucleotide larger in molecular weight than any from un-cross-linked rRNA or tRNA or from a prephotolyzed complex. Extended electrophoresis showed this material to consist of two oligomers of similar mobility, a faster one-third component and a slower two-thirds component. Each oligomer yielded two components on 254-nm photolysis. The slower band from each was the tRNA T1 oligomer CACCUCCCUVACAAGp, which includes the anticodon. The faster band was the rRNA 9-mer UACACACCGp and its derivative UACACACUG. Unexpectedly, the dephosphorylated and slower moving 9-mer was derived from the faster moving dimer. Deamination of the penultimate C to U is probably due to cyclobutane dimer formation and was evidence for that nucleotide being the site of cross-linking. Direct confirmation of the cross-linking site was obtained by Z-gel analysis

  5. AtMMS21, an SMC5/6 complex subunit, is involved in stem cell niche maintenance and DNA damage responses in Arabidopsis roots.

    Xu, Panglian; Yuan, Dongke; Liu, Ming; Li, Chunxin; Liu, Yiyang; Zhang, Shengchun; Yao, Nan; Yang, Chengwei

    2013-04-01

    Plants maintain stem cells in meristems to sustain lifelong growth; these stem cells must have effective DNA damage responses to prevent mutations that can propagate to large parts of the plant. However, the molecular links between stem cell functions and DNA damage responses remain largely unexplored. Here, we report that the small ubiquitin-related modifier E3 ligase AtMMS21 (for methyl methanesulfonate sensitivity gene21) acts to maintain the root stem cell niche by mediating DNA damage responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Mutation of AtMMS21 causes defects in the root stem cell niche during embryogenesis and postembryonic stages. AtMMS21 is essential for the proper expression of stem cell niche-defining transcription factors. Moreover, mms21-1 mutants are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents, have a constitutively increased DNA damage response, and have more DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the roots. Also, mms21-1 mutants exhibit spontaneous cell death within the root stem cell niche, and treatment with DSB-inducing agents increases this cell death, suggesting that AtMMS21 is required to prevent DSB-induced stem cell death. We further show that AtMMS21 functions as a subunit of the STRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE OF CHROMOSOMES5/6 complex, an evolutionarily conserved chromosomal ATPase required for DNA repair. These data reveal that AtMMS21 acts in DSB amelioration and stem cell niche maintenance during Arabidopsis root development.

  6. Covalent dimerization of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase subunits by UV radiation

    Ferreira, R.M.B. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Agronomia]|[Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal). Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica; Franco, E.; Teixeira, A.R.N. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Agronomia

    1996-08-15

    The effect of UV radiation (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from a variety of plant species was examined. The exposition of plant leaves or the pure enzyme to UV radiation produced a UV-dependent accumulation of a 65 kDa polypeptide (P65). Different approaches were utilized to elucidate the origin and structure of P65: electrophoretic and fluorographic analyses of {sup 35}S-labelled ribulose biphosphate carboxylase exposed to UV radiation and immunological experiments using antibodies specific for P65, for the large and small subunits of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase and for high-molecular-mass aggregates of the enzyme. These studies revealed that P65 is a dimer, formed by the covalent, non-disulphide linkage of one small subunit with one large subunit of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. For short periods of time (<1 h), the amount of P65 formed increased with the duration of the exposure to the UV radiation and with the energy of the radiation applied. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation (1-6 h) resulted in the formation of high-molecular-mass aggregates of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. Formation of P65 was shown to depend on the native state of the protein, was stimulated by inhibitors of enzyme activity, and was inhibited by activators of enzyme activity. A UV-independent accumulation of P65 was also achieved by the in vitro incubation of plant crude extracts. However, the UV-dependent and the UV-independent formation of P65 seemed to occur by distinct molecular mechanisms. The UV-dependent accumulation of P65 was immunologically detected in all species examined, including Lemna minor, Arum italicum, Brassica oleracea, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris, suggesting that it may constitute a universal response to UV radiation, common to all photosynthetic tissues. (Author).

  7. Covalent dimerization of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase subunits by UV radiation

    Ferreira, R.M.B.; Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras; Franco, E.; Teixeira, A.R.N.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of UV radiation (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from a variety of plant species was examined. The exposition of plant leaves or the pure enzyme to UV radiation produced a UV-dependent accumulation of a 65 kDa polypeptide (P65). Different approaches were utilized to elucidate the origin and structure of P65: electrophoretic and fluorographic analyses of 35 S-labelled ribulose biphosphate carboxylase exposed to UV radiation and immunological experiments using antibodies specific for P65, for the large and small subunits of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase and for high-molecular-mass aggregates of the enzyme. These studies revealed that P65 is a dimer, formed by the covalent, non-disulphide linkage of one small subunit with one large subunit of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. For short periods of time (<1 h), the amount of P65 formed increased with the duration of the exposure to the UV radiation and with the energy of the radiation applied. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation (1-6 h) resulted in the formation of high-molecular-mass aggregates of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. Formation of P65 was shown to depend on the native state of the protein, was stimulated by inhibitors of enzyme activity, and was inhibited by activators of enzyme activity. A UV-independent accumulation of P65 was also achieved by the in vitro incubation of plant crude extracts. However, the UV-dependent and the UV-independent formation of P65 seemed to occur by distinct molecular mechanisms. The UV-dependent accumulation of P65 was immunologically detected in all species examined, including Lemna minor, Arum italicum, Brassica oleracea, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris, suggesting that it may constitute a universal response to UV radiation, common to all photosynthetic tissues. (Author)

  8. Sex Hormone Receptor Expression in the Human Vocal Fold Subunits.

    Kirgezen, Tolga; Sunter, Ahmet Volkan; Yigit, Ozgur; Huq, Gulben Erdem

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the existence of sex hormone receptors in the subunits of vocal fold. This is a cadaver study. The androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors were examined in the epithelium (EP), superficial layer of the lamina propria (SLP), vocal ligament (VL), and macula flava (MF) of the vocal folds from 42 human cadavers (21 male, 21 female) by immunohistochemical methods. Their staining ratios were scored and statistically compared. The androgen receptor score was significantly higher for the MF than for the EP and SLP (P vocal fold, mostly in the MF and VLs. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolutionary Paths of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Catalytic Subunits

    Søberg, Kristoffer; Jahnsen, Tore; Rognes, Torbjørn; Skålhegg, Bjørn S.; Laerdahl, Jon K.

    2013-01-01

    3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) dependent protein kinase or protein kinase A (PKA) has served as a prototype for the large family of protein kinases that are crucially important for signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. The PKA catalytic subunits Cα and Cβ, encoded by the two genes PRKACA and PRKACB, respectively, are among the best understood and characterized human kinases. Here we have studied the evolution of this gene family in chordates, arthropods, mollusks and other animals employing probabilistic methods and show that Cα and Cβ arose by duplication of an ancestral PKA catalytic subunit in a common ancestor of vertebrates. The two genes have subsequently been duplicated in teleost fishes. The evolution of the PRKACG retroposon in simians was also investigated. Although the degree of sequence conservation in the PKA Cα/Cβ kinase family is exceptionally high, a small set of signature residues defining Cα and Cβ subfamilies were identified. These conserved residues might be important for functions that are unique to the Cα or Cβ clades. This study also provides a good example of a seemingly simple phylogenetic problem which, due to a very high degree of sequence conservation and corresponding weak phylogenetic signals, combined with problematic nonphylogenetic signals, is nontrivial for state-of-the-art probabilistic phylogenetic methods. PMID:23593352

  10. Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens

    Xu, Juan [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University (China); Wang, Shixia [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States); Gan, Weihua [Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Zhang, Wenhong [Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (China); Ju, Liwen [School of Public Health, Fudan University (China); Huang, Zuhu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Lu, Shan, E-mail: shan.lu@umassmed.edu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EV71 is a major emerging infectious disease in many Asian countries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivated EV71 vaccines are in clinical studies but their safety and efficacy are unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing subunit based EV71 vaccines is significant and novel antigen design is needed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA immunization is an efficient tool to test the immunogenicity of VP1 based EV71 vaccines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple VP1 antigens are developed showing immunogenic potential. -- Abstract: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in young children. HFMD is caused by viruses belonging to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a virulent agent for HFMD with severe clinical outcomes. In the current report, we conducted a pilot antigen engineering study to optimize the expression and immunogenicity of subunit VP1 antigen for the design of EV71 vaccines. DNA immunization was adopted as a simple technical approach to test different designs of VP1 antigens without the need to express VP1 protein in vitro first. Our studies indicated that the expression and immunogenicity of VP1 protein can be improved with alternated VP1 antigen designs. Data presented in the current report revealed novel pathways to optimize the design of VP1 antigen-based EV71 vaccines.

  11. Losses, Expansions, and Novel Subunit Discovery of Adaptor Protein Complexes in Haptophyte Algae.

    Lee, Laura J Y; Klute, Mary J; Herman, Emily K; Read, Betsy; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-11-01

    The phylum Haptophyta (Diaphoratickes) contains marine algae that perform biomineralization, extruding large, distinctive calcium carbonate scales (coccoliths) that completely cover the cell. Coccolith production is an important part of global carbon cycling; however, the membrane trafficking pathway by which they are secreted has not yet been elucidated. In most eukaryotes, post-Golgi membrane trafficking involves five heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which impart cargo selection specificity. To better understand coccolith secretion, we performed comparative genomic, phylogenetic, and transcriptomic analyses of the AP complexes in Emiliania huxleyi strains 92A, Van556, EH2, and CCMP1516, and related haptophytes Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Isochrysis galbana; the latter has lost the ability to biomineralize. We show that haptophytes have a modified membrane trafficking system (MTS), as we found both AP subunit losses and duplications. Additionally, we identified a single conserved subunit of the AP-related TSET complex, whose expression suggests a functional role in membrane trafficking. Finally, we detected novel alpha adaptin ear and gamma adaptin ear proteins, the first of their kind to be described outside of opisthokonts. These novel ear proteins and the sculpting of the MTS may support the capacity for biomineralization in haptophytes, enhancing their ability to perform this highly specialized form of secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens

    Xu, Juan; Wang, Shixia; Gan, Weihua; Zhang, Wenhong; Ju, Liwen; Huang, Zuhu; Lu, Shan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► EV71 is a major emerging infectious disease in many Asian countries. ► Inactivated EV71 vaccines are in clinical studies but their safety and efficacy are unknown. ► Developing subunit based EV71 vaccines is significant and novel antigen design is needed. ► DNA immunization is an efficient tool to test the immunogenicity of VP1 based EV71 vaccines. ► Multiple VP1 antigens are developed showing immunogenic potential. -- Abstract: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in young children. HFMD is caused by viruses belonging to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a virulent agent for HFMD with severe clinical outcomes. In the current report, we conducted a pilot antigen engineering study to optimize the expression and immunogenicity of subunit VP1 antigen for the design of EV71 vaccines. DNA immunization was adopted as a simple technical approach to test different designs of VP1 antigens without the need to express VP1 protein in vitro first. Our studies indicated that the expression and immunogenicity of VP1 protein can be improved with alternated VP1 antigen designs. Data presented in the current report revealed novel pathways to optimize the design of VP1 antigen-based EV71 vaccines.

  13. Memory Deficits Induced by Inflammation Are Regulated by α5-Subunit-Containing GABAA Receptors

    Dian-Shi Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation causes learning and memory deficits through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the pathogenesis of memory loss associated with inflammation and found that we could reverse memory deficits by pharmacologically inhibiting α5-subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A (α5GABAA receptors and deleting the gene associated with the α5 subunit. Acute inflammation reduces long-term potentiation, a synaptic correlate of memory, in hippocampal slices from wild-type mice, and this reduction was reversed by inhibition of α5GABAA receptor function. A tonic inhibitory current generated by α5GABAA receptors in hippocampal neurons was increased by the key proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Interleukin-1β also increased the surface expression of α5GABAA receptors in the hippocampus. Collectively, these results show that α5GABAA receptor activity increases during inflammation and that this increase is critical for inflammation-induced memory deficits.

  14. The Contrasting Role of the Mediator Subunit MED30 in the Progression of Bladder Cancer.

    Syring, Isabella; Weiten, Richard; Müller, Tim; Schmidt, Doris; Steiner, Susanne; Kristiansen, Glen; Müller, Stefan C; Ellinger, Jörg

    2017-12-01

    The Mediator complex is a key regulator of gene transcription, and several studies have demonstrated altered expression of particular subunits in diverse human diseases, especially cancer. To date, nothing is known about the role of MED30 in bladder cancer. We, therefore, performed an RNA expression and survival analysis of the subunit MED30 in 537 samples of bladder cancer by using the database cBioPortal. To validate these data on the protein level, we practiced immunohistochemical staining against MED30 on a tissue microarray containing 210 samples of all tumour stages and performed survival analyses. For functional analysis, the siRNA-mediated knockdown of MED30 was performed in the cell lines T24 and TCCSUP followed by proliferation, migration, and invasion assays. On the mRNA and protein levels, higher expression of MED30 is associated with better patient survival. In accordance with this, advanced T- and N-stages showed lower expression of MED30. In contrast, knockdown of MED30 led to reduction of the tumour parameters proliferation, migration, and invasion in the BCa cell lines. MED30 appears to be integrated in the progression of the urothelial tumour in the bladder. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Structure of the Cmr2 Subunit of the CRISPR-Cas RNA Silencing Complex

    Cocozaki, Alexis I.; Ramia, Nancy F.; Shao, Yaming; Hale, Caryn R.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.; Li, Hong (FSU); (Georgia)

    2012-08-10

    Cmr2 is the largest and an essential subunit of a CRISPR RNA-Cas protein complex (the Cmr complex) that cleaves foreign RNA to protect prokaryotes from invading genetic elements. Cmr2 is thought to be the catalytic subunit of the effector complex because of its N-terminal HD nuclease domain. Here, however, we report that the HD domain of Cmr2 is not required for cleavage by the complex in vitro. The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus Cmr2 (lacking the HD domain) reveals two adenylyl cyclase-like and two {alpha}-helical domains. The adenylyl cyclase-like domains are arranged as in homodimeric adenylyl cyclases and bind ADP and divalent metals. However, mutagenesis studies show that the metal- and ADP-coordinating residues of Cmr2 are also not critical for cleavage by the complex. Our findings suggest that another component provides the catalytic function and that the essential role by Cmr2 does not require the identified ADP- or metal-binding or HD domains in vitro.

  16. Enhanced immunization via dissolving microneedle array-based delivery system incorporating subunit vaccine and saponin adjuvant.

    Zhao, Ji-Hui; Zhang, Qi-Bo; Liu, Bao; Piao, Xiang-Hua; Yan, Yu-Lu; Hu, Xiao-Ge; Zhou, Kuan; Zhang, Yong-Tai; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    To enhance the immunogenicity of the model subunit vaccine, ovalbumin (OVA) was combined with platycodin (PD), a saponin adjuvant. To reduce the toxicity of PD, OVA, and adjuvant were loaded together into liposomes before being incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. OVA- and PD-loaded liposomes (OVA-PD-Lipos) were prepared using the film dispersion method. Their uptake behavior, toxicity to mouse bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs), and hemolytic activity to rabbit red blood cells (RBCs) were evaluated. The OVA-PD-Lipos were incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. The chemical stability of OVA and the physical stability of OVA-PD-Lipos in microneedle arrays were investigated. The immune response of Institute of Cancer Research mice and potential skin irritation reaction of rabbits to OVA-PD-Lipos-MNs were evaluated. The uptake of OVA by mouse BMDCs was greatly enhanced when OVA was prepared as OVA-PD-Lipos, and in this form, the toxicity of PD was dramatically reduced. OVA was chemically stable as OVA-PD-Lipos, when OVA-PD-Lipos was incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. Institute of Cancer Research mice treated with OVA-PD-Lipos-MNs showed a significantly enhanced immune response. PD combined with OVA elicited a balanced Th1 and Th2 humoral immune response in mice, with minimal irritation in rabbit skin. The dissolving microneedle array-based system is a promising delivery vehicle for subunit vaccine and its adjuvant.

  17. Improving Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanol production and tolerance via RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb7.

    Qiu, Zilong; Jiang, Rongrong

    2017-01-01

    Classical strain engineering methods often have limitations in altering multigenetic cellular phenotypes. Here we try to improve Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanol tolerance and productivity by reprogramming its transcription profile through rewiring its key transcription component RNA polymerase II (RNAP II), which plays a central role in synthesizing mRNAs. This is the first report on using directed evolution method to engineer RNAP II to alter S. cerevisiae strain phenotypes. Error-prone PCR was employed to engineer the subunit Rpb7 of RNAP II to improve yeast ethanol tolerance and production. Based on previous studies and the presumption that improved ethanol resistance would lead to enhanced ethanol production, we first isolated variant M1 with much improved resistance towards 8 and 10% ethanol. The ethanol titers of M1 was ~122 g/L (96.58% of the theoretical yield) under laboratory very high gravity (VHG) fermentation, 40% increase as compared to the control. DNA microarray assay showed that 369 genes had differential expression in M1 after 12 h VHG fermentation, which are involved in glycolysis, alcoholic fermentation, oxidative stress response, etc. This is the first study to demonstrate the possibility of engineering eukaryotic RNAP to alter global transcription profile and improve strain phenotypes. Targeting subunit Rpb7 of RNAP II was able to bring differential expression in hundreds of genes in S. cerevisiae , which finally led to improvement in yeast ethanol tolerance and production.

  18. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  19. Missing Links in Antibody Assembly Control

    Tiziana Anelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fidelity of the humoral immune response requires that quiescent B lymphocytes display membrane bound immunoglobulin M (IgM on B lymphocytes surface as part of the B cell receptor, whose function is to recognize an antigen. At the same time B lymphocytes should not secrete IgM until recognition of the antigen has occurred. The heavy chains of the secretory IgM have a C-terminal tail with a cysteine instead of a membrane anchor, which serves to covalently link the IgM subunits by disulfide bonds to form “pentamers” or “hexamers.” By virtue of the same cysteine, unassembled secretory IgM subunits are recognized and retained (via mixed disulfide bonds by members of the protein disulfide isomerase family, in particular ERp44. This so-called “thiol-mediated retention” bars assembly intermediates from prematurely leaving the cell and thereby exerts quality control on the humoral immune response. In this essay we discuss recent findings on how ERp44 governs such assembly control in a pH-dependent manner, shuttling between the cisGolgi and endoplasmic reticulum, and finally on how pERp1/MZB1, possibly as a co-chaperone of GRP94, may help to overrule the thiol-mediated retention in the activated B cell to give way to antibody secretion.

  20. The Over-expression of the β2 Catalytic Subunit of the Proteasome Decreases Homologous Recombination and Impairs DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in Human Cells

    Anita Collavoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By a human cDNA library screening, we have previously identified two sequences coding two different catalytic subunits of the proteasome which increase homologous recombination (HR when overexpressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the effect of proteasome on spontaneous HR and DNA repair in human cells. To determine if the proteasome has a role in the occurrence of spontaneous HR in human cells, we overexpressed the β2 subunit of the proteasome in HeLa cells and determined the effect on intrachromosomal HR. Results showed that the overexpression of β2 subunit decreased HR in human cells without altering the cell proteasome activity and the Rad51p level. Moreover, exposure to MG132 that inhibits the proteasome activity reduced HR in human cells. We also found that the expression of the β2 subunit increases the sensitivity to the camptothecin that induces DNA double-strand break (DSB. This suggests that the β2 subunit has an active role in HR and DSB repair but does not alter the intracellular level of the Rad51p.

  1. Dynamic inter-subunit interactions in thermophilic F1-ATPase subcomplexes studied by cross-correlated relaxation-enhanced polarization transfer NMR

    Kobayashi, Masumi; Yagi, Hiromasa; Yamazaki, Toshio; Yoshida, Masasuke; Akutsu, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    F 1 -ATPase is a unique enzyme in terms of its rotational catalytic activity. The smallest unit showing this property is the α 3 β 3 γ complex (351 kDa). For investigation of such a huge system by means of solution NMR, we have explored a suitable NMR method using F 1 -ATPase subcomplexes from a thermophilic Bacillus PS3 including an α 3 β 3 hexamer (319 kDa). Pulse sequences for large molecules, effects of deuteration and simplification of the spectra were examined in this work. Since the β subunit includes the catalytic site, this was the target of the analysis in this work. The combination of [ 15 N, 1 H]-CRINEPT-HMQC-[ 1 H]-TROSY, deuteration of both α and β subunits, and segmental isotope-labeling was found essential to analyze such a huge and complex molecular system. Utilizing this method, subcomplexes composed of α and β subunits were investigated in terms of inter-subunit interactions. It turned out that there is equilibrium among monomers, heterodimers and the α 3 β 3 hexamers in solution. The rate of exchange between the dimer and hexamer is in the slow regime on the NMR time scale. In chemical shift perturbation experiments, the N-terminal domain was found to be involved in strong inter-subunit interactions. In contrast, the C-terminal domain was found to be mobile even in the hexamer

  2. Protection of Mice from Lethal Vaccinia Virus Infection by Vaccinia Virus Protein Subunits with a CpG Adjuvant

    Sarah Reeman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox vaccination carries a high risk of adverse events in recipients with a variety of contra-indications for live vaccines. Although alternative non-replicating vaccines have been described in the form of replication-deficient vaccine viruses, DNA vaccines, and subunit vaccines, these are less efficacious than replicating vaccines in animal models. DNA and subunit vaccines in particular have not been shown to give equivalent protection to the traditional replicating smallpox vaccine. We show here that combinations of the orthopoxvirus A27, A33, B5 and L1 proteins give differing levels of protection when administered in different combinations with different adjuvants. In particular, the combination of B5 and A27 proteins adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN gives a level of protection in mice that is equivalent to the Lister traditional vaccine in a lethal vaccinia virus challenge model.

  3. The Barley Magnesium Chelatase 150-kD Subunit Is Not an Abscisic Acid Receptor1[OA

    Müller, André H.; Hansson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium chelatase is the first unique enzyme of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. It is composed of three gene products of which the largest is 150 kD. This protein was recently identified as an abscisic acid receptor in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We have evaluated whether the barley (Hordeum vulgare) magnesium chelatase large subunit, XanF, could be a receptor for the phytohormone. The study involved analysis of recombinant magnesium chelatase protein as well as several induced chlorophyll-deficient magnesium chelatase mutants with defects identified at the gene and protein levels. Abscisic acid had no effect on magnesium chelatase activity and binding to the barley 150-kD protein could not be shown. Magnesium chelatase mutants showed a wild-type response in respect to postgermination growth and stomatal aperture. Our results question the function of the large magnesium chelatase subunit as an abscisic acid receptor. PMID:19176716

  4. Shuttling of G protein subunits between the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes.

    Chisari, Mariangela; Saini, Deepak Kumar; Kalyanaraman, Vani; Gautam, Narasimhan

    2007-08-17

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (alphabetagamma) mediate the majority of signaling pathways in mammalian cells. It is long held that G protein function is localized to the plasma membrane. Here we examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of G protein localization using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, fluorescence loss in photobleaching, and a photoswitchable fluorescent protein, Dronpa. Unexpectedly, G protein subunits shuttle rapidly (t1/2 plasma membrane and intracellular membranes. We show that consistent with such shuttling, G proteins constitutively reside in endomembranes. Furthermore, we show that shuttling is inhibited by 2-bromopalmitate. Thus, contrary to present thought, G proteins do not reside permanently on the plasma membrane but are constantly testing the cytoplasmic surfaces of the plasma membrane and endomembranes to maintain G protein pools in intracellular membranes to establish direct communication between receptors and endomembranes.

  5. Determinants of RNA polymerase alpha subunit for interaction with beta, beta', and sigma subunits: hydroxyl-radical protein footprinting.

    Heyduk, T; Heyduk, E; Severinov, K; Tang, H; Ebright, R H

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) alpha subunit serves as the initiator for RNAP assembly, which proceeds according to the pathway 2 alpha-->alpha 2-->alpha 2 beta-->alpha 2 beta beta'-->alpha 2 beta beta' sigma. In this work, we have used hydroxyl-radical protein footprinting to define determinants of alpha for interaction with beta, beta', and sigma. Our results indicate that amino acids 30-75 of alpha are protected from hydroxyl-radical-mediated proteolysis upon interaction with beta ...

  6. Heterotrimeric G protein subunits are located on rat liver endosomes

    Van Dyke Rebecca W

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rat liver endosomes contain activated insulin receptors and downstream signal transduction molecules. We undertook these studies to determine whether endosomes also contain heterotrimeric G proteins that may be involved in signal transduction from G protein-coupled receptors. Results By Western blotting Gsα, Giα1,2, Giα3 and Gβ were enriched in both canalicular (CM and basolateral (BLM membranes but also readily detectable on three types of purified rat liver endosomes in the order recycling receptor compartment (RRC > compartment for uncoupling of receptor and ligand (CURL > multivesicular bodies (MVB >> purified secondary lysosomes. Western blotting with antibodies to Na, K-ATPase and to other proteins associated with plasma membranes and intracellular organelles indicated this was not due to contamination of endosome preparations by CM or BLM. Adenylate cyclase (AC was also identified on purified CM, BLM, RRC, CURL and MVB. Percoll gradient fractionation of liver postnuclear supernatants demonstrated co-occurrence of endosomes and heterotrimeric G protein subunits in fractions with little plasma membrane markers. By confocal microscopy, punctate staining for Gsα, Giα3 and Gβ corresponded to punctate areas of endocytosed Texas red-dextran in hepatocytes from control and cholera toxin-treated livers. Conclusion We conclude that heterotrimeric G protein subunits as well as AC likely traffic into hepatocytes on endosome membranes, possibly generating downstream signals spatially separate from signalling generated at the plasma membrane, analogous to the role(s of internalized insulin receptors.

  7. Binding of ATP by pertussis toxin and isolated toxin subunits

    Hausman, S.Z.; Manclark, C.R.; Burns, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The binding of ATP to pertussis toxin and its components, the A subunit and B oligomer, was investigated. Whereas, radiolabeled ATP bound to the B oligomer and pertussis toxin, no binding to the A subunit was observed. The binding of [ 3 H]ATP to pertussis toxin and the B oligomer was inhibited by nucleotides. The relative effectiveness of the nucleotides was shown to be ATP > GTP > CTP > TTP for pertussis toxin and ATP > GTP > TTP > CTP for the B oligomer. Phosphate ions inhibited the binding of [ 3 H]ATP to pertussis toxin in a competitive manner; however, the presence of phosphate ions was essential for binding of ATP to the B oligomer. The toxin substrate, NAD, did not affect the binding of [ 3 H]ATP to pertussis toxin, although the glycoprotein fetuin significantly decreased binding. These results suggest that the binding site for ATP is located on the B oligomer and is distinct from the enzymatically active site but may be located near the eukaryotic receptor binding site

  8. Binding of ATP by pertussis toxin and isolated toxin subunits

    Hausman, S.Z.; Manclark, C.R.; Burns, D.L. (Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-07-03

    The binding of ATP to pertussis toxin and its components, the A subunit and B oligomer, was investigated. Whereas, radiolabeled ATP bound to the B oligomer and pertussis toxin, no binding to the A subunit was observed. The binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin and the B oligomer was inhibited by nucleotides. The relative effectiveness of the nucleotides was shown to be ATP > GTP > CTP > TTP for pertussis toxin and ATP > GTP > TTP > CTP for the B oligomer. Phosphate ions inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin in a competitive manner; however, the presence of phosphate ions was essential for binding of ATP to the B oligomer. The toxin substrate, NAD, did not affect the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin, although the glycoprotein fetuin significantly decreased binding. These results suggest that the binding site for ATP is located on the B oligomer and is distinct from the enzymatically active site but may be located near the eukaryotic receptor binding site.

  9. The subunits of the S-phase checkpoint complex Mrc1/Tof1/Csm3: dynamics and interdependence.

    Uzunova, Sonya Dimitrova; Zarkov, Alexander Stefanov; Ivanova, Anna Marianova; Stoynov, Stoyno Stefanov; Nedelcheva-Veleva, Marina Nedelcheva

    2014-01-01

    The S-phase checkpoint aims to prevent cells from generation of extensive single-stranded DNA that predisposes to genome instability. The S. cerevisiae complex Tof1/Csm3/Mrc1 acts to restrain the replicative MCM helicase when DNA synthesis is prohibited. Keeping the replication machinery intact allows restart of the replication fork when the block is relieved. Although the subunits of the Tof1/Csm3/Mrc1 complex are well studied, the impact of every single subunit on the triple complex formation and function needs to be established. This work studies the cellular localization and the chromatin binding of GFP-tagged subunits when the complex is intact and when a subunit is missing. We demonstrate that the complex is formed in cell nucleus, not the cytoplasm, as Tof1, Csm3 and Mrc1 enter the nucleus independently from one another. Via in situ chromatin binding assay we show that a Tof1-Csm3 dimer formation and chromatin binding is required to ensure the attachment of Mrc1 to chromatin. Our study indicates that the translocation into the nucleus is not the process to regulate the timing of chromatin association of Mrc1. We also studied the nuclear behavior of Mrc1 subunit in the process of adaptation to the presence hydroxyurea. Our results indicate that after prolonged HU incubation, cells bypass the S-phase checkpoint and proceed throughout the cell cycle. This process is accompanied by Mrc1 chromatin detachment and Rad53 dephosphorylation. In S. cerevisiae the subunits of the S-phase checkpoint complex Mrc1/Tof1/Csm3 independently enter the cell nucleus, where a Tof1-Csm3 dimer is formed to ensure the chromatin binding of Mrc1 and favor DNA replication and S-phase checkpoint fork arrest. In the process of adaptation to the presence of hydroxyurea Mrc1 is detached from chromatin and Rad53 checkpoint activity is diminished in order to allow S-phase checkpoint escape and completion of the cell cycle.

  10. An Origin of Cooperative Oxygen Binding of Human Adult Hemoglobin: Different Roles of the α and β Subunits in the α2β2 Tetramer.

    Shigenori Nagatomo

    Full Text Available Human hemoglobin (Hb, which is an α2β2 tetramer and binds four O2 molecules, changes its O2-affinity from low to high as an increase of bound O2, that is characterized by 'cooperativity'. This property is indispensable for its function of O2 transfer from a lung to tissues and is accounted for in terms of T/R quaternary structure change, assuming the presence of a strain on the Fe-histidine (His bond in the T state caused by the formation of hydrogen bonds at the subunit interfaces. However, the difference between the α and β subunits has been neglected. To investigate the different roles of the Fe-His(F8 bonds in the α and β subunits, we investigated cavity mutant Hbs in which the Fe-His(F8 in either α or β subunits was replaced by Fe-imidazole and F8-glycine. Thus, in cavity mutant Hbs, the movement of Fe upon O2-binding is detached from the movement of the F-helix, which is supposed to play a role of communication. Recombinant Hb (rHb(αH87G, in which only the Fe-His in the α subunits is replaced by Fe-imidazole, showed a biphasic O2-binding with no cooperativity, indicating the coexistence of two independent hemes with different O2-affinities. In contrast, rHb(βH92G, in which only the Fe-His in the β subunits is replaced by Fe-imidazole, gave a simple high-affinity O2-binding curve with no cooperativity. Resonance Raman, 1H NMR, and near-UV circular dichroism measurements revealed that the quaternary structure change did not occur upon O2-binding to rHb(αH87G, but it did partially occur with O2-binding to rHb(βH92G. The quaternary structure of rHb(αH87G appears to be frozen in T while its tertiary structure is changeable. Thus, the absence of the Fe-His bond in the α subunit inhibits the T to R quaternary structure change upon O2-binding, but its absence in the β subunit simply enhances the O2-affinity of α subunit.

  11. An Origin of Cooperative Oxygen Binding of Human Adult Hemoglobin: Different Roles of the α and β Subunits in the α2β2 Tetramer

    Sakurai, Hiroshi; Imai, Kiyohiro; Mizusawa, Naoki; Ogura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Human hemoglobin (Hb), which is an α2β2 tetramer and binds four O2 molecules, changes its O2-affinity from low to high as an increase of bound O2, that is characterized by ‘cooperativity’. This property is indispensable for its function of O2 transfer from a lung to tissues and is accounted for in terms of T/R quaternary structure change, assuming the presence of a strain on the Fe-histidine (His) bond in the T state caused by the formation of hydrogen bonds at the subunit interfaces. However, the difference between the α and β subunits has been neglected. To investigate the different roles of the Fe-His(F8) bonds in the α and β subunits, we investigated cavity mutant Hbs in which the Fe-His(F8) in either α or β subunits was replaced by Fe-imidazole and F8-glycine. Thus, in cavity mutant Hbs, the movement of Fe upon O2-binding is detached from the movement of the F-helix, which is supposed to play a role of communication. Recombinant Hb (rHb)(αH87G), in which only the Fe-His in the α subunits is replaced by Fe-imidazole, showed a biphasic O2-binding with no cooperativity, indicating the coexistence of two independent hemes with different O2-affinities. In contrast, rHb(βH92G), in which only the Fe-His in the β subunits is replaced by Fe-imidazole, gave a simple high-affinity O2-binding curve with no cooperativity. Resonance Raman, 1H NMR, and near-UV circular dichroism measurements revealed that the quaternary structure change did not occur upon O2-binding to rHb(αH87G), but it did partially occur with O2-binding to rHb(βH92G). The quaternary structure of rHb(αH87G) appears to be frozen in T while its tertiary structure is changeable. Thus, the absence of the Fe-His bond in the α subunit inhibits the T to R quaternary structure change upon O2-binding, but its absence in the β subunit simply enhances the O2-affinity of α subunit. PMID:26244770

  12. Role of the beta subunit of casein kinase-2 on the stability and specificity of the recombinant reconstituted holoenzyme

    Meggio, F; Boldyreff, B; Marin, O

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human alpha subunit from casein kinase-2 (CK-2) was subjected, either alone or in combination with recombinant human beta subunit, to high temperature, tryptic digestion and urea treatment. In all three cases, it was shown that the presence of the beta subunit could drastically reduce...... the autophosphorylation site. It is suggested that the acidic domain of the beta subunit, encompassing residues 55-71, plays a role in the interactions between the beta and alpha subunits....

  13. Cloning and characterization of Sdga gene encoding alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein complex in Scoparia dulcis.

    Shite, Masato; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2008-11-01

    A homology-based cloning strategy yielded Sdga, a cDNA clone presumably encoding alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein complex, from leaf tissues of Scoparia dulcis. Phylogenetic tree analysis of G-protein alpha-subunits from various biological sources suggested that, unlike in animal cells, classification of Galpha-proteins into specific subfamilies could not be applicable to the proteins from higher plants. Restriction digests of genomic DNA of S. dulcis showed a single hybridized signal in Southern blot analysis, suggesting that Sdga is a sole gene encoding Galpha-subunit in this plant. The expression level of Sdga appeared to be maintained at almost constant level after exposure of the leaves to methyl jasmonate as analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that Sdga plays roles in methyl jasmonate-induced responses of S. dulcis without a notable change in the transcriptional level.

  14. Reassessment of MxiH subunit orientation and fold within native Shigella T3SS needles using surface labelling and solid-state NMR.

    Verasdonck, Joeri; Shen, Da-Kang; Treadgold, Alexander; Arthur, Christopher; Böckmann, Anja; Meier, Beat H; Blocker, Ariel J

    2015-12-01

    T3SSs are essential virulence determinants of many Gram-negative bacteria, used to inject bacterial effectors of virulence into eukaryotic host cells. Their major extracellular portion, a ∼50 nm hollow, needle-like structure, is essential to host cell sensing and the conduit for effector secretion. It is formed of a small, conserved subunit arranged as a helical polymer. The structure of the subunit has been studied by electron cryomicroscopy within native polymers and by solid-state NMR in recombinant polymers, yielding two incompatible atomic models. To resolve this controversy, we re-examined the native polymer used for electron cryomicroscopy via surface labelling and solid-state NMR. Our data show the orientation and overall fold of the subunit within this polymer is as established by solid-state NMR for recombinant polymers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SIRT1 overexpression decreases cisplatin-induced acetylation of NF-κB p65 subunit and cytotoxicity in renal proximal tubule cells

    Jung, Yu Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Ae Sin; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Park, Sung Kwang; Lee, Sang Yong; Han, Myung Kwan; Kim, Duk Hoon; Kim, Won

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cisplatin increases acetylation of NF-κB p65 subunit in HK2 cells. ► SIRT1 overexpression decreases cisplatin-induced p65 acetylation and -cytotoxicity. ► Resveratrol decreased cisplatin-induced cell viability through deacetylation of p65. -- Abstract: As the increased acetylation of p65 is linked to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, the regulation of p65 acetylation can be a potential target for the treatment of inflammatory injury. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is an important issue in chemotherapy of cancer patients. SIRT1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-dependent protein deacetylase, has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as inflammatory injury and the control of multidrug resistance in cancer. However, there is no report on the effect of SIRT1 overexpression on cisplatin-induced acetylation of p65 subunit of NF-κB and cell injury. To investigate the effect of SIRT1 in on cisplatin-induced acetylation of p65 subunit of NF-κB and cell injury, HK2 cells were exposed with SIRT1 overexpression, LacZ adenovirus or dominant negative adenovirus after treatment with cisplatin. While protein expression of SIRT1 was decreased by cisplatin treatment compared with control buffer treatment, acetylation of NF-κB p65 subunit was significantly increased after treatment with cisplatin. Overexpression of SIRT1 ameliorated the increased acetylation of p65 of NF-κB during cisplatin treatment and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. Further, treatment of cisplatin-treated HK2 cells with resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, also decreased acetylation of NF-κB p65 subunit and cisplatin-induced increase of the cell viability in HK2 cells. Our findings suggests that the regulation of acetylation of p65 of NF-κB through SIRT1 can be a possible target to attenuate cisplatin-induced renal cell damage.

  16. Efficient expression of functional (α6β22β3 AChRs in Xenopus oocytes from free subunits using slightly modified α6 subunits.

    Carson Kai-Kwong Ley

    Full Text Available Human (α6β2(α4β2β3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs are essential for addiction to nicotine and a target for drug development for smoking cessation. Expressing this complex AChR is difficult, but has been achieved using subunit concatamers. In order to determine what limits expression of α6* AChRs and to efficiently express α6* AChRs using free subunits, we investigated expression of the simpler (α6β22β3 AChR. The concatameric form of this AChR assembles well, but is transported to the cell surface inefficiently. Various chimeras of α6 with the closely related α3 subunit increased expression efficiency with free subunits and produced pharmacologically equivalent functional AChRs. A chimera in which the large cytoplasmic domain of α6 was replaced with that of α3 increased assembly with β2 subunits and transport of AChRs to the oocyte surface. Another chimera replacing the unique methionine 211 of α6 with leucine found at this position in transmembrane domain 1 of α3 and other α subunits increased assembly of mature subunits containing β3 subunits within oocytes. Combining both α3 sequences in an α6 chimera increased expression of functional (α6β22β3 AChRs to 12-fold more than with concatamers. This is pragmatically useful, and provides insights on features of α6 subunit structure that limit its expression in transfected cells.

  17. Characterisation by nuclear magnetic resonance of the β catalytic subunit of the chloroplastic coupling factor

    Andre, Francois

    1986-09-01

    This academic work addressed the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the structural and dynamic study of the catalytic sub-unit of the extrinsic section of a membrane complex, the chloroplastic H+-ATPase. This work included the development of a protocol of preparation and quantitative purification of β subunits isolated from the CF1 for the elaboration of a concentrated sample for NMR, and then the study of the β subunit by using proton NMR

  18. Antibodies to the α-subunit of insulin receptor from eggs of immunized hens

    Song, C.; Yu, J.; Bai, D.H.; Hester, P.Y.; Kim, K.

    1985-01-01

    Simple methods for the generation, purification, and assay of antibodies to the α-subunit of insulin receptor from eggs of immunized hen have been described. Chicken antibodies against the α-subunit inhibit insulin binding to the receptor and stimulate glucose oxidation as well as autophosphorylation of the β-subunit. Thus the properties of chicken antibodies are very similar to those of antibodies found in human autoimmune diseases and different from rabbit antibodies obtained against the same antigen

  19. Cloning and sequencing of the casein kinase 2 alpha subunit from Zea mays

    Dobrowolska, G; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA coding for the alpha subunit of casein kinase 2 of Zea mays has been determined. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 996 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide comprising 332 amino acids. The primary amino acid sequence exhibits 75% identity to the alpha...... subunit and 71% identity to the alpha' subunit of human casein kinase 2....

  20. Compensatory expression of human -Acetylglucosaminyl-1-phosphotransferase subunits in mucolipidosis type III gamma

    Pohl , Sandra; Tiede , Stephan; Castrichini , Monica; Cantz , Michael; Gieselmann , Volkmar; Braulke , Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The N-Acetylglucosaminyl-1-phosphotransferase plays a key role in the generation of mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) recognition markers essential for efficient transport of lysosomal hydrolases to lysosomes. The phosphotransferase is composed of six subunits (?2, ?2, ?2). The ?- and ?-subunits are catalytically active and encoded by a single gene, GNPTAB, whereas the ?-subunit encoded by GNPTG is proposed to recognize conformational structures common to lysosomal enzymes. Defects in GN...

  1. The metal-ion-dependent adhesion site in the Von Willebrand factor-A domain of α2δ subunits is key to trafficking voltage-gated Ca2+ channels

    Cantí, C.; Nieto-Rostro, M.; Foucault, I.; Heblich, F.; Wratten, J.; Richards, M. W.; Hendrich, J.; Douglas, L.; Page, K. M.; Davies, A.; Dolphin, A. C.

    2005-01-01

    All auxiliary α2δ subunits of voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels contain an extracellular Von Willebrand factor-A (VWA) domain that, in α2δ-1 and -2, has a perfect metal-ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS). Modeling of the α2δ-2 VWA domain shows it to be highly likely to bind a divalent cation. Mutating the three key MIDAS residues responsible for divalent cation binding resulted in a MIDAS mutant α2δ-2 subunit that was still processed and trafficked normally when it was expressed alone. However, unlike WT α2δ-2, the MIDAS mutant α2δ-2 subunit did not enhance and, in some cases, further diminished CaV1.2, -2.1, and -2.2 currents coexpressed with β1b by using either Ba2+ or Na+ as a permeant ion. Furthermore, expression of the MIDAS mutant α2δ-2 reduced surface expression and strongly increased the perinuclear retention of CaVα1 subunits at the earliest time at which expression was observed in both Cos-7 and NG108–15 cells. Despite the presence of endogenous α2δ subunits, heterologous expression of α2δ-2 in differentiated NG108–15 cells further enhanced the endogenous high-threshold Ca2+ currents, whereas this enhancement was prevented by the MIDAS mutations. Our results indicate that α2δ subunits normally interact with the CaVα1 subunit early in their maturation, before the appearance of functional plasma membrane channels, and an intact MIDAS motif in the α2δ subunit is required to promote trafficking of the α1 subunit to the plasma membrane by an integrin-like switch. This finding provides evidence for a primary role of a VWA domain in intracellular trafficking of a multimeric complex, in contrast to the more usual roles in binding extracellular ligands in other exofacial VWA domains. PMID:16061813

  2. Specific radioimmunoassay of HCG and its α and β subunits: methods and results

    Reuter, A.M.; Schoonbrood, J.; Franchimont, P.

    1976-01-01

    To create antisera that are specific for the radioimmunoassay of HCG and its subunits, the antisera are neutralized by incubation with LH or HCG. For each RIA system the inhibition curves of HCG and its subunits LH, FSH, TSH and STH are obtained. The 125 I labelled hormones HCG, α and β subunits and LH were chromatographed over a Sephadex G 100 column. Serum of menopausal and pregnant women were chromatographed in the same way and the fractions subjected to RIA. HCG and its subunits were determined by RIA in the sera of patients with different kinds of cancer

  3. Genetic ablation of the GluK4 kainate receptor subunit causes anxiolytic and antidepressant-like behavior in mice.

    Catches, Justin S; Xu, Jian; Contractor, Anis

    2012-03-17

    There is a clear link between dysregulation of glutamatergic signaling and mood disorders. Genetic variants in the glutamate receptor gene GRIK4, which encodes the kainate receptor subunit GluK4, alter the susceptibility for depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Here we demonstrate that Grik4(-/-) mice have reduced anxiety and an antidepressant-like phenotype. In the elevated zero-maze, a test for anxiety and risk taking behavior, Grik4(-/-) mice spent significantly more time exploring the open areas of the maze. In anxiogenic tests of marble-burying and novelty-induced suppression of feeding, anxiety-like behavior was consistently reduced in knockout animals. In the forced swim test, a test of learned helplessness that is used to determine depression-like behavior, knockout mice demonstrated significantly less immobility suggesting that Grik4 ablation has an antidepressant-like effect. Finally, in the sucrose preference test, a test for anhedonia in rodents, Grik4(-/-) mice demonstrated increased sucrose preference. Expression of the GluK4 receptor subunit in the forebrain is restricted to the CA3 region of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus regions where KARs are known to modulate synaptic plasticity. We tested whether Grik4 ablation had effects on mossy fiber (MF) plasticity and found there to be a significant impairment in LTP likely through a loss of KAR modulation of excitability of the presynaptic MF axons. These studies demonstrate a clear anxiolytic and antidepressant phenotype associated with ablation of Grik4 and a parallel disruption in hippocampal plasticity, providing support for the importance of this receptor subunit in mood disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Autoimmune Hepatitis and Celiac Disease: Case Report Showing an Entero-Hepatic Link

    Francesco Tovoli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder primarily targeting the small bowel, although extraintestinal extensions have been reported. The autoimmune processes can affect the liver with manifestations such as primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis. We describe a 61-year-old woman with celiac disease and an increased levels of aminotransferases. The persistence of increased levels of aminotransferases after 1 year of gluten-free diet and the positivity for an anti-nuclear and anti-double-strand DNA antibodies led to a misdiagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus-related hepatitis. Based on these findings the patient was placed on steroids, which after a few months were stopped because of the onset of diabetes mellitus. Soon after steroid withdrawal, the patient had a marked increase in aminotransferases and γ-globulins, and a liver biopsy revealed chronic active hepatitis. A course of three months of steroids and azathioprine normalized both biochemical and clinical parameters. Currently the patient is symptom-free and doing well. In conclusion, a hypertransaminasemia persisting after a gluten-free diet should be interpreted as a sign of coexisting autoimmune liver disease. Any autoantibody positivity (in this case to ANA and anti-dsDNA should be carefully considered in order to avoid misdiagnosis delaying appropriate clinical management.

  5. Modeled hydrologic metrics show links between hydrology and the functional composition of stream assemblages.

    Patrick, Christopher J; Yuan, Lester L

    2017-07-01

    Flow alteration is widespread in streams, but current understanding of the effects of differences in flow characteristics on stream biological communities is incomplete. We tested hypotheses about the effect of variation in hydrology on stream communities by using generalized additive models to relate watershed information to the values of different flow metrics at gauged sites. Flow models accounted for 54-80% of the spatial variation in flow metric values among gauged sites. We then used these models to predict flow metrics in 842 ungauged stream sites in the mid-Atlantic United States that were sampled for fish, macroinvertebrates, and environmental covariates. Fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages were characterized in terms of a suite of metrics that quantified aspects of community composition, diversity, and functional traits that were expected to be associated with differences in flow characteristics. We related modeled flow metrics to biological metrics in a series of stressor-response models. Our analyses identified both drying and base flow instability as explaining 30-50% of the observed variability in fish and invertebrate community composition. Variations in community composition were related to variations in the prevalence of dispersal traits in invertebrates and trophic guilds in fish. The results demonstrate that we can use statistical models to predict hydrologic conditions at bioassessment sites, which, in turn, we can use to estimate relationships between flow conditions and biological characteristics. This analysis provides an approach to quantify the effects of spatial variation in flow metrics using readily available biomonitoring data. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Finasteride and male breast cancer: Does the MHRA report show a link?

    Niraj K Shenoy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride is an important drug for the management of androgenetic alopecia. However, there are concerns about the possible side effects of the drug such as impotence. Recently stray reports have appeared about the occurrence of male breast carcinoma in patients who received the drug. These have been looked in to by Medicines and Health care products Regulatory Agency (MHRA. This article summarizes the MHRA report.

  7. scsB, a cDNA encoding the hydrogenosomal beta subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis

    Brondijk, THC; Durand, R; vanderGiezen, M; Gottschal, JC; Prins, RA; Fevre, M

    1996-01-01

    A clone containing a Neocallimastix frontalis cDNA assumed to encode the beta subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCSB) was identified by sequence homology with prokaryotic and eukaryotic counterparts. An open reading frame of 1311 bp was found. The deduced 437 amino acid sequence showed a high

  8. Transfer of HMW glutenin subunits from Aegilops kotschyi to wheat through radiation hybridization

    Singh, Jasmeet; Sheikh, Imran; Sharma, Prachi

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMWGS) are responsible for dough elasticity and bread making quality of bread wheat. Related wild non-progenitor species, Aegilops kotschyi possesses higher molecular weight x and y glutenin subunits than the bread wheat cultivars. A wheat-Aegilops substitution line with 1U chromosome was used for the transfer of (HMWGS) of 1U to wheat by using pollen radiation hybridization approach. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiling showed different patterns of allelic variations with either the presence or absence of HMWGS, Glu-1A (1, null), Glu-1B (7, 7 + 8, 17 + 18) and Glu-1D (5 + 10, 2 + 12, null). The pollen irradiated wheat-Aegilops derivatives, B-56-1-4-2, B-56-1-4-3, B-14-1 and B-14-2 with Glu1Ux and 1Uy and absence or presence of some Glu-1A and Glu-1B HMWGS showed high micro SDS sedimentation test (MST) values while B-16-1 and B-16-2 had moderate MST values and high protein content. However, B-58-3 with transfer of Glu-1Ux + 1Uy for Glu-1D showed very low MST values indicating that Glu-1Ux + 1Uy enhance MST value only in the presence of Glu1D HMWGS. The transfer/substitution of alien HMW-GS for Glu-1A and or Glu-1B loci only can lead to improved bread making quality of wheat. (author)

  9. Dynamic link: user's manual

    Harada, Hiroo; Asai, Kiyoshi; Kihara, Kazuhisa.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of dynamic link facility is to link a load module dynamically only when it is used in execution time. The facility is very useful for development, execution and maintenance of a large scale computer program which is too big to be saved as one load module in main memory, or it is poor economy to save it due to many unused subroutines depending on an input. It is also useful for standardization and common utilization of programs. Standard usage of dynamic link facility of FACOM M-200 computer system, a software tool which analyzes the effect of dynamic link facility and application of dynamic link to nuclear codes are described. (author)

  10. Rate of hydrolysis in ATP synthase is fine-tuned by  -subunit motif controlling active site conformation

    Beke-Somfai, T.; Lincoln, P.; Norden, B.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-designed artificial enzymes will require precise understanding of how conformation of active sites may control barrier heights of key transition states, including dependence on structure and dynamics at larger molecular scale. F(o)F(1) ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP using a rotary motor. Isolated F(1) performs hydrolysis with a rate very sensitive to ATP concentration. Experimental and theoretical results show that, at low ATP concentrations, ATP is slowly hydrolyzed in the so-called tight binding site, whereas at higher concentrations, the binding of additional ATP molecules induces rotation of the central γ-subunit, thereby forcing the site to transform through subtle conformational changes into a loose binding site in which hydrolysis occurs faster. How the 1-Å-scale rearrangements are controlled is not yet fully understood. By a combination of theoretical approaches, we address how large macromolecular rearrangements may manipulate the active site and how the reaction rate changes with active site conformation. Simulations reveal that, in response to γ-subunit position, the active site conformation is fine-tuned mainly by small α-subunit changes. Quantum mechanics-based results confirm that the sub-Ångström gradual changes between tight and loose binding site structures dramatically alter the hydrolysis rate.

  11. Mediator Complex Subunits MED2, MED5, MED16, and MED23 Genetically Interact in the Regulation of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis.

    Dolan, Whitney L; Dilkes, Brian P; Stout, Jake M; Bonawitz, Nicholas D; Chapple, Clint

    2017-12-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway is a major global carbon sink and is important for plant fitness and the engineering of bioenergy feedstocks. In Arabidopsis thaliana , disruption of two subunits of the transcriptional regulatory Mediator complex, MED5a and MED5b, results in an increase in phenylpropanoid accumulation. By contrast, the semidominant MED5b mutation reduced epidermal fluorescence4-3 ( ref4-3 ) results in dwarfism and constitutively repressed phenylpropanoid accumulation. Here, we report the results of a forward genetic screen for suppressors of ref4-3. We identified 13 independent lines that restore growth and/or phenylpropanoid accumulation in the ref4-3 background. Two of the suppressors restore growth without restoring soluble phenylpropanoid accumulation, indicating that the growth and metabolic phenotypes of the ref4-3 mutant can be genetically disentangled. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that all but one of the suppressors carry mutations in MED5b or other Mediator subunits. RNA-seq analysis showed that the ref4-3 mutation causes widespread changes in gene expression, including the upregulation of negative regulators of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and that the suppressors reverse many of these changes. Together, our data highlight the interdependence of individual Mediator subunits and provide greater insight into the transcriptional regulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by the Mediator complex. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. Human placental Na+, K+-ATPase α subunit: cDNA cloning, tissue expression, DNA polymorphism, and chromosomal localization

    Chehab, F.F.; Kan, Y.W.; Law, M.L.; Hartz, J.; Kao, F.T.; Blostein, R.

    1987-01-01

    A 2.2-kilobase clone comprising a major portion of the coding sequence of the Na + , K + -ATPase α subunit was cloned from human placenta and its sequence was identical to that encoding the α subunit of human kidney and HeLa cells. Transfer blot analysis of the mRNA products of the Na + , K + -ATPase gene from various human tissues and cell lines revealed only one band (≅ 4.7 kilobases) under low and high stringency washing conditions. The levels of expression in the tissues were intestine > placenta > liver > pancreas, and in the cell lines the levels were human erythroleukemia > butyrate-induced colon > colon > brain > HeLa cells. mRNA was undetectable in reticulocytes, consistent with the authors failure to detect positive clones in a size-selected ( > 2 kilobases) λgt11 reticulocyte cDNA library. DNA analysis revealed by a polymorphic EcoRI band and chromosome localization by flow sorting and in situ hybridization showed that the α subunit is on the short is on the short arm (band p11-p13) of chromosome 1

  13. Rate of hydrolysis in ATP synthase is fine-tuned by  -subunit motif controlling active site conformation

    Beke-Somfai, T.

    2013-01-23

    Computer-designed artificial enzymes will require precise understanding of how conformation of active sites may control barrier heights of key transition states, including dependence on structure and dynamics at larger molecular scale. F(o)F(1) ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP using a rotary motor. Isolated F(1) performs hydrolysis with a rate very sensitive to ATP concentration. Experimental and theoretical results show that, at low ATP concentrations, ATP is slowly hydrolyzed in the so-called tight binding site, whereas at higher concentrations, the binding of additional ATP molecules induces rotation of the central γ-subunit, thereby forcing the site to transform through subtle conformational changes into a loose binding site in which hydrolysis occurs faster. How the 1-Å-scale rearrangements are controlled is not yet fully understood. By a combination of theoretical approaches, we address how large macromolecular rearrangements may manipulate the active site and how the reaction rate changes with active site conformation. Simulations reveal that, in response to γ-subunit position, the active site conformation is fine-tuned mainly by small α-subunit changes. Quantum mechanics-based results confirm that the sub-Ångström gradual changes between tight and loose binding site structures dramatically alter the hydrolysis rate.

  14. Warfarin resistance associated with genetic polymorphism of VKORC1: linking clinical response to molecular mechanism using computational modeling.

    Lewis, Benjamin C; Nair, Pramod C; Heran, Subash S; Somogyi, Andrew A; Bowden, Jeffrey J; Doogue, Matthew P; Miners, John O

    2016-01-01

    The variable response to warfarin treatment often has a genetic basis. A protein homology model of human vitamin K epoxide reductase, subunit 1 (VKORC1), was generated to elucidate the mechanism of warfarin resistance observed in a patient with the Val66Met mutation. The VKORC1 homology model comprises four transmembrane (TM) helical domains and a half helical lid domain. Cys132 and Cys135, located in the N-terminal end of TM-4, are linked through a disulfide bond. Two distinct binding sites for warfarin were identified. Site-1, which binds vitamin K epoxide (KO) in a catalytically favorable orientation, shows higher affinity for S-warfarin compared with R-warfarin. Site-2, positioned in the domain occupied by the hydrophobic tail of KO, binds both warfarin enantiomers with similar affinity. Displacement of Arg37 occurs in the Val66Met mutant, blocking access of warfarin (but not KO) to Site-1, consistent with clinical observation of warfarin resistance.

  15. Proteomic and immunoproteomic characterization of a DIVA subunit vaccine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Maas Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protection of pigs by vaccination against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is hampered by the presence of 15 different serotypes. A DIVA subunit vaccine comprised of detergent-released proteins from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2 and 5 has been developed and shown to protect pigs from clinical symptoms upon homologous and heterologous challenge. This vaccine has not been characterized in-depth so far. Thus we performed i mass spectrometry in order to identify the exact protein content of the vaccine and ii cross-serotype 2-D immunoblotting in order to discover cross-reactive antigens. By these approaches we expected to gain results enabling us to argue about the reasons for the efficacy of the analyzed vaccine. Results We identified 75 different proteins in the vaccine. Using the PSORTb algorithm these proteins were classified according to their cellular localization. Highly enriched proteins are outer membrane-associated lipoproteins like OmlA and TbpB, integral outer membrane proteins like FrpB, TbpA, OmpA1, OmpA2, HgbA and OmpP2, and secreted Apx toxins. The subunit vaccine also contained large amounts of the ApxIVA toxin so far thought to be expressed only during infection. Applying two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE we showed different isoforms and variations in expression levels of several proteins among the strains used for vaccine production. For detection of cross-reactive antigens we used detergent released proteins of serotype 7. Sera of pigs vaccinated with the detergent-released proteins of serotypes 1, 2, and 5 detected seven different proteins of serotype 7, and convalescent sera of pigs surviving experimental infection with serotype 7 reacted with 13 different proteins of the detergent-released proteins of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, and 5. Conclusions A detergent extraction-based subunit vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae was

  16. New insights into structure-function relationship of the DHPR beta1a subunit in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling using zebrafish 'relaxed' as an expression system

    Dayal, A.

    2010-01-01

    The paralyzed zebrafish strain relaxed carries a null mutation for the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) [beta]1a subunit. The lack of [beta]1a not only impedes functional [alpha]1S membrane expression but also precludes the skeletal muscle-specific ultrastructural arrangement of DHPRs into tetrads opposite ryanodine receptor (RyR1), coherent with the absence of skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. With the plethora of experimental approaches feasible with zebrafish model organism and importantly with the [beta]1-null mutation having a monogenetic inheritance and because of the survival of the relaxed larvae for some days, we were able to establish the zebrafish relaxed as an expression system. Linking in vitro to in vivo observations, a clear differentiation between the major functional roles of [beta] subunits in EC coupling was feasible. The skeletal muscle [beta]1a subunit was able to restore all parameters of EC coupling upon expression in relaxed myotubes and larvae. Expression of the phylogenetically closest isoform to [beta]1a, the cardiac/neuronal [beta]2a subunit or the most distant neuronal [beta]M from the housefly in relaxed myotubes and larvae was likewise able to fully restore [alpha]1S triad targeting and facilitate charge movement. However, efficient tetrad formation and thus intact DHPR-RyR1 coupling was exclusively promoted by the [beta]1a isoform. Consequently, we postulated a model according to which [beta]1a acts as a unique allosteric modifier of [alpha]1S conformation crucial for skeletal muscle EC coupling. Therefore, unique structural elements in [beta]1a must be present which endow it with this exclusive property. Earlier, a unique hydrophobic heptad repeat motif (LVV) in the [beta]1a C-terminus was postulated by others to be essential for skeletal muscle EC coupling. We wanted to address the question if the proposed [beta]1a heptad repeat motif could be an active element of the DHPR-RyR1 signal transduction

  17. Determination of hCG-alpha subunit in threatened pregnancy

    Talas, M.; Pohanka, J.; Fingerova, H.; Janouskova, M.; Krikal, Z.; Prasilova, J.; Zupkova, H.

    1987-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of the hCG-alpha subunit was made using an antibody anti hCG-alpha serum, highly purified hCG-alpha for 125 I-labelling and the standard hCG-alpha. Sera of healthy pregnant women sampled throughout the whole pregnancies were used to determine x-bar±S.D. of hCG-alpha for 14-day intervals. Included in the study were groups of women with high risk of premature labor, late toxemia of pregnancy, twins and fetal hypotrophy. It was shown that increased hCG-alpha is found in pregnant women in whom signs of late toxemia of pregnancy are combined with high risk of premature labor, or with twin pregnancies, while in those with fetal hypotrophy hCG-alpha is within normal limits. (author). 3 figs., 7 refs

  18. Chaperonin Structure - The Large Multi-Subunit Protein Complex

    Irena Roterman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The multi sub-unit protein structure representing the chaperonins group is analyzed with respect to its hydrophobicity distribution. The proteins of this group assist protein folding supported by ATP. The specific axial symmetry GroEL structure (two rings of seven units stacked back to back - 524 aa each and the GroES (single ring of seven units - 97 aa each polypeptide chains are analyzed using the hydrophobicity distribution expressed as excess/deficiency all over the molecule to search for structure-to-function relationships. The empirically observed distribution of hydrophobic residues is confronted with the theoretical one representing the idealized hydrophobic core with hydrophilic residues exposure on the surface. The observed discrepancy between these two distributions seems to be aim-oriented, determining the structure-to-function relation. The hydrophobic force field structure generated by the chaperonin capsule is presented. Its possible influence on substrate folding is suggested.

  19. Glycine Receptor α2 Subunit Activation Promotes Cortical Interneuron Migration

    Ariel Avila

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycine receptors (GlyRs are detected in the developing CNS before synaptogenesis, but their function remains elusive. This study demonstrates that functional GlyRs are expressed by embryonic cortical interneurons in vivo. Furthermore, genetic disruption of these receptors leads to interneuron migration defects. We discovered that extrasynaptic activation of GlyRs containing the α2 subunit in cortical interneurons by endogenous glycine activates voltage-gated calcium channels and promotes calcium influx, which further modulates actomyosin contractility to fine-tune nuclear translocation during migration. Taken together, our data highlight the molecular events triggered by GlyR α2 activation that control cortical tangential migration during embryogenesis.

  20. Ectopic Expression of α6 and δ GABAA Receptor Subunits in Hilar Somatostatin Neurons Increases Tonic Inhibition and Alters Network Activity in the Dentate Gyrus

    Tong, Xiaoping; Peng, Zechun; Zhang, Nianhui; Cetina, Yliana; Huang, Christine S.; Wallner, Martin; Otis, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The role of GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated tonic inhibition in interneurons remains unclear and may vary among subgroups. Somatostatin (SOM) interneurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus show negligible expression of nonsynaptic GABAAR subunits and very low tonic inhibition. To determine the effects of ectopic expression of tonic GABAAR subtypes in these neurons, Cre-dependent viral vectors were used to express GFP-tagged GABAAR subunits (α6 and δ) selectively in hilar SOM neurons in SOM-Cre mice. In single-transfected animals, immunohistochemistry demonstrated strong expression of either the α6 or δ subunit; in cotransfected animals, both subunits were consistently expressed in the same neurons. Electrophysiology revealed a robust increase of tonic current, with progressively larger increases following transfection of δ, α6, and α6/δ subunits, respectively, indicating formation of functional receptors in all conditions and likely coassembly of the subunits in the same receptor following cotransfection. An in vitro model of repetitive bursting was used to determine the effects of increased tonic inhibition in hilar SOM interneurons on circuit activity in the dentate gyrus. Upon cotransfection, the frequency of GABAAR-mediated bursting in granule cells was reduced, consistent with a reduction in synchronous firing among hilar SOM interneurons. Moreover, in vivo studies of Fos expression demonstrated reduced activation of α6/δ-cotransfected neurons following acute seizure induction by pentylenetetrazole. The findings demonstrate that increasing tonic inhibition in hilar SOM interneurons can alter dentate gyrus circuit activity during strong stimulation and suggest that tonic inhibition of interneurons could play a role in regulating excessive synchrony within the network. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In contrast to many hippocampal interneurons, somatostatin (SOM) neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus have very low levels of nonsynaptic GABAARs and exhibit

  1. Age-dependent modifications of AMPA receptor subunit expression levels and related cognitive effects in 3xTg-AD mice

    Pamela eCantanelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 are the constitutive subunits of AMPA receptors (AMPARs, the major mediators of fast excitatory transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. Most AMPARs are Ca2+-impermeable because of the presence of the GluA2 subunit. GluA2 mRNA undergoes an editing process that results in a Q to R substitution, a key factor in the regulation of AMPAR Ca2+-permeability. AMPARs lacking GluA2 or containing the unedited subunit are permeable to Ca2+ and Zn2+. The phenomenon physiologically modulates synaptic plasticity while, in pathologic conditions, leads to increased vulnerability to excitotoxic neuronal death. Given the importance of these subunits, we have therefore evaluated possible associations between changes in expression levels of AMPAR subunits and development of cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice, a widely investigated transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. With qRT-PCR, we assayed hippocampal mRNA expression levels of GluA1-4 subunits occurring in young [3 months of age (m.o.a.] and old (12 m.o.a Tg-AD mice and made comparisons with levels found in age-matched wild type (WT mice. Efficiency of GluA2 RNA editing was also analyzed. All animals were cognitively tested for short- and long-term spatial memory with the Morris Water Maze (MWM navigation task. 3xTg-AD mice showed age-dependent decreases of mRNA levels for all the AMPAR subunits, with the exception of GluA2. Editing remained fully efficient with aging in 3xTg-AD and WT mice. A one-to-one correlation analysis between MWM performances and GluA1-4 mRNA expression profiles showed negative correlations between GluA2 levels and MWM performances in young 3xTg-AD mice. On the contrary, positive correlations between GluA2 mRNA and MWM performances were found in young WT mice. Our data suggest that increases of AMPARs that contain GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4 subunits may help in maintaining cognition in pre-symptomatic 3xTg-AD mice.

  2. Cortisone Dissociates the Shaker Family K Channels from their Beta Subunit

    Pan, Y.; Weng, J; Kabaleeswaran, V; Li, H; Cao, Y; Bholse, R; Zhou, M

    2008-01-01

    The Shaker family voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv1) are expressed in a wide variety of cells and are essential for cellular excitability. In humans, loss-of-function mutations of Kv1 channels lead to hyperexcitability and are directly linked to episodic ataxia and atrial fibrillation. All Kv1 channels assemble with {Beta} subunits (Kv{Beta}s), and certain Kv{Beta}s, for example Kv{Beta}1, have an N-terminal segment that closes the channel by the N-type inactivation mechanism. In principle, dissociation of Kv{Beta}1, although never reported, should eliminate inactivation and thus potentiate Kv1 current. We found that cortisone increases rat Kv1 channel activity by binding to Kv{Beta}1. A crystal structure of the K{Beta}v-cortisone complex was solved to 1.82-{angstrom}resolution and revealed novel cortisone binding sites. Further studies demonstrated that cortisone promotes dissociation of Kv{Beta}. The new mode of channel modulation may be explored by native or synthetic ligands to fine-tune cellular excitability.

  3. Negative regulation of neuronal cell differentiation by INHAT subunit SET/TAF-Iβ.

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Kee-Beom; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Seo, Sang-Beom

    2010-09-24

    Epigenetic modification plays an important role in transcriptional regulation. As a subunit of the INHAT (inhibitor of histone acetyltransferases) complex, SET/TAF-Iβ evidences transcriptional repression activity. In this study, we demonstrate that SET/TAF-Iβ is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissues of Drosophila embryos. It is expressed at high levels prior to and in early stages of neuronal development, and gradually reduced as differentiation proceeds. SET/TAF-Iβ binds to the promoters of a subset of neuronal development markers and negatively regulates the transcription of these genes. The results of this study show that the knockdown of SET/TAF-Iβ by si-RNA induces neuronal cell differentiation, thus implicating SET/TAF-Iβ as a negative regulator of neuronal development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of HIV-1 antigens in plants as potential subunit vaccines

    Meyers, A

    2008-06-23

    Full Text Available Open AcceResearch article Expression of HIV-1 antigens in plants as potential subunit vaccines Ann Meyers1,2, Ereck Chakauya1,2,3, Enid Shephard1,4, Fiona L Tanzer1,2, James Maclean1,2, Alisson Lynch1,2, Anna-Lise Williamson1,5 and Edward P Rybicki...Figure 1 The HIV-1 Gag-derived proteins used in this study. Scale diagram showing (A) native Pr55Gag ORF organisation in the Page 2 of 15 (page number not for citation purposes) gag gene, (B) the p17/p24 fusion protein ORF, (C) p24 ORF. ORFs labelled p7...

  5. Immunogenicity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific peptides for inclusion in a subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Tollefsen, S.; Olsen, I.

    Paratuberculosis in ruminants is caused by an infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and is a chronic disease characterized by granulomatous enteritis. Available vaccines against paratuberculosis consist of variations of whole bacteria with adjuvant showing various...... efficacies. The main problem with available vaccines is their interference with surveillance and diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. Our ultimate aim is to develop a subunit vaccine consisting of selected MAP peptides, which allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. Here......, 118 peptides were identified by in silico analysis and synthesized chemically. Peptides were tested for reactivity and immunogenicity with T-cell lines generated from PBMCs isolated from MAP infected goats and with blood samples from MAP infected calves. Immunogenicity of peptides was evaluated using...

  6. Novel TPR-containing subunit of TOM complex functions as cytosolic receptor for Entamoeba mitosomal transport.

    Makiuchi, Takashi; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Under anaerobic environments, the mitochondria have undergone remarkable reduction and transformation into highly reduced structures, referred as mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), which include mitosomes and hydrogenosomes. In agreement with the concept of reductive evolution, mitosomes of Entamoeba histolytica lack most of the components of the TOM (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex, which is required for the targeting and membrane translocation of preproteins into the canonical aerobic mitochondria. Here we showed, in E. histolytica mitosomes, the presence of a 600-kDa TOM complex composed of Tom40, a conserved pore-forming subunit, and Tom60, a novel lineage-specific receptor protein. Tom60, containing multiple tetratricopeptide repeats, is localized to the mitosomal outer membrane and the cytosol, and serves as a receptor of both mitosomal matrix and membrane preproteins. Our data indicate that Entamoeba has invented a novel lineage-specific shuttle receptor of the TOM complex as a consequence of adaptation to an anaerobic environment.

  7. Performance analysis of a trickle irrigation subunit installed in an apple orchard

    Soccol Olívio José

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to evaluate the "xique-xique" irrigation system of a trickle irrigated subunit. Initial results showed that the system's performance was average, any Emission Uniformity, Statistical Uniformity and Coefficient of Global Variation were 74.51, 77.69, and 22.31%, respectively. The efficiency parameters were below expectations, and values of Application Efficiency (Ae, Storage Efficiency (Se, Deep Percolation (Dp, Deficit Degree (DD and Adequacy Degree (a were 100, 47.83, 0, 52.17 and 0% respectively. By adopting new management procedures, it was possible to improve the system's efficiency, reaching values of 90.20, 91.68, 9.80, 8.32 and 52.87% for Ae, Se, Dp, DD and "a", respectively.

  8. High and low nightly running behavior associates with nucleus accumbens N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) NR1 subunit expression and NMDAR functional differences.

    Grigsby, Kolter B; Kovarik, Cathleen M; Rottinghaus, George E; Booth, Frank W

    2018-04-03

    The extent to which N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors facilitate the motivation to voluntarily wheel-run in rodents has yet to be determined. In so, we utilized female Wistar rats selectively bred to voluntarily run high (HVR) and low (LVR) nightly distances in order to examine if endogenous differences in nucleus accumbens (NAc) NMDA receptor expression and function underlies the propensity for high or low motivation to voluntarily wheel-run. 12-14 week old HVR and LVR females were used to examine: 1.) NAc mRNA and protein expression of NMDA subunits NR1, NR2A and NR2B; 2.) NMDA current responses in isolated medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and 3.) NMDA-evoked dopamine release in an ex vivo preparation of NAc punches. Expectedly, there was a large divergence in nightly running distance and time between HVR and LVR rats. We saw a significantly higher mRNA and protein expression of NR1 in HVR compared to LVR rats, while seeing no difference in the expression of NR2A or NR2B. There was a greater current response to a 500 ms application of 300 μM of NMDA in medium-spiny neurons isolated from the NAc HVR compared to LVR animals. On average, NMDA-evoked punches (50 μM of NMDA for 10 min) taken from HVR rats retained ∼54% of the dopamine content compared to their bilateral non-evoked sides, while evoked punches from LVR animals showed no statistical decrease in dopamine content compared to their non-evoked sides. Collectively, these data suggest a potential link between NAc NR1 subunit expression as well as NMDA function and the predisposition for nightly voluntary running behavior in rats. In light of the epidemic rise in physical inactivity, these findings have the potential to explain a neuro-molecular mechanism that regulates the motivation to be physically active. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... HIV > Learn the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use can lead to poor decision making, which can result in risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection. Although the characters are fictional, ...

  11. Link prediction with node clustering coefficient

    Wu, Zhihao; Lin, Youfang; Wang, Jing; Gregory, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Predicting missing links in incomplete complex networks efficiently and accurately is still a challenging problem. The recently proposed Cannistrai-Alanis-Ravai (CAR) index shows the power of local link/triangle information in improving link-prediction accuracy. Inspired by the idea of employing local link/triangle information, we propose a new similarity index with more local structure information. In our method, local link/triangle structure information can be conveyed by clustering coefficient of common-neighbors directly. The reason why clustering coefficient has good effectiveness in estimating the contribution of a common-neighbor is that it employs links existing between neighbors of a common-neighbor and these links have the same structural position with the candidate link to this common-neighbor. In our experiments, three estimators: precision, AUP and AUC are used to evaluate the accuracy of link prediction algorithms. Experimental results on ten tested networks drawn from various fields show that our new index is more effective in predicting missing links than CAR index, especially for networks with low correlation between number of common-neighbors and number of links between common-neighbors.

  12. Multi-target parallel processing approach for gene-to-structure determination of the influenza polymerase PB2 subunit.

    Armour, Brianna L; Barnes, Steve R; Moen, Spencer O; Smith, Eric; Raymond, Amy C; Fairman, James W; Stewart, Lance J; Staker, Bart L; Begley, Darren W; Edwards, Thomas E; Lorimer, Donald D

    2013-06-28

    Pandemic outbreaks of highly virulent influenza strains can cause widespread morbidity and mortality in human populations worldwide. In the United States alone, an average of 41,400 deaths and 1.86 million hospitalizations are caused by influenza virus infection each year (1). Point mutations in the polymerase basic protein 2 subunit (PB2) have been linked to the adaptation of the viral infection in humans (2). Findings from such studies have revealed the biological significance of PB2 as a virulence factor, thus highlighting its potential as an antiviral drug target. The structural genomics program put forth by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) provides funding to Emerald Bio and three other Pacific Northwest institutions that together make up the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID). The SSGCID is dedicated to providing the scientific community with three-dimensional protein structures of NIAID category A-C pathogens. Making such structural information available to the scientific community serves to accelerate structure-based drug design. Structure-based drug design plays an important role in drug development. Pursuing multiple targets in parallel greatly increases the chance of success for new lead discovery by targeting a pathway or an entire protein family. Emerald Bio has developed a high-throughput, multi-target parallel processing pipeline (MTPP) for gene-to-structure determination to support the consortium. Here we describe the protocols used to determine the structure of the PB2 subunit from four different influenza A strains.

  13. The Role of Chaperone-subunit Usher Domain Interactions in the Mechanism of Bacterial Pilus Biogenesis Revealed by ESI-MS*

    Morrissey, Bethny; Leney, Aneika C.; Toste Rêgo, Ana; Phan, Gilles; Allen, William J.; Verger, Denis; Waksman, Gabriel; Ashcroft, Alison E.; Radford, Sheena E.

    2012-01-01

    The PapC usher is a β-barrel outer membrane protein essential for assembly and secretion of P pili that are required for adhesion of pathogenic E. coli, which cause the development of pyelonephritis. Multiple protein subunits form the P pilus, the highly specific assembly of which is coordinated by the usher. Despite a wealth of structural knowledge, how the usher catalyzes subunit polymerization and orchestrates a correct and functional order of subunit assembly remain unclear. Here, the ability of the soluble N-terminal (UsherN), C-terminal (UsherC2), and Plug (UsherP) domains of the usher to bind different chaperone-subunit (PapDPapX) complexes is investigated using noncovalent electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The results reveal that each usher domain is able to bind all six PapDPapX complexes, consistent with an active role of all three usher domains in pilus biogenesis. Using collision induced dissociation, combined with competition binding experiments and dissection of the adhesin subunit, PapG, into separate pilin and adhesin domains, the results reveal why PapG has a uniquely high affinity for the usher, which is consistent with this subunit always being displayed at the pilus tip. In addition, we show how the different soluble usher domains cooperate to coordinate and control efficient pilus assembly at the usher platform. As well as providing new information about the protein-protein interactions that determine pilus biogenesis, the results highlight the power of noncovalent MS to interrogate biological mechanisms, especially in complex mixtures of species. PMID:22371487

  14. The role of chaperone-subunit usher domain interactions in the mechanism of bacterial pilus biogenesis revealed by ESI-MS.

    Morrissey, Bethny; Leney, Aneika C; Toste Rêgo, Ana; Phan, Gilles; Allen, William J; Verger, Denis; Waksman, Gabriel; Ashcroft, Alison E; Radford, Sheena E

    2012-07-01

    The PapC usher is a β-barrel outer membrane protein essential for assembly and secretion of P pili that are required for adhesion of pathogenic E. coli, which cause the development of pyelonephritis. Multiple protein subunits form the P pilus, the highly specific assembly of which is coordinated by the usher. Despite a wealth of structural knowledge, how the usher catalyzes subunit polymerization and orchestrates a correct and functional order of subunit assembly remain unclear. Here, the ability of the soluble N-terminal (UsherN), C-terminal (UsherC2), and Plug (UsherP) domains of the usher to bind different chaperone-subunit (PapDPapX) complexes is investigated using noncovalent electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The results reveal that each usher domain is able to bind all six PapDPapX complexes, consistent with an active role of all three usher domains in pilus biogenesis. Using collision induced dissociation, combined with competition binding experiments and dissection of the adhesin subunit, PapG, into separate pilin and adhesin domains, the results reveal why PapG has a uniquely high affinity for the usher, which is consistent with this subunit always being displayed at the pilus tip. In addition, we show how the different soluble usher domains cooperate to coordinate and control efficient pilus assembly at the usher platform. As well as providing new information about the protein-protein interactions that determine pilus biogenesis, the results highlight the power of noncovalent MS to interrogate biological mechanisms, especially in complex mixtures of species.

  15. Copolymer semiconductors comprising thiazolothiazole or benzobisthiazole, or benzobisoxazole electron acceptor subunits, and electron donor subunits, and their uses in transistors and solar cells

    Jenekhe, Samson A; Subramaniyan, Selvam; Ahmed, Eilaf; Xin, Hao; Kim, Felix Sunjoo

    2014-10-28

    The inventions disclosed, described, and/or claimed herein relate to copolymers comprising copolymers comprising electron accepting A subunits that comprise thiazolothiazole, benzobisthiazole, or benzobisoxazoles rings, and electron donating subunits that comprise certain heterocyclic groups. The copolymers are useful for manufacturing organic electronic devices, including transistors and solar cells. The invention also relates to certain synthetic precursors of the copolymers. Methods for making the copolymers and the derivative electronic devices are also described.

  16. Roles of the β subunit hinge domain in ATP synthase F1 sector: Hydrophobic network formed by introduced βPhe174 inhibits subunit rotation

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi; Kashiwagi, Sachiko; Kojima, Masaki; Nonaka, Takamasa; Futai, Masamitsu

    2010-01-01

    The ATP synthase β subunit hinge domain (βPhe148 ∼ βGly186, P-loop/α-helixB/loop/β-sheet4, Escherichia coli residue numbering) dramatically changes in conformation upon nucleotide binding. We previously reported that F 1 with the βSer174 to Phe mutation in the domain lowered the γ subunit rotation speed, and thus decreased the ATPase activity [M. Nakanishi-Matsui, S. Kashiwagi, T. Ubukata, A. Iwamoto-Kihara, Y. Wada, M. Futai, Rotational catalysis of Escherichia coli ATP synthase F 1 sector. Stochastic fluctuation and a key domain of the β subunit, J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 20698-20704.]. Homology modeling indicates that the amino acid replacement induces a hydrophobic network, in which the βMet159, βIle163, and βAla167 residues of the β subunit are involved together with the mutant βPhe174. The network is expected to stabilize the conformation of β DP (nucleotide-bound form of the β subunit), resulting in increased activation energy for transition to β E (empty β subunit). The modeling further predicts that replacement of βMet159 with Ala or Ile weakens the hydrophobic network. As expected, these two mutations experimentally suppressed the ATPase activities as well as subunit rotation of βS174F. Furthermore, the rotation rate decreased with the increase of the strength in the hydrophobic network. These results indicate that the smooth conformational change of the β subunit hinge domain is pertinent for the rotational catalysis.

  17. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  18. Soil bacteria show different tolerance ranges to an unprecedented disturbance

    Nunes, Ines Marques; Jurburg, Stephanie; Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste

    2018-01-01

    stress doses. FRG1, the most sensitive group, was dominated by Actinobacteria. FRG2 and FRG3, with intermediate tolerance, displayed prevalence of Proteobacteria, while FRG4, the most resistant group, was driven by Firmicutes. While the most sensitive FRGs showed predictable responses linked to changes...

  19. β1 subunit stabilises sodium channel Nav1.7 against mechanical stress.

    Körner, Jannis; Meents, Jannis; Machtens, Jan-Philipp; Lampert, Angelika

    2018-06-01

    The voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 is a key player in neuronal excitability and pain signalling. In addition to voltage sensing, the channel is also modulated by mechanical stress. Using whole-cell patch-clamp experiments, we discovered that the sodium channel subunit β1 is able to prevent the impact of mechanical stress on Nav1.7. An intramolecular disulfide bond of β1 was identified to be essential for stabilisation of inactivation, but not activation, against mechanical stress using molecular dynamics simulations, homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis. Our results highlight the role of segment 6 of domain IV in fast inactivation. We present a candidate mechanism for sodium channel stabilisation against mechanical stress, ensuring reliable channel functionality in living systems. Voltage-gated sodium channels are key players in neuronal excitability and pain signalling. Precise gating of these channels is crucial as even small functional alterations can lead to pathological phenotypes such as pain or heart failure. Mechanical stress has been shown to affect sodium channel activation and inactivation. This suggests that stabilising components are necessary to ensure precise channel gating in living organisms. Here, we show that mechanical shear stress affects voltage dependence of activation and fast inactivation of the Nav1.7 channel. Co-expression of the β1 subunit, however, protects both gating modes of Nav1.7 against mechanical shear stress. Using molecular dynamics simulation, homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis, we identify an intramolecular disulfide bond of β1 (Cys21-Cys43) which is partially involved in this process: the β1-C43A mutant prevents mechanical modulation of voltage dependence of activation, but not of fast inactivation. Our data emphasise the unique role of segment 6 of domain IV for sodium channel fast inactivation and confirm previous reports that the intracellular process of fast inactivation can be

  20. Neonicotinoid binding, toxicity and expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Emiliane Taillebois

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI, thiamethoxam (TMX and clothianidin (CLT. Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16 ± 0.04 nM and 41.7 ± 5.9 nM and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008 ± 0.002 nM and 1.135 ± 0.213 nM. Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml. The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies.

  1. Neonicotinoid Binding, Toxicity and Expression of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits in the Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Beloula, Abdelhamid; Quinchard, Sophie; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie; Daguin, Antoine; Servent, Denis; Tagu, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI), thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLT). Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16±0.04 nM and 41.7±5.9 nM) and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008±0.002 nM and 1.135±0.213 nM). Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml) and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml) were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml). The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies. PMID:24801634

  2. Enhanced immunization via dissolving microneedle array-based delivery system incorporating subunit vaccine and saponin adjuvant

    Zhao JH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Hui Zhao,1,* Qi-Bo Zhang,1,* Bao Liu,2 Xiang-Hua Piao,1 Yu-Lu Yan,1 Xiao-Ge Hu,1 Kuan Zhou,1 Yong-Tai Zhang,1 Nian-Ping Feng1 1School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Anethesiology Department, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To enhance the immunogenicity of the model subunit vaccine, ovalbumin (OVA was combined with platycodin (PD, a saponin adjuvant. To reduce the toxicity of PD, OVA, and adjuvant were loaded together into liposomes before being incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array.Methods: OVA- and PD-loaded liposomes (OVA-PD-Lipos were prepared using the film dispersion method. Their uptake behavior, toxicity to mouse bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs, and hemolytic activity to rabbit red blood cells (RBCs were evaluated. The OVA-PD-Lipos were incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. The chemical stability of OVA and the physical stability of OVA-PD-Lipos in microneedle arrays were investigated. The immune response of Institute of Cancer Research mice and potential skin irritation reaction of rabbits to OVA-PD-Lipos-MNs were evaluated.Results: The uptake of OVA by mouse BMDCs was greatly enhanced when OVA was prepared as OVA-PD-Lipos, and in this form, the toxicity of PD was dramatically reduced. OVA was chemically stable as OVA-PD-Lipos, when OVA-PD-Lipos was incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. Institute of Cancer Research mice treated with OVA-PD-Lipos-MNs showed a significantly enhanced immune response. PD combined with OVA elicited a balanced Th1 and Th2 humoral immune response in mice, with minimal irritation in rabbit skin.Conclusion: The dissolving microneedle array-based system is a promising delivery vehicle for subunit vaccine and its adjuvant. Keywords: subunit vaccine, saponin adjuvant, liposomes, dissolving microneedle array, intradermal vaccination

  3. Subunit Vaccine Preparation of Bovine Rotavirus and Its Efficacy in Mice.

    Suocheng, Wei; Tuanjie, Che; Changjun, Song; Fengling, Tian; Zhongren, Ma

    2015-09-01

    Rotaviruses (RV) are important viral diarrheal agents in calves. Vaccination is an optimum measure to prevent bovine rotaviruses (BRV) infection. However, little research on BRV VP7 vaccine has been done and currently there is no BRV vaccine. To prepare a subunit vaccine of BRV and investigate its efficacy. Total RNA was extracted from MA104 cells infected with bovine rotavirus (BRV) strain GSB01. BRV VP7 gene was amplified using real time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR). The pEASY-T3-VP7 plasmid was digested using HindⅢ and BamHI restriction endonucleases, then recombined into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The pET32a-VP7 and pET32a-VP7-LTB (heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit) were transformed into BL21 (DE3) competent cells of Escherichia coli, respectively, and induced with IPTG, then analyzed using SDS-PAGE. Sixty mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=20). Group A mice was used as His-tag control and mice in group B and C were inoculated with pET32a-VP7 and pET32a-VP7-LTB, respectively. VP7 IgG antibody titers and protection efficiency of pET32a-VP7-LTB were further determined in neonatal mice challenged with GSB01 BRV strain. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the pET32a-VP7 was highly expressed in the BL21 (DE3) cells. PET32a-VP7 and pET32a-VP7-LTB protein could promote VP7 IgG antibody titer(8.33×103 vs. 17.26×103)in mice. Immunization protection ratios of pET32a-VP7 and pET32a-VP7-LTB proteins in the neonatal mice were 86.4% and 91.7%, respectively. The fusion protein of pET32a-VP7-LTB had excellent immunogenicity and protected mice from BRV infection. Our findings can be used for further developing of a high-efficiency subunit vaccine of BRV.

  4. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  5. Complementary DNA and derived amino acid sequence of the β subunit of human complement protein C8: identification of a close structural and ancestral relationship to the α subunit and C9

    Howard, O.M.Z.; Rao, A.G.; Sodetz, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the β subunit (M/sub r/ 64,000) of the eighth component of complement (C8) has been isolated from a human liver cDNA library. This clone has a cDNA insert of 1.95 kilobases (kb) and contains the entire β sequence [1608 base pairs (bp)]. Analysis of total cellular RNA isolated from the hepatoma cell line HepG2 revealed the mRNA for β to be ∼ 2.5 kb. This is similar to the message size for the α subunit of C8 and confirms the existence of different mRNAs for α and β. This finding supports genetic evidence that α and β are encoded at different loci. Analysis of the derived amino acid sequence revealed several membrane surface seeking segments that may facilitate β interaction with target membranes during complement-mediated cytolysis. Determined of the carbohydrate composition indicated 1 or 2 asparagine-linked but no O-linked oligosaccharide chains. Comparison of the β sequence to that reported earlier and to that of human C9 revealed a striking homology between all three proteins. For β and α, the overall homology is 33% on the basis of identity and 53% when conserved substitutions are allowed. For β and C9, the values are 26% and 47 5 , respectively. All three have a large internal domain that is nearly cysteine free and N- and C-termini that are cysteine-rich and homologous to the low-density lipoprotein receptor repeat and epidermal growth factor type sequences, respectively. The overall homology and similarities in size and structural organization are indicative of a close ancestral relationship. It is concluded that α, β and C9 are members of a family of structurally related proteins that are capable of interacting to produce a hydrophilic to amphiphilic transition and membrane association

  6. Regulated appearance of NMDA receptor subunits and channel functions during in vitro neuronal differentiation

    Jelitai, Márta; Schlett, Katalin; Varju, Patrícia; Eisel, Ulrich; Madarász, Emília

    The schedule of NMDA receptor subunit expression and the appearance of functional NMDA-gated ion channels were investigated during the retinoic acid (RA) induced neuronal differentiation of NE-4C, a p53-deficient mouse neuroectodermal progenitor cell line. NR2A. NR2B, and NR2D subunit transcripts

  7. Differential expression of BK channel isoforms and beta-subunits in rat neuro-vascular tissues

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Wulf, Helle; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the expression of splice variants and beta-subunits of the BK channel (big conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, Slo1, MaxiK, K(Ca)1.1) in rat cerebral blood vessels, meninges, trigeminal ganglion among other tissues. An alpha-subunit splice variant X1(+24) was found expresse...

  8. Differential antibiotic sensitivity determined by the large ribosomal subunit in thermophilic archaea.

    Ruggero, D; Londei, P

    1996-01-01

    Hybrid ribosomes obtained by mixing the ribosomal subunits of the extremely thermophilic archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus and Desulfurococcus mobilis were tested for their sensitivity to selected antibiotics. It is shown that structural differences in the large ribosomal subunits determine qualitatively and quantitatively the patterns of response to alpha-sarcin and paromomycin in these species.

  9. Isolation and characterization of recombinant human casein kinase II subunits alpha and beta from bacteria

    Grankowski, N; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    cDNA encoding the casein kinase II (CKII) subunits alpha and beta of human origin were expressed in Escherichia coli using expression vector pT7-7. Significant expression was obtained with E. coli BL21(DE3). The CKII subunits accounted for approximately 30% of the bacterial protein; however, most...

  10. Regulation of KV channel voltage-dependent activation by transmembrane β subunits

    Xiaohui eSun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-activated K+ (KV channels are important for shaping action potentials and maintaining resting membrane potential in excitable cells. KV channels contain a central pore-gate domain (PGD surrounded by four voltage-sensing domains (VSD. The VSDs will change conformation in response to alterations of the membrane potential thereby inducing the opening of the PGD. Many KV channels are heteromeric protein complexes containing auxiliary β subunits. These β subunits modulate channel expression and activity to increase functional diversity and render tissue specific phenotypes. This review focuses on the KV β subunits that contain transmembrane (TM segments including the KCNE family and the β subunits of large conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK channels. These TM β subunits affect the voltage-dependent activation of KV α subunits. Experimental and computational studies have described the structural location of these β subunits in the channel complexes and the biophysical effects on VSD activation, PGD opening and VSD-PGD coupling. These results reveal some common characteristics and mechanistic insights into KV channel modulation by TM β subunits.

  11. A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1997-01-01

    In a search for protein kinase CK2 beta subunit binding proteins using the two-hybrid system, more than 1000 positive clones were isolated. Beside clones for the alpha' and beta subunit of CK2, there were clones coding for a so far unknown protein, whose partial cDNA sequence was already deposited...

  12. Purification of the alpha and beta subunits of phosphorylase kinase for structural studies

    Sotiroudis, T.G.; Heilmeyer, L.M.G. Jr.; Crabb, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Structural analysis of the alpha (Mr, 132,000) and beta (Mr, 113,000) subunits of phosphorylase kinase may provide clues to their yet unknown functions however purification remains problematic. Preparative RP-HPLC procedures yield inconveniently large, dilute solutions and concentration steps are required prior to subunit modification and fragmentation. Concentration of the β subunit usually results in significant losses due to insolubility. Using preparative SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, they have purified the α, 7 , and β subunits from rabbit muscle phosphorylase kinase in a soluble and concentrated form suitable for structural studies. Phosphorylase kinase labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate in the α and α' subunits and fully 14 C-S-carboxymethylated was fractionated on a 5% acrylamide Laemmli slab gel. The subunit bands were visualized by fluorescence and by SDS precipitation then excised and electroeluted in the presence of SDS using an ELUTRAP device. From 4.5 mg of enzyme applied to a 4.5 mm thick gel about 70% of the α subunit and about 90% of the β subunit were typically recovered in less than 1 ml with overnight elution

  13. Hierarchical Linked Views

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  14. Metallothionein 2A affects the cell respiration by suppressing the expression of mitochondrial protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit II.

    Bragina, Olga; Gurjanova, Karina; Krishtal, Jekaterina; Kulp, Maria; Karro, Niina; Tõugu, Vello; Palumaa, Peep

    2015-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are involved in a broad range of cellular processes and play a major role in protection of cells towards various stressors. Two functions of MTs, namely the maintaining of the homeostasis of transition metal ions and the redox balance, are directly linked to the functioning of mitochondria. Dyshomeostasis of MTs is often related with malfunctioning of mitochondria; however, the mechanism by which MTs affect the mitochondrial respiratory chain is still unknown. We demonstrated that overexpression of MT-2A in HEK cell line decreased the oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the cells. HEK cells overexpressing MT-2A demonstrated reduced oxygen consumption and lower cellular ATP levels. MT-2A did not affect the number of mitochondria, but reduced specifically the level of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II protein, which resulted in lower activity of the complex IV.

  15. Linking open vocabularies

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the small subunit of the heterodimeric laccase POXA3b from Pleurotus ostreatus

    Ferraroni, Marta; Scozzafava, Andrea; Ullah, Sana; Tron, Thierry; Piscitelli, Alessandra; Sannia, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidases of great biotechnological potential. While laccases are generally monomeric glycoproteins, the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus produces two closely related heterodimeric isoenzymes composed of a large subunit, homologous to the other fungal laccases, and a small subunit. The sequence of the small subunit does not show significant homology to any other protein or domain of known function and consequently its function is unknown. The highest similarity to proteins of known structure is to a putative enoyl-CoA hydratase/isomerase from Acinetobacter baumannii, which shows an identity of 27.8%. Diffraction-quality crystals of the small subunit of the heterodimeric laccase POXA3b (sPOXA3b) from P. ostreatus were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 294 K from a solution consisting of 1.8 M sodium formate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 or P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 126.6, c = 53.9 Å. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules related by a noncrystallographic twofold axis. A complete data set extending to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å was collected at 100 K using a wavelength of 1.140 Å. PMID:24419623

  17. The 25 kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im Is a RNA-binding protein that interacts with the poly(A polymerase in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Marisol Pezet-Valdez

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3' end is essential for mRNA export, stability and translation. Taking advantage of the knowledge of genomic sequences of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, we previously reported the putative polyadenylation machinery of this parasite. Here, we focused on the predicted protein that has the molecular features of the 25 kDa subunit of the Cleavage Factor Im (CFIm25 from other organisms, including the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X domain, as well as the RNA binding domain and the PAP/PAB interacting region. The recombinant EhCFIm25 protein (rEhCFIm25 was expressed in bacteria and used to generate specific antibodies in rabbit. Subcellular localization assays showed the presence of the endogenous protein in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. In RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays, rEhCFIm25 was able to form specific RNA-protein complexes with the EhPgp5 mRNA 3´ UTR used as probe. In addition, Pull-Down and LC/ESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry assays evidenced that the putative EhCFIm25 was able to interact with the poly(A polymerase (EhPAP that is responsible for the synthesis of the poly(A tail in other eukaryotic cells. By Far-Western experiments, we confirmed the interaction between the putative EhCFIm25 and EhPAP in E. histolytica. Taken altogether, our results showed that the putative EhCFIm25 is a conserved RNA binding protein that interacts with the poly(A polymerase, another member of the pre-mRNA 3' end processing machinery in this protozoan parasite.

  18. Identification of aspartate-184 as an essential residue in the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    Buechler, J.A.; Taylor, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    The hydrophobic carbodiimide dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) was previously shown to be an irreversible inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and MgATP protected against inactivation. This inhibition by DCCD indicated that an essential carboxyl group was present at the active site of the enzyme even though identification of that carboxyl group was not possible. This presumably was because a nucleophile on the protein cross-linked to the electrophilic intermediate formed when the carbodiimide reacted with the carboxyl group. To circumvent this problem, the catalytic subunit first was treated with acetic anhydride to block accessible lysine residues, thus preventing intramolecular cross-linking. The DCCD reaction then was carried out in the presence of [ 14 C]glycine ethyl ester in order to trap any electrophilic intermediates that were generated by DCCD. The modified protein was treated with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by HPLC. Two major radioactive peptides were isolated as well as one minor peptide. MgATP protected all three peptides from covalent modification. The two major peaks contained the same modified carboxyl group, which corresponded to Asp-184. The minor peak contained a modified glutamic acid, Glu-91. Both of these acidic residues are conserved in all protein kinases, which is consistent with their playing essential roles. The positions of Asp-184 and Glu-91 have been correlated with the overall domain structure of the molecule. Asp-184 may participate as a general base catalyst at the active site. A third carboxyl group, Glu-230, also was identified

  19. F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesion mediated by the major fimbrial subunit FaeG.

    Xia, Pengpeng; Song, Yujie; Zou, Yajie; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2015-09-01

    The FaeG subunit is the major constituent of F4(+) fimbriae, associated with glycoprotein and/or glycolipid receptor recognition and majorly contributes to the pathogen attachment to the host cells. To investigate the key factor involved in the fimbrial binding of F4(+) Escherichia coli, both the recombinant E. coli SE5000 strains carrying the fae operon gene clusters that express the different types of fimbriae in vitro, named as rF4ab, rF4ac, and rF4ad, respectively, corresponding to the fimbrial types F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad, and the three isogenic in-frame faeG gene deletion mutants were constructed. The adhesion assays and adhesion inhibition assays showed that ΔfaeG mutants had a significant reduction in the binding to porcine brush border as well as the intestinal epithelial cell lines, while the complemented strain ΔfaeG/pfaeG restored the adhesion function. The recombinant bacterial strains rF4ab, rF4ac, and rF4ad have the same binding property as wild-type F4(+) E. coli strains do and improvement in terms of binding to porcine brush border and the intestinal epithelial cells, and the adherence was blocked by the monoclonal antibody anti-F4 fimbriae. These data demonstrate that the fimbrial binding of F4(+) E. coli is directly mediated by the major FaeG subunit. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Long term impairment of cognitive functions and alterations of NMDAR subunits after continuous microwave exposure.

    Wang, Hui; Tan, Shengzhi; Xu, Xinping; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Jing; Yao, Binwei; Gao, Yabing; Zhou, Hongmei; Peng, Ruiyun

    2017-11-01

    The long term effects of continuous microwave exposure cannot be ignored for the simulation of the real environment and increasing concerns about the negative cognitive effects of microwave exposure. In this study, 220 male Wistar rats were exposed by a 2.856GHz radiation source with the average power density of 0, 2.5, 5 and 10mW/cm 2 for 6min/day, 5days/week and up to 6weeks. The MWM task, the EEG analysis, the hippocampus structure observation and the western blot were applied until the 12months after microwave exposure to detect the spatial learning and memory abilities, the cortical electrical activity, changes of hippocampal structure and the NMDAR subunits expressions. Results found that the rats in the 10mW/cm 2 group showed the decline of spatial learning and memory abilities and EEG disorders (the decrease of EEG frequencies, and increase of EEG amplitudes and delta wave powers). Moreover, changes of basic structure and ultrastructure of hippocampus also found in the 10 and 5mW/cm 2 groups. The decrease of NR 2A, 2B and p-NR2B might contribute to the impairment of cognitive functions. Our findings suggested that the continuous microwave exposure could cause the dose-dependent long term impairment of spatial learning and memory, the abnormalities of EEG and the hippocampal structure injuries. The decrease of NMDAR key subunits and phosphorylation of NR 2B might contribute to the cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Resistance to cycloxaprid in Laodelphax striatellus is associated with altered expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits.

    Zhang, Yueliang; Han, Yangchun; Yang, Qiong; Wang, Lihua; He, Peng; Liu, Zewen; Li, Zhong; Guo, Huifang; Fang, Jichao

    2018-04-01

    Cycloxaprid is a new oxabridged cis-configuration neonicotinoid insecticide, the resistance development potential and underlying resistance mechanism of which were investigated in the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), an important agricultural pest of rice. A cycloxaprid-resistant strain (YN-CPD) only achieved 10-fold higher resistance, in contrast to 106-fold higher resistance to buprofezin and 332-fold higher resistance to chlorpyrifos achieved after exposure to similar selection pressure, and the cycloxaprid selected line showed no cross-resistance to the buprofezin and chlorpyrifos-selected resistance strains. Moreover, we identified 10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits from the transcriptome of L. striatellus, and six segments had open reading frames (ORFs). While we did not find mutations in the nAChR genes of L. striatellus, subunits Lsα1 and Lsβ1 exhibited, respectively, 9.60-fold and 3.36-fold higher expression in the resistant strain, while Lsα8 exhibited 0.44-fold lower expression. Suppression of Lsα1 through ingestion of dsLsα1 led to an increase in susceptibility to cycloxaprid. The findings indicate that resistance to cycloxaprid develops slowly compared with resistance to other chemicals and without cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos or buprofezin; over-expressed Lsα1 is associated with low cycloxaprid resistance levels, but the importance of over-expressed Lsβ1 and reduced expression of Lsα8 could not be excluded. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Proteasome LMP2/β1i subunit as biomarker for human uterine leiomyosarcoma

    Takuma Hayashi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyosarcoma (Ut-LMS develops more frequently in the myometrium of the uterine body than in the uterine cervix. Although the development of gynecological tumors is often correlated with the secretion of female hormones that of Ut-LMS does not, and its risk factor(s remain unknown. Importantly, a diagnostic biomarker that can distinguish malignant tumor Ut-LMS from benign tumor leiomyoma (LMA, has yet to be established. Therefore, the risk factor(s associated with Ut-LMS need to be examined in order to establish a diagnosis and clinical treatment method. Mice with a homozygous deficiency for the proteasome b-ring subunit, low-molecular mass polypeptide (LMP2/b1i spontaneously develop Ut-LMS, with a disease prevalence of ~40% by 14 months of age. In recent studies, we showed that LMP2/b1i expression was absent in human Ut-LMS, but present in other human uterine mesenchymal tumors including uterine LMA. Moreover, LMP2/b1i is also known to negatively regulate human Ut-LMS tumorigenesis. Additional experiments furthermore revealed the differential expression of cyclin E and calponin h1 in human uterine mesenchymal tumors. Therefore, LMP2/b1i is a potential diagnostic biomarker when combined with the candidate molecules, cyclin E and calponin h1 for human Ut-LMS, and may be a targeted molecule for a new therapeutic approach.---------------------------------------------Cite this article as: Hayashi T, Horiuchi A Aburatani H, Ishiko O, Yaegashi N, Kanai Y, Zharhary D, Tonegawa S, Konishi I. Proteasome LMP2/ß1i subunit as biomarker for human uterine leiomyosarcoma. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:02018.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0201.8

  3. Submitochondrial distributions and stabilities of subunits 4, 5, and 6 of yeast cytochrome oxidase in assembly defective mutants.

    Glerum, D M; Tzagoloff, A

    1997-08-04

    The concentration and submitochondrial distribution of the subunit polypeptides of cytochrome oxidase have been studied in wild type yeast and in different mutants impaired in assembly of this respiratory complex. All the subunit polypeptides of the enzyme are associated with mitochondrial membranes of wild type cells, except for a small fraction of subunits 4 and 6 that is recovered in the soluble protein fraction of mitochondria. Cytochrome oxidase mutants consistently display a severe reduction in the steady-state concentration of subunit 1 due to its increased turnover. As a consequence, most of subunit 4, which normally is associated with subunit 1, is found in the soluble fraction. A similar shift from membrane-bound to soluble subunit 6 is seen in mutants blocked in expression of subunit 5a. In contrast, null mutations in COX6 coding for subunit 6 promote loss of subunit 5a. The absence of subunit 5a in the cox6 mutant is the result of proteolytic degradation rather than regulation of its expression by subunit 6. The possible role of the ATP-dependent proteases Rca1p and Afg3p in proteolysis of subunits 1 and 5a has been assessed in strains with combined mutations in COX6, RCA1, and/or AFG3. Immunochemical assays indicate that another protease(s) must be responsible for most of the proteolytic loss of these proteins.

  4. Proteasome subunit expression analysis and chemosensitivity in relapsed paediatric acute leukaemia patients receiving bortezomib-containing chemotherapy

    Denise Niewerth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug combinations of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib with cytotoxic chemotherapy are currently evaluated in phase 2 and 3 trials for the treatment of paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML and acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL. Methods We investigated whether expression ratios of immunoproteasome to constitutive proteasome in leukaemic cells correlated with response to bortezomib-containing re-induction chemotherapy in patients with relapsed and refractory acute leukaemia, enrolled in two Children’s Oncology Group phase 2 trials of bortezomib for ALL (COG-AALL07P1 and AML (COG-AAML07P1. Expression of proteasome subunits was examined in 72 patient samples (ALL n = 60, AML n = 12 obtained before start of therapy. Statistical significance between groups was determined by Mann-Whitney U test. Results Ratios of immunoproteasome to constitutive proteasome subunit expression were significantly higher in pre-B ALL cells than in AML cells for both β5i/β5 and β1i/β1 subunits (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001. These ratios correlated with therapy response in AML patients; β1i/β1 ratios were significantly higher (p = 0.028 between patients who did (n = 4 and did not reach complete remission (CR (n = 8, although for β5i/β5 ratios, this did not reach significance. For ALL patients, the subunit ratios were also higher for patients who showed a good early response to therapy but this relation was not statistically significant. Overall, for this study, the patients were treated with combination therapy, so response was not only attributed to proteasome inhibition. Moreover, the leukaemic blast cells were not purified for these samples. Conclusions These first ex vivo results encourage further studies into relative proteasome subunit expression to improve proteasome inhibition-containing therapy and as a potential indicator of bortezomib response in acute leukaemia.

  5. Persistence of the mitochondrial permeability transition in the absence of subunit c of human ATP synthase.

    He, Jiuya; Ford, Holly C; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2017-03-28

    The permeability transition in human mitochondria refers to the opening of a nonspecific channel, known as the permeability transition pore (PTP), in the inner membrane. Opening can be triggered by calcium ions, leading to swelling of the organelle, disruption of the inner membrane, and ATP synthesis, followed by cell death. Recent proposals suggest that the pore is associated with the ATP synthase complex and specifically with the ring of c-subunits that constitute the membrane domain of the enzyme's rotor. The c-subunit is produced from three nuclear genes, ATP5G1 , ATP5G2 , and ATP5G3 , encoding identical copies of the mature protein with different mitochondrial-targeting sequences that are removed during their import into the organelle. To investigate the involvement of the c-subunit in the PTP, we generated a clonal cell, HAP1-A12, from near-haploid human cells, in which ATP5G1 , ATP5G2 , and ATP5G3 were disrupted. The HAP1-A12 cells are incapable of producing the c-subunit, but they preserve the characteristic properties of the PTP. Therefore, the c-subunit does not provide the PTP. The mitochondria in HAP1-A12 cells assemble a vestigial ATP synthase, with intact F 1 -catalytic and peripheral stalk domains and the supernumerary subunits e, f, and g, but lacking membrane subunits ATP6 and ATP8. The same vestigial complex plus associated c-subunits was characterized from human 143B ρ 0 cells, which cannot make the subunits ATP6 and ATP8, but retain the PTP. Therefore, none of the membrane subunits of the ATP synthase that are involved directly in transmembrane proton translocation is involved in forming the PTP.

  6. Mining Protein Evolution for Insights into Mechanisms of Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channel Auxiliary Subunits.

    Molinarolo, Steven; Granata, Daniele; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Ahern, Christopher A

    2018-02-21

    Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) beta (β) subunits have been called the "overachieving" auxiliary ion channel subunit. Indeed, these subunits regulate the trafficking of the sodium channel complex at the plasma membrane and simultaneously tune the voltage-dependent properties of the pore-forming alpha-subunit. It is now known that VGSC β-subunits are capable of similar modulation of multiple isoforms of related voltage-gated potassium channels, suggesting that their abilities extend into the broader voltage-gated channels. The gene family for these single transmembrane immunoglobulin beta-fold proteins extends well beyond the traditional VGSC β1-β4 subunit designation, with deep roots into the cell adhesion protein family and myelin-related proteins - where inherited mutations result in a myriad of electrical signaling disorders. Yet, very little is known about how VGSC β-subunits support protein trafficking pathways, the basis for their modulation of voltage-dependent gating, and, ultimately, their role in shaping neuronal excitability. An evolutionary approach can be useful in yielding new clues to such functions as it provides an unbiased assessment of protein residues, folds, and functions. An approach is described here which indicates the greater emergence of the modern β-subunits roughly 400 million years ago in the early neurons of Bilateria and bony fish, and the unexpected presence of distant homologues in bacteriophages. Recent structural breakthroughs containing α and β eukaryotic sodium channels containing subunits suggest a novel role for a highly conserved polar contact that occurs within the transmembrane segments. Overall, a mixture of approaches will ultimately advance our understanding of the mechanism for β-subunit interactions with voltage-sensor containing ion channels and membrane proteins.

  7. Topographic antigenic determinants recognized by monoclonal antibodies on human choriogonadotropin beta-subunit

    Bidart, J.M.; Troalen, F.; Salesse, R.; Bousfield, G.R.; Bohuon, C.J.; Bellet, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a first attempt to study the antibody-combining sites recognized by monoclonal antibodies raised against the beta-subunit of human choriogonadotropin (hCG). Two groups of antibodies were first defined by their ability to recognize only the free beta-subunit or the free and combined subunit. Antibodies FBT-11 and FBT-11-L bind only to hCG beta-subunit but not to hCG, whereas antibodies FBT-10 and D1E8 bind to both the beta-subunit and the hormone. In both cases, the antigenic determinants were localized to the core of the protein (residues 1-112), indicating the weak immunogenicity of the specific carboxyl-terminal extension of hCG-beta. Nine synthetic peptides spanning different regions of hCG-beta and lutropin-beta were assessed for their capacity to inhibit antibody binding. A synthetic peptide inclusive of the NH2-terminal region (residues 1-7) of the hCG beta-subunit was found to inhibit binding to the radiolabeled subunit of a monoclonal antibody specific for free hCG-beta (FBT-11). Further delineation of the antigenic site recognized by this antibody provided evidence for the involvement of fragment 82-92. Moreover, monoclonal antibody FBT-11 inhibited the recombination of hCG-beta to hCG-alpha, indicating that its antigenic determinant might be located nearby or in the hCG-beta portion interacting with the alpha-subunit. Binding of monoclonal antibody FBT-10, corresponding to the second antigenic determinant, was weakly inhibited by fragment 82-105 and did not impair the recombination of the hCG beta-subunit to the hCG alpha-subunit. Its combining site appeared to be located in a region of the intact native choriogonadotropin present at the surface of the hormone-receptor complex

  8. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    Gueret, Christophe; de Boer, Victor; Schlobach, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. A closer look at linked data technologies, however, proves that their design and deployment exclude the majority of the world’s population. It will take small

  9. Weierstrass polynomials for links

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1997-01-01

    There is a natural way of identifying links in3-space with polynomial covering spaces over thecircle. Thereby any link in 3-space can be definedby a Weierstrass polynomial over the circle. Theequivalence relation for covering spaces over thecircle is, however, completely different from...

  10. The Arabidopsis Mediator Complex Subunits MED16, MED14, and MED2 Regulate Mediator and RNA Polymerase II Recruitment to CBF-Responsive Cold-Regulated Genes[C][W][OPEN

    Hemsley, Piers A.; Hurst, Charlotte H.; Kaliyadasa, Ewon; Lamb, Rebecca; Knight, Marc R.; De Cothi, Elizabeth A.; Steele, John F.; Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Mediator16 (MED16; formerly termed SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 [SFR6]) subunit of the plant Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex regulates cold-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, acting downstream of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors to recruit the core Mediator complex to cold-regulated genes. Here, we use loss-of-function mutants to show that RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes requires MED16, MED2, and MED14 subunits. Transcription of genes known to be regulated via CBFs binding to the C-repeat motif/drought-responsive element promoter motif requires all three Mediator subunits, as does cold acclimation–induced freezing tolerance. In addition, these three subunits are required for low temperature–induced expression of some other, but not all, cold-responsive genes, including genes that are not known targets of CBFs. Genes inducible by darkness also required MED16 but required a different combination of Mediator subunits for their expression than the genes induced by cold. Together, our data illustrate that plants control transcription of specific genes through the action of subsets of Mediator subunits; the specific combination defined by the nature of the stimulus but also by the identity of the gene induced. PMID:24415770

  11. Binding of fluorescently labeled cholera toxin subunit B to glycolipids in the human submandibular gland and inhibition of binding by periodate oxidation and by galactose

    Kirkeby, S

    2016-01-01

    FITC-labeled cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) stained the surfaces of cells of mucous acini in the submandibular gland. CTB, also called choleragenoid, binds to the GM1 glycolipid in the cell membrane. The binding in most acini was inhibited by periodic acid oxidation of the sections, while some acini...... to the internal galactose residue linked to GalNAc, as in the GM1 glycolipid. Inhibition of the GM1 receptor binding to cholera toxin has potential for protection of humans against cholera. Galactose and agents that modify sialic acid inhibit the accessibility of the toxin to the GM1 carbohydrate receptor. Human...

  12. Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit Isoforms Regulate Growth and Differentiation in Mucor circinelloides: Essential Role of PKAR4

    Ocampo, J.; McCormack, B.; Navarro, E.; Moreno, S.; Garre, V.

    2012-01-01

    The protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway plays a role in regulating growth and differentiation in the dimorphic fungus Mucor circinelloides. PKA holoenzyme is comprised of two catalytic (C) and two regulatory (R) subunits. In M. circinelloides, four genes encode the PKAR1, PKAR2, PKAR3, and PKAR4 isoforms of R subunits. We have constructed null mutants and demonstrate that each isoform has a different role in growth and differentiation. The most striking finding is that pkaR4 is an essential gene, because only heterokaryons were obtained in knockout experiments. Heterokaryons with low levels of wild-type nuclei showed an impediment in the emission of the germ tube, suggesting a pivotal role of this gene in germ tube emergence. The remaining null strains showed different alterations in germ tube emergence, sporulation, and volume of the mother cell. The pkaR2 null mutant showed an accelerated germ tube emission and was the only mutant that germinated under anaerobic conditions when glycine was used as a nitrogen source, suggesting that pkaR2 participates in germ tube emergence by repressing it. From the measurement of the mRNA and protein levels of each isoform in the wild-type and knockout strains, it can be concluded that the expression of each subunit has its own mechanism of differential regulation. The PKAR1 and PKAR2 isoforms are posttranslationally modified by ubiquitylation, suggesting another regulation point in the specificity of the signal transduction. The results indicate that each R isoform has a different role in M. circinelloides physiology, controlling the dimorphism and contributing to the specificity of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-PKA pathway. PMID:22635921

  13. The Regulation of NF-κB Subunits by Phosphorylation

    Frank Christian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The NF-κB transcription factor is the master regulator of the inflammatory response and is essential for the homeostasis of the immune system. NF-κB regulates the transcription of genes that control inflammation, immune cell development, cell cycle, proliferation, and cell death. The fundamental role that NF-κB plays in key physiological processes makes it an important factor in determining health and disease. The importance of NF-κB in tissue homeostasis and immunity has frustrated therapeutic approaches aimed at inhibiting NF-κB activation. However, significant research efforts have revealed the crucial contribution of NF-κB phosphorylation to controlling NF-κB directed transactivation. Importantly, NF-κB phosphorylation controls transcription in a gene-specific manner, offering new opportunities to selectively target NF-κB for therapeutic benefit. This review will focus on the phosphorylation of the NF-κB subunits and the impact on NF-κB function.

  14. Design of a hyperstable 60-subunit protein icosahedron

    Hsia, Yang; Bale, Jacob B.; Gonen, Shane; Shi, Dan; Sheffler, William; Fong, Kimberly K.; Nattermann, Una; Xu, Chunfu; Huang, Po-Ssu; Ravichandran, Rashmi; Yi, Sue; Davis, Trisha N.; Gonen, Tamir; King, Neil P.; Baker, David

    2016-07-01

    The icosahedron is the largest of the Platonic solids, and icosahedral protein structures are widely used in biological systems for packaging and transport. There has been considerable interest in repurposing such structures for applications ranging from targeted delivery to multivalent immunogen presentation. The ability to design proteins that self-assemble into precisely specified, highly ordered icosahedral structures would open the door to a new generation of protein containers with properties custom-tailored to specific applications. Here we describe the computational design of a 25-nanometre icosahedral nanocage that self-assembles from trimeric protein building blocks. The designed protein was produced in Escherichia coli, and found by electron microscopy to assemble into a homogenous population of icosahedral particles nearly identical to the design model. The particles are stable in 6.7 molar guanidine hydrochloride at up to 80 degrees Celsius, and undergo extremely abrupt, but reversible, disassembly between 2 molar and 2.25 molar guanidinium thiocyanate. The icosahedron is robust to genetic fusions: one or two copies of green fluorescent protein (GFP) can be fused to each of the 60 subunits to create highly fluorescent ‘standard candles’ for use in light microscopy, and a designed protein pentamer can be placed in the centre of each of the 20 pentameric faces to modulate the size of the entrance/exit channels of the cage. Such robust and customizable nanocages should have considerable utility in targeted drug delivery, vaccine design and synthetic biology.

  15. Fc receptor gamma subunit polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Al-Ansari, Aliya; Ollier, W.E.; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Gul, Ahmet; Inanac, Murat; Ordi, Jose; Teh, Lee-Suan; Hajeer, Ali H.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible association between Fc receptor gamma polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have investigated the full FcR gamma gene for polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand confirmational polymorphisms and DNA sequencing .The polymorphisms identified were genotype using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Systemic lupus erythematosus cases and controls were available from 3 ethnic groups: Turkish, Spanish and Caucasian. The study was conducted in the year 2001 at the Arthritis Research Campaign, Epidemiology Unit, Manchester University Medical School, Manchester, United Kingdom. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, 2 in the promoter, one in intron 4 and, 2 in the 3'UTR. Four of the 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were relatively common and investigated in the 3 populations. Allele and genotype frequencies of all 4 investigated SNPs were not statistically different cases and controls. fc receptor gamma gene does not appear to contribute to SLE susceptibility. The identified polymorphisms may be useful in investigating other diseases where receptors containing the FcR gamma subunit contribute to the pathology. (author)

  16. Purification, subunit characterization and ultrastructure of three soluble bovine lectins: conglutinin, mannose-binding protein and the pentraxin serum amyloid P-component

    Andersen, Ove; Friis, P; Holm Nielsen, E

    1992-01-01

    affinity chromatography and selective elution was developed. The purification was monitored by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and electron microscopy. Binding of the lectins to Sephadex-iC3b, their collagenase sensitivity, and the size and antibody reactivity of their subunits was investigated....... The demonstration, by SDS-PAGE, of 25-kDa subunits, which were unaffected by collagenase treatment but bound to Sephadex-iC3b and antibodies to human SAP, indicated the existence of bovine SAP. Bovine conglutinin (BK) also showed calcium-dependent binding to Sephadex-iC3b, whereas bovine MBP did not. The binding...... of BK was inhibitable with GlcNAc. A 3000-fold increase in BK activity (ELISA) was obtained in eluates from Sephadex-iC3b. SDS-PAGE analyses of BK and MBP revealed subunits with an Mr of 43 kDa and 30 kDa, respectively. These subunits were sensitive to collagenase treatment which reduced the Mr to 20 k...

  17. Comparison of sequences of hypervariable region (HVR subunit S-1 gene of field isolate I-37 infectious bronchitis virus with Connecticut serotype

    N.L.P Indi Dharmayanti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bronchitis is a contagious and acute respiratory disease in chickens caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV.Antigenic differences in IBV are associated with changes in the sequence of the spike glycoprotein (S. The subunit S1 which demonstrates more sequence variability than S-2 have been identified as hypervariable region (HVR-1 and 2. There were several IB virus field isolates included I-37 have been identified in Indonesia by serum neutralization method. However, gene sequence variation in HVR subunit S-1 had not yet been identified. Isolate I-37 was close to the serotype Connecticut 46 (Conn 46. The aim of this study is to identify sequence variation of HVR subunit S-1 gene of isolate I-37 produced by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR and sequencing. Several procedures were carried out in the study including virus titration, propagation and was concentrated from the allantoic fluid infected with IBV. Then, RNA was extracted for RTPCR. urther the product was sequnced and its homology with IBV references from GenBank was compared by GenMac version 8.0. Result showed that isolate I-37 produced 515 bp of amplification product. Isolate I-37 and Conn 46 are same serotype, yet their HVR subunit S-1 nucleotides and amino acids (protein differ by 6.9% and 15.6% respectively. It might be concluded that isolate I-37 was variant of Conn 46.

  18. Inter-subunit interactions across the upper voltage sensing-pore domain interface contribute to the concerted pore opening transition of Kv channels.

    Tzilhav Shem-Ad

    Full Text Available The tight electro-mechanical coupling between the voltage-sensing and pore domains of Kv channels lies at the heart of their fundamental roles in electrical signaling. Structural data have identified two voltage sensor pore inter-domain interaction surfaces, thus providing a framework to explain the molecular basis for the tight coupling of these domains. While the contribution of the intra-subunit lower domain interface to the electro-mechanical coupling that underlies channel opening is relatively well understood, the contribution of the inter-subunit upper interface to channel gating is not yet clear. Relying on energy perturbation and thermodynamic coupling analyses of tandem-dimeric Shaker Kv channels, we show that mutation of upper interface residues from both sides of the voltage sensor-pore domain interface stabilizes the closed channel state. These mutations, however, do not affect slow inactivation gating. We, moreover, find that upper interface residues form a network of state-dependent interactions that stabilize the open channel state. Finally, we note that the observed residue interaction network does not change during slow inactivation gating. The upper voltage sensing-pore interaction surface thus only undergoes conformational rearrangements during channel activation gating. We suggest that inter-subunit interactions across the upper domain interface mediate allosteric communication between channel subunits that contributes to the concerted nature of the late pore opening transition of Kv channels.

  19. Inter-subunit interactions across the upper voltage sensing-pore domain interface contribute to the concerted pore opening transition of Kv channels.

    Shem-Ad, Tzilhav; Irit, Orr; Yifrach, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    The tight electro-mechanical coupling between the voltage-sensing and pore domains of Kv channels lies at the heart of their fundamental roles in electrical signaling. Structural data have identified two voltage sensor pore inter-domain interaction surfaces, thus providing a framework to explain the molecular basis for the tight coupling of these domains. While the contribution of the intra-subunit lower domain interface to the electro-mechanical coupling that underlies channel opening is relatively well understood, the contribution of the inter-subunit upper interface to channel gating is not yet clear. Relying on energy perturbation and thermodynamic coupling analyses of tandem-dimeric Shaker Kv channels, we show that mutation of upper interface residues from both sides of the voltage sensor-pore domain interface stabilizes the closed channel state. These mutations, however, do not affect slow inactivation gating. We, moreover, find that upper interface residues form a network of state-dependent interactions that stabilize the open channel state. Finally, we note that the observed residue interaction network does not change during slow inactivation gating. The upper voltage sensing-pore interaction surface thus only undergoes conformational rearrangements during channel activation gating. We suggest that inter-subunit interactions across the upper domain interface mediate allosteric communication between channel subunits that contributes to the concerted nature of the late pore opening transition of Kv channels.

  20. Propofol effectively inhibits lithium-pilocarpine- induced status epilepticus in rats via downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression

    Wang, Henglin; Wang, Zhuoqiang; Mi, Weidong; Zhao, Cong; Liu, Yanqin; Wang, Yongan; Sun, Haipeng

    2012-01-01

    Status epilepticus was induced via intraperitoneal injection of lithium-pilocarpine. The inhibitory effects of propofol on status epilepticus in rats were judged based on observation of behavior, electroencephalography and 24-hour survival rate. Propofol (12.5–100 mg/kg) improved status epilepticus in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced the number of deaths within 24 hours of lithium-pilocarpine injection. Western blot results showed that, 24 hours after induction of status epilepticus, the levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A and 2B subunits were significantly increased in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Propofol at 50 mg/kg significantly suppressed the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit levels, but not the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A subunit levels. The results suggest that propofol can effectively inhibit status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine. This effect may be associated with downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression after seizures. PMID:25737709

  1. Three alpha-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and an adenylyl cyclase have distinct roles in fruiting body development in the homothallic fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Kamerewerd, Jens; Jansson, Malin; Nowrousian, Minou; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Kück, Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    Sordaria macrospora, a self-fertile filamentous ascomycete, carries genes encoding three different alpha-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (gsa, G protein Sordaria alpha subunit). We generated knockout strains for all three gsa genes (Deltagsa1, Deltagsa2, and Deltagsa3) as well as all combinations of double mutants. Phenotypic analysis of single and double mutants showed that the genes for Galpha-subunits have distinct roles in the sexual life cycle. While single mutants show some reduction of fertility, double mutants Deltagsa1Deltagsa2 and Deltagsa1Deltagsa3 are completely sterile. To test whether the pheromone receptors PRE1 and PRE2 mediate signaling via distinct Galpha-subunits, two recently generated Deltapre strains were crossed with all Deltagsa strains. Analyses of the corresponding double mutants revealed that compared to GSA2, GSA1 is a more predominant regulator of a signal transduction cascade downstream of the pheromone receptors and that GSA3 is involved in another signaling pathway that also contributes to fruiting body development and fertility. We further isolated the gene encoding adenylyl cyclase (AC) (sac1) for construction of a knockout strain. Analyses of the three DeltagsaDeltasac1 double mutants and one Deltagsa2Deltagsa3Deltasac1 triple mutant indicate that SAC1 acts downstream of GSA3, parallel to a GSA1-GSA2-mediated signaling pathway. In addition, the function of STE12 and PRO41, two presumptive signaling components, was investigated in diverse double mutants lacking those developmental genes in combination with the gsa genes. This analysis was further completed by expression studies of the ste12 and pro41 transcripts in wild-type and mutant strains. From the sum of all our data, we propose a model for how different Galpha-subunits interact with pheromone receptors, adenylyl cyclase, and STE12 and thus cooperatively regulate sexual development in S. macrospora.

  2. Crystal structure of the P pilus rod subunit PapA.

    Denis Verger

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available P pili are important adhesive fibres involved in kidney infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. P pili are assembled by the conserved chaperone-usher pathway, which involves the PapD chaperone and the PapC usher. During pilus assembly, subunits are incorporated into the growing fiber via the donor-strand exchange (DSE mechanism, whereby the chaperone's G1 beta-strand that complements the incomplete immunoglobulin-fold of each subunit is displaced by the N-terminal extension (Nte of an incoming subunit. P pili comprise a helical rod, a tip fibrillum, and an adhesin at the distal end. PapA is the rod subunit and is assembled into a superhelical right-handed structure. Here, we have solved the structure of a ternary complex of PapD bound to PapA through donor-strand complementation, itself bound to another PapA subunit through DSE. This structure provides insight into the structural basis of the DSE reaction involving this important pilus subunit. Using gel filtration chromatography and electron microscopy on a number of PapA Nte mutants, we establish that PapA differs in its mode of assembly compared with other Pap subunits, involving a much larger Nte that encompasses not only the DSE region of the Nte but also the region N-terminal to it.

  3. Self-subunit swapping occurs in another gene type of cobalt nitrile hydratase.

    Yi Liu

    Full Text Available Self-subunit swapping is one of the post-translational maturation of the cobalt-containing nitrile hydratase (Co-NHase family of enzymes. All of these NHases possess a gene organization of , which allows the activator protein to easily form a mediatory complex with the α-subunit of the NHase after translation. Here, we discovered that the incorporation of cobalt into another type of Co-NHase, with a gene organization of , was also dependent on self-subunit swapping. We successfully isolated a recombinant NHase activator protein (P14K of Pseudomonas putida NRRL-18668 by adding a Strep-tag N-terminal to the P14K gene. P14K was found to form a complex [α(StrepP14K(2] with the α-subunit of the NHase. The incorporation of cobalt into the NHase of P. putida was confirmed to be dependent on the α-subunit substitution between the cobalt-containing α(StrepP14K(2 and the cobalt-free NHase. Cobalt was inserted into cobalt-free α(StrepP14K(2 but not into cobalt-free NHase, suggesting that P14K functions not only as a self-subunit swapping chaperone but also as a metallochaperone. In addition, NHase from P. putida was also expressed by a mutant gene that was designed with a order. Our findings expand the general features of self-subunit swapping maturation.

  4. Three human alcohol dehydrogenase subunits: cDNA structure and molecular and evolutionary divergence

    Ikuta, T.; Szeto, S.; Yoshida, A.

    1986-01-01

    Class I human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol:NAD + oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) consists of several homo- and heterodimers of α, β, and γ subunits that are governed by the ADH1, ADH2, and ADH3 loci. The authors previously cloned a full length of cDNA for the β subunit, and the complete sequence of 374 amino acid residues was established. cDNAs for the α and γ subunits were cloned and characterized. A human liver cDNA library, constructed in phage λgt11, was screened by using a synthetic oligonucleotide probe that was matched to the γ but not to the β sequence. Clone pUCADHγ21 and clone pUCADHα15L differed from β cDNA with respect to restriction sites and hybridization with the nucleotide probe. Clone pUCADHγ21 contained an insertion of 1.5 kilobase pairs (kbp) and encodes 374 amino acid residues compatible with the reported amino acid sequence of the γ subunit. Clone pUCADHα15L contained an insertion of 2.4 kbp and included nucleotide sequences that encode 374 amino acid residues for another subunit, the γ subunit. In addition, this clone contained the sequences that encode the COOH-terminal part of the β subunit at its extended 5' region. The amino acid sequences and coding regions of the cDNAs of the three subunits are very similar. A high degree of resemblance is observed also in their 3' noncoding regions. However, distinctive differences exist in the vicinity of the Zn-binding cysteine residue at position 46. Based on the cDNA sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences of the three subunits, their structural and evolutionary relationships are discussed

  5. Regulated appearance of NMDA receptor subunits and channel functions during in vitro neuronal differentiation.

    Jelitai, Márta; Schlett, Katalin; Varju, Patrícia; Eisel, Ulrich; Madarász, Emília

    2002-04-01

    The schedule of NMDA receptor subunit expression and the appearance of functional NMDA-gated ion channels were investigated during the retinoic acid (RA) induced neuronal differentiation of NE-4C, a p53-deficient mouse neuroectodermal progenitor cell line. NR2A, NR2B, and NR2D subunit transcripts were present in both nondifferentiated and neuronally differentiated cultures, while NR2C subunits were expressed only transiently, during the early period of neural differentiation. Several splice variants of NR1 were detected in noninduced progenitors and in RA-induced cells, except the N1 exon containing transcripts that appeared after the fourth day of induction, when neuronal processes were already formed. NR1 and NR2A subunit proteins were detected both in nondifferentiated progenitor cells and in neurons, while the mature form of NR2B subunit protein appeared only at the time of neuronal process elongation. Despite the early presence of NR1 and NR2A subunits, NMDA-evoked responses could be detected in NE-4C neurons only after the sixth day of induction, coinciding in time with the expression of the mature NR2B subunit. The formation of functional NMDA receptors also coincided with the appearance of synapsin I and synaptophysin. The lag period between the production of the subunits and the onset of channel function suggests that subunits capable of channel formation cannot form functional NMDA receptors until a certain stage of neuronal commitment. Thus, the in vitro neurogenesis by NE-4C cells provides a suitable tool to investigate some inherent regulatory processes involved in the initial maturation of NMDA receptor complexes. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Composition of cross-linked 125I-follitropin-receptor complexes

    Shin, J.; Ji, T.H.

    1985-10-15

    Both of the alpha and beta subunits of intact human follitropin (FSH) were radioiodinated with SVI-sodium iodide and chloramine-T and could be resolved on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Radioiodinated FSH was affinity-cross-linked with a cleavable (nondisulfide) homobifunctional reagent to its membrane receptor on the porcine granulosa cell surface as well as to a Triton X-100-solubilized form of the receptor. Cross-linked samples revealed three additional bands of slower electrophoretic mobility, corresponding to 65, 83, and 117 kDa, in addition to the hormone bands. The hormone alpha beta dimer band corresponded to 43 kDa. Formation of the three bands requires the SVI-hormone to bind specifically to the receptor with subsequent cross-linking. Binding was prevented by an excess of the native hormone but not by other hormones. A monofunctional analog of the cross-linking reagent failed to produce the three bands. Reagent concentration-dependent cross-linking revealed that their formation was sequential; smaller complexes formed first and then larger ones. When gels of cross-linked complexes were treated to cleave covalent cross-links and then electrophoresed in a second dimension, 18-, 22-, and 34-kDa components were released, in addition to the alpha and beta subunits of the hormone.

  7. The different effects of over-expressing murine NMDA receptor 2B subunit in the forebrain on conditioned taste aversion.

    Li, Shijia; Gu, Yiran; Meng, Bo; Mei, Bing; Li, Fei

    2010-09-10

    The glutamate transmission system and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R), in particular its 2B subunit (NR2B), have been reported to be possibly related to taste memory as a result of treatment with NMDA antagonists and agonists. In order to further study the role of the NR2B subunit in gustation memory, we applied four different taste aversive tasks to observe the behavior of a transgenic mice model in which the NR2B subunit was specifically over-expressed in the forebrain. We found that in both short- and long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) experiments, mice with forebrain expression of the NR2B transgene (Tg) showed significantly enhanced CTA 2 days after training. However, both the Tg and the wild-type (Wt) mice shared the same level of aversive memory on the 30th day after training. In both fast and slow extinction experiments, Tg mice maintained a higher CTA memory than that of control mice in most extinction trials. The third experiment, which involved testing the memory for familiar taste, demonstrated that NR2B augmentation had no benefit on the latent inhibition (LI) of CTA. In addition, the last experiment (two-taste LI) showed a suppression of enhanced CTA in Tg mice when the mice were exposed to both novel and familiar tastes. These data suggested that forebrain NR2B over-expression had different effects on gustatory learning and memory. The transgenic animals were only sensitive to novel but not familiar tastes, and up-regulation of NR2B resulted in enhanced CTA function for only a short period of time. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of glutenin subunits on the baking quality of Brazilian wheat genotypes

    Costa, Mariana Souza; Scholz, Maria Brígida dos Santos; Miranda, Martha Zavariz; Franco, Célia Maria Landi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits on the grain traits of sixteen Brazilian wheat genotypes. Grain hardness index, milling traits, physicochemical and rheological properties of the flour, and specific volume and firmness of the bread were evaluated. Physicochemical properties of the flour were not influenced by glutenin subunits. Genotypes with subunits at the Glu-B1 (17+18 or 7+8), Glu-D1 (5+10), and Glu-A3 (b) were associa...

  9. Inhibition of herpesvirus and influenza virus replication by blocking polymerase subunit interactions.

    Palù, Giorgio; Loregian, Arianna

    2013-09-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a key role in many biological processes, including virus replication in the host cell. Since most of the PPIs are functionally essential, a possible strategy to inhibit virus replication is based on the disruption of viral protein complexes by peptides or small molecules that interfere with subunit interactions. In particular, an attractive target for antiviral drugs is the binding between the subunits of essential viral enzymes. This review describes the development of new antiviral compounds that inhibit herpesvirus and influenza virus replication by blocking interactions between subunit proteins of their polymerase complexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Down-regulation of MicroRNAs 222/221 in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia with Deranged Core-Binding Factor Subunits

    Matteo Brioschi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Core-binding factor leukemia (CBFL is a subgroup of acutemyeloid leukemia (AML characterized by genetic mutations involving the subunits of the core-binding factor (CBF. The leukemogenesis model for CBFL posits that one, or more, gene mutations inducing increased cell proliferation and/or inhibition of apoptosis cooperate with CBF mutations for leukemia development. One of the most commonmutations associated with CBF mutations involves the KIT receptor. A high expression of KIT is a hallmark of a high proportion of CBFL. Previous studies indicate that microRNA (MIR 222/221 targets the 3′ untranslated region of the KIT messenger RNA and our observation that AML1 can bind the MIR-222/221 promoter, we hypothesized that MIR-222/221 represents the link between CBF and KIT. Here, we show that MIR-222/221 expression is upregulated after myeloid differentiation of normal bone marrow AC133+ stem progenitor cells. CBFL blasts with either t(8;21 or inv(16 CBF rearrangements with high expression levels of KIT (CD117 display a significantly lower level of MIR-222/221 expression than non-CBFL blasts. Consistently, we found that the t(8;21 AML1-MTG8 fusion protein binds the MIR-222/221 promoter and induces transcriptional repression of a MIR-222/221-LUC reporter. Because of the highly conserved sequence homology, we demonstrated concomitant MIR-222/221 down-regulation and KIT up-regulation in the 32D/WT1 mouse cell model carrying the AML1-MTG16 fusion protein. This study provides the first hint that CBFL-associated fusion proteins may lead to up-regulation of the KIT receptor by down-regulating MIR-222/221, thus explaining the concomitant occurrence of CBF genetic rearrangements and overexpression of wild type or mutant KIT in AML.

  11. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the Calcineurin Subunit A from Plutella xylostella

    Xi'en Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin (or PP2B has been reported to be involved in an array of physiological process in insects, and the calcineurin subunit A (CNA plays a central role in calcineurin activity. We cloned the CNA gene from Plutella xylostella (PxCNA. This gene contains an ORF of 1488 bp that encodes a 495 amino acid protein, showing 98%, and 80% identities to the CNA of Bombyx mori, and humans respectively. The full-length of PxCNA and its catalytic domain (CNA1–341, defined as PxCNα were both expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant PxCNA displayed no phosphatase activity, whereas recombinant PxCNα showed high phosphatase activity with a Km of 4.6 mM and a kcat of 0.66 S−1 against pNPP. It could be activated at different degrees by Mn2+, Ni2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+. The optimum reaction pH was about 7.5 and the optimum reaction temperature was around 45 °C. An in vitro inhibition assay showed that okadaic acid (OA and cantharidin (CTD competitively inhibited recombinant PxCNα activity with the IC50 values of 8.95 μM and 77.64 μM, respectively. However, unlike previous reports, pyrethroid insecticides were unable to inhibit recombinant PxCNα, indicating that the P. xylostella calcineurin appears not to be sensitive to class II pyrethroid insecticides.

  12. Analysis of NR3A receptor subunits in human native NMDA receptors

    Nilsson, Anna; Eriksson, Maria; Muly, E Chris

    2007-01-01

    NR3A, representing the third class of NMDA receptor subunits, was first studied in rats, demonstrating ubiquitous expression in the developing central nervous system (CNS), but in the adult mainly expressed in spinal cord and some forebrain nuclei. Subsequent studies showed that rodent and non-human...... primate NR3A expression differs. We have studied the distribution of NR3A in the human CNS and show a widespread distribution of NR3A protein in adult human brain. NR3A mRNA and protein were found in all regions of the cerebral cortex, and also in the subcortical forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Only...... very low levels of NR3A mRNA and protein could be detected in homogenized adult human spinal cord, and in situ hybridization showed that expression was limited to ventral motoneurons. We found that NR3A is associated with NR1, NR2A and NR2B in adult human CNS, suggesting the existence of native NR1-NR2...

  13. Link to paper

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Link to the paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Naile, J., A.W. Garrison, J. Avants, and J. Washington. Isomers/enantiomers of...

  14. Proteasomes remain intact, but show early focal alteration in their composition in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Kabashi, Edor; Agar, Jeffrey N; Hong, Yu; Taylor, David M; Minotti, Sandra; Figlewicz, Denise A; Durham, Heather D

    2008-06-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), altered solubility and aggregation of the mutant protein implicates failure of pathways for detecting and catabolizing misfolded proteins. Our previous studies demonstrated early reduction of proteasome-mediated proteolytic activity in lumbar spinal cord of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice, tissue particularly vulnerable to disease. The purpose of this study was to identify any underlying abnormalities in proteasomal structure. In lumbar spinal cord of pre-symptomatic mice [postnatal day 45 (P45) and P75], normal levels of structural 20S alpha subunits were incorporated into 20S/26S proteasomes; however, proteasomal complexes separated by native gel electrophoresis showed decreased immunoreactivity with antibodies to beta3, a structural subunit of the 20S proteasome core, and beta5, the subunit with chymotrypsin-like activity. This occurred prior to increase in beta5i immunoproteasomal subunit. mRNA levels were maintained and no association of mutant SOD1 with proteasomes was identified, implicating post-transcriptional mechanisms. mRNAs also were maintained in laser captured motor neurons at a later stage of disease (P100) in which multiple 20S proteins are reduced relative to the surrounding neuropil. Increase in detergent-insoluble, ubiquitinated proteins at P75 provided further evidence of stress on mechanisms of protein quality control in multiple cell types prior to significant motor neuron death.

  15. The Missing Link

    Schultz, Laura Luise

    2014-01-01

    Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping......Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping...

  16. Oxaliplatin-induced loss of phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit neuronal immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue

    Connor Bronwen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin and related chemotherapeutic drugs cause painful chronic peripheral neuropathies in cancer patients. We investigated changes in neuronal size profiles and neurofilament immunoreactivity in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue of adult female Wistar rats after multiple-dose treatment with oxaliplatin, cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Results After treatment with oxaliplatin, phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H immunoreactivity was reduced in neuronal cell bodies, but unchanged in nerve fibres, of the L5 DRG. Morphometric analysis confirmed significant changes in the number (-75%; P P P = 0.82, NF-M (-1%, P = 0.96 or NF-H (0%; P = 0.93 after oxaliplatin treatment, although the sizes of parvalbumin (-29%, P = 0.047, NF-M (-11%, P = 0.038 and NF-H (-28%; P = 0.0033 immunoreactive neurons were reduced. In an independent comparison of different chemotherapeutic agents, the number of pNF-H-immunoreactive neurons was significantly altered by oxaliplatin (-77.2%; P P = 0.03 but not by carboplatin or paclitaxel, and their mean cell body area was significantly changed by oxaliplatin (-31.1%; P = 0.008 but not by cisplatin, carboplatin or paclitaxel. Conclusion This study has demonstrated a specific pattern of loss of pNF-H immunoreactivity in rat DRG tissue that corresponds with the relative neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin, cisplatin and carboplatin. Loss of pNF-H may be mechanistically linked to oxaliplatin-induced neuronal atrophy, and serves as a readily measureable endpoint of its neurotoxicity in the rat model.

  17. Molecular cloning of the α subunit of human and guinea pig leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein Mo1: Chromosomal localization and homology to the α subunits of integrins

    Arnaout, M.A.; Remold-O'Donnell, E.; Pierce, M.W.; Harris, P.; Tenen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The cell surface-glycoprotein Mo1 is a member of the family of leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (Leu-CAMs) that includes lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and p150,95. Each Leu-CAM is a heterodimer with a distinct α subunit noncovalently associated with a common β subunit. The authors describe the isolation and analysis of two partial cDNA clones encoding the α subunit of the Leu-CAM Mo1 in humans and guinea pigs. A monoclonal antibody directed against an epitope in the carboxyl-terminal portion of the guinea pig α chain was used for immunoscreening a λgt11 expression library. The sequence of a 378-base-pair insert from one immunoreactive clone revealed a single continuous open reading frame encoding 126 amino acids including a 26-amino acid tryptic peptide isolated from the purified guinea pig α subunit. A cDNA clone of identical size was isolated from a human monocyte/lymphocyte cDNA library by using the guinea pig clone as a probe. The human clone also encoded a 126-amino acid peptide including the sequence of an additional tryptic peptide present in purified human Mo1α chain. Southern analysis of DNA from hamster-human hybrids localized the human Mo1α chain to chromosome 16, which has been shown to contain the gene for the α chain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1. These data suggest that the α subunits of Leu-CAMs evolved by gene duplication from a common ancestral gene and strengthen the hypothesis that the α subunits of these heterodimeric cell adhesion molecules on myeloid and lymphoid cells, platelets, and fibroblasts are evolutionary related

  18. Intron retention in mRNA encoding ancillary subunit of insect voltage-gated sodium channel modulates channel expression, gating regulation and drug sensitivity.

    Céline M Bourdin

    Full Text Available Insect voltage-gated sodium (Nav channels are formed by a well-known pore-forming α-subunit encoded by para-like gene and ancillary subunits related to TipE from the mutation "temperature-induced-paralysis locus E." The role of these ancillary subunits in the modulation of biophysical and pharmacological properties of Na(+ currents are not enough documented. The unique neuronal ancillary subunit TipE-homologous protein 1 of Drosophila melanogaster (DmTEH1 strongly enhances the expression of insect Nav channels when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Here we report the cloning and functional expression of two neuronal DmTEH1-homologs of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, PaTEH1A and PaTEH1B, encoded by a single bicistronic gene. In PaTEH1B, the second exon encoding the last 11-amino-acid residues of PaTEH1A is shifted to 3'UTR by the retention of a 96-bp intron-containing coding-message, thus generating a new C-terminal end. We investigated the gating and pharmacological properties of the Drosophila Nav channel variant (DmNav1-1 co-expressed with DmTEH1, PaTEH1A, PaTEH1B or a truncated mutant PaTEH1Δ(270-280 in Xenopus oocytes. PaTEH1B caused a 2.2-fold current density decrease, concomitant with an equivalent α-subunit incorporation decrease in the plasma membrane, compared to PaTEH1A and PaTEH1Δ(270-280. PaTEH1B positively shifted the voltage-dependences of activation and slow inactivation of DmNav1-1 channels to more positive potentials compared to PaTEH1A, suggesting that the C-terminal end of both proteins may influence the function of the voltage-sensor and the pore of Nav channel. Interestingly, our findings showed that the sensitivity of DmNav1-1 channels to lidocaine and to the pyrazoline-type insecticide metabolite DCJW depends on associated TEH1-like subunits. In conclusion, our work demonstrates for the first time that density, gating and pharmacological properties of Nav channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes can be

  19. The subfamily-specific interaction between Kv2.1 and Kv6.4 subunits is determined by interactions between the N- and C-termini.

    Elke Bocksteins

    Full Text Available The "silent" voltage-gated potassium (KvS channel subunit Kv6.4 does not form electrically functional homotetramers at the plasma membrane but assembles with Kv2.1 subunits, generating functional Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetramers. The N-terminal T1 domain determines the subfamily-specific assembly of Kv1-4 subunits by preventing interactions between subunits that belong to different subfamilies. For Kv6.4, yeast-two-hybrid experiments showed an interaction of the Kv6.4 N-terminus with the Kv2.1 N-terminus, but unexpectedly also with the Kv3.1 N-terminus. We confirmed this interaction by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP using N-terminal Kv3.1 and Kv6.4 fragments. However, full-length Kv3.1 and Kv6.4 subunits do not form heterotetramers at the plasma membrane. Therefore, additional interactions between the Kv6.4 and Kv2.1 subunits should be important in the Kv2.1/Kv6.4 subfamily-specificity. Using FRET and co-IP approaches with N- and C-terminal fragments we observed that the Kv6.4 C-terminus physically interacts with the Kv2.1 N-terminus but not with the Kv3.1 N-terminus. The N-terminal amino acid sequence CDD which is conserved between Kv2 and KvS subunits appeared to be a key determinant since charge reversals with arginine substitutions abolished the interaction between the N-terminus of Kv2.1 and the C-terminus of both Kv2.1 and Kv6.4. In addition, the Kv6.4(CKv3.1 chimera in which the C-terminus of Kv6.4 was replaced by the corresponding domain of Kv3.1, disrupted the assembly with Kv2.1. These results indicate that the subfamily-specific Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetramerization is determined by interactions between Kv2.1 and Kv6.4 that involve both the N- and C-termini in which the conserved N-terminal CDD sequence plays a key role.

  20. MgATP hydrolysis destabilizes the interaction between subunit H and yeast V1-ATPase, highlighting H's role in V-ATPase regulation by reversible disassembly.

    Sharma, Stuti; Oot, Rebecca A; Wilkens, Stephan

    2018-05-12

    Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases; V1Vo-ATPases) are rotary motor proton pumps that acidify intracellular compartments and in some tissues, the extracellular space. V-ATPase is regulated by reversible disassembly into autoinhibited V1-ATPase and Vo proton channel sectors. An important player in V-ATPase regulation is subunit H, which binds at the interface of V1 and Vo. H is required for MgATPase activity in holo V-ATPase, but also for stabilizing the MgADP inhibited state in membrane detached V1. However, how H fulfills these two functions is poorly understood. To characterize the H-V1 interaction and its role in reversible disassembly, we determined binding affinities of full length H and its N-terminal domain (HNT) for an isolated heterodimer of subunits E and G (EG), the N-terminal domain of subunit a (aNT), and V1 lacking subunit H (V1ΔH). Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and biolayer interferometry (BLI), we show that HNT binds EG with moderate affinity, that full length H binds aNT weakly, and that both H and HNT bind V1ΔH with high affinity. We also found that only one molecule of HNT binds V1ΔH with high affinity, suggesting conformational asymmetry of the three EG heterodimers in V1ΔH. Moreover, MgATP hydrolysis-driven conformational changes in V1 destabilized the interaction of H, or HNT, with V1ΔH, suggesting an interplay between MgADP inhibition and subunit H. Our observation that H binding is affected by MgATP hydrolysis in V1 points to H's role in the mechanism of reversible disassembly. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Phosphorylation of the protein kinase A catalytic subunit is induced by cyclic AMP deficiency and physiological stresses in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    McInnis, Brittney; Mitchell, Jessica; Marcus, Stevan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → cAMP deficiency induces phosphorylation of PKA catalytic subunit (Pka1) in S. pombe. → Pka1 phosphorylation is further induced by physiological stresses. → Pka1 phosphorylation is not induced in cells lacking the PKA regulatory subunit. → Results suggest that cAMP-independent Pka1 phosphorylation is stimulatory in nature. -- Abstract: In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is not essential for viability under normal culturing conditions, making this organism attractive for investigating mechanisms of PKA regulation. Here we show that S. pombe cells carrying a deletion in the adenylate cyclase gene, cyr1, express markedly higher levels of the PKA catalytic subunit, Pka1, than wild type cells. Significantly, in cyr1Δ cells, but not wild type cells, a substantial proportion of Pka1 protein is hyperphosphorylated. Pka1 hyperphosphorylation is strongly induced in cyr1Δ cells, and to varying degrees in wild type cells, by both glucose starvation and stationary phase stresses, which are associated with reduced cAMP-dependent PKA activity, and by KCl stress, the cellular adaptation to which is dependent on PKA activity. Interestingly, hyperphosphorylation of Pka1 was not detected in either cyr1 + or cyr1Δ S. pombe strains carrying a deletion in the PKA regulatory subunit gene, cgs1, under any of the tested conditions. Our results demonstrate the existence of a cAMP-independent mechanism of PKA catalytic subunit phosphorylation, which we propose could serve as a mechanism for inducing or maintaining specific PKA functions under conditions in which its cAMP-dependent activity is downregulated.

  2. Characterization of enzymatic properties of human ribonucleotide reductase holoenzyme reconstituted in vitro from hRRM1, hRRM2, and p53R2 subunits.

    Qiu, Weihua; Zhou, Bingsen; Darwish, Dana; Shao, Jimin; Yen, Yun

    2006-02-10

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is a highly regulated enzyme in the deoxyribonucleotide synthesis pathway. RR is responsible for the de novo conversion of ribonucleoside diphosphates to deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates, which are essential for DNA synthesis and repair. Besides two subunits, hRRM1 and hRRM2, p53R2 is a newly identified member of RR family that is induced by ultraviolet light in a p53-dependent manner. To understand the molecular interaction of RR subunits, we employed a eukaryotic expression system to express and purify all three subunits. After in vitro reconstitution, the results of [(3)H]CDP reduction assay showed that both eukaryotic recombinant hRRM2 and p53R2 proteins could interact with hRRM1 to form functional RR holoenzyme. The reconstituted RR activity was time-dependent and the reaction rate reached the plateau phase after 40min incubation. No matter the concentration, RR holoenzyme reconstituted from p53R2 and hRRM1 could only achieve about 40-75% kinetic activity of that from hRRM2 and hRRM1. The synthetic C-terminal heptapeptide competition assays confirmed that hRRM2 and p53R2 share the same binding site on hRRM1, but the binding site on hRRM1 demonstrated higher affinity for hRRM2 than for p53R2. In allosteric regulation assay, the effect of activation or inhibition of hRRM1 with ATP or dATP suggested that these effectors could regulate RR activity independent of different RR small subunits. Taken together, the eukaryotic expression system RR holoenzyme will provide a very useful tool to understand the molecular mechanisms of RR activity and the interactions of its subunits.

  3. The Apical Localization of Na+, K+-ATPase in Cultured Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Depends on Expression of the β2 Subunit.

    Lobato-Álvarez, Jorge A; Roldán, María L; López-Murillo, Teresa Del Carmen; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Shoshani, Liora

    2016-01-01

    Na + , K + -ATPase, or the Na + pump, is a key component in the maintenance of the epithelial phenotype. In most epithelia, the pump is located in the basolateral domain. Studies from our laboratory have shown that the β 1 subunit of Na + , K + -ATPase plays an important role in this mechanism because homotypic β 1 -β 1 interactions between neighboring cells stabilize the pump in the lateral membrane. However, in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the Na + pump is located in the apical domain. The mechanism of polarization in this epithelium is unclear. We hypothesized that the apical polarization of the pump in RPE cells depends on the expression of its β 2 subunit. ARPE-19 cells cultured for up to 8 weeks on inserts did not polarize, and Na + , K + -ATPase was expressed in the basolateral membrane. In the presence of insulin, transferrin and selenic acid (ITS), ARPE-19 cells cultured for 4 weeks acquired an RPE phenotype, and the Na + pump was visible in the apical domain. Under these conditions, Western blot analysis was employed to detect the β 2 isoform and immunofluorescence analysis revealed an apparent apical distribution of the β 2 subunit. qPCR results showed a time-dependent increase in the level of β 2 isoform mRNA, suggesting regulation at the transcriptional level. Moreover, silencing the expression of the β 2 isoform in ARPE-19 cells resulted in a decrease in the apical localization of the pump, as assessed by the mislocalization of the α 2 subunit in that domain. Our results demonstrate that the apical polarization of Na + , K + -ATPase in RPE cells depends on the expression of the β 2 subunit.

  4. The GABAA receptor α and β subunits but not the density of muscimol binding sites are altered in the auditory-linguistic association cortex of subjects with schizophrenia

    Farnbach-Pralong, D.; Bradbury, R.; Tomaskovic, E.; Copolov, D.; Dean, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: An increase in the density of postsynaptic GABA A receptors has recently been reported in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. This increase has been hypothesised to represent an up-regulation in response a decrease in the density of GABAergic interneurons. In order to determine whether the GABA A receptor is also altered in the auditory-linguistic association cortex of the schizophrenic brain, we used quantitative autoradiography to measure the density of that receptor in tissue obtained at autopsy from 20 control subjects and 20 subjects with schizophrenia matched for sex and age. The density of GABA A receptors was measured as the difference in the binding of the specific ligand [ 3 H]muscimol (100 nM) in the presence or in the absence of 10 5 M SR95531. There was no significant difference in the density of [ 3 H]muscimol binding between tissue from schizophrenic (554.9±20,5 fmol/mg TE) and non-schizophrenic (580.1±26.2 fmol/mg TE) subjects. The abundance of the α and β subunits of the GABA A receptor was also measured in particulate membranes prepared from tissue from 6 control and 6 schizophrenic subjects using Western blots. Detection with monoclonal antibodies and chemiluminescence showed that in tissue from control subjects, there was a significant correlation between the levels of α and β subunits (r=0.817, p=0.047). However, there was no such correlation in tissue from schizophrenic subjects (r=0.265, p=0.61), where in 2 subjects large levels of β-subunit were not matched by similar levels of α subunit. These preliminary results suggest mat there may be a failure for up-regulated GABA A receptor subunits to assemble into functional receptors in this brain region for some subjects with schizophrenia. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  5. Structure-function analysis and genetic interactions of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits of the yeast Sm protein ring.

    Schwer, Beate; Kruchten, Joshua; Shuman, Stewart

    2016-09-01

    A seven-subunit Sm protein ring forms a core scaffold of the U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs that direct pre-mRNA splicing. Using human snRNP structures to guide mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we gained new insights into structure-function relationships of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits. An alanine scan of 19 conserved amino acids of these three proteins, comprising the Sm RNA binding sites or inter-subunit interfaces, revealed that, with the exception of Arg74 in SmF, none are essential for yeast growth. Yet, for SmG, SmE, and SmF, as for many components of the yeast spliceosome, the effects of perturbing protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions are masked by built-in functional redundancies of the splicing machine. For example, tests for genetic interactions with non-Sm splicing factors showed that many benign mutations of SmG, SmE, and SmF (and of SmB and SmD3) were synthetically lethal with null alleles of U2 snRNP subunits Lea1 and Msl1. Tests of pairwise combinations of SmG, SmE, SmF, SmB, and SmD3 alleles highlighted the inherent redundancies within the Sm ring, whereby simultaneous mutations of the RNA binding sites of any two of the Sm subunits are lethal. Our results suggest that six intact RNA binding sites in the Sm ring suffice for function but five sites may not. © 2016 Schwer et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Structure–function analysis and genetic interactions of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits of the yeast Sm protein ring

    Schwer, Beate; Kruchten, Joshua; Shuman, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    A seven-subunit Sm protein ring forms a core scaffold of the U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs that direct pre-mRNA splicing. Using human snRNP structures to guide mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we gained new insights into structure–function relationships of the SmG, SmE, and SmF subunits. An alanine scan of 19 conserved amino acids of these three proteins, comprising the Sm RNA binding sites or inter-subunit interfaces, revealed that, with the exception of Arg74 in SmF, none are essential for yeast growth. Yet, for SmG, SmE, and SmF, as for many components of the yeast spliceosome, the effects of perturbing protein–RNA and protein–protein interactions are masked by built-in functional redundancies of the splicing machine. For example, tests for genetic interactions with non-Sm splicing factors showed that many benign mutations of SmG, SmE, and SmF (and of SmB and SmD3) were synthetically lethal with null alleles of U2 snRNP subunits Lea1 and Msl1. Tests of pairwise combinations of SmG, SmE, SmF, SmB, and SmD3 alleles highlighted the inherent redundancies within the Sm ring, whereby simultaneous mutations of the RNA binding sites of any two of the Sm subunits are lethal. Our results suggest that six intact RNA binding sites in the Sm ring suffice for function but five sites may not. PMID:27417296

  7. Post-translational transformation of methionine to aspartate is catalyzed by heme iron and driven by peroxide: a novel subunit-specific mechanism in hemoglobin.

    Strader, Michael Brad; Hicks, Wayne A; Kassa, Tigist; Singleton, Eileen; Soman, Jayashree; Olson, John S; Weiss, Mitchell J; Mollan, Todd L; Wilson, Michael T; Alayash, Abdu I

    2014-08-08

    A pathogenic V67M mutation occurs at the E11 helical position within the heme pockets of variant human fetal and adult hemoglobins (Hb). Subsequent post-translational modification of Met to Asp was reported in γ subunits of human fetal Hb Toms River (γ67(E11)Val → Met) and β subunits of adult Hb (HbA) Bristol-Alesha (β67(E11)Val → Met) that were associated with hemolytic anemia. Using kinetic, proteomic, and crystal structural analysis, we were able to show that the Met → Asp transformation involves heme cycling through its oxoferryl state in the recombinant versions of both proteins. The conversion to Met and Asp enhanced the spontaneous autoxidation of the mutants relative to wild-type HbA and human fetal Hb, and the levels of Asp were elevated with increasing levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Using H2(18)O2, we verified incorporation of (18)O into the Asp carboxyl side chain confirming the role of H2O2 in the oxidation of the Met side chain. Under similar experimental conditions, there was no conversion to Asp at the αMet(E11) position in the corresponding HbA Evans (α62(E11)Val → Met). The crystal structures of the three recombinant Met(E11) mutants revealed similar thioether side chain orientations. However, as in the solution experiments, autoxidation of the Hb mutant crystals leads to electron density maps indicative of Asp(E11) formation in β subunits but not in α subunits. This novel post-translational modification highlights the nonequivalence of human Hb α, β, and γ subunits with respect to redox reactivity and may have direct implications to α/β hemoglobinopathies and design of oxidatively stable Hb-based oxygen therapeutics. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Genetic Analysis of the Mode of Interplay between an ATPase Subunit and Membrane Subunits of the Lipoprotein-Releasing ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter LolCDE†

    Ito, Yasuko; Matsuzawa, Hitomi; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    The LolCDE complex, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, releases lipoproteins from the inner membrane, thereby initiating lipoprotein sorting to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. The LolCDE complex is composed of two copies of an ATPase subunit, LolD, and one copy each of integral membrane subunits LolC and LolE. LolD hydrolyzes ATP on the cytoplasmic side of the inner membrane, while LolC and/or LolE recognize and release lipoproteins anchored to the periplasmic leaflet of the i...

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of seven Na+/K+-ATPase β subunit paralogs in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858).

    Armesto, Paula; Infante, Carlos; Cousin, Xavier; Ponce, Marian; Manchado, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, seven genes encoding Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) β-subunits in the teleost Solea senegalensis are described for the first time. Sequence analysis of the predicted polypeptides revealed a high degree of conservation with those of other vertebrate species and maintenance of important motifs involved in structure and function. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the seven genes into four main clades: β1 (atp1b1a and atp1b1b), β2 (atp1b2a and atp1b2b), β3 (atp1b3a and atp1b3b) and β4 (atp1b4). In juveniles, all paralogous transcripts were detected in the nine tissues examined albeit with different expression patterns. The most ubiquitous expressed gene was atp1b1a whereas atp1b1b was mainly detected in osmoregulatory organs (gill, kidney and intestine), and atp1b2a, atp1b2b, atp1b3a, atp1b3b and atp1b4 in brain. An expression analysis in three brain regions and pituitary revealed that β1-type transcripts were more abundant in pituitary than the other β paralogs with slight differences between brain regions. Quantification of mRNA abundance in gills after a salinity challenge showed an activation of atp1b1a and atp1b1b at high salinity water (60 ppt) and atp1b3a and atp1b3b in response to low salinity (5 ppt). Transcriptional analysis during larval development showed specific expression patterns for each paralog. Moreover, no differences in the expression profiles between larvae cultivated at 10 and 35 ppt were observed except for atp1b4 with higher mRNA levels at 10 than 35 ppt at 18 days post hatch. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that atp1b1b was mainly localized in gut, pronephric tubule, gill, otic vesicle, and chordacentrum of newly hatched larvae. All these data suggest distinct roles of NKA β subunits in tissues, during development and osmoregulation with β1 subunits involved in the adaptation to hyperosmotic conditions and β3 subunits to hypoosmotic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Linking to the Future

    Moore, John W.

    1999-09-01

    . Or you can link to a student activity involving cyanotype photography: JCE Classroom Activity #19 (pages 1216A and 1216B). You can print a copy for use in your classroom, and the links at the bottom of the student side will take you (or your students) onto the Web for even more information. In the Literature Cited section of the article, a mouse click on the first reference will take you to another Journal paper on sunscreens (Abney and Scalettar, June 1998). For even more information on sunscreens, you can click on JCE Index in the sidebar. Searching titles for "Sunscreen" will yield three more papers, two of which have been published since September 1996 and therefore are available via a mouse click. If you would like to locate other JCE Classroom Activities, search keywords for "Activity". Each activity sheet you find is only a mouse click away. This example shows that JCE Online nicely complements the printed issue. It provides new ways to find and view information, and it includes information available nowhere else. I think that every reader can benefit from both JCE Print and JCE Online, and the Board of Publication concurs. Beginning September 1, 1999, we will make both JCE Print and all of JCE Online available to every JCE subscriber. (For details of how this will work, see News from Journal House on page 1184.) Your Journal will enter the new millennium in fine stylebringing you the best of chemical education in several media, each suited to particular tasks and complementary to the others. Please use our resources for your own and your students' benefit, and let us know what you think about them.

  11. Hydrogen bonds between the alpha and beta subunits of the F1-ATPase allow communication between the catalytic site and the interface of the beta catch loop and the gamma subunit.

    Boltz, Kathryn W; Frasch, Wayne D

    2006-09-19

    F(1)-ATPase mutations in Escherichia coli that changed the strength of hydrogen bonds between the alpha and beta subunits in a location that links the catalytic site to the interface between the beta catch loop and the gamma subunit were examined. Loss of the ability to form the hydrogen bonds involving alphaS337, betaD301, and alphaD335 lowered the k(cat) of ATPase and decreased its susceptibility to Mg(2+)-ADP-AlF(n) inhibition, while mutations that maintain or strengthen these bonds increased the susceptibility to Mg(2+)-ADP-AlF(n) inhibition and lowered the k(cat) of ATPase. These data suggest that hydrogen bonds connecting alphaS337 to betaD301 and betaR323 and connecting alphaD335 to alphaS337 are important to transition state stabilization and catalytic function that may result from the proper alignment of catalytic site residues betaR182 and alphaR376 through the VISIT sequence (alpha344-348). Mutations betaD301E, betaR323K, and alphaR282Q changed the rate-limiting step of the reaction as determined by an isokinetic plot. Hydrophobic mutations of betaR323 decreased the susceptibility to Mg(2+)-ADP-AlF(n)() inhibition and lowered the number of interactions required in the rate-limiting step yet did not affect the k(cat) of ATPase, suggesting that betaR323 is important to transition state formation. The decreased rate of ATP synthase-dependent growth and decreased level of lactate-dependent quenching observed with alphaD335, betaD301, and alphaE283 mutations suggest that these residues may be important to the formation of an alternative set of hydrogen bonds at the interface of the alpha and beta subunits that permits the release of intersubunit bonds upon the binding of ATP, allowing gamma rotation in the escapement mechanism.

  12. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of the C(1)-C(11) Subunit of the Iejimalides

    Mendlik, Matthew T.; Cottard, Muriel; Rein, Tobias

    1997-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of the C(1)-C(11) subunit of the iejimalides has been accomplished through a combination of an asymmetric Homer-Wadsworth-Emmons condensation and a chiral pool approach. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  13. Identification of a conserved archaeal RNA polymerase subunit contacted by the basal transcription factor TFB.

    Magill, C P; Jackson, S P; Bell, S D

    2001-12-14

    Archaea possess two general transcription factors that are required to recruit RNA polymerase (RNAP) to promoters in vitro. These are TBP, the TATA-box-binding protein and TFB, the archaeal homologue of TFIIB. Thus, the archaeal and eucaryal transcription machineries are fundamentally related. In both RNAP II and archaeal transcription systems, direct contacts between TFB/TFIIB and the RNAP have been demonstrated to mediate recruitment of the polymerase to the promoter. However the subunit(s) directly contacted by these factors has not been identified. Using systematic yeast two-hybrid and biochemical analyses we have identified an interaction between the N-terminal domain of TFB and an evolutionarily conserved subunit of the RNA polymerase, RpoK. Intriguingly, homologues of RpoK are found in all three nuclear RNA polymerases (Rpb6) and also in the bacterial RNA polymerase (omega-subunit).

  14. Subunit architecture and functional modular rearrangements of the transcriptional mediator complex.

    Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Tomomori-Sato, Chieri; Sato, Shigeo; Conaway, Ronald C; Conaway, Joan W; Asturias, Francisco J

    2014-06-05

    The multisubunit Mediator, comprising ∼30 distinct proteins, plays an essential role in gene expression regulation by acting as a bridge between DNA-binding transcription factors and the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription machinery. Efforts to uncover the Mediator mechanism have been hindered by a poor understanding of its structure, subunit organization, and conformational rearrangements. By overcoming biochemical and image analysis hurdles, we obtained accurate EM structures of yeast and human Mediators. Subunit localization experiments, docking of partial X-ray structures, and biochemical analyses resulted in comprehensive mapping of yeast Mediator subunits and a complete reinterpretation of our previous Mediator organization model. Large-scale Mediator rearrangements depend on changes at the interfaces between previously described Mediator modules, which appear to be facilitated by factors conducive to transcription initiation. Conservation across eukaryotes of Mediator structure, subunit organization, and RNA polymerase II interaction suggest conservation of fundamental aspects of the Mediator mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinct Subunit Domains Govern Synaptic Stability and Specificity of the Kainate Receptor

    Christoph Straub

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic communication between neurons requires the precise localization of neurotransmitter receptors to the correct synapse type. Kainate-type glutamate receptors restrict synaptic localization that is determined by the afferent presynaptic connection. The mechanisms that govern this input-specific synaptic localization remain unclear. Here, we examine how subunit composition and specific subunit domains contribute to synaptic localization of kainate receptors. The cytoplasmic domain of the GluK2 low-affinity subunit stabilizes kainate receptors at synapses. In contrast, the extracellular domain of the GluK4/5 high-affinity subunit synergistically controls the synaptic specificity of kainate receptors through interaction with C1q-like proteins. Thus, the input-specific synaptic localization of the native kainate receptor complex involves two mechanisms that underlie specificity and stabilization of the receptor at synapses.

  16. Two subunits of human ORC are dispensable for DNA replication and proliferation.

    Shibata, Etsuko; Kiran, Manjari; Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Singh, Samarendra; Kiran, Shashi; Dutta, Anindya

    2016-12-01

    The six-subunit Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) is believed to be an essential eukaryotic ATPase that binds to origins of replication as a ring-shaped heterohexamer to load MCM2-7 and initiate DNA replication. We have discovered that human cell lines in culture proliferate with intact chromosomal origins of replication after disruption of both alleles of ORC2 or of the ATPase subunit, ORC1 . The ORC1 or ORC2 -depleted cells replicate with decreased chromatin loading of MCM2-7 and become critically dependent on another ATPase, CDC6, for survival and DNA replication. Thus, either the ORC ring lacking a subunit, even its ATPase subunit, can load enough MCM2-7 in partnership with CDC6 to initiate DNA replication, or cells have an ORC-independent, CDC6-dependent mechanism to load MCM2-7 on origins of replication.

  17. Linked Ocean Data

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam

    2014-05-01

    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  18. Retrograde and transganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated cholera toxin B subunit, wheatgerm agglutinin and isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I in primary afferent neurons innervating the rat urinary bladder.

    Wang, H F; Shortland, P; Park, M J; Grant, G

    1998-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated and compared the ability of the cholera toxin B subunit, wheat germ agglutinin and isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, to retrogradely and transganglionically label visceral primary afferents after unilateral injections into the rat urinary bladder wall. Horseradish peroxidase histochemical or lectin-immunofluorescence histochemical labelling of bladder afferents was seen in the L6-S1 spinal cord segments and in the T13-L2 and L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia. In the lumbosacral spinal cord, the most intense and extensive labelling of bladder afferents was seen when cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase was injected. Cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase-labelled fibres were found in Lissauer's tract, its lateral and medial collateral projections, and laminae I and IV-VI of the spinal gray matter. Labelled fibres were numerous in the lateral collateral projection and extended into the spinal parasympathetic nucleus. Labelling from both the lateral and medial projections extended into the dorsal grey commissural region. Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase labelling produced a similar pattern but was not as dense and extensive as that of cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase. The isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I-horseradish peroxidase-labelled fibres, on the other hand, were fewer and only observed in the lateral collateral projection and occasionally in lamina I. Cell profile counts showed that a larger number of dorsal root ganglion cells were labelled with cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase than with wheat germ agglutinin- or isolectin B4-horseradish peroxidase. In the L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia, the majority (81%) of the cholera toxin B subunit-, and almost all of the wheat germ agglutinin- and isolectin B4-immunoreactive cells were RT97-negative (an anti-neurofilament antibody that labels dorsal root ganglion neurons with

  19. High-resolution immunogold localization of AMPA type glutamate receptor subunits at synaptic and non-synaptic sites in rat hippocampus.

    Baude, A; Nusser, Z; Molnár, E; McIlhinney, R A; Somogyi, P

    1995-12-01

    particles for the GluRA, GluRB/C and GluRD subunits were present at type 1 synaptic membrane specializations on dendritic spines of pyramidal cells throughout all layers of the CA1 and CA3 areas. The most densely labelled synapses tended to be on the largest spines and many smaller spines remained unlabelled. Immunoparticle density at type 1 synapses on dendritic shafts of some non-principal cells was consistently higher than at labelled synapses of dendritic spines of pyramidal cells. Synapses established between dendritic spines and mossy fibre terminals, were immunoreactive for all studied subunits in stratum lucidum of the CA3 area. The postembedding immunogold method revealed that the AMPA type receptors are concentrated within the main body of the anatomically defined type 1 (asymmetrical) synaptic junction. Often only a part of the membrane specialization showed clustered immunoparticles. There was a sharp decrease in immunoreactive receptor density at the edge of the synaptic specialization. Immunolabelling was consistently demonstrated at extrasynaptic sites on dendrites, dendritic spines and somata. The results demonstrate that the GluRA, B/C and D subunits of the AMPA type glutamate receptor are present in many of the glutamatergic synapses formed by the entorhinal, CA3 pyramidal and mossy fibre terminals. Some interneurons have a higher density of AMPA type receptors in their asymmetrical afferent synapses than pyramidal cells. This may contribute to a lower activation threshold of interneurons as compared to principal cells by the same afferents in the hippocampal formation.

  20. Bisphenol-A rapidly enhanced passive avoidance memory and phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunits in hippocampus of young rats

    Xu Xiaohong; Li Tao; Luo Qingqing; Hong Xing; Xie Lingdan; Tian Dong

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is found to influence development of brain and behaviors in rodents. The previous study indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA impaired learning-memory and inhibited N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits expressions in hippocampus during the postnatal development in rats; and in cultured hippocampal neurons, BPA rapidly promotes dynamic changes in dendritic morphology through estrogen receptor-mediated pathway by concomitant phosphorylation of NMDAR subunit NR2B. In the present study, we examined the rapid effect of BPA on passive avoidance memory and NMDAR in the developing hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats at the age of postnatal day 18. The results showed that BPA or estradiol benzoate (EB) rapidly extended the latency to step down from the platform 1 h after footshock and increased the phosphorylation levels of NR1, NR2B, and mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in hippocampus within 1 h. While 24 h after BPA or EB treatment, the improved memory and the increased phosphorylation levels of NR1, NR2B, ERK disappeared. Furthermore, pre-treatment with an estrogen receptors (ERs) antagonist, ICI182,780, or an ERK-activating kinase inhibitor, U0126, significantly attenuated EB- or BPA-induced phosphorylations of NR1, NR2B, and ERK within 1 h. These data suggest that BPA rapidly enhanced short-term passive avoidance memory in the developing rats. A non-genomic effect via ERs may mediate the modulation of the phosphorylation of NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2B through ERK signaling pathway. - Highlights: → BPA rapidly extended the latency to step down from platform 1 h after footshock. → BPA rapidly increased pNR1, pNR2B, and pERK in hippocampus within 1 h. → ERs antagonist or MEK inhibitor attenuated BPA-induced pNR1, pNR2B, and pERK.

  1. Immunological and protective effects of Bordetella bronchiseptica subunit vaccines based on the recombinant N-terminal domain of dermonecrotic toxin.

    Wang, Chuanwen; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Zhen; Yan, Zhengui; Yu, Cuilian; Shao, Mingxu; Jiang, Xiaodong; Chi, Shanshan; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2015-10-01

    Dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) produced by Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. bronchiseptica) can cause clinical turbinate atrophy in swine and induce dermonecrotic lesions in model mice. We know that the N-terminal of DNT molecule contains the receptor-binding domain, which facilitates binding to the target cells. However, we do not know whether this domain has sufficient immunogenicity to resist B. bronchiseptica damage and thereby to develop a subunit vaccine for the swine industry. In this study, we prokaryotically expressed the recombinant N-terminal of DNT from B. bronchiseptica (named DNT-N) and prepared it for the subunit vaccine to evaluate its immunogenicity. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), a known immunomodulator, was used as the adjuvant to examine its immune-conditioning effects. At 49 d after inoculation, 10 mice from each group were challenged with B. bronchiseptica, and another 10 mice were intradermally challenged with native DNT, to examine the protection imparted by the vaccines. The immune parameters (T-lymphocyte counts, cytokine secretions, serum antibody titers, and survival rates) and skin lesions were determined. The results showed that pure DNT-N vaccine significantly induced immune responses and had limited ability to resist the B. bronchiseptica and DNT challenge, whereas the mice administered with TPPPS or Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine could induce higher levels of the above immune parameters. Remarkably, the DNT-N vaccine combined with TPPPS adjuvant protected the mice effectively to prevent B. bronchiseptica infection. Our findings indicated that DNT-N has potential for development as an effective subunit vaccine to counteract the damage of B. bronchiseptica infection, especially when used conjointly with TPPPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential expression of Mediator complex subunit MED15 in testicular germ cell tumors.

    Klümper, Niklas; Syring, Isabella; Offermann, Anne; Shaikhibrahim, Zaki; Vogel, Wenzel; Müller, Stefan C; Ellinger, Jörg; Strauß, Arne; Radzun, Heinz Joachim; Ströbel, Philipp; Brägelmann, Johannes; Perner, Sven; Bremmer, Felix

    2015-09-17

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common cancer entities in young men with increasing incidence observed in the last decades. For therapeutic management it is important, that TGCT are divided into several histological subtypes. MED15 is part of the multiprotein Mediator complex which presents an integrative hub for transcriptional regulation and is known to be deregulated in several malignancies, such as prostate cancer and bladder cancer role, whereas the role of the Mediator complex in TGCT has not been investigated so far. Aim of the study was to investigate the implication of MED15 in TGCT development and its stratification into histological subtypes. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) against Mediator complex subunit MED15 was conducted on a TGCT cohort containing tumor-free testis (n = 35), intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU, n = 14), seminomas (SEM, n = 107) and non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT, n = 42), further subdivided into embryonic carcinomas (EC, n = 30), yolk sac tumors (YST, n = 5), chorionic carcinomas (CC, n = 5) and teratomas (TER, n = 2). Quantification of MED15 protein expression was performed through IHC followed by semi-quantitative image analysis using the Definiens software. In tumor-free seminiferous tubules, MED15 protein expression was absent or only low expressed in spermatogonia. Interestingly, the precursor lesions IGCNU exhibited heterogeneous but partly very strong MED15 expression. SEM weakly express the Mediator complex subunit MED15, whereas NSGCT and especially EC show significantly enhanced expression compared to tumor-free testis. In conclusion, MED15 is differentially expressed in tumor-free testis and TGCT. While MED15 is absent or low in tumor-free testis and SEM, NSGCT highly express MED15, hinting at the diagnostic potential of this marker to distinguish between SEM and NSGCT. Further, the precursor lesion IGCNU showed increased nuclear MED15

  3. Crystal Structure of the Oxazolidinone Antibiotic Linezolid Bound to the 50S Ribosomal Subunit

    Ippolito,J.; Kanyo, Z.; Wang, D.; Franceschi, F.; Moore, P.; Steitz, T.; Duffy, E.

    2008-01-01

    The oxazolidinone antibacterials target the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes. To gain insight into their mechanism of action, the crystal structure of the canonical oxazolidinone, linezolid, has been determined bound to the Haloarcula marismortui 50S subunit. Linezolid binds the 50S A-site, near the catalytic center, which suggests that inhibition involves competition with incoming A-site substrates. These results provide a structural basis for the discovery of improved oxazolidinones active against emerging drug-resistant clinical strains.

  4. Pharmacological consequences of the coexpression of BK channel α and auxiliary β subunits

    Torres, Yolima P.; Granados, Sara T.; Latorre, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Coded by a single gene (Slo1, KCM) and activated by depolarizing potentials and by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BK) is unique among the superfamily of K+ channels. BK channels are tetramers characterized by a pore-forming α subunit containing seven transmembrane segments (instead of the six found in voltage-dependent K+ channels) and a large C terminus composed of two regulators of K+ conductance domains (RCK domains), where the Ca2+-binding sites reside. BK channels can be associated with accessory β subunits and, although different BK modulatory mechanisms have been described, greater interest has recently been placed on the role that the β subunits may play in the modulation of BK channel gating due to its physiological importance. Four β subunits have currently been identified (i.e., β1, β2, β3, and β4) and despite the fact that they all share the same topology, it has been shown that every β subunit has a specific tissue distribution and that they modify channel kinetics as well as their pharmacological properties and the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the α subunit in different ways. Additionally, different studies have shown that natural, endogenous, and synthetic compounds can modulate BK channels through β subunits. Considering the importance of these channels in different pathological conditions, such as hypertension and neurological disorders, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which these compounds modulate the biophysical properties of BK channels through the regulation of β subunits, as well as their potential therapeutic uses for diseases such as those mentioned above. PMID:25346693

  5. Pharmacological consequences of the coexpression of BK channel α and auxiliary β subunits

    Yolima P. Torres

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Coded by a single gene (Slo1, KCM and activated by depolarizing potentials and by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the large conductance voltage- and Ca+2-activated K+ channel (BK is unique among the superfamily of K+ channels. BK channels are tetramers characterized by a pore-forming α subunit containing seven transmembrane segments (instead of the six found in voltage-dependent K+ channels and a large C terminus composed of two regulators of K+ conductance domains (RCK domains, where the Ca2+-binding sites reside. BK channels can be associated with accessory β subunits and, although different BK modulatory mechanisms have been described, greater interest has recently been placed on the role that the β subunits may play in the modulation of BK channel gating due to its physiological importance. Four β subunits have currently been identified (i.e., β1, β2, β3 & β4 and despite the fact that they all share the same topology, it has been shown that every β subunit has a specific tissue distribution and that they modify channel kinetics as well as their pharmacological properties and the apparent Ca+2 sensitivity of the α subunit in different ways. Additionally, different studies have shown that natural, endogenous and synthetic compounds can modulate BK channels through β subunits. Considering the importance of these channels in different pathological conditions, such as hypertension and neurological disorders, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which these compounds modulate the biophysical properties of BK channels through the regulation of β subunits, as well as their potential therapeutic uses for diseases such as those mentioned above.

  6. Pharmacological consequences of the coexpression of BK channel α and auxiliary β subunits.

    Torres, Yolima P; Granados, Sara T; Latorre, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Coded by a single gene (Slo1, KCM) and activated by depolarizing potentials and by a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, the large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK) is unique among the superfamily of K(+) channels. BK channels are tetramers characterized by a pore-forming α subunit containing seven transmembrane segments (instead of the six found in voltage-dependent K(+) channels) and a large C terminus composed of two regulators of K(+) conductance domains (RCK domains), where the Ca(2+)-binding sites reside. BK channels can be associated with accessory β subunits and, although different BK modulatory mechanisms have been described, greater interest has recently been placed on the role that the β subunits may play in the modulation of BK channel gating due to its physiological importance. Four β subunits have currently been identified (i.e., β1, β2, β3, and β4) and despite the fact that they all share the same topology, it has been shown that every β subunit has a specific tissue distribution and that they modify channel kinetics as well as their pharmacological properties and the apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity of the α subunit in different ways. Additionally, different studies have shown that natural, endogenous, and synthetic compounds can modulate BK channels through β subunits. Considering the importance of these channels in different pathological conditions, such as hypertension and neurological disorders, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which these compounds modulate the biophysical properties of BK channels through the regulation of β subunits, as well as their potential therapeutic uses for diseases such as those mentioned above.

  7. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: subunit structure, functional binding sites, and ion transport properties

    Raftery, M.A.; Dunn, S.M.J.; Conti-Tronconi, B.M.; Middlemas, D.S.; Crawford, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has been highly conserved during animal evolution, and in all the species and tissues studied so far, including mammals, it is a pseudosymmetric, pentameric complex of related subunits with very similar physical properties. All subunits of these nicotinic receptors were derived from a common ancestral gene, probably by way of gene duplications occurring very early in animal evolution. 45 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Distribution of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits in the chick visual system

    Pires R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Several glutamate receptor (GluR subunits have been characterized during the past few years. In the present study, subunit-specific antisera were used to determine the distribution of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits GluR1-4 in retinorecipient areas of the chick brain. Six white leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus, 7-15 days old, unknown sex were deeply anesthetized and perfused with 4% buffered paraformaldehyde and brain sections were stained using immunoperoxidase techniques. The AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2/3 and GluR4 were present in several retinorecipient areas, with varying degrees of colocalization. For example, perikarya in layers 2, 3, and 5 of the optic tectum contained GluR1, whereas GluR2/3 subunits appeared mainly in neurons of layer 13. The GluR4 subunit was only detected in a few cells of the tectal layer 13. GluR1 and GluR2/3 were observed in neurons of the nucleus geniculatus lateralis ventralis, whereas GluR4 was only present in its neuropil. Somata in the accessory optic nucleus appeared to contain GluR2/3 and GluR4, whereas GluR1 was the dominant subunit in the neuropil of this nucleus. These results suggest that different subpopulations of visual neurons might express different combinations of AMPA-type GluR subunits, which in turn might generate different synaptic responses to glutamate derived from retinal ganglion cell axons

  9. Crystal structure of Agaricus bisporus mushroom tyrosinase: identity of the tetramer subunits and interaction with tropolone.

    Ismaya, Wangsa T; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Weijn, Amrah; Mes, Jurriaan J; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Wichers, Harry J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2011-06-21

    Tyrosinase catalyzes the conversion of phenolic compounds into their quinone derivatives, which are precursors for the formation of melanin, a ubiquitous pigment in living organisms. Because of its importance for browning reactions in the food industry, the tyrosinase from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus has been investigated in depth. In previous studies the tyrosinase enzyme complex was shown to be a H(2)L(2) tetramer, but no clues were obtained of the identities of the subunits, their mode of association, and the 3D structure of the complex. Here we unravel this tetramer at the molecular level. Its 2.3 Å resolution crystal structure is the first structure of the full fungal tyrosinase complex. The complex comprises two H subunits of ∼392 residues and two L subunits of ∼150 residues. The H subunit originates from the ppo3 gene and has a fold similar to other tyrosinases, but it is ∼100 residues larger. The L subunit appeared to be the product of orf239342 and has a lectin-like fold. The H subunit contains a binuclear copper-binding site in the deoxy-state, in which three histidine residues coordinate each copper ion. The side chains of these histidines have their orientation fixed by hydrogen bonds or, in the case of His85, by a thioether bridge with the side chain of Cys83. The specific tyrosinase inhibitor tropolone forms a pre-Michaelis complex with the enzyme. It binds near the binuclear copper site without directly coordinating the copper ions. The function of the ORF239342 subunits is not known. Carbohydrate binding sites identified in other lectins are not conserved in ORF239342, and the subunits are over 25 Å away from the active site, making a role in activity unlikely. The structures explain how calcium ions stabilize the tetrameric state of the enzyme.

  10. Analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2) gene in giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    Ling, S S; Zhu, Y; Lan, D; Li, D S; Pang, H Z; Wang, Y; Li, D Y; Wei, R P; Zhang, H M; Wang, C D; Hu, Y D

    2017-01-23

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Ursidae), has a unique bamboo-based diet; however, this low-energy intake has been sufficient to maintain the metabolic processes of this species since the fourth ice age. As mitochondria are the main sites for energy metabolism in animals, the protein-coding genes involved in mitochondrial respiratory chains, particularly cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in electron transfer, could play an important role in giant panda metabolism. Therefore, the present study aimed to isolate, sequence, and analyze the COX2 DNA from individuals kept at the Giant Panda Protection and Research Center, China, and compare these sequences with those of the other Ursidae family members. Multiple sequence alignment showed that the COX2 gene had three point mutations that defined three haplotypes, with 60% of the sequences corresponding to haplotype I. The neutrality tests revealed that the COX2 gene was conserved throughout evolution, and the maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis, using homologous sequences from other Ursidae species, showed clustering of the COX2 sequences of giant pandas, suggesting that this gene evolved differently in them.

  11. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rotavirus VP8* fused to cholera toxin B subunit in a mouse model.

    Xue, Miaoge; Yu, Linqi; Jia, Lianzhi; Li, Yijian; Zeng, Yuanjun; Li, Tingdong; Ge, Shengxiang; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-11-01

    In attempts to develop recombinant subunit vaccines against rotavirus disease, it was previously shown that the N-terminal truncated VP8* protein, VP8-1 (aa26-231), is a good vaccine candidate when used for immunization in combination with Freund's adjuvant. However, this protein stimulated only weak immune response when aluminum hydroxide was used as an adjuvant. In this study, the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) was employed as intra-molecular adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of VP8-1. Both, the N-terminal and C-terminal fusion proteins, were purified to homogeneity, at which stage they formed pentamers, and showed significantly higher immunogenicity and protective efficacy than a VP8-1/aluminum hydroxide mixture in a mouse model. Compared to VP8-1-CTB, CTB-VP8-1 showed higher binding activity to both, GM1 and the conformation sensitive neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific to VP8. More importantly, CTB-VP8-1 elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibodies and conferred higher protective efficacy than VP8-1-CTB. Therefore, the protein CTB-VP8-1, with enhanced immunogenicity and immunoprotectivity, could be considered as a viable candidate for further development of an alternative, replication-incompetent, parenterally administered vaccine against rotavirus disease.

  12. Individual stress vulnerability is predicted by short-term memory and AMPA receptor subunit ratio in the hippocampus.

    Schmidt, Mathias V; Trümbach, Dietrich; Weber, Peter; Wagner, Klaus; Scharf, Sebastian H; Liebl, Claudia; Datson, Nicole; Namendorf, Christian; Gerlach, Tamara; Kühne, Claudia; Uhr, Manfred; Deussing, Jan M; Wurst, Wolfgang; Binder, Elisabeth B; Holsboer, Florian; Müller, Marianne B

    2010-12-15

    Increased vulnerability to aversive experiences is one of the main risk factors for stress-related psychiatric disorders as major depression. However, the molecular bases of vulnerability, on the one hand, and stress resilience, on the other hand, are still not understood. Increasing clinical and preclinical evidence suggests a central involvement of the glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of major depression. Using a mouse paradigm, modeling increased stress vulnerability and depression-like symptoms in a genetically diverse outbred strain, and we tested the hypothesis that differences in AMPA receptor function may be linked to individual variations in stress vulnerability. Vulnerable and resilient animals differed significantly in their dorsal hippocampal AMPA receptor expression and AMPA receptor binding. Treatment with an AMPA receptor potentiator during the stress exposure prevented the lasting effects of chronic social stress exposure on physiological, neuroendocrine, and behavioral parameters. In addition, spatial short-term memory, an AMPA receptor-dependent behavior, was found to be predictive of individual stress vulnerability and response to AMPA potentiator treatment. Finally, we provide evidence that genetic variations in the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 are linked to the vulnerable phenotype. Therefore, we propose genetic variations in the AMPA receptor system to shape individual stress vulnerability. Those individual differences can be predicted by the assessment of short-term memory, thereby opening up the possibility for a specific treatment by enhancing AMPA receptor function.

  13. Radiolabeled adenoviral sub-unit proteins for molecular imaging and therapeutic applications in oncology

    Srivastava, Suresh C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Our group has initiated investigations on the use of radiolabeled adenoviral (Ad) sub-unit proteins for delivering suitable radionuclides into tumor cells for molecular imaging as well as for combined gene/radionuclide therapy of cancer. A number of issues involved in developing combined gene/radionuclide delivery into tumors mediated by Ad vectors have been identified and are being addressed. Whereas current clinical trials of gene therapy using Ad vectors involve non-systemic delivery of therapeutic genes, the delivery of radionuclides preferably would involve systemic (i.v.) administration. The distribution and delivery of Ad sub-unit proteins following i.v. administration is not understood and must be studied and optimized. In addition, retention of the selective binding and internalization into tumor cells of the radiolabeled viral vectors remains an unmet challenge. We used the intact adenovirus (Ad, ∼80 nm diameter), native adenoviral fiber protein (AdFP, 180 kD trimer, purified from infected human cultured cells) and the adenoviral fiber 'knob' protein (recombinant AdFKP, 60 kD, synthesized in E. Coli), all of which interact with the in-vivo cellular receptor, coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) through the knob domain of the adenovirus fiber protein. Our initial studies were aimed at optimizing the labeling conditions using I-131 and In-111 to maintain CAR binding activity of the radiolabeled preparations. The CAR-binding was retained as determined using reaction with biotinylated CAR followed by chemiluminescence detection. The biodistribution results in mice and rats following i.v. administration (autoradiography, tissue counting) showed that all three vectors localized preferentially in CAR-expressing organs (liver, lung, heart, kidney), as expected. The CAR-binding of Ad-2 wild serotype was better (∼8 x stronger) than Ad-12, in particular following radiolabeling. Based on the above results, we further focused on the recombinant knob

  14. The nematode homologue of Mediator complex subunit 28, F28F8.5, is a critical regulator of C. elegans development

    Markéta Kostrouchová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionarily conserved Mediator complex is a critical player in regulating transcription. Comprised of approximately two dozen proteins, the Mediator integrates diverse regulatory signals through direct protein-protein interactions that, in turn, modulate the influence of Mediator on RNA Polymerase II activity. One Mediator subunit, MED28, is known to interact with cytoplasmic structural proteins, providing a potential direct link between cytoplasmic dynamics and the control of gene transcription. Although identified in many animals and plants, MED28 is not present in yeast; no bona fide MED28 has been described previously in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we identify bioinformatically F28F8.5, an uncharacterized predicted protein, as the nematode homologue of MED28. As in other Metazoa, F28F8.5 has dual nuclear and cytoplasmic localization and plays critical roles in the regulation of development. F28F8.5 is a vital gene and its null mutants have severely malformed gonads and do not reproduce. F28F8.5 interacts on the protein level with the Mediator subunits MDT-6 and MDT-30. Our results indicate that F28F8.5 is an orthologue of MED28 and suggest that the potential to link cytoplasmic and nuclear events is conserved between MED28 vertebrate and nematode orthologues.

  15. Direct interaction of the inhibitory gamma-subunit of Rod cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6) with the PDE6 GAFa domains.

    Muradov, Khakim G; Granovsky, Alexey E; Schey, Kevin L; Artemyev, Nikolai O

    2002-03-26

    Retinal rod and cone cGMP phosphodiesterases (PDE6 family) function as the effector enzyme in the vertebrate visual transduction cascade. The activity of PDE6 catalytic subunits is controlled by the Pgamma-subunits. In addition to the inhibition of cGMP hydrolysis at the catalytic sites, Pgamma is known to stimulate a noncatalytic binding of cGMP to the regulatory GAFa-GAFb domains of PDE6. The latter role of Pgamma has been attributed to its polycationic region. To elucidate the structural basis for the regulation of cGMP binding to the GAF domains of PDE6, a photoexcitable peptide probe corresponding to the polycationic region of Pgamma, Pgamma-21-45, was specifically cross-linked to rod PDE6alphabeta. The site of Pgamma-21-45 cross-linking was localized to Met138Gly139 within the PDE6alpha GAFa domain using mass spectrometric analysis. Chimeras between PDE5 and cone PDE6alpha', containing GAFa and/or GAFb domains of PDE6alpha' have been generated to probe a potential role of the GAFb domains in binding to Pgamma. Analysis of the inhibition of the PDE5/PDE6alpha' chimeras by Pgamma supported the role of PDE6 GAFa but not GAFb domains in the interaction with Pgamma. Our results suggest that a direct binding of the polycationic region of Pgamma to the GAFa domains of PDE6 may lead to a stabilization of the noncatalytic cGMP-binding sites.

  16. The nematode homologue of Mediator complex subunit 28, F28F8.5, is a critical regulator of C. elegans development.

    Kostrouchová, Markéta; Kostrouch, David; Chughtai, Ahmed A; Kaššák, Filip; Novotný, Jan P; Kostrouchová, Veronika; Benda, Aleš; Krause, Michael W; Saudek, Vladimír; Kostrouchová, Marta; Kostrouch, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Mediator complex is a critical player in regulating transcription. Comprised of approximately two dozen proteins, the Mediator integrates diverse regulatory signals through direct protein-protein interactions that, in turn, modulate the influence of Mediator on RNA Polymerase II activity. One Mediator subunit, MED28, is known to interact with cytoplasmic structural proteins, providing a potential direct link between cytoplasmic dynamics and the control of gene transcription. Although identified in many animals and plants, MED28 is not present in yeast; no bona fide MED28 has been described previously in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we identify bioinformatically F28F8.5, an uncharacterized predicted protein, as the nematode homologue of MED28. As in other Metazoa, F28F8.5 has dual nuclear and cytoplasmic localization and plays critical roles in the regulation of development. F28F8.5 is a vital gene and its null mutants have severely malformed gonads and do not reproduce. F28F8.5 interacts on the protein level with the Mediator subunits MDT-6 and MDT-30. Our results indicate that F28F8.5 is an orthologue of MED28 and suggest that the potential to link cytoplasmic and nuclear events is conserved between MED28 vertebrate and nematode orthologues.

  17. Localization of pig Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase [alpha] and [beta] subunit genes to chromosome 4 by radioactive in situ hybridization

    Lahbib-Mansais, Y.; Yerle, M.; Dalens, M.; Chevalet, C.; Gellin, J. (Centre de Recherches de Toulouse (France))

    1993-01-01

    Two genes coding for Na[sup +],K[sup +] -ATPase [alpha] and [beta] subunits are localized on pig chromosome 4, to the q1.6[yields]q2.3 and 1.3[yields]q2.1 regions, respectively, by radioactive in situ hybridization. According to nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons with different human isoforms of Na[sup +] ,K[sup +]-ATPase, these pig [alpha] and [beta] ATPase genes show strong homologies with human [alpha]1 and [beta] subunit ATPase genes, respectively. These results are discussed with respect to comparative mapping data of conserved genes in mammalian species. We showed that the pig cDNA probes encoding ATPase [alpha] and, [beta] genes reveal DNA polymorphism in Meishan an Large White pigs. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Using turbocodes on optical links

    Glenn Claes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast evolving telecommunication world is permanently in search for faster and better communication links. On one hand, turbo codes are like a dream come true. Due to their amazing performance, they have become the reference in the word of error detecting and correcting codes. On the other hand, broadband transmission channels like optical fibres can meet the need for higher transmission velocity. In this paper therefore we will bring these two elements together and thus the performance of turbocodes on optical links will be studied. First the turbocode will be optimised throughout an individual analysis of each of its design parameters. Moreover it wil be shown that turbocodes have much better performance than the well known Reed-Solomon codes. Finally we will show that the 8Bit/10Bit code, which is required to comply with the Gigabit Ethernet standard, becomes superfluous when working with turbocodes. All tests were carried out on multimode graded-index glass fibres.

  19. Characterization and application of a radioimmunoassay for reduced, carboxymethylated human luteinizing hormone α-subunit

    Keutmann, H.T.; Beitins, I.Z.; Johnson, L.; McArthur, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have established a double antibody RIA using a rabbit antiserum prepared against reduced, carboxymethylated (RCXM) human LH α-subunit, with RCXM-α as tracer and standard. This antiserum did not cross-react with any native gonadotropins or subunit, and reacted only weakly with RCXM-α. A tryptic digest of RCXM α-subunit was completely reactive, while chymotryptic digestion abolished all immunoreactivity. By testing with separate tryptic fragments, the recognition site could be localized to a segment close to the amino-terminus of the peptide chain. When applied to measurement of serum and urine, an immunoreactive species, parallel to RCXM α-subunit by serial dilution, was found in concentrations of 1-2 ng/ml in serum and 3-4 ng/ml in urine. Similar levels of the immunoreactive component were found in conditions of elevated gonadotropins (e.g. pregnancy) as well as gonadotropin deficiency (panhypopituitarism and Kallmann's syndrome). After stimulation with LHRH, no rise was noted at times up to 6 h despite the fact that both LH and LH-α were elevated. The data indicate that the sequence-specific antiserum may be detecting an immunoreactive form of α-subunit of LH whose kinetics of appearance and disappearance differs from those of the native subunit

  20. The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of cholera toxin B subunit pentamer: Choleragenoid

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Maulik, P.R.; Reed, R.A.; Shipley, G. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine; Westbrook, E.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Scott, D.L.; Otwinowski, Z. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Cholera toxin, a heterohexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin released by Vibrio cholera, induces a profuse secretory diarrhea in susceptible hosts. Choleragenoid, the B subunit pentamer of cholera toxin, directs the enzymatic A subunit to its target by binding to GM{sub 1} gangliosides exposed on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells. We have solved the crystal structure of choleragenoid at 2.3 {Angstrom} resolution by combining single isomorphous replacement with non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The structure of the B subunits, and their pentameric arrangement, closely resembles that reported for the intact holotoxin (choleragen), the heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli, and for a choleragenoid-GM{sub 1} pentasaccharide complex. In the absence of the A subunit the central cavity of the B pentamer is a highly solvated channel. The binding of the A subunit or the receptor pentasaccharide to choleragenoid has only a modest effect on the local stereochemistry and does not perceptibly alter the subunit interface.

  1. Effect of glutenin subunits on the baking quality of Brazilian wheat genotypes

    Mariana Souza Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits on the grain traits of sixteen Brazilian wheat genotypes. Grain hardness index, milling traits, physicochemical and rheological properties of the flour, and specific volume and firmness of the bread were evaluated. Physicochemical properties of the flour were not influenced by glutenin subunits. Genotypes with subunits at the Glu-B1 (17+18 or 7+8, Glu-D1 (5+10, and Glu-A3 (b were associated with strong flours and bread with high specific volume and low firmness. The subunits at the Glu-A1 and Glu-B3 had no effect on the rheological properties of the dough and bread quality, while the subunit 2+12 at Glu-D1 negatively affected the resistance to extension, and specific volume and firmness of the bread. Specific volume and firmness of the bread were influenced by the rheological properties of the dough, while the flour protein content was not important to define wheat quality. The identification of glutenin subunits at different loci along with the rheological tests of the flour are fundamental in estimating the potential use of different materials developed in wheat breeding.

  2. A Supercluster of Neutralizing Epitopes at the Interface of Ricin’s Enzymatic (RTA and Binding (RTB Subunits

    Amanda Y. Poon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of an effort to engineer ricin antitoxins and immunotherapies, we previously produced and characterized a collection of phage-displayed, heavy chain-only antibodies (VHHs from alpacas that had been immunized with ricin antigens. In our initial screens, we identified nine VHHs directed against ricin toxin’s binding subunit (RTB, but only one, JIZ-B7, had toxin-neutralizing activity. Linking JIZ-B7 to different VHHs against ricin’s enzymatic subunit (RTA resulted in several bispecific antibodies with potent toxin-neutralizing activity in vitro and in vivo. JIZ-B7 may therefore be an integral component of a future VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA for ricin toxin. In this study, we now localize, using competitive ELISA, JIZ-B7’s epitope to a region of RTB’s domain 2 sandwiched between the high-affinity galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc-binding site and the boundary of a neutralizing hotspot on RTA known as cluster II. Analysis of additional RTB (n = 8- and holotoxin (n = 4-specific VHHs from a recent series of screens identified a “supercluster” of neutralizing epitopes at the RTA-RTB interface. Among the VHHs tested, toxin-neutralizing activity was most closely associated with epitope proximity to RTA, and not interference with RTB’s ability to engage Gal/GalNAc receptors. We conclude that JIZ-B7 is representative of a larger group of potent toxin-neutralizing antibodies, possibly including many described in the literature dating back several decades, that recognize tertiary and possibly quaternary epitopes located at the RTA-RTB interface and that target a region of vulnerability on ricin toxin.

  3. An Accurate Link Correlation Estimator for Improving Wireless Protocol Performance

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Xianghua; Dong, Wei; Bu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE) approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1) achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2) greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation. PMID:25686314

  4. A comparative study of myosin and its subunits in adult and neonatal-rat hearts and in rat heart cells from young and old cultures.

    Ghanbari, H A; McCarl, R L

    1980-01-01

    A possible explanation for the decrease in myosin Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity as rat heart cells age in culture is presented. The subunit structure and enzyme kinetics of myosin from adult and neonatal rat hearts and from rat heart cells of young and old cultures are compared. These studies indicate that the loss in Ca-ATPase activity of myosin from older cultures was an intrinsic property of the myosin itself. Myofibrillar fractions from the indicated four sources showed no qualitative or...

  5. Link til hjemmesider

    Bervild, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Link til læringsobjekter/undervisningsportalhttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/channel/10492641/charlotte-bervilds-undervisninghttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/video/8248508/3d-printer-v-lektor-charlotte-bervildFotoblog:http://charlottebervild.blogspot.dk/2008/10/fotocollager-af-charlotte-bervild.html......Link til læringsobjekter/undervisningsportalhttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/channel/10492641/charlotte-bervilds-undervisninghttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/video/8248508/3d-printer-v-lektor-charlotte-bervildFotoblog:http://charlottebervild.blogspot.dk/2008/10/fotocollager-af-charlotte-bervild.html...

  6. Early continuous white noise exposure alters l-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunit glutamate receptor 2 and gamma-aminobutyric acid type a receptor subunit beta3 protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Zhang, Jiping; Cai, Rui; Sun, Xinde

    2010-02-15

    Auditory experience during the postnatal critical period is essential for the normal maturation of auditory function. Previous studies have shown that rearing infant rat pups under conditions of continuous moderate-level noise delayed the emergence of adult-like topographic representational order and the refinement of response selectivity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) be