WorldWideScience

Sample records for linked practice implications

  1. Patients’ Online Access to Their Primary Care Electronic Health Records and Linked Online Services: Implications for Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda Mold

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Online access to medical records and linked services, including requesting repeat prescriptions and booking appointments, enables patients to personalize their access to care. However, online access creates opportunities and challenges for both health professionals and their patients, in practices and in research. The challenges for practice are the impact of online services on workload and the quality and safety of health care. Health professionals are concerned about the impact on workload, especially from email or other online enquiry systems, as well as risks to privacy. Patients report how online access provides a convenient means through which to access their health provider and may offer greater satisfaction if they get a timely response from a clinician. Online access and services may also result in unforeseen consequences and may change the nature of the patient-clinician interaction. Research challenges include: (1 Ensuring privacy, including how to control inappropriate carer and guardian access to medical records; (2 Whether online access to records improves patient safety and health outcomes; (3 Whether record access increases disparities across social classes and between genders; and (4 Improving efficiency. The challenges for practice are: (1 How to incorporate online access into clinical workflow; (2 The need for a business model to fund the additional time taken. Creating a sustainable business model for a safe, private, informative, more equitable online service is needed if online access to records is to be provided outside of pay-for-service systems.

  2. Linking research to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto-Correia, T.; Kristensen, L.

    2013-01-01

    , questions on the changes affecting the rural, addressed by society to the scientific community, are of a, new character and require novel research approaches. This paper argues that landscape based, approaches can be useful basis for the required conceptual innovation. The paper presents and, discusses...... a set of examples of practice driven research developments, in contrasting regions of Europe. And it proposes a conceptual model which aims to contextualize empirical research driven by, problems set up in practice, and combining the ecological and structural dimensions with the socioeconomic...

  3. [Linking learning theory with practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávalos-Carranza, María Teresa; Amador-Olvera, Eric; Zerón-Gutiérrez, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that it is easier to learn what is observed and practiced on a daily basis; to the need to effectively link theory with practice considered in the process of teaching and learning, many strategies have been developed to allow this process to be carried out in a more efficiently maner. It is, therefore, very important to recognize that an appropriate teacher/student relationship is essential for students to acquire the skills and abilities required.

  4. LINKING CSR TO STRATEGY: A PRACTICAL VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiatkiewicz Olgierd

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a basic compendium of how companies can integrate social responsibility into their strategies. The paper analyzes and synthesizes ideas and proposals based on the literature review from different fields. It proposes a practical approach that does not highlight the differences but the positive and mutual synergy of social responsibility with firm’s strategy. There are many practical proposals in the literature and a lot of successful examples from business practice that show how organizations can or have made the implementation of social responsibility into their strategy to work efficiently, but their strategic, social, and environmental importance differs and is limited by many factors. The paper presents different means of connecting social responsibility with organizational strategy to make it work, which can be useful for practitioners, students, and wider public. The paper adds the praxiological or practical perspective to deal with a small but persisting organizational problem and a great social expectation, how to link efficiently social responsibility with organizational strategy into one coherent stream of purposes.

  5. Linking performance incentives to ethical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudi FB

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Health spending is a huge part of the United States economy as it is a large business. We all have seen increasing inclusion of corporate practices in health care. One such inclusion is the incentive programs which have at their core the goal of production of the desired behavioral outcomes directly related either to performance output or extraordinary achievement. However, management influence on the organization’s ethical environment and culture can inadvertently encourage or endorse unethical behavior despite the best intentions. One way would be failing to link performance incentives to ethical practice. When leaders create strong incentives to accomplish a goal without creating equally strong incentives to adhere to ethical practice in achieving the desired goal, they effectively set the stage for ethical malpractice. Incentivizing ethical practice is equally important as incentivizing other behaviors (1. In the health care industry, unlike in the sales industry, professionalism and patient care are …

  6. Implications of Risk Management Practices on Financial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of Risk Management Practices on Financial Performance of Sugar ... The respondents were functional heads of the companies under the survey. ... of downside losses in order to minimize the negative impact of risk on returns.

  7. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J

    2016-01-01

    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. Practical implications of 'postmodern philosophy'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mile V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the implications of the discourse about postmodernity. Postmodernity is analyzed as a complex discursive figure. Within the discourse about postmodernity three levels are distinguished: the postmodern condition, postmodernism, and reflection of the postmodern condition. Special attention is paid to globalization and the problem of the enforcement of modern projects in East-European societies, particularly Serbia. These societies are termed object-societies, while their modification of modernity is called eastmodernity. The author's answer to the complexity of the postmodern condition is a conception of the politics of subsistence.

  9. The Cryptographic Implications of the LinkedIn Data Breach

    OpenAIRE

    Gune, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Data security and personal privacy are difficult to maintain in the Internet age. In 2012, professional networking site LinkedIn suffered a breach, compromising the login of over 100 million accounts. The passwords were cracked and sold online, exposing the authentication credentials millions of users. This manuscript dissects the cryptographic failures implicated in the breach, and explores more secure methods of storing passwords.

  10. Links between Conflict Management Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the implications of my research on conflict management for self improvement and for practitioners who work to improve the conflict management of others. I also note how my experiences with practitioners have informed my research.

  11. Conservation and Sustainable Development: Linking Practice and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Jan 1, 2012 ... Book cover Conservation and Sustainable Development: Linking ... to have an influence on conservation and natural resource management. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  12. Linking Theory with Practice in Basic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Archie B.

    1974-01-01

    Instructors of management in higher education have not been cautious in explaining the relation between practice and theory in their basic courses. The author distinguished between the two in suggesting that management theory is based on observed practices and may or may not have broader application. (AG)

  13. Conservation and Sustainable Development: Linking Practice and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2012 ... Nous finançons des chercheurs qui inspirent des changements mondiaux. Abonnez-vous · Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Désabonnez-vous · Plan du site. Suivez-nous; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube · Linked In · RSS Feed · Droits d'auteur · Éthique de la recherche · Politique de libre accès · Politique ...

  14. Teacher's experiences in PBL: implications for practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching practices in higher education. For data collection, the research method used was written narratives to these teachers, at the end of the PBL semester. Findings suggest that teachers express a positive view of PBL as a learning approach. They identify student motivation and engagement, along with a better understanding of the application of concepts in real-life situations, as important outcomes of the project for students. Besides this, teachers also highlight the importance of the development of transversal skills by students throughout the project. Recommendations for future work and implications for practice will also be discussed.

  15. Test equating, scaling, and linking methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to test equating, scaling, and linking, including those concepts and practical issues that are critical for developers and all other testing professionals.  In addition to statistical procedures, successful equating, scaling, and linking involves many aspects of testing, including procedures to develop tests, to administer and score tests, and to interpret scores earned on tests. Test equating methods are used with many standardized tests in education and psychology to ensure that scores from multiple test forms can be used interchangeably.  Test scaling is the process of developing score scales that are used when scores on standardized tests are reported. In test linking, scores from two or more tests are related to one another. Linking has received much recent attention, due largely to investigations of linking similarly named tests from different test publishers or tests constructed for different purposes. In recent years, researchers from the education, psychology, and...

  16. Process research on Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples: linking theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Paul S; Johnson, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this article is on the link among theory, process, and outcome in the practice of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples. We describe the EFT model of change and the EFT perspective on adult love as the reflection of underlying attachment processes. We outline the manner in which theory and research inform EFT interventions. This leads into a detailed review of the literature on the processes of change in EFT. We highlight the client responses and therapist operations that have emerged from process research and their relation to treatment outcomes. We discuss the implications of this body of research for clinical practice and training. © FPI, Inc.

  17. Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of translation in development contexts in Africa. ... Abstract. Drawing from Game Theory, the article conceptualises language practice as games, that is ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health. ... over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. ... Through policy and aggressive health education, traditional child rearing practices in ...

  19. Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

  20. Some practical implications of source term reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs

  1. Practical implications of neutron survey instrument performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, R. J.; Bartlett, D. T.; Hager, I. G.; Jones, I. N.; Molinos, C.; Roberts, N. J.; Taylor, G. C.; Thomas, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Improvements have been made to the Monte Carlo modelling used to calculate the response of the neutron survey instruments most commonly used in the UK, for neutron energies up to 20 MeV. The improved modelling of the devices includes the electronics and battery pack, allowing better calculations of both the energy and angle dependence of response. These data are used to calculate the response of the instruments in rotationally and fully isotropic, as well as unidirectional fields. Experimental measurements with radionuclide sources and monoenergetic neutron fields have been, and continue to be made, to test the calculated response characteristics. The enhancements to the calculations have involved simulation of the sensitivity of the response to variations in instrument manufacture, and will include the influence of the user and floor during measurements. The practical implications of the energy and angle dependence of response, variations in manufacture, and the influence of the user are assessed by folding the response characteristics with workplace energy and direction distributions. (authors)

  2. Practical implications of the new risk perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several authors have argued for the adoption of certain new types of risk perspectives which highlight uncertainties rather than probabilities in the way risk is understood and measured. The theoretical rationale for these new perspectives is well established, but the practical implications have not been so clearly demonstrated. There is a need to show how the new perspectives change the way risk is described and communicated in real-life situations and in its turn the effects on risk management and decision making. The present paper aims at contributing to this end by considering two cases, related to a national risk level, and a specific analysis concerning an LNG plant. The paper concludes that the new risk perspectives influence the current regime in many ways, in particular the manner in which the knowledge dimension is described and dealt with. Two methods for characterising the strength of knowledge are presented, one of them based on a new concept, the “assumption deviation risk”, reflecting risks related to the deviations from the conditions/states defined by the assumption made

  3. TEHORIES OF CONNECTIONS – PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS IN ACQUIRING MOTOR SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Milošević

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S, reaction and behavior and organism (R, i.e. particular learner (O. In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Supporters of the theories of connections treat behavior as a result of relations or associations, whereas learning occurs when these relations are strengthened by repetition or when new relations are formed. These theories are usually classified as theories of stimulus-reaction (S-R, whereas associating in this sense is used to stress the concept most theories usually agree upon: that learning consists of relations and link between stimuli (S-S, between stimuli and reactions (S-R, or between reaction and impulse (R-P. Well-known approaches within the theories of relations include classical Pavlov reflex, Guthry’s close conditioning, associating of Thorndyke, and Skinner’s efficient conditioning. Practical implications of these theories in acquiring motor skills are related to an active learner’s approach, significance of repetition – exercising, supporting, and rewarding correct answers, as well as strengthening a new behavior by imitation of a sample – modeling.

  4. Teacher's reading comprehension: Implication for teaching practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Benevides Soares

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A question of interest for educational workers is the reading comprehension process, a fundamental ability for progress in more advanced years of schooling, and its effect on pedagogical practices. This is a study that explores this question. A reading comprehension instrument composed by four structural levels of text and a scale of pedagogical practice composed by four sub-scales involving: cognitive practices with linguistic focus, cognitive practices, affective and motor practices, continuous education, was used. The results of 53 children suggest a slight tendency of teacher to prioritize cognitive practices independently of their reading comprehension level.

  5. The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour : A moderated mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfes, K.; Shantz, A.D.; Truss, C.; Soane, E.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to our understanding of the mediating and moderating processes through which human resource management (HRM) practices are linked with behavioural outcomes. We developed and tested a moderated mediation model linking perceived HRM practices to organisational citizenship

  6. Linking Research and Practice through Teacher Communities: A Place Where Formal and Practical Knowledge Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; Ormel, Bart J. B.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterises the links between research and practice across 12 projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities (TCs). Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants' roles and knowledge generated by the teacher community. Three patterns emerged pertaining…

  7. Linking research and practice through teacher communities: A place where formal and practical knowledge meet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Ormel, Bart; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke; Pieters, Jules

    2015-01-01

    This study characterizes the links between research and practice across twelve projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities. Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants’ roles, and knowledge generated by the teacher

  8. Implementing Comprehensive Reform: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the challenges and practical barriers community colleges face when implementing comprehensive reform, exploring how reforms are leading to some improvements but not often scaled improvements.

  9. Characterising Extrinsic Challenges Linked to the Design and Implementation of Inquiry-Based Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuma, Fru Vitalis; Callaghan, Ronel

    2017-11-01

    Inquiry-based science education has been incorporated in science curricula internationally. In this regard, however, many teachers encounter challenges. The challenges have been characterised into those linked to the personal characteristics of these teachers (intrinsic challenges) and others associated with contextual factors (extrinsic challenges). However, this level of characterisation is inadequate in terms of appreciating the complexity of the challenges, tracking of their development, and discovering knowledge within specific categories. Against this background, the purpose of the research presented here was to characterise extrinsic challenges linked to the design and implementation of inquiry-based practical work. In order to do so, we used a conceptual framework of teaching challenges based on Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of human development. The data gathered using a multi-method case study of practical work in two South African high schools, was analysed by combining the data-driven inductive approach and the deductive a priori template of codes approach in thematic analysis. On this basis, the extrinsic challenges linked to the design and implementation of inquiry-based practical work that participants are confronted with, were found to consist of macrosystem challenges (such as a restrictive curriculum) and microsystem challenges. At the latter level, the challenges are material-related (e.g., lack of science education equipment and materials) or non-material-related (such as time constraints and the lack of access to interactive computer simulations). We have discussed the theory-, practice- and research-based implications of these results in relation to the design and implementation of inquiry-based practical work in South Africa and internationally.

  10. Democratic Schooling in Norway: Implications for Leadership in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Jorunn

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the meaning of an education based on democratic values and the implications for school leadership in practice. Based on findings from a case study in a Norwegian upper secondary school, the study describes democratic school leadership in practice, with particular attention to the distribution of power and leadership in the…

  11. TECHNICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SHORT SELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BORES

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing insight into some of the implication of short selling for markets, investors as well as regulators. Findings show that capital flows are adversely affected by strict regulation and bans of short sales, while market liquidity, and bid-ask spread can be improved by allowing short selling. Additionally portfolios that incorporate short selling strategies can have lower volatility in returns. The informational content of short sales can provide important feedback for informed investors and lead to better price discovery.

  12. Medical Malpractice Implications of Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Douglas S; Siegal, Gil

    2017-08-01

    Clinical practice guidelines aim to improve medical care by clarifying and making useful recommendations to providers. Although providers should account for patients' unique characteristics when determining a treatment plan, it is generally perceived as good practice to follow guidelines when applicable. This is of interest in malpractice litigation, where it is essential to establish a standard of care to evaluate the performances of providers. Although the opinions of expert witnesses are used to determine standards of care, guidelines are expected to play a leading role. Guidelines alone should not establish a legal standard but may help inform this discussion in the courtroom. Therefore, it is incumbent that excellent, practical, and timely guidelines are continually created and updated in a transparent way. These guidelines must be very clear and underscore the various strengths of recommendation based on the quality of available evidence.

  13. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Mohankumar, Suresh K.; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports. PMID:26646896

  14. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Pretto

    Full Text Available Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall, higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  15. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  16. Stem cell terminology: practical, theological and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanner, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Stem cell policy discussions frequently confuse embryonic and fetal sources of stem cells, and label untested, non-reproductive cloning as "therapeutic." Such misnomers distract attention from significant practical and ethical implications: accelerated research agendas tend to be supported at the expense of physical risks to women, theological implications in a multi-faith community, informed consent for participation in research, and treatment decisions altered by unrealistic expectations.

  17. Contemporary marketing practice : theoretical propositions and practical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.; Palmer, R.; Vanhamme, J.

    2004-01-01

    Marketing has changed significantly since it first emerged as a distinct business and management phenomenon. We identify some of the major factors causing the observed change in marketing practice. We then describe a classification scheme that is based on transaction marketing and relationship

  18. Implications of radiation risk for practical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Radiobiological experiments with animals and cells have led to an expectation that the risks of cancer and hereditary effects are reduced at low doses and low dose rates of low LET radiation. Risk estimates derived from human exposures at high doses and dose rates usually contain an allowance for low dose effects in comparison with high dose effects, but no allowance may have been made for low dose rate effects. Although there are reasons for thinking that leukaemia risks may possibly have been underestimated, the total cancer risk assumed by ICRP for occupational exposures is reasonably realistic. For practical dosimetry the primary dose concepts and limits have to be translated into secondary quantities that are capable of practical realisation and measurement, and which will provide a stable and robust system of metrology. If the ICRP risk assumptions are approximately correct, it is extremely unlikely that epidemiological studies of occupational exposures will detect the influence of radiation. Elaboration of dosimetry and dose recording for epidemiological purposes is therefore unjustified except possibly in relation to differences between high and low LET radiations. (author)

  19. Reflective practice and its implications for pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-02-12

    Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.(1-2) Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student's own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education.

  20. Computed tomographic practice and dosimetry: implications for nuclear medicine: editorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.; Harding, L.K.

    1992-01-01

    This editorial briefly discusses the results of an NRPB survey of x-ray computed tomography practice and dosimetry in the UK. A wide variation in practice and patient doses was revealed. The implications for nuclear medicine are considered. The NRPB is to issue formal guidance on protection of the patient undergoing a CT investigation with the aim of achieving a more systematic approach to the justification and optimization of such exposures. (UK)

  1. Variability of CSF Alzheimer's disease biomarkers: implications for clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J B Vos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers are increasingly being used for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of CSF intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability on diagnostic CSF-based AD classification of subjects and identified causes of this variation. METHODS: We measured CSF amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42, total tau (t-tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau by INNOTEST enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA in a memory clinic population (n = 126. Samples were measured twice in a single or two laboratories that served as reference labs for CSF analyses in the Netherlands. Predefined cut-offs were used to classify CSF biomarkers as normal or abnormal/AD pattern. RESULTS: CSF intralaboratory variability was higher for Aβ1-42 than for t-tau and p-tau. Reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification (normal vs. abnormal of 26% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 10% based on t-tau, and 29% based on p-tau. The changes in absolute biomarker concentrations were paralleled by a similar change in levels of internal control samples between different assay lots. CSF interlaboratory variability was higher for p-tau than for Aβ1-42 and t-tau, and reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification of 12% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 1% based on t-tau, and 22% based on p-tau. CONCLUSIONS: Intralaboratory and interlaboratory CSF variability frequently led to change in diagnostic CSF-based AD classification for Aβ1-42 and p-tau. Lot-to-lot variation was a major cause of intralaboratory variability. This will have implications for the use of these biomarkers in clinical practice.

  2. Emergency department surge: models and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, Alan L; Khanna, Kajal

    2009-08-01

    Emergency Department crowding has long been described. Despite the daily challenges of managing emergency department volume and acuity; a surge response during a disaster entails even greater challenges including collaboration, intervention, and resourcefulness to effectively carry out pediatric disaster management. Understanding surge and how to respond with appropriate planning will lead to success. To achieve this, we sought to analyze models of surge; review regional and national data outlining surge challenges and factors that impact surge; and to outline potential solutions. We conducted a systemic review and included articles and documents that best described the theoretical and practical basis of surge response. We organized the systematic review according to the following questions: What are the elements and models that are delineated by the concept of surge? What is the basis for surge response based on regional and national published sources? What are the broad global solutions? What are the major lessons observed that will impact effective surge capacity? Multiple models of surge are described including public health, facility-based and community-based; a 6-tiered response system; and intrinsic or extrinsic surge capacity. In addition, essential components (4 S's of surge response) are described along with regional and national data outlining surge challenges, impacting factors, global solutions, and lesions observed. There are numerous shortcomings regionally and nationally affecting our ability to provide an effective and coordinated surge response. Planning, education, and training will lead to an effective pediatric disaster management response.

  3. Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Maternity Services: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenbatt, Anne; Greer, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article debates the issues involved in safeguarding and protecting children in maternity services and offers implications for professional practice. Midwives and other staff who work as members of the maternity team have a safeguarding role to play in the identification of babies and children who have been abused, or are at risk of abuse, and…

  4. Implications of teacher educators' practices in assessment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents findings on teacher educators' practices in assessment and their implications for student learning in Tanzania. Research on classroom assessment has been dichotomizing assessment and teaching-learning processes instead of viewing assessment as an integral part of the teachinglearning process.

  5. Global megatrends and their implications for environmental assessment practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Bond, Alan [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Morrison-Saunders, Angus [Murdoch University (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental, Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); King, Nicholas [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa)

    2016-11-15

    This paper addresses the future of environmental assessment (EA) practice in light of a rapidly changing world. We apply a literature review-based methodology to firstly identify key global megatrends and then reflect upon the implications for EA practice based on some known challenges. The key megatrends identified are synthesised into six categories: i) demographics, ii) urbanization, iii) technological innovation, iv) power shifts, v) resource scarcity and vi) climate change. We then discuss the implications of these megatrends for EA practice against four known EA challenges namely: dealing with i) complexity and uncertainty, ii) efficiency, iii) significance and iv) communication and participation. Our analysis suggests important implications for EA practice such as: increased difficulties with accuracy of prediction; the need for facilitative adaptation; an increase in the occurrence of unexpected events; higher expectations for procedural efficiency; challenges with information and communication management; dealing with significance judgements; and mitigation amidst resource scarcity and increasing pressures on earth systems. The megatrends underscore the need for continued evolution of EA thinking and practice, especially moving away from seeking a predictable single future or outcome towards the possibility of multiple scenarios with associated adaptability and enhanced system resilience capable of responding to rapid change.

  6. Global megatrends and their implications for environmental assessment practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retief, Francois; Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; King, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the future of environmental assessment (EA) practice in light of a rapidly changing world. We apply a literature review-based methodology to firstly identify key global megatrends and then reflect upon the implications for EA practice based on some known challenges. The key megatrends identified are synthesised into six categories: i) demographics, ii) urbanization, iii) technological innovation, iv) power shifts, v) resource scarcity and vi) climate change. We then discuss the implications of these megatrends for EA practice against four known EA challenges namely: dealing with i) complexity and uncertainty, ii) efficiency, iii) significance and iv) communication and participation. Our analysis suggests important implications for EA practice such as: increased difficulties with accuracy of prediction; the need for facilitative adaptation; an increase in the occurrence of unexpected events; higher expectations for procedural efficiency; challenges with information and communication management; dealing with significance judgements; and mitigation amidst resource scarcity and increasing pressures on earth systems. The megatrends underscore the need for continued evolution of EA thinking and practice, especially moving away from seeking a predictable single future or outcome towards the possibility of multiple scenarios with associated adaptability and enhanced system resilience capable of responding to rapid change.

  7. Informal Theory: The Ignored Link in Theory-to-Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Applying theory to practice in student affairs is dominated by the assumption that formal theory is directly applied to practice. Among the problems with this assumption is that many practitioners believe they must choose between their lived experiences and formal theory, and that graduate students are taught that their experience "does not…

  8. Practical application of thermoreversibly Cross-linked rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, L. M.; Picchioni, F.; de Ruiter, E.; van Duin, M.

    2017-07-01

    Currently, rubber products cannot simply be reprocessed after their product life, due to the irreversible cross-linking methods traditionally applied. The purpose of this work is to investigate how thermoreversible cross-linking of rubbers via Diels Alder chemistry can be used for the development of recyclable rubber products. Unfortunately, the applicability of the thermoreversible EPM-g-furan/BM system appears to be limited to room temperature applications, because of the rapid deterioration of the compression set at elevated temperatures compared to irreversibly cross-linked EPM. However, the use of EPM rubber modified with thiophene or cyclopentadiene moieties may extend the temperature application range and results in rubber products with acceptable properties. Finally, rubber products generally comprise fillers such as silica, carbon black or fibers. In this context, the reinforcing effect of short cut aramid fibers on the material properties of the newly developed thermoreversibly cross-linked EPM rubbers was also studied. The material properties of the resulting products were found to be comparable to those of a fiber reinforced, peroxide cured reference sample.

  9. Linking School and Work. Promising Practices from a National Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Harvey

    This book describes experimental demonstration programs in the United States on different ways to link school and work more meaningfully for disadvantaged teenagers. The programs are sponsored by Youthwork, Incorporated, a public-private partnership concerned with youth unemployment and the transition from school to work. The book provides…

  10. Resource depletion promotes automatic processing: implications for distribution of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H

    2010-12-01

    Recent models of cognition include two processing systems: an automatic system that relies on associative learning, intuition, and heuristics, and a controlled system that relies on deliberate consideration. Automatic processing requires fewer resources and is more likely when resources are depleted. This study showed that prolonged practice on a resource-depleting mental arithmetic task promoted automatic processing on a subsequent problem-solving task, as evidenced by faster responding and more errors. Distribution of practice effects (0, 60, 120, or 180 sec. between problems) on rigidity also disappeared when groups had equal time on resource-depleting tasks. These results suggest that distribution of practice effects is reducible to resource availability. The discussion includes implications for interpreting discrepancies in the traditional distribution of practice effect.

  11. Exploring accountability of clinical ethics consultants: practice and training implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Kathryn L; Daly, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Clinical ethics consultants represent a multidisciplinary group of scholars and practitioners with varied training backgrounds, who are integrated into a medical environment to assist in the provision of ethically supportable care. Little has been written about the degree to which such consultants are accountable for the patient care outcome of the advice given. We propose a model for examining degrees of internally motivated accountability that range from restricted to unbounded accountability, and support balanced accountability as a goal for practice. Finally, we explore implications of this model for training of clinical ethics consultants from diverse academic backgrounds, including those disciplines that do not have a formal code of ethics relating to clinical practice.

  12. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavner, S B

    1989-01-01

    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  13. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Gunn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and reporting. The use of learning design as a strategy to develop and test theories in practice is integral to our argument. We conclude by supporting other researchers who recommend educational design research as a theory focused methodology to move the field forward in productive and consistent ways. The challenge of changing common practice will be involved. However, the potential to raise the profile of learning technology research and improve educational outcomes justifies the effort required.

  14. Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergin Michael

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O’Malley’s framework (1. Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted.

  15. Linking Theory to Practice in Learning Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Cathy; Steel, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only…

  16. Medicine as a Community of Practice: Implications for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Steinert, Yvonne

    2018-02-01

    The presence of a variety of independent learning theories makes it difficult for medical educators to construct a comprehensive theoretical framework for medical education, resulting in numerous and often unrelated curricular, instructional, and assessment practices. Linked with an understanding of identity formation, the concept of communities of practice could provide such a framework, emphasizing the social nature of learning. Individuals wish to join the community, moving from legitimate peripheral to full participation, acquiring the identity of community members and accepting the community's norms.Having communities of practice as the theoretical basis of medical education does not diminish the value of other learning theories. Communities of practice can serve as the foundational theory, and other theories can provide a theoretical basis for the multiple educational activities that take place within the community, thus helping create an integrated theoretical approach.Communities of practice can guide the development of interventions to make medical education more effective and can help both learners and educators better cope with medical education's complexity. An initial step is to acknowledge the potential of communities of practice as the foundational theory. Educational initiatives that could result from this approach include adding communities of practice to the cognitive base; actively engaging students in joining the community; creating a welcoming community; expanding the emphasis on explicitly addressing role modeling, mentoring, experiential learning, and reflection; providing faculty development to support the program; and recognizing the necessity to chart progress toward membership in the community.

  17. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Marisela

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.

  18. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    OpenAIRE

    Cathy Gunn; Caroline Steel

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and repor...

  19. TEHORIES OF CONNECTIONS – PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS IN ACQUIRING MOTOR SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Milošević

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S, reaction and behavior and organism (R, i.e. particular learner (O. In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Well-known approaches within the theories of relations include classical Pavlov reflex, Guthry’s close conditioning, associating of Thorndyke, and Skinner’s efficient conditioning. Practical implications of these theories in acquiring motor skills are related to an active learner’s approach, significance of repetition – exercising, supporting, and rewarding correct answers, as well as strengthening a new behavior by imitation of a sample – modeling.

  20. Evolutionary adaptations: theoretical and practical implications for visual ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostervold, Knut Inge; Watten, Reidulf G; Volden, Frode

    2014-01-01

    The literature discussing visual ergonomics often mention that human vision is adapted to light emitted by the sun. However, theoretical and practical implications of this viewpoint is seldom discussed or taken into account. The paper discusses some of the main theoretical implications of an evolutionary approach to visual ergonomics. Based on interactional theory and ideas from ecological psychology an evolutionary stress model is proposed as a theoretical framework for future research in ergonomics and human factors. The model stresses the importance of developing work environments that fits with our evolutionary adaptations. In accordance with evolutionary psychology, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) and evolutionarily-novel environments (EN) are used as key concepts. Using work with visual display units (VDU) as an example, the paper discusses how this knowledge can be utilized in an ergonomic analysis of risk factors in the work environment. The paper emphasises the importance of incorporating evolutionary theory in the field of ergonomics. Further, the paper encourages scientific practices that further our understanding of any phenomena beyond the borders of traditional proximal explanations.

  1. Linking Strategy-As-Practice Knowledge and Multi-Stakeholder Brand Meaning Co-Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallaster, Christine; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt a strategy-as-practice perspective and establish a link to the practices of brand meaning cocreation. We contribute empirical insights gained in the context of a small, non-commercial institution. The results show that brand meaning co-creation is a fluid, social phenomenon...

  2. Leading Change in Tissue Viability Best Practice: An Action Learning Programme for Link Nurse Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, Jean; Henderson, Eileen; Milsom, Brian; Crawley, Hayley

    2010-01-01

    This account of practice reports on an action learning initiative designed and implemented in partnership between a regional NHS Acute Trust and a UK Business School. The central initiative was the implementation of an action learning programme entitled "Leading change in tissue viability best practice: a development programme for Link Nurse…

  3. Practices and discourses of ubuntu: Implications for an African model of disability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Berghs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Southern African scholars and activists working in disability studies have argued that ubuntu or unhu is a part of their world view. Objectives: Thinking seriously about ubuntu, as a shared collective humanness or social ethics, means to examine how Africans have framed a struggle for this shared humanity in terms of decolonisation and activism. Method: Three examples of applications of ubuntu are given, with two mainly linked to making explicit umaka. Firstly, ubuntu is linked to making visible the invisible inequalities for a common humanity in South Africa. Secondly, it becomes correlated to the expression of environmental justice in West and East African countries. Results: An African model of disability that encapsulates ubuntu is correlated to how Africans have illustrated a social ethics of a common humanity in their grassroots struggles against oppression and disablement in the 20th century. Ubuntu also locates disability politically within the wider environment and practices of sustainability which are now important to the post-2105 agenda, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD and the (UN Sustainable Development Goals linked to climate change. Conclusion: A different kind of political action linked to social justice seems to be evolving in line with ubuntu. This has implications for the future of disability studies.

  4. Practices and discourses of ubuntu: Implications for an African model of disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghs, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Southern African scholars and activists working in disability studies have argued that ubuntu or unhu is a part of their world view. Thinking seriously about ubuntu, as a shared collective humanness or social ethics, means to examine how Africans have framed a struggle for this shared humanity in terms of decolonisation and activism. Three examples of applications of ubuntu are given, with two mainly linked to making explicit umaka. Firstly, ubuntu is linked to making visible the invisible inequalities for a common humanity in South Africa. Secondly, it becomes correlated to the expression of environmental justice in West and East African countries. An African model of disability that encapsulates ubuntu is correlated to how Africans have illustrated a social ethics of a common humanity in their grassroots struggles against oppression and disablement in the 20th century. Ubuntu also locates disability politically within the wider environment and practices of sustainability which are now important to the post-2105 agenda, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and the (UN) Sustainable Development Goals linked to climate change. A different kind of political action linked to social justice seems to be evolving in line with ubuntu . This has implications for the future of disability studies.

  5. Nursing intellectual capital theory: implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-05-31

    Due to rising costs of healthcare, determining how registered nurses and knowledge resources influence the quality of patient care is critical. Studies that have investigated the relationship between nursing knowledge and outcomes have been plagued with conceptual and methodological issues. This has resulted in limited empirical evidence of the impact of nursing knowledge on patient or organizational outcomes. The nursing intellectual capital theory was developed to assist with this area of inquiry. Nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes the sources of nursing knowledge available within an organization and delineates its relationship to patient and organizational outcomes. In this article, we review the nursing intellectual capital theory and discuss its implications for research and practice. We explain why the theory shows promise for guiding research on quality work environments and how it may assist with administrative decision-making related to nursing human resource management and continuing professional development.

  6. Employment of people with disabilities: Implications for HR management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, firstly, present the findings of an empirical study in which the human resource management practices associated with the employment of people with disabilities were investigated. The human resource management challenges related to employment of people with disabilities were also identified in the empirical study and are presented in this paper. A further purpose of this paper is to propose a number of recommendations focused on human resource management practices and principles aimed at assisting managers and human resource management specialists in their endeavours to effectively deal with the employment of people with disabilities. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper is based on an empirical study in which interviews were conducted with respondents from 19 different organisations identified in the Financial Mail's 'Top 100 Organisations in South Africa' list. Findings: The findings from the empirical study suggest that very few organisations are dealing with the employment of people with disabilities as a priority in their equity strategies. Where attention is being given to this issue, respondents seem to either address it as a legal compliance issue or a social responsibility 'project'. Furthermore, very little has been done to review current human resource management practices to determine whether they are discriminatory towards people with disabilities. Based on the insights gained from these findings and in line with best practice principles identified in the relevant literature, a number of recommendations focusing on human resource management practices and principles in relation to the employment of people with disabilities are proposed. Implications: This paper provides a number of practical steps to consider as part of an organisation's response to equity strategies related to the employment of people with disabilities. Originality/Value: In the Employment Equity Commission's Annual Report

  7. Dewey's Link with Daoism: Ideals of Nature, Cultivation Practices, and Applications in Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Wilma J.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the pedagogical implications of John Dewey's claim that his definition of experience is shared by Daoists. It compares characteristics of experience with those in Daoism, and then considers the similarities and differences between key cultivation practices each proposes, focusing on the roles of the teacher and sage. My main…

  8. Learning Patterns in Music Practice: Links between Disposition, Practice Strategies and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    StGeorge, Jennifer Mary; Holbrook, Allyson Patricia; Cantwell, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Research into musical practice has over recent decades focused on the technical and organisational strategies employed by novices and experts. What has been less studied are the background factors or influences on the quality of this music practice. Drawing on interview data collected from 66 children and adults from a mixed methods project, we…

  9. Development of a Causal Framework linking High Perofrmance HRM Practices, Positive Psychological Capital, Creative Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vishal

    2013-01-01

    Synthesizing the ideas of high-performance Human Resource Management (HRM), positive psychological capital, and componential theory of creativity, the present study develops a multi-level causal framework linking high-performance work practices (HPWP), positive psychological capital, employee creative performance behaviors and creative performance. The paper argues that to provide a convincing explanation of the association between HRM practices and creativity, we need to improve our theoreti...

  10. Linking science and decision making to promote an ecology for the city: practices and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Grove; Daniel L. Childers; Michael Galvin; Sarah J. Hines; Tischa Munoz-Erickson; Erika S. Svendsen

    2016-01-01

    To promote urban sustainability and resilience, there is an increasing demand for actionable science that links science and decision making based on social–ecological knowledge. Approaches, frameworks, and practices for such actionable science are needed and have only begun to emerge. We propose that approaches based on the co- design and co- production of knowledge...

  11. Re-wilding Europe's traditional agricultural landscapes: Values and the link between science and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2014-01-01

    Landscape and Urban Planning encourages multiple perspectives and approaches to help understand landscapes as social-ecological systems, with the goal that by building a robust science of landscape we can provide sustainable solutions for guiding its change. But the link between science and practice, or more simply put, between knowledge and action, is not always clear...

  12. A systematic review on the neural effects of music on emotion regulation: implications for music therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kimberly Sena

    2013-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is an internal process through which a person maintains a comfortable state of arousal by modulating one or more aspects of emotion. The neural correlates underlying ER suggest an interplay between cognitive control areas and areas involved in emotional reactivity. Although some studies have suggested that music may be a useful tool in ER, few studies have examined the links between music perception/production and the neural mechanisms that underlie ER and resulting implications for clinical music therapy treatment. Objectives of this systematic review were to explore and synthesize what is known about how music and music experiences impact neural structures implicated in ER, and to consider clinical implications of these findings for structuring music stimuli to facilitate ER. A comprehensive electronic database search resulted in 50 studies that met predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pertinent data related to the objective were extracted and study outcomes were analyzed and compared for trends and common findings. Results indicated there are certain music characteristics and experiences that produce desired and undesired neural activation patterns implicated in ER. Desired activation patterns occurred when listening to preferred and familiar music, when singing, and (in musicians) when improvising; undesired activation patterns arose when introducing complexity, dissonance, and unexpected musical events. Furthermore, the connection between music-influenced changes in attention and its link to ER was explored. Implications for music therapy practice are discussed and preliminary guidelines for how to use music to facilitate ER are shared.

  13. Contracting for safety with patients: clinical practice and forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Keelin A; Penn, Joseph V; Campbell, Angela L; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The contract for safety is a procedure used in the management of suicidal patients and has significant patient care, risk management, and medicolegal implications. We conducted a literature review to assess empirical support for this procedure and reviewed legal cases in which this practice was employed, to examine its effect on outcome. Studies obtained from a PubMed search were reviewed and consisted mainly of opinion-based surveys of clinicians and patients and retrospective reviews. Overall, empirically based evidence to support the use of the contract for safety in any population is very limited, particularly in adolescent populations. A legal review revealed that contracting for safety is never enough to protect against legal liability and may lead to adverse consequences for the clinician and the patient. Contracts should be considered for use only in patients who are deemed capable of giving informed consent and, even in these circumstances, should be used with caution. A contract should never replace a thorough assessment of a patient's suicide risk factors. Further empirical research is needed to determine whether contracting for safety merits consideration as a future component of the suicide risk assessment.

  14. Interactions In Online Education Implications For Theory & Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askim KURT

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Charles Juwah, Senior EducationDevelopment Officer at Robert Gordon University, where heruns the postgraduate learning and teaching qualificationcourse. It was published by Routledge in 2006.Interaction is very important in open and flexible learning,and apparent at all levels of engagement, whether betweenstudents, students and tutors, online learning materials orinterfacing with the learning environment. A student whoactively engages with learning materials, interactions helpto improve learning by fortifying knowledge and providingcontext, encouraging reflection, questioning and deeplyunderstanding of a subject.This book provides international perspectives on key topics including analyzing and designing e-learning interactions, social and conceptual dimensions of learning, interactions in online discussions, interactions in pair learning, and professional development of online facilitators. In this book a collection of research and innovative case material drawn from practitioners and academicians and it covers the theory and the practical implications of related issues. It is essential reading for all those involved in the design,implementation, management and use of open and flexible learning.

  15. Cognitive load theory: Practical implications and an important challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmie Leppink, Ph.D.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The field of medical education has adopted a wide variety of theories from other fields. A fairly recent example is cognitive load theory, which originated in educational psychology. Several empirical studies inspired by cognitive load theory and reviews of practical implications of cognitive load theory have contributed to guidelines for the design of medical education. Simultaneously, several research groups have developed instruments for the measurement of cognitive load in a medical education context. These developments notwithstanding, obtaining evidence for different types of cognitive load remains an important challenge. Therefore, the aim of this article is twofold: to provide medical educators with three key guidelines for the design of instruction and assessment and to discuss several fundamental issues in the remaining challenges presented by different types of cognitive load. The guidelines revolve around minimizing cognitive activity that does not contribute to learning, working with specific learning goals in mind, and appreciating the multifaceted relation between learning and assessment. Key issues around the types of cognitive load include the context in which learning occurs, the continued use of single-item mental effort ratings, and the timing of cognitive load and learning outcome measurements.

  16. Practical implications of pre-employment nurse assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthy, James E; Ramon, Cheree; Gonzalez, Ronald; Biddle, Dan A

    2013-01-01

    Hiring nurses is a difficult task that can have serious repercussions for medical facilities. If nurses without proper skills are hired, patients can suffer from insufficient quality of care and potentially life-threatening conditions. Nurse applicants' technical knowledge is extremely important to avoid negative outcomes; however, there are soft skills that factor into their success, such as bedside manner, personality, communication, and decision making. In order for medical facilities to select and maintain high-performing nurse staff, hiring managers must incorporate evaluations for these types of skills in their hiring process. The current study focused on using content/criterion-related validation design to create assessments by which nurse applicants can be evaluated for both technical knowledge/skills and soft skills. The study included participation of more than 876 nursing staff members. To rank applicants on divergent skills, 3 assessment types were investigated, resulting in the creation of an assessment with 3 components. The clinical, situational, and behavioral components that were created measure applicants' job knowledge, interpersonal competency in medical facility-related situations, and aspects of personality and behavior, respectively. Results indicate that using the assessment can predict 45% of a nurse applicant's future job performance. Practical implications include hiring and maintaining a higher quality of nurses and decreased hiring costs.

  17. Linking energy efficiency and innovation practices: Empirical evidence from the foundry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, Enrico; Ramirez-Portilla, Andres; Trianni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The Europe 2020 strategy currently promotes energy efficiency and innovation through disconnected targets focusing on either energy or R&D. Similar policies indicate that in practice, these two concepts are usually perceived as mutually exclusive. Furthermore, evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between R&D and energy efficiency is still highly limited. This exploratory study aims to address this gap by investigating the link between innovation practices and energy efficiency through a multiple case study of 30 foundries in Northern Italy. We analysed the firms' innovativeness, measured by internal R&D and Open Innovation practices (inbound and outbound), and energy efficiency, measured by specific energy consumption, level of adoption of energy-efficient technologies and barriers to energy efficiency. The results seem to show that those foundries complementing internal R&D with inbound practices have a higher level of energy efficiency, a higher level of adoption of available technologies, and a lower perception of barriers to efficiency improvements. This finding suggests that diversifying innovation practices could lead to better performance with respect to all three indicators of energy efficiency analysed. This study contributes to understanding how more innovative firms can be more energy efficient, providing interesting highlights for managers and policymakers. -- Highlights: •The relation between innovation practices and energy efficiency is articulated. •The link between innovation practices and energy efficiency is tested for foundries. •Energy efficiency is measured with three different indicators. •Analyses of the relations between these indicators support the link with innovation. •Concurrent adoption of internal R&D and inbound practices leads to higher efficiency

  18. How countries link REDD+ interventions to drivers in their readiness plans: implications for monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini, G; Herold, M; De Sy, V; Kissinger, G; Brockhaus, M; Skutsch, M

    2014-01-01

    Countries participating in the REDD+ scheme are in the readiness phase, designing policy interventions to address drivers of deforestation and forest degradation (DD). In order for REDD+ interventions to be effective, it is essential that they take into account the specific drivers that they aim to address. Moreover it is crucial to design systems that monitor the effectiveness of the planned interventions. In this article we provide a comprehensive and comparative assessment of interventions proposed by 43 REDD+ countries in 98 readiness documents. We summarize the types of interventions and assess if they are formulated referring to the drivers of DD that they are aiming to address. Based on this assessment we consider the implications for systems for monitoring effectiveness of proposed interventions. Most countries reviewed link proposed interventions to specific drivers of DD. The majority of the countries making this link have better driver data quality, in particularly those that present their data in ratio or ordinal terms. Proposed interventions focus not only on activities to reduce deforestation, but also on other forest related REDD+ activities such as sustainable forest management, which reduce forest degradation and enhance forest stocks. Moreover, driver-specific interventions often relate to drivers not only inside but also outside the forest sector. Hence we suggest that monitoring systems need to assess not only deforestation rates through remote sensing, but also degradation and other carbon stock changes within the forest, using more detailed ground level surveys and measurements. In addition, the performance of interventions outside the forest need to be monitored, even if the impacts of these cannot be linked to specific changes in forest carbon stock in specific locations. (paper)

  19. Nurses' but not supervisors' safety practices are linked with job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, David A; Kim, Seung-Sup; Subramanian, S V; Dennerlein, Jack T; Christiani, David C; Hashimoto, Dean M; Sorensen, Glorian

    2017-10-01

    To test the associations of safety practices as reported by nurses and their respective unit supervisors with job satisfaction. Psychosocial workplace factors are associated with job satisfaction; however, it is unknown whether nurses and supervisors accounts of safety practices are differentially linked to this outcome. Cross-sectional study design including nurses (n = 1052) nested in 94 units in two hospitals in Boston (MA, USA). Safety practices refer to the identification and control of occupational hazards at the unit. Safety practices were measured aggregating nurses' responses per unit, and supervisory levels. Individual's job satisfaction for each nurse was the response variable. Supervisors assessed safety practices more favourably than their unit nursing staff. Adjusted random intercept logistic regressions showed that the odds of higher job satisfaction were higher for nurses at units with better safety practices (OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.68) compared with nurses at units that averaged lower safety practices. Supervisors' reports of safety practices were not correlated with the job satisfaction of their staff. Adequate safety practices might be a relevant managerial role that enhances job satisfaction among nurses. Nursing supervisors should calibrate their safety assessments with their nursing staff to improve nurses' job satisfaction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Profiles of Maternal Parenting Practices: Exploring the Link With Maternal Delinquency, Offending, Mental Health, and Children's Physical Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-11-01

    Studies have often linked parenting to children's subsequent antisocial behavior; however, the circumstances under which this might occur are less clear. The current study explores patterns in mothers' parenting practices, and associated correlates including maternal delinquency and offending, mental health, and children's physical aggression. This study is based on the first wave of the ongoing Vancouver Longitudinal Study; the objective of this prospective study is to identify the early risk and protective factors for aggression and violence from the earliest developmental periods. Parenting practices of 287 mothers with preschoolers are examined using a series of latent class analyses. Three different patterns of parenting emerged: Positive, Negative, and Intermittent. Patterns identified are associated with several key criminogenic, socio-demographic, historical, and developmental factors including current maternal adult offending, mothers' mental health, ethnicity, and frequency of children's physical aggression. Importantly, mothers who show parenting in line with the more negative classes also rely on a number of positive practices. Implications of the study suggest that parenting is influenced by mothers' immediate situations and contexts (e.g., current offending rather that past delinquency), which can be targeted for intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Mapping patterns of change in emotion-focused psychotherapy: Implications for theory, research, practice, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2018-05-01

    An important objective in humanistic-experiential psychotherapies and particularly emotion-focused psychotherapy (EFT) is to map patterns of change. Effective mapping of the processes and pathways of change requires that in-session processes be linked to in-session resolutions, immediate post-session changes, intermediate outcome, final therapy outcome, and longer-term change. This is a challenging and long-term endeavour. Fine-grained descriptions of in-session processes that lead to resolution of specific interpersonal and intrapersonal issues linked with longer-term outcomes are the foundation of EFT, the process-experiential approach. In this paper, evidence in support of EFT as a treatment approach will be reviewed along with research on two mechanisms of change, viewed as central to EFT, clients' emotional processing and the therapeutic relationship conditions. The implications for psychotherapy research are discussed. Given the methodological constraints, there is a need for more innovative methodologies and strategies to investigate specific psychotherapy processes within and across different approaches to map patterns and mechanisms of change to enhance theory, research, practice, and training.

  2. Links between maternal feeding practices and children's eating difficulties. Validation of French tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigal, Natalie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2012-04-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to validate measures of young children's eating difficulties and maternal feeding practices in a French sample, as well as to assess the links between these practices and children's eating difficulties. Mothers (n=502) of French children aged 20-36 months completed four questionnaires that were validated using a Structural Equation Modelling approach. Links between children and maternal components were investigated using a PLS regression. The Children's Eating Difficulties Questionnaire yielded a 4-dimension solution: Neophobia, Pickiness, Low Appetite and Low Enjoyment in food. The Feeding Style Questionnaire assessed three dimensions: Authoritarian, Authoritative and Permissive Styles. The Feeding Strategy Questionnaire, designed to evaluate strategies used by mothers to make their child taste rejected foods, resulted in four factors: Coercion, Explanation, Contingency and Preference. The Questionnaire relating to Parental Motivations when buying food for children presented a 6-dimension solution: Convenience, Weight-control, Natural, Health-concern, Preference and Price. The factors associated positively with the four dimensions of the Children's Eating Difficulties Questionnaire were on the one hand Permissive Style and Practices to fulfil child's desires, and on the other hand Authoritarian Style, Contingent and Coercive Practices aimed at forcing children to taste rejected foods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do financial incentives linked to ownership of specialty hospitals affect physicians' practice patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jean M

    2008-07-01

    Although physician-owned specialty hospitals have become increasingly prevalent in recent years, little research has examined whether the financial incentives linked to ownership influence physicians' referral rates for services performed at the specialty hospital. We compared the practice patterns of physician owners of specialty hospitals in Oklahoma, before and after ownership, to the practice patterns of physician nonowners who treated similar cases over the same time period in Oklahoma markets without physician-owned specialty hospitals. We constructed episodes of care for injured workers with a primary diagnosis of back/spine disorders. We used pre-post comparisons and difference-in-differences analysis to evaluate changes in practice patterns for physician owners and nonowners over the time period spanned by the entry of the specialty hospital. Findings suggest the introduction of financial incentives linked to ownership coincided with a significant change in the practice patterns of physician owners, whereas such changes were not evident among physician nonowners. After physicians established ownership interests in a specialty hospital, the frequency of use of surgery, diagnostic, and ancillary services used in the treatment of injured workers with back/spine disorders increased significantly. Physician ownership of specialty hospitals altered the frequency of use for an array of procedures rendered to patients treated at these hospitals. Given the growth in physician-owned specialty hospitals, these findings suggest that health care expenditures will be substantially greater for patients treated at these institutions relative to persons who obtain care from nonself-referral providers.

  4. A systems approach identifies networks and genes linking sleep and stress: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Scarpa, Joseph R; Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Losic, Bojan; Gao, Vance D; Hao, Ke; Summa, Keith C; Yang, He S; Zhang, Bin; Allada, Ravi; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Kasarskis, Andrew

    2015-05-05

    Sleep dysfunction and stress susceptibility are comorbid complex traits that often precede and predispose patients to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we demonstrate multilevel organizations of genetic landscape, candidate genes, and molecular networks associated with 328 stress and sleep traits in a chronically stressed population of 338 (C57BL/6J × A/J) F2 mice. We constructed striatal gene co-expression networks, revealing functionally and cell-type-specific gene co-regulations important for stress and sleep. Using a composite ranking system, we identified network modules most relevant for 15 independent phenotypic categories, highlighting a mitochondria/synaptic module that links sleep and stress. The key network regulators of this module are overrepresented with genes implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Our work suggests that the interplay among sleep, stress, and neuropathology emerges from genetic influences on gene expression and their collective organization through complex molecular networks, providing a framework for interrogating the mechanisms underlying sleep, stress susceptibility, and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Corporate social responsibility practice of Malaysian public listed government-linked companies: A dimensional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boon Keong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the corporate social responsibility (CSR practices of the Malaysian public-listed government-linked companies (GLCs using a dimensional analysis. Four dimensions of CSR activities, namely community, employees, environment and governance, are investigated to study the latest CSR practice of GLCs in year 2016. Each dimension is divided into three subcategories to further examine the performance of GLCs on a particular CSR area. This is the first paper in Malaysia which uses CSR ratings (obtained from CSRHub database to proxy for CSR practice. None of the past literature has been found to adopt this approach. The findings show that Malay-sian public-listed GLCs performed better in community, employees and environment dimensions, whilst tend to underperform in governance dimension.

  6. SLT Beliefs about Collaborative Practice: Implications for Education and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Suzanne; Radford, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Effective collaborative practice is expected of newly qualified speech and language therapists (SLTs) in order to achieve the best outcomes for clients. Research into collaborative practice has identified a number of barriers to and facilitators of collaborative practice, but there has been limited research into how well prepared newly qualified…

  7. The role of depression and dissociation in the link between childhood sexual abuse and later parental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Cyr, Mireille; Pauzé, Robert; McDuff, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Research has yielded contradictory results on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and later parental functioning. This study was undertaken to specify the link between childhood sexual abuse and maternal parenting, while taking into account mothers' childhood physical and emotional traumas and current depressive and dissociative symptoms. Data were collected through self-report measures completed by 93 French-speaking Canadian mothers of children aged 6 to 11 years referred to Youth Protection Services. Parental behaviors examined included involvement with the child, use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Mothers' perception of the quality of the relationship with her child was also assessed. In addition, history of abuse and neglect, depression and dissociation were respectively measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Simplified, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The short-form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale was used to control for respondent bias aimed at minimizing their problems. Mothers' current depressive symptoms were not found to predict any of the parental dimensions measured. Results from multiple hierarchical regressions pointed to dissociative symptoms as the key predictor of parental practices and attitudes. More specifically, dissociative symptoms predicted the use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Dissociation also mediated the association between childhood maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse and neglect) and inconsistency in applying discipline. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. Public health implications of post-harvest fish handling practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide range of handling practices for harvested fish exists and they have economic as well as public health implications. This paper is a review of the existing problems in fish handling technologies at post-harvest in Nigeria. The public health aspects with the associated implications are highlighted. Status of policy on fish ...

  9. Using LinkedIn for Continuing Community of Practice Among Hand Surgeons Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chaoyan; Cheema, Mubashir; Samarasekera, Dujeepa; Rajaratnam, Vaikunthan

    2015-01-01

    Hand surgeons need continuing professional development due to rapid advancement in the field. Traditional approaches have proven to be challenging due to the nature of surgical practice and other demands. Social media sites have shown the potential to build an online community of practice. One of the authors (VR) started Hand Surgery International on LinkedIn in February 2011. The number of members increased from 38 in the beginning to 4106 members by August 13, 2015, with members from all over the world. Half of them are from plastic surgery, with 16.8% hand and 17.8% orthopedic surgery; 63.8% of them are consultants. There were 151 discussion topics, which generated 1238 comments at an average of 8.2 comments per discussion thread. The topics focused on management of difficult patients, seeking consensus, and searching information. The features participants found most useful included case-based discussion, polls/surveys, and network opportunity. Members perceived the LinkedIn community as user-friendly and easy to use. It does not require significant technical knowledge. For the question "How would you rate the overall ease of using this platform?" 42% answered "strongly agree" and 37% "agree". The LinkedIn group serves as an effective means for continuing professional development for hand surgeons. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  10. Relational Aggression, Victimization, and Language Development: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    This review explores the development of relational aggression and relational victimization among peers, with specific emphasis on clinical implications for speech-language pathologists. Developmental manifestations of relational aggression and victimization are reviewed from early childhood through emerging adulthood. The concurrent and…

  11. Pumps vs. airlifts: Theoretical and practical energy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the design of a recirculating aquaculture system five life-supporting issues should be considered which include aeration, degasification, circulation, biofiltration, and clarification. The implications associated with choosing a pumped system versus an airlift system to address these issues was e...

  12. Embedded or linked learning objects: Implications for content development, course design and classroom use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Kopp

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the idea of embedding and linking to existing content in learning object repositories and investigates teacher-designer use of learning objects within one high school mathematics course in an online school. This qualitative case study supports and extends the learning object literature, and brings forward context-specific examples of issues around repository design, autonomy and self-containment, technical support and granularity. Moreover, these findings have implications for building learning objects and repositories that could better support teachers in their instructional design and pedagogical decision-making. Résumé : La présente recherche étudie la possibilité d’effectuer un emboîtement et d’établir des liens avec le contenu existant dans les référentiels sur les objets d’apprentissage et explore l’utilisation par les enseignants-concepteurs des objets d’apprentissage au sein d’un cours de mathématique du secondaire donné dans une école en ligne. Cette étude de cas qualitative appuie et vise la littérature sur les objets d’apprentissage et met en avant plan des exemples de questions touchant la conception de référentiels, l’autonomie et l’indépendance, le soutien technique et la granularité propres au contexte. De plus, ces conclusions ont des répercussions sur l’élaboration d’objets et de référentiels d’apprentissage qui pourraient mieux appuyer les enseignants dans le cadre de leur conception pédagogique et de leur prise de décision touchant l’enseignement.

  13. Recapitalization, Implications for Educational Policy and Practice and Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    In this concluding chapter conclusions are drawn, and the relevance of the results for educational science and policy and practice are discussed. Illustrations are provided that were drawn from the exploration of policy and practices in the Netherlands. Synthetic answers to the three research

  14. Practical implications of empirically studying moral decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzelmann, N.; Ugazio, G.; Tobler, P.N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main

  15. Integrating Practice Guidelines into Professional Training: Implications for Diversity Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miville, Marie L.; Duan, Changming; Nutt, Roberta L.; Waehler, Charles A.; Suzuki, Lisa; Pistole, M. Carole; Arredondo, Patricia; Duffy, Michael; Mejia, Brenda X.; Corpus, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The authors present the findings of a special task group (STG) organized to explore effective training strategies for the practice guidelines focused on diverse populations. They provide a brief literature review and summarize survey data from academic training directors regarding current use of practice guidelines. The authors then describe the…

  16. Trends in dermatology practices and the implications for the workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Alison; Kostecki, James; Olkaba, Helen

    2017-10-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) practice profile surveys have been conducted for more than a decade to gauge trends in our workforce supply and demand. To update the trends and current workforce issues for the field of dermatology. The AAD Practice Profile Survey is sent by both e-mail and postal mail to a random sample of practicing dermatologists who are AAD members. Shifts are noted in the primary practice setting; fewer dermatologists are in solo practice and more are in group practices than in previous years. Teledermatology use trended upward from 7% to 11% between 2012 and 2014. The implementation of electronic health records increased from 51% in 2011 to 70% in 2014. There is potential for response bias and inaccurate self-reporting. Survey responses collected may not be representative of all geographic areas. The demand for dermatology services remains strong. Shifts in the practice setting may be related to increases in overhead costs that are partially associated with the implementation of technology-based medical records. Integration of electronic health records and utilization of telemedicine are increasing. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cultural relativism and cultural diversity: implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C

    1997-09-01

    This article examines the doctrine of cultural relativism in nursing practice. To introduce the issue, an overview of the intellectual history of cultural relativism is presented. The academic themes of the debate surrounding cultural relativism are illustrated with an example of the social controversy in France involving cultural relativism as used to defend the practice of female genital excision among immigrant communities. The dilemma faced by nursing in making cross-cultural judgments is then examined in the light of the academic and social debates. The article concludes with a theoretical resolution of the issue of cultural relativism for nursing practice that is based on hermeneutic philosophy.

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Related to AIDS among Prisoners: Implications for Social Work Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M. Mizanur Rahman; Olivero, J. Michael

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 33 male and 5 female prisoners examined their knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission modes, current sexual behavior and safe sex practices, and sources of AIDS information and degree of trust in these sources. Discusses implications for social work practices and development of AIDS education for prisoners. (SV)

  19. Analytical Implications of Using Practice Theory in Workplace Information Literacy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, Camilla; Lloyd, Annemaree

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper considers practice theory and the analytical implications of using this theoretical approach in information literacy research. More precisely the aim of the paper is to discuss the translation of practice theoretical assumptions into strategies that frame the analytical focus and interest when researching workplace…

  20. A logic of “linking learning”: Leadership practices across schools, subject departments and classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Melville

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the roles of school leaders, a departmental-level leader and a teacher in implementing a reform within a school, and the nature of the relations between the groups and individuals that attended this process. Drawing upon Bourdieu’s “thinking tools”, the article analyses the nature of the leadership practices surrounding the implementation of a single-sex mathematics class from the perspective of key participants in the change process: two school-level leaders, one departmental chair, and the teacher charged with teaching the class. By considering a secondary school and one of its constituent departments as a field and sub-field, respectively, we argue that even as there is evidence of contestation over the nature of the practices that influence or potentially influence the leadership practices at play within the field and sub-field as a whole, there are also significant learnings in relation to student learning on the part of those involved which serve as “links” between the leadership practices at the school and department levels, and the leadership of learning of the teacher implementing the reform. In this way, a logic of “linking learning”, guided by an ethic of concern for students’ success, was evident across school, department and classroom.

  1. What can complexity do for diabetes management? Linking theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Helen C; Geyer, Robert

    2009-08-01

    Diabetes presents a multifaceted picture with its rapidly rising prevalence associated with changing demographics and increasing levels of obesity in the developed world. Deaths from diabetes are predicted to rise by 25% over the next 10 years. The enormity of this public health challenge has been recognized the world over, but little attention has been paid to the theoretical frameworks underpinning practical management. This paper aims to introduce complexity theory and discuss its practical application to diabetes, focusing on a single 'tool' to provide an example of how theory can be linked to practice. Critics have questioned the all inclusive nature of complexity seeing it as an intangible concept that fails to offer anything new to health care. However, few have appraised its practical application to a chronic disease that is currently managed using an outdated, linear, reduce and resolve model which fails to address the multiple interacting systems inherent within this condition. This article proposes that complexity theory provides an interprofessional perspective for describing and understanding the processes involved, and provides working 'tools' for patients, carers and practitioners that capture the reality of managing this chronic disease in modern life.

  2. Nursing practice implications of the year of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen T

    2015-01-01

    e 2015 ANA Code of Ethics is foundational to professional nursing practice and is aligned with AWHONN’s core values, standards of care and position statement on ethical decision-making in the clinical setting. Understanding the roles and responsibilities of nurses to ensure an ethical practice environment is critical to perinatal health outcomes and sta engagement and to the prevention of moral distress.

  3. What do computer scientists tweet? Analyzing the link-sharing practice on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Schmitt

    Full Text Available Twitter communication has permeated every sphere of society. To highlight and share small pieces of information with possibly vast audiences or small circles of the interested has some value in almost any aspect of social life. But what is the value exactly for a scientific field? We perform a comprehensive study of computer scientists using Twitter and their tweeting behavior concerning the sharing of web links. Discerning the domains, hosts and individual web pages being tweeted and the differences between computer scientists and a Twitter sample enables us to look in depth at the Twitter-based information sharing practices of a scientific community. Additionally, we aim at providing a deeper understanding of the role and impact of altmetrics in computer science and give a glance at the publications mentioned on Twitter that are most relevant for the computer science community. Our results show a link sharing culture that concentrates more heavily on public and professional quality information than the Twitter sample does. The results also show a broad variety in linked sources and especially in linked publications with some publications clearly related to community-specific interests of computer scientists, while others with a strong relation to attention mechanisms in social media. This refers to the observation that Twitter is a hybrid form of social media between an information service and a social network service. Overall the computer scientists' style of usage seems to be more on the information-oriented side and to some degree also on professional usage. Therefore, altmetrics are of considerable use in analyzing computer science.

  4. What do computer scientists tweet? Analyzing the link-sharing practice on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Marco; Jäschke, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Twitter communication has permeated every sphere of society. To highlight and share small pieces of information with possibly vast audiences or small circles of the interested has some value in almost any aspect of social life. But what is the value exactly for a scientific field? We perform a comprehensive study of computer scientists using Twitter and their tweeting behavior concerning the sharing of web links. Discerning the domains, hosts and individual web pages being tweeted and the differences between computer scientists and a Twitter sample enables us to look in depth at the Twitter-based information sharing practices of a scientific community. Additionally, we aim at providing a deeper understanding of the role and impact of altmetrics in computer science and give a glance at the publications mentioned on Twitter that are most relevant for the computer science community. Our results show a link sharing culture that concentrates more heavily on public and professional quality information than the Twitter sample does. The results also show a broad variety in linked sources and especially in linked publications with some publications clearly related to community-specific interests of computer scientists, while others with a strong relation to attention mechanisms in social media. This refers to the observation that Twitter is a hybrid form of social media between an information service and a social network service. Overall the computer scientists' style of usage seems to be more on the information-oriented side and to some degree also on professional usage. Therefore, altmetrics are of considerable use in analyzing computer science.

  5. Improving statistical reasoning theoretical models and practical implications

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlmeier, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This book focuses on how statistical reasoning works and on training programs that can exploit people''s natural cognitive capabilities to improve their statistical reasoning. Training programs that take into account findings from evolutionary psychology and instructional theory are shown to have substantially larger effects that are more stable over time than previous training regimens. The theoretical implications are traced in a neural network model of human performance on statistical reasoning problems. This book apppeals to judgment and decision making researchers and other cognitive scientists, as well as to teachers of statistics and probabilistic reasoning.

  6. Practical implications for RPV irradiation surveillance under long term operation based on latest research results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, H.; Keim, E.; Barthelmes, J.; Schnabel, H.

    2015-01-01

    The international programs CARISMA, CARINA and LONGLIFE belong to the research programs which have been performed during the last 10 years to study the irradiation behavior of RPV steels under long term operation of more than 60 years. Some characteristic but different irradiated RPV steels used in Pressurized Water Reactors have been extensively investigated in each of those three programs. Whereas the CARISMA and CARINA programs were mainly focused on material testing to study the irradiation-induced change of material properties in terms of fracture toughness, the main objective of LONGLIFE was to investigate the change of microstructure with various analysis techniques and to understand the mechanisms behind. In this way it was possible to get a comprehensive material characterization in terms of macro-physical properties and micro-structural features for a number of RPV steels which have been studied at different irradiation levels up to 8*10 19 cm -2 (E > 1 MeV). The essential macro-physical and micro-structural results are summarized, in particular regarding the impact of copper and nickel, and the neutron flux on the irradiation behavior and with respect to possible late irradiation effects under long term operation. Moreover, the change of material properties is linked with embrittlement mechanisms such as formation of element specific precipitations, segregations, and matrix defects. Well-known trend curves are also applied to the measured T 41 and T 0 data in order to assess their appropriateness for long term operation. Based on the comprehensive available data base, practical implications for RPV irradiation surveillance programs under long term operation are highlighted with respect to issues like material specific application of reference temperature concepts, data scattering, prediction of high fluence behavior and how to cope with possible late irradiation effects. Finally, best practices for RPV irradiation surveillance programs are suggested from

  7. THE LINK BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: A CASE OF IT COMPANIES FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Ovidiu Iliuta

    2014-07-01

    Taking into account the relation between these variables and organizational performance, it is important to retain key employees that are aware of the organizational goals and values. Therefore, the organization should implement practices that increase job security and career development. In this manner, the organization will not only decrease turnover rates, but it would also form a stronger organizational culture by keeping the employees that are already accustomed with the values, beliefs and norms of the corporation. In order to analyze the data collected from the employees working in IT field, regression and correlation statistical analysis have been used. The results show that adaptability is highly correlated to the mission. The implications of my research for the field of organizational behavior is that the models that were developed for developed economies also applies to developing economies, such as the one from Romania.

  8. Exploring Principals' Instructional Leadership Practices in Malaysia: Insights and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alma; Jones, Michelle; Cheah, Kenny Soon Lee; Devadason, Edward; Adams, Donnie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the findings from a small-scale, exploratory, study of principals' instructional leadership practice in Malaysian primary schools. The dimensions and functions of instructional leadership, explicitly explored in this study, are those outlined in the Hallinger and Murphy's (1985) model.…

  9. Miscommunication between patients and general practitioners: implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Effective communication is integral to the general practice consultation, yet it is acknowledged that problems commonly occur. Previous research has shown that misunderstandings with potentially significant consequences occur frequently, but does not provide a clear picture of how and why miscommunication occurs, or how such problems can be prevented or resolved. This study explored the occurrence and management of specific examples of miscommunication in two routine general practice consultations. METHODS: A multi-method case study approach was used. The primary data collected for each case included a video-recorded consultation and post-consultation interviews with each general practitioner (GP and patient. Instances of communication mismatch were examined using in-depth interaction analysis techniques. FINDINGS: GPs and patients may not be aware when misunderstandings have occurred. In-depth analysis of the case studies revealed the complexity of miscommunication: it was not a straightforward matter to locate when or why instances of communication mismatch had occurred, and each of the mismatches was quite distinctive: (1 they were identified in different ways; (2 they occurred at different points in the communication process; (3 they arose because of problems occurring at different levels of the communication, and (4 they had different consequences. CONCLUSION: Given the frequency and complexity of miscommunication in general practice consultations, GPs need to consider adopting various strategies, at both the practice/systems level and the level of the consultation interaction to minimise the risk of communication problems.

  10. Critical Theory: Implications for School Leadership Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peca, Kathy

    The school leader's behaviors are inspired by theories, and theories are intrinsic to practice. This paper provides an overview of an emerging perspective in educational administration, critical theory. The paper first highlights the philosophies of Immanuel Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Marx, and the Frankfurt School. It then discusses critical theory…

  11. Typologies of Cohabitation: Implications for Clinical Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the current evolution in the practice of cohabitation. The intent of this literature- and web-based article is to acquaint counselors with three typologies of cohabitation. These categories can be utilized in the development of psychoeducational and remedial interventions and in the identification of areas of future…

  12. Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2009-01-01

    Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

  13. Freudian Notion of Psychoanalysis: Its Implications in Contemporary Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Muhammad Afzal

    2017-01-01

    The author has engaged in a critical review of Frued's notion of psychoanalysis and its vitality in teaching. Illustrating from Freud's own assertions and through the interpretations of the later critics, the author has pointed out certain noticeable pitfalls and, or incapacities of contemporary teaching practices. The forces of aggression and sex…

  14. Implications of the law on video recording in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henken, Kirsten R; Jansen, Frank Willem; Klein, Jan; Stassen, Laurents P S; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2012-10-01

    Technological developments allow for a variety of applications of video recording in health care, including endoscopic procedures. Although the value of video registration is recognized, medicolegal concerns regarding the privacy of patients and professionals are growing. A clear understanding of the legal framework is lacking. Therefore, this research aims to provide insight into the juridical position of patients and professionals regarding video recording in health care practice. Jurisprudence was searched to exemplify legislation on video recording in health care. In addition, legislation was translated for different applications of video in health care found in the literature. Three principles in Western law are relevant for video recording in health care practice: (1) regulations on privacy regarding personal data, which apply to the gathering and processing of video data in health care settings; (2) the patient record, in which video data can be stored; and (3) professional secrecy, which protects the privacy of patients including video data. Practical implementation of these principles in video recording in health care does not exist. Practical regulations on video recording in health care for different specifically defined purposes are needed. Innovations in video capture technology that enable video data to be made anonymous automatically can contribute to protection for the privacy of all the people involved.

  15. Beauty: A Concept with Practical Implications for Teacher Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Hillman's (2001) simple affirmation that "an idea of beauty is useful, functional, practical" is one this article attempts to pursue with teacher researchers in mind, based on the belief that to move from the "re"pression of beauty to its "ex"pression--or, at the very least, to its articulation--will enlighten rather than distract individuals. The…

  16. Commercial property loan valuations in the UK : implications of current trends in practice and liability

    OpenAIRE

    Crosby, Neil; Lavers, Anthony; Foster , Henry

    1997-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers which aim to examine the major legal liability implications of changes to the commercial property loan valuation process caused by the recession in the UK property market and to make recommendations to valuers and their professional institutions to improve the quality of the process and the result. The objectives of this paper are to address a number of the practical implications of changes to the loan valuation process within the context of legal liabil...

  17. Understanding implementation in complex public organizations – implication for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Cecilie Høiland

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective implementation of politically initiated public service innovations to the front-lines of the public service organization, where the innovation is to be applied, is a challenge that both practitioners and researchers struggle to solve. We highlight the importance of analysing contextual factors at several levels of the implementation system, as well as the importance of considering how the practical everyday work situations of the front-line workers influence their application of the innovation in question. We illustrate this by exploring the implementation process of a specific work inclusion measure, looking at its wider context and some of its implementation outcomes at a specific public agency. The intention is to illustrate the significance of considering the contextual complexity influencing implementation work as a reminder for practitioners to take this into account in their planning and practices.

  18. TEHORIES OF CONNECTIONS – PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS IN ACQUIRING MOTOR SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Milošević; Nebojša Maksimović; Nada Milošević; Borislav Obradović

    2010-01-01

    Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S), reaction and behavior and organism (R), i.e. particular learner (O). In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Suppor...

  19. Perspectives on academic misconduct: implications for education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klainberg, Marilyn B; McCrink, Andrea; Eckardt, Patricia; Schecter, Rose; Bongiorno, Anne; Sedhom, Laila

    2014-01-01

    From Harvard to high school, concern related to academic misconduct, specifically cheating and its impact on societal issues, has become a great concern for educational communities. While a significant number of studies on ethical behaviors in practice in other professions such as business have been published, little research exists on registered nurses in practice. Even fewer studies have, for registered nurses, addressed if there is an association between perceived academic misconduct as students and perceived unethical behaviors in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceptions of registered professional nurses' (RNs) current workplace behaviors and the RNs' retrospective perceptions of their academic misconduct as students. A convenience sample of 1 66 RNs enrolled in master's degree programs at four university schools of nursing completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs and behaviors. The outcome of this study was significant. Results revealed a strong relationship between unethical behaviors of the RN in practice and their prior academic misconduct when they were students.

  20. Informal Online Learning Practices: Implications for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawn Winterwood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic study examines five American teenagers’ historical and current digitally-mediated multiliteracy practices within digital popular culture. The participants included three male and two female students of a private high school in the Midwestern United States. The study is framed by the notion that literacy is a socially, culturally, and historically situated discursive construct rather than a purely individualized cognitive endeavor. This social constructivist theory of literacy emphasizes the social conditions necessary to navigate the economic, social, and political worlds of the 21st century. The purpose of the study was to explore the students’ multiliteracy practices that they enact through their activities within digital popular culture. Data collection methods included synchronous interviews facilitated by video conferencing tools as well as observation of the participants’ online activities and member checks conducted via email and instant messaging. The analytic strategy employed during this study was informed by Clarke’s (2005 situational analysis method. The study’s findings indicate that literacy practices in which the study participants have engaged through informal learning activities within digital youth culture have had a much greater impact on enabling them to cultivate the multimodal literacies necessary within a postmodern digital era than have their formal educational experiences

  1. Mind the gap: implementation challenges break the link between HIV/AIDS research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Reisner, Sari; Hoffmann, Michael; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Nunn, Amy; Bastos, Leonardo; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite de; Kerr, Ligia; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Dourado, Inês

    2016-11-03

    Sampling strategies such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and time-location sampling (TLS) offer unique opportunities to access key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. Limited work has assessed implementation challenges of these methods. Overcoming implementation challenges can improve research quality and increase uptake of HIV services among key populations. Drawing from studies using RDS in Brazil and TLS in Peru, we summarize challenges encountered in the field and potential strategies to address them. In Brazil, study site selection, cash incentives, and seed selection challenged RDS implementation with MSM. In Peru, expansive geography, safety concerns, and time required for study participation complicated TLS implementation with MSM and transgender women. Formative research, meaningful participation of key populations across stages of research, and transparency in study design are needed to link HIV/AIDS research and practice. Addressing implementation challenges can close gaps in accessing services among those most burdened by the epidemic.

  2. Mind the gap: implementation challenges break the link between HIV/AIDS research and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Reisner, Sari; Hoffmann, Michael; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Nunn, Amy; Bastos, Leonardo; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Kerr, Ligia; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Dourado, Inês

    2018-01-01

    Sampling strategies such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and time-location sampling (TLS) offer unique opportunities to access key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. Limited work has assessed implementation challenges of these methods. Overcoming implementation challenges can improve research quality and increase uptake of HIV services among key populations. Drawing from studies using RDS in Brazil and TLS in Peru, we summarize challenges encountered in the field and potential strategies to address them. In Brazil, study site selection, cash incentives, and seed selection challenged RDS implementation with MSM. In Peru, expansive geography, safety concerns, and time required for study participation complicated TLS implementation with MSM and transgender women. Formative research, meaningful participation of key populations across stages of research, and transparency in study design are needed to link HIV/AIDS research and practice. Addressing implementation challenges can close gaps in accessing services among those most burdened by the epidemic. PMID:27828609

  3. Faith's impact on health. Implications for the practice of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struve, James K

    2002-12-01

    The role of religiousness/spirituality (R/S) in health has been of growing interest in the medical literature in recent years. Studies have demonstrated enhanced health effects from religious prescriptions and proscriptions, religious/spiritual social support, and specific attitudes and behaviors linked to deep spiritual belief (e.g., compassionate view toward others and active religious surrender). This article reviews the recent literature on the role of R/S in health and offers suggestions on how physicians can explore whether their patient's R/S is a source of strength. Examples of simple questions that can be incorporated into a routine visit are presented. Physicians who ask about R/S issues may help patients recognize new ways of coping, new avenues for social support, and new sources of courage and hope.

  4. General practice registrars' intentions for future practice: implications for rural medical workforce planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Catherine; Seal, Alexa; McGirr, Joe; Caton, Tim

    2016-11-01

    The models of practice that general practice registrars (GPRs) envisage undertaking will affect workforce supply. The aim of this research was to determine practice intentions of current GPRs in a regional general practice training program (Coast City Country General Practice Training). Questionnaires were circulated to 220 GPRs undertaking general practice placements to determine characteristics of ideal practice models and intentions for future practice. Responses were received for 99 participants (45%). Current GPRs intend to work an average of less than eight half-day sessions/week, with male participants intending to work more hours (t(91)=3.528, P=0.001). More than one-third of this regional cohort intends to practice in metropolitan centres. Proximity to family and friends was the most important factor influencing the choice of practice location. Men ranked remuneration for work as more important (t (88)=-4.280, Pmedical graduates intend to own their own practice compared with 52% of international medical graduates (χ 2 (1)=8.498, P=0.004). Future general practitioners (GPs) intend to work fewer hours than current GPs. Assumptions about lifestyle factors, practice models and possible professional roles should be carefully evaluated when developing strategies to recruit GPs and GPRs into rural practice.

  5. KNOWLEDGE OF DIVERSE LEARNERS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PRACTICE OF TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzilah Abd Rahman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of Diverse Learners (KDL is increasingly recognized as an essential component of knowledge base for effective teaching as in today’s schools, teachers must be prepared to teach a diverse population of student (Banks et al. 2005. In other words, teachers need to be aware that their students in a classroom are and always have been different from one another in a variety of ways. KDL refers to an understanding of diversity of students in terms of their abilities and interests and how they respond to diverse situations; an application of different teaching strategies; and how various types of classroom activities might be managed. Although KDL has come to be seen as important, details of its development, depth and quality among pre-service teachers (PSTs has remained something of mystery, as has the capability of PSTs to adapt and employ KDL into their actual teaching. As an effort to develop coherent understanding of the feature of prospective teachers regarding KDL, this paper addresses three questions. First, to what extent are the PSTs prepared for KDL as they are finishing the teacher education programmes? Secondly, how do the PSTs apply the KDL in their teaching practices? Thirdly, how do PSTs reflect on their practice in undertaking the elements of KDL during the teaching practices? This paper illustrates the results of a study involving a sample of 74 PSTs at a university in Malaysia. At the beginning of the study, 74 PSTs were given a questionnaire. 11 PSTs have been observed and interviewed. Result indicates that PSTs were able to develop KDL and show their understanding of it, yet not readily apply such knowledge in modified situations.

  6. The uses and implications of standards in general practice consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Maria Laura; Reventlow, Susanne; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2017-01-01

    Quality standards play an increasingly important role in primary care through their inscription in various technologies for improving professional practice. While ‘hard’ biomedical standards have been the most common and debated, current quality development initiatives increasingly seek to include...... as manifestations of an inherent conflict between principles of patient-centredness and formal biomedical quality standards. However, this study suggests that standards on the ‘softer’ aspects of care may just as well interfere with a clinical approach relying on situated and attentive interactions with patients....

  7. [Cultural diversity and stereotyping: implication for the medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux-Paillard, S; Loutan, L

    2005-09-28

    Increasing number of migrants worldwide brings doctors to treat patients of various origins. Patients' diversity enriches health professionals but also induces a risk of mutual incomprehension, due to cultural and language barriers. Multicultural context stimulates unwittingly stereotyping, based on a simplistic assessment of the patient's culture. Stereotyping is also influenced by the political and media coverage. Studies underscored that universally, minorities patients have an unequal access to health care in host countries. Health professionals should be aware that racial stereotyping exists in medical practice: it is a first step to bridge cultural gap between them and their patients.

  8. Toward an Ontology of Practices in Educational Administration: Theoretical Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; Riveros, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we argue for a study of educational administration centered on an "ontology of practices." This is an initial proposal for thinking about and conceptualizing practices in educational administration. To do this, first, we explore how practices are constituted and how they configure the social realities of practitioners.…

  9. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich; Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina; Ruehm, Werner; Lecomte, Jean-Francois; Harrison, John; Breckow, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m -3 ). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  10. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie, Essen (Germany); Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Ruehm, Werner [German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Lecomte, Jean-Francois [International Affaires Directorate, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, P.O. Box 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Harrison, John [Oxford Brookes University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Breckow, Joachim [THM University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m{sup -3}). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  11. Compiling standardized information from clinical practice: using content analysis and ICF Linking Rules in a goal-oriented youth rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Nadia A; Prodinger, Birgit; Dorjbal, Delgerjargal; Rubinelli, Sara; Schmitt, Klaus; Scheel-Sailer, Anke

    2017-09-23

    To illustrate how routinely written narrative admission and discharge reports of a rehabilitation program for eight youths with chronic neurological health conditions can be transformed to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. First, a qualitative content analysis was conducted by building meaningful units with text segments assigned of the reports to the five elements of the Rehab-Cycle ® : goal; assessment; assignment; intervention; evaluation. Second, the meaningful units were then linked to the ICF using the refined ICF Linking Rules. With the first step of transformation, the emphasis of the narrative reports changed to a process oriented interdisciplinary layout, revealing three thematic blocks of goals: mobility, self-care, mental, and social functions. The linked 95 unique ICF codes could be grouped in clinically meaningful goal-centered ICF codes. Between the two independent linkers, the agreement rate was improved after complementing the rules with additional agreements. The ICF Linking Rules can be used to compile standardized health information from narrative reports if prior structured. The process requires time and expertise. To implement the ICF into common practice, the findings provide the starting point for reporting rehabilitation that builds upon existing practice and adheres to international standards. Implications for Rehabilitation This study provides evidence that routinely collected health information from rehabilitation practice can be transformed to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health by using the "ICF Linking Rules", however, this requires time and expertise. The Rehab-Cycle ® , including assessments, assignments, goal setting, interventions and goal evaluation, serves as feasible framework for structuring this rehabilitation program and ensures that the complexity of local practice is appropriately reflected. The refined "ICF Linking Rules" lead to a standardized

  12. Practical Implications of Empirically Studying Moral Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented. PMID:22783157

  13. Practical implications of empirically studying moral decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented.

  14. Emotion Regulation Feeding Practices Link Parents' Emotional Eating to Children's Emotional Eating: A Moderated Mediation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2015-08-01

    Past research suggests an association between parents' and children's emotional eating, but research has yet to examine mechanisms underlying this association. The current study examined whether feeding for emotion regulation mediates the association between parents' and children's emotional eating, and whether this association is moderated by children's self-regulation in eating. 95 parents reported on their own and their children's emotional eating, their children's self-regulation in eating, as well as their feeding practices. Findings revealed that feeding for emotion regulation mediated the association between parents' and children's emotional eating when children's self-regulation in eating was low, but not when self-regulation in eating was high. The current findings demonstrate the complexity of the link between parents' and children's emotional eating, suggesting practitioners should consider both feeding practices and children's self-regulation in eating when designing intervention programs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved.For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Redox regulation in photosynthetic organisms: signaling, acclimation, and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2009-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have multifaceted roles in the orchestration of plant gene expression and gene-product regulation. Cellular redox homeostasis is considered to be an "integrator" of information from metabolism and the environment controlling plant growth and acclimation responses, as well as cell suicide events. The different ROS forms influence gene expression in specific and sometimes antagonistic ways. Low molecular antioxidants (e.g., ascorbate, glutathione) serve not only to limit the lifetime of the ROS signals but also to participate in an extensive range of other redox signaling and regulatory functions. In contrast to the low molecular weight antioxidants, the "redox" states of components involved in photosynthesis such as plastoquinone show rapid and often transient shifts in response to changes in light and other environmental signals. Whereas both types of "redox regulation" are intimately linked through the thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, and pyridine nucleotide pools, they also act independently of each other to achieve overall energy balance between energy-producing and energy-utilizing pathways. This review focuses on current knowledge of the pathways of redox regulation, with discussion of the somewhat juxtaposed hypotheses of "oxidative damage" versus "oxidative signaling," within the wider context of physiological function, from plant cell biology to potential applications.

  16. Paradoxes in networks with zero emission links: implications for telecommunications versus transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagurney, A. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Isenberg School of Management; June Dong [State University of New York, Oswego, NY (United States). School of Business

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we consider networks in which a link is characterized by zero emissions as is typical of networks in which certain links correspond to telecommunication links. We identify three new and distinct paradoxical phenomena that can occur in such networks, which demonstrate that so-called improvements to the network may result in increases in total emissions generated. In particular, we illustrate, through specific examples, the following: (1) the addition of a link with zero emissions may result in an increase in total emissions with no change in travel demand; (2) the total emissions on a network with a zero emission link may increase with a decrease in travel demand; and (3) the addition of a path connecting an origin/destination (O/D) pair and consisting solely of a zero emission link may result in an increase in total emissions. We then propose an emission pricing policy which guarantees that such paradoxes do not occur. The pricing policy is shown to be equivalent to a particular weighting mechanism associated with the criterion of emission generation provided that the users are now multicriteria decision-makers who seek to minimize both the cost of their route choices as well as the emissions that they generate. (author)

  17. A multidirectional communication model: implications for social marketing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L

    2009-04-01

    The landscape of sending and receiving information has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. The communication process is changing from being unidirectional to multidirectional as consumers are becoming active participants by creating, seeking, and sharing information using a variety of channels and devices. The purpose of this article is to describe how this shift in the communication process- where gatekeepers control the creation and content of information and consumers are less active recipients to one that reflects a multidirectional and more dynamic process with participative consumers-will affect the social marketing process. This shift in communication does not represent an option for social marketers so much as a necessity. As professionals respond to this evolving communication model, the practice of social marketing can remain vibrant as a relevant consumer-oriented approach to behavior change.

  18. Psychoacoustic entropy theory and its implications for performance practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohman, Gregory J.

    This dissertation attempts to motivate, derive and imply potential uses for a generalized perceptual theory of musical harmony called psychoacoustic entropy theory. This theory treats the human auditory system as a physical system which takes acoustic measurements. As a result, the human auditory system is subject to all the appropriate uncertainties and limitations of other physical measurement systems. This is the theoretic basis for defining psychoacoustic entropy. Psychoacoustic entropy is a numerical quantity which indexes the degree to which the human auditory system perceives instantaneous disorder within a sound pressure wave. Chapter one explains the importance of harmonic analysis as a tool for performance practice. It also outlines the critical limitations for many of the most influential historical approaches to modeling harmonic stability, particularly when compared to available scientific research in psychoacoustics. Rather than analyze a musical excerpt, psychoacoustic entropy is calculated directly from sound pressure waves themselves. This frames psychoacoustic entropy theory in the most general possible terms as a theory of musical harmony, enabling it to be invoked for any perceivable sound. Chapter two provides and examines many widely accepted mathematical models of the acoustics and psychoacoustics of these sound pressure waves. Chapter three introduces entropy as a precise way of measuring perceived uncertainty in sound pressure waves. Entropy is used, in combination with the acoustic and psychoacoustic models introduced in chapter two, to motivate the mathematical formulation of psychoacoustic entropy theory. Chapter four shows how to use psychoacoustic entropy theory to analyze the certain types of musical harmonies, while chapter five applies the analytical tools developed in chapter four to two short musical excerpts to influence their interpretation. Almost every form of harmonic analysis invokes some degree of mathematical reasoning

  19. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but

  20. A review of factors that affect contact angle and implications for flotation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, T T; Bruckard, W J; Koh, P T L; Nguyen, A V

    2009-09-30

    . Other advanced techniques and measures complementary to contact angle will be essential to establish the link between research and practice in flotation.

  1. Defining the relationship between COPD and CVD: what are the implications for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ann D; Zakeri, Rosita; Quint, Jennifer K

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are arguably the most important comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CVDs are common in people with COPD, and their presence is associated with increased risk for hospitalization, longer length of stay and all-cause and CVD-related mortality. The economic burden associated with CVD in this population is considerable and the cumulative cost of treating comorbidities may even exceed that of treating COPD itself. Our understanding of the biological mechanisms that link COPD and various forms of CVD has improved significantly over the past decade. But despite broad acceptance of the prognostic significance of CVDs in COPD, there remains widespread under-recognition and undertreatment of comorbid CVD in this population. The reasons for this are unclear; however institutional barriers and a lack of evidence-based guidelines for the management of CVD in people with COPD may be contributory factors. In this review, we summarize current knowledge relating to the prevalence and incidence of CVD in people with COPD and the mechanisms that underlie their coexistence. We discuss the implications for clinical practice and highlight opportunities for improved prevention and treatment of CVD in people with COPD. While we advocate more active assessment for signs of cardiovascular conditions across all age groups and all stages of COPD severity, we suggest targeting those aged under 65 years. Evidence indicates that the increased risks for CVD are particularly pronounced in COPD patients in mid-to-late-middle-age and thus it is in this age group that the benefits of early intervention may prove to be the most effective. PMID:29355081

  2. Links between personality, time perspective, and intention to practice physical activity during cancer treatment: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaron, Charlène; Marqueste, Tanguy; Eisinger, François; Cappiello, Maria-Antonietta; Therme, Pierre; Cury, François

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze links between personality, time perspective, and intention to practice physical activity during cancer treatment. One hundred forty-three patients participated in survey by questionnaire. Intention to practice physical activity, time perspective using Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and personality with the Big Five Inventory were measured. Structural equation models using Lisrel were developed to examine hypothetical links between the variables. The adjusted model evidenced an excellent fit (comparative fit index = 0.92; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.076; P = .014). Results showed that intention to practice exercise was positively linked with openness to experience and negatively with present fatalist time perspective. Moreover, conscientiousness and neuroticism were found to be linked with future time perspective, which was positively related with intention to practice physical activity. The present exploratory study with patients suffering from cancer underlined the importance of considering jointly time perspective dimensions and personality factors for health behavior recommendations. Based on our results, we propose some reflections on practice to help nurses and physicians increase patient's motivation to be physically active. Taking into account patients' personality and time perspective, we would be able to propose specific awareness messages and offer short interventions to have an impact on patients' motivation to practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Semantic web implications for technologies and business practices

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book examines recent developments in semantic systems that can respond to situations and environments and events. The contributors to this book cover how to design, implement, and utilize disruptive technologies from the semantic and Web 3.0 arena. The editor and the contributors discuss two fundamental sets of disruptive technologies: the development of semantic technologies including description logics, ontologies, and agent frameworks; and the development of semantic information rendering including graphical forms of displays of high-density time-sensitive data to improve situational awareness. Beyond practical illustrations of emerging technologies, the goal of this book is to help readers learn about managing information resources in new ways and reinforcing the learning as they read on.   ·         Examines the contrast of competing paradigms and approaches to problem solving and decision-making using technology tools and techniques ·         Covers how to use semantic principle...

  4. The implication of transcultural psychiatry for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldavsky, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with the main concepts of Transcultural Psychiatry and their applications to everyday psychiatric practice. Transcultural psychiatry has undergone a conceptual reformulation in the last two decades. Having started with a comparative approach, which focused on the diverse manifestations of mental disorders among different societies, it broadened its scope, aiming at present to incorporate social and cultural aspects of illness into the clinical framework. Therefore, transcultural psychiatry now focuses more on what is called the illness experience than on the disease process, the latter understood as illness as it is viewed by health practitioners. Western medicine, of which psychiatry is a part, is grounded in positivist epistemological principles that stress the biological processes of disease. The intention of the paper is to develop an interest in alternative but also complementary ways of thinking. Modern transcultural psychiatry interprets some epidemiological and clinical aspects of major mental disorders (such as schizophrenia and depression) in a different light. However, it also distances itself from the absolute relativism of antipsychiatry, centering on clinical facts and helping clinicians in their primary task of alleviating suffering. An important contribution in addressing this task is the formulation of a cultural axis within the DSM model of multiaxial evaluation. A clinical vignette of a cultural formulation applied to a clinical discussion of a case is described.

  5. Blood specimen labelling errors: Implications for nephrology nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duteau, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is the foundation of high-quality health care, as recognized both nationally and worldwide. Patient blood specimen identification is critical in ensuring the delivery of safe and appropriate care. The practice of nephrology nursing involves frequent patient blood specimen withdrawals to treat and monitor kidney disease. A critical review of the literature reveals that incorrect patient identification is one of the major causes of blood specimen labelling errors. Misidentified samples create a serious risk to patient safety leading to multiple specimen withdrawals, delay in diagnosis, misdiagnosis, incorrect treatment, transfusion reactions, increased length of stay and other negative patient outcomes. Barcode technology has been identified as a preferred method for positive patient identification leading to a definitive decrease in blood specimen labelling errors by as much as 83% (Askeland, et al., 2008). The use of a root cause analysis followed by an action plan is one approach to decreasing the occurrence of blood specimen labelling errors. This article will present a review of the evidence-based literature surrounding blood specimen labelling errors, followed by author recommendations for completing a root cause analysis and action plan. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) will be presented as one method to determine root cause, followed by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU) as a framework for implementation of strategies to reduce blood specimen labelling errors.

  6. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF USING INDUCED TRANSIENTS FOR LEAK DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko V. Ivetic

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with practical problems of leak detection by methods based on hydraulic transient analysis. Controlled and safe transients can be generated and the response of the network, with the relevant information, can be monitored and analysed. Information about leaks, contained in the monitored pressure signal, cannot be easily retrieved, due to reflections, noise etc. On the basis of numerical experiments on a simple network, merits and limitations of several methods for signal analysis (time domain analysis, spectral density function and wavelet transform have been examined. Certain amount of information can be extracted from the time history of the pressure signal, assuming the first reflection of the pressure wave is captured with very high time resolution and accuracy. Only relatively large leaks can be detected using this methodology. As a way to increase the sensitivity of this method it is suggested that transforms in frequency domain and, especially, wavelet transforms, are used. The most promising method for leakage location and quantification seems to be based on wavelet analysis.

  7. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF USING INDUCED TRANSIENTS FOR LEAK DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko V. Ivetic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with practical problems of leak detection by methods based on hydraulic transient analysis. Controlled and safe transients can be generated and the response of the network, with the relevant information, can be monitored and analysed. Information about leaks, contained in the monitored pressure signal, cannot be easily retrieved, due to reflections, noise etc. On the basis of numerical experiments on a simple network, merits and limitations of several methods for signal analysis (time domain analysis, spectral density function and wavelet transform have been examined. Certain amount of information can be extracted from the time history of the pressure signal, assuming the first reflection of the pressure wave is captured with very high time resolution and accuracy. Only relatively large leaks can be detected using this methodology. As a way to increase the sensitivity of this method it is suggested that transforms in frequency domain and, especially, wavelet transforms, are used. The most promising method for leakage location and quantification seems to be based on wavelet analysis.

  8. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  9. (How) do we learn from errors? A prospective study of the link between the ward's learning practices and medication administration errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach-Zahavy, A; Somech, A; Admi, H; Peterfreund, I; Peker, H; Priente, O

    2014-03-01

    Attention in the ward should shift from preventing medication administration errors to managing them. Nevertheless, little is known in regard with the practices nursing wards apply to learn from medication administration errors as a means of limiting them. To test the effectiveness of four types of learning practices, namely, non-integrated, integrated, supervisory and patchy learning practices in limiting medication administration errors. Data were collected from a convenient sample of 4 hospitals in Israel by multiple methods (observations and self-report questionnaires) at two time points. The sample included 76 wards (360 nurses). Medication administration error was defined as any deviation from prescribed medication processes and measured by a validated structured observation sheet. Wards' use of medication administration technologies, location of the medication station, and workload were observed; learning practices and demographics were measured by validated questionnaires. Results of the mixed linear model analysis indicated that the use of technology and quiet location of the medication cabinet were significantly associated with reduced medication administration errors (estimate=.03, perrors (estimate=.04, plearning practices, supervisory learning was the only practice significantly linked to reduced medication administration errors (estimate=-.04, plearning were significantly linked to higher levels of medication administration errors (estimate=-.03, plearning was not associated with it (p>.05). How wards manage errors might have implications for medication administration errors beyond the effects of typical individual, organizational and technology risk factors. Head nurse can facilitate learning from errors by "management by walking around" and monitoring nurses' medication administration behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA interstrand cross-link repair: understanding role of Fanconi anemia pathway and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pallavi; Solanki, Avani; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Vundinti, Babu Rao

    2013-11-01

    Interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are extremely toxic DNA lesions that prevent DNA double-helix separation due to the irreversible covalent linkage binding of some agents on DNA strands. Agents that induce these ICLs are thus widely used as chemotherapeutic drugs but may also lead to tumor growth. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder that leads to ICL sensitivity. This review provides update on current understanding of the role of FA proteins in repairing ICLs at various stages of cell cycle. We also discuss link between DNA cross-link genotoxicity caused by aldehydes in FA pathway. Besides this, we summarize various ICL agents that act as drugs to treat different types of tumors and highlight strategies for modulating ICL sensitivity for therapeutic interventions that may be helpful in controlling cancer and life-threatening disease, FA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Youth Work Transitions: A Review with Implications for Counselling and Career Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Filomena; Young, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    We critically review studies highlighting youth's work transitions and derive some implications for career and counselling theory and practice. We first discuss today's hypermodern world, specifically the meanings being conveyed by today's complex social realities and their impact on individuals' (work) lives. An overview of…

  12. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  13. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Shauna G.; Eusebio, Eleazar C.; Turton, William J.; Wright, Peter W. D.; Hale, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." United States Supreme Court case could have significant implications for school psychology practice. The Court ruled that the parents of a student with a disability were entitled to private school tuition reimbursement even though T.A. had not been identified with a disability or previously…

  14. SOME IMPLICATIONS OF A CONCEPT OF GROWTH MOTIVATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOREEN, DAVID SHELDON

    THIS STUDY EXAMINED GROWTH MOTIVATION AS A DEVELOPING CONCEPT AND AS A THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT, AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS THEORY FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE. SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS GIVEN TO THE THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS OF ABRAHAM MASLOW, TO THE NATURE OF GROWTH MOTIVATION CONCEPTS IN GENERAL, AND TO FORMS OF SELF UNDERSTANDING AND…

  15. Addressing Cross-Cultural Teamwork Barriers: Implications for Industry Practice and Higher Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores cultural factors affecting international team dynamics and the implications for industry practice and higher education. Despite decades of studying and experience with cultural diversity, international work groups continue to be challenged by ethnocentrism and prejudices. Central to the context is that cultural differences in…

  16. Elder Abuse: Systematic Review and Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin Qi

    2015-06-01

    This article is based on the lecture for the 2014 American Geriatrics Society Outstanding Scientific Achievement for Clinical Investigation Award. Elder abuse is a global public health and human rights problem. Evidence suggests that elder abuse is prevalent, predictable, costly, and sometimes fatal. This review will highlight the global epidemiology of elder abuse in terms of its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in community populations. The global literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, BIOSIS, Science Direct, and Cochrane Central was searched. Search terms included elder abuse, elder mistreatment, elder maltreatment, prevalence, incidence, risk factors, protective factors, outcomes, and consequences. Studies that existed only as abstracts, case series, or case reports or recruited individuals younger than 60; qualitative studies; and non-English publications were excluded. Tables and figures were created to highlight the findings: the most-detailed analyses to date of the prevalence of elder abuse according to continent, risk and protective factors, graphic presentation of odds ratios and confidence intervals for major risk factors, consequences, and practical suggestions for health professionals in addressing elder abuse. Elder abuse is common in community-dwelling older adults, especially minority older adults. This review identifies important knowledge gaps, such as a lack of consistency in definitions of elder abuse; insufficient research with regard to screening; and etiological, intervention, and prevention research. Concerted efforts from researchers, community organizations, healthcare and legal professionals, social service providers, and policy-makers should be promoted to address the global problem of elder abuse. © 2015, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Linking research to practice: the rise of evidence-based health sciences librarianship*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joanne Gard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The lecture explores the origins of evidence-based practice (EBP) in health sciences librarianship beginning with examples from the work of Janet Doe and past Doe lecturers. Additional sources of evidence are used to document the rise of research and EBP as integral components of our professional work. Methods: Four sources of evidence are used to examine the rise of EBP: (1) a publication by Doe and research-related content in past Doe lectures, (2) research-related word usage in articles in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association between 1961 and 2010, (3) Medical Library Association activities, and (4) EBP as an international movement. Results: These sources of evidence confirm the rise of EBP in health sciences librarianship. International initiatives sparked the rise of evidence-based librarianship and continue to characterize the movement. This review shows the emergence of a unique form of EBP that, although inspired by evidence-based medicine (EBM), has developed its own view of evidence and its application in library and information practice. Implications: Health sciences librarians have played a key role in initiating, nurturing, and spreading EBP in other branches of our profession. Our close association with EBM set the stage for developing our own EBP. While we relied on EBM as a model for our early efforts, we can observe the continuing evolution of our own unique approach to using, creating, and applying evidence from a variety of sources to improve the quality of health information services. PMID:24415915

  18. Analytical implications of using practice theory in workplace information literacy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth; Lloyd, Annemaree

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper considers practice theory and the analytical implications of using this theoretical approach in information literacy research. More precisely the aim of the paper is to discuss the translation of practice theoretical assumptions into strategies that frame the analytical...... focus and interest when researching workplace information literacy. Two practice theoretical perspectives are selected, one by Theodore Schatzki and one by Etienne Wenger, and their general commonalities and differences are analysed and discussed. Analysis: The two practice theories and their main ideas...... of what constitute practices, how practices frame social life and the central concepts used to explain this, are presented. Then the application of the theories within workplace information literacy research is briefly explored. Results and Conclusion: The two theoretical perspectives share some...

  19. Implications of the new sepsis definition on research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Brian C

    2017-04-01

    practice will be essential, to determine if the Sepsis 3 definition, its associated clinical criteria, and the qSOFA need further revision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exonization of a LINE1 fragment implicated in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2011-01-01

    A case of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED) was identified in a family of Danish Red Holstein cattle. The ectodysplasin-signalling protein (EDA) is known to be central in the normal development of ectodermal structures, and mutations in the ectodysplasin A (EDA) gene have been rep...

  1. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2011-10-29

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007-10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007-09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] -0·38, 95% CI -0·55 to -0·20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (-0·36, -0·83 to 0·10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD -0·24, -0·40 to -0·09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007–10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007–09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] −0.38, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (−0.36, −0.83 to 0.10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD −0.24, −0.40 to −0.09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. PMID:22008428

  3. Mind the gap: implementation challenges break the link between HIV/AIDS research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah MacCarthy

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling strategies such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS and time-location sampling (TLS offer unique opportunities to access key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender women. Limited work has assessed implementation challenges of these methods. Overcoming implementation challenges can improve research quality and increase uptake of HIV services among key populations. Drawing from studies using RDS in Brazil and TLS in Peru, we summarize challenges encountered in the field and potential strategies to address them. In Brazil, study site selection, cash incentives, and seed selection challenged RDS implementation with MSM. In Peru, expansive geography, safety concerns, and time required for study participation complicated TLS implementation with MSM and transgender women. Formative research, meaningful participation of key populations across stages of research, and transparency in study design are needed to link HIV/AIDS research and practice. Addressing implementation challenges can close gaps in accessing services among those most burdened by the epidemic.

  4. Analysis of the solid waste management practices in Chinhoyi: bridging the missing link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishumael SANGO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, there has been noticeable and steady mismatch between urban population growth and capacity for managing the corresponding increases in solid wastes. The local community is greatly concerned because it is aware of the clear link between poorly managed waste and the potential for the spread of diseases. This study was carried out to examine the solid waste management practices in Chinhoyi urban area and assess the impacts on the environment and human health. The study combined quantitative and qualitative data collected through fieldwork, questionnaires, interviews and document reviews. The population of Chinhoyi stands at about 60 000 generating more than 100 tons of waste per day. Results of the study include high percentage of uncollected waste, high levels of health and safety related problems such as lacerations, contusions, strain/sprains, and illness as well as noticeable deterioration of facilities and the environment. Issues affecting the effective management of waste are discussed. Recommendations based on the sustainable principle of integrated solid waste management are suggested. Sustainability requires the system to be environmentally effective, economically affordable, and socially acceptable.

  5. Practices and health perception of preparation of Brassica vegetables: translating survey data to technological and nutritional implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.; Hantoro, I.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Food preparation practices are known to have large nutritional implications on the final product. This article describes survey data on preparation practices of Brassica vegetables and the translation of these data into technological and nutritional implications using knowledge on the mechanisms of

  6. Probability of causation tables and their possible implications for the practice of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, D.; Wald, N.

    1986-01-01

    In compliance with requirements in the Orphan Drug Act (97-414) of 1983, tables were recently constructed by an ad hoc committee of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in which the probabilities that certain specific cancers are caused by previous radiation exposure are estimated. The reports of the NIH committee and a National Academy of Science oversight committee may have broad implications for the future practice of diagnostic radiology. The basis on which the probability of causation tables were established and some of the possible implications for diagnostic radiology are discussed

  7. Ancient Ethical Practices of Dualism and Ethical Implications for Future Paradigms in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Constance L

    2016-07-01

    Paradigms contain theoretical structures to guide scientific disciplines. Since ancient times, Cartesian dualism has been a prominent philosophy incorporated in the practice of medicine. The discipline of nursing has continued the body-mind emphasis with similar paradigmatic thinking and theories of nursing that separate body and mind. Future trends for paradigm and nursing theory development are harkening to former ways of thinking. In this article the author discusses the origins of Cartesian dualism and implications for its current usage. The author shall illuminate what it potentially means to engage in dualism in nursing and discuss possible ethical implications for future paradigm and theory development in nursing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Anatomy meets dentistry! Linking anatomy and clinical practice in the preclinical dental curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Rafai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing a strong link early on between preclinical coursework and the clinical context is necessary for students to be able to recognize the practical relevance of the curriculum during their preclinical anatomical courses and to transfer knowledge more easily. Our objective was to enhance the clinical relevance of a preclinical anatomy course for second-year medical students of dentistry by implementing an interdisciplinary skills training course on “Palpation of the Head and Neck Muscles” and to measure the learning outcomes. Methods For the curricular development of the expanded course module, Kern’s 6-step approach was applied including subjective evaluation. We used a peer-teaching format supported by an e-learning application. A randomized control study measured effects of the two components (skills training, e-module on learning outcomes. Four learning methods were compared: (1 lecture, (2 lecture + e-module, (3 lecture + skills training, (4 lecture + skills training + e-module. An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was used to measure and compare learning outcomes. Results The two-way variance analysis demonstrated that participation in the skills training had a statistically significant effect on the OSCE results (p = 0.0007. Students who participated in the skills training did better (φ 107.4 ± 14.4 points than students who only attended the lecture (φ 88.8 ± 26.2 points. Students who used the e-module but did not attend the skills training earned a slightly but not significantly higher average number of points (φ 91.8 ± 31.3 points than those who only attended the lecture. The learning outcomes of the skills training were again significantly increased when the training was combined with the e-module (φ 121.8 ± 21.8 points, thus making it the ideal method for achieving the learning objectives defined in this study. Conclusions The “Palpation of

  9. Australian general practitioner attitudes to clinical practice guidelines and some implications for translating osteoarthritis care into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basedow, Martin; Runciman, William B; Lipworth, Wendy; Esterman, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been shown to improve processes of care and health outcomes, but there is often a discrepancy between recommendations for care and clinical practice. This study sought to explore general practitioner (GP) attitudes towards CPGs, in general and specifically for osteoarthritis (OA), with the implications for translating OA care into practice. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted in January 2013 with a sample of 228 GPs in New South Wales and South Australia. Seventy-nine GPs returned questionnaires (response rate 35%). Nearly all GPs considered that CPGs support decision-making in practice (94%) and medical education (92%). Very few respondents regarded CPGs as a threat to clinical autonomy, and most recognised that individual patient circumstances must be taken into account. Shorter CPG formats were preferred over longer and more comprehensive formats, with preferences being evenly divided among respondents for short, 2-3-page summaries, flowcharts or algorithms and single page checklists. GPs considered accessibility to CPGs to be important, and electronic formats were popular. Familiarity and use of The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners OA Guideline was poor, with most respondents either not aware of it (30%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 27 - 41%), had never used it (19%; 95% CI 12 - 29%) or rarely used it (34%; 95% CI 25-45%). If CPGs are to assist with the translation of evidence into practice, they must be easily accessible and in a format that encourages use.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Insights into Polyamine-DNA Binding Modes: Implications for Cross-Link Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignon, Emmanuelle; Chan, Chen-Hui; Morell, Christophe; Monari, Antonio; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Dumont, Elise

    2017-09-18

    Biogenic polyamines, which play a role in DNA condensation and stabilization, are ubiquitous and are found at millimolar concentration in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. The interaction modes of three polyamines-putrescine (Put), spermine (Spm), and spermidine (Spd)-with a self-complementary 16 base pair (bp) duplex, are investigated by all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics. The length of the amine aliphatic chain leads to a change of the interaction mode from minor groove binding to major groove binding. Through all-atom dynamics, noncovalent interactions that stabilize the polyamine-DNA complex and prefigure the reactivity, leading to the low-barrier formation of deleterious DNA-polyamine cross-links, after one-electron oxidation of a guanine nucleobase, are unraveled. The binding strength is quantified from the obtained trajectories by molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area post-processing (MM-GBSA). The values of binding free energies provide the same affinity order, Putlink formation through the extraction of average approaching distances between the C8 atom of guanines and the ammonium group. These results imply that the formation of DNA-polyamine cross-links involves deprotonation of the guanine radical cation to attack the polyamines, which must be positively charged to lie in the vicinity of the B-helix. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.

  12. Emergency diagnosis of cancer and previous general practice consultations: insights from linked patient survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gary A; Mendonca, Silvia C; McPhail, Sean; Zhou, Yin; Elliss-Brookes, Lucy; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2017-06-01

    Emergency diagnosis of cancer is common and aetiologically complex. The proportion of emergency presenters who have consulted previously with relevant symptoms is uncertain. To examine how many patients with cancer, who were diagnosed as emergencies, have had previous primary care consultations with relevant symptoms; and among those, to examine how many had multiple consultations. Secondary analysis of patient survey data from the 2010 English Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES), previously linked to population-based data on diagnostic route. For emergency presenters with 18 different cancers, associations were examined for two outcomes (prior GP consultation status; and 'three or more consultations' among prior consultees) using logistic regression. Among 4647 emergency presenters, 1349 (29%) reported no prior consultations, being more common in males (32% versus 25% in females, P <0.001), older (44% in ≥85 versus 30% in 65-74-year-olds, P <0.001), and the most deprived (35% versus 25% least deprived, P = 0.001) patients; and highest/lowest for patients with brain cancer (46%) and mesothelioma (13%), respectively ( P <0.001 for overall variation by cancer site). Among 3298 emergency presenters with prior consultations, 1356 (41%) had three or more consultations, which were more likely in females ( P <0.001), younger ( P <0.001), and non-white patients ( P = 0.017) and those with multiple myeloma, and least likely for patients with leukaemia ( P <0.001). Contrary to suggestions that emergency presentations represent missed diagnoses, about one-third of emergency presenters (particularly those in older and more deprived groups) have no prior GP consultations. Furthermore, only about one-third report multiple (three or more) consultations, which are more likely in 'harder-to-suspect' groups. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  13. Are physical activity levels linked to nutrient adequacy? Implications for cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Kelemen, Linda E; Speidel, Thomas; Yuan, Yan; Dale, Laura C; Friedenreich, Christine M; Robson, Paula J

    2014-01-01

    Cancer prevention guidelines recommend a healthy body mass index, physical activity, and nutrient intake from food rather than supplements. Sedentary individuals may restrict energy intake to prevent weight gain and in so doing may compromise nutritional intake. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to determine if adequacy of micronutrients is linked to physical activity levels (PALs) in healthy-weight adults. Tomorrow Project participants in Alberta, Canada (n = 5333), completed past-year diet and physical activity questionnaires. The percent meeting Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) was reported across low and high PAL groups, and the relation between PAL and percent achieved DRI was determined using multiple linear regression analyses. Overall, genders (P physical activity to include having a more favorable impact on nutrient adequacy.

  14. The down syndrome behavioral phenotype: implications for practice and research in occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunhauer, Lisa A; Fidler, Deborah J

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal cause of intellectual disability. The genetic causes of DS are associated with characteristic outcomes, such as relative strengths in visual-spatial skills and relative challenges in motor planning. This profile of outcomes, called the DS behavioral phenotype, may be a critical tool for intervention planning and research in this population. In this article, aspects of the DS behavioral phenotype potentially relevant to occupational therapy practice are reviewed. Implications and challenges for etiology-informed research and practice are discussed.

  15. Composition of 298 Baptistina: Implications for the K/T impactor link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V.; Emery, J. P.; Gaffey, M. J.; Bottke, W. F.; Cramer, A.; Kelley, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Bottke et al. (2007) suggested that the breakup of the Baptistina asteroid family (BAF) 160+30 /-20 Myr ago produced an “asteroid shower” that increased by a factor of 2-3 the impact flux of kilometer-sized and larger asteroids striking the Earth over the last ~120 Myr. This result led them to propose that the impactor that produced the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) mass extinction event 65 Myr ago also may have come from the BAF. This putative link was based both on collisional/dynamical modeling work and on physical evidence. For the latter, the available broadband color and spectroscopic data on BAF members indicate many are likely to be dark, low albedo asteroids. This is consistent with the carbonaceous chondrite-like nature of a 65 Myr old fossil meteorite (Kyte 1998)and with chromium from K/T boundary sediments with an isotopic signature similar to that from CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. To test elements of this scenario, we obtained near-IR and thermal IR spectroscopic data of asteroid 298 Baptistina using the NASA IRTF in order to determine surface mineralogy and estimate its albedo. We found that the asteroid has moderately strong absorption features due to the presence of olivine and pyroxene, and a moderately high albedo (~20%). These combined properties strongly suggest that the asteroid is more like an S-type rather than Xc-type (Mothé-Diniz et al. 2005). This weakens the case for 298 Baptistina being a CM2 carbonaceous chondrite and its link to the K/T impactor. We also observed several bright (V Mag. ≤16.8) BAF members to determine their composition.

  16. Implications of applying solar industry best practice resource estimation on project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, Romeo

    2016-01-01

    Solar resource estimation risk is one of the main solar PV project risks that influences lender’s decision in providing financing and in determining the cost of capital. More recently, a number of measures have emerged to mitigate this risk. The study focuses on solar industry’s best practice energy resource estimation and assesses its financing implications to the 27 MWp solar PV project study in Brunei Darussalam. The best practice in resource estimation uses multiple data sources through the measure-correlate-predict (MCP) technique as compared with the standard practice that rely solely on modelled data source. The best practice case generates resource data with lower uncertainty and yields superior high-confidence energy production estimate than the standard practice case. Using project financial parameters in Brunei Darussalam for project financing and adopting the international debt-service coverage ratio (DSCR) benchmark rates, the best practice case yields DSCRs that surpass the target rates while those of standard practice case stay below the reference rates. The best practice case could also accommodate higher debt share and have lower levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) while the standard practice case would require a lower debt share but having a higher LCOE. - Highlights: •Best practice solar energy resource estimation uses multiple datasets. •Multiple datasets are combined through measure-correlate-predict technique. •Correlated data have lower uncertainty and yields superior high-confidence energy production. •Best practice case yields debt-service coverage ratios (DSCRs) that surpass the benchmark rates. •Best practice case accommodates high debt share and have low levelized cost of electricity.

  17. Screening for diabetes in unconventional locations: resource implications and economics of screening in optometry practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Jennifer H; Jones, Steve; Hungin, A Pali S

    2011-10-01

    Unconventional locations outwith general medical practice may prove opportunities for screening. The aim was to determine the resource implications and economics of a screening service using random capillary blood glucose (rCBG) tests to detect raised blood glucose levels in the "at risk" population attending high street optometry practices. A screening service was implemented in optometry practices in North East England: the cost of the service and the implication of different screening strategies was estimated. The cost of a screening test was £5.53-£11.20, depending on the screening strategy employed and who carried out the testing. Refining the screening strategy to target those ≥40 years with BMI of ≥25 kg/m(2) and/or family history of diabetes resulted in a cost per case referred to the GP of £14.38-£26.36. Implementing this strategy in half of optometric practices in England would have the potential to identify up to 150,000 new cases of diabetes and prediabetes a year. Optometry practices provide an effective way of identifying people who would benefit from further investigation for diabetes. Effectiveness could be improved further by improving cooperation and communication between optometrists and medical practitioners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perspectives on the rhythm–grammar link and its implications for typical and atypical language development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Jacobs, Magdalene S.; Schuele, C. Melanie; McAuley, J. Devin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the mounting evidence for shared cognitive mechanisms and neural resources for rhythm and grammar. Evidence for a role of rhythm skills in language development and language comprehension is reviewed here in three lines of research: (a) behavioral and brain data from adults and children, showing that prosody and other aspects of timing of sentences influence online morpho-syntactic processing; (b) co-morbidity of impaired rhythm with grammatical deficits in children with language impairment; and (c) our recent work showing a strong positive association between rhythm perception skills and expressive grammatical skills in young school-age children with typical development. Our preliminary follow-up study presented here revealed that musical rhythm perception predicted variance in six-year-old children’s production of complex syntax, as well as online reorganization of grammatical information (transformation); these data provide an additional perspective on the hierarchical relations potentially shared by rhythm and grammar. A theoretical framework for shared cognitive resources for the role of rhythm in perceiving and learning grammatical structure is elaborated on in light of potential implications for using rhythm-emphasized musical training to improve language skills in children. PMID:25773612

  19. Acrolein inhibits NADH-linked mitochondrial enzyme activity: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocernich, Chava B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2003-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain increased lipid peroxidation and decreased energy utilization are found. Mitochondria membranes contain a significant amount of arachidonic and linoleic acids, precursors of lipid peroxidation products, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 2-propen-1-al (acrolein), that are extremely reactive. Both alkenals are increased in AD brain. In this study, we examined the effects of nanomolar levels of acrolein on the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH), both reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-linked mitochondrial enzymes. Acrolein decreased PDH and KGDH activities significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), acrolein was found to bind lipoic acid, a component in both the PDH and KGDH complexes, most likely explaining the loss of enzyme activity. Acrolein also interacted with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) in such a way as to decrease the production of NADH. Acrolein, which is increased in AD brain, may be partially responsible for the dysfunction of mitochondria and loss of energy found in AD brain by inhibition of PDH and KGDH activities, potentially contributing to the neurodegeneration in this disorder.

  20. A Link between Subjective Perceptions of Memory and Physical Function: Implications for Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Stephanie; Devanand, Davangere; Gurland, Barry

    2018-01-01

    Subjective impairment in memory is a frequently defining feature of subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a state hypothesized to precede objectively apparent cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to hold promise as a non-invasive, inexpensive, preclinical indicator of AD. However, a full model of the factors that contribute to subjective memory (SM), and therefore to SCD, has yet to be articulated. While SM impairment is widely known to be associated with negative affect, the extent to which SM functioning may also reflect other factors, particularly subjective beliefs or perceptions about one's health, is not known. To examine the extent to which SM is associated with subjective perceptions of health more broadly, the current study investigated the link between SM and subjective physical functioning (independent of depressive affect, and objective cognitive and physical function) in an ethnically diverse sample of 471 older adults enrolled in the population-based Northern Manhattan Aging Project. 199 (42%) participants endorsed no difficulty on a 5-point SM index while 272 (58%) endorsed some degree of difficulty. As hypothesized, SM correlated with both depression and subjective physical function, but not with age, education, global cognition, or objective physical function. When objective and subjective physical function were entered in two separate, adjusted linear regressions predicting SM, only subjective physical function and depressive affect independently predicted SM. Subjective perceptions of memory appear to reflect individuals' broader health perceptions in part. Articulating the various correlates of SM will improve identification of SCD specific to preclinical AD.

  1. Determinism and Underdetermination in Genetics: Implications for Students' Engagement in Argumentation and Epistemic Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar

    2014-02-01

    In the last two decades science studies and science education research have shifted from an interest in products (of science or of learning), to an interest in processes and practices. The focus of this paper is on students' engagement in epistemic practices (Kelly in Teaching scientific inquiry: Recommendations for research and implementation. Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, pp 99-117, 2008), or on their practical epistemologies (Wickman in Sci Educ 88(3):325-344, 2004). In order to support these practices in genetics classrooms we need to take into account domain-specific features of the epistemology of genetics, in particular issues about determinism and underdetermination. I suggest that certain difficulties may be related to the specific nature of causality in genetics, and in particular to the correspondence between a given set of factors and a range of potential effects, rather than a single one. The paper seeks to bring together recent developments in the epistemology of biology and of genetics, on the one hand, with science education approaches about epistemic practices, on the other. The implications of these perspectives for current challenges in learning genetics are examined, focusing on students' engagement in epistemic practices, as argumentation, understood as using evidence to evaluate knowledge claims. Engaging in argumentation in genetics classrooms is intertwined with practices such as using genetics models to build explanations, or framing genetics issues in their social context. These challenges are illustrated with studies making part of our research program in the USC.

  2. Linking pipefishes and seahorses to their habitat: implications for species conservation in the Venice lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Scapin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows of the Venice lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy are spatially heterogeneous systems, with attributes such as degree of coverage and plant assemblages varying along multiple environmental gradients. They play a particularly relevant role in conservation of fish diversity, since they provide vital habitats for pipefish and seahorse species (family Syngnathidae. Aim of the study was to investigate the diversity of syngnathid assemblages in the Venice lagoon and link species distributions to habitat characteristics, in order to evaluate the importance of seagrass meadows of the lagoon for the conservation of these species. The analyses of this work are based on eight years of fish data collected between 2001 and 2014 in 186 shallow water sites across the entire lagoon. Water parameters, presence of macroalgae, seagrass presence and coverage, as well as meadows species composition, were considered as predictors in a modelling framework, to explain the distribution of each species. Overall, two species of seahorses and seven species of pipefishes including the Adriatic endemism Syngnathus taenionotus were found. Three species (S. abaster, S. typhle and Nerophis ophidion were the most abundant, together accounting for 98% of total individuals caught. Both seagrass presence and its coverage resulted significant predictors, with densities of S. abaster, S. typhle, N. ophidion and Hippocampus guttulatus being positively associated with higher percentages of seagrass cover. In addition, some evidences suggested a different functionality of different meadow types in supporting both S. typhle and N. ophidion. The study highlighted the role of Venice lagoon as biodiversity hotspot for syngnathids, since it supports nine out of the 10 species known in the Mediterranean (with only S. phlegon being absent. Results also suggested the importance of habitat management, which should aim at compensating for seagrass habitat loss and therefore

  3. Contested Practice: Political Activism in Nursing and Implications for Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck-McFadyen, Ellen; MacDonnell, Judith

    2017-07-27

    Canadian nurses have a social mandate to address health inequities for the populations they serve, as well as to speak out on professional and broader social issues. Although Canadian nursing education supports the role of nurses as advocates for social justice and leadership for health care reform, little is known about how nurse educators understand activism and how this translates in the classroom. A comparative life history study using purposeful sampling and a critical feminist lens was undertaken to explore political activism in nursing and how nurse educators foster political practice among their students. Findings from interviews and focus groups with 26 Ontario nurse educators and nursing students suggested that neoliberal dynamics in both the practice setting and in higher education have constrained nurses' activist practice and favour a technical rational approach to nursing education. Implications and strategies to inspire political action in nursing education are discussed.

  4. Women's self-perception and self-care practice: implications for health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendias, E P; Clark, M C; Guevara, E B

    2001-01-01

    Mexican American women experience unique health care needs related to integration of Mexican and American cultures. To learn how to better promote self-care practices and service utilization in women of Mexican origin living in Texas, researchers used a qualitative approach to interview a convenience sample of 11 low-income women attending a health clinic. Researchers collected narrative data about the women's perceptions of health, wellness, and self-care. Using the matrix approach described by Miles and Huberman, we organized findings around women's roles, including participants' descriptions of themselves, their health and wellness awareness, self-care practices for health/illness and wellness/nonwellness, barriers to self-care, origin of self-care practices, and perceptions of life control. Implications for health planning and service delivery are presented.

  5. Reflecting on reflection in interprofessional education: implications for theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G

    2009-05-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) involves learning, and learning requires reflection. Educators need to "reflect more on reflection" if they are to be effective teachers in ensuring the learning outcomes essential for teamwork and interprofessional practice (IPP), including incorporating both theory and practice into the development of educational interventions. First, this discussion surveys the IPE-relevant literature on reflection, and then defines and refines the multidimensional concept of reflection as it relates to IPE in developing and implementing teamwork learning programs and experiences. Second, specific methods to promote reflection are presented and explored, including self-assessments, journaling, and written papers. Actual samples from student journals and assignments provide examples of the impacts of using these methods on participant reflection and learning. Finally, implications for an expanded understanding and application of reflection for IPE will be discussed, and recommendations made for educational practice and research in this area.

  6. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values.

  7. Science, practice and mythology: a definition and examination of the implications of scientism in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Michael; Lewith, George; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2013-06-01

    Scientism is a philosophy which purports to define what the world 'really is'. It adopts what the philosopher Thomas Nagel called 'an epistemological criterion of reality', defining what is real as that which can be discovered by certain quite specific methods of investigation. As a consequence all features of experience not revealed by those methods are deemed 'subjective' in a way that suggests they are either not real, or lie beyond the scope of meaningful rational inquiry. This devalues capacities that (we argue) are in fact essential components of good reasoning and virtuous practice. Ultimately, the implications of scientism for statements of value undermine value-judgements essential for science itself to have a sound basis. Scientism has implications, therefore, for ontology, epistemology and also for which claims we can assert as objective truths about the world. Adopting scientism as a world view will have consequences for reasoning and decision-making in clinical and other contexts. We analyse the implications of this approach and conclude that we need to reject scientism if we are to avoid stifling virtuous practice and to develop richer conceptions of human reasoning.

  8. NICE guideline on antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: attitudes to the guideline and implications for dental practice in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-03-28

    To investigate attitudes of Irish dental practitioners, cardiologists and patients with cardiac lesions to the new NICE guideline for antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis and to determine the implications of this guideline for dental practice in Ireland.

  9. On the Assessment of Paramedic Competence: A Narrative Review with Practice Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, W; Boet, S

    2016-02-01

    Paramedicine is experiencing significant growth in scope of practice, autonomy, and role in the health care system. Despite clinical governance models, the degree to which paramedicine ultimately can be safe and effective will be dependent on the individuals the profession deems suited to practice. This creates an imperative for those responsible for these decisions to ensure that assessments of paramedic competence are indeed accurate, trustworthy, and defensible. The purpose of this study was to explore and synthesize relevant theoretical foundations and literature informing best practices in performance-based assessment (PBA) of competence, as it might be applied to paramedicine, for design or evaluation of assessment programs. A narrative review methodology was applied to focus intentionally, but broadly, on purpose relevant, theoretically derived research that could inform assessment protocols in paramedicine. Primary and secondary studies from a number of health professions that contributed to and informed best practices related to the assessment of paramedic clinical competence were included and synthesized. Multiple conceptual frameworks, psychometric requirements, and emerging lines of research are forwarded. Seventeen practice implications are derived to promote understanding as well as best practices and evaluation criteria for educators, employers, and/or licensing/certifying bodies when considering the assessment of paramedic competence. The assessment of paramedic competence is a complex process requiring an understanding, appreciation for, and integration of conceptual and psychometric principles. The field of PBA is advancing rapidly with numerous opportunities for research.

  10. Teacher Strategies for Effective Intervention with Students Presenting Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper some key practice and policy implications emerging from a review of literature on effective teacher strategies for social, emotional and behavioural difficulties are set out. Particular attention is given to implications in relation to the development of teachers' skills.

  11. Linking HRM Practices and Institutional Setting to Collective Turnover: An Empirical Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Van Dierendonck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses the relationship between human resources management (HRM practices and employee turnover by taking into account the influence of socioeconomic environment. Data was collected at company level with an international sample of 830 companies from 12 countries (Netherlands, Belgium, United Kingdom, Brazil, Switzerland, China, France, Italy, Poland, Germany, South Africa, and Spain. A division into four bundles of human resources (HR practices is introduced: remunerative, communication, developmental, and well-being practices. The influence of the socioeconomic environment was factored in by including the institutional setting in terms of the level of coordination as a country-level variable. The results showed that collective turnover is related to both a country’s institutional determinants and to company HR practices. Remunerative HR practices may have a negative influence in terms of enhancing turnover, particularly within countries high in coordination. HR well-being practices are the most beneficial practices in terms of reducing employee turnover. Our study adds to our knowledge on the relation between HR practices and turnover from an international perspective. It complements the empirical knowledge on the effectiveness of HRM practices in a cross-national setting and supports the notion that the institutional context should be given more attention when studying HR effectiveness.

  12. Cyanobacterial crusts linked to soil productivity under different grazing management practices in Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alchin, Bruce; Williams, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    sites. Nitrogen fixation rates were significantly higher in the wet season samples compared to the dry season. Rates of nitrogen fixation, mineralisable nitrogen and cyanobacterial biomass were comparative to other studies both in Australia and globally. Eleven of the twelve sites had higher plant-available (mineralisable) nitrogen in the 0-1 cm depth compared to the 1-5 cm depth. Nitrogen isotopes showed that the nitrogen concentration found in the surface soils (0-1 cm) from five sites originated from cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation. At the remaining sites the isotopic signatures were slightly more positive, indicative of fractionation. The results have substantiated the link between cyanobacteria and their contribution to carbon and nitrogen cycling across the northern Australian rangelands. The data also highlights the variability between sites and management practices that influence biogeochemical processes that affect soil productivity.

  13. Linking Theory and Practice: Teacher Research in History and Geography Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Buijs, Maartje; Claessens, Wout; Honing, Terence; Karkdijk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The impact of scholarly research in education on the educational practice in secondary school is low. Academics examine problems that teachers in school perceive as irrelevant, want to publish in peer-reviewed journals instead of disseminate their work, and aim at generalizing insights rather than improving school practice. Teacher research might…

  14. Implications of Nursing Clinical Practice to The Student’s Spiritual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandesa Asthadi Mahendra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the implications of Nursing Clinical Practice (PLKK to the spiritual health of STIKES Bali students. This study employed purposive sampling method to determine the number of respondents. To conduct this study, the fourth grade of nursing students were recruited as the sample with total number 136 respondents. A questionnaire about spirituality from World Health Organization (WHO was used in this study as the instrument. In addition, the data were analysed by using quantitative descriptive technique. The result showed that 50.0% of students had a very good spiritual health, 42.6% had good spiritual health, 6.6% had moderate spiritual health, and 0.7 % had poor spiritual health. It can be interpreted that spiritual health of nursing students of STIKES Bali is good after conducting Nursing Clinical Practice. Thus, this study can be concluded that Nursing Clinical Practice has implication to the ability of students to love themselves and others meaningfully as the evidence of students’ spiritual health.

  15. Citizen Science and Biomedical Research: Implications for Bioethics Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W Callaghan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain trends in scientific research have important relevance to bioethics theory and practice. A growing stream of literature relates to increasing transparency and inclusivity of populations (stakeholders in scientific research, from high volume data collection, synthesis, and analysis to verification and ethical scrutiny. The emergence of this stream of literature has implications for bioethics theory and practice. This paper seeks to make explicit these streams of literature and to relate these to bioethical issues, through consideration of certain extreme examples of scientific research where bioethical engagement is vital. Implications for theory and practice are derived, offering useful insights derived from multidisciplinary theory. Arguably, rapidly developing fields of citizen science such as informing science and others seeking to maximise stakeholder involvement in both research and bioethical engagement have emerged as a response to these types of issues; radically enhanced stakeholder engagement in science may herald a new maximally inclusive and transparent paradigm in bioethics based on lessons gained from exposure to increasingly uncertain ethical contexts of biomedical research.

  16. Making the links between domestic violence and child safeguarding: an evidence-based pilot training for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilassy, Eszter; Drinkwater, Jess; Hester, Marianne; Larkins, Cath; Stanley, Nicky; Turner, William; Feder, Gene

    2017-11-01

    We describe the development of an evidence-based training intervention on domestic violence and child safeguarding for general practice teams. We aimed - in the context of a pilot study - to improve knowledge, skills, attitudes and self-efficacy of general practice clinicians caring for families affected by domestic violence. Our evidence sources included: a systematic review of training interventions aiming to improve professional responses to children affected by domestic violence; content mapping of relevant current training in England; qualitative assessment of general practice professionals' responses to domestic violence in families; and a two-stage consensus process with a multi-professional stakeholder group. Data were collected between January and December 2013. This paper reports key research findings and their implications for practice and policy; describes how the research findings informed the training development and outlines the principal features of the training intervention. We found lack of cohesion and co-ordination in the approach to domestic violence and child safeguarding. General practice clinicians have insufficient understanding of multi-agency work, a limited competence in gauging thresholds for child protection referral to children's services and little understanding of outcomes for children. While prioritising children's safety, they are more inclined to engage directly with abusive parents than with affected children. Our research reveals uncertainty and confusion surrounding the recording of domestic violence cases in families' medical records. These findings informed the design of the RESPONDS training, which was developed in 2014 to encourage general practice clinicians to overcome barriers and engage more extensively with adults experiencing abuse, as well as responding directly to the needs of children. We conclude that general practice clinicians need more support in managing the complexity of this area of practice. We need to

  17. Practical tips for managing LinkedIn and Facebook (on top of everything else).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Time-saving steps and strategies to help you make room for social media in your crowded day. I bet you've never thought to yourself, "I'd like more work to do". So how can you possibly accomplish everything and manage your association's LinkedIn group and Facebook page as well?

  18. Reflections on Klein's radical notion of phantasy and its implications for analytic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B

    2017-06-01

    Analysts may incorporate many of Melanie Klein's important contributions (e.g., on preoedipal dynamics, envy, and projective identification) without transforming their basic analytic approach. In this paper I argue that adopting the Kleinian notion of unconscious phantasy is transformative. While it is grounded in Freud's thinking and draws out something essential to his work, this notion of phantasy introduces a radical change that defines Kleinian thinking and practice and significantly impacts the analyst's basic clinical approach. This impact and its technical implications in the analytic situation are illustrated and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  19. Survivor-Defined Practice in Domestic Violence Work: Measure Development and Preliminary Evidence of Link to Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Lisa A; Thomas, Kristie; Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; Heimel, Deborah; Woulfe, Julie; Chong, Siu Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Survivor-defined practice, characterized by an emphasis on client choice, partnership, and sensitivity to the unique needs, contexts, and coping strategies of individual survivors, is an aspirational goal of the domestic violence (DV) movement, assumed to be a key contributor to empowerment and other positive outcomes among survivors. Despite its central role in DV program philosophy, training, and practice, however, our ability to assess its presence and its presumed link to well-being has been hampered by the absence of a way to measure it from survivors' perspectives. As part of a larger university-community collaboration, this study had two aims: (a) to develop a measure of survivor-defined practice from the perspective of participants, and (b) to assess its relationship to safety-related empowerment after controlling for other contributors to survivor well-being (e.g., financial stability and social support). Results supported the reliability and validity of the Survivor-Defined Practice Scale (SDPS), a nine-item measure that assesses participants' perception of the degree to which their advocates help them achieve goals they set for themselves, facilitate a spirit of partnership, and show sensitivity to their individual needs and styles. The items combined to form one factor indicating that the three theoretical aspects of survivor-defined practice may be different manifestations of one underlying construct. Results also support the hypothesized link between survivor-defined practice and safety-related empowerment. The SDPS offers DV programs a mechanism for process evaluation that is rigorous and rooted in the feminist empowerment philosophy that so many programs espouse. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Beaconless Georouting Under The Spotlight: Practical Link Models and Application Scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    practical application scenarios. Furthermore, beaconless georouting protocols have been studied in literature assuming equal communication ranges for the data and control packets. In reality, this is not true since the communication range is actually a

  1. Making the link between work-life balance practices and organizational performance

    OpenAIRE

    T. Alexandra Beauregard; Lesley C. Henry

    2009-01-01

    The business case for work-life balance practices, as espoused by many organizations, rests on attracting better applicants and reducing work-life conflict among existing employees in order to enhance organizational performance. This review of the literature provides some evidence for the claim regarding recruitment, but there is insufficient evidence to support the notion that work-life practices enhance performance by means of reduced work-life conflict. We suggest that the business case ma...

  2. Linking fish tolerance to water quality criteria for the assessment of environmental flows: A practical method for streamflow regulation and pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changsen; Yang, Shengtian; Liu, Junguo; Liu, Changming; Hao, Fanghua; Wang, Zhonggen; Zhang, Huitong; Song, Jinxi; Mitrovic, Simon M; Lim, Richard P

    2018-05-15

    The survival of aquatic biota in stream ecosystems depends on both water quantity and quality, and is particularly susceptible to degraded water quality in regulated rivers. Maintenance of environmental flows (e-flows) for aquatic biota with optimum water quantity and quality is essential for sustainable ecosystem services, especially in developing regions with insufficient stream monitoring of hydrology, water quality and aquatic biota. Few e-flow methods are available that closely link aquatic biota tolerances to pollutant concentrations in a simple and practical manner. In this paper a new method was proposed to assess e-flows that aimed to satisfy the requirements of aquatic biota for both the quantity and quality of the streamflow by linking fish tolerances to water quality criteria, or the allowable concentration of pollutants. For better operation of water projects and control of pollutants discharged into streams, this paper presented two coefficients for streamflow adjustment and pollutant control. Assessment of e-flows in the Wei River, the largest tributary of the Yellow River, shows that streamflow in dry seasons failed to meet e-flow requirements. Pollutant influx exerted a large pressure on the aquatic ecosystem, with pollutant concentrations much higher than that of the fish tolerance thresholds. We found that both flow velocity and water temperature exerted great influences on the pollutant degradation rate. Flow velocity had a much greater influence on pollutant degradation than did the standard deviation of flow velocity. This study provides new methods to closely link the tolerance of aquatic biota to water quality criteria for e-flow assessment. The recommended coefficients for streamflow adjustment and pollutant control, to dynamically regulate streamflow and control pollutant discharge, are helpful for river management and ecosystems rehabilitation. The relatively low data requirement also makes the method easy to use efficiently in developing

  3. Physician practice management companies: implications for hospital-based integrated delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, L R; Robinson, J C

    1997-01-01

    Physician practice management companies (PPMCs) are one of the most visible entrants into the industry of managing physician practices, and anywhere from 100-150 are already in operation. Although PPMCs and hospital-based integrated delivery systems (IDSs) differ from each other in many ways, they share a number of common features, including the pursuit of capitation contracts from payors. As a result, PPMCs pose a growing, direct threat to hospital systems in competing for managed care contracts that cover physician service. PPMCs also provide an alternative to hospital-based IDSs at the local market level for physician group consolidation. This article looks at the structure, operation, and strategy of PPMCs and examines what implications their growth will have for hospital-based IDSs.

  4. Future trends in health and health care: implications for social work practice in an aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W

    2013-01-01

    Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education.

  5. Optimal use of video for teaching the practical implications of studying business information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Benedikte; Ulfkjær, Jacob Kanneworff Stigsen; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    that video should be introduced early during a course to prevent students’ misconceptions of working with business information systems, as well as to increase motivation and comprehension within the academic area. It is also considered of importance to have a trustworthy person explaining the practical......The study of business information systems has become increasingly important in the Digital Economy. However, it has been found that students have difficulties understanding the practical implications thereof and this leads to a motivational decreases. This study aims to investigate how to optimize...... not sufficiently reflect the theoretical recommendations of using video optimally in a management education. It did not comply with the video learning sequence as introduced by Marx and Frost (1998). However, it questions if the level of cognitive orientation activities can become too extensive. It finds...

  6. Interviewing children in custody cases: implications of research and policy for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda B; Romanoff, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Research on child interviewing has burgeoned over the past 25 years as expectations about children's agency, competence, and participation in society have changed. This article identifies recent trends in research, policy, and theory with implications for the practice of interviewing children in cases of contested divorce and for the weight to be given the information children provide. A number of fields of relevant research are identified, including studies of families who have participated in the family law system, studies of child witnesses in the field, experimental studies of the effects of interview techniques on children's memory and suggestibility, and ethnographic methods that elicit children's views of their own experiences. Finally, a set of 10 principles for practice are delineated based on the best available science. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Household chaos moderates the link between maternal attribution bias and parenting: Parenting: Science and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Deater-Deckard, K; Bell, M A

    2013-10-01

    Parents who attribute child misbehavior to children's intentions and dismiss situational factors tend to show more hostility and less warmth in their parenting behavior, and are at greater risk for maltreatment. We extended this literature by investigating the role of household chaos as a moderator of the link between maternal attribution biases and parenting behaviors. The current sample included 160 mothers of 3- to7-year-old children. Mothers provided reports on their attribution biases and household chaos levels. Maternal negativity and positivity were measured using self-reports and observers' ratings. The links between attribution bias and parenting behavior were stronger in more chaotic environments, with the moderating effect of chaos being particularly strong for internal attribution bias. The findings point to the importance of social cognitive biases in the etiology of maternal behavior in family contexts that lack order and predictability.

  8. Linking Risk Management Practices and Strategies to Performance. Case Study: Ceramic and Tiles Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hamideh Khanzadeh Charkhab; Mohammad Reza Eslami; Hassan Dehghan Dehnavi

    2014-01-01

    The supply chain is a network of independent and linked organizations that cooperate in direction to controlling, managing and improving of material and information flow from suppliers to final consumers in order to meet satisfaction of client. Supply chain risk management (SCRM) is very important in industry especially that goes to long supply chains. SCRM process focus on recognition of existing risk and decrease of undesired effect in supply chains, it consists of recognition, assessment, ...

  9. ERRORS AND CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK IN WRITING: IMPLICATIONS TO OUR CLASSROOM PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corazon Saturnina A Castro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Error correction is one of the most contentious and misunderstood issues in both foreign and second language teaching. Despite varying positions on the effectiveness of error correction or the lack of it, corrective feedback remains an institution in the writing classes. Given this context, this action research endeavors to survey prevalent attitudes of teachers and students toward corrective feedback and examine their implications to classroom practices.  This paper poses the major problem:  How do teachers’ perspectives on corrective feedback match the students’ views and expectations about error treatment in their writing? Professors of the University of the Philippines who teach composition classes and over a hundred students enrolled in their classes were surveyed.  Results showed that there are differing perceptions of teachers and students regarding corrective feedback. These oppositions must be addressed as they have implications to current pedagogical practices which include constructing and establishing appropriate lesson goals, using alternative corrective strategies, teaching grammar points in class even in the tertiary level, and further understanding the learning process.

  10. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Clinical Trends of a Mindfulness-Informed Child Welfare Intervention: Implications for Trauma-Focused Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress and early life trauma have been linked to child maltreatment and parental substance misuse. These issues often co-occur, yet few child welfare services target their shared underlying causes in a single intervention. Teaching mindfulness-informed strategies to substance-misusing families in the child welfare system may be one promising trauma-informed approach. As part of a larger pilot study testing the initial efficacy of a mindfulness-informed intervention for parents in public child welfare, this study explored the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical trends of the intervention using weekly reports of stress, coping, and mindfulness. Findings show support for the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention as well as positive responses to the intervention on measures of stress and mindfulness. However, the impact of the intervention varied with regard to improving weekly coping among participants. Implications for the integration of mindfulness into child welfare practice as a trauma-informed approach are discussed.

  11. [Ethical issues linked to the professional practice of nurses in a hospital infection control committee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Débora Cristina Ignácio; Evora, Yolanda Dora Martinez

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative work was developed according to Bardin's method of content analysis. It aimed at finding out the perceptions of nurses that are members of a Hospital Infection Control Commission about ethical issues that are inherent to their professional practice as well as understanding the clinical nurses opinion regarding the professional practice of the nurses that are members of the Hospital Infection Control Commission, considering the ethical aspects. In order to achieve an ethical, efficient and effective professional practice, there is a need for governmental changes and professional recognition through autonomy, respect and exclusivity in the Service of Hospital Infection Control, as well as improvements regarding information, the care provided to the patient and professional secret. The predominance of bureaucratic activities and team work were mentioned by the clinical nurses as differentiating factors of the activities performed by nurses that are members of the Commission.

  12. Implications of current resident work-hour guidelines on the future practice of surgery in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruscak, Adam A; VanderBeek, Laura; Ott, Michael C; Kelly, Stephen; Forbes, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Work-hour restrictions have had a profound impact on surgical training. However, little is known of how work-hour restrictions may affect the future practice patterns of current surgical residents. The purpose of this study is to compare the anticipated career practice patterns of surgical residents who are training within an environment of work-hour restrictions with the current practice of faculty surgeons. An electronic survey was sent to all surgery residents and faculty at 2 Canadian university-affiliated medical centers. The survey consisted of questions regarding expected (residents) or current (faculty) practice patterns. A total of 149 residents and 125 faculty members completed the survey (50.3% and 52.3% response rates, respectively). A greater proportion of males were in the faculty cohort than in the resident group (77.6% vs 62.4%, p = 0.0003). More faculty than residents believed that work-hour restrictions have a negative impact on both residency education (40.8% vs 20.8%, p = 0.008) and preparation for a surgical career (56.8% vs 19.5%, p implications and might require larger surgical groups and reconsideration of resource allocation. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the link between HRM Practices and Employees’ performance in Nigerian public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Tabiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving employee and organizational performance has been the main concern of many organizations for decades and several factors have also been studied as predictors of employee performance in organizations. However, studies that comprehensively measured all the dimensions of employee performance that enhance organizational effectiveness are limited. This paper explored the influence of HRM practices on the employee performance in the Nigerian public sector. Using cross sectional method on 265 participants from local government areas, the findings revealed that HRM practices such as job rotation, job autonomy and career planning had a significant and positive influence on all the three dimensions of employee performance (task, contextual and adaptive performance.

  14. When Practice Takes Precedence: Conceptions of Inquiry and the Link to Ethical Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Karen; Birchley, Jacinta; Bruce, Jayne; Hurrell, Alison; Paterson, Sandra; Stephen, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Using participatory action research (PAR), this paper explores the ethical practice of students engaged in practitioner research in a higher education context. Using narrative enquiry, the paper explores the participants' experiences of practitioner research, including ethical dilemmas that resulted from a conflict of values between the…

  15. Stance and Engagement in Pure Mathematics Research Articles: Linking Discourse Features to Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lisa; Kuteeva, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Recent ESP research into academic writing has shown how writers convey their stance and interact with readers across different disciplines. However, little research has been carried out into the disciplinary writing practices of the pure mathematics academic community from an ESP genre analysis perspective. This study begins to address this gap by…

  16. Links between Teachers' Beliefs and Their Practices in a Science and Technology Museum Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnezou, Maria; Avgitidou, Sofia; Kariotoglou, Petros

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of research examining the impact of science field trips on pupils' learning in science education and the factors that influence their success. However, there is a limited number of studies that focus on the way teachers' beliefs influence their practices in an informal science-learning venue. This research aimed to…

  17. Linking Research and Practice: Effective Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jihyun

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary plays a pivotal role in the ESL classroom. Whereas a considerable amount of research has examined effective ESL vocabulary teaching and learning, missing are studies that provide examples of how to put various research findings into practice: that is, apply them to real texts including target vocabulary items. In order to close the gap…

  18. Exploring Links between Empowerment and Community-Based Arts and Cultural Practices: Perspectives from Barcelona Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Ruben David Fernández; Monferrer, Moisés Carmona; Tarditi, Andrés Di Masso

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we reflect on the development of community-based arts and cultural (CBAC) practices to promote psychosocial, group/organisational and community changes from the perspective of empowerment. We draw on findings from an initial exploratory phase of an ongoing action-research project in Spain about creative tools that empower artists…

  19. Text-Messaging Practices and Links to General Spelling Skill: A Study of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Catherine; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated 10- to 12-year-old Australian children's text-messaging practices and their relationship to traditional spelling ability. Of the 227 children tested, 82% reported sending text-messages; a median of 5 per day. Use of predictive and multi-press entry methods was roughly equal. Children produced a wide range of text-message…

  20. Big and Open Linked Data (BOLD) in Research, Policy and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Kuk, G.

    2016-01-01

    The value of data as a new economic asset class is seldom realized on its own. With less reliance on self-administered survey, it offers new insights into behaviors and patterns. Yet it is a huge undertaking of bringing together multiple actors from different disciplines and diverse practices to

  1. Mutual expectation compacts: a means to link practice culture and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Ivo; Slomski, Carol

    2007-01-01

    We describe the development of a mutual expectation compact in an academic department of surgery as a means of reinforcing the department's vision document and promoting cultural change. The compact makes explicit those implicit agreements that exist between a physician and his or her practice. It strengthens the relationship by avoiding the misunderstandings that can arise when agreements are implicit.

  2. Linking Essential Learning Outcomes and Interprofessional Collaborative Practice Competency in Health Science Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Carole-Rae; Garcia, Luis Ivan; Slusser, Margaret M.; Konowitz, Sharon; Yep, Jewelry

    2017-01-01

    Assessing student learning outcomes and determining achievement of the Interprofessional Collaborative Practice (IPCEP) Core Competency of Values/Ethics in a generic pre-professional Bachelor of Science in Health Science (BSHS) program is challenging. A course level Student Learning Outcome (SLO) is: "….articulate the impact of personal…

  3. Advancing knowledge on practice change: linking facilitation to the senses framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Julie; Meyer, Julienne; Holman, Cheryl

    2013-06-01

    To explore the facilitating factors that enabled staff on a rehabilitation ward for older people engage in change activities. The importance of facilitation in practice change is widely acknowledged; however, little nursing research has taken place in relation to its nature. Following identification in the early phases of an action research study that learned helplessness states and the use of socially structured defence techniques were preventing staff on a rehabilitation ward for older people from engaging in practice development, some change was achieved. What facilitated this to take place needed to be explored. An action research approach was used. Data gained from 13 in-depth interviews with staff and managers together with three years of researcher field notes were analysed using thematic analysis. The continuous presence and neutrality of the researcher who worked together with staff on their issues of concern using a flexible ward-based approach, combined with giving staff the opportunity to explore what it was like for them working in this area, were considered key in helping staff to engage with change. Analysis of findings suggests that the senses framework presents a theoretical approach to facilitation that can help staff move out of learned helplessness states and reduce the need for the use of socially structured defence techniques. This study identifies a facilitation approach that enabled staff to engage with practice change. Although carried out in the UK, its findings have wider relevance through the application of a theoretical perspective for practice change facilitation that has not before been considered in this literature, and which is likely to be of interest to those involved in practice change internationally. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The Link between Corporate Environmental and Corporate Financial Performance—Viewpoints from Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bergmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For more than 40 years, a tremendous number of studies have empirically explored the relationship between Corporate Environmental Performance (CEP and Corporate Financial Performance (CFP. This study considers the relationship from a new perspective—via a qualitative research approach based on expert interviews. First, practitioners are queried for their view on the link between CEP and CFP and how to measure it. Since the vast majority see a positive relationship, this study contributes with a new form of evidence that it pays to be green. The chosen qualitative approach also allows a more detailed analysis of underlying cause-and-effect mechanisms. For instance, interviewed practitioners emphasize a direct and indirect impact from CEP on CFP. Second, the study conducts interviews with experts from research and associations (non-practitioners and compares the viewpoints of the two interview groups. One prevalent difference refers to the fact that non-practitioners do not focus on the two impact levels. Moreover, business experts perceive the link between CEP and CFP as much less complex and reveal more pragmatically oriented considerations. The study then discusses how the interview results and identified differences can be used to direct future research and to support corporations in their move towards sustainability.

  5. Systematic review of the links between human resource management practices and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M; Rick, J; Wood, S; Carroll, C; Balain, S; Booth, A

    2010-10-01

    In recent years human resource management (HRM) has been seen as an important factor in the successful realisation of organisational change programmes. The UK NHS is undergoing substantial organisational change and there is a need to establish which human resource (HR) initiatives may be most effective. To assess the results from a wide-ranging series of systematic reviews of the evidence on HRM and performance. The first part assesses evidence on use of HRM in the UK and fidelity of practice implemented. The second part considers evidence for the impact of HRM practices on intermediate outcomes, which can impact on final outcomes, such as organisational performance or patient care. The following databases were searched: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), British Nursing Index (BNI), Business Source Premier, Campbell Collaboration, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE), DH-Data, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC), International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), King's Fund database, MEDLINE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), National Research Register (NRR), PREMEDLINE, PsycINFO, ReFeR, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and Science Citation Index (SCI). The searches were conducted in May/June 2006. Broad categories of HRM interventions and intermediate outcomes were generated: 10 HRM categories and 12 intermediate outcome categories. Seven patient final outcomes were derived from the NHS Performance Indicators and the NHS Improvement Plan. The quality criteria used to select papers incorporated a longitudinal study design filter to provide evidence of the causal direction of relationships between HRM and relevant outcomes. Single HRM practices were considered. Within the health-specific literature, focus was on the

  6. Establishing a communications link between two different, incompatible, personal computers: with practical examples and illustrations and program code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, R W

    1985-01-01

    The increasing need to communicate to exchange data can be handled by personal microcomputers. The necessity for the transference of information stored in one type of personal computer to another type of personal computer is often encountered in the process of integrating multiple sources of information stored in different and incompatible computers in Medical Research and Practice. A practical example is demonstrated with two relatively inexpensive commonly used computers, the IBM PC jr. and the Apple IIe. The basic input/output (I/O) interface chip for serial communication for each computer are joined together using a Null connector and cable to form a communications link. Using BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) Computer Language and the Disk Operating System (DOS) the communications handshaking protocol and file transfer is established between the two computers. The BASIC programming languages used are Applesoft (Apple Personal Computer) and PC BASIC (IBM Personal computer).

  7. A logic of “linking learning”: Leadership practices across schools, subject departments and classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Melville; Ian Hardy; Molly Weinburgh; Anthony Bartley

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the roles of school leaders, a departmental-level leader and a teacher in implementing a reform within a school, and the nature of the relations between the groups and individuals that attended this process. Drawing upon Bourdieu’s “thinking tools”, the article analyses the nature of the leadership practices surrounding the implementation of a single-sex mathematics class from the perspective of key participants in the change process: two school-level leaders, one depar...

  8. Education for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR: Linking Theory with Practice in Ghana’s Basic Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla T. Apronti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current understanding of disaster risk reduction (DRR concurs that, when provided the right education, children have the potential to reduce their own vulnerability and the vulnerability of others in their community. What, then, comprises the right education for DRR? Research has established the need for disaster education to address the causes and effects, prevention and response, and management and recovery from disaster events. The educational process must include diverse and practical techniques that reinforce disaster knowledge and builds a culture of safety and resilience amongst students. Drawing on syllabus content analysis and field research in two rural communities in semi-arid Northern Ghana, this study explored the presence and nature of DRR within the syllabi of the basic school system. By comparing the result of the content analysis with results from interviews and questionnaires completed by teachers and students, significant gaps were identified between the disaster pedagogy outlined in the syllabi (theory and that which occurs in the classroom (practice. It was realized that while the theory outlines active and innovative techniques for teaching, learning, and evaluating DRR lessons, various challenges hinder the practical application of these techniques in the classroom. The study concludes that a lack of teacher training and professional development, and inadequate teaching and learning materials, generally account for these results. A new and consolidated effort is required from all stakeholders to train teachers and to provide the appropriate learning materials to improve on the current DRR education.

  9. Factors that affect general practice as a choice of medical speciality: implications for policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Amit; Ladyshewsky, Richard; Trumble, Stephen

    2017-11-28

    Objective This article critically appraises the range of personal, professional and social factors that affect the choice of speciality across medical students, prevocational doctors, general practice registrars and general practitioners. Methods This qualitative study applied constructs from the fields of decision theory and career theory to better understand the complex nature of choosing a speciality. In all, 47 in-depth interviews were conducted with participants at different stages of their career cycle. The data was codified and analysed using NVivo to identify key factors that influenced speciality choice. Results The research identified 77 individual findings influencing general practice as a choice of medical speciality. These were distilled into a matrix to show that factors such as money, prestige and peer interaction did not have a compelling effect, whereas clinical and academic role models, flexibility, work-life balance, scope of practice, connection with patients, training environment and practical opportunities did. Conclusion The findings indicate that the decision in relation to the choice of medical speciality is a complex cognitive process that is undertaken within a personal, social and professional context particular to each individual. What is known about the topic? Current literature aims to quantify changes in attitudes towards choice of speciality or the effect of particular variables in isolation while ignoring the complexity of this decision process and how the numerous variables compare with each other. What does this paper add? The present study is the first intergenerational research on this topic in the Australian context and the paper dismisses the role of prestige and remuneration as key drivers of choice in picking general practice as a speciality, noting that money is merely a 'hygiene factor'. What are the implications for policy makers? A policy framework outlining 10 key principles is presented to assist policy makers seeking

  10. Implications of leading crop production practices on environmental quality and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Teboh, Jasper M; Eze, Peter N; Stietiya, M Hashem; Kumar, Vipan; Hendrix, James; Mascagni, Henry J; Ying, Teng; Kandakji, Tarek

    2015-03-15

    Globally, much weight is currently being placed on agriculture to provide food for the growing population as well as feedstock for the bioenergy industry. Unfortunately, the intensification of agricultural operations to satisfy these growing needs has been associated with a number of environmental and human health risks. A review of publications on the subject was conducted and emphasis was placed on articles focusing on agriculture, environment, and public health as well as their interactions. Supporting information was also gathered from publications of various agricultural and environmental agencies. Agricultural practices with potential negative implications on the environment and human health were identified broadly as: (a) utilization of biosolids and animal manures, (b) use of agricultural chemicals, (c) management of post-harvest residue, (d) irrigation, and (e) tillage operations. Soil, water, and air contamination by nutrients, heavy metals, pathogens, and pesticides, as well as air contamination by particulate matters, noxious gases, and pathogens were among the leading environmental impacts. Some of the human-health impacts identified included neurological and reproductive defects, cardiovascular risks, cancers and other diseases (of kidney, liver, lung, and skin), skin allergies, gastroenteritis, and methemoglobinemia. Continual awareness on the impacts of the reviewed agricultural practices on environmental quality and human health and the implementation of experimentally-backed best management practices in agricultural systems remain indispensable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring Privilege in the Digital Divide: Implications for Theory, Policy, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mei Lan; Canham, Sarah L; Battersby, Lupin; Sixsmith, Judith; Wada, Mineko; Sixsmith, Andrew

    2018-05-10

    The digital revolution has resulted in innovative solutions and technologies that can support the well-being, independence, and health of seniors. Yet, the notion of the "digital divide" presents significant inequities in terms of who accesses and benefits from the digital landscape. To better understand the social and structural inequities of the digital divide, a realist synthesis was conducted to inform theoretical understandings of information and communication technologies (ICTs); to understand the practicalities of access and use inequities; to uncover practices that facilitate digital literacy and participation; and to recommend policies to mitigate the digital divide. A systematic search yielded 55 articles published between 2006 and 2016. Synthesis of existing knowledge, combined with user-experience elicited through a deliberative dialogue session with community stakeholders (n = 35), made visible a pattern of privilege that determined individual agency in ICT access and use. Though age is consistently centralized as the key determinant of the digital divide, our analyses, which encompassed both van Dijk's resources and appropriation theory and intersectionality, appraised this notion and revealed that age is not the sole determinant. Findings highlight the role of other factors that contribute to digital inequity among community-dwelling middle-aged (45-64) and older (65+) adults, including education, income, gender, and generational status. Informed by results of a realist synthesis that was guided by intersectional perspectives, a conceptual framework was developed outlining implications for theory, policy, and practice to address the wicked problem that is the digital divide.

  12. Informal care and the self-management partnership: implications for Australian health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essue, Beverley M; Jowsey, Tanisha; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Mirzaei, Masoud; Pearce-Brown, Carmen L; Aspin, Clive; Usherwood, Tim P

    2010-11-01

    The Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS) aims to improve the care and support for patients with chronic illness and their family carers. Here we describe the carers' contribution to the self-management partnership and discuss the policy and practice implications that are relevant to improving the support available for informal care in Australia. A secondary analysis of SCIPPS data. Fourteen carers of patients between 45 and 85 years with chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes were conveniently sampled from western Sydney and the Australian Capital Territory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Key roles that carers perform in the self-management partnership included: home helper; lifestyle coach; advocate; technical care manager; and health information interpreter. Two negative consequences of juggling these roles included: self-neglect and conflict. Rigid eligibility criteria limit carers' access to essential support programs which underestimates and undervalues their contributions to the self-management partnership. Support services should focus on the development of practical skills to perform the caregiving roles. In addition, health professionals require support to work more effectively with carers to minimise the conflict that can overshadow the care and self-management partnership.

  13. Learning from collaborative research on sustainably managing fresh water: implications for ethical research-practice engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret L. Ayre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-2000s, there has been increasing recognition of the promise of collaborative research and management for addressing complex issues in sustainably managing fresh water. A large variety of collaborative freshwater research and management processes is now evident around the world. However, how collective knowledge development, coproduction, or cocreation is carried out in an ethical manner is less well known. From the literature and our experiences as applied, transdisciplinary researchers and natural resource management practitioners, we seek to describe and explore these aspects of empirical cases of collaborative freshwater research and management. Drawing on cases from Indigenous community-based natural resource management in northern Australia, flood and drought risk management in Bulgaria, water management and climate change adaptation in the Pacific, and regional catchment and estuary management in Victoria and New South Wales in Australia, we identify lessons to support improved collaborative sustainable freshwater management research and practice. Cocreation represents an emerging approach to participation and collaboration in freshwater management research-practice and can be seen to constitute four interlinked and iterative phases: coinitiation, codesign, coimplementation, and coevaluation. For freshwater researchers and managers and their collaborators, paying attention to these phases and the ethical dilemmas that arise within each phase will support the cocreation of more effective and ethical research-practice through: sensitizing collaborators to the need for reflexivity in research-practice, proposing action research codesign as a method for managing emergent questions and outcomes, and supporting more equitable outcomes for collaborators through an emphasis on coevaluation and collaborative articulation of the links between research outputs and practice outcomes.

  14. The Devil Is in the Details: Linking Home Buyout Policy, Practice, and Experience After Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Brokopp Binder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Federal housing recovery policy bounds many of the decisions made by households after a disaster. Within this policy domain, home buyout programs are increasingly used to encourage residents to permanently relocate out of areas considered at risk for future hazards. While buyouts offer homeowners and governments potential benefits, research exploring the impacts of these policies is limited. In this paper, we present an in-depth examination of the community experience of buyouts, a perspective that is noticeably lacking in the literature. Using data from two mixed-method empirical studies, we explored the implications of buyout program design and implementation for Oakwood Beach, New York, a community offered a buyout after Hurricane Sandy. We found that  design decisions made at program conception significantly impacted participants’ experience of the buyout, including their understanding of program goals and their progression through the buyout and relocation process. We conclude with recommendations for future buyouts, including increased inclusion of affected communities in the process of and pre-event planning for recovery, along with recommendations for future research.

  15. Beaconless Georouting Under The Spotlight: Practical Link Models and Application Scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-06-18

    Beaconless georouting has emerged as a viable packetforwarding technique in distributed wireless networks, particularly for applications requiring portability and scalability. In this paper, we focus on fine-tuning and developing the analytical tools associated with the study of beaconless georouting protocols. For instance, they have been traditionally analyzed and simulated from the perspective of a single hop only. However, end-to-end performance analysis is instrumental when considering practical application scenarios. Furthermore, beaconless georouting protocols have been studied in literature assuming equal communication ranges for the data and control packets. In reality, this is not true since the communication range is actually a function of the packet length (among other factors). Control packets are typically much shorter than data packets. As a consequence, a substantial discrepancy exists in practice between their respective communication ranges, causing many data packet drops. Accordingly, we introduce two simple strategies for bridging the gap between the control and data packet communication ranges. Our primary objective in this paper is to construct a realistic analysis describing the end-to-end performance of beaconless georouting protocols. Two flagship protocols are selected in this paper for further investigation. For a better perspective, the two protocols are actually compared to a hypothetical limit case, one which offers optimal energy and latency performance. Finally, we present four different application scenarios. For each scenario, we highlight the georouting protocol which performs the best and discuss the reasons behind it. © 2007-2012 IEEE.

  16. Practical Forward-Secure Range and Sort Queries with Update-Oblivious Linked Lists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blass Erik-Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the problem of privacy-preserving range search and sort queries on encrypted data in the face of an untrusted data store. Our new protocol RASP has several advantages over existing work. First, RASP strengthens privacy by ensuring forward security: after a query for range [a, b], any new record added to the data store is indistinguishable from random, even if the new record falls within range [a, b]. We are able to accomplish this using only traditional hash and block cipher operations, abstaining from expensive asymmetric cryptography and bilinear pairings. Consequently, RASP is highly practical, even for large database sizes. Additionally, we require only cloud storage and not a computational cloud like related works, which can reduce monetary costs significantly. At the heart of RASP, we develop a new update-oblivious bucket-based data structure. We allow for data to be added to buckets without leaking into which bucket it has been added. As long as a bucket is not explicitly queried, the data store does not learn anything about bucket contents. Furthermore, no information is leaked about data additions following a query. Besides formally proving RASP’s privacy, we also present a practical evaluation of RASP on Amazon Dynamo, demonstrating its efficiency and real world applicability.

  17. Linking research to practice: the rise of evidence-based health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joanne Gard

    2014-01-01

    The lecture explores the origins of evidence-based practice (EBP) in health sciences librarianship beginning with examples from the work of Janet Doe and past Doe lecturers. Additional sources of evidence are used to document the rise of research and EBP as integral components of our professional work. FOUR SOURCES OF EVIDENCE ARE USED TO EXAMINE THE RISE OF EBP: (1) a publication by Doe and research-related content in past Doe lectures, (2) research-related word usage in articles in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association between 1961 and 2010, (3) Medical Library Association activities, and (4) EBP as an international movement. These sources of evidence confirm the rise of EBP in health sciences librarianship. International initiatives sparked the rise of evidence-based librarianship and continue to characterize the movement. This review shows the emergence of a unique form of EBP that, although inspired by evidence-based medicine (EBM), has developed its own view of evidence and its application in library and information practice. Health sciences librarians have played a key role in initiating, nurturing, and spreading EBP in other branches of our profession. Our close association with EBM set the stage for developing our own EBP. While we relied on EBM as a model for our early efforts, we can observe the continuing evolution of our own unique approach to using, creating, and applying evidence from a variety of sources to improve the quality of health information services.

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Social Skills during Early Childhood and Links to Parenting Practices in a Japanese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Anme, Tokie

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from a nationwide survey in Japan to model the developmental course of social skills during early childhood. The goals of this study were to identify longitudinal profiles of social skills between 2 and 5 years of age using a group-based trajectory approach, and to investigate whether and to what extent parenting practices at 2 years of age predicted developmental trajectories of social skills during the preschool period. A relatively large sample of boys and girls (N > 1,000) was assessed on three social skill dimensions (Cooperation, Self-control, and Assertion) at four time points (ages 2, 3, 4, and 5), and on four parenting practices (cognitive and emotional involvement, avoidance of restriction and punishment, social stimulation, and social support for parenting) at age 2. The results indicated that for each social skill dimension, group-based trajectory models identified three distinct trajectories: low, moderate, and high. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that parenting practice variables showed differential contributions to development of child social skills. Specifically, Cooperation and Assertion were promoted by cognitive and emotional involvement, Self-control by social stimulation, and Assertion by avoidance of restriction and punishment. Abundant social support for parenting was not associated with higher child social skills trajectories. We found heterogeneity in developmental profiles of social skills during the preschool ages, and we identified parenting practices that contributed to different patterns of social skills development. We discussed the implications of higher-quality parenting practices on the improvement of child social skills across early childhood.

  19. Clinical neurofeedback: case studies, proposed mechanism, and implications for pediatric neurology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda, Stella B; McMahon, Doreen; Othmer, Siegfried; Othmer, Sue

    2011-08-01

    Trends in alternative medicine use by American health care consumers are rising substantially. Extensive literature exists reporting on the effectiveness of neurofeedback in the treatment of autism, closed head injury, insomnia, migraine, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We speculated that neurofeedback might serve as a therapeutic modality for patients with medically refractory neurological disorders and have begun referring patients to train with clinical neurofeedback practitioners. The modality is not always covered by insurance. Confident their child's medical and neurological needs would continue to be met, the parents of 3 children with epilepsy spectrum disorder decided to have their child train in the modality. The children's individual progress following neurofeedback are each presented here. A proposed mechanism and practice implications are discussed.

  20. Teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India’s current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are two ways to proceed in this direction. First, making an internal review and assessment of present scenario of teacher education and suggesting need-based measures. The second one is to learn from those countries that have recently reviewed their teacher education systems and are continuously working for the betterment of teacher education. Following second approach, present paper analyzes teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland, argues that concerns and commitments to reform teacher education in India and Scotland are similar, and suggests implications of Scottish experiences in the Indian context.

  1. State Definitions of Social Work Practice: Implications for our Professional Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katharine; Fogel, Sondra; Plitt Donaldson, Linda; Erickson, Christina

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, the social work profession has been concerned with describing the unique and specific characteristics that define its core functions in society; however, the profession has yet to agree to a single definition of social work. In the absence of a unifying definition, 51 different statutory definitions of social work have been created by each state and the District of Columbia. Using qualitative methods, each statutory definition of social work was analyzed to gain an understanding of how social work is defined and understood across the United States. Findings indicate that 57% of the statutory language blend the full range of micro to macro social work practice skills into their definition. However, even within these and those remaining, there are vast differences in definitions. Implications for state licensing laws, are considered, along with how this impacts education, the work force, and professional identity.

  2. Implications of American Indian gambling for social work research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momper, Sandra L

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1988 passage of the Indian Gaming and Regulatory Act (IGRA), American Indian tribal communities have rapidly opened up casinos. American Indian participation in recreational gambling has increased, resulting in an increase in problem and pathological gambling. However, increased revenues from gaming have significantly benefited tribes. Background information on the Supreme Court case that led to passage of the IGRA and subsequently the opening of casinos on Indian reservations is provided. Data are presented on American Indian gambling studies that explore the impact of gambling on the development of problem or pathological gambling among American Indians. Reports and data are presented on the effects of gambling on the socioeconomic development of tribal communities. The implications of American Indian gaming for social work research and practice are discussed.

  3. On some practical implications of the recent EU-directive on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M

    1998-01-01

    The following practical implications of the EU 96 directive on radiation protection in Austria are discussed: Quantitative justification and optimization of the recent standards is needed. The reduction of the annual dose limit to 20 mSv will affect a very small percentage of the persons subject to monitoring. The reduction of dose limits in external exposure of the population will not be dramatic at all. The model used to set up limits for internal exposure was changed to single intake; this implies some changes in design and monitoring. The deletion of convenient figures for 'unknown' radionuclides will make environmental and release monitoring more complex without gaining a higher level of protection. (A.K.)

  4. The socio-materiality of learning practices and implications for the field of learning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Johri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of digital information technologies in education has becomecommonplace, there are few, if any, central guiding frameworks or theories thatexplicate the relationship between technology and learning practices. In thispaper, I argue that such a theoretical framework can assist scholars and practitionersalike by working as a conduit to study and design learning technologies.Towards this goal, I propose socio-materiality as a key theoretical construct withvaluable insights and implications for the field of learning technology. Sociomaterialityhelps balance the disproportionate attention given to either the socialimplications of technology use or the material aspects of technology design.Furthermore, I forward ‘socio-material bricolage' as a useful analytical frameworkto examine and design technology-infused learning environments. I illustratethe value of the framework by applying it to three case studies of formaland informal technology-based learning.

  5. The hypothesis of a continuum in suicidality: a discussion on its validity and practical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Sveticic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a progression in suicide phenomena, from death wishes to suicide attempts and completed suicides, is quite old and widely present in literature. This model of interpreting suicidality has great relevance in preventative approaches, since it gives the opportunity of intercepting suicidal trajectories at several different stages. However, this may not be the case for many situations, and the hypothesis of a continuum can be true only in a limited number of cases, probably embedded with a specific psychopathological scenario (e.g. depression and with a frequency that should not permit generalisations. This paper reviews the available evidence about the existence and validity of this construct, and discusses its practical implications.

  6. Patient acceptability and practical implications of pharmacokinetic studies in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, N A; Twelves, C J; Ramirez, A J; Towlson, K E; Gregory, W M; Richards, M A

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the practical implications and acceptability to patients of pharmacokinetic studies in 34 women receiving anthracyclines for advanced breast cancer. The following parameters were recorded: age, ECOG performance status, psychological state (Rotterdam Symptom Checklist), cytotoxic drug and dose, number of venepunctures for treatment and sampling, and time when the sampling cannula was removed. Immediately after finishing pharmacokinetic sampling, patients completed a questionnaire which revealed that (i) all patients understood sampling was for research, (ii) 35% of patients experienced problems with sampling, (iii) benefits from participation were perceived by 56% of patients. Of 20 patients later questioned after completion of their treatment course, 40% recalled difficulties with blood sampling. Factors identifying in advance those patients who tolerate pharmacokinetic studies poorly were not identified but the number of venepunctures should be minimised. Patients may also perceive benefits from 'non-therapeutic' research.

  7. Organizational climate in primary care settings: implications for nurse practitioner practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Lusine; Nannini, Angela; Clarke, Sean

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to investigate literature related to organizational climate, define organizational climate, and identify its domains for nurse practitioner (NP) practice in primary care settings. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, HealthSTAR/Ovid, ISI Web of Science, and several other health policy and nursingy databases. In primary care settings, organizational climate for NPs is a set of organizational attributes, which are perceived by NPs about their practice setting, emerge from the way the organization interacts with NPs, and affect NP behaviors and outcomes. Autonomy, NP-physician relations, and professional visibility were identified as organizational climate domains. NPs should be encouraged to assess organizational climate in their workplace and choose organizations that promote autonomy, collegiality between NPs and physicians, and encourage professional visibility. Organizational and NP awareness of qualities that foster NP practice will be a first step for developing strategies to creating an optimal organizational climate for NPs to deliver high-quality care. More research is needed to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework for organizational climate and develop new instruments to accurately measure organizational climate and link it to NP and patient outcomes. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Black Truffle Harvesting in Spanish Forests: Trends, Current Policies and Practices, and Implications on its Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Forcadell, Ricardo; Sánchez, Sergio; Martín-Santafé, María; Marco, Pedro; Camarero, J. Julio; Reyna, Santiago

    2018-04-01

    The European black truffle is a mycorrhizal fungus native to Spanish Mediterranean forests. In most Spanish regions it was originally commercially harvested in the second half of the 20th century. Experts agree that wild truffle yields suffered a sharp decline during the 1970s and 1980s. However, official statistics for Spanish harvest are scarce and seemingly conflicting, and little attention has been paid to the regime for the exploitation of truffle-producing forests and its implications on the sustainability of this resource. Trends in harvest from 1969 to 2013 and current harvesting practices were analyzed as a case study, taking into account that Spain is a major truffle producer worldwide, but at the same time truffles have only recently been exploited. The available statistical sources, which include an increasing proportion of cultivated truffles since the mid-1990s, were explored, with estimates from Truffle Harvesters Federation showing higher consistency. Statistical sources were then compared with proxies for wild harvest (rents from truffle leases in public forests) to corroborate time trends in wild harvesting. Results suggest that black truffle production is recovering in recent years thanks to plantations, whereas wild harvest is still declining. The implications of Spanish legal and institutional framework on sustainability of wild truffle use are reviewed. In the current scenario, the decline of wild harvest is likely to continue and eventually make commercial harvesting economically unattractive, thus aggravating sustainability issues. Strengthening of property rights, rationalization of harvesting pressure, forest planning and involvement of public stakeholders are proposed as corrective measures.

  9. Female science teacher beliefs and attitudes: implications in relation to gender and pedagogical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Mara; Gallard, Alejandro J.

    2007-10-01

    Beliefs and attitudes resulting from the unique life experiences of teachers frame interactions with learners promoting gender equity or inequity and the reproduction of social views about knowledge and power as related to gender. This study examines the enactment of a female science teacher's pedagogy (Laura), seeking to understand the implications of her beliefs and attitudes, as framed by her interpretations and daily manifestations, as she interacts with students. Distinct influences inform the conceptual framework of this study: (a) the social organization of society at large, governed by understood and unspoken patriarchy, present both academically and socially; (b) the devaluing of women as "knowers" of scientific knowledge as defined by a western and male view of science; (c) the marginalization or "feminization" of education and pedagogical knowledge. The findings reflect tensions between attitudes and beliefs and actual teacher practice suggesting the need for awareness within existing or new teachers about their positions as social agents and the sociological implications related to issues of gender within which we live and work, inclusive of science teaching and learning.

  10. The practice and clinical implications of tablet splitting in international health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Ivo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Yeuichaixong, Sengchanh; Lee, Sue J; Newton, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tablet splitting is frequently performed to facilitate correct dosing, but the practice and implications in low-income settings have rarely been discussed. Methods We selected eight drugs, with narrow therapeutic indices or critical dosages, frequently divided in the Lao PDR (Laos). These were split, by common techniques used in Laos, by four nurses and four laypersons. The mean percentage deviation from the theoretical expected weight and weight loss of divided tablets/capsules were recorded. Results Five of eight study drugs failed, on splitting, to meet European Pharmacopoeia recommendations for tablet weight deviation from the expected weight of tablet/capsule halves with 10% deviating by more than 25%. There was a significant difference in splitting accuracy between nurses and laypersons (P = 0.027). Coated and unscored tablets were less accurately split than uncoated (P = 0.03 and 0.0019 for each half) and scored (0.0001 for both halves) tablets. Conclusion These findings have potential clinical implications on treatment outcome and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Investment by drug companies in a wider range of dosage units, particularly for narrow therapeutic index and critical dosage medicines, is strongly recommended. PMID:24702766

  11. Implications of Derived Rule Following of Roulette Gambling for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alyssa N; Grant, Tara

    2015-05-01

    Problem gambling is a global concern, and behavior analytic attention has increasingly focused on reasons for why problem gambling occurs and conditions under which it is maintained. However, limited knowledge currently exists on the process to which self-generated rules maintain gambling behaviors. Therefore, the current study assessed six recreational gamblers on a roulette game before and after discrimination training to establish a self-rule to wager on red or black. Following discrimination training, all six participants altered their response allocation among red or black and consistently responded according to the newly derived self-rule. Results maintained during 1-week follow-up sessions across all participants. Implications for clinical application of self-awareness and self-generated rule following are discussed. Implications for practice • Demonstration of how stimuli such as color can alter gambling behavior • Procedures to assist clients with changing self-rules about gambling behavior • Using self-generated rule formulation for more contextually appropriate target behaviors • Highlights how self-generated rules can be altered to change clinical target behaviors.

  12. Political strategy, business strategy, and the academic medical center: linking theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souba, W W; Weitekamp, M R; Mahon, J F

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to link external political strategy theory to a specific health care setting-that of the academic medical center (AMC). Political strategy encompasses those activities undertaken by AMCs to acquire, develop, and use power (clout, influence, and credibility) to gain an advantage in situations of conflict. It should be differentiated from internal politics, a topic that will not be dealt with in this review. Political strategy should also be distinguished from but not divorced from competitive strategy. As political and social action can change the competitive landscape and the rules of competition, AMCs must become adept in issues management and stakeholder management. The focus on political strategy is a reflection of the enormous changes in the external environment that have impacted AMCs in recent years. These changes have often emerged out of political and social action and they impact significantly on the organization's more traditional business strategies. We suggest that a tighter alignment between political and business strategies in the future will help ensure organizational survival and success. This article reviews the literature and theory in corporate political strategy and illustrates the application of political strategy with examples of issues and problems faced by AMCs. Models of political strategy are well crafted, and this article concludes with succinct observations on the use of political strategies to enhance the business-based strategies of AMCs. Although the focus is on AMCs, the use of political strategies is applicable to any health care institution. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. A practical link between medical and computer groups in image data processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollivier, J Y

    1975-01-01

    An acquisition and processing system of scintigraphic images should not be exclusively constructed for a computer specialist. Primarily it should be designed to be easily and quickly handled by a nurse or a doctor and be programmed by the doctor or the computer specialist. This consideration led Intertechnique to construct the CINE 200 system. In fact, the CINE 200 includes a computer and so offers the programming possibilities which are the tools of the computer specialist, even more it was conceived especially for clinic use and offers some functions which cannot be carried out by classical computer and some standard peripherals. In addition, the CINE 200 allows the doctor who is not a computer specialist to familiarize himself with this science by the progressive levels of language, the first level being a link of simple processing on images or curves, the second being an interpretative language identical to BASIC, very easy to learn. Before showing the offered facilities for the doctor and the computer specialist by the CINE 200, its characteristics are briefly reviewed.

  14. Food beliefs and practices in urban poor communities in Accra: implications for health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatemaa, Sandra; Badasu, Delali Margaret; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2018-04-02

    Poor communities in low and middle income countries are reported to experience a higher burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and nutrition-related NCDs. Interventions that build on lay perspectives of risk are recommended. The objective of this study was to examine lay understanding of healthy and unhealthy food practices, factors that influence food choices and the implications for developing population health interventions in three urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana. Thirty lay adults were recruited and interviewed in two poor urban communities in Accra. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed thematically. The analysis was guided by the socio-ecological model which focuses on the intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, structural and policy levels of social organisation. Food was perceived as an edible natural resource, and healthy in its raw state. A food item retained its natural, healthy properties or became unhealthy depending on how it was prepared (e.g. frying vs boiling) and consumed (e.g. early or late in the day). These food beliefs reflected broader social food norms in the community and incorporated ideas aligned with standard expert dietary guidelines. Healthy cooking was perceived as the ability to select good ingredients, use appropriate cooking methods, and maintain food hygiene. Healthy eating was defined in three ways: 1) eating the right meals; 2) eating the right quantity; and 3) eating at the right time. Factors that influenced food choice included finances, physical and psychological state, significant others and community resources. The findings suggest that beliefs about healthy and unhealthy food practices are rooted in multi-level factors, including individual experience, family dynamics and community factors. The factors influencing food choices are also multilevel. The implications of the findings for the design and content of dietary and health interventions are discussed.

  15. Caffeine's implications for women's health and survey of obstetrician-gynecologists' caffeine knowledge and assessment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Britta L; Juliano, Laura M; Schulkin, Jay

    2009-09-01

    Caffeine has relevance for women's health and pregnancy, including significant associations with spontaneous abortion and low birth weight. According to scientific data, pregnant women and women of reproductive age should be advised to limit their caffeine consumption. This article reviews the implications of caffeine for women's psychological and physical health, and presents data on obstetrician-gynecologists' (ob-gyns) knowledge and practices pertaining to caffeine. Ob-gyns (N = 386) who are members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network responded to a 21-item survey about caffeine. Although most knew that caffeine is passed through breast milk, only 24.8% were aware that caffeine metabolism significantly slows as pregnancy progresses. Many respondents were not aware of the caffeine content of commonly used products, such as espresso and Diet Coke, with 14.3% and 57.8% indicating amounts within an accurate range, respectively. Furthermore, ob-gyns did not take into account large differences in caffeine content across different caffeinated beverages with most recommending one to two servings of coffee or tea or soft drinks per day. There was substantial inconsistency in what was considered to be "high levels" of maternal caffeine consumption, with only 31.6% providing a response. When asked to indicate the risk that high levels of caffeine have on various pregnancy outcomes, responses were not consistent with scientific data. For example, respondents overestimated the relative risk of stillbirths and underestimated the relative risk of spontaneous abortion. There was great variability in assessment and advice practices pertaining to caffeine. More than half advise their pregnant patients to consume caffeine under certain circumstances, most commonly to alleviate headache and caffeine withdrawal. The data suggest that ob-gyns could benefit from information about caffeine and its relevance to their

  16. Empirical Evidence on the Link Between Compliance with Governance of Best Practice and Firms' Operating Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek B. Lama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides robust evidence in support of the agency theory argument that corporate governancematters for a firm’s operating performance. Using the corporate governance ratings as the governance proxyfrom Horwath 2006 Corporate Governance Report (mid-sized Australian ASX companies andMid-CapCorporate Governance Report 2007 (The University of Newcastle 2006; 2007, I examine 60 sample firms toreveal that a firm’s governance is positively and significantly related to firm performance as measured by returnon equity, earning yield and return on assets. This study extends the findings of these two reports which founda disturbing trend in the corporate governance practice of Australian mid-cap companies – both a decrease incompanies with excellent corporate governance, and an increase in companies with significant corporategovernance deficiencies. The findings of this study suggest that those mid-size companies who have allowedcorporate governance to deteriorate have adversely affected their shareholder returns.

  17. Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eriyagma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term "Environmental Flows (EF" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

  18. Food Safety Practices Linked with Proper Refrigerator Temperatures in Retail Delis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura G; Hoover, Edward Rickamer; Faw, Brenda V; Hedeen, Nicole K; Nicholas, David; Wong, Melissa R; Shepherd, Craig; Gallagher, Daniel L; Kause, Janell R

    2018-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) causes the third highest number of foodborne illness deaths annually. L. monocytogenes contamination of sliced deli meats at the retail level is a significant contributing factor to L. monocytogenes illness. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) conducted a study to learn more about retail delis' practices concerning L. monocytogenes growth and cross-contamination prevention. This article presents data from this study on the frequency with which retail deli refrigerator temperatures exceed 41°F, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended maximum temperature for ready-to-eat food requiring time and temperature control for safety (TCS) (such as retail deli meat). This provision was designed to control bacterial growth in TCS foods. This article also presents data on deli and staff characteristics related to the frequency with which retail delis refrigerator temperatures exceed 41°F. Data from observations of 445 refrigerators in 245 delis showed that in 17.1% of delis, at least one refrigerator was >41°F. We also found that refrigeration temperatures reported in this study were lower than those reported in a related 2007 study. Delis with more than one refrigerator, that lacked refrigerator temperature recording, and had a manager who had never been food safety certified had greater odds of having a refrigerator temperature >41°F. The data from this study suggest that retail temperature control is improving over time. They also identify a food safety gap: some delis have refrigerator temperatures that exceed 41°F. We also found that two food safety interventions were related to better refrigerated storage practices: kitchen manager certification and recording refrigerated storage temperatures. Regulatory food safety programs and the retail industry may wish to consider encouraging or requiring kitchen manager certification and recording refrigerated

  19. Linking nurses' perceptions of patient care quality to job satisfaction: the role of authentic leadership and empowering professional practice environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Fida, Roberta

    2015-05-01

    A model linking authentic leadership, structural empowerment, and supportive professional practice environments to nurses' perceptions of patient care quality and job satisfaction was tested. Positive work environment characteristics are important for nurses' perceptions of patient care quality and job satisfaction (significant factors for retention). Few studies have examined the mechanism by which these characteristics operate to influence perceptions of patient care quality or job satisfaction. A cross-sectional provincial survey of 723 Canadian nurses was used to test the hypothesized models using structural equation modeling. The model was an acceptable fit and all paths were significant. Authentic leadership had a positive effect on structural empowerment, which had a positive effect on perceived support for professional practice and a negative effect on nurses' perceptions that inadequate unit staffing prevented them from providing high-quality patient care. These workplace conditions predicted job satisfaction. Authentic leaders play an important role in creating empowering professional practice environments that foster high-quality care and job satisfaction.

  20. Prevalencia de fracturas faciales vinculadas con el deporte Prevalence of facial fractures linked to sports practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Díaz Fernández

    2004-08-01

    were the predominant fracture patterns. Therapeutical procedures applied to these patients did not differ significantly from that followed in other types of lesions. Sports practicing interruption ranged from 9 to 15 weeks after the initial treatment. Regarding high performance athletes that get injured, it is necessary to set standards for their rehabilitation process to help in taking decisions as to their re-incorporation to sports practice and competition.

  1. Beyond the edge: Linking agricultural landscapes, stream networks, and best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, Rebecca M.; Thoms, Martin C.; Richardson, William B.

    2018-01-01

    Despite much research and investment into understanding and managing nutrients across agricultural landscapes, nutrient runoff to freshwater ecosystems is still a major concern. We argue there is currently a disconnect between the management of watershed surfaces (agricultural landscape) and river networks (riverine landscape). These landscapes are commonly managed separately, but there is limited cohesiveness between agricultural landscape-focused research and river science, despite similar end goals. Interdisciplinary research into stream networks that drain agricultural landscapes is expanding but is fraught with problems. Conceptual frameworks are useful tools to order phenomena, reveal patterns and processes, and in interdisciplinary river science, enable the joining of multiple areas of understanding into a single conceptual–empirical structure. We present a framework for the interdisciplinary study and management of agricultural and riverine landscapes. The framework includes components of an ecosystems approach to the study of catchment–stream networks, resilience thinking, and strategic adaptive management. Application of the framework is illustrated through a study of the Fox Basin in Wisconsin, USA. To fully realize the goal of nutrient reduction in the basin, we suggest that greater emphasis is needed on where best management practices (BMPs) are used within the spatial context of the combined watershed–stream network system, including BMPs within the river channel. Targeted placement of BMPs throughout the riverine landscape would increase the overall buffering capacity of the system to nutrient runoff and thus its resilience to current and future disturbances.

  2. Practical implications of ICRP26 for recording and regulation of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, F.A.; Woodhouse, J.A.; Kennedy, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The paper compares the system of dose limitation recommended in ICRP Publication 26 with that based upon previous ICRP Publications upon which the current United Kingdom Legislation is based. Particular attention is given to the implication of the place given to the concept of committed dose in the system of dose limitation. The present dosimetry procedures in use within British Nuclear Fuels Ltd are outlined together with their practical limitations, and attention is drawn to the particular technical problems associated with plutonium uptake assessments. A number of other practical issues are identified such as dose records and the supplementary dose information which would require recording and the need for the re-education of employees in the new control concepts. A proposal is presented for internal dose recording based initially upon environmental measurements but subject to subsequent modification by preferred assessments based upon in-vivo and urinalysis techniques. Finally an assessment and, where appropriate, suspension procedure is proposed to control long-term exposure arising from plutonium intakes based upon an averaging period of 15 years. (author)

  3. [Network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology: implications for clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekoop, R; Goekoop, J G

    2016-01-01

    In a recent publication we reported the existence of around 11 (to 15) 'elementary syndromes' that may combine in various ways, rather like 'building blocks', to explain the wide range of psychiatric symptoms. 'Bridge symptoms' seem to be responsible both for combining large sets of symptoms into elementary syndromes and for combining the various elementary syndromes to form one globally connected network structure. To discuss the implication of these findings for clinical practice. We performed a network analysis of symptom scores. Elementary syndromes provide a massive simplification of the description of psychiatric disease. Instead of the more than 300 categories in DSM-5, we now need to consider only a handful of elementary syndromes and personality domains. This modular representation of psychiatric illnesses allows us to make a complete, systematic and efficient assessment of patients and a systematic review of treatment options. Clinicians, patients, managerial staff and insurance companies can verify whether symptom reduction is taking place in the most important domains of psychopathology. Unlike classic multidimensional methods of disease description, network models of psychopathology can be used to explain comorbidity patterns, predict the clinical course of psychopathology and to designate primary targets for therapeutic interventions. A network view on psychopathology could significantly improve everyday clinical practice.

  4. Narrative in interprofessional education and practice: implications for professional identity, provider-patient communication and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G

    2014-01-01

    Health and social care professionals increasingly use narrative approaches to focus on the patient and to communicate with each other. Both effective interprofessional education (IPE) and practice (IPP) require recognizing the various values and voices of different professions, how they relate to the patient's life story, and how they interact with each other at the level of the healthcare team. This article analyzes and integrates the literature on narrative to explore: self-narrative as an expression of one's professional identity; the co-creation of the patient's narrative by the professional and the patient; and the interprofessional multi-vocal narrative discourse as co-constructed by members of the healthcare team. Using a narrative approach to thinking about professional identity, provider-patient communication, and interprofessional teamwork expands our thinking about both IPE and IPP by providing new insights into the nature of professional practice based on relationships to oneself, the patient, and others on the team. How professionals define themselves, gather and present information from the patient, and communicate as members of a clinical team all have important dimensions that can be revealed by a narrative approach. Implications and conclusions for the further development of the narrative approach in IPE and IPP are offered.

  5. Interrogating the Contested Spaces of Rural Aging: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark W; Winterton, Rachel

    2018-01-18

    Informed by a critical turn underway in rural gerontology, this article explores how the intersection of global and local trends relating to population aging and rural change create contested spaces of rural aging. The aim is to build our understanding of rural as a dynamic context within which the processes, outcomes, and experiences of aging are created, confronted, and contested by older adults and their communities. A review of key developments within gerontology and rural studies reveals how competing policies, discourses, and practices relating to healthy aging and aging in place, rural citizenship and governmentality, and social inclusion and inequality combine in particular ways to empower or disempower a diverse range of older rural adults aging in a diverse range of rural communities. The article provides a contextually sensitive perspective on potential sources of conflict and exclusion for older adults in dynamic rural spaces and further enhances our understanding of how rural physical and social environments are constructed and experienced in older age. A framework for interrogating emergent questions about aging in rural contexts is developed and implications for advancing research, policy, and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Implications of RDoC for the research and practice of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershenberg, Rachel; Goldfried, Marvin R

    2015-03-01

    The field of psychotherapy is at an important juncture. Recent changes in the field include (a) the skeptical reception of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and (b) NIMH's prioritization of an alternative classification system to guide translational and intervention research. Moreover, (c) the field continues to be held accountable to governmental agencies and third-party payers to demonstrate its empirical basis. Thus, psychological research as it relates to the practice of psychotherapy is at a crossroads. In this article, we provide a brief overview of several generations of psychotherapy outcome research, including the consequences that followed in the 1980s as psychotherapy research moved toward randomized controlled trials for clinical disorders. We delineate the inherent strengths and limitations of this movement and address how the NIMH has recently responded with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). We then address philosophical and practical implications of the emphasis on a neuroscientific conceptualization of psychological problems. Finally, we discuss opportunities for a next generation of convergent science that incorporates, rather than replaces, psychosocial variables across stages of translational research and treatment development. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in trade and the modernization of transport infrastructures have elevated the importance of flow management to new levels. Manufacturers and researchers have noticed many problems concerning supply chain activities, and usually either a system or subcomponent in supply chains is discussed in the literature, but they fails to answer the rational (why, what, how behind them. This paper addresses a review of the principles, bottlenecks and strategies of supply chain practices for organizations with an emphasis on the implications of Indian agri-food sector. Findings of this review reveal that the human & environmental issues, improved product visibility, food safety/quality and the associated economic benefits in sustainable agri-food supply chains can be achieved through innovation, collaboration, elimination of uncertainties and introducing global SCM practices into green & lean initiatives.

  8. EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Karovska Ristovska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational policy for children with intellectual disability in Republic of Macedonia is not always consistent with the practical implications. The subject of this research was to gain an insight into the current condition of the persons with intellectual disabilities in Macedonia, before all an insight into the barriers that they are facing in their attempts to access educational information and services. This was done through conducting a qualitative (desk-top analyses of the national legislations; semi-structured interviews with parents of persons with intellectual disabilities and focus groups with relevant stakeholders and a quantitative research (quality of life research for the disabled persons. In the research a total number of 213 examinees were included. As in many other cases, and in many other countries, policy and practice are not always coherent. Legislation in the area of education in our country has to be modified and accommodated to the needs of the persons with disabilities and their parents or care-givers. The final conclusion from our research is that the persons with ID are still on the margins of society, and they lead everyday battles to prove that their needs must be taken into consideration in context of their human rights. Although awareness for the importance of the rightful treatment of this problem is not on a satisfactory level, still we can notice a shift in perception and liberation of prejudice.

  9. Breaking bad news revisited: the push for negotiated disclosure and changing practice implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arber, Anne; Gallagher, Ann

    2003-04-01

    This article revisits the ethical, legal, professional and emotional issues involved with disclosing bad news. The authors examine the push for disclosure that has come from a number of quarters in the UK, including ethical and legal challenges, in particular the Bristol Royal Inquiry Report, professional codes of conduct, health policy and the expectations of the public. The contribution of nurses to breaking bad news is not widely discussed in the literature. With the development of new nursing roles and evidence-based practice it is timely to consider the role of nurses in this process. The article highlights some limitations with current guidelines for breaking bad news, in particular, that these guidelines tend to be constructed from a professional standpoint and lack patient-centred evidence. The issue of emotional labour and how it relates to giving bad news is discussed with respect to professional staff and patients. The article concludes by raising some practice implications, including: the importance of context and continuity; the significance of information and support; the desirable qualities of the professional; and issues to consider in determining patient preferences.

  10. Childhood Adversities and Substance Misuse Among the Incarcerated: Implications for Treatment and Practice in Correctional Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Phillip L

    2017-05-12

    Incarcerated populations have high rates of childhood adversities and substance use problems. Moreover, childhood adversities are well-documented predictors of substance misuse. To investigate the impact of childhood sexual and physical abuse, caregiver abuse of drugs or alcohol, and time spent in foster care on several substance misuse outcomes. Data comes from a sample of 16,043 incarcerated men and women in the United States Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Facilities. Bivariate analyses revealed differences by sex in childhood adversities and socioeconomic characteristics. Logistic regression analyses assessed the data for a link between childhood adversities and substance misuse after adjusting for other variables. Analyses were stratified by sex to show differences in predictors of substance misuse between men and women. Childhood adversities increased the risk of many substance misuse outcomes. The prevalence of physical abuse, sexual abuse, foster care, and caretaker abuse of drugs or alcohol were greatest for inmates who reported injecting and sharing drugs. Growing up with a caregiver that used drugs or alcohol was a consistent predictor of increased risk of substance misuse for men and women. However, childhood sexual abuse increased risk for only women. Inmates who experience physical abuse, sexual abuse, foster care involvement and caretakers who use drugs and alcohol are at an increased risk of substance misuse, injecting drug use and syringe sharing. Implications suggest correctional HIV prevention and substance misuse programs must address unresolved trauma and important gender differences.

  11. Identification, assessment and intervention--Implications of an audit on dyslexia policy and practice in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gavin; Deponio, Pamela; Davidson Petch, Louise

    2005-08-01

    This article reports on research commissioned by the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED). It aimed to establish the range and extent of policy and provision in the area of specific learning difficulties (SpLD) and dyslexia throughout Scotland. The research was conducted between January and June 2004 by a team from the University of Edinburgh. The information was gathered from a questionnaire sent to all education authorities (100% response rate was achieved). Additional information was also obtained from supplementary interviews and additional materials provided by education authorities. The results indicated that nine education authorities in Scotland (out of 32) have explicit policies on dyslexia and eight authorities have policies on SpLD. It was noted however that most authorities catered for dyslexia and SpLD within a more generic policy framework covering aspects of Special Educational Needs or within documentation on 'effective learning'. In relation to identification thirty-six specific tests, or procedures, were mentioned. Classroom observation, as a procedure was rated high by most authorities. Eleven authorities operated a formal staged process combining identification and intervention. Generally, authorities supported a broader understanding of the role of identification and assessment and the use of standardized tests was only part of a wider assessment process. It was however noted that good practice in identification and intervention was not necessarily dependent on the existence of a dedicated policy on SpLD/dyslexia. Over fifty different intervention strategies/programmes were noted in the responses. Twenty-four authorities indicated that they had developed examples of good practice. The results have implications for teachers and parents as well as those involved in staff development. Pointers are provided for effective practice and the results reflect some of the issues on the current debate on dyslexia particularly relating to early

  12. A multi-disciplinary approach to medication safety and the implication for nursing education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Radha; Tocher, Jennifer; Smith, Pam; Corcoran, Janet; MacArthur, Juliet

    2014-02-01

    Medication management is a complex multi-stage and multi-disciplinary process, involving doctors, pharmacists, nurses and patients. Errors can occur at any stage from prescribing, dispensing and administering, to recording and reporting. There are a number of safety mechanisms built into the medication management system and it is recognised that nurses are the final stage of defence. However, medication error still remains a major challenge to patient safety globally. This paper aims to illustrate two main aspects of medication safety practices that have been elicited from an action research study in a Scottish Health Board and three local Higher Education Institutions: firstly current medication safety practices in two clinical settings; and secondly pre and post-registration nursing education and teaching on medication safety. This paper is based on Phase One and Two of an Action Research project. An ethnography-style observational method, influenced by an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) approach was adapted to study the everyday medication management systems and practices of two hospital wards. This was supplemented by seven in-depth interviews with nursing staff, numerous informal discussions with healthcare professionals, two focus-groups, one peer-interview and two in-depth individual interviews with final year nursing students from three Higher Education Institutions in Scotland. This paper highlights the current positive practical efforts in medication safety practices in the chosen clinical areas. Nursing staff do employ the traditional 'five right' principles - right patient, right medication, right dose, right route and right time - for safe administration. Nursing students are taught these principles in their pre-registration nursing education. However, there are some other challenges remaining: these include the establishment of a complete medication history (reconciliation) when patients come to hospital, the provision of an in-depth training in

  13. Linking agricultural practices, mycorrhizal fungi, and traits mediating plant-insect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nicholas A; Kiers, E Toby; Theis, Nina; Hazzard, Ruth V; Adler, Lynn S

    2013-10-01

    Agricultural management has profound effects on soil communities. Activities such as fertilizer inputs can modify the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities, which form important symbioses with the roots of most crop plants. Intensive conventional agricultural management may select for less mutualistic AMF with reduced benefits to host plants compared to organic management, but these differences are poorly understood. AMF are generally evaluated based on their direct growth effects on plants. However, mycorrhizal colonization also may alter plant traits such as tissue nutrients, defensive chemistry, or floral traits, which mediate important plant-insect interactions like herbivory and pollination. To determine the effect of AMF from different farming practices on plant performance and traits that putatively mediate species interactions, we performed a greenhouse study by inoculating Cucumis sativus (cucumber, Cucurbitaceae) with AMF from conventional farms, organic farms, and a commercial AMF inoculum. We measured growth and a suite of plant traits hypothesized to be important predictors of herbivore resistance and pollinator attraction. Several leaf and root traits and flower production were significantly affected by AMF inoculum. Both conventional and organic AMF reduced leaf P content but increased Na content compared to control and commercial AMF. Leaf defenses were unaffected by AMF treatments, but conventional AMF increased root cucurbitacin C, the primary defensive chemical of C. sativus, compared to organic AMF. These effects may have important consequences for herbivore preference and population dynamics. AMF from both organic and conventional farms decreased flower production relative to commercial and control treatments, which may reduce pollinator attraction and plant reproduction. AMF from both farm types also reduced seed germination, but effects on plant growth were limited. Our results suggest that studies only considering AMF

  14. Psychological variables potentially implicated in opioid-related mortality as observed in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passik, Steven D; Lowery, Amy

    2011-06-01

    Opioid-related deaths in the United States have become a public health problem, with accidental and unintended overdoses being especially troubling. Screening for psychological risk factors is an important first step in safeguarding against nonadherence practices and identifying patients who may be vulnerable to the risks associated with opioid therapy. Validated screening instruments can aid in this attempt as a complementary tool to clinicians' assessments. A structured screening is imperative as part of an assessment, as clinician judgment is not the most reliable method of identifying nonadherence. As a complement to formal screening, we present for discussion and possible future study certain psychological variables observed during years of clinical practice that may be linked to medication nonadherence and accidental overdose. These variables include catastrophizing, fear, impulsivity, attention deficit disorders, existential distress, and certain personality disorders. In our experience, chronic pain patients with dual diagnoses may become "chemical copers" as a way of coping with their negative emotion. For these patients, times of stress could lead to accidental overdose. Behavioral, cognitive-behavioral (acceptance and commitment, dialectical behavior), existential (meaning-centered, dignity), and psychotropic therapies have been effective in treating these high-risk comorbidities, while managing expectations of pain relief appears key to preventing accidental overdose. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Kindergartners' Mental Models of the Day and Night Cycle: Implications for Instructional Practices in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saçkes, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine kindergarten children's mental models of the day and night cycle and provide implications for pedagogical practices targeting space science concepts in early childhood classrooms. A total of 46 kindergartners participated in the study, their age ranging from 60 to 75 months, including 22 boys and 24 girls.…

  16. In the "Best Interest" of the Student: Perceptions and Implications for Leadership Practices in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwan, Julius Ouma

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the contrasting views of what constitutes the "best interests" of students and the implications of such perceptions for leadership practices in secondary schools in Kenya. The paper is based on a study conducted to establish the students', teachers' and principals' perceptions of democratic school leadership--in line…

  17. How the Government Defines "Rural" Has Implications for Education Policies and Practices. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael L.; Biscoe, Belinda; Farmer, Thomas W.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2007-01-01

    Clearly defining what rural means has tangible implications for public policies and practices in education, from establishing resource needs to achieving the goals of No Child Left Behind in rural areas. The word "rural" has many meanings. It has been defined in reference to population density, geographic features, and level of economic…

  18. The Implications of the National Minimum Wage for Training Practices and Skill Utilisation in the United Kingdom Hospitality Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…

  19. Continuing medical education revisited: theoretical assumptions and practical implications: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionyssopoulos, Alexander; Karalis, Thanassis; Panitsides, Eugenia A

    2014-12-31

    Recent research has evidenced that although investment in Continuing Medical Education (CME), both in terms of participation as well as financial resources allocated to it, has been steadily increasing to catch up with accelerating advances in health information and technology, effectiveness of CME is reported to be rather limited. Poor and disproportional returns can be attributed to failure of CME courses to address and stimulate an adult audience. The present study initially drew on research findings and adult learning theories, providing the basis for comprehending adult learning, while entailing practical implications on fostering effectiveness in the design and delivery of CME. On a second level, a qualitative study was conducted with the aim to elucidate parameters accounting for effectiveness in educational interventions. Qualitative data was retrieved through 12 in-depth interviews, conducted with a random sample of participants in the 26th European Workshop of Advanced Plastic Surgery (EWAPS). The data underwent a three level qualitative analysis, following the "grounded theory" methodology, comprising 'open coding', 'axial coding' and 'selective coding'. Findings from the EWAPS study come in line with relevant literature, entailing significant implications for the necessity to apply a more effective and efficient paradigm in the design and delivery of educational interventions, advocating for implementing learner-centered schemata in CME and benefiting from a model that draws on the learning environment and social aspects of learning. What emerged as a pivotal parameter in designing educational interventions is to focus on small group educational events which could provide a supportive friendly context, enhance motivation through learner-centered approaches and allow interaction, experimentation and critical reflection. It should be outlined however that further research is required as the present study is limited in scope, having dealt with a limited

  20. A Case Study with an Identified Bully: Policy and Practice Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huddleston, Lillie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bullying is a serious public health problem that may include verbal or physical injury as well as social isolation or exclusion. As a result, research is needed to establish a database for policies and interventions designed to prevent bullying and its negative effects. This paper presented a case study that contributed to the literature by describing an intervention for bullies that has implications for research, practice and related policies regarding bullying.Methods: An individualized intervention for an identified bully was implemented using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model (PCSIM; Nastasi, Moore, & Varjas, 2004 with a seventh-grade middle school student. Ecological and culture-specific perspectives were used to develop and implement the intervention that included psychoeducational sessions with the student and consultation with the parent and school personnel. A mixed methods intervention design was used with the following informants: the target student, the mother of the student, a teacher and the school counselor. Qualitative data included semi-structured interviews with the parent, teacher and student, narrative classroom observations and evaluation/feedback forms filled out by the student and interventionist. Quantitative data included the following quantitative surveys (i.e., Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index [CPTS-RI] and the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children, 2nd Edition. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used to evaluate the acceptability, integrity and efficacy of this intervention.Results: The process of intervention design, implementation and evaluation are described through an illustrative case study. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated a decrease in internalizing, externalizing and bullying behaviors as reported by the teacher and the mother, and a high degree of acceptability and treatment integrity as reported by multiple stakeholders.Conclusion: This case

  1. From Thoughts To Action - Linking Practice, Science, Policy And Decision Making: Dissemination Activities Of The Global Risk Forum, GRF Davos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stal, Marc; Sutter, Corina; Ammann, Walter

    2010-05-01

    The world's growing population in combination with expanding urbanisation, globalisation and climate change has greatly aggravated the risk potential to all communities and nations. These increasing risks imply the intensification of worldwide disasters, hence collaborations and worldwide knowledge exchange to mitigate these negative impacts is mandatory. How can these exchange and collaboration activities take place? The Global Risk Forum, GRF Davos addresses the variety of risks that face communities with a special focus on climate change, natural hazards, environmental degradation as well as technical, biological risks, pandemics and terrorism - all across different political institutions, national and international organisations, countries and business sectors. One of GRF's main goals is to bridge the gap between science and practice and to promote and accelerate the worldwide exchange of know-how and experience. GRF Davos aims at targeting solutions and promoting good practice in integral risk management and climate change adaptation.. The Forum also provides and manages a network for decision-makers, practitioners and experts from politics, government, IGOs, business, science, NGOs, media and the public and works on maintaining and expanding these networks constantly to enable the dissemination of disaster and risk reduction techniques. In order to link practice, science, policy and decision making, GRF Davos has three pillars, the Risk Academy, the International Disaster and Risk Conferences and Workshops (IDRC) as well as the online Platform for Networks. With its pillars, the GRFs aims at reducing vulnerability for all types of risks and disasters to protect life, property, environment, critical infrastructure and all means of business for the worldwide community on a sustainable basis.

  2. Practical and Scholarly Implications of Information Behaviour Research: A Pilot Study of Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyungwon; Rubenstein, Ellen; White, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This pilot study examined how current information behaviour research addresses the implications and potential impacts of its findings. The goal was to understand what implications and contributions the field has made and how effectively authors communicate implications of their findings. Methods: We conducted a content analysis of 30…

  3. Selecting for creativity and innovation potential: implications for practice in healthcare education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Zibarras, Lara Dawn

    2017-05-01

    The ability to innovate is an important requirement in many organisations. Despite this pressing need, few selection systems in healthcare focus on identifying the potential for creativity and innovation and so this area has been vastly under-researched. As a first step towards understanding how we might select for creativity and innovation, this paper explores the use of a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation potential, and evaluates its efficacy for use in selection for healthcare education. This study uses a sample of 188 postgraduate physicians applying for education and training in UK General Practice. Participants completed two questionnaires (a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation, and a measure of the Big Five personality dimensions) and were also rated by assessors on creative problem solving measured during a selection centre. In exploring the construct validity of the trait-based measure of creativity and innovation, our research clarifies the associations between personality, and creativity and innovation. In particular, our study highlights the importance of motivation in the creativity and innovation process. Results also suggest that Openness to Experience is positively related to creativity and innovation whereas some aspects of Conscientiousness are negatively associated with creativity and innovation. Results broadly support the utility of using a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation in healthcare selection processes, although practically this may be best delivered as part of an interview process, rather than as a screening tool. Findings are discussed in relation to broader implications for placing more priority on creativity and innovation as selection criteria within healthcare education and training in future.

  4. Factors Influencing Mini-CEX Rater Judgments and Their Practical Implications: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor; Brain, Keira; Martin, Jenepher

    2017-06-01

    At present, little is known about how mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) raters translate their observations into judgments and ratings. The authors of this systematic literature review aim both to identify the factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting and to translate these findings into practical implications for clinician assessors. The authors searched for internal and external factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting from 1980 to 2015 using the Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, PubMed, and Scopus databases. They extracted the following information from each study: country of origin, educational level, study design and setting, type of observation, occurrence of rater training, provision of feedback to the trainee, research question, and identified factors influencing rater judgments. The authors also conducted a quality assessment for each study. Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria. The authors identified both internal and external factors that influence mini-CEX rater judgments. They subcategorized the internal factors into intrinsic rater factors, judgment-making factors (conceptualization, interpretation, attention, and impressions), and scoring factors (scoring integration and domain differentiation). The current theories of rater-based judgment have not helped clinicians resolve the issues of rater idiosyncrasy, bias, gestalt, and conflicting contextual factors; therefore, the authors believe the most important solution is to increase the justification of rater judgments through the use of specific narrative and contextual comments, which are more informative for trainees. Finally, more real-world research is required to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of rater cognition.

  5. Micronutrient malnutrition, obesity, and chronic disease in countries undergoing the nutrition transition: potential links and program/policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhardt, Cara L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential long-term effects of micronutrient malnutrition in early childhood on obesity and related disease outcomes. The links between early micronutrient malnutrition, stunting, and subsequent short adult stature — emerging risk factors for obesity and associated chronic diseases—are reviewed. This paper also explores recent literature linking micronutrient malnutrition in adults to increased risk and severity of chronic disease. Finally, this paper discusses the pr...

  6. Implications for research and practice of the biographic approach for storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewens, Beverley; Hendricks, Joyce; Sundin, Deb

    2017-01-23

    Background Intensive care unit survivors face many physical and psychological difficulties during their recovery following discharge from hospital. These difficulties can significantly affect their quality of life. Healthcare providers and survivors' families often do not understand what recovery means in this population, which may affect the support provided. Aim To consider the potential of the biographical method in helping to create stories that illustrate recovery in intensive care survivors and other populations. Discussion This paper identifies how the biographical approach has provided survivors with a way to uncover the hidden parts of their lives through diaries and interviews, and reveal the hidden stories of intensive care survivorship and recovery. Conclusion The application of the biographical method enabled stories to be created that identified the disruption survivors encounter as they struggle to appear recovered. Implications for practice The biographical method can illuminate experiences uncaptured by other methods. This insight into recovery journeys can help healthcare practitioners and family members to understand and recognise the need for support during recovery.

  7. "Suffering" in palliative sedation: Conceptual Analysis and Implications for Decision-Making in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzaro, Claudia; Schildmann, Jan

    2018-04-21

    Palliative sedation is an increasingly used and, simultaneously, challenging practice at the end of life. Many controversies associated with this therapy are rooted in implicit differences regarding the understanding of "suffering" as prerequisite for palliative sedation. The aim of this paper is to inform the current debates by a conceptual analysis of two different philosophical accounts of suffering, (1) the subjective and holistic concept and (2) the objective and gradual concept and by a clinical-ethical analysis of the implications of each account for decisions about palliative sedation. We will show that while the subjective and holistic account of suffering fits well with the holistic approach of palliative care, there are considerable challenges to justify limits to requests for palliative sedation. By contrast, the objective and gradual account fits well with the need for an objective basis for clinical decisions in the context of palliative sedation, but runs the risk of falling short when considering the individual and subjective experience of suffering at the end of life. We will conclude with a plea for the necessity of further combined conceptual and empirical research to develop a sound and feasible understanding of suffering which can contribute to consistent decision-making about palliative sedation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. English in the multilingual classroom: implications for research, policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Brutt-Griffler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The shift in the function of English as a medium of instruction together with its use in knowledge construction and dissemination among scholars continue to fuel the global demand for high-level proficiency in the language. These components of the global knowledge economy mean that the ability of nations to produce multilinguals with advanced English proficiency alongside their mastery of other languages has become a key to global competitiveness. That need is helping to drive one of the greatest language learning experiments the world has ever known. It carries significant implications for new research agendas and teacher preparation in applied linguistics. Design/methodology/approach – Evidence-based decision-making, whether it pertains to language policy decisions, instructional practices, teacher professional development or curricula/program building, needs to be based on a rigorous and systematically pursued program of research and assessment. Findings – This paper seeks to advance these objectives by identifying new research foci that underscore a student-centered approach. Originality/value – It introduces a new theoretical construct – multilingual proficiency – to underscore the knowledge that the learner develops in the process of language learning that makes for the surest route to the desired high levels of language proficiency. The paper highlights the advantages of a student-centered approach that focuses on multilingual proficiency for teachers and explores the concomitant conclusions for teacher development.

  9. Evidence behind FDA alerts for drugs with adverse cardiovascular effects: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackham, Daniel M; C Herink, Megan; Stevens, Ian G; Cardoza, Natalie M; Singh, Harleen

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) periodically publishes Drug Safety Communications and Drug Alerts notifying health care practitioners and the general public of important information regarding drug therapies following FDA approval. These alerts can result in both positive and negative effects on patient care. Most clinical trials are not designed to detect long-term safety end points, and postmarketing surveillance along with patient reported events are often instrumental in signaling the potential harmful effect of a drug. Recently, many cardiovascular (CV) safety announcements have been released for FDA-approved drugs. Because a premature warning could discourage a much needed treatment or prompt a sudden discontinuation, it is essential to evaluate the evidence supporting these FDA alerts to provide effective patient care and to avoid unwarranted changes in therapy. Conversely, paying attention to these warnings in cases involving high-risk patients can prevent adverse effects and litigation. This article reviews the evidence behind recent FDA alerts for drugs with adverse CV effects and discusses the clinical practice implications. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  10. Child abuse and neglect in Cambodian refugee families: characteristics and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Janet; Rhee, Siyon; Berthold, S Megan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics and patterns of child maltreatment among Cambodian refugee families in Los Angeles and assesses the implications for child welfare practice with Cambodian refugee families. Data were extracted from 243 active Cambodian case files maintained by the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services (LAC-DCFS). Some of the major findings include (1) Cambodian child maltreatment cases were most frequently reported to the LAC-DCFS among various Asian Pacific ethnic groups; (2) Cambodian refugee families were more likely to be charged with neglect, while their Asian Pacific counterparts were more likely charged with physical abuse; (3) the circumstances under which maltreatment occurred most frequently were parental substance abuse and mental illness; and (4) while fathers who maltreated their child were likely to use alcohol, mothers were also more likely to have a mental health problem such as depression. This study suggests the importance of collaboration between Child Protective Service agencies, substance abuse programs, traditional healers, mental health services, and other social service agencies for effective child abuse prevention and intervention efforts.

  11. Weaning at Anglo-Saxon Raunds: Implications for changing breastfeeding practice in Britain over two millennia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydock, Hannah; Clarke, Leon; Craig-Atkins, Elizabeth; Howcroft, Rachel; Buckberry, Jo

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated stable-isotope ratio evidence of weaning for the late Anglo-Saxon population of Raunds Furnells, Northamptonshire, UK. δ(15)N and δ(13)C values in rib collagen were obtained for individuals of different ages to assess the weaning age of infants within the population. A peak in δ(15) N values at about 2-year-old, followed by a decline in δ(15) N values until age three, indicates a change in diet at that age. This change in nitrogen isotope ratios corresponds with the mortality profile from the site, as well as with archaeological and documentary evidence on attitudes towards juveniles in the Anglo-Saxon period. The pattern of δ(13) C values was less clear. Comparison of the predicted age of weaning to published data from sites dating from the Iron Age to the 19th century in Britain reveals a pattern of changing weaning practices over time, with increasingly earlier commencement and shorter periods of complementary feeding in more recent periods. Such a change has implications for the interpretation of socioeconomic changes during this period of British history, since earlier weaning is associated with decreased birth spacing, and could thus have contributed to population growth. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Assessing health in an urban neighborhood: community process, data results and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idali Torres, M

    1998-06-01

    This article examines the community process and data results of a health assessment conducted in an urban neighborhood of a middle-size city in Western Massachusetts. It describes the four-stage development process of the Health Assessment Project (HAP), a collaboration of the UMASS School of Public Health faculty and students, community based organizations and youth residents: (1) planning with a contemporary participatory approach, (2) implementing the data collection with traditional survey methodology, (3) tailoring the data analysis for a presentation at a community forum and report, and (4) incorporating the community's reaction to data results. In addition, it presents selected data results on health conditions of individual household members and perceived community health concerns and resources. Salient data results include high rates of chronic health conditions such as asthma and other respiratory problems among residents 0-18, back pain and other musculoskeletal among younger adults 19-54, and high blood pressure and other cardi-circulatory problems among older adults age 55 and older. The three most prevalent perceived community concerns are substance abuse, gangs and drug dealing. Identified community resources include sources of (1) providers of primary care, (2) health information as family/friends and Spanish media, (3) social activity such as churches and schools. Finally, this paper concludes by discussing implications for community health practice.

  13. Alaska Tundra Travel Modeling Project and implications for seismic best management practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, G. [Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Much of the oil and gas exploration in the Alaskan North Slope depends on winter off-road travel to gain access to remote exploration areas. A study was conducted to relate vehicular off-road travel to tundra disturbance. Four types of vehicles were driven on the tundra on specific plots at various times throughout early to mid winter in an effort to determine if travel could occur earlier than current practice without impacting tundra integrity. Variables were measured the summer before travel, at the time of travel and the summers following travel. The results were used to develop a management tool to determine when conditions are adequate to allow winter vehicular off-road travel. It was determined that the soil temperature should be 5 degrees C or colder at a depth of 30 cm, with snow depths of 15 cm in coastal sedge tundra or 23 cm in foothills tussock tundra. This presentation also discussed the implications for managing off-road travel associated with seismic operations and recent changes in the types of vehicles used for these operations. figs.

  14. Analytical Methods for Quantification of Vitamin D and Implications for Research and Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Caroline S; Lammert, Frank; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2018-02-01

    A plethora of contradictory research surrounds vitamin D and its influence on health and disease. This may, in part, result from analytical difficulties with regard to measuring vitamin D metabolites in serum. Indeed, variation exists between analytical techniques and assays used for the determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Research studies into the effects of vitamin D on clinical endpoints rely heavily on the accurate assessment of vitamin D status. This has important implications, as findings from vitamin D-related studies to date may potentially have been hampered by the quantification techniques used. Likewise, healthcare professionals are increasingly incorporating vitamin D testing and supplementation regimens into their practice, and measurement errors may be also confounding the clinical decisions. Importantly, the Vitamin D Standardisation Programme is an initiative that aims to standardise the measurement of vitamin D metabolites. Such a programme is anticipated to eliminate the inaccuracies surrounding vitamin D quantification. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Accuracy of flash glucose monitoring and continuous glucose monitoring technologies: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjan, Ramzi A; Cummings, Michael H; Jennings, Peter; Leelarathna, Lalantha; Rayman, Gerry; Wilmot, Emma G

    2018-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring technologies measure glucose in the interstitial fluid and are increasingly used in diabetes care. Their accuracy, key to effective glycaemic management, is usually measured using the mean absolute relative difference of the interstitial fluid sensor compared to reference blood glucose readings. However, mean absolute relative difference is not standardised and has limitations. This review aims to provide a consensus opinion on assessing accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose sensing technologies. Mean absolute relative difference is influenced by glucose distribution and rate of change; hence, we express caution on the reliability of comparing mean absolute relative difference data from different study systems and conditions. We also review the pitfalls associated with mean absolute relative difference at different glucose levels and explore additional ways of assessing accuracy of interstitial fluid devices. Importantly, much data indicate that current practice of assessing accuracy of different systems based on individualised mean absolute relative difference results has limitations, which have potential clinical implications. Healthcare professionals must understand the factors that influence mean absolute relative difference as a metric for accuracy and look at additional assessments, such as consensus error grid analysis, when evaluating continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring systems in diabetes care. This in turn will ensure that management decisions based on interstitial fluid sensor data are both effective and safe.

  16. Sociolegal and practice implications of caring for LGBT people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Elizabeth; Taylor, Helen; Harding, Rosie

    2016-11-30

    The needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) people with dementia are poorly recognised. This is due partly to assumptions that all older people are heterosexual or asexual. One quarter of gay or bisexual men and half of lesbian or bisexual women have children, compared with 90% of heterosexual women and men, which means LGBT older adults are more likely to reside in care homes. Older LGBT people may be unwilling to express their sexual identities in care settings and this can affect their care. Members of older people's informal care networks must be recognised to ensure their involvement in the lives of residents in care settings continues. However, healthcare professionals may not always realise that many LGBT people rely on their families of choice or wider social networks more than on their families of origin. This article explores sociolegal issues that can arise in the care of older LGBT people with dementia, including enabling autonomy, capacity and applying legal frameworks to support their identities and relationships. It also highlights implications for practice.

  17. Practicing Multicultural Education through Religiously Affiliated Schools and Its Implications for Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahur Rohman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Having varied ethnics, cultures, religions, or faiths, Indonesia is considered a multicultural nation in today’s world. This equity can be dangerous; but also can be advantageous if myriad interests of citizens are able to be nurtured through education, including religious schools. The research was conducted to explore multicultural practices in the State-owned Islamic High School (MAN 3 and the Catholic High School (SMA Stella Duce 2 in Yogyakarta Indonesia. Data was gathered via qualitative method by means of comparative study, aiming at seeking similarities and differences on promoting multicultural education values. Findings show similarities of teachers’ attitudes and characteristics as facilitator, accommodator, or assimilator whereas the differences include their leadership role in intrareligious dialog at MAN 3 and dialog leaders at SMA Stella Duce 2. Other issues include diverse understandings of religion and its perceived violence. The research formulates two categories of teacher as being multicultural-intrareligious pluralist and multicultural-intrareligious humanist. It also discusses implications on social change as a result of cultural interchange at those schools.

  18. Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases and Their Unique Cognitive Profiles: Implications for Nursing Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, David E.; Dodson, Joan E.; Watkins, Jason; Kennedy, Bridgett H.; Keltner, Norman L.

    2013-01-01

    To successfully negotiate and interact with one’s environment, optimal cognitive functioning is needed. Unfortunately, many neurological and psychiatric diseases impede certain cognitive abilities such as executive functioning or speed of processing; this can produce a poor fit between the patient and the cognitive demands of his or her environment. Such non-dementia diseases include bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, and anxiety disorders, just to name a few. Each of these diseases negatively affects particular areas of the brain, resulting in distinct cognitive profiles (e.g., deficits in executive functioning but normal speed of processing as seen in schizophrenia). In fact, it is from these cognitive deficits in which such behavioral and emotional symptoms may manifest (e.g., delusions, paranoia). This article highlights the distinct cognitive profiles of such common neurological and psychiatric diseases. An understanding of such disease-specific cognitive profiles can assist nurses in providing care to patients by knowing what cognitive deficits are associated with each disease and how these cognitive deficits impact everyday functioning and social interactions. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited within the framework of cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. PMID:23422693

  19. Automated external defibrillation as part BLS: implications for education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, Pam; Albarran, John W

    2002-09-01

    The latest Adult Basic Life Support (BLS) guidelines support the inclusion of the use of the automated external defibrillator (AED), as part of basic life support (BLS). Emphasis on the provision of early defibrillation as part of BLS acknowledges the importance of this manoeuvre in the successful termination of ventricular fibrillation. The ramifications of such changes for both first responders and organisations implementing the guidelines should not be underestimated. Issues relating to resourcing, content and duration of training and retraining, auditing and evaluation require further exploration. To consider these issues now seems particularly pertinent, given the recent launch of the UK Government's paper on public health, 'Saving Lives-Our Healthier Nation' which seeks to deploy AEDs in busy public places for use by trained members of the lay public. Additionally, defibrillation has been identified as one of the key competencies that all trained nurses and other health care providers should be able to undertake. This paper will consider the background to the current guideline changes, analyse the wider implications of translating the recommendations into practice, and offer possible solutions to address the issues raised. Whilst the analysis is particularly pertinent to the United Kingdom, many of the issues raised have international importance.

  20. Surgical Pathology of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Practical Implications of Morphologic and Molecular Heterogeneity for Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charville, Gregory W; Longacre, Teri A

    2017-11-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract, exhibits diverse histologic and clinical manifestations. With its putative origin in the gastrointestinal pacemaker cell of Cajal, GIST can arise in association with any portion of the tubular gastrointestinal tract. Morphologically, GISTs are classified as spindled or epithelioid, though each of these subtypes encompasses a broad spectrum of microscopic appearances, many of which mimic other histologic entities. Despite this morphologic ambiguity, the diagnosis of GIST is aided in many cases by immunohistochemical detection of KIT (CD117) or DOG1 expression. The natural history of GIST ranges from that of a tumor cured by surgical resection to that of a locally advanced or even widely metastatic, and ultimately fatal, disease. This clinicopathologic heterogeneity is paralleled by an underlying molecular diversity: the majority of GISTs are associated with spontaneous activating mutations in KIT, PDGFRA, or BRAF, while additional subsets are driven by genetic lesions-often inherited-of NF1 or components of the succinate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex. Specific gene mutations correlate with particular anatomic or morphologic characteristics and, in turn, with distinct clinical behaviors. Therefore, prognostication and treatment are increasingly dictated not only by morphologic clues, but also by accompanying molecular genetic features. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of the heterogenous molecular underpinnings of GIST, including implications for the practicing pathologist with regard to morphologic identification, immunohistochemical diagnosis, and clinical management.

  1. Linking Research to Practice

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An overview of ethics in ICTD research suggests a comprehensive canon is absent. ... And our home, the Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information, .... For example, global media coverage focused on the advent of commercially ...

  2. Implementation of baby boomer hepatitis C screening and linking to care in gastroenterology practices: a multi-center pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair M; LaLuna, Louis L; Santoro, John J; Mendes, Flavia; Araya, Victor; Ravendhran, Natarajan; Pedicone, Lisa; Lio, Idania; Nader, Fatema; Hunt, Sharon; Racila, Andrei; Stepanova, Maria

    2016-04-04

    Estimates suggest that only 20 % of HCV-infected patients have been identified and gastroenterology practices in patients previously unscreened for HCV. After obtaining patient informed consent, demographics, clinical and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) data were collected. A blood sample was screened for HCV antibody (HCV AB) using the OraQuick HCV Rapid Antibody Test. HCV AB-positive patients were tested for presence of HCV RNA and, if HCV RNA positive, patients underwent treatment discussions. We screened 2,000 individuals in 5 gastroenterology centers located close to large metropolitan areas on the East Coast (3 Northeast, 1 Mid-Atlantic and 1 Southeast). Of the screened population, 10 individuals (0.5 %) were HCV AB-positive. HCV RNA testing was performed in 90 % (9/10) of HCV AB-positive individuals. Of those, 44.4 % (4/9) were HCV RNA-positive, and all 4 (100 %) were linked to caregiver. Compared to HCV AB negative subjects, HCV AB-positive individuals tended to be black (20.0 vs. 5.2 %, p = 0.09) and reported significantly higher rates of depression: 60.0 vs. 21.5 %, p = 0.009. These individuals also reported a significantly lower HRQOL citing having more fatigue, poorer concentration, and a decreased level of energy (p gastroenterology centers, the linkage to care was very high. The sample of patients used in this study may be biased, so further studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of the CDC screening recommendations. Implementation of the Baby Boomer Screening for HCV requires identifying screening environement with high prevalence of HCV+ individuals as well as an efficient process of linking them to care.

  3. Enhancing links between visual short term memory, visual attention and cognitive control processes through practice: An electrophysiological insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuggetta, Giorgio; Duke, Philip A

    2017-05-01

    The operation of attention on visible objects involves a sequence of cognitive processes. The current study firstly aimed to elucidate the effects of practice on neural mechanisms underlying attentional processes as measured with both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. Secondly, it aimed to identify any pattern in the relationship between Event-Related Potential (ERP) components which play a role in the operation of attention in vision. Twenty-seven participants took part in two recording sessions one week apart, performing an experimental paradigm which combined a match-to-sample task with a memory-guided efficient visual-search task within one trial sequence. Overall, practice decreased behavioural response times, increased accuracy, and modulated several ERP components that represent cognitive and neural processing stages. This neuromodulation through practice was also associated with an enhanced link between behavioural measures and ERP components and with an enhanced cortico-cortical interaction of functionally interconnected ERP components. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the ERP amplitude data revealed three components, having different rostro-caudal topographic representations. The first component included both the centro-parietal and parieto-occipital mismatch triggered negativity - involved in integration of visual representations of the target with current task-relevant representations stored in visual working memory - loaded with second negative posterior-bilateral (N2pb) component, involved in categorising specific pop-out target features. The second component comprised the amplitude of bilateral anterior P2 - related to detection of a specific pop-out feature - loaded with bilateral anterior N2, related to detection of conflicting features, and fronto-central mismatch triggered negativity. The third component included the parieto-occipital N1 - related to early neural responses to the stimulus array - which loaded with the second

  4. A systematic review of collaboration and network research in the public affairs literature: implications for public health practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varda, Danielle; Shoup, Jo Ann; Miller, Sara

    2012-03-01

    We explored and analyzed how findings from public affairs research can inform public health research and practice, specifically in the area of interorganizational collaboration, one of the most promising practice-based approaches in the public health field. We conducted a systematic review of the public affairs literature by following a grounded theory approach. We coded 151 articles for demographics and empirical findings (n = 258). Three primary findings stand out in the public affairs literature: network structure affects governance, management strategies exist for administrators, and collaboration can be linked to outcomes. These findings are linked to priorities in public health practice. Overall, we found that public affairs has a long and rich history of research in collaborations that offers unique organizational theory and management tools to public health practitioners.

  5. Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niguse Fekadu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5% of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7 of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6 and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2 showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9 and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6. Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and

  6. Predicting the unpredictable: Critical analysis and practical implications of predictive anticipatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMossbridge

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent meta-analysis of experiments from seven independent laboratories (n=26 published since 1978 indicates that the human body can apparently detect randomly delivered stimuli occurring 1-10 seconds in the future (Mossbridge, Tressoldi, & Utts, 2012. The key observation in these studies is that human physiology appears to be able to distinguish between unpredictable dichotomous future stimuli, such as emotional vs. neutral images or sound vs. silence. This phenomenon has been called presentiment (as in feeling the future. In this paper we call it predictive anticipatory activity or PAA. The phenomenon is predictive because it can distinguish between upcoming stimuli; it is anticipatory because the physiological changes occur before a future event; and it is an activity because it involves changes in the cardiopulmonary, skin, and/or nervous systems. PAA is an unconscious phenomenon that seems to be a time-reversed reflection of the usual physiological response to a stimulus. It appears to resemble precognition (consciously knowing something is going to happen before it does, but PAA specifically refers to unconscious physiological reactions as opposed to conscious premonitions. Though it is possible that PAA underlies the conscious experience of precognition, experiments testing this idea have not produced clear results. The first part of this paper reviews the evidence for PAA and examines the two most difficult challenges for obtaining valid evidence for it: expectation bias and multiple analyses. The second part speculates on possible mechanisms and the theoretical implications of PAA for understanding physiology and consciousness. The third part examines potential practical applications.

  7. Biological variation in musculoskeletal injuries: current knowledge, future research and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V; Posthumus, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Evidence from familial and genetic association studies have reported that DNA sequence variants play an important role, together with non-genetic factors, in the aetiology of both exercise-associated and occupational-associated acute and chronic musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. The associated variants, which have been identified to date, may contribute to the interindividual variation in the structure and, by implication, mechanical properties of the collagen fibril and surrounding matrix within musculoskeletal soft tissues, as well as their response to mechanical loading and other stimuli. Future work should focus on the establishment of multidisciplinary international consortia for the identification of biologically relevant variants involved in modulating injury risk. These consortia will improve the limitations of the published hypothesis-driven genetic association studies, since they will allow resources to be pooled in recruiting large well-characterised cohorts required for whole-genome screening. Finally, clinicians and coaches need to be aware that many direct-to-consumer companies are currently marketing genetic tests directly to athletes without it being requested by an appropriately qualified healthcare professional, and without interpretation alongside other clinical indicators or lifestyle factors. These specific genetic tests are premature and are not necessarily required to evaluate susceptibility to musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Current practice should rather consider susceptibility through known risk factors such as a positive family history of a specific injury, a history of other tendon and/or ligament injuries and participation in activities associated with the specific musculoskeletal injuries. Potential susceptible athletes may then be individually managed to reduce their risk profile. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Human papillomavirus vaccine and cervical cancer prevention: practice and policy implications for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Jennifer; Sturpe, Deborah A; Khanna, Niharika

    2008-01-01

    To review the epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV), summarize relevant clinical trials of the prophylactic HPV vaccines, and describe the practice and policy implications that HPV vaccine represents for pharmacists. Search of Medline through June 2007 using keywords human papillomavirus vaccine, Gardasil, and Cervarix; meeting abstracts; bibliographies from selected articles; and National Institutes of Health clinical trials registry. English language review articles, clinical trials, and published abstracts were considered for inclusion. HPV is a sexually transmitted infection that is necessary for the development of cervical cancer, and types 16 and 18 are associated with 70% of cases of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. A quadrivalent prophylactic vaccine against HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 is currently available, and a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV-16 and -18 is under review by the Food and Drug Administration. Both are highly effective at preventing persistent HPV infection and precancerous lesions caused by vaccine-specific HPV. HPV vaccine is currently indicated for girls aged 9 to 26 years, but ongoing trials are evaluating the efficacy in other populations. Implementation of a vaccine administration program is an area of opportunity for new policies to include pharmacists in the administration of prophylactic HPV vaccines. Pharmacists are allowed to administer vaccinations in 46 states and can potentially play a role in HPV vaccine administration. For this to happen, however, multiple legal and regulatory changes must occur. Prophylactic HPV vaccines safely and effectively prevent HPV infection and precancerous lesions in the cervix. The availability of these vaccines also create new clinical opportunities for community pharmacists, provided needed legal, regulatory, and policy changes are made.

  9. New domains of neural cell-adhesion molecule L1 implicated in X-linked hydrocephalus and MASA syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouet, M.; Kenwick, S. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Moncla, A. [Hopital d`Enfants de la Timone, Marseillas (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    The neural cell-adhesion molecule L1 is involved in intercellular recognition and neuronal migration in the CNS. Recently, we have shown that mutations in the gene encoding L1 are responsible for three related disorders; X-linked hydrocephalus, MASA (mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, and adducted thumbs) syndrome, and spastic paraplegia type I (SPG1). These three disorders represent a clinical spectrum that varies not only between families but sometimes also within families. To date, 14 independent L1 mutations have been reported and shown to be disease causing. Here we report nine novel L1 mutations in X-linked hydrocephalus and MASA-syndrome families, including the first examples of mutations affecting the fibronectin type III domains of the molecule. They are discussed in relation both to phenotypes and to the insights that they provide into L1 function. 39 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Ethyne-linked push-pull chromophores: implications of crystal structure and molecular electronics on the quadric nonlinear activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kautny, P.; Kriegner, H.; Bader, D.; Dušek, Michal; Reider, G.A.; Froehlich, J.; Stoeger, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 8 (2017), s. 4124-4136 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12653S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ethyne-linked materials * nonlinear optical chromophores * molecular structure * optical activity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.055, year: 2016

  11. One unhealthy commodities industry? Understanding links across tobacco, alcohol and ultra-processed food manufacturers and their implications for tobacco control and the SDGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Collin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background FCTC Article 5.3 requires protection against tobacco industry interference in policy-making. By contrast, manufacturers of alcohol and ultra-processed food and drink products are often identified as potential partners in multi-sectoral health initiatives, including via the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. This divergence has been questioned given evidence of strategic similarities across sectors, to which this presentation adds an examination of structural links and their implications for health policy. This focuses on an analysis of 'interlocking directorates', via which directors of one organisation also occupy positions on different boards, widely as the principal indicator of network ties across corporations. Methods Using data from corporate websites, annual reports and business databases, we employ UCINET social network analysis software to examine interlocks in the top six transnational companies of each sector within and across tobacco, alcohol and food companies, with political elites, and with health and development agencies. Results We present findings via (i profiles of individual tobacco industry directors, highlighting strategically valuable links to other actors; (ii a quantitative comparison of interlocks across the three sectors, with no direct links between tobacco and food companies but with alcohol companies providing several bridges between them, and with food companies more extensively linked to political elites and health agencies; (iii a case study of the board of brewing giant SAB Miller at the time of its mega-merger with AB InBev to highlight the significance to tobacco control of wider interactions enabled by interlocks. Conclusions This account of linkages across tobacco, alcohol and ultra-processed food companies calls into question regulatory approaches that treat the tobacco industry as an exceptional case. Neglecting conflicts of interest with other unhealthy commodity producers is potentially

  12. Exploring science teachers' perceptions of experimentation: implications for restructuring school practical work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bing; Li, Xiaoxiao

    2017-09-01

    It is commonly recognised that practical work has a distinctive and central role in science teaching and learning. Although a large number of studies have addressed the definitions, typologies, and purposes of practical work, few have consulted practicing science teachers. This study explored science teachers' perceptions of experimentation for the purpose of restructuring school practical work in view of science practice. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 87 science teachers at the secondary school level. In the interviews, science teachers were asked to make a comparison between students' experiments and scientific experiments. Eight dimensions of experimentation were generated from the qualitative data analysis, and the distributions of these eight dimensions between the two types of experiments were compared and analysed. An ideal model of practical work was suggested for restructuring practical work at the secondary school level, and some issues related to the effective enactment of practical work were discussed.

  13. Situated Literacy Practices Amongst Artisans in the South West of Nigeria: Developmental and Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade-Ojo, Gordon O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an aspect of a larger study on literacy practices, needs and perceptions of artisans in a part of the South West region of Nigeria. Using an ethnographic approach to research, it identified a variety of literacy practices, events and mediums, thus confirming the notion of literacy as social practice. The study employed a…

  14. Ballet as a movement-based contemplative practice? Implications for neuroscientific studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    There is a rising scientific interest in the neuroscience behind contemplative practices (see e.g., Vago and Silbersweig, 2012 for a review), including movement-based practices such as yoga and tai chi. Given that, it becomes important to ask how such contemplative practices differ from Western

  15. The timing of maternal depressive symptoms and mothers' parenting practices with young children: implications for pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe; Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Strobino, Donna M; Marks, Elisabeth; Hou, William

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms and its associated consequences on parental behaviors, child health, and development are well documented. Researchers have called for additional work to investigate the effects of the timing of maternal depressive symptoms at various stages in the development of the young child on the emergence of developmentally appropriate parenting practices. For clinicians, data are limited about when or how often to screen for maternal depressive symptoms or how to target anticipatory guidance to address parental needs. We sought to determine whether concurrent maternal depressive symptoms have a greater effect than earlier depressive symptoms on the emergence of maternal parenting practices at 30 to 33 months in 3 important domains of child safety, development, and discipline. Secondary analyses from the Healthy Steps National Evaluation were conducted for this study. Data sources included a self-administered enrollment questionnaire and computer-assisted telephone interviews with the mother when the Healthy Steps children were 2 to 4 and 30 to 33 months of age. The 30- to 33-month interview provided information about 4 safety practices (ie, always uses car seat, has electric outlet covers, has safety latches on cabinets, and lowered temperature on the water heater), 6 child development practices (ie, talks daily to child while working, plays daily with child, reads daily to child, limits child television and video watching to or = 3 daily routines, and being more nurturing), and 3 discipline practices (ie, uses more reasoning, uses more harsh punishment, and ever slapped child on the face or spanked the child with an object). The parenting practices were selected based on evidence of their importance for child health and development, near complete data, and sample variability. The discipline practices were constructed from the Parental Response to Misbehavior Scale. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using a 14-item

  16. Position Statement on Motivations, Methodologies, and Practical Implications of Educational Neuroscience Research: fMRI Studies of the Neural Correlates of Creative Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geake, John

    2011-01-01

    In this position statement it is argued that educational neuroscience must necessarily be relevant to, and therefore have implications for, both educational theory and practice. Consequently, educational neuroscientific research necessarily must embrace educational research questions in its remit.

  17. Bidirectional links between HIV and intimate partner violence in pregnancy: implications for prevention of mother-to-child transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail M; Woollett, Nataly; Pallitto, Christina C; Mokoatle, Keneuoe; Stöckl, Heidi; MacPhail, Catherine; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; García-Moreno, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) has the potential to eliminate new HIV infections among infants. Yet in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, PMTCT coverage remains low, leading to unacceptably high rates of morbidity among mothers and new infections among infants. Intimate partner violence (IPV) may be a structural driver of poor PMTCT uptake, but has received little attention in the literature to date. Methods We conducted qualitative research in three Johannesburg antenatal clinics to understand the links between IPV and HIV-related health of pregnant women. We held focus group discussions with pregnant women (n=13) alongside qualitative interviews with health care providers (n=10), district health managers (n=10) and pregnant abused women (n=5). Data were analysed in Nvivo10 using a team-based approach to thematic coding. Findings We found qualitative evidence of strong bidirectional links between IPV and HIV among pregnant women. HIV diagnosis during pregnancy, and subsequent partner disclosure, were noted as a common trigger of IPV. Disclosure leads to violence because it causes relationship conflict, usually related to perceived infidelity and the notion that women are “bringing” the disease into the relationship. IPV worsened HIV-related health through poor PMTCT adherence, since taking medication or accessing health services might unintentionally alert male partners of the women's HIV status. IPV also impacted on HIV-related health via mental health, as women described feeling depressed and anxious due to the violence. IPV led to secondary HIV risk as women experienced forced sex, often with little power to negotiate condom use. Pregnant women described staying silent about condom negotiation in order to stay physically safe during pregnancy. Conclusions IPV is a crucial issue in the lives of pregnant women and has bidirectional links with HIV-related health. IPV may worsen access to PMTCT and secondary prevention behaviours

  18. How Do Astronomers Share Data? Reliability and Persistence of Datasets Linked in AAS Publications and a Qualitative Study of Data Practices among US Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Alberto; Goodman, Alyssa; Muench, August; Crosas, Merce; Erdmann, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    We analyze data sharing practices of astronomers over the past fifteen years. An analysis of URL links embedded in papers published by the American Astronomical Society reveals that the total number of links included in the literature rose dramatically from 1997 until 2005, when it leveled off at around 1500 per year. The analysis also shows that the availability of linked material decays with time: in 2011, 44% of links published a decade earlier, in 2001, were broken. A rough analysis of link types reveals that links to data hosted on astronomers' personal websites become unreachable much faster than links to datasets on curated institutional sites. To gauge astronomers' current data sharing practices and preferences further, we performed in-depth interviews with 12 scientists and online surveys with 173 scientists, all at a large astrophysical research institute in the United States: the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, in Cambridge, MA. Both the in-depth interviews and the online survey indicate that, in principle, there is no philosophical objection to data-sharing among astronomers at this institution. Key reasons that more data are not presently shared more efficiently in astronomy include: the difficulty of sharing large data sets; over reliance on non-robust, non-reproducible mechanisms for sharing data (e.g. emailing it); unfamiliarity with options that make data-sharing easier (faster) and/or more robust; and, lastly, a sense that other researchers would not want the data to be shared. We conclude with a short discussion of a new effort to implement an easy-to-use, robust, system for data sharing in astronomy, at theastrodata.org, and we analyze the uptake of that system to-date.

  19. How do astronomers share data? Reliability and persistence of datasets linked in AAS publications and a qualitative study of data practices among US astronomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Alberto; Goodman, Alyssa; Muench, August; Crosas, Merce; Erdmann, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We analyze data sharing practices of astronomers over the past fifteen years. An analysis of URL links embedded in papers published by the American Astronomical Society reveals that the total number of links included in the literature rose dramatically from 1997 until 2005, when it leveled off at around 1500 per year. The analysis also shows that the availability of linked material decays with time: in 2011, 44% of links published a decade earlier, in 2001, were broken. A rough analysis of link types reveals that links to data hosted on astronomers' personal websites become unreachable much faster than links to datasets on curated institutional sites. To gauge astronomers' current data sharing practices and preferences further, we performed in-depth interviews with 12 scientists and online surveys with 173 scientists, all at a large astrophysical research institute in the United States: the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, in Cambridge, MA. Both the in-depth interviews and the online survey indicate that, in principle, there is no philosophical objection to data-sharing among astronomers at this institution. Key reasons that more data are not presently shared more efficiently in astronomy include: the difficulty of sharing large data sets; over reliance on non-robust, non-reproducible mechanisms for sharing data (e.g. emailing it); unfamiliarity with options that make data-sharing easier (faster) and/or more robust; and, lastly, a sense that other researchers would not want the data to be shared. We conclude with a short discussion of a new effort to implement an easy-to-use, robust, system for data sharing in astronomy, at theastrodata.org, and we analyze the uptake of that system to-date.

  20. How do astronomers share data? Reliability and persistence of datasets linked in AAS publications and a qualitative study of data practices among US astronomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pepe

    Full Text Available We analyze data sharing practices of astronomers over the past fifteen years. An analysis of URL links embedded in papers published by the American Astronomical Society reveals that the total number of links included in the literature rose dramatically from 1997 until 2005, when it leveled off at around 1500 per year. The analysis also shows that the availability of linked material decays with time: in 2011, 44% of links published a decade earlier, in 2001, were broken. A rough analysis of link types reveals that links to data hosted on astronomers' personal websites become unreachable much faster than links to datasets on curated institutional sites. To gauge astronomers' current data sharing practices and preferences further, we performed in-depth interviews with 12 scientists and online surveys with 173 scientists, all at a large astrophysical research institute in the United States: the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, in Cambridge, MA. Both the in-depth interviews and the online survey indicate that, in principle, there is no philosophical objection to data-sharing among astronomers at this institution. Key reasons that more data are not presently shared more efficiently in astronomy include: the difficulty of sharing large data sets; over reliance on non-robust, non-reproducible mechanisms for sharing data (e.g. emailing it; unfamiliarity with options that make data-sharing easier (faster and/or more robust; and, lastly, a sense that other researchers would not want the data to be shared. We conclude with a short discussion of a new effort to implement an easy-to-use, robust, system for data sharing in astronomy, at theastrodata.org, and we analyze the uptake of that system to-date.

  1. Translating Nursing Philosophy for Practice and Healthcare Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Pamela G

    2017-07-01

    This article introduces the feature article on policy implications of integrative nursing. It describes unitary ontology in nursing, highlighting the Rogerian view of holism. The importance of linking philosophy to practice policy is emphasized.

  2. Prostate Brachytherapy Case Volumes by Academic and Nonacademic Practices: Implications for Future Residency Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orio, Peter F.; Nguyen, Paul L.; Buzurovic, Ivan; Cail, Daniel W.; Chen, Yu-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The use of prostate brachytherapy has continued to decline in the United States. We examined the national practice patterns of both academic and nonacademic practices performing prostate brachytherapy by case volume per year to further characterize the decline and postulate the effect this trend might have on training the next generation of residents. Methods and Materials: Men diagnosed with prostate cancer who had undergone radiation therapy in 2004 to 2012 were identified. The annual brachytherapy case volume at each facility was determined and further categorized into ≤12 cases per year (ie, an average of ≤1 cases per month), 13 to 52 cases per year, and ≥53 cases per year (ie, an average of ≥1 cases per week) in academic practices versus nonacademic practices. Results: In 2004 to 2012, academic practices performing an average of ≤1 brachytherapy cases per month increased from 56.4% to 73.7%. In nonacademic practices, this percentage increased from 60.2% to 77.4% (P<.0001 for both). Practices performing an average of ≥1 cases per week decreased among both academic practices (from 6.7% to 1.5%) and nonacademic practices (from 4.5% to 2.7%). Conclusions: Both academic and nonacademic radiation oncology practices have demonstrated a significant reduction in the use of prostate brachytherapy from 2004 to 2012. With the case volume continuing to decline, it is unclear whether we are prepared to train the next generation of residents in this critical modality.

  3. Mental representation and mental practice: experimental investigation on the functional links between motor memory and motor imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Frank

    Full Text Available Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N = 52 practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only.

  4. Sex linked versus autosomal inbreeding coefficient in close consanguineous marriages in the Basque country and Castile (Spain): genetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, R; Morales, B; Peña, J A; Delgado, J

    1995-10-01

    Pedigree structures of 161 uncle/niece-aunt/nephew and 4420 first cousin consanguineous marriages registered during the 19th and 20th centuries in two large and very different Spanish regions have been analysed and their genetic consequences evaluated. The frequencies of the different pedigree subtypes within each degree of relationship were quite similar in both populations despite significant heterogeneity in inbreeding patterns. The mean X-linked inbreeding coefficient (Fx) for each type of cousin mating was calculated and compared to that expected for autosomal genes (F). The effect of genealogical structure on the Fx/F ratio was compared to different cultural populations worldwide. Preferentiality and avoidance of close consanguinity along with specific types of pedigrees are discussed on the basis of premarital migration and sociocultural rules still deeply rooted in certain human groups. By admitting that the observed Fx coefficient is usually higher than F in most human populations some remarks have been made in terms of population genetic risk.

  5. Polypeptide nanogels with hydrophobic moieties in the cross-linked ionic cores: Synthesis, characterization and implications for anticancer drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Oh; Oberoi, Hardeep S.; Desale, Swapnil; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanogels have gained considerable attention as a potential platform for drug delivery applications. Here we describe the design and synthesis of novel polypeptide-based nanogels with hydrophobic moieties in the cross-linked ionic cores. Diblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-glutamic acid), hydrophobically modified with L-phenylalanine methyl ester moieties was used for controlled template synthesis of nanogels with small size (ca. 70 nm in diameter) and narrow particle size distribution. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies using coumarin C153 indicated the existence of hydrophobic domains in the ionic cores of the nanogels. Stable doxorubicin-loaded nanogels were prepared at high drug capacity (30 w/w%). We show that nanogels are enzymatically-degradable leading to accelerated drug release under simulated lysosomal acidic pH. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the nanogel-based formulation of doxorubicin is well tolerated and exhibit an improved antitumor activity compared to a free doxorubicin in an ovarian tumor xenograft mouse model. Our results signify the point to a potential of these biodegradable nanogels as attractive carriers for delivery of chemotherapeutics. PMID:23998716

  6. Work and Psychiatric Illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Implications for Career Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Annie; Miller, Judi

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the influence of Maori culture upon psychiatric service provision in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the implications of this for career counselling of people with experience of mental illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The research explored the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with…

  7. Redefining the WISC-R: Implications for Professional Practice and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmann, Gregg M.; Barnett, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) was examined in the standardization sample using new methods of factor analysis. The substantial overlap across factors was most parsimoniously represented by a single general factor. Implications for public policy regarding the purposes and outcomes of special…

  8. Acute changes in clinical breast measurements following bra removal: Implications for surgical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Scurr

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Internipple distance and breast projection can be measured first following bra removal, followed by sternal notch to nipple distance, any measures associated with the vertical nipple position should be made more than 6 min after bra removal. These guidelines have implications for breast surgery, particularly for unilateral reconstruction based on the residual breast position.

  9. "Learning to Listen": Boys' Gender Narratives--Implications for Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to critically investigate year 6 and year 9 boys' constructions of masculinity in the light of theories of inclusive masculinity and to consider the implications of the findings for critical masculinities scholarship in educational research. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative data was collected through…

  10. Shifting the Focus: Children's Image-Making Practices and Their Implications for Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Helen Jayne

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides analytic focus on the productive and editorial contexts of children and young people's image-making, making visible its implications for the analysis of photographs. Drawing on participatory research in which children and young people worked alongside researchers to create a visual narrative of their lived experiences of…

  11. An Examination of the Role of Emotions in Antiracist Pedagogy: Implications, Scholarship, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosland, Tanetha J.

    2013-01-01

    Tanetha Grosland's goal is to inform and extend the current knowledge base concerning the intersection of antiracist pedagogy and emotions, and its implications for reconceptualizing such pedagogy. Therefore, she begins by addressing some fundamental theoretical claims about antiracist education. Then utilizing two sources to contextualize…

  12. Coronary heart disease in South Asian immigrants: synthesis of research and implications for health promotion and prevention in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rahel; Zachariah, Rachel

    2008-07-01

    Although the literature reflects that Asian Indians in the United States and globally have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality because of coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes, few studies have described the clinical implications in the United States. Traditional risk factors dictate practice, yet these risk factors do not fully explain the rates. Central obesity, lipoprotein (a), and insulin resistance may have a strong role. The literature suggests that proactive nursing using culturally specific clinical measures are necessary to reduce risk factors for CHD and diabetes in South Asians. Additional research and prevention strategies focused on immigrant South Asians in the United States are recommended.

  13. Risk and Rationality in Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Theory, Practice, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Farley, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Crime, smoking, drug use, alcoholism, reckless driving, and many other unhealthy patterns of behavior that play out over a lifetime often debut during adolescence. Avoiding risks or buying time can set a different lifetime pattern. Changing unhealthy behaviors in adolescence would have a broad impact on society, reducing the burdens of disease, injury, human suffering, and associated economic costs. Any program designed to prevent or change such risky behaviors should be founded on a clear idea of what is normative (what behaviors, ideally, should the program foster?), descriptive (how are adolescents making decisions in the absence of the program?), and prescriptive (which practices can realistically move adolescent decisions closer to the normative ideal?). Normatively, decision processes should be evaluated for coherence (is the thinking process nonsensical, illogical, or self-contradictory?) and correspondence (are the outcomes of the decisions positive?). Behaviors that promote positive physical and mental health outcomes in modern society can be at odds with those selected for by evolution (e.g., early procreation). Healthy behaviors may also conflict with a decision maker's goals. Adolescents' goals are more likely to maximize immediate pleasure, and strict decision analysis implies that many kinds of unhealthy behavior, such as drinking and drug use, could be deemed rational. However, based on data showing developmental changes in goals, it is important for policy to promote positive long-term outcomes rather than adolescents' short-term goals. Developmental data also suggest that greater risk aversion is generally adaptive, and that decision processes that support this aversion are more advanced than those that support risk taking. A key question is whether adolescents are developmentally competent to make decisions about risks. In principle, barring temptations with high rewards and individual differences that reduce self-control (i.e., under ideal

  14. An 'integrative neuroscience' perspective on ADHD: linking cognition, emotion, brain and genetic measures with implications for clinical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Leanne M; Tsang, Tracey W; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael

    2010-10-01

    There remains a translational gap between research findings and their implementation in clinical practice that applies to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as to other major disorders of brain health in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Research studies have identified potential 'markers' to support diagnostic, functional assessment and treatment decisions, but there is little consensus about these markers. Of these potential markers, cognitive measures of thinking functions, such as sustaining attention and associated electrical brain activity, show promise in complementing the clinical management process. Emerging evidence highlights the relevance of emotional, as well as thinking, functions to ADHD. Here, we outline an integrative neuroscience framework for ADHD that offers one means to bring together cognitive measures of thinking functions with measures of emotion, and their brain and genetic correlates. Understanding these measures and the relationships between them is a first step towards the development of tools that will help to assess the heterogeneity of ADHD, and aid in tailoring treatment choices.

  15. How to Limit Discrimination? Analyzing the Effects of Innovative Workplace Practices on Intra-Firm Gender Wage Gaps Using Linked Employer-Employee Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Elke; Heinze, Anja

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a new approach to assess the impact of organisational changes fostering employee involvement, performance related pay schemes and other relevant trends in personnel policy on the gender wage gap. Our results indicate that innovative human resource practices tend to limit the wage differential between men and women. The innovation of this study is that we use linked employer-employee data to look at within-firm gender wage differentials. To investigate the theoretical hypot...

  16. School Psychology 2010--Part 2: School Psychologists' Professional Practices and Implications for the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Gelley, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Every 5 years, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) conducts a national study of the field. Surveys are sent to randomly selected regular members of NASP to gather information on school psychologists' demographic characteristics, context for professional practices, and professional practices. The latest iteration of the national…

  17. Best practices in risk and crisis communication: Implications for natural hazards management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toddi A. Steelman; Sarah McCaffrey

    2013-01-01

    As societies evolve, often the most appropriate response to the hazard must also evolve. However, such shifts in appropriate response to a hazard, whether at the individual or at the societal level, are rarely straightforward: Closing the gap between desired practice and current practice requires effective communication. Although there is a significant literature on...

  18. Comparison of Transformational Leadership Practices: Implications for School Districts and Principal Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Jeff; Deris, Aaron; Bischoff, Greg; Johnson, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the leadership practices needed to improve academic achievement and generate positive change in school organizations. The study was also conducted to provide insight to principal preparation programs and school districts about effective transformational leadership practices. A quantitative research method…

  19. Intensive Care Unit Structure Variation and Implications for Early Mobilization Practices. An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhru, Rita N; McWilliams, David J; Wiebe, Douglas J; Spuhler, Vicki J; Schweickert, William D

    2016-09-01

    Early mobilization (EM) improves outcomes for mechanically ventilated patients. Variation in structure and organizational characteristics may affect implementation of EM practices. We queried intensive care unit (ICU) environment and standardized ICU practices to evaluate organizational characteristics that enable EM practice. We recruited 151 ICUs in France, 150 in Germany, 150 in the United Kingdom, and 500 in the United States by telephone. Survey domains included respondent characteristics, hospital and ICU characteristics, and ICU practices and protocols. We surveyed 1,484 ICU leaders and received a 64% response rate (951 ICUs). Eighty-eight percent of respondents were in nursing leadership roles; the remainder were physiotherapists. Surveyed ICUs were predominantly mixed medical-surgical units (67%), and 27% were medical ICUs. ICU staffing models differed significantly (P equipment were highly variable among respondents. International ICU structure and practice is quite heterogeneous, and several factors (multidisciplinary rounds, setting daily goals for patients, presence of a dedicated physiotherapist, country, and nurse/patient staffing ratio) are significantly associated with the practice of EM. Practice and barriers may be far different based upon staffing structure. To achieve successful implementation, whether through trials or quality improvement, ICU staffing and practice patterns must be taken into account.

  20. Determinism and Underdetermination in Genetics: Implications for Students' Engagement in Argumentation and Epistemic Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades science studies and science education research have shifted from an interest in products (of science or of learning), to an interest in processes and practices. The focus of this paper is on students' engagement in epistemic practices (Kelly in "Teaching scientific inquiry: Recommendations for research and…

  1. Outsourcing and Digitized Work Spaces: Some Implications of the Intersections of Globalization, Development, and Work Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Beatrice Quarshie

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on an ongoing project examining the literacies prevalent at an outsourcing site, this article explores the changing nature of workplace practices enabled by new information and communication technologies. It also examines the complex geopolitical dynamics of these practices, the discourses of development, and globalization. The author…

  2. Benchmarking Professional Development Practices across Youth-Serving Organizations: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Examining traditional and contemporary professional development practices of youth-serving organizations can inform practices across Extension, particularly in light of the barriers that have been noted for effectively developing the professional competencies of Extension educators. With professional development systems changing quickly,…

  3. Practice of using human excreta as fertilizer and implications for health in Nghean Province, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuc, P. D.; Konradsen, Flemming; Phuong, P. T.

    2006-01-01

    The ancient practice of applying latrine wastes to agricultural land has maintained soil fertility in Vietnam for several centuries but may be associated with health risks if the wastes are inadequately treated before usage. This study aimed at investigating the perceptions and handling practices...... to respondents with a low educational level (chi2 = 7.6; phealth impacts of latrine waste use in agriculture are to be reduced, then it is suggested that sustainable interventions should take into consideration farmers current excreta-use practices.......The ancient practice of applying latrine wastes to agricultural land has maintained soil fertility in Vietnam for several centuries but may be associated with health risks if the wastes are inadequately treated before usage. This study aimed at investigating the perceptions and handling practices...

  4. The Link Between Excessive Quantity of Sleep and Deteriorated Quality of Wakefulness – Implications for the DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Using population-based data, we document the comorbidities (medical, neurologic and psychiatric) and consequences for daily functioning of excessive quantity of sleep (EQS), defined as a main sleep period or 24-hour sleep duration ≥9 hours accompanied by complaints of impaired functioning or distress due to excessive sleep, and its links to excessive sleepiness. Methods A cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample of 19,136 non-institutionalized individuals living in the United States, aged ≥18 (participation rate: 83.2%). The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR, ICSD-II, ICD-10). Results Sleeping at least 9 hours per 24-hour period was reported by 8.4% (95% confidence intervals: 8.0%-8.8%) of participants; EQS (prolonged sleep episode with distress/impairment) was observed in 1.6% (1.4% to 1.8%) of the sample. The likelihood of EQS was 3-12 times higher among individuals with a mood disorder. EQS individuals were 2-4 times more likely to report poor quality of life than non-EQS individuals as well as interference with socio-professional activities and relationships. Although between 33% and 66% of individuals with prolonged sleep perceived it as a major problem, only 6.3% to 27.5% of them reported having sought medical attention. Interpretation Excessive Quantity of Sleep is widespread in the general population, co-occurring with a broad spectrum of sleep, medical, neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, physicians must recognize EQS as a mixed clinical entity indicating careful assessment and specific treatment planning. PMID:23846792

  5. A qualitative study of intimate partner violence universal screening by family therapy interns: implications for practice, research, training, and supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todahl, Jeffrey L; Linville, Deanna; Chou, Liang-Ying; Maher-Cosenza, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Although a few family therapy researchers and clinicians have urged universal screening for intimate partner violence (IPV), how screening is implemented-and, in particular, client and therapist response to screening-is vaguely defined and largely untested. This qualitative study examined the dilemmas experienced by couples and family therapy interns when implementing universal screening for IPV in an outpatient clinic setting. Twenty-two graduate students in a COAMFTE-accredited program were interviewed using qualitative research methods grounded in phenomenology. Three domains, 7 main themes, and 26 subthemes were identified. The three domains that emerged in this study include (a) therapist practice of universal screening, (b) client response to universal screening, and (c) therapist response to universal screening. Implications for practice, research, training, and supervision are discussed.

  6. Youth with Behavioral Health Disorders Aging Out of Foster Care: a Systematic Review and Implications for Policy, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D; Adams, Danielle R

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice. We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.

  7. Engaging diverse student audiences in contemporary blended learning environments in Australian higher business education: Implications for Design and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Pye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research reports on a student audience engaging in an Australian university’s undergraduate commerce program core unit that is offered across three separate geographic campus locations and online. The research extends upon work undertaken on student engagement in online settings and lies in the domain of blended learning design and practice in the Australian higher education business context. Findings, inter alia, are presented across six major student engagement dimensions as applied to the interplay between online and located/campus learning (i.e. Online Active Learning, Online Social Interaction, Online Collaboration, Online Teaching, Online Assessment, and Online Contact with Staff. Implications for blended learning design, eLearning and practice in such complex environments are examined.

  8. Governance implications of nanomaterials companies' inconsistent risk perceptions and safety practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Cassandra D.; Baumgartner, Lynn; Carr, Benjamin M.; Fish, Allison M.; Meyerhofer, John D.; Satterfield, Terre A.; Holden, Patricia A.; Harthorn, Barbara Herr

    2012-03-01

    Current research on the nanotechnology industry indicates its downstream expansion at a rapid pace, while toxicological research and best practices for environmental health and safety are still being developed. Companies that use and/or produce engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have enormous potential to influence safe-handling practices for ENMs across the product life cycle. Knowledge of both industry practices and leaders' perceptions of risk is vital for understanding how companies will act to control potential environmental and health risks. This article reports results from a new international survey of nanomaterials companies in 14 countries. In this survey, company participants reported relatively high levels of uncertainty and/or perceived risk with regard to ENMs. However, these perspectives were not accompanied by expected risk-avoidant practices or preferences for regulatory oversight. A majority of companies indicated "lack of information" as a significant impediment to implementing nano-specific safety practices, but they also reported practices that were inconsistent with widely available guidance. Additionally, in the absence of safe-handling regulations, companies reported nano-specific health and safety programs that were narrow in scope. Taken together, these findings indicate that health and safety guidance is not reaching industry. While industry leaders' reluctance toward regulation might be expected, their own reported unsafe practices and recognition of possible risks suggest a more top-down approach from regulators is needed to protect workers and the environment.

  9. Governance implications of nanomaterials companies' inconsistent risk perceptions and safety practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeman, Cassandra D. [University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Sociology (United States); Baumgartner, Lynn; Carr, Benjamin M.; Fish, Allison M.; Meyerhofer, John D. [UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Satterfield, Terre A. [University of California, Santa Barbara, NSF Center for Nanotechnology and Society (United States); Holden, Patricia A. [UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Harthorn, Barbara Herr, E-mail: harthorn@cns.ucsb.edu [University of California, Santa Barbara, NSF Center for Nanotechnology and Society (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Current research on the nanotechnology industry indicates its downstream expansion at a rapid pace, while toxicological research and best practices for environmental health and safety are still being developed. Companies that use and/or produce engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have enormous potential to influence safe-handling practices for ENMs across the product life cycle. Knowledge of both industry practices and leaders' perceptions of risk is vital for understanding how companies will act to control potential environmental and health risks. This article reports results from a new international survey of nanomaterials companies in 14 countries. In this survey, company participants reported relatively high levels of uncertainty and/or perceived risk with regard to ENMs. However, these perspectives were not accompanied by expected risk-avoidant practices or preferences for regulatory oversight. A majority of companies indicated 'lack of information' as a significant impediment to implementing nano-specific safety practices, but they also reported practices that were inconsistent with widely available guidance. Additionally, in the absence of safe-handling regulations, companies reported nano-specific health and safety programs that were narrow in scope. Taken together, these findings indicate that health and safety guidance is not reaching industry. While industry leaders' reluctance toward regulation might be expected, their own reported unsafe practices and recognition of possible risks suggest a more top-down approach from regulators is needed to protect workers and the environment.

  10. Governance implications of nanomaterials companies’ inconsistent risk perceptions and safety practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engeman, Cassandra D.; Baumgartner, Lynn; Carr, Benjamin M.; Fish, Allison M.; Meyerhofer, John D.; Satterfield, Terre A.; Holden, Patricia A.; Harthorn, Barbara Herr

    2012-01-01

    Current research on the nanotechnology industry indicates its downstream expansion at a rapid pace, while toxicological research and best practices for environmental health and safety are still being developed. Companies that use and/or produce engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have enormous potential to influence safe-handling practices for ENMs across the product life cycle. Knowledge of both industry practices and leaders’ perceptions of risk is vital for understanding how companies will act to control potential environmental and health risks. This article reports results from a new international survey of nanomaterials companies in 14 countries. In this survey, company participants reported relatively high levels of uncertainty and/or perceived risk with regard to ENMs. However, these perspectives were not accompanied by expected risk-avoidant practices or preferences for regulatory oversight. A majority of companies indicated “lack of information” as a significant impediment to implementing nano-specific safety practices, but they also reported practices that were inconsistent with widely available guidance. Additionally, in the absence of safe-handling regulations, companies reported nano-specific health and safety programs that were narrow in scope. Taken together, these findings indicate that health and safety guidance is not reaching industry. While industry leaders’ reluctance toward regulation might be expected, their own reported unsafe practices and recognition of possible risks suggest a more top-down approach from regulators is needed to protect workers and the environment.

  11. The national occupational therapy practice analysis: findings and implications for competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, W; Cada, E

    1998-10-01

    This article reports some of the findings from a national study of occupational therapy practice conducted by the National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy (NBCOT) as part of its fiduciary responsibility to ensure that its entry-level certification examination is formulated on the basis of current practice. The NBCOT developed a survey with input from approximately 200 occupational therapy leaders and then used it to solicit information about current practice from 4,000 occupational therapists and 3,000 occupational therapy assistants. The sample included geographical location, experience level, and practice area distributions. Approximately 50% of the sample responded to the survey. Data indicate similarities and differences in occupational therapist and occupational therapy assistant practice (e.g., occupational therapists spend more time conducting evaluations, planning interventions, and supervising, whereas occupational therapy assistants spend more time providing interventions), an increased emphasis on population-based services (e.g., serving a business or industry rather than an individual worker), and an emphasis on occupation as a core knowledge base for practice. From a continuing competency perspective, the data can be useful to the profession; we can plan continuing education to address topics that practitioners have indicated are critical to their practice. The findings will be useful for revising the entry-level certification examination and may guide thinking about the parameters of continuing competence because the responses represent a cross-section of the profession.

  12. Work-Life Balance Practices Among Irish Hotel Employees:Implications for HRM

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine work-life balance in the Irish hotel sector from an employee perspective with implications for HRM. 246 questionnaires from employees were returned which was a 22% response rate. Company benefits were not associated with numerical flexibility, but company benefits were associated with functional flexibility and work-life balance supports. This would suggest an integrated approach to human resource management (HRM), whereby some companies engage in a contemp...

  13. Paradigm Shift or Annoying Distraction: Emerging Implications of Web 2.0 for Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Spallek, H.; O’Donnell, J.; Clayton, M.; Anderson, P.; Krueger, A.

    2010-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies, known as social media, social technologies or Web 2.0, have emerged into the mainstream. As they grow, these new technologies have the opportunity to influence the methods and procedures of many fields. This paper focuses on the clinical implications of the growing Web 2.0 technologies. Five developing trends are explored: information channels, augmented reality, location-based mobile social computing, virtual worlds and serious gaming, and collaborative research network...

  14. The Medicaid personal care services program: implications for social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, J S; Palley, H A

    1991-05-01

    Results of a survey of Medicaid personal care programs in 15 states and the District of Columbia in 1987 show that these programs suffer from many problems. Low wages and slow payment make recruitment and retention of qualified workers difficult. Other problems include lack of coordination among agencies, lack of adequate standards for training or supervision of workers, unequal access to programs, and inequities among states. Implications for social workers are discussed.

  15. The secure base script and the task of caring for elderly parents: implications for attachment theory and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cory K; Waters, Harriet Salatas; Hartman, Marilyn; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Miklowitz, David J; Waters, Everett

    2013-01-01

    This study explores links between adults' attachment representations and the task of caring for elderly parents with dementia. Participants were 87 adults serving as primary caregivers of a parent or parent-in-law with dementia. Waters and Waters' ( 2006 ) Attachment Script Assessment was adapted to assess script-like attachment representation in the context of caring for their elderly parent. The quality of adult-elderly parent interactions was assessed using the Level of Expressed Emotions Scale (Cole & Kazarian, 1988 ) and self-report measures of caregivers' perception of caregiving as difficult. Caregivers' secure base script knowledge predicted lower levels of negative expressed emotion. This effect was moderated by the extent to which participants experienced caring for elderly parents as difficult. Attachment representations played a greater role in caregiving when caregiving tasks were perceived as more difficult. These results support the hypothesis that attachment representations influence the quality of care that adults provide their elderly parents. Clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Myths, perceptions knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) linked to mycobacterial infection management among the pastoralist communities of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kankya, Clovice; Muwonge, Adrian; Skjerve, Eystein

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess community myths, perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, practices (KAP) of the pastoral farmers and explore mycobacterial infection management practices. Both structured questionnaire survey and participatory rural appraisal approaches were used. This study revealed that mycobacterial infection especially tuberculosis as referred to in vernacular as akakonko, akasubba or akafuba because of the persistent cough and other respiratory symptoms. Knowledge att...

  17. Linking Organisational Training and Development Practices with New Forms of Career Structure: A Cross-National Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aidan; Brannick, Teresa; Hulpke, John; Levine, Jacqueline; To, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Human resource management data were collected from 149 Irish, 201 Hong Kong, 92 Singaporean, and 144 Chinese organizations. Career patterns and training practices showed distinct differences. Irish organizations were more likely to have lower levels of career paths; their training practices suggested more new forms of careers. Fewer paths indicate…

  18. Goethe's Conception of "Experiment as Mediator" and Implications for Practical Work in School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wonyong; Song, Jinwoong

    2018-03-01

    There has been growing criticism over the aims, methods, and contents of practical work in school science, particularly concerning their tendency to oversimplify the scientific practice with focus on the hypothesis-testing function of experiments. In this article, we offer a reading of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's scientific writings—particularly his works on color as an exquisite articulation of his ideas about experimentation—through the lens of practical school science. While avoiding the hasty conclusions made from isolated experiments and observations, Goethe sought in his experiments the interconnection among diverse natural phenomena and rejected the dualistic epistemology about the relation of humans and nature. Based on a close examination of his color theory and its underlying epistemology, we suggest three potential contributions that Goethe's conception of scientific experimentation can make to practical work in school science.

  19. Labour recruitment practices and its class implications: comparing workers in Singapore’s segmented labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on labour migration by considering the class commonalities and differences as refracted through gender that are embedded within recruitment practices of different workers. Recent writings on the recruitment of labour migrants often distinguish between low-waged and middle-income workers without clearly addressing the the linkages between recruitment practices of both. By adopting a comparative framework between Bangladeshi male migrants and transnation...

  20. Quantifying geomorphic controls on riparian forest dynamics using a linked physical-biological model: implications for river corridor conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J. C.; Harper, E. B.; Fremier, A. K.; Hayden, M. K.; Battles, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    In high-order alluvial river systems, physical factors of flooding and channel migration are particularly important drivers of riparian forest dynamics because they regulate habitat creation, resource fluxes of water, nutrients and light that are critical for growth, and mortality from fluvial disturbance. Predicting vegetation composition and dynamics at individual sites in this setting is challenging, both because of the stochastic nature of the flood regime and the spatial variability of flood events. Ecological models that correlate environmental factors with species’ occurrence and abundance (e.g., ’niche models’) often work well in infrequently-disturbed upland habitats, but are less useful in river corridors and other dynamic zones where environmental conditions fluctuate greatly and selection pressures on disturbance-adapted organisms are complex. In an effort to help conserve critical riparian forest habitat along the middle Sacramento River, CA, we are taking a mechanistic approach to quantify linkages between fluvial and biotic processes for Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii), a keystone pioneer tree in dryland rivers ecosystems of the U.S. Southwest. To predict the corridor-wide population effects of projected changes to the disturbance regime from flow regulation, climate change, and landscape modifications, we have coupled a physical model of channel meandering with a patch-based population model that incorporates the climatic, hydrologic, and topographic factors critical for tree recruitment and survival. We employed these linked simulations to study the relative influence of the two most critical habitat types--point bars and abandoned channels--in sustaining the corridor-wide cottonwood population over a 175-year period. The physical model uses discharge data and channel planform to predict the spatial distribution of new habitat patches; the population model runs on top of this physical template to track tree colonization and survival on

  1. Detrital rutile geochemistry and thermometry from the Dabie orogen: Implications for source-sediment links in a UHPM terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Xiao, Yilin; Wörner, G.; Kronz, A.; Simon, K.; Hou, Zhenhui

    2014-08-01

    . Combined with comparable Zr distribution characteristics between detrital and source rock rutiles, demonstrating a close source-sediment link for rutiles from clastic and rock in UHPM terranes. Thus rutiles can be accurate tracers of source rock lithologies in sedimentary provenance studies even at a small regional scale. In Bixiling, Nb/Ta ratios of metamafic and metapelitic detrital rutiles fall between 11.0 to 27.3 and 7.7 to 20.5, respectively. In contrast, in Shuanghe, these ratios are highly variable, ranging from 10.9 to 71.0 and 7.6 to 87.1, respectively. When ignoring four outlier compositions with extremely high Nb/Ta in Shuanghe, a distinct clustering of Nb/Ta ratios in rutiles is shown: metapelitic detrital rutiles have Nb/Ta of 7-40 vs. metamafic detrital rutiles with Nb/Ta = 11-25. The Nb/Ta characteristics in detrital rutiles from both areas may reflect the degree of fluid-rock interaction during metamorphism and/or different source lithologies. Therefore, the trace element compositions in detrital rutiles can accurately trace the lithology, proportion and fluid-rock interaction of different source rocks.

  2. Exploring how Australian occupational therapists and physiotherapists understand each other's professional values: implications for interprofessional education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Alejandra; Stupans, Ieva; Scutter, Sheila; King, Sharron

    2014-01-01

    This article provides insight into the values Australian occupational therapists and physiotherapists consider essential for their practice and the values that they perceive as important for each other. Findings from a study that employed the Delphi technique to identify the values occupational therapists and physiotherapists consider essential for their practice were compared with interview results that provide insight into how these professionals perceive one another's values. The results from this comparison indicate that occupational therapy and physiotherapy participants have limited knowledge of each other's values. This is evidenced by participants only identifying a minority of the values considered essential within the other profession and not identifying many of the values that guide daily practice within the other profession. The results hold implications for interprofessional education and practice, where knowledge of the values of other professions in the team is essential. To enable interprofessional collaboration, professions need to make their values explicit and provide their students, practitioners and educators with opportunities to learn about their own values and the values of other professions.

  3. Earth Science Informatics Community Requirements for Improving Sustainable Science Software Practices: User Perspectives and Implications for Organizational Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Robinson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Science software is integral to the scientific process and must be developed and managed in a sustainable manner to ensure future access to scientific data and related resources. Organizations that are part of the scientific enterprise, as well as members of the scientific community who work within these entities, can contribute to the sustainability of science software and to practices that improve scientific community capabilities for science software sustainability. As science becomes increasingly digital and therefore, dependent on software, improving community practices for sustainable science software will contribute to the sustainability of science. Members of the Earth science informatics community, including scientific data producers and distributers, end-user scientists, system and application developers, and data center managers, use science software regularly and face the challenges and the opportunities that science software presents for the sustainability of science. To gain insight on practices needed for the sustainability of science software from the science software experiences of the Earth science informatics community, an interdisciplinary group of 300 community members were asked to engage in simultaneous roundtable discussions and report on their answers to questions about the requirements for improving scientific software sustainability. This paper will present an analysis of the issues reported and the conclusions offered by the participants. These results provide perspectives for science software sustainability practices and have implications for actions that organizations and their leadership can initiate to improve the sustainability of science software.

  4. Beliefs, stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems in Uganda: implications for theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Neil; Knifton, Lee

    2014-09-01

    There are major gaps in knowledge about beliefs, stigma and discrimination in Uganda, including the relationship between different cultural beliefs and stigmatising responses, how stigma and beliefs result in discrimination and the impact of social factors such as gender, poverty and ethnic conflict. This exploratory study aims to understand beliefs, stigma and discrimination associated with mental health in Uganda in more depth from the perspectives of different stakeholders. Focus groups and interviews were undertaken with mental health activists, policymakers, practitioners, non-governmental and human rights organisations, journalists and academics. Stigma was reported by individuals, families, communities and institutions, including health services. The study also found stigmatising beliefs linked to traditional, religious and medical explanatory frameworks, high levels of 'associated stigma', common mental health problems rarely medicalised and discrimination linked to poverty, gender and conflict. The findings suggest the need to address stigma in their cultural and social context, alongside other human rights initiatives. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Toward human resource management in inter-professional health practice: linking organizational culture, group identity and individual autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataw, David

    2012-01-01

    The literature on team and inter-professional care practice describes numerous barriers to the institutionalization of inter-professional healthcare. Responses to slow institutionalization of inter-professional healthcare practice have failed to describe change variables and to identify change agents relevant to inter-professional healthcare practice. The purpose of this paper is to (1) describe individual and organizational level barriers to collaborative practice in healthcare; (2) identify change variables relevant to the institutionalization of inter-professional practice at individual and organizational levels of analysis; and (3) identify human resource professionals as change agents and describe how the strategic use of the human resource function could transform individual and organizational level change variables and therefore facilitate the healthcare system's shift toward inter-professional practice. A proposed program of institutionalization includes the following components: a strategic plan to align human resource functions with organizational level inter-professional healthcare strategies, activities to enhance professional competencies and the organizational position of human resource personnel, activities to integrate inter-professional healthcare practices into the daily routines of institutional and individual providers, activities to stand up health provider champions as permanent leaders of inter-professional teams with human resource professionals as consultants and activities to bring all key players to the table including health providers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Identification of incident poisoning, fracture and burn events using linked primary care, secondary care and mortality data from England: implications for research and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ruth; Tata, Laila J; Kendrick, Denise; Orton, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    English national injury data collection systems are restricted to hospitalisations and deaths. With recent linkage of a large primary care database, the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), with secondary care and mortality data, we aimed to assess the utility of linked data for injury research and surveillance by examining recording patterns and comparing incidence of common injuries across data sources. The incidence of poisonings, fractures and burns was estimated for a cohort of 2 147 853 0-24 year olds using CPRD linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality data between 1997 and 2012. Time-based algorithms were developed to identify incident events, distinguishing between repeat follow-up records for the same injury and those for a new event. We identified 42 985 poisoning, 185 517 fracture and 36 719 burn events in linked CPRD-HES-ONS data; incidence rates were 41.9 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI 41.4 to 42.4), 180.8 (179.8-181.7) and 35.8 (35.4-36.1), respectively. Of the injuries, 22 628 (53%) poisonings, 139 662 (75%) fractures and 33 462 (91%) burns were only recorded within CPRD. Only 16% of deaths from poisoning (n=106) or fracture (n=58) recorded in ONS were recorded within CPRD and/or HES records. None of the 10 deaths from burns were recorded in CPRD or HES records. It is essential to use linked primary care, hospitalisation and deaths data to estimate injury burden, as many injury events are only captured within a single data source. Linked routinely collected data offer an immediate and affordable mechanism for injury surveillance and analyses of population-based injury epidemiology in England. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Nurse practitioner organizational climate in primary care settings: implications for professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Lusine; Nannini, Angela; Stone, Patricia W; Smaldone, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of the nurse practitioner (NP) workforce in primary care is key to meeting the increased demand for care. Organizational climates in primary care settings affect NP professional practice and the quality of care. This study investigated organizational climate and its domains affecting NP professional practice in primary care settings. A qualitative descriptive design, with purposive sampling, was used to recruit 16 NPs practicing in primary care settings in Massachusetts. An interview guide was developed and pretested with two NPs and in 1 group interview with 7 NPs. Data collection took place in spring of 2011. Individual interviews lasted from 30-70 minutes, were audio recorded, and transcribed. Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti 6.0 software by 3 researchers. Content analysis was applied. Three previously identified themes, NP-physician relations, independent practice and autonomy, and professional visibility, as well as two new themes, organizational support and resources and NP-administration relations emerged from the analyses. NPs reported collegial relations with physicians, challenges in establishing independent practice, suboptimal relationships with administration, and lack of support. NP contributions to patient care were invisible. Favorable organizational climates should be promoted to support the expanding of NP workforce in primary care and to optimize recruitment and retention efforts. © 2013.

  8. Development and early experience from an intervention to facilitate teamwork between general practices and allied health providers: the Team-link study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark F; Chan, Bibiana C; Daniel, Christopher; Wan, Qing; Zwar, Nick; Davies, Gawaine Powell

    2010-04-27

    This paper describes the development and implementation of an intervention to facilitate teamwork between general practice and outside allied and community health services and providers. A review of organizational theory and a qualitative study of 9 practices was used to design an intervention which was applied in four Divisions of General Practice and 26 urban practices. Clinical record review and qualitative interviews with participants were used to determine the key lessons from its implementation. Facilitating teamwork across organizational boundaries was very challenging. The quality of the relationship between professionals was of key importance. This was enabled by joint education and direct communication between providers. Practice nurses were key links between general practices and allied and community health services. Current arrangements for Team Care planning provide increased opportunities for access to allied health. However the current paper based system is insufficient to build relationships or effectively share roles as part of a patient care team. Facilitation is feasible but constrained by barriers to communication and trust.

  9. Work-life Balance Practices Among Irish Hotel Employees and Implications for HRM

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine work-life balance in the Irish hotel sector from an employee perspective with implications for HRM. This particular article presents part of a larger study on work flexibility and work-family balance (Farrell, 2012). The study included a survey of managers and employees. Two-hundred and forty-six questionnaires from employees were returned which was a 22% response rate from the original sample group. The research data show that company benefits were not ...

  10. What Do People Believe About Memory? Implications for the Science and Pseudoscience of Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Evans, James; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2015-12-01

    We examine the evidence concerning what people believe about memory. We focus on beliefs regarding the permanence of memory and whether memory can be repressed and accurately recovered. We consider beliefs about memory among the undergraduate and general population, mental health professionals, judges, jurors, and law enforcement officers to provide a broad canvass that extends to the forensic arena, as well as to psychiatry, psychology, and allied disciplines. We discuss the implications of these beliefs for the education of the general public and mental health professionals regarding the science and pseudoscience of memory and the use of suggestive procedures in psychotherapy.

  11. Accounting for eXentricities: analysis of the X chromosome in GWAS reveals X-linked genes implicated in autoimmune diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Chang

    Full Text Available Many complex human diseases are highly sexually dimorphic, suggesting a potential contribution of the X chromosome to disease risk. However, the X chromosome has been neglected or incorrectly analyzed in most genome-wide association studies (GWAS. We present tailored analytical methods and software that facilitate X-wide association studies (XWAS, which we further applied to reanalyze data from 16 GWAS of different autoimmune and related diseases (AID. We associated several X-linked genes with disease risk, among which (1 ARHGEF6 is associated with Crohn's disease and replicated in a study of ulcerative colitis, another inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Indeed, ARHGEF6 interacts with a gastric bacterium that has been implicated in IBD. (2 CENPI is associated with three different AID, which is compelling in light of known associations with AID of autosomal genes encoding centromere proteins, as well as established autosomal evidence of pleiotropy between autoimmune diseases. (3 We replicated a previous association of FOXP3, a transcription factor that regulates T-cell development and function, with vitiligo; and (4 we discovered that C1GALT1C1 exhibits sex-specific effect on disease risk in both IBDs. These and other X-linked genes that we associated with AID tend to be highly expressed in tissues related to immune response, participate in major immune pathways, and display differential gene expression between males and females. Combined, the results demonstrate the importance of the X chromosome in autoimmunity, reveal the potential of extensive XWAS, even based on existing data, and provide the tools and incentive to properly include the X chromosome in future studies.

  12. Nurses' knowledge, clinical practice and attitude towards unconventional medicine: Implications for intercultural healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Abass, Kabila; Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel; Accam, Burnett Tetteh

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this hospital-based, cross-sectional study was to examine nurses' knowledge, personal and professional practices and attitude towards complementary and alternative medical therapies in urban Ghana. Using convenience sampling technique, cross-sectional data were collected from 210 registered and practicing nurses with self-administered questionnaire based on the Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ). Descriptive statistics and the associations between variables were calculated using Pearson's Chi-square test and/or Fisher's exact test with p training curriculum can improve CAM knowledge and professional practice among nurses, and in turn, enhance evidence-based patient care within the framework of intercultural healthcare system in Ghana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Food beliefs and practices during pregnancy in Ghana: implications for maternal health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2014-01-01

    Ghanaian women's food beliefs and practices during pregnancy and the scope for developing more effective maternal health interventions were explored in this study. Thirty-five multiethnic Ghanaian women between the ages of 29 and 75 were interviewed about pregnancy food beliefs and practices. I show that, based on the data analysis, their knowledge about food was drawn from lifeworlds (family and friends), educational settings, health professionals, mass media, and body-self knowledge (unique pregnancy experiences). Core lay ideas converged with expert knowledge on maternal health nutrition. Multiple external factors (e.g., economics, cultural representations of motherhood) and internal factors (e.g., the unpredictable demands of the pregnant body) influenced pregnancy food practices. I suggest and discuss a need for culturally situated multilevel interventions.

  14. Coach behaviours and practice structures in youth soccer: implications for talent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Chris; Ford, Paul R; Williams, A Mark

    2012-01-01

    Coaches are central to talent development in youth soccer and what they say and do impacts on players' achievements and well-being. Researchers have systematically observed coach behaviour and practice activities within this setting (i.e. 'what coaches do'). We review this research in light of contemporary discussion that highlights a potential 'theory-practice' divide. Our main example focuses on the discrepancy between coaching behaviour and research from the sports science sub-discipline areas of motor learning and skill acquisition that relate to how best to design practice sessions and provide instruction (i.e., 'what coaches should probably do'). The underlying reasons for this discrepancy are discussed and recommendations made to address this disparity in research, education and coach behaviours.

  15. Constraints to exclusive breastfeeding practice among breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria: implications for scaling up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunbiade Ojo M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding is still low despite the associated benefits. Improving the uptake and appropriating the benefits will require an understanding of breastfeeding as an embodied experience within a social context. This study investigates breastfeeding practices and experiences of nursing mothers and the roles of grandmothers, as well as the work-related constraints affecting nurses in providing quality support for breastfeeding mothers in Southwest Nigeria. Methods Using a concurrent mixed method approach, a structured questionnaire was administered to 200 breastfeeding mothers. In-depth interviews were also held with breastfeeding mothers (11, nurses (10 and a focus group discussion session with grandmothers. Results Breastfeeding was perceived as essential to baby's health. It strengthens the physical and spiritual bond between mothers and their children. Exclusive breastfeeding was considered essential but demanding. Only a small proportion (19% of the nursing mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding. The survey showed the major constraints to exclusive breastfeeding to be: the perception that babies continued to be hungry after breastfeeding (29%; maternal health problems (26%; fear of babies becoming addicted to breast milk (26%; pressure from mother-in-law (25%; pains in the breast (25%; and the need to return to work (24%. In addition, the qualitative findings showed that significant others played dual roles with consequences on breastfeeding practices. The desire to practice exclusive breastfeeding was often compromised shortly after child delivery. Poor feeding, inadequate support from husband and conflicting positions from the significant others were dominant constraints. The nurses decried the effects of their workload on providing quality supports for nursing mothers. Conclusion Breastfeeding mothers are faced with multiple challenges as they strive to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Thus

  16. NICE guidelines, clinical practice and antisocial personality disorder: the ethical implications of ontological uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, M D

    2009-11-01

    The British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recently (28 January 2009) released new guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the psychiatric category antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Evident in these recommendations is a broader ambiguity regarding the ontology of ASPD. Although, perhaps, a mundane feature of much of medicine, in this case, ontological uncertainty has significant ethical implications as a product of the profound consequences for an individual categorised with this disorder. This paper argues that in refraining from emphasising uncertainty, NICE risks reifying a controversial category. This is particularly problematical given that the guidelines recommend the identification of individuals "at risk" of raising antisocial children. Although this paper does not argue that NICE is "wrong" in any of its recommendations, more emphasis should have been placed on discussions of the ethical implications of diagnosis and treatment, especially given the multiple uncertainties associated with ASPD. It is proposed that these important issues be examined in more detail in revisions of existing NICE recommendations, and be included in upcoming guidance. This paper thus raises key questions regarding the place and role of ethics within the current and future remit of NICE.

  17. The social context of career choice among millennial nurses: implications for interprofessional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sheri; McGillis Hall, Linda; Angus, Jan; Peter, Elizabeth

    2013-11-01

    Health human resource and workforce planning is a global priority. Given the critical nursing shortage, and the fact that nurses are the largest group of healthcare providers, health workforce planning must focus on strategies to enhance both recruitment and retention of nurses. Understanding early socialization to career choice can provide insight into professional perceptions and expectations that have implications for recruitment, retention and interprofessional collaboration. This interpretive narrative inquiry utilized Polkinghorne's theory of narrative emplotment to understand the career choice experiences of 12 millennial nurses (born between 1980 and 2000) in Eastern Canada. Participants were interviewed twice, face-to-face, 4 to 6 weeks apart prior to commencing their nursing program. The narratives present career choice as a complex consideration of social positioning. The findings provide insight into how nursing is perceived to be positioned in relation to medicine and how the participants struggled to locate themselves within this social hierarchy. Implications of this research highlight the need to ensure that recruitment messaging and organizational policies promote interprofessional collaboration from the onset of choosing a career in the health professions. Early professional socialization strategies during recruitment and education can enhance future collaboration between the health professions.

  18. Ethical implications for clinical practice and future research in "at risk" individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Fiza; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo; Cadenhead, Kristin S

    2012-01-01

    The last 15 years have witnessed a shift in schizophrenia research with increasing interest in earlier stages of illness with the hope of early intervention and ultimately prevention of psychotic illness. Large-scale longitudinal studies have identified clinical and biological risk factors associated with increased risk of psychotic conversion, which together with symptomatic and demographic risk factors may improve the power of prediction algorithms for psychotic transition. Despite these advances, 45-70% of at risk subjects in most samples do not convert to frank psychosis, but continue to function well below their age matched counterparts. The issue is of utmost importance in light of the upcoming DSM-V and the possible inclusion of the attenuated psychotic symptoms syndrome (APSS) diagnosis, with clinical and ethical implications. Clinical considerations include feasibility of reliably diagnosing the at risk state in non-academic medical centers, variable psychotic conversion rates, a non-uniform definition of conversion and extensive debate about treatment for individuals with an ill-defined outcome. On the ethical side, diagnosing APSS could lead to unnecessary prescribing of antipsychotics with long-term deleterious consequences, slow research by providing a false sense of comfort in the diagnosis, and have psychosocial implications for those who receive a diagnosis. Thus it may be prudent to engage at risk populations early and to use broad-spectrum treatments with low risk benefit ratios to relieve functional impairments, while simultaneously studying all subsets of the at risk population.

  19. Point-of-care testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea: implications for clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Natoli

    Full Text Available Point-of-care (POC testing for chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG offers a new approach to the diagnosis and management of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs in remote Australian communities and other similar settings. Diagnosis of STIs in remote communities is typically symptom driven, and for those who are asymptomatic, treatment is generally delayed until specimens can be transported to the reference laboratory, results returned and the patient recalled. The objective of this study was to explore the clinical implications of using CT/NG POC tests in routine clinical care in remote settings.In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected group of 18 key informants with a range of sexual health and laboratory expertise.Participants highlighted the potential impact POC testing would have on different stages of the current STI management pathway in remote Aboriginal communities and how the pathway would change. They identified implications for offering a POC test, specimen collection, conducting the POC test, syndromic management of STIs, pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosis and management, interpretation and delivery of POC results, provision of treatment, contact tracing, management of client flow and wait time, and re-testing at 3 months after infection.The introduction of POC testing to improve STI service delivery requires careful consideration of both its advantages and limitations. The findings of this study will inform protocols for the implementation of CT/NG POC testing, and also STI testing and management guidelines.

  20. Point-of-Care Testing for Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea: Implications for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, Lisa; Maher, Lisa; Shephard, Mark; Hengel, Belinda; Tangey, Annie; Badman, Steven G.; Ward, James; Guy, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Point-of-care (POC) testing for chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhoea (NG) offers a new approach to the diagnosis and management of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in remote Australian communities and other similar settings. Diagnosis of STIs in remote communities is typically symptom driven, and for those who are asymptomatic, treatment is generally delayed until specimens can be transported to the reference laboratory, results returned and the patient recalled. The objective of this study was to explore the clinical implications of using CT/NG POC tests in routine clinical care in remote settings. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected group of 18 key informants with a range of sexual health and laboratory expertise. Results Participants highlighted the potential impact POC testing would have on different stages of the current STI management pathway in remote Aboriginal communities and how the pathway would change. They identified implications for offering a POC test, specimen collection, conducting the POC test, syndromic management of STIs, pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosis and management, interpretation and delivery of POC results, provision of treatment, contact tracing, management of client flow and wait time, and re-testing at 3 months after infection. Conclusions The introduction of POC testing to improve STI service delivery requires careful consideration of both its advantages and limitations. The findings of this study will inform protocols for the implementation of CT/NG POC testing, and also STI testing and management guidelines. PMID:24956111

  1. The Radical Reform of Administrative Policies in New South Wales School Education: Practical and Theoretical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, R. J. S.

    The government of New South Wales (Australia) is attempting to enhance the quality of public education by radically altering management structures and practices. Despite some popular objections, political intervention was mandated and warranted due to excessive centralization in administrative policy making, curriculum development, and resource…

  2. Consumer adoption of social networking sites: implications for theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo Romero, Carlota; Constantinides, Efthymios; Alarcon-del-Amo, Maria-del-Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study factors affecting the acceptance of social networking sites (SNS), analyze users' practices and behavior in these environments and assess the degree of acceptance of SNS in The Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach – An extended technology

  3. Developmental Surveillance and Screening Practices by Pediatric Primary Care Providers: Implications for Early Intervention Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sallie; Qureshi, Rubab; Caldwell, Barbara Ann; Echevarria, Mercedes; Dubbs, William B.; Sullivan, Margaret W.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a survey approach to investigate current developmental surveillance and developmental screening practices by pediatric primary care providers in a diverse New Jersey county. A total of 217 providers were contacted with a final sample size of 57 pediatric primary care respondents from 13 different municipalities. Most providers…

  4. Comparing the Effects of Instructional and Transformational Leadership on Student Achievement: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatzer, Ryan H.; Caldarella, Paul; Hallam, Pamela R.; Brown, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare transformational and instructional leadership theories, examine the unique impact that school leaders have on student achievement, and determine which specific leadership practices are associated with increased student achievement. The sample for this study consisted of 590 teachers in 37 elementary schools…

  5. Exploring a Pluralist Understanding of Learning for Sustainability and Its Implications for Outdoor Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Susanne C.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a pluralist understanding of learning for sustainability in educational theory and relates it to outdoor education practice. In brief, this kind of learning can be described as a deep engagement with an individual's multiple identities and the personal location in diverse geo-physical and socio-cultural surroundings. I…

  6. Local Economic Trading Schemes and their implications for marketing assumptions, concepts, and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crowther, D.; Greene, A-M.; Hosking, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between a particular social practice - local exchange trading systems or schemes (LETS) - and what we here call the "mainstream" marketing paradigm. It begins by discussing some of the key principles that are thought to set LETS apart from other, "more

  7. Literacy in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Implications for Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, B.

    This paper reviews some of the issues in the new literacy studies and the questions, from an anthropological perspective, of self, person, and identity that affect literacy practices. It is suggested that in discussing literacy, it is better to start from a cultural viewpoint rather than an educational one. The traditional autonomous model of…

  8. Implications of Online Learning for the Conceptual Development and Practice of Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the foundational principles and practices of distance education for the purpose of understanding recent developments in the areas of online and blended learning. It is argued that mainstream distance education has not embraced the full collaborative potential of online learning. Distance education…

  9. Understanding Barriers to Safer Sex Practice in Zimbabwean Marriages: Implications for Future HIV Prevention Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugweni, Esther; Omar, Mayeh; Pearson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in stable relationships in Southern Africa, our study presents sociocultural barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008. Our aim was to identify…

  10. The Use of Assessment Criteria to Ensure Consistency of Marking: Some Implications for Good Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Mark N. K.; Davis, Susan M.

    1998-01-01

    Lecturers at a British university participated in two workshops to examine the consistency of assessments of undergraduates' work. Use of both analytical and global quality measures, when clearly understood by the raters, improved assessment practices. Ongoing discussion of evaluation criteria was recommended. (SK)

  11. Children of Color and Parental Incarceration: Implications for Research, Theory, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James A.; Harris, Yvette R.

    2013-01-01

    Practical information about culturally appropriate interventions with children of incarcerated parents (CIPs) of color and their families is notably sparse. This study uses a cultural-ecological perspective to contextualize individual, family, and legal issues inherent in many intervention programs for CIPs of color. The authors highlight…

  12. The Social Psychology of Black-White Interracial Interactions: Implications for Culturally Competent Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander H.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Sweeton, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Social psychological research suggests that because of concerns about being perceived in stereotypical ways, people may experience negative affect and diminished attention and cognitive capacity during interracial interactions. The authors discuss this research in relation to therapy and assessment and also offer practical suggestions for ensuring…

  13. Bourdieu's Habitus and Field: Implications on the Practice and Theory of Critical Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Rob; McCray, Janet; Board, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the logic of practice of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in relation to critical action learning: in particular "habitus" which is co-created with field and the interplay amongst the two in the form of misrecognition and risk. We draw on interviews with participants who have experienced action learning as part…

  14. Revisioning Assessment through a Children's Rights Approach: Implications for Policy, Process and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Jannette; Lundy, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The linkage between the impact of assessment and compliance with children's rights is a connection, which although seemingly obvious, is nonetheless rarely made, particularly by governments, which, as signatories to the relevant human rights treaties, have the primary responsibility for ensuring that educational practice is compatible with…

  15. The Implications of Autonomist Marxism for Research and Practice in Education and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the relevance of Autonomist Marxism for both research and practice in education and technology. The article situates the Autonomist perspective against that of traditional Marxist thought--illustrating how certain core Autonomist concepts enable a critical reading of developments in information and communication technology.…

  16. Contemplative Practices in Early Childhood: Implications for Self-Regulation Skills and School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Elizabeth; Dinehart, Laura H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the development of self-regulation skills in early childhood and the possibilities of children's contemplative practices as a viable tool to facilitate this development. Current research indicates that self-regulation skills in early childhood education make a significant contribution to school readiness, and long-term…

  17. The Socio-Materiality of Learning Practices and Implications for the Field of Learning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Aditya

    2011-01-01

    Although the use of digital information technologies in education has become commonplace, there are few, if any, central guiding frameworks or theories that explicate the relationship between technology and learning practices. In this paper, I argue that such a theoretical framework can assist scholars and practitioners alike by working as a…

  18. Aging and Cognitive Performance: Challenges and Implications for Physicians Practicing in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2010-01-01

    The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance…

  19. Mathematics Reform Curricula and Special Education: Identifying Intersections and Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Paulsen, Kim J.

    2010-01-01

    In many general education classrooms today, teachers are using "reform" mathematics curricula. These curricula emphasize the application of mathematics in real-life contexts and include such practices as collaborative, group problem solving and student-generated algorithms. Students with learning disabilities in the area of mathematics can…

  20. Material Enactments of Identities and Learning in Everyday Community Practices: Implications for Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberton, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been an upsurge of interest in applying actor-network theory (ANT) to educational research and analysis. This article presents an account of how an ANT analysis of socio-material practices with a focus on objects can bring informal learning and identity formation to view. It is based on a doctoral study of the everyday…

  1. A Gendered Study of the Working Patterns of Classical Musicians: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Despite an increase in participation at all levels of the music profession, women continue to experience fewer opportunities to forge careers in music and are less likely than men to apply for leadership positions. This article presents results from a study in which 152 instrumental musicians reflected upon their professional practice and career…

  2. Surgical specialty procedures in rural surgery practices: implications for rural surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticca, Robert P; Mullin, Brady C; Harris, Joel D; Hosford, Clint C

    2012-12-01

    Specialty procedures constitute one eighth of rural surgery practice. Currently, general surgeons intending to practice in rural hospitals may not get adequate training for specialty procedures, which they will be expected to perform. Better definition of these procedures will help guide rural surgery training. Current Procedural Terminology codes for all surgical procedures for 81% of North Dakota and South Dakota rural surgeons were entered into the Dakota Database for Rural Surgery. Specialty procedures were analyzed and compared with the Surgical Council on Resident Education curriculum to determine whether general surgery training is adequate preparation for rural surgery practice. The Dakota Database for Rural Surgery included 46,052 procedures, of which 5,666 (12.3%) were specialty procedures. Highest volume specialty categories included vascular, obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, cardiothoracic, urology, and otolaryngology. Common procedures in cardiothoracic and vascular surgery are taught in general surgical residency, while common procedures in obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, urology, and otolaryngology are usually not taught in general surgery training. Optimal training for rural surgery practice should include experience in specialty procedures in obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, urology, and otolaryngology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The attitudes and beliefs of a female science teacher: Implications in relation to gender and pedagogical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Mara

    In this case study of a female science teacher named Laura, numerous observations, field notes, researcher interpretations, and assertions were developed. As meanings were negotiated, intent of actions was defined using significant statements, clustered to produce invariant meaning units. Both the participant's intents and how she interpreted her experiences were central to the understandings sought in this study. Whenever Laura planned for teaching science, taught, or otherwise interacted with students, the following four themes seemed to frame her actions: (1) Responsibility to Nurture/Mother/Mentor (2) Connecting to and Relating (3) Meeting Gender-Specific Expectations (4) Promoting the Fighter/Survivor Within. Each theme is examined in relation to attitudes and beliefs about teaching and learning science, and conclusions and assertions are expressed. The findings of this study point to the tensions between Laura's attitudes and beliefs and her pedagogical practices, disconfirming these as they pertain to gender in relation to teaching and learning science. It was not evident as part of her daily practice that student experiences were used in an attempt to create connections between their lives and science, although Laura always emphasized that science is a way of life. The findings support questioning the role of intentionality and a teacher's perceived ability to adhere to intentions while practicing within the norms established by the social institution of schools operating within the larger structures of society. The major findings and implications are relevant to the manner teachers are prepared and encouraged to enact their practice by departments and boards of education, prepared by institutions of higher education and subsequent participation in professional development. Specifically, calling attention to how these educational frameworks emphasize or de-emphasize the role of teachers and promote cognizance in terms of the culture of schools, reflective

  4. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area.

  5. Awareness of food nutritive value and eating practices among Nigerian bank workers: Implications for nutritional counseling and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ngozi M; Maduabum, Felicia O; Onyeke, Nkechi G; Anyaegunam, Ngozi J; Ayogu, Chinwe A; Ezeanwu, Bibian Amaka; Eseadi, Chiedu

    2017-03-01

    Adequate nutrition is an important aspect of a healthy lifestyle for all individuals, including bank staff. The objective of this study was to investigate the awareness of food nutritive value and eating practices among bank workers in Lagos State, Nigeria.The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A purposive sample of 250 bank workers took part in the study. Means and Student t tests were employed for data analysis.Results showed that bank workers were aware of the nutritive value of foods, and that eating practices commonly adopted included skipping breakfast, eating breakfast at work, buying food at work from the bank canteen, eating in between meals, buying snacks as lunch, and consuming soft drinks daily, among others. There were no significant differences between male and female bank workers in mean responses on food nutritive value or in eating practices adopted.Good eating habits will help bank workers not only to improve their nutritional well-being, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases. The implications for nutritional counseling and education are discussed in the context of these findings.

  6. Privacy Practices of Health Social Networking Sites: Implications for Privacy and Data Security in Online Cancer Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Deborah H

    2016-08-01

    While online communities for social support continue to grow, little is known about the state of privacy practices of health social networking sites. This article reports on a structured content analysis of privacy policies and disclosure practices for 25 online ovarian cancer communities. All of the health social networking sites in the study sample provided privacy statements to users, yet privacy practices varied considerably across the sites. The majority of sites informed users that personal information was collected about participants and shared with third parties (96%, n = 24). Furthermore, more than half of the sites (56%, n = 14) stated that cookies technology was used to track user behaviors. Despite these disclosures, only 36% (n = 9) offered opt-out choices for sharing data with third parties. In addition, very few of the sites (28%, n = 7) allowed individuals to delete their personal information. Discussions about specific security measures used to protect personal information were largely missing. Implications for privacy, confidentiality, consumer choice, and data safety in online environments are discussed. Overall, nurses and other health professionals can utilize these findings to encourage individuals seeking online support and participating in social networking sites to build awareness of privacy risks to better protect their personal health information in the digital age.

  7. Procedural confidence in hospital based practitioners: implications for the training and practice of doctors at all grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsagkaraki Petroula A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical doctors routinely undertake a number of practical procedures and these should be performed competently. The UK Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board (PMETB curriculum lists the procedures trainees should be competent in. We aimed to describe medical practitioner's confidence in their procedural skills, and to define which practical procedures are important in current medical practice. Methods A cross sectional observational study was performed measuring procedural confidence in 181 hospital practitioners at all grades from 2 centres in East Anglia, England. Results Both trainees and consultants provide significant service provision. SpR level doctors perform the widest range and the highest median number of procedures per year. Most consultants perform few if any procedures, however some perform a narrow range at high volume. Cumulative confidence for the procedures tested peaks in the SpR grade. Five key procedures (central line insertion, lumbar puncture, pleural aspiration, ascitic aspiration, and intercostal drain insertion are the most commonly performed, are seen as important generic skills, and correspond to the total number of procedures for which confidence can be maintained. Key determinants of confidence are gender, number of procedures performed in the previous year and total number of procedures performed. Conclusion The highest volume of service requirement is for six procedures. The procedural confidence is dependent upon gender, number of procedures performed in the previous year and total number of procedures performed. This has implications for those designing the training curriculum and with regards the move to shorten the duration of training.

  8. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  9. A population-based audit of ethnicity and breast cancer risk in one general practice catchment area in North London, UK: implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.

  10. Restructuring patient flow logistics around patient care needs: implications and practicalities from three critical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Stefano; Barbieri, Marta; Lega, Federico

    2009-06-01

    To make hospitals more patient-centered it is necessary to intervene on patient flow logistics. The study analyzes three innovative redesign projects implemented at three Italian hospitals. The three hospitals have reorganized patient flow logistics around patient care needs using, as proxies, the expected length of stay and the level of nursing assistance. In order to do this, they have extensively revised their logistical configuration changing: (1) the organization of wards, (2) the hospital's physical lay-out, (3) the capacity planning system, and (4) the organizational roles supporting the patient flow management. The study describes the changes implemented as well as the results achieved and draws some general lessons that provide useful hints for those other hospitals involved in such type of redesign projects. The paper ends by discussing some policy implications. In fact, the results achieved in the three cases investigated provide interesting material for further discussion on clinical, operational, and economic issues.

  11. Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

    2013-09-01

    In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment.

  12. No Fault Found events in maintenance engineering Part 1: Current trends, implications and organizational practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Samir; Phillips, Paul; Jennions, Ian; Hockley, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first part of a state of the art review on the No Fault Found (NFF) phenomenon. The aim has been to compile a systematic reference point for burgeoning NFF literature, and to provide a comprehensive overview for gaining an understanding of NFF knowledge and concepts. Increasing systems complexities have seen a rise in the number of unknown failures that are being reported during operational service. Units tagged as ‘NFF’ are evidence that a serviceable component was removed, and attempts to troubleshoot the root cause have been unsuccessful. There are many reasons on how these failures manifest themselves and these papers describe the prominent issues that have persisted across a variety of industrial applications and processes for decades. This article, in particular, deals with the impact of NFF from an organizational culture and human factors point of view. It also highlights recent developments in NFF standards, its financial implications and safety concerns

  13. Paradigm shift or annoying distraction: emerging implications of web 2.0 for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, H; O'Donnell, J; Clayton, M; Anderson, P; Krueger, A

    2010-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies, known as social media, social technologies or Web 2.0, have emerged into the mainstream. As they grow, these new technologies have the opportunity to influence the methods and procedures of many fields. This paper focuses on the clinical implications of the growing Web 2.0 technologies. Five developing trends are explored: information channels, augmented reality, location-based mobile social computing, virtual worlds and serious gaming, and collaborative research networks. Each trend is discussed based on their utilization and pattern of use by healthcare providers or healthcare organizations. In addition to explorative research for each trend, a vignette is presented which provides a future example of adoption. Lastly each trend lists several research challenge questions for applied clinical informatics.

  14. A critical review of the implication of nanotechnology in modern dental practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Prabhat, K. C.; Goyal, Lata; Rani, Manita; Jain, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Curiosity has its own reason for existing. For thousands of years, mankind has been harnessing its curiosity into inquiry and the process of scientific methodology. If we consider technology as an engine, then science is its fuel. Science of miniaturization (nanotechnology) is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. When we gain access to hold the nanorobots, we will be able to treat very rapidly a number of diseases that are a continuous threat for mankind today. The present article aims to provide an early glimpse on the impact and future implication of nanotechnology in dentistry, especially in oral surgery and orthodontics. PMID:22442549

  15. Trust in leadership: meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Kurt T; Ferrin, Donald L

    2002-08-01

    In this study, the authors examined the findings and implications of the research on trust in leadership that has been conducted during the past 4 decades. First, the study provides estimates of the primary relationships between trust in leadership and key outcomes, antecedents, and correlates (k = 106). Second, the study explores how specifying the construct with alternative leadership referents (direct leaders vs. organizational leadership) and definitions (types of trust) results in systematically different relationships between trust in leadership and outcomes and antecedents. Direct leaders (e.g., supervisors) appear to be a particularly important referent of trust. Last, a theoretical framework is offered to provide parsimony to the expansive literature and to clarify the different perspectives on the construct of trust in leadership and its operation.

  16. Road safety practices among commercial motorcyclists in a rural town in Nigeria: implications for health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoran, O E; Eme, Owoaje; Giwa, O A; Gbolahan, O B

    This cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out among commercial motorcyclists in Igboora. All the commercial motor parks in Igboora were visited and all the commercial motorcyclists who consented to participate in the study were interviewed. Information on the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, and the practice of road safety measures was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A total of 299 motorcyclists were interviewed. All (100%) of them were males. The mean age of the respondents was 27.4 +/- 7.4 years. One hundred eighty-two (60.7%) of the motorcyclists had the correct knowledge of the purpose of Highway Code. Only 70 (23.3%) could recognize more than half of the currently used road safety codes and 47 (15.7%) obey these road safety codes more than half of the time they see it. Only 183 (61.2%) of them had a driving license and 72 (24.1%) were able to produce these licenses on demand. All (100%) of the respondents did not use any protective helmet. Those who have longer years of working experience, higher level of education and higher knowledge of the safety codes practice it more regularly (r = 0.198, p = 0.001, chi2= 9.31, p = 0.025, and r = 0.28, p = 0.001 respectively). One hundred thirty-six (45.5%) have been involved in at least one accident in the preceding year. The overall incidence of road traffic accident was 2.16 per 1,000. There was however on statistically significant association between the practice of road safety codes and the occurrence of road traffic accidents (chi2= 0.176, p = 0.916). The study shows that the practice of road safety measures was low in this rural Nigerian community and was not associated with the incidence of road traffic accidents. Introducing road safety education particularly targeted at educating the motorcyclists on the importance and practice of road safety measures would lead to an increase in the practice of the safety measures and hopefully a reduction in the incidence

  17. Acceptability of evidence-based neonatal care practices in rural Uganda – implications for programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiguli Juliet

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence-based interventions to reach the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Neonatal mortality reduction exist, they have not yet been operationalised and scaled up in Sub-Saharan African cultural and health systems. A key concern is whether these internationally recommended practices are acceptable and will be demanded by the target community. We explored the acceptability of these interventions in two rural districts of Uganda. Methods We conducted 10 focus group discussions consisting of mothers, fathers, grand parents and child minders (older children who take care of other children. We also did 10 key informant interviews with health workers and traditional birth attendants. Results Most maternal and newborn recommended practices are acceptable to both the community and to health service providers. However, health system and community barriers were prevalent and will need to be overcome for better neonatal outcomes. Pregnant women did not comprehend the importance of attending antenatal care early or more than once unless they felt ill. Women prefer to deliver in health facilities but most do not do so because they cannot afford the cost of drugs and supplies which are demanded in a situation of poverty and limited male support. Postnatal care is non-existent. For the newborn, delayed bathing and putting nothing on the umbilical cord were neither acceptable to parents nor to health providers, requiring negotiation of alternative practices. Conclusion The recommended maternal-newborn practices are generally acceptable to the community and health service providers, but often are not practiced due to health systems and community barriers. Communities associate the need for antenatal care attendance with feeling ill, and postnatal care is non-existent in this region. Health promotion programs to improve newborn care must prioritize postnatal care, and take into account the local socio-cultural situation

  18. Acceptability of evidence-based neonatal care practices in rural Uganda - implications for programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiswa, Peter; Kemigisa, Margaret; Kiguli, Juliet; Naikoba, Sarah; Pariyo, George W; Peterson, Stefan

    2008-06-21

    Although evidence-based interventions to reach the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Neonatal mortality reduction exist, they have not yet been operationalised and scaled up in Sub-Saharan African cultural and health systems. A key concern is whether these internationally recommended practices are acceptable and will be demanded by the target community. We explored the acceptability of these interventions in two rural districts of Uganda. We conducted 10 focus group discussions consisting of mothers, fathers, grand parents and child minders (older children who take care of other children). We also did 10 key informant interviews with health workers and traditional birth attendants. Most maternal and newborn recommended practices are acceptable to both the community and to health service providers. However, health system and community barriers were prevalent and will need to be overcome for better neonatal outcomes. Pregnant women did not comprehend the importance of attending antenatal care early or more than once unless they felt ill. Women prefer to deliver in health facilities but most do not do so because they cannot afford the cost of drugs and supplies which are demanded in a situation of poverty and limited male support. Postnatal care is non-existent. For the newborn, delayed bathing and putting nothing on the umbilical cord were neither acceptable to parents nor to health providers, requiring negotiation of alternative practices. The recommended maternal-newborn practices are generally acceptable to the community and health service providers, but often are not practiced due to health systems and community barriers. Communities associate the need for antenatal care attendance with feeling ill, and postnatal care is non-existent in this region. Health promotion programs to improve newborn care must prioritize postnatal care, and take into account the local socio-cultural situation and health systems barriers including the financial burden. Male

  19. Secondary education student bodily practices: implications of gender in and outside physical education classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernanda Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed to analyze the bodily practices of high school students inside and outside of the physical education classes from the perspective of gender. A total of 426 students (63.7% girls and 36.3% boys enrolled in the 2nd year of public high schools in a municipality in the interior of São Paulo State participated in the study. To collect the data, a questionnaire was elaborated and analyzed based on categories of survey and systematic cross-gender comparisons. The results showed that, in general, boys are more physically active than girls, regarding practices inside and outside of physical education classes. Distinctions were found regarding the bodily manisfestations chosen by each group, the behavior associated with the social and the cultural contexts to which boys and girls are exposed from birth to adult life.

  20. Hysterectomy Pathway as the Global Engine of Practice Change: Implications for Value in Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Sanei-Moghaddam

    2017-09-01

    Results: Physician respondents found the clinical pathway to be practical, beneficial to patients, and up-to-date with the latest evidence-based literature. Key barriers to the use of the pathway that were identified by physicians included perceived waste of time, inappropriateness for some of the patient groups, improper incentive structure, and excessive bureaucracy surrounding the process.  Overall, patient respondents were satisfied with the tool and found it to be helpful with the decision-making process of choosing a hysterectomy route.  Conclusions: Physicians and patients found the developed tools to be practical and beneficial. Findings of this study will help to use pathways as a unifying framework to shape future care of patients needing hysterectomy and add value to their care.

  1. Investigating Assessment Bias for Constructed Response Explanation Tasks: Implications for Evaluating Performance Expectations for Scientific Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federer, Meghan Rector

    Assessment is a key element in the process of science education teaching and research. Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment is a major challenge for science education reforms. Prior research has documented several limitations of instrument types on the measurement of students' scientific knowledge (Liu et al., 2011; Messick, 1995; Popham, 2010). Furthermore, a large body of work has been devoted to reducing assessment biases that distort inferences about students' science understanding, particularly in multiple-choice [MC] instruments. Despite the above documented biases, much has yet to be determined for constructed response [CR] assessments in biology and their use for evaluating students' conceptual understanding of scientific practices (such as explanation). Understanding differences in science achievement provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Using the integrative framework put forth by the National Research Council (2012), this dissertation aimed to explore whether assessment biases occur for assessment practices intended to measure students' conceptual understanding and proficiency in scientific practices. Using a large corpus of undergraduate biology students' explanations, three studies were conducted to examine whether known biases of MC instruments were also apparent in a CR instrument designed to assess students' explanatory practice and understanding of evolutionary change (ACORNS: Assessment of COntextual Reasoning about Natural Selection). The first study investigated the challenge of interpreting and scoring lexically ambiguous language in CR answers. The incorporation of 'multivalent' terms into scientific discourse practices often results in statements or explanations that are difficult to interpret and can produce faulty inferences about student knowledge. The results of this study indicate that many undergraduate biology majors

  2. Traditional massage of newborns in Nepal: implications for trials of improved practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Luke C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Khatry, Subarna K; Tielsch, James M

    2005-04-01

    Mustard oil massage of newborns is an integral component of traditional care practices in many communities. Recent evidence suggests that this practice may have detrimental effects, particularly for preterm infants or for those whose skin barrier function is otherwise sub-optimal. Other natural oils such as sunflower, sesame or safflower seed oil may have a beneficial impact on newborn health and survival. Little is known, however, about cultural and other factors related to the acceptance and uptake of alternative, more beneficial oils for massage of the newborn. A questionnaire concerning the usage and reasons for application of mustard and other oils to newborn skin was administered to the caretakers of 8580 newborns in Sarlahi district of rural Nepal. Four focus group discussions among representative groups were conducted to describe the perceived benefits of oil massage and the factors involved in the decision to apply oil. The potential for the introduction of alternative natural oils was explored. Approximately 99 per cent of newborns were massaged at least once with mustard oil in the 2 weeks after birth, and 80 per cent were massaged at least twice daily. Promotion of strength, maintenance of health, and provision of warmth were the most commonly cited reasons for application of mustard oil. Focus group discussion participants noted that smell, oiliness, mode of pre-massage preparation, and perceived absorptive potential on the skin are important contextual factors involved in the practice. Caretakers are willing to consider adaptation of established traditions for the promotion of positive health outcomes if essential contextual criteria are met. An understanding of cultural, social, and economic factors that shape the context of traditional healthcare practices is essential to the design and implementation of intervention trials examining the relative efficacy of application of oils in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity.

  3. Managing health and safety risks: Implications for tailoring health and safety management system practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, D R; Haas, E J

    2016-01-01

    As national and international health and safety management system (HSMS) standards are voluntarily accepted or regulated into practice, organizations are making an effort to modify and integrate strategic elements of a connected management system into their daily risk management practices. In high-risk industries such as mining, that effort takes on added importance. The mining industry has long recognized the importance of a more integrated approach to recognizing and responding to site-specific risks, encouraging the adoption of a risk-based management framework. Recently, the U.S. National Mining Association led the development of an industry-specific HSMS built on the strategic frameworks of ANSI: Z10, OHSAS 18001, The American Chemistry Council's Responsible Care, and ILO-OSH 2001. All of these standards provide strategic guidance and focus on how to incorporate a plan-do-check-act cycle into the identification, management and evaluation of worksite risks. This paper details an exploratory study into whether practices associated with executing a risk-based management framework are visible through the actions of an organization's site-level management of health and safety risks. The results of this study show ways that site-level leaders manage day-to-day risk at their operations that can be characterized according to practices associated with a risk-based management framework. Having tangible operational examples of day-to-day risk management can serve as a starting point for evaluating field-level risk assessment efforts and their alignment to overall company efforts at effective risk mitigation through a HSMS or other processes.

  4. The optimisation principle and the new ICRP recommendations: practical implications on operational radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1992-01-01

    The formulation of the optimisation principle proposed by the International Commission of Radiological Protection in its new recommendations is largely oriented towards better control of individual doses. In this perspective, the concept of doe constraint and the reference to equity in dose distributions are becoming key elements within the optimisation process. This paper discusses some first reflexions regarding this new orientation and outlines the main impacts that must be forwarded to the practical level. (author)

  5. Partial and incremental PCMH practice transformation: implications for quality and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian, Michael L; Alexander, Jeffrey A; El Reda, Darline K; Wise, Chris G; Green, Lee A; Fetters, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    To examine the associations between partial and incremental implementation of the Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model and measures of cost and quality of care. We combined validated, self-reported PCMH capabilities data with administrative claims data for a diverse statewide population of 2,432 primary care practices in Michigan. These data were supplemented with contextual data from the Area Resource File. We measured medical home capabilities in place as of June 2009 and change in medical home capabilities implemented between July 2009 and June 2010. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the mean effect of these PCMH measures on total medical costs and quality of care delivered in physician practices between July 2009 and June 2010, while controlling for potential practice, patient cohort, physician organization, and practice environment confounders. Based on the observed relationships for partial implementation, full implementation of the PCMH model is associated with a 3.5 percent higher quality composite score, a 5.1 percent higher preventive composite score, and $26.37 lower per member per month medical costs for adults. Full PCMH implementation is also associated with a 12.2 percent higher preventive composite score, but no reductions in costs for pediatric populations. Incremental improvements in PCMH model implementation yielded similar positive effects on quality of care for both adult and pediatric populations but were not associated with cost savings for either population. Estimated effects of the PCMH model on quality and cost of care appear to improve with the degree of PCMH implementation achieved and with incremental improvements in implementation. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Green Service Practices: Performance Implications and the Role of Environmental Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Christina W. Y. Wong; Chee Yew Wong; Sakun Boon-itt

    2013-01-01

    Research on the effects of environmental management has largely neglected the importance of green service practices and their impact on environmental protection and cost reduction. There is also little knowledge on how service-oriented firms may leverage their efforts in providing green services to achieve performance improvement through their existing environmental management system (EMS). Grounded in the natural resource-based view in conjunction with the contingency theory, we develop a mo...

  7. A randomized study of multimedia informational aids for research on medical practices: implications for informed consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stephanie A; Constantine, Melissa; Magnus, David; Porter, Kathryn M.; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Green, Michael; Kass, Nancy E; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Cho, Mildred K

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Participant understanding is a key element of informed consent for enrollment in research. However, participants often do not understand the nature, risks, benefits, or design of the studies in which they take part. Research on medical practices, which studies standard interventions rather than new treatments, has the potential to be especially confusing to participants because it is embedded within usual clinical care. Our objective in this randomized study was to compare the ability of a range of multimedia informational aids to improve participant understanding in the context of research on medical practices. Methods We administered a Web-based survey to members of a proprietary online panel sample selected to match national U.S. demographics. Respondents were randomized to one of five arms: four content-equivalent informational aids (animated videos, slideshows with voiceover, comics, and text), and one no-intervention control. We measured knowledge of research on medical practices using a summary knowledge score from 10 questions based on the content of the informational aids. We used ANOVA and paired t-tests to compare knowledge scores between arms. Results There were 1500 completed surveys (300 in each arm). Mean knowledge scores were highest for the slideshows with voiceover (65.7%), followed by the animated videos (62.7%), comics (60.7%), text (57.2%), and control (50.3%). Differences between arms were statistically significant except between the slideshows with voiceover and animated videos and between the animated videos and comics. Informational aids that included an audio component (animated videos and slideshows with voiceover) had higher knowledge scores than those without an audio component (64.2% versus 59.0%, peffectively than text alone. However, the relatively low knowledge scores suggest that targeted informational aids may be needed to teach some particularly challenging concepts. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate the

  8. Practical decisions of relationships creation with business-to-business customers on „LinkedIn“ social network

    OpenAIRE

    Maculevičiūtė, Gitana

    2017-01-01

    Šiame darbe nagrinėjama itin aktuali tema – santykių su verslas-verslui vartotojais kūrimas soc.tinkluose. Darbo tikslas – atlikus mokslinės literatūros šaltinių analizę ir praktinį tyrimą, pateikti projektinius sprendimus, kaip įmonėms efektyviai kurti santykius su verslas-verslui vartotojais „LinkedIn” soc.tinkle. Teorinėje darbo dalyje analizuojama santykių marketingo samprata, santykių marketingo verslas-verslui rinkoje specifika bei santykių kūrimas socialiniuose tinkluose. Analiti...

  9. NON-TERRITORIAL AUTONOMY IN RUSSIA: PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana RUDNEVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the theoretical possibility to use non-territorial autonomy as a mechanism through which ethnic groups can fulfil their right to selfdetermination along with other minority rights, not many states have been willing to put theory into practice. The article offers an explanation why wider applicability of NTA is problematic by arguing that the theory itself is not yet polished enough to be implemented. The study includes examination of both theoretical approaches and empirical data from a case study of an attempt to establish NTAs in the Russian Federation. The findings suggest that inconsistencies and unclarities in the theory do correlate with practical flaws of NTAs, which allows to suggest that when the theory is tested empirically, the reality reveals all the flaws of the theory. The results indicate that the concept of NTA needs further refinement and development to make it more practice-oriented and applicable. As the problem of minority rights is still to be dealt with, we also propose a model of global union of NTAs where each ethnic group is represented by a non-governmental organisation, which seems to be more applicable than the others, alongside a number of other mechanisms that are even more essential and universal and focus on defending basic human rights

  10. Microscope use in clinical veterinary practice and potential implications for veterinary school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Pediatric Dentists Regarding Speech Evaluation of Patients: Implications for Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eyndhoven, Lisa; Chussid, Steven; Yoon, Richard K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine pediatric dentists' attitudes about speech evaluation in the dental setting and assess their knowledge of speech development and pathology. In October 2013, members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry were invited to participate in an electronic questionnaire. Categories of questions were demographics, attitudes and confidence in speech pathology, and theoretical and practical knowledge of speech development and speech pathology. Theoretical knowledge was assessed using questions about phonetics and speech milestones. Practical knowledge was determined with three 30-second interview-style video clips. A total of 539 responses were received for a response rate of 10.4%. The majority of respondents reported feeling that speech evaluation should be part of the pediatric dental visit (72.8%) and felt confident in their ability to detect speech issues (73.2%). However, they did poorly on the theoretical knowledge questions (41.9%) as well as the practical knowledge questions (8.5%). There was a statistically significant difference in theoretical score between gender and type of occupation (pspeech issues, they currently have insufficient training and knowledge to do so.

  12. High-stakes conflicts and the link between theory and practice : celebrating the work of Ellen Giebels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostinga, Miriam S.D.; Rispens, Sonja; Taylor, Paul J.; Ufkes, Elze G.

    2018-01-01

    In this tribute to the 2012 recipient of the IACM's Jeffrey Rubin's Theory-to-Practice Award, we celebrate the work of Ellen Giebels. We highlight her groundbreaking research on influence tactics in crisis negotiations and other high-stakes conflict situations, showing how her focus on theoretical

  13. High-Stakes Conflicts and the Link between Theory and Practice : Celebrating the Work of Ellen Giebels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostinga, Miriam S.D.; Rispens, Sonja; Taylor, Paul J.; Ufkes, Elze G.

    2018-01-01

    In this tribute to the 2012 recipient of the IACM's Jeffrey Rubin's Theory-to-Practice Award, we celebrate the work of Ellen Giebels. We highlight her groundbreaking research on influence tactics in crisis negotiations and other high-stakes conflict situations, showing how her focus on theoretical

  14. Molecular Biology Masterclasses--Developing Practical Skills and Building Links with Higher Education in Years 12/13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, Paul; Cooper, Phillippa; Skidmore, Nick

    2008-01-01

    A one day practical course in molecular biology skills suitable for year 12/13 students is described. Colleagues from partner schools and colleges were trained by university staff in basic techniques and then collaborated in the design of a course suitable for their own students. Participants carried out a transformation of "E.coli"…

  15. Clear-cut and practice-oriented organization - the connecting link between man and nuclear power plant operation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, E.K.

    1994-01-01

    Practice-oriented plant organization takes into account the human spheres of task and responsibility, training and qualification, communication and exchange of experience, setting of targets, management and control as well as motivation and loyalty. It constitutes the basis for meeting the demands on a safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation. This is demonstrated by the organization at the Grafenrheinfeld NPP. (DG) [de

  16. Using Learning and Motivation Theories to Coherently Link Formative Assessment, Grading Practices, and Large-Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, L. A.; Penuel, W. R.; Pellegrino, J. W.

    2018-01-01

    To support equitable and ambitious teaching practices, classroom assessment design must be grounded in a research-based theory of learning. Compared to other theories, sociocultural theory offers a more powerful, integrative account of how motivational aspects of learning--such as self-regulation, self-efficacy, sense of belonging, and…

  17. The Link between Preschoolers' Phonological Awareness and Mothers' Book-Reading and Reminiscing Practices in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Reese, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The relation between preschoolers' phonological awareness and the frequency and quality of parents' book-reading and reminiscing practices were examined in 54 low-income and ethnically diverse families. Children's phonological awareness was assessed at the beginning and end of preschool. Mothers reported the frequency with which they read books…

  18. Empowerment and Social Support: Implications for Practice and Programming among Minority Women with Substance Abuse and Criminal Justice Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women’s empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women’s personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice and policy are discussed. PMID:27084362

  19. Adaptive practices in heart failure care teams: implications for patient-centered care in the context of complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tait GR

    2015-08-01

    member and could extend to other settings. Conclusion: Adaptive practices emerged unpredictably and were variably experienced by team members. Our study offers an empirically grounded explanation of how HF care teams self-organize and how adaptive practices emerge from nonlinear interdependencies among diverse agents. We use these insights to reframe the question of palliative care integration, to ask how best to foster palliative care-aligned adaptive practices in HF care. This work has implications for health care’s growing challenge of providing care to those with chronic medical illness in complex, team-based settings. Keywords: palliative care, qualitative, complex adaptive system, multimorbidity, health care teams

  20. Social Media and Web Presence for Patients and Professionals: Evolving Trends and Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Jose E; Whitehair, Curtis L

    2017-05-01

    The use of social media has become very instinctive to many. It has become part of a daily routine. Enhanced communication, liberated expressions of self, becoming updated with all the trends and news, and marketing promotion are only some of the reasons why most people use social media. Health care providers including physicians should take advantage of these platforms for professional purposes. Social media extends far beyond the famous platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Instagram, used mostly for social connections. There are sites dedicated to serve professionals, for example, LinkedIn, or even physician-specific forums such as Sermo. The physical medicine and rehabilitation community has a forum (Phyzforum) created by the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation to share questions, comments, and ideas. Moreover, there are broadcast media (Podcast) and blogging sites (WordPress) used by many physiatrists. Surveys show that physicians actively use an average of 2-4 hours of professional-leaning networking sites per week; for example, 44% of physicians use Sermo and 42% use LinkedIn. The participation also extends to more popular sites, with 40%, 25%, and 20% physician participation in YouTube, Blogging, and Twitter, respectively. There are numerous guidelines available for medical practitioners pertaining to professional use of social media. Strategies such as timing of postings and posting content as well as methods to maintain your online reputation are discussed. Various benefits and potential pitfalls with regards to social media use are also analyzed, including how to engage followers and addressing negative comments and reviews. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Knowledge, behavioral practices, and experiences of outdoor fallers: Implications for prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy; Raveis, Victoria

    2017-09-01

    Although the epidemiology and prevention of falls has been well studied, the focus has been on indoor rather than outdoor falls. Older adults' knowledge of outdoor risk factors and their outdoor fall prevention practices have not been examined. To fill this gap, and to inform the development of a prevention program, we sought to explore the experiences and fall prevention knowledge and practices of older adults who had sustained an outdoor fall. A cross-sectional study using random digit telephone dialing was used to survey community dwelling seniors (N=120) across the five boroughs of New York City. We used the Outdoor Falls Questionnaire (OFQ), a valid and reliable tool as the survey instrument. Perceived outdoor fall risks, strategies used for prevention, and outdoor fall experiences were examined. SPSS version 21 was used for descriptive analysis of participant characteristics and to determine frequencies of perceived outdoor fall risks and strategies used for prevention. Phenomenological analysis was used with the qualitative data. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed separately and a mixed methods matrix was used to interpret and integrate the findings. Analysis revealed diverse unmet education and training needs including the importance of using single vision glasses, understanding the fall risks associated with recreational areas and parking lots, safe outdoor walking strategies, safe carrying of items on level and uneven surfaces, as well as when walking up and down stairs, and safety in opening/closing doors. Study findings are informative for outdoor fall prevention programs as well as practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An examination of current stroke rehabilitation practice in Peru: Implications for interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Cody L; Fuhs, Amy K; Kartin, Deborah

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to better understand current clinical practice of rehabilitation professionals in Lima, Peru, and to explore the existence of and potential for interprofessional collaboration. A secondary purpose was to assess rehabilitation professionals' agreement with evidence-based stroke rehabilitation statements and confidence performing stroke rehabilitation tasks prior to and following an interprofessional stroke rehabilitation training. Current clinical practice for rehabilitation professionals in Peru differs from high-income counties like the United States, as physical therapists work with dysphagia and feeding, prosthetist orthotists serve a strictly technical role, and nurses have a limited role in rehabilitation. Additionally, while opportunity for future interprofessional collaboration within stroke rehabilitation exists, it appears to be discouraged by current health system policies. Pre- and post-training surveys were conducted with a convenience sample of 107 rehabilitation professionals in Peru. Survey response options included endorsement of professionals for rehabilitation tasks and a Likert scale of agreement and confidence. Training participants largely agreed with evidence-based stroke rehabilitation statements. Differences in opinion remained regarding the prevalence of dysphagia and optimal frequency of therapy post-stroke. Substantially increased agreement post-training was seen in favour of early initiation of stroke rehabilitation and ankle foot orthosis use. Participants were generally confident performing traditional profession-specific interventions and educating patients and families. Substantial increases were seen in respondents' confidence to safely and independently conduct bed to chair transfers and determine physiological stability. Identification of key differences in rehabilitation professionals' clinical practice in Peru is a first step toward strengthening the development of sustainable rehabilitation systems and

  3. Cancer pain management in China: current status and practice implications based on the ACHEON survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Z

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhongjun Xia Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, ChinaPurpose: Cancer pain can seriously impact the quality of life (QoL of patients, and optimal management practices are therefore of paramount importance. The ACHEON survey queried physicians and patients from 10 Asian countries/regions to assess current clinical practices in cancer pain management in Asia. This study presents the data obtained for cancer pain management in mainland China, with an emphasis on practices related to opioid drugs.Materials and methods: In several tertiary hospitals across China, 250 patients experiencing cancer pain and 100 physicians were surveyed on questions designed to assess current cancer pain management practices and cancer pain impact on QoL.Results: The patient survey showed that 88% of patients reported moderate-to-severe cancer pain, with a median duration of 6 months. The physician survey showed that medical school/residency training with regard to cancer pain management was inadequate in ~80% of physicians. A total of 80% of physicians and 67.2% of patients reported that pain scale was used during pain assessment; 84% of physicians expressed that physician-perceived pain severity was not completely consistent with actual pain the patient experienced. Of the 147 patients who recalled the medication received, 83.7% were administered opioid prescriptions. Of the 240 patients who received treatment, 43.8% perceived the inadequacy of controlling pain. The primary barriers from physicians perceived to optimal pain management included patients’ fear of side effects (58%, patients’ fear of addiction (53%, patients’ reluctance to report pain (43%, physicians’ reluctance to prescribe (29%, physicians’ inadequacy of pain assessment (27% and excessive regulation of opioid analgesics (47%.Conclusion: Knowledge of cancer pain management should be strengthened among physicians. Quantitative pain assessment and principle-based pain

  4. A randomized study of multimedia informational aids for research on medical practices: Implications for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stephanie A; Constantine, Melissa; Magnus, David; Porter, Kathryn M; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Green, Michael; Kass, Nancy E; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Cho, Mildred K

    2017-02-01

    Participant understanding is a key element of informed consent for enrollment in research. However, participants often do not understand the nature, risks, benefits, or design of the studies in which they take part. Research on medical practices, which studies standard interventions rather than new treatments, has the potential to be especially confusing to participants because it is embedded within usual clinical care. Our objective in this randomized study was to compare the ability of a range of multimedia informational aids to improve participant understanding in the context of research on medical practices. We administered a web-based survey to members of a proprietary online panel sample selected to match national US demographics. Respondents were randomized to one of five arms: four content-equivalent informational aids (animated videos, slideshows with voice-over, comics, and text) and one no-intervention control. We measured knowledge of research on medical practices using a summary knowledge score from 10 questions based on the content of the informational aids. We used analysis of variance and paired t-tests to compare knowledge scores between arms. There were 1500 completed surveys (300 in each arm). Mean knowledge scores were highest for the slideshows with voice-over (65.7%), followed by the animated videos (62.7%), comics (60.7%), text (57.2%), and control (50.3%). Differences between arms were statistically significant except between the slideshows with voice-over and animated videos and between the animated videos and comics. Informational aids that included an audio component (animated videos and slideshows with voice-over) had higher knowledge scores than those without an audio component (64.2% vs 59.0%, p informational aids with a character-driven story component (animated videos and comics) and those without. Our results show that simple multimedia aids that use a dual-channel approach, such as voice-over with visual reinforcement, can

  5. Cancer survivorship care-planning: Practice, research, and policy implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard W; Pritzker, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of cancer survivors are living longer than 5 years from their diagnosis date. This has resulted in a growing population of cancer survivors, expected to reach 19 million by 2024. Survivors frequently experience late effects caused by cancer and its treatment, reducing survivors' quality of life in multiple domains. Survivorship care-plans may aid the many physical, psychosocial, and financial needs that emerge posttreatment. However, the lack of reimbursement mechanisms, the limited amount of effectiveness research, and minimal guidelines for content and delivery are barriers to the widespread provision of survivorship care-plans. Challenges and opportunities for social work practice, research, and policy are identified and discussed.

  6. Assessing the link between health care utilisation in general practice and morbidity patterns in the elderly in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Anders; Kristensen, Troels; Ranstad, Karin

    important areas of healthcare utilisation in general practice in the Nordic countries. In the future, this demand for healthcare services among the elderly is expected to increase. For instance, it is likely that people live longer and advanced technologies continue to be developed, affecting demand...... and diabetes). Today we have limited information on the need for social services and health care services for the elderly in the Nordic countries. There is a need for improved understanding of variation in healthcare utilization and methods to measure the actual need for healthcare services among older......Objectives: The objective is to describe and analyze the prevalence of comorbidity and multimorbidity among older people with extensive and complex care needs. Next, the main objective is to present and discuss papers on the association between healthcare utilisation in general practice...

  7. Women's experiences of long term sickness absence: implications for rehabilitation practice and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockander, Marlene K; Timpka, Toomas

    2003-01-01

    In most European countries, spells of long-term absence contribute the largest number of days that are reimbursed as a result of sickness absence. This group is growing and it is constituted mainly of women. The present study seeks further knowledge about what happens then and there, i.e. how women on long-term sickness absence handle and explain, for themselves and others, this interruption in their daily life. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 82 middle-aged women with personal experience of long-term sickness absence. The women's accounts of sickness absence contained interpretations of what had happened to them, how things were at present, and what they thought the future would bring. Three different accounts could be distinguished: crisis, breakpoint, and migration. The perception of their own situation and especially what they thought about their future was associated with their feeling of power to take the initiative, and their well-being. From this study the authors have found implications for central topics of importance: time elapse, sense of coherence, reorientation/adaptation, vital goals, and gender.

  8. Interactions between grape skin cell wall material and commercial enological tannins. Practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Cano-Lechuga, Mario; Ruiz-García, Yolanda; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    Commercial enological tannins were used to investigate the role that cell wall material plays in proanthocyanidin adsorption. Insoluble cell wall material, prepared from the skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell berries, was combined with solutions containing six different commercial enological tannins (proanthocyanidin-type tannins). Analysis of the proanthocyanidins in the solution, after fining with cell wall material, using phloroglucinolysis and size exclusion chromatography, provided quantitative and qualitative information on the non-adsorbed compounds. Cell wall material showed strong affinity for the proanthocyanidins, one of the commercial tannins being bound up to 61% in the experiment. Comparison of the molecular mass distribution of the commercial enological tannins in solution, before and after fining, suggested that cell walls affinity for proanthocyanidins was more related with the proanthocyanidin molecular mass than with their percentage of galloylation. These interactions may have some enological implications, especially as regards the time of commercial tannins addition to the must/wine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Sexual health and intellectual disability: a narrative literature review and its implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariseau-Legault, Pierre; Holmes, Dave

    2017-09-01

    Issues associated with affectivity and sexuality in the context of intellectual disability have recently been the subject of various interdisciplinary discussions in academia. In nursing, interventions in sexual health are supported with hesitation and those issues constitute a marginal field of nursing research. A narrative literature review was realized in order to establish a portrait of the knowledge produced on this topic in the last decade. This paper illustrates three specific research areas recently developed, namely issues related to sexual autonomy, contextual factors positively or negatively contributing to emotional and sexual life, and the experiences of people identified as having an intellectual disability in this regard. On the basis of these results, different issues related to sexuality and intellectual disability are discussed, including those associated with the negotiation process of affective and sexual life, parenthood as a mediator of emotional and sexual expression, and the inclusiveness issues of sexual diversity in health interventions. Implications for nursing are finally discussed in light of the recent development of its role in sexual health.

  10. Genetic and epigenetic features in radiation sensitivity. Part II: implications for clinical practice and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, Michel H.; Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria R.; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Giorgio, Marina di; Carosella, Edgardo D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress especially in the field of gene identification and expression has attracted greater attention to the genetic and epigenetic susceptibility to cancer, possibly enhanced by ionising radiation. This issue is especially important for radiation therapists since hypersensitive patients may suffer from adverse effects in normal tissues following standard radiation therapy, while normally sensitive patients could receive higher doses of radiation, offering a better likelihood of cure for malignant tumours. Although only a small percentage of individuals are ''hypersensitive'' to radiation effects, all medical specialists using ionising radiation should be aware of the aforementioned progress in medical knowledge. The present paper, the second of two parts, reviews human disorders known or strongly suspected to be associated with hypersensitivity to ionising radiation. The main tests capable of detecting such pathologies in advance are analysed, and ethical issues regarding genetic testing are considered. The implications for radiation protection of possible hypersensitivity to radiation in a part of the population are discussed, and some guidelines for nuclear medicine professionals are proposed. (orig.)

  11. Teaching chemical reactions in the laboratory: linking theory and practice in teacher’s education and didactic action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonice Puggian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation about chemistry teaching laboratory, describing the potential of a methodology that combines theoretical and hands on activities about chemical reactions. This proposal explores the curriculum content of high school chemistry, highlighting the teaching of chemical reactions, seeking the establishment of inter-relationships between the theoretical and practical knowledge inherent in the processes of school knowledge in Chemistry, challenging teachers to think about experimental activities not as an isolated moment in their class, but as an integral part of it. The methodology was qualitative in nature, adopting semi-structured interviews as instruments for data collection. The research was conducted with eight teachers of chemistry and seventy students from the second grade of high school from a technical school in Rio de Janeiro state. The results of this study indicate that this approach appears as an alternative to conducting laboratory experimental activities, contributing to a more formative and informative, less technical and fragmented teaching of chemistry in Basic Education. The research also shows that this approach supports teachers on their reflection of teaching practices, as well as on the planning and execution of experimental activities. We conclude that pedagogical proposals that articulate theory and practice are more effective in promoting the learning of high school students.

  12. Critical thinking, nurse education and universities: some thoughts on current issues and implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrall, Peter; Goodman, Benny

    2013-09-01

    When in the latter part of the 20th century nurse 'training' in the UK left the old schools of nursing (based within the health delivery system) and entered universities, the promise was not just a change of focus from training to education but an embracement of 'higher' education. Specifically, nurses were to be exposed to the demands of thinking rather than just doing - and critical thinking at that. However, despite a history of critical perspectives informing nursing theory, that promise may be turning sour. The insidious saturation of the university system in bureaucracy and managerialism has, we argue, undermined critical thinking. A major funding restructuring of higher education in the UK, coinciding with public concern about the state of nursing practice, is undermining further the viability of critical thinking in nursing and potentially the acceptability of university education for nurses. Nevertheless, while critical thinking in universities has decayed, there is no obvious educational alternative that can provide this core attribute, one that is even more necessary to understand health and promote competent nursing practice in an increasingly complex and globalising world. We propose that nurse academics and their colleagues from many other academic and professional disciplines engage in collegiate 'moral action' to re-establish critical thinking in UK universities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Race-Based Health Disparities and the Digital Divide: Implications for Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Zula

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the sources of race-based health disparities could improve nursing practice and education in minority underserved communities. This purpose of this paper was to consider if Black-nonBlack health disparities were at least in part explained by Black-nonBlack disparities in access to Internet-based health information. With data on the U.S. adult population from the 2012 General Social Survey, the parameters of a health production function in which computer usage as an input was estimated. It was found that while there are Black-nonBlack disparities in health, once computer usage was accounted for, Black-nonBlack health disparities disappeared. This suggests nursing and health interventions that improve Internet access for Black patients in underserved communities could improve the health of Black Americans and close the racial health disparities gap. These findings complement recent nursing researchfindings that suggest closing Black-nonBlack disparities in computer access, the "digital divide," can render nursing practice more effective in providing care to minority and underserved communities.

  14. New perspectives on the theory of justice: implications for physical therapy ethics and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ian; Delany, Clare M; Townsend, Anne F; Swisher, Laura Lee

    2011-11-01

    Recent revisions of physical therapy codes of ethics have included a new emphasis concerning health inequities and social injustice. This emphasis reflects the growing evidence regarding the importance of social determinants of health, epidemiological trends for health service delivery, and the enhanced participation of physical therapists in shaping health care reform in a number of international contexts. This perspective article suggests that there is a "disconnect" between the societal obligations and aspirations expressed in the revised codes and the individualist ethical frameworks that predominantly underpin them. Primary health care is an approach to health care arising from an understanding of the nexus between health and social disadvantage that considers the health needs of patients as expressive of the health needs of the communities of which they are members. It is proposed that re-thinking ethical frameworks expressed in codes of ethics can both inform and underpin practical strategies for working in primary health care. This perspective article provides a new focus on the ethical principle of justice: the ethical principle that arguably remains the least consensually understood and developed in the ethics literature of physical therapy. A relatively recent theory of justice known as the "capability approach to justice" is discussed, along with its potential to assist physical therapy practitioners to further develop moral agency in order to address situations of health inequity and social injustice in clinical practice.

  15. Clinical leadership in contemporary clinical practice: implications for nursing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, P M; Elliott, D; Daly, J

    2006-04-01

    Leadership in the clinical practice environment is important to ensure both optimal patient outcomes and successive generations of motivated and enthusiastic clinicians. The present paper seeks to define and describe clinical leadership and identify the facilitators and barriers to clinical leadership. We also describe strategies to develop clinical leaders in Australia. Key drivers to the development of nursing leaders are strategies that recognize and value clinical expertise. These include models of care that highlight the importance of the nursing role; evidence-based practice and measurement of clinical outcomes; strategies to empower clinicians and mechanisms to ensure participation in clinical decision-making. Significant barriers to clinical leadership are organizational structures that preclude nurses from clinical decision making; the national shortage of nurses; fiscal constraints; absence of well evaluated models of care and trends towards less skilled clinicians. Systematic, strategic initiatives are required to nurture and develop clinical leaders. These strategies need to be collegial collaborations between the academic and health care sectors in order to provide a united voice for advancing the nursing profession.

  16. Inter-personal violence and abuse in adolescent intimate relationships: mental health impact and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Christine; Stanley, Nicky

    2016-10-01

    This paper provides a narrative review of the knowledge on inter-personal violence and abuse (IPVA) in adolescents' intimate relationships. It draws on the authors' own research, published reviews, and a rapid review on IPVA victimization and mental health outcomes for adolescents. The research reviewed identified associations between adolescent IPVA and substance misuse, depressive symptoms and PTSD, eating disorders and suicidal thinking, and behaviour in young people. Generally, girls appeared more likely to report severe mental health outcomes than boys. Adolescents rarely disclose IPVA to adults and delivering preventative programmes that promote knowledge and help seeking may offer a means of building on young people's tendency to seek help from friends. These preventative interventions, usually delivered in schools, need to be closely linked to support services for adolescents who disclose abuse. While there are some practice examples of emerging interventions for both victims and perpetrators of adolescent IPVA, there is as yet little robust evidence regarding their effectiveness.

  17. Acute psychological benefits of exercise performed at self-selected workloads: implications for theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila

    2003-09-01

    Given that most studies to date examined the connection between exercise and affect without considering the participants' preferred exercise workload, in this research the affective-benefits of jogging or running at a participant-selected pace were investigated in a pilot field and a laboratory experiment. Ninety-six male and female students (19.5 yrs) took part in the pilot field experiment whereas 32 women (20.3 yrs) completed the laboratory experiment. In both experiments, the participants ran/jogged for 20 minutes at a self-selected pace. They completed an abbreviated version of a 'right now form' of the Profile of Mood States (POMS - Grove and Prapavessis, 1992) inventory before and after exercise. In both experiments all dependent measures changed significantly from pre- to post-exercise, except 'fatigue' and 'vigor' that did not change in the laboratory. Total mood disturbance (TMD) decreased significantly in both experiments (68% and 89%). No significant correlations were found between exercise intensity (expressed as percent (%) of maximal heart rate reserve) and the magnitude of changes seen in the dependent measures. It is concluded that exercising at a self-selected workload yields positive changes in affect that are unrelated to exercise intensity. These results suggest that the physiological theories linking exercise with positive changes in affect, in which exercise intensity is instrumental, could not account for the acute affective benefits of exercise. It is proposed that a 'cognitive appraisal hypothesis' may be more appropriate in explaining the acute affective benefits of exercise.

  18. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge.

  19. The importance, measurement and practical implications of worker's expectations for return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Amanda E; Besen, Elyssa; Choi, YoonSun

    2015-01-01

    Workers' own expectations for return to work consistently predict work status. To advance the understanding of the relationship between RTW expectations and outcomes, we reviewed existing measures to determine those which we felt were the most likely to capture the construct. A comprehensive search of the work-disability rehabilitation literature was undertaken. The review of the measures was conducted in three steps: first, a review of terminology; second, an examination of whether a time reference was included; third, an evaluation of ease of comprehension, and applicability across contexts. A total of 42 different measures were identified. One of the most striking findings was the inconsistency in terminology. Measures were also limited by not including a time reference. Problems were also identified with regards to ease of understanding, utility of response options, and applicability in a wide variety of research and applied settings. Most previously used measures contain elements that potentially limit utility. However, it would seem that further development can overcome these, resulting in a tool that provides risk prediction information, and an opportunity to start a conversation to help identify problems that might negatively impact a worker's movement through the RTW process and the outcomes achieved. Implications for Rehabilitation Return to work is an integral part of workplace injury management. The capture of RTW expectations affords a way to identify the potential for less than optimal RTW processes and outcomes. A mismatch between an injured worker's expectations and what other stakeholders might expect suggests that efforts could be made to determine what is causing the injured worker's concerns. Once underling issues are identified, work can be put into resolving these so that the worker's return to the workplace is not impeded.

  20. Framing Tobacco Dependence as a "Brain Disease": Implications for Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphett, Kylie; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral

    2017-07-01

    Like other forms of drug dependence, tobacco dependence is increasingly being described as a "chronic brain disease." The potential consequences of this medical labelling have been examined in relation to other addictions, but the implications for tobacco control have been neglected. Some have posited that biomedical conceptions of addiction will reduce stigma and increase uptake of efficacious treatments. Others have countered that it could increase stigma, reduce treatment seeking, and deter unassisted quitting. We explored how smokers respond to the labelling of smoking as a brain disease. Semi-structured interviews with 29 Australian smokers recruited using purposive sampling. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the results. Most participants questioned the accuracy of the brain disease label as applied to smoking. They believed that smoking was not a chronic disease because they perceived smoking to be an individual's choice. In addition, many believed that this label would increase the stigma that they already felt and, did not want to adopt a "sick role" in relation to their smoking. Describing smoking as a brain disease is more likely to alienate smokers than to engage them in quitting. The application of overly medical labels of smoking are inconsistent with smokers own conceptualizations of their smoking, and may have unintended consequences if they are widely disseminated in healthcare settings or antismoking campaigns. The participants in this project believed that biomedical labels of smoking as a "brain disease" or a "chronic disease" were discordant their existing understandings of their smoking. Explanations of addiction that downplay or ignore the role of choice and autonomy risk being perceived as irrelevant by smokers, and could lead to suspicion of health professionals or an unwillingness to seek treatment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights

  1. Yarning/Aboriginal storytelling: towards an understanding of an Indigenous perspective and its implications for research practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geia, Lynore K; Hayes, Barbara; Usher, Kim

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition of Indigenous perspectives from various parts of the world in relation to storytelling, research and its effects on practice. The recent emergence of storytelling or yarning as a research method in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island studies and other Indigenous peoples of the world is gaining momentum. Narratives, stories, storytelling and yarning are emerging methods in research and has wide ranging potential to shape conventional research discourse making research more meaningful and accessible for researchers. In this paper we argue for the importance of Indigenous research methods and Indigenous method(ology), within collaborative respectful partnerships with non-Indigenous researchers. It is imperative to take these challenging steps together towards better outcomes for Indigenous people and their communities. In the Australian context we as researchers cannot afford to allow the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and mainstream Australia health outcomes to grow even wider. One such pathway is the inclusion of Aboriginal storytelling or yarning from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait perspective within Indigenous and non-Indigenous research paradigms. Utilising Aboriginal storytelling or yarning will provide deeper understanding; complementing a two-way research paradigm for collaborative research. Furthermore, it has significant social implications for research and clinical practice amongst Indigenous populations; thus complementing the biomedical medical paradigm.

  2. Parenting, family life, and well-being among sexual minorities: nursing policy and practice implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Parenting and family life are fundamental social constructs in human society and in law and public policy. Family structures and support systems provide important economic and psychological advantages for parents as well as for their children. Stigma toward lesbian and gay parents often marginalize individuals in these families and restrict family members' full expression of social citizenship, humanity, and personhood. Stigma directly contributes to increased risk for substance abuse, anxiety, and depressive illness among both parents and children. This article reviews the relevant policy literature to deconstruct the impacts of stigma on the psychological health and well-being of sexual minority parents so that psychiatric/mental health nurses and other health care providers can identify and counter these effects in their practices and advocate for policy improvements.

  3. Social Work Practice with Arab Families: The Implications of Spirituality vis-à-vis Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Hall

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, spiritualism has become apparent as critical to social work practice with Arab families. Regrettably, research on Arab families today is all but non-existent.Their belief in Islam is the fastest growing form of spirituality in Central Asia. Social workers who do not acknowledge this fact will be at a severe disadvantage in their attempts to treat Arab clientele. It is not compulsory that practitioners endorse client belief systems or other aspects of their spirituality, but practitioners should acknowledge said systems as a critical point in the client’s frame of reference. In the interest of social justice, social workers are thus challenged to develop creative treatment strategies less confined to Western bias.

  4. The long-term career outcome study: lessons learned and implications for educational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J; Dong, Ting; LaRochelle, Jeffrey L; Artino, Anthony R; Gilliland, William R; DeZee, Kent J; Saguil, Aaron; Cruess, David F; Picho, Katherine; McManigle, John E

    2015-04-01

    The work of the Long-Term Career Outcome Study has been a program of scholarship spanning 10 years. Borrowing from established quality assurance literature, the Long-Term Career Outcome Study team has organized its scholarship into three phases; before medical school, during medical school, and after medical school. The purpose of this commentary is to address two fundamental questions: (1) what has been learned? and (2) how does this knowledge translate to educational practice and policy now and into the future? We believe that answers to these questions are relevant not only to our institution but also to other educational institutions seeking to provide high-quality health professions education. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Never say die: death euphemisms, misunderstandings and their implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Deborah; Tieman, Jennifer J; Sanderson, Christine; Parker, Deborah; Miller-Lewis, Lauren

    2017-07-02

    A Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on death and dying was conducted to open the dialogue around death and dying. In one activity, participants were asked to engage with language and to think of alternative words (or euphemisms) that are used to describe death. To reflect from a nursing perspective how language enables and sometimes disguises important messages and conversations. Four hundred and seventy one participants provided 3053 euphemisms. Euphemisms were varied, with many providing commentary on their purpose and use. As a society we have become quite creative in the use of euphemisms, but need to be mindful of misunderstandings and misinterpretations which can cause embarrassment and distress in clinical situations. This paper describes some of the euphemisms that were provided, examining why they are used and how their use can be easily misconstrued in daily life and in clinical practice.

  6. Stakeholder perceptions of job stress in an industrialized country: implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kathryn M; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Louie, Amber M; Ostry, Aleck S; Shaw, Andrea; Shoveller, Jeannie A

    2013-08-01

    We used a secondary, qualitative analysis of stakeholder perceptions of work stress in Australia to characterize the context for policy and practice intervention. Themes included: Individual versus contextual descriptions of stress; perceived 'gender' differences in manifesting and reporting of stress; the work/home interface; and perceived sectoral and occupational differences in compensation claim rates. We found that people often still perceive stress as an individual rather than organizational problem and view work stress as a stereotypically feminine weakness that affects only certain people. Organizations downplay and overlook risks, increasing worker reluctance to report stressors, creating barriers to job stress interventions. Our study may be relevant to other industrial countries where researchers currently study job stress interventions to improve their effectiveness. Comprehensive approaches can increase knowledge and decrease stigma about job stress and mental illness, and target both work- and non-work-related influences on mental health.

  7. Knowledge, attitude, and practice about malaria: Socio-demographic implications for malaria control in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assan, Abraham; Takian, Amirhossein; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Nematolahi, Shahrzad

    2017-11-01

    Despite continuing international attention to malaria prevention, the disease remains a global public health problem. We investigated socio-demographic factors influencing knowledge, attitudes, and practices about malaria in rural Ghana. Our survey looked at 354 households. Mean knowledge score was higher among individuals with a history of volunteers having visited their households to educate them about malaria; families with 4-6 members; and males. Households with at least one under-five-aged child also had significantly higher knowledge scores. Households with at least one pregnant woman evinced a positive attitude towards malaria prevention. National malaria control strategies have achieved positive results in the fight against malaria. Nonetheless, multipronged community-based health strategies that integrate malaria programs and population growth control initiatives may be able to reach by 2030 the sustainable development goal of eliminating malaria.

  8. Authoritative parenting and drug-prevention practices: implications for antidrug ads for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T; Quick, Brian L; Atkinson, Joshua; Tschida, David A

    2005-01-01

    This research employed the theory of reasoned action to investigate the role of authoritative parenting in 3 drug-prevention behaviors: (a) parental monitoring, (b) parent-child discussions, and (c) awareness of the child's environment. A phone survey of 158 parents of adolescents in 7th, 9th, and 11th grades revealed that authoritative parenting was correlated with parenting practices that reduce the likelihood of adolescent drug use, including discussing family rules about drugs, discussing strategies to avoid drugs, discussing those in trouble with drugs, parental monitoring, knowing the child's plans for the coming day, and personally knowing the child's friends well. Additionally, authoritative parenting moderated the attitude-behavioral intention relation for parental monitoring and awareness of the child's environment, with the weakest relation detected for low-authoritative parents. The utility of these findings in helping design and target antidrug messages for parents more effectively is discussed.

  9. Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Heather; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Medical research on "adverse childhood experiences" (ACEs) reveals a compelling relationship between the extent of childhood adversity, adult health risk behaviors, and principal causes of death in the United States. This article provides a selective review of the ACE Study and related social science research to describe how effective social work practice that prevents ACEs and mobilizes resilience and recovery from childhood adversity could support the achievement of national health policy goals. This article applies a biopsychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on mind-body coping processes to demonstrate that social work responses to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to improvement in overall health. Consistent with this framework, the article sets forth prevention and intervention response strategies with individuals, families, communities, and the larger society. Economic research on human capital development is reviewed that suggests significant cost savings may result from effective implementation of these strategies.

  10. Systematic Review of Cyberbullying Interventions for Youth and Parents With Implications for Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Elizabeth; Kelly, Stephanie; Militello, Lisa K

    2018-02-01

    Cyberbullying is a new risk factor for the well-being of pediatric populations. Consequences of cyberbullying include both physical and mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, and somatic concerns. Adolescents who have been victims of cyberbullying and developed secondary symptoms are often recommended to visit a healthcare provider to obtain effective, evidence-based treatment. To date, no interventions exist in the healthcare setting for adolescents who are victims of cyberbullying. The purpose of this project is to review interventional studies on cyberbullying that have components for adolescents who have been involved with cyberbullying and their parents and to provide recommendations on effective intervention components with the goal of guiding clinical practice. A systematic review was conducted using the Institute of Medicine guidelines. A comprehensive electronic literature search was completed targeting interventions of cyberbullying in any setting. No date limits were used. Literature was searched in MEDLINE, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Education Information Resource Center (ERIC), and PsycINFO databases. The following search terms were applied "cyberbullying" + "intervention" or "treatment" or "therapy" or "program." Only articles with a pediatric population were selected for review. Seventeen cyberbullying intervention programs in 23 articles were found to meet the search criteria. The most frequently used intervention components included education on cyberbullying for the adolescent, coping skills, empathy training, communication and social skills, and digital citizenship. Parent education on cyberbullying was also found to be important and was included in programs with significant outcomes. As youth present to healthcare providers with symptoms related to cyberbullying, effective interventions are needed to guide evidence-based practice. This review

  11. Prevention of mental and behavioural disorders: implications for policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAXENA, SHEKHAR; JANÉ-LLOPIS, EVA; HOSMAN, CLEMENS

    2006-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence indicating the efficacy of interventions in reducing risk factors, increasing protective factors, preventing psychiatric symptoms and new cases of mental disorders. Macro-policy interventions to improve nutrition, housing and education or to reduce economic insecurity have proven to reduce mental health problems. Specific interventions to increase resilience in children and adolescents through parenting and early interventions, and programmes for children at risk for mental disorders such as those who have a mentally ill parent or have suffered parental loss or family disruption, have also shown to increase mental well-being and decrease depressive symptoms and the onset of depressive disorders. Interventions for the adult population, from macro-policy strategies, such as taxation of alcohol products or workplace legislation, to individual support for those with signs of a mental disorder, can reduce mental health problems and associated social and economic burdens. Exercise, social support or community participation have also shown to improve mental health of older populations. Public mental health will benefit from continuing building the evidence base through combining different evaluation methods across low, middle and high income countries. The translation of evidence into policy and practice calls for action at the international, national and local level, including building capacity, advocacy, mainstreaming mental health into public health and other policies and securing infrastructures and sustainability. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in improving the evidence on prevention and promotion in mental health, in engaging relevant stakeholders for developing programmes, and as professional care providers in their practice. PMID:16757984

  12. Sexual Behavior and Vaginal Practices During Pregnancy and Postpartum: Implications for HIV Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinuthia, John; Richardson, Barbra A; Drake, Alison L; Matemo, Daniel; Unger, Jennifer A; McClelland, Raymond S; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-02-01

    Understanding sexual behaviors and vaginal practices of pregnant and breastfeeding women in sub-Saharan Africa is critical to inform HIV prevention strategies during these periods. HIV-uninfected women presenting for antenatal care in western Kenya were enrolled and followed through 36 weeks postpartum. Sexual behavior and vaginal practices were ascertained by structured questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of unprotected sex, vaginal washing, and vaginal drying. Among 1252 women enrolled, 78.4% were married (of whom 15.1% were in polygamous unions), 1.4% had a known HIV-infected partner, and 33.6% had a partner of unknown HIV status. At enrollment, 58.5% reported sex in the past month (94.3% unprotected) and 4.5% reported forced sex. Odds of unprotected sex at enrollment was >11-fold higher in married than in unmarried women (P < 0.001) and lower among women who reported partners of unknown HIV status or HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected partners. Median time to postpartum resumption of sex was 7 weeks (interquartile range 4-12). Prevalence of unprotected sex in the past week increased from 6.6% to 60.0% between 2 and 36 weeks postpartum (P < 0.001). Vaginal washing was reported by 60.1% of women at enrollment and prevalence remained stable postpartum; vaginal drying was reported by 17.9% at enrollment and decreased to 6.1% at 36 weeks postpartum (P < 0.001). Vaginal washing and drying were associated with forced sex. High rates of unknown partner HIV status, polygamy, and less frequent condom use among pregnant/postpartum women underscore the need for female-controlled HIV prevention interventions. Vaginal washing and drying may present challenges to microbicide use.

  13. The 'greying' of the United Kingdom nursing workforce: implications for employment policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, J

    1999-10-01

    One in five nurses on the United Kingdom (UK) professional register is aged 50 years or older. Over the next few years, the profession will lose, through retirement, many of its most experienced practitioners. The significance for policy makers and for employers of this age-shift is two-fold. Firstly it is clear that greater numbers of nurses and midwives are reaching, or soon will reach, potential retirement age. Secondly many more nurses are now reaching their middle years and they are likely to have different requirements and attitudes to nursing work. This paper examines the employment policy and practice of the ageing of the UK nursing population. The paper examines data from official sources, and information from attitudinal surveys and case studies with employing organizations to assess the major effects of the ageing of the nursing workforce. Key findings are that the age profile of those nurses working in the National Health Service appears to be 'younger' than that of the total population, with the age profile of nurses working in nursing homes and as practice nurses being older than that of the NHS nursing workforce. However, the overall age profile of NHS nurses masks considerable variation between specialties and trusts, and the 'pool' of potential nurse returners from which the NHS and other employers attempts to recruit, is declining in numbers, as it too ages. Other major issues requiring policy attention are the provision of appropriate flexible hours to older nurses who have caring responsibilities, improving access to continuing professional development, and reducing pension provision inflexibility.

  14. Prevention of mental and behavioural disorders: implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Shekhar; Jané-Llopis, Eva; Hosman, Clemens

    2006-02-01

    There is sufficient evidence indicating the efficacy of interventions in reducing risk factors, increasing protective factors, preventing psychiatric symptoms and new cases of mental disorders. Macro-policy interventions to improve nutrition, housing and education or to reduce economic insecurity have proven to reduce mental health problems. Specific interventions to increase resilience in children and adolescents through parenting and early interventions, and programmes for children at risk for mental disorders such as those who have a mentally ill parent or have suffered parental loss or family disruption, have also shown to increase mental well-being and decrease depressive symptoms and the onset of depressive disorders. Interventions for the adult population, from macro-policy strategies, such as taxation of alcohol products or workplace legislation, to individual support for those with signs of a mental disorder, can reduce mental health problems and associated social and economic burdens. Exercise, social support or community participation have also shown to improve mental health of older populations. Public mental health will benefit from continuing building the evidence base through combining different evaluation methods across low, middle and high income countries. The translation of evidence into policy and practice calls for action at the international, national and local level, including building capacity, advocacy, mainstreaming mental health into public health and other policies and securing infrastructures and sustainability. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in improving the evidence on prevention and promotion in mental health, in engaging relevant stakeholders for developing programmes, and as professional care providers in their practice.

  15. Assessing the nutritional status of older individuals in family practice: Evaluation and implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronuzzi, Tecla; Paci, Claudio; Portincasa, Piero; Montanaro, Nicoletta; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-12-01

    Malnutrition is emerging as a multidimensional concern of ageing with a high prevalence among nursing home residents. This study investigated the extent of malnutrition among old subjects in family practice and its relationship with major complications. Over 75 years old subjects (n = 274) filled the Mini Nutritional Assessment questionnaire. Appearance of major events in the following 6 months were registered. MNA scored were 11.5 ± 3.1, with 175 (64%) subjects showing no malnutrition, 69 (25%) resulted at risk, and 30 (11%) malnourished. Within at risk group, 1.4% was resident, 7% bed rested, 8% had a history of major bone fracture, 33% was demented and 24.6% hospitalized at least once in the last year. Among malnourished patients, 10% was resident, ten bed rested with 70% showing multiple bedsores, 20% have had bone fractures, 60% were demented and 13% hospital admitted in the previous year. In over 90% of them, malnutrition had neither diagnosed nor considered before. During follow-up, a significantly higher number of major events including death occurred in the malnourished group. By multivariate logistic regression, n = 56 (20.4%) patients resulted at risk of major complications. The sensitivity of the questionnaire in identifying these patients was 84% with the cut-off value of 7 associated with the highest prediction (positive predictive value, 0.92; negative predictive value, 0.71) yielding a specificity of 92%. The prevalence of malnutrition is high among older subjects in the setting of family practice. The Mini Nutritional Assessment allows to identify malnourished subjects better than BMI and effectively predicts the risk of major events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Fiber tractography of the axonal pathways linking the basal ganglia and cerebellum in Parkinson disease: implications for targeting in deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Jennifer A; Walter, Benjamin L; Gunalan, Kabilar; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; McIntyre, Cameron C; Miller, Jonathan P

    2014-04-01

    Stimulation of white matter pathways near targeted structures may contribute to therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Two tracts linking the basal ganglia and cerebellum have been described in primates: the subthalamopontocerebellar tract (SPCT) and the dentatothalamic tract (DTT). The authors used fiber tractography to evaluate white matter tracts that connect the cerebellum to the region of the basal ganglia in patients with PD who were candidates for DBS. Fourteen patients with advanced PD underwent 3-T MRI, including 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging sequences. Diffusion tensor tractography was performed using 2 regions of interest: ipsilateral subthalamic and red nuclei, and contralateral cerebellar hemisphere. Nine patients underwent subthalamic DBS, and the course of each tract was observed relative to the location of the most effective stimulation contact and the volume of tissue activated. In all patients 2 distinct tracts were identified that corresponded closely to the described anatomical features of the SPCT and DTT, respectively. The mean overall distance from the active contact to the DTT was 2.18 ± 0.35 mm, and the mean proportional distance relative to the volume of tissue activated was 1.35 ± 0.48. There was a nonsignificant trend toward better postoperative tremor control in patients with electrodes closer to the DTT. The SPCT and the DTT may be related to the expression of symptoms in PD, and this may have implications for DBS targeting. The use of tractography to identify the DTT might assist with DBS targeting in the future.

  17. ACUTE PSYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF EXERCISE PERFORMED AT SELF-SELECTED WORKLOADS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szabo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that most studies to date examined the connection between exercise and affect without considering the participants' preferred exercise workload, in this research the affective-benefits of jogging or running at a participant-selected pace were investigated in a pilot field and a laboratory experiment. Ninety-six male and female students (19.5 yrs took part in the pilot field experiment whereas 32 women (20.3 yrs completed the laboratory experiment. In both experiments, the participants ran/jogged for 20 minutes at a self-selected pace. They completed an abbreviated version of a 'right now form' of the Profile of Mood States (POMS - Grove and Prapavessis, 1992 inventory before and after exercise. In both experiments all dependent measures changed significantly from pre- to post-exercise, except 'fatigue' and 'vigor' that did not change in the laboratory. Total mood disturbance (TMD decreased significantly in both experiments (68% and 89%. No significant correlations were found between exercise intensity (expressed as percent (% of maximal heart rate reserve and the magnitude of changes seen in the dependent measures. It is concluded that exercising at a self-selected workload yields positive changes in affect that are unrelated to exercise intensity. These results suggest that the physiological theories linking exercise with positive changes in affect, in which exercise intensity is instrumental, could not account for the acute affective benefits of exercise. It is proposed that a 'cognitive appraisal hypothesis' may be more appropriate in explaining the acute affective benefits of exercise

  18. Exploring the relationship between quality of life and mental health problems in children: implications for measurement and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Helen; Patalay, Praveetha; Fink, Elian; Vostanis, Panos; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Quality of life is typically reduced in children with mental health problems. Understanding the relationship between quality of life and mental health problems and the factors that moderate this association is a pressing priority. This was a cross-sectional study involving 45,398 children aged 8-13 years from 880 schools in England. Self-reported quality of life was assessed using nine items from the KIDSCREEN-10 and mental health was assessed using the Me and My School Questionnaire. Demographic information (gender, age, ethnicity, socio-economic status) was also recorded. Quality of life was highest in children with no problems and lowest in children with both internalising and externalising problems. There was indication that quality of life may be reduced in children with internalising problems compared with externalising problems. Approximately 12 % children with mental health problems reported high quality of life. The link between mental health and quality of life was moderated by gender and age but not by socio-economic status or ethnicity. This study supports previous work showing mental health and quality of life are related but not synonymous. The findings have implications for measuring quality of life in child mental health settings and the need for approaches to support children with mental health problems that are at particular risk of poor quality of life.

  19. Integrating substance abuse care with community diabetes care: implications for research and clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghitza UE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Udi E Ghitza,1 Li-Tzy Wu,2 Betty Tai11Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Cigarette smoking and alcohol use are prevalent among individuals with diabetes in the US, but little is known about screening and treatment for substance use disorders in the diabetic population. This commentary discusses the scope and clinical implications of the public health problem of coexisting substance use and diabetes, including suggestions for future research. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the US, and is associated with many severe health complications like cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney damage, and limb amputations. There are an estimated 24 million adults in the US with type 2 diabetes. Approximately 20% of adults aged 18 years or older with diabetes report current cigarette smoking. The prevalence of current alcohol use in the diabetic population is estimated to be around 50%–60% in epidemiological surveys and treatment-seeking populations. Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in a dose-dependent manner and is an independent modifiable risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetic patients with an alcohol or other drug use disorder show a higher rate of adverse health outcomes. For example, these patients experience more frequent and severe health complications as well as an increased risk of hospitalization, and require longer hospital stays. They are also less likely to seek routine care for diabetes or adhere to diabetes treatment than those without an alcohol or other drug use disorder. The Affordable Care Act of 2010 and the Mental Health Parity Act and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 provide opportunities for facilitating integration of

  20. Attitudes of psychology students to depression and its treatment: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, M; Peppou, L E; Geroulanou, K; Kontoangelos, K; Prokopi, A; Pantazi, A; Zervakaki, A; Stefanis, C N

    2017-01-01

    . The core misconception espoused pertains to the view that major depression is not a medical illness; a finding which can also be interpreted in light of the lingering controversy on the medicalization of normal sadness and human predicament. The clinical implications of these findings are substantial. Mental health professionals-educators should reflect on their own beliefs and attitudes towards depression, as they may convey stigmatizing messages to their students and thus perpetuate the stigmatization of the illness. Concomitantly, psychology students' attitudes to depression and its treatment might render them incapable of understanding their patients, responding to their needs and providing them with appropriate help, while they may hinder their effective collaboration with psychiatrists.

  1. The use of music on Barney & Friends: implications for music therapy practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire , K M

    2001-01-01

    movement and props/costumes was also prevalent, and may have contributed to high interobserver reliability of tempo. Implications for music therapists and teachers working with young children and music researchers examining various epistemological questions of music learning and behavior are discussed.

  2. Adult instructors’ perceptions on ICT and diffusion practices: implications for equity of access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Salinas-Amescua

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests equity of access goes beyond technological availability. Based on a larger exploratory study of the initial implementation stage of the Mexican government’s community technology centers, CTCs (“plazas comunitarias”, adult education instructors’ perceptions and diffusion practices are described as a mediating factor to understand non-access of poor adults. The theoretical perspective integrates concepts from innovation diffusion studies, while questioning the limitations of this theory in terms of understanding instructors’ practices. Thus, the relation between human agency and structure, from Giddens’ Theory of Structuration, is incorporated. Qualitative data from 16 CTCs are interpreted inductively. It is concluded that CTCs were a top-down innovation; instructors perceived and diffused CTCs in very different ways, thus limiting equity of access. These social practices stem from social actors’ routines, which institutionalized courses of action; understanding them could illuminate the complexity of the diffusion process, generally depicted in linear form. Résumé : La présente étude laisse entendre que l’équité d’accès va au delà de la disponibilité technologique. Établie sur une étude préliminaire plus large de la première étape de mise en œuvre des centres communautaires de technologie du gouvernement mexicain, les CCT (« plazas comunitarias », les perceptions des instructeurs dans le domaine de l’enseignement aux adultes et les pratiques de diffusion sont décrites comme un facteur médiateur permettant de comprendre pourquoi les adultes pauvres ne peuvent y avoir accès. La perspective théorique intègre des concepts provenant d’études sur la diffusion de l’innovation tout en questionnant les limites de cette théorie en ce qui concerne la compréhension des pratiques des instructeurs. Ainsi, la relation entre l’agence et la structure humaine, de la théorie de structuration de

  3. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, Philip W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and landowners/producers are all needed for successful water quality projects; (2) smaller watershed areas should be used in paired studies; (3) reductions in stream discharge may be required in these systems in order for significant sediment

  4. Uncovering the benefits of participatory research: implications of a realist review for health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagosh, Justin; Macaulay, Ann C; Pluye, Pierre; Salsberg, Jon; Bush, Paula L; Henderson, Jim; Sirett, Erin; Wong, Geoff; Cargo, Margaret; Herbert, Carol P; Seifer, Sarena D; Green, Lawrence W; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2012-06-01

    Participatory research (PR) is the co-construction of research through partnerships between researchers and people affected by and/or responsible for action on the issues under study. Evaluating the benefits of PR is challenging for a number of reasons: the research topics, methods, and study designs are heterogeneous; the extent of collaborative involvement may vary over the duration of a project and from one project to the next; and partnership activities may generate a complex array of both short- and long-term outcomes. Our review team consisted of a collaboration among researchers and decision makers in public health, research funding, ethics review, and community-engaged scholarship. We identified, selected, and appraised a large-variety sample of primary studies describing PR partnerships, and in each stage, two team members independently reviewed and coded the literature. We used key realist review concepts (middle-range theory, demi-regularity, and context-mechanism-outcome configurations [CMO]) to analyze and synthesize the data, using the PR partnership as the main unit of analysis. From 7,167 abstracts and 591 full-text papers, we distilled for synthesis a final sample of twenty-three PR partnerships described in 276 publications. The link between process and outcome in these partnerships was best explained using the middle-range theory of partnership synergy, which demonstrates how PR can (1) ensure culturally and logistically appropriate research, (2) enhance recruitment capacity, (3) generate professional capacity and competence in stakeholder groups, (4) result in productive conflicts followed by useful negotiation, (5) increase the quality of outputs and outcomes over time, (6) increase the sustainability of project goals beyond funded time frames and during gaps in external funding, and (7) create system changes and new unanticipated projects and activities. Negative examples illustrated why these outcomes were not a guaranteed product of PR

  5. Accounting for health-care outcomes: implications for intensive care unit practice and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Roslyn; Iedema, Rick

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the environment of health care, and how clinicians and managers respond in terms of performance accountability. A qualitative method was used in a tertiary metropolitan teaching intensive care unit (ICU) in Sydney, Australia, including interviews with 15 clinical managers and focus groups with 29 nurses of differing experience. The study found that a managerial focus on abstract goals, such as budgets detracted from managing the core business of clinical work. Fractures were evident within clinical units, between clinical units and between clinical and managerial domains. These fractures reinforced the status quo where seemingly unconnected patient care activities were undertaken by loosely connected individual clinicians with personalized concepts of accountability. Managers must conceptualize health services as an interconnected entity within which self-directed teams negotiate and agree objectives, collect and review performance data and define collective practice. Organically developing regimens of care within and across specialist clinical units, such as in ICUs, directly impact upon health service performance and accountability.

  6. Implications of food insecurity on global health policy and nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregg-Byers, Claudia M; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2010-09-01

    The purpose is to discuss the concept of food insecurity (FI) and its impact on current global health policy and nursing practice. Food insecurity. Literature review. FI means a nonsustainable food system that interferes with optimal self-reliance and social justice. Individuals experiencing FI lack nutritionally adequate and safe foods in their diet. Resources play a significant role in FI by affecting whether or not people obtain culturally, socially acceptable food through regular marketplace sources as opposed to severe coping strategies, such as emergency food sources, scavenging, and stealing. Persons who are living in poverty, female heads of household, single parents, people living with many siblings, landless people, migrants, immigrants, and those living in certain geographical regions constitute populations at risk and most vulnerable to FI. FI influences economics through annual losses of gross domestic product due to reduced human productivity. FI affects individuals and households and is largely an unobservable condition, making data collection and analysis challenging. Policy and research have focused on macronutrient sufficiency and deprivation, making it difficult to draw attention and research dollars to FI. Persons experiencing FI exhibit clinical signs such as less healthy diets, poor health status, poor diabetes and chronic disease management, and impaired cognitive function. Nurses can recognize the physical, psychosocial, and personal consequences that those with FI face and manage daily.

  7. The relationship between maternal self-efficacy and parenting practices: implications for parent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M R; Woolley, M L

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between maternal self-efficacy, dysfunctional discipline practices and child conduct problems. Specifically, three levels of self-efficacy, global, domain and task-specific self-efficacy, were assessed in mothers of 2- to 8-year-old children with conduct problems (clinic group, n=45) and non-clinic mothers from the community (non-clinic group, n=79). Measures of global, domain and task-specific self-efficacy were completed by mothers. Clinic mothers reported significantly lower self-efficacy than non-clinic mothers for all but one of the parenting tasks assessed. Both groups of mothers reported lowest self-efficacy for similar parenting tasks. In the sample as a whole self-efficacy measures were significant predictors of maternal discipline style after controlling for other parent, child and risk factors. Of the self-efficacy variables behavioural self-efficacy was the best predictor of mothers discipline style. The findings support the importance of developing parenting strategies that enable parents to generalize their parenting skills to a diverse range of diverse parenting contexts both in the home and in the community.

  8. Practical implications of procedures developed in IDEA project - Comparison with traditional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.; Bouvier, C.; Brandl, A.; De Carlan, L.; Fischer, H.; Franck, D.; Hoellriegl, V.; Li, W. B.; Oeh, U.; Ritt, J.; Roth, P.; Schlagbauer, M.; Schmitzer, Ch; Wahl, W.; Zombori, P.

    2007-01-01

    The idea of the IDEA project aimed to improve assessment of incorporated radionuclides through developments of more reliable and possibly faster in vivo and bioassay monitoring techniques and making use of such enhancements for improvements in routine monitoring. In direct in vivo monitoring technique the optimum choice of the detectors to be applied for different monitoring tasks has been investigated in terms of material, size and background in order to improve conditions namely to increase counting efficiency and reduce background. Detailed studies have been performed to investigate the manifold advantageous applications and capabilities of numerical simulation method for the calibration and optimisation of in vivo counting systems. This calibration method can be advantageously applied especially in the measurement of low-energy photon emitting radionuclides, where individual variability is a significant source of uncertainty. In bioassay measurements the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can improve considerably both the measurement speed and the lower limit of detection currently achievable with alpha spectrometry for long-lived radionuclides. The work carried out in this project provided detailed guidelines for optimum performance of the technique of ICP-MS applied mainly for the determination of uranium and thorium nuclides in the urine including sampling procedure, operational parameters of the instruments and interpretation of the measured data. The paper demonstrates the main advantages of investigated techniques in comparison with the performances of methods commonly applied in routine monitoring practice. (authors)

  9. Practical Implications for an Effective Radiology Residency Quality Improvement Program for Milestone Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Rebecca; Lewis, Madelene; Ackerman, Susan; Hill, Jeanne; Thacker, Paul; Matheus, Maria; Tipnis, Sameer; Gordon, Leonie

    2017-01-01

    Utilization of a radiology resident-specific quality improvement (QI) program and curriculum based on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones can enable a program's assessment of the systems-based practice component and prepare residents for QI implementation post graduation. This article outlines the development process, curriculum, QI committee formation, and resident QI project requirements of one institution's designated radiology resident QI program. A method of mapping the curriculum to the ACGME milestones and assessment of resident competence by postgraduate year level is provided. Sample projects, challenges to success, and lessons learned are also described. Survey data of current trainees and alumni about the program reveal that the majority of residents and alumni responders valued the QI curriculum and felt comfortable with principles and understanding of QI. The most highly valued aspect of the program was the utilization of a resident education committee. The majority of alumni responders felt the residency quality curriculum improved understanding of QI, assisted with preparation for the American Board of Radiology examination, and prepared them for QI in their careers. In addition to the survey results, outcomes of resident project completion and resident scholarly activity in QI are evidence of the success of this program. It is hoped that this description of our experiences with a radiology resident QI program, in accordance with the ACGME milestones, may facilitate the development of successful QI programs in other diagnostic radiology residencies. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Expanding concepts in ischaemic heart disease: implications for clinical practice and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maseri, A.; Pasceri, V.; Giordano, A.; Trani, C.

    1996-01-01

    In the late Eighties, a series of observations from several institutions around the world has dramatically revolutionized the traditional notion that the occurrence of myocardial infarction was related most of the time to the development of critical flow-limiting coronary stenosis. All these studies showed that the infarct-related artery had only minimal or mild stenosis in about two thirds of the cases. Therefore, contrary to our previous beliefs, in clinical practice the detection of coronary stenosis has a lesser role in the prognostic assessment of patients with ischaemic heart disease, unless associated with extensive ischemia or with phases of instability. In fact, the major determinants of prognosis are represented by age, left ventricular function, effort tolerance and especially by the clinical stability or instability of angina. According to the Bayesian an theorem, in low risk patients any diagnostic test has a very low predictive accuracy, unless very high specificity criteria are used. The value of diagnostic tests in the assessment of patients' prognosis should be evaluated in intermediate risk groups. The emphasis of clinical research has, therefore, shifted from the detection of flow-limiting stenosis to the study of the multiple and varied dynamic causes of stable and unstable ischaemia, where the possibilities of making new, seminal observations are greater

  11. Milk siblingship, religious and secular: History, applications, and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Virginia

    2014-12-01

    Milk kinship has religious and practical importance to Muslim families that is not well understood in Western cultures. The relationship occurs when an infant receives the milk of a woman other than the biological mother, creating familial relationships between the child and the woman whose milk is received. As milk siblings, her children and the recipient infant must never marry each other. Midwives in Western countries may encounter this in relation to human milk banking. This review provides a context for respectfully assisting families with their decision making when they are offered banked milk. A database search was conducted and other publications were found manually. Milk siblingship can be religious or secular. In Islam similar prohibitions on marriage exist to those for blood relations. The mothers therefore have to be known to each other to prevent an inappropriate marriage. This relationship has been a barrier to use of human milk banks by Muslim families as milk from several mothers is usually pooled. Nevertheless, donor milk has been used for premature neonates in two Islamic countries, applying the religious requirements. Recent interpretations by some Islamic scholars permitting milk banking may be acceptable to some families, but others will heed other rulings. NICU staff may encounter difficulties in providing banked human milk to infants from Muslim families. Different rulings exist and Muslim families in Western countries come from a variety of traditions. Sensitivity is required to explore these issues with families. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social smoking implications for public health, clinical practice, and intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schane, Rebecca E; Glantz, Stanton A; Ling, Pamela M

    2009-08-01

    Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including "non-habit forming" cigarettes. Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, "Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?" as opposed to "Are you a smoker?" Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy.

  13. The Changing Health Care Landscape and Implications of Organizational Ethics on Modern Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castlen, Joseph P; Cote, David J; Moojen, Wouter A; Robe, Pierre A; Balak, Naci; Brennum, Jannick; Ammirati, Mario; Mathiesen, Tiit; Broekman, Marike L D

    2017-06-01

    Medicine is rapidly changing, both in the level of collective medical knowledge and in how it is being delivered. The increased presence of administrators in hospitals helps to facilitate these changes and ease administrative workloads on physicians; however, tensions sometimes form between physicians and administrators. This situation is based on perceptions from both sides that physicians obstruct cost-saving measures and administrators put profits before patients. In reality, increasing patient populations and changes in health care are necessitating action by hospitals to prevent excessive spending as health care systems become larger and more difficult to manage. Recognizing the cause of changes in health care, which do not always originate with physicians and administrators, along with implementing changes in hospitals such as increased physician leadership, could help to ease tensions and promote a more collaborative atmosphere. Ethically, there is a need to preserve physician autonomy, which is a tenet of medical professionalism, and a need to rein in spending costs and ensure that patients receive the best possible care. Physicians and administrators both need to have a well-developed personal ethic to achieve these goals. Physicians need be allowed to retain relative autonomy over their practices as they support and participate in administrator-led efforts toward distributive justice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Management strategies of mothers of school-age children with autism: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Safe, Anneleise P

    2014-08-01

    Mothering children with autism results in mothers spending more time on daily tasks as well as managing the disorder. The need for mothers to self-manage often increases when the child is school aged. Mothers develop strategies, and occupational therapists and other health professional rely on or expect mothers to be involved in meeting the extra needs of their children with autism and other family members. Little is known about the strategies adopted by the mothers. The aim of this study was to explore the strategies mothers used to manage their roles and emotions, and their child's behaviours. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with seven mothers and data were analysed in this qualitative study using phenomenological analysis. Findings revealed that the mothers had adopted strategies to manage their roles, their emotions and their child's behaviour. However, the strategies were often shaped by the expectations of others or circumstances beyond their control and at times added further to their stress. Mothers of children with autism developed strategies to self-manage their lives and their child's disorder. However, even when these strategies were effective, they sometimes placed further stress on the mothers. The mothers provided insights to how they coped but need help to consider the support they require and therapists need to consider the pressures of expecting mothers to self-manage their child's disorder, their own lives and their family. Family-centred practice emphasising collaboration with mothers needs to be maintained with school-aged children. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. Weight compensation characteristics of Armeo®Spring exoskeleton: implications for clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bonnie E; Evans, Emily K; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2017-02-17

    Armeo®Spring exoskeleton is widely used for upper extremity rehabilitation; however, weight compensation provided by the device appears insufficiently characterized to fully utilize it in clinical and research settings. Weight compensation was quantified by measuring static force in the sagittal plane with a load cell attached to the elbow joint of Armeo®Spring. All upper spring settings were examined in 5° increments at the minimum, maximum, and two intermediate upper and lower module length settings, while keeping the lower spring at minimum. The same measurements were made for minimum upper spring setting and maximum lower spring setting at minimum and maximum module lengths. Weight compensation was plotted against upper module angles, and slope was analyzed for each condition. The Armeo®Spring design prompted defining the slack angle and exoskeleton balance angle, which, depending on spring and length settings, divide the operating range into different unloading and loading regions. Higher spring tensions and shorter module lengths provided greater unloading (≤6.32 kg of support). Weight compensation slope decreased faster with shorter length settings (minimum length = -0.082 ± 0.002 kg/°; maximum length = -0.046 ± 0.001 kg/°) independent of spring settings. Understanding the impact of different settings on the Armeo®Spring weight compensation should help define best clinical practice and improve fidelity of research.

  16. Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.: Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Florence Sandrine Ngo Ngwe

    Full Text Available Yams (Dioscorea spp. consist of approximately 600 species. Presently, these species are threatened by genetic erosion due to many factors such as pest attacks and farming practices. In parallel, complex taxonomic boundaries in this genus makes it more challenging to properly address the genetic diversity of yam and manage its germplasm. As a first step toward evaluating and preserving the genetic diversity yam species, we use a phylogenetic diversity (PD approach that has the advantage to investigate phylogenetic relationships and test hypotheses of species monophyly while alleviating to the problem of ploidy variation within and among species. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 62 accessions from 7 species from three regions of Cameroon showed that most Dioscorea sections were monophyletic, but species within sections were generally non-monophyletic. The wild species D. praehensilis and cultivated D. cayenensis were the species with the highest PD. At the opposite, D. esculenta has a low PD and future studies should focus on this species to properly address its conservation status. We also show that wild species show a stronger genetic structure than cultivated species, which potentially reflects the management of the yam germplasm by farmers. These findings show that phylogenetic diversity is a promising approach for an initial investigation of genetic diversity in a crop consisting of closely related species.

  17. The voice of the child in parental divorce: implications for clinical practice and mental health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Carrie; Howcroft, Greg; Hoelson, Christopher Norman

    2017-09-01

    Research on parental divorce suggests that the nature of the divorce process, as experienced by the child, is the most important factor in his or her post-divorce adjustment. Research regarding children's experiences of the divorce process has been limited and the adult perspective has dominated the discourse on divorce; only recently has research started to consider children's viewpoint. This article describes a narrative inquiry into the experiences and perceptions of parental divorce, of 9- to 10-year-old children. Its aim is to use children's stories of parental divorce to inform the practice of professionals working with such children. The research adopted a narrative paradigm. Unstructured interviews were conducted with five children whose parents were divorced. Data were analysed thematically. Seven themes were identified. The first theme explored children's endeavours to describe and explain parental divorce. An additional six themes were developed around the types of stories children told of the divorce process. The seven themes were: (i) What is a divorcement; (ii) Stories of loss; (iii) Stories of gain; (iv) Stories of change; (v) Stories of stability; (vi) Healing stories; and (vii) Complicating stories. On the basis of the narratives elicited from children on parental divorce, this article proposes several guidelines for professionals such as psychologists, registered counsellors, social workers, and teachers as well as parents in their possible interventions with children. Some guidelines may also be of use to family and maintenance courts, and the government departments of health and education.

  18. The Interplay Between Housing Stability and Child Separation: Implications for Practice and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rog, Debra J; Henderson, Kathryn A; Lunn, Laurel M; Greer, Andrew L; Ellis, Mei Ling

    2017-09-01

    Greater understanding of how residential stability affects child separation and reunification among homeless families can guide both child welfare and homeless policy and practice. This article draws upon two longitudinal studies examining services and housing for homeless families and their relationship to family and housing stability. Both studies were conducted in the same state at roughly the same time with similar instruments. The first study, examining families' experiences and outcomes following entry into the homeless service system in three counties in Washington State, found that at 18 months following shelter entry, families that are intact with their children were significantly more likely to be housed in their own housing (46%) than families that were separated from one or more of their children (31%). The second study, a quasiexperimental evaluation of a supportive housing program for homeless families with multiple housing barriers, found that the rates of reunification for Child Protective Services (CPS)-involved families receiving supportive housing was comparable to that for families entering public housing without services, but significantly higher than the rate of reunification for families entering shelter. Taken together, the findings from both studies contribute to the evidence underscoring the importance of housing assistance to homeless families involved in the child welfare system. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  19. Exercise-induced bronchospasm: implications for patients with or without asthma in primary care practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden ML

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuart W Stoloff1, Gene L Colice2, Mary Lou Hayden3, Timothy J Craig4, Nancy K Ostrom5, Nemr S Eid6, Jonathan P Parsons71University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, 2Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, 3University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 4Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, 5Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA, 6University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 7Ohio State University Asthma Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB can represent a substantial barrier to physical activity. We present the cases of two patients with EIB, one with asthma, and one without asthma, who were evaluated at our primary care practice. The first case was a 44-year-old man with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis but no asthma, who reported difficulty breathing when playing tennis. The second case was a 45-year-old woman who presented with persistent, generally well-controlled asthma, who was now experiencing bouts of coughing and wheezing during exercise. In both cases, an exercise challenge was used to diagnose EIB, and patients were prescribed a short-acting beta agonist to be used immediately before initiating exercise. EIB is a frequently encountered problem among patients presenting to primary care specialists. Affected patients should be made aware of the importance of proactive treatment with a short-acting beta agonist before initiating any exercise.Keywords: asthma, compliance, exercise-induced bronchospasm

  20. Implications of natural occlusion of ventilated racks on ammonia and sanitation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Michelle A; Petty, Joann; Martin, Tara; Bergdall, Valerie; Hickman-Davis, Judy M

    2014-03-01

    Examination of ventilated rat racks prior to semiannual sanitation revealed silicone nozzles and ventilation ports that were partially or completely occluded with granular debris. We subsequently sought to document performance standards for rack sanitation and investigate the effect of ventilation port occlusion on rack function and animal husbandry practices. We hypothesized that individually ventilated cages with occluded airflow would require more frequent cage changes, comparable to those for static cages (that is, every 3 to 4 d). Sprague-Dawley rats were housed under one of 4 conditions: no airflow occlusion, occluded air-supply inlet, occluded air-exhaust outlet, and occlusion of both inlet and outlet. Cages were changed when daily ammonia concentration exceeded 20 ppm or after 14 d had elapsed. Most cages with unoccluded or partial airflow occlusion remained below the 20 ppm limit until day 12 or 13. Cages with occlusion of both inlet and outlet exceeded 20 ppm ammonia by as early as day 5. Airflow was significantly lower in cages with occlusion of both inlet and outlet airflow. Weekly inspection revealed that occlusion of ventilation ports was detectable by 3 mo after semiannual sanitation. This study demonstrates that silicone nozzles should be removed prior to rack sanitation to improve the effectiveness of cleaning ventilation ports and nozzles. While the rack is in use, silicone nozzles and ventilation ports should be inspected regularly to identify occlusion that is likely to diminish environmental quality in the cage. Intracage ammonia levels are significantly higher when both inlet and outlet airflow are occluded.