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Sample records for linked maternal elaborative

  1. Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing Mediates the Effect of Child Maltreatment on Behavioral and Physiological Functioning

    Valentino, Kristin; Hibel, Leah C; Cummings, E. Mark; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that the way in which parents discuss everyday emotional experiences with their young children (i.e., elaborative reminiscing) has significant implications for child cognitive and socio-emotional functioning, and that maltreating parents have a particularly difficult time in engaging in this type of dialogue. This dyadic interactional exchange, therefore, has the potential to be an important process variable linking child maltreatment to developmental outcomes at multiple levels of analysis. The current investigation evaluated the role of maternal elaborative reminiscing in associations between maltreatment and child cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. Participants included 43 maltreated and 49 nonmaltreated children (aged 3–6) and their mothers. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about four past emotional events, and children participated in assessments of receptive language and emotion knowledge. Child salivary cortisol was also collected from children three times a day (waking, midday, and bedtime) on two consecutive days to assess daily levels and diurnal decline. Results indicated that maltreating mothers engaged in significantly less elaborative reminiscing than nonmaltreating mothers. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediated associations between child maltreatment and child receptive language and child emotion knowledge. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between child maltreatment and child cortisol diurnal decline through maternal elaborative reminiscing. Directions for future research are discussed and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:26535941

  2. Elaboration and Autonomy Support in Low-Income Mothers' Reminiscing: Links to Children's Autobiographical Narratives

    Leyva, Diana; Reese, Elaine; Grolnick, Wendy; Price, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Maternal elaboration and autonomy support during reminiscing facilitate middle-class children's autobiographical narrative skills. In this study, low-income Hispanic, White, and Black mothers' elaboration and autonomy support in reminiscing were examined in relation to children's joint and independent autobiographical narratives and engagement.…

  3. Socialization of Past Event Talk: Cultural Differences in Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing

    Tougu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Schroder, Lisa; Keller, Heidi; De Geer, Boel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines mother-child reminiscing conversations with respect to variation in use and function of mothers' elaborations, the nature of children's memory elaborations, and the connections between the two, in three Western middle-class cultures where autonomy is valued over relatedness. Mothers participated with their 4-year-old children…

  4. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Maternal emotion regulation during child distress, child anxiety accommodation, and links between maternal and child anxiety.

    Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-08-01

    Environmental contributions are thought to play a primary role in the familial aggregation of anxiety, but parenting influences remain poorly understood. We examined dynamic relations between maternal anxiety, maternal emotion regulation (ER) during child distress, maternal accommodation of child distress, and child anxiety. Mothers (N=45) of youth ages 3-8 years (M=4.8) participated in an experimental task during which they listened to a standardized audio recording of a child in anxious distress pleading for parental intervention. Measures of maternal and child anxiety, mothers' affective states, mothers' ER strategies during the child distress, and maternal accommodation of child anxiety were collected. Mothers' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during the recording was also acquired. Higher maternal negative affect and greater maternal ER switching (i.e., using multiple ER strategies in a short time without positive regulatory results) during child distress were associated with child anxiety. Sequential mediation modeling showed that maternal anxiety predicted ineffective maternal ER during child distress exposure, which in turn predicted greater maternal accommodation, which in turn predicted higher child anxiety. Findings support the mediating roles of maternal ER and accommodation in linking maternal and child anxiety, and suggest that ineffective maternal ER and subsequent attempts to accommodate child distress may act as mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of maternal elaborative structure and control in children's memory and suggestibility for a past event.

    Principe, Gabrielle F; Trumbull, Jacqueline; Gardner, Grace; Van Horn, Elizabeth; Dean, Abigail M

    2017-11-01

    In this investigation, preschool-aged children experienced a staged event about which their mothers received misinformation suggesting that their children witnessed an activity that did not occur. Later, mothers were asked to talk about this event with their children. Consistent with previous research, mothers' provision of structure (defined as elaborative questions and statements) and degree of control (defined in terms of functional control of conversational turns) emerged as separate dimensions of maternal memory sharing style. When later interviewed by an unfamiliar examiner about the event, children whose mothers demonstrated both high structure and high control provided the highest levels of false reports of the activity suggested to mothers and generously embellished their accounts of this activity with nonoccurring details. In contrast, children with mothers who provided low structure, regardless of their degree of control, made few false reports and used sparse narrative detail. The implications of these findings for children's memory and suggestibility are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Congenital heart disease linked to maternal autoimmunity against cardiac myosin.

    Cole, Charles R; Yutzey, Katherine E; Brar, Anoop K; Goessling, Lisa S; Van Vickle-Chavez, Sarah J; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2014-05-01

    Structural congenital heart disease (CHD) has not previously been linked to autoimmunity. In our study, we developed an autoimmune model of structural CHD that resembles hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), a life-threatening CHD primarily affecting the left ventricle. Because cardiac myosin (CM) is a dominant autoantigen in autoimmune heart disease, we hypothesized that immunization with CM might lead to transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies and a prenatal HLHS phenotype in exposed fetuses. Elevated anti-CM autoantibodies in maternal and fetal sera, as well as IgG reactivity in fetal myocardium, were correlated with structural CHD that included diminished left ventricular cavity dimensions in the affected progeny. Further, fetuses that developed a marked HLHS phenotype had elevated serum titers of anti-β-adrenergic receptor Abs, as well as increased protein kinase A activity, suggesting a potential mechanism for the observed pathological changes. Our maternal-fetal model presents a new concept linking autoimmunity against CM and cardiomyocyte proliferation with cardinal features of HLHS. To our knowledge, this report shows the first evidence in support of a novel immune-mediated mechanism for pathogenesis of structural CHD that may have implications in its future diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Diallel analysis for sex-linked and maternal effects.

    Zhu, J; Weir, B S

    1996-01-01

    Genetic models including sex-linked and maternal effects as well as autosomal gene effects are described. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to compare efficiencies of estimation by minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimation (MINQUE) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methods. MINQUE(1), which has 1 for all prior values, has a similar efficiency to MINQUE(θ), which requires prior estimates of parameter values. MINQUE(1) has the advantage over REML of unbiased estimation and convenient computation. An adjusted unbiased prediction (AUP) method is developed for predicting random genetic effects. AUP is desirable for its easy computation and unbiasedness of both mean and variance of predictors. The jackknife procedure is appropriate for estimating the sampling variances of estimated variances (or covariances) and of predicted genetic effects. A t-test based on jackknife variances is applicable for detecting significance of variation. Worked examples from mice and silkworm data are given in order to demonstrate variance and covariance estimation and genetic effect prediction.

  9. Maternal Employment Stability in Early Childhood: Links with Child Behavior and Cognitive Skills

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated links between maternal employment and children's wellbeing, less research has considered whether the stability of maternal employment is linked with child outcomes. Using unique employment calendar data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,011), an urban birth cohort study of largely…

  10. Maternal condition but not corticosterone is linked to offspring sex ratio in a passerine bird.

    Lindsay J Henderson

    Full Text Available There is evidence of offspring sex ratio adjustment in a range of species, but the potential mechanisms remain largely unknown. Elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT is associated with factors that can favour brood sex ratio adjustment, such as reduced maternal condition, food availability and partner attractiveness. Therefore, the steroid hormone has been suggested to play a key role in sex ratio manipulation. However, despite correlative and causal evidence CORT is linked to sex ratio manipulation in some avian species, the timing of adjustment varies between studies. Consequently, whether CORT is consistently involved in sex-ratio adjustment, and how the hormone acts as a mechanism for this adjustment remains unclear. Here we measured maternal baseline CORT and body condition in free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus over three years and related these factors to brood sex ratio and nestling quality. In addition, a non-invasive technique was employed to experimentally elevate maternal CORT during egg laying, and its effects upon sex ratio and nestling quality were measured. We found that maternal CORT was not correlated with brood sex ratio, but mothers with elevated CORT fledged lighter offspring. Also, experimental elevation of maternal CORT did not influence brood sex ratio or nestling quality. In one year, mothers in superior body condition produced male biased broods, and maternal condition was positively correlated with both nestling mass and growth rate in all years. Unlike previous studies maternal condition was not correlated with maternal CORT. This study provides evidence that maternal condition is linked to brood sex ratio manipulation in blue tits. However, maternal baseline CORT may not be the mechanistic link between the maternal condition and sex ratio adjustment. Overall, this study serves to highlight the complexity of sex ratio adjustment in birds and the difficulties associated with identifying sex biasing mechanisms.

  11. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  12. Exploring the Link between Maternity Leave and Postpartum Depression.

    Kornfeind, Katelin R; Sipsma, Heather L

    2018-05-02

    Postpartum depression affects a substantial proportion of new mothers in the United States. Although most employed women return to paid work after birth, the association between duration of maternity leave and postpartum depression is unclear. We therefore aimed to explore this relationship among mothers in the United States. Data included 177 mothers from a national survey who had returned to work full time after having a baby. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the independent association between duration of maternity leave and experiencing of postpartum depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks preceding the postpartum survey completion. Overall, duration of maternity leave was not significantly associated with experiencing postpartum depression symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-1.01). This effect, however, varied by duration of maternity leave. Among women who took maternity leaves of 12 weeks or less, every additional week of leave was associated with a lesser odds of experiencing postpartum depressive symptoms (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.84). Among women who took maternity leaves longer than 12 weeks, leave duration was not associated with postpartum depression symptoms (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.29). Maternity leaves equaling 12 weeks or less may contribute additional risk for postpartum depressive symptoms, possibly because mothers are juggling employment alongside of important physical and emotional changes during this period. This association underscores the importance of ensuring that mothers have at least 12 weeks of leave from full-time employment after the birth of a baby. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Infant sleep development from 3 to 6 months postpartum: links with maternal sleep and paternal involvement.

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Volkovich, Ella; Manber, Rachel; Meiri, Gal; Shahar, Golan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine (a) development of infant sleep and maternal sleep from 3 to 6 months postpartum; (b) concomitant and prospective links between maternal sleep and infant sleep; and (c) triadic links between paternal involvement in infant caregiving and maternal and infant sleep. The study included 57 families that were recruited during pregnancy. Maternal and infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Both fathers and mothers completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. The results demonstrated moderate improvement in infant and maternal sleep percent between 3 and 6 months. Maternal sleep percent at 3 months significantly predicted infant sleep percent at 6 months. Greater paternal involvement in infant daytime and nighttime caregiving at 3 months significantly predicted more consolidated maternal and infant sleep at 6 months. These findings suggest that maternal sleep is an important predictor of infant sleep and that increased involvement of fathers in infant caregiving responsibilities may contribute to improvements in both maternal and infant sleep during the first 6 months postpartum. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Linking Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness to Children's Self-Regulation

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    The present study demonstrated that a more differentiated view of positive parenting practices is necessary in the study of children's acquisition of self-regulation. Here, the unique contributions of maternal warmth and responsiveness to distress to children's self-regulation were tested in a sample of 102 German mothers and their kindergarten…

  15. Socioeconomic risk moderates the link between household chaos and maternal executive function.

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-06-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for Hypothesis 1, and consistent with Hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Socioeconomic Risk Moderates the Link between Household Chaos and Maternal Executive Function

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for hypothesis 1, and consistent with hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PMID:22563703

  17. A link between thrifty phenotype and maternal care across two generations of intercrossed mice.

    Bruno Sauce

    Full Text Available Maternal effects are causal influences from mother to offspring beyond genetic information, and have lifelong consequences for multiple traits. Previously, we reported that mice whose mothers did not nurse properly had low birth weight followed by rapid fat accumulation and disturbed development of some organs. That pattern resembles metabolic syndromes known collectively as the thrifty phenotype, which is believed to be an adaptation to a stressful environment which prepares offspring for reduced nutrient supply. The potential link between maternal care, stress reactivity, and the thrifty phenotype, however, has been poorly explored in the human and animal literature: only a couple of studies even mention (much less, test these concepts under a cohesive framework. Here, we explored this link using mice of the parental inbred strains SM/J and LG/J-who differ dramatically in their maternal care-and the intercrossed generations F1 and F2. We measured individual differences in 15 phenotypes and used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. We found a remarkable relationship between thrifty phenotype and lower quality of maternal behaviors, including nest building, pup retrieval, grooming/licking, and nursing. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show, in any mammal, a clear connection between the natural variation in thrifty phenotype and maternal care. Both traits in the mother also had a substantial effect on survival rate in the F3 offspring. To our surprise, however, stress reactivity seemed to play no role in our models. Furthermore, the strain of maternal grandmother, but not of paternal grandmother, affected the variation of maternal care in F2 mice, and this effect was mediated by thrifty phenotype in F2. Since F1 animals were all genetically identical, this finding suggests that maternal effects pass down both maternal care and thrifty phenotype in these mice across generations via epigenetic transmission.

  18. The Socialization of Children's Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children's Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children's autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were aged 3, 5, and 6 years old, and the…

  19. Theory of mind as a link between oxytocin and maternal behavior.

    MacKinnon, Anna L; Carter, C Sue; Feeley, Nancy; Gold, Ian; Hayton, Barbara; Santhakumaran, Sangeetha; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

    2018-06-01

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide associated with maternal behavior. However the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. In a previous study we observed an indirect effect of increased plasma oxytocin during late pregnancy on early postpartum maternal interactive behavior via theory of mind, as assessed by the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). The current study aimed to extend these findings by testing whether this indirect effect would hold longitudinally for maternal behavior at 2-3 years postpartum, as well as for an additional observational measure of maternal mind-mindedness. The original sample of 316 pregnant women (M age  = 31.92 years) was assessed at 12-14 weeks gestation (T1), 32-34 weeks gestation (T2), and 7-9 weeks postpartum (T3). Follow-up measures were taken at 2-3 years postpartum (T4). Mothers' RMET performance (T3) was associated with more structuring and less intrusive maternal behavior at 2-3 years (T4), while their tendency to use mind-related comments (T3) was associated with greater sensitivity (T4). Bootstrap estimates also revealed a significant indirect effect of plasma oxytocin levels during late pregnancy (T2) on maternal structuring and non-intrusive behavior at 2-3 years postpartum (T4) through RMET performance (T3). Results: of the current study confirm and extend the previous findings, demonstrating that theory of mind may represent a social cognitive mechanism linking endogenous oxytocin and maternal behavior. Important changes in the oxytocinergic system during late pregnancy may help prepare for motherhood by promoting the awareness of social cues, which in turn promote maternal behavior from the early postpartum to the early childhood years. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Household chaos moderates the link between maternal attribution bias and parenting: Parenting: Science and Practice.

    Wang, Z; Deater-Deckard, K; Bell, M A

    2013-10-01

    Parents who attribute child misbehavior to children's intentions and dismiss situational factors tend to show more hostility and less warmth in their parenting behavior, and are at greater risk for maltreatment. We extended this literature by investigating the role of household chaos as a moderator of the link between maternal attribution biases and parenting behaviors. The current sample included 160 mothers of 3- to7-year-old children. Mothers provided reports on their attribution biases and household chaos levels. Maternal negativity and positivity were measured using self-reports and observers' ratings. The links between attribution bias and parenting behavior were stronger in more chaotic environments, with the moderating effect of chaos being particularly strong for internal attribution bias. The findings point to the importance of social cognitive biases in the etiology of maternal behavior in family contexts that lack order and predictability.

  1. Household chaos moderates the link between maternal attribution bias and parenting

    Wang, Z.; Deater-Deckard, K.; Bell, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parents who attribute child misbehavior to children's intentions and dismiss situational factors tend to show more hostility and less warmth in their parenting behavior, and are at greater risk for maltreatment. We extended this literature by investigating the role of household chaos as a moderator of the link between maternal attribution biases and parenting behaviors. Design The current sample included 160 mothers of 3- to7-year-old children. Mothers provided reports on their attribution biases and household chaos levels. Maternal negativity and positivity were measured using self-reports and observers’ ratings. Results The links between attribution bias and parenting behavior were stronger in more chaotic environments, with the moderating effect of chaos being particularly strong for internal attribution bias. Conclusions The findings point to the importance of social cognitive biases in the etiology of maternal behavior in family contexts that lack order and predictability. PMID:24358017

  2. Community-Based Cause of Death Study Linked to Maternal and ...

    Community-Based Cause of Death Study Linked to Maternal and Child ... newborn, and child health "Know-Do Gap" in Ethiopia by piloting a low-cost, ... platform to decrease the cost, while increasing the quality and feasibility, of COD surveys.

  3. Linking Employment Status, Maternal Psychological Well-Being, Parenting, and Children's Attributions about Poverty in Families Receiving Government Assistance.

    Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…

  4. Parenting self-efficacy: links with maternal depression, infant behaviour and adult attachment.

    Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne

    2013-04-01

    This study examined predictors of parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in a sample of first-time mothers during the first year after childbirth and evaluated the effect of a brief, intensive, mother-infant residential intervention on PSE and infant behaviour. 83 primiparous women with infants aged 0-12 months admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis of depressive and anxiety disorders and completed questionnaires assessing psychological distress, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. During their residential stay, nurses recorded infant behaviour using 24-hour charts. Results showed PSE to be inversely correlated with maternal depression, maternal anxiety and attachment insecurity. Low levels of parental abuse during childhood, avoidant attachment, male infant gender and depressive symptom severity were found to predict low PSE. Major depression mediated the relation between attachment insecurity and PSE, but there were no links between PSE and infant behaviour. After the intervention, there was a significant improvement in PSE, with abusive parenting during childhood and depressive symptom severity being predictive of change. This study highlights the links between maternal psychopathology and maternal background factors such as childhood parenting experiences and attachment style in the development of postnatal PSE. Directions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Profiles of Maternal Parenting Practices: Exploring the Link With Maternal Delinquency, Offending, Mental Health, and Children's Physical Aggression.

    Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-11-01

    Studies have often linked parenting to children's subsequent antisocial behavior; however, the circumstances under which this might occur are less clear. The current study explores patterns in mothers' parenting practices, and associated correlates including maternal delinquency and offending, mental health, and children's physical aggression. This study is based on the first wave of the ongoing Vancouver Longitudinal Study; the objective of this prospective study is to identify the early risk and protective factors for aggression and violence from the earliest developmental periods. Parenting practices of 287 mothers with preschoolers are examined using a series of latent class analyses. Three different patterns of parenting emerged: Positive, Negative, and Intermittent. Patterns identified are associated with several key criminogenic, socio-demographic, historical, and developmental factors including current maternal adult offending, mothers' mental health, ethnicity, and frequency of children's physical aggression. Importantly, mothers who show parenting in line with the more negative classes also rely on a number of positive practices. Implications of the study suggest that parenting is influenced by mothers' immediate situations and contexts (e.g., current offending rather that past delinquency), which can be targeted for intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  7. Culture-specific links between maternal executive function, parenting, and preschool children's executive function in South Korea.

    Lee, Min Kyung; Baker, Sara; Whitebread, David

    2018-06-01

    Research on the relationships between parental factors and children's executive function (EF) has been conducted mainly in Western cultures. This study provides the first empirical test, in a non-Western context, of how maternal EF and parenting behaviours relate to child EF. South Korean mothers and their preschool children (N = 95 dyads) completed EF tasks. Two aspects of parental scaffolding were observed during a puzzle task: contingency (i.e., adjusting among levels of scaffolding according to the child's ongoing evidence of understanding) and intrusiveness (i.e., directive, mother-centred interactions). Maternal EF and maternal contingency each accounted for unique variance in child EF, above and beyond child age, child language and maternal education. Maternal intrusiveness, however, was not significantly related to child EF. Additionally, no mediating role of parenting was found in the maternal and child EF link. However, child language was found to partially mediate the link between maternal contingency and child EF. These results complement prior findings by revealing distinctive patterns in the link between maternal EF, parenting behaviours, and child EF in the Korean context. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Experiential avoidance mediates the link between maternal attachment style and theory of mind.

    Vanwoerden, Salome; Kalpakci, Allison H; Sharp, Carla

    2015-02-01

    Theoretical and empirical models suggest a relation between attachment style and theory of mind (ToM) in childhood and adulthood; however, this link has not been evaluated to the same extent in adolescence. Additionally, these models typically fail to consider mechanisms by which attachment style affects ToM abilities. The present study sought to test a mediational model in which experiential avoidance mediates the relation between maternal attachment style and ToM. A sample of 282 adolescents (Mage=15.42years, SD=1.44, 62.8% female) was recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital. Findings revealed that maternal attachment style in females was related to ToM, through experiential avoidance. Specifically, those with a disorganized maternal attachment were most likely to engage in experiential avoidant cognitive and emotional strategies, which in turn related to lower levels of ToM ability. Implications and areas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Does intelligence account for the link between maternal literacy and child survival?

    Sandiford, P; Cassel, J; Sanchez, G; Coldham, C

    1997-10-01

    The strong and consistent correlation between maternal education and child health is now well known, and numerous studies have shown that wealth and income cannot explain the link. Policy-makers have therefore assumed that the relationship is causal and explicitly advocate schooling as a child health intervention. However, there are other factors which could account for the apparent effect of maternal education on child morbidity and mortality, one of which is intelligence. This paper examines the effect of maternal intelligence on child health and looks at the degree to which it can explain the literacy associations with child survival and risk of malnutrition. The data are from a retrospective cohort study of 1294 mothers and their 7475 offspring, of whom 454 were women who had learned to read and write as adults in Nicaragua's literacy programme, 457 were illiterate, and 383 had become literate as young girls attending school. The women's intelligence was tested using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. Acquisition of literacy was strongly related to intelligence. Statistically significant associations with maternal literacy were found for under five mortality, infant mortality, and the risk of low mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) for age, before and after controlling for a wide range of socio-economic factors. Under five, child (one to four years), infant and post-neonatal mortality plus the risk of low height for age were significantly correlated with intelligence, but only with infant and under mortality rates did the association remain significant after controlling for socio-economic factors. A significant interaction between intelligence and literacy for under five mortality was due to literacy having a strong effect in the women of low intelligence, and a negligible effect among those of high intelligence. This study provides evidence that intelligence is an important determinant of child health among the illiterate, and that education may have the

  10. Links between maternal feeding practices and children's eating difficulties. Validation of French tools.

    Rigal, Natalie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2012-04-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to validate measures of young children's eating difficulties and maternal feeding practices in a French sample, as well as to assess the links between these practices and children's eating difficulties. Mothers (n=502) of French children aged 20-36 months completed four questionnaires that were validated using a Structural Equation Modelling approach. Links between children and maternal components were investigated using a PLS regression. The Children's Eating Difficulties Questionnaire yielded a 4-dimension solution: Neophobia, Pickiness, Low Appetite and Low Enjoyment in food. The Feeding Style Questionnaire assessed three dimensions: Authoritarian, Authoritative and Permissive Styles. The Feeding Strategy Questionnaire, designed to evaluate strategies used by mothers to make their child taste rejected foods, resulted in four factors: Coercion, Explanation, Contingency and Preference. The Questionnaire relating to Parental Motivations when buying food for children presented a 6-dimension solution: Convenience, Weight-control, Natural, Health-concern, Preference and Price. The factors associated positively with the four dimensions of the Children's Eating Difficulties Questionnaire were on the one hand Permissive Style and Practices to fulfil child's desires, and on the other hand Authoritarian Style, Contingent and Coercive Practices aimed at forcing children to taste rejected foods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Male homosexuality and maternal immune responsivity to the Y-linked protein NLGN4Y.

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Skorska, Malvina N; Wang, Chao; Gabrie, José; MacNeil, Adam J; Hoffarth, Mark R; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J; Blanchard, Ray

    2018-01-09

    We conducted a direct test of an immunological explanation of the finding that gay men have a greater number of older brothers than do heterosexual men. This explanation posits that some mothers develop antibodies against a Y-linked protein important in male brain development, and that this effect becomes increasingly likely with each male gestation, altering brain structures underlying sexual orientation in their later-born sons. Immune assays targeting two Y-linked proteins important in brain development-protocadherin 11 Y-linked (PCDH11Y) and neuroligin 4 Y-linked (NLGN4Y; isoforms 1 and 2)-were developed. Plasma from mothers of sons, about half of whom had a gay son, along with additional controls (women with no sons, men) was analyzed for male protein-specific antibodies. Results indicated women had significantly higher anti-NLGN4Y levels than men. In addition, after statistically controlling for number of pregnancies, mothers of gay sons, particularly those with older brothers, had significantly higher anti-NLGN4Y levels than did the control samples of women, including mothers of heterosexual sons. The results suggest an association between a maternal immune response to NLGN4Y and subsequent sexual orientation in male offspring. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. Children's Executive Function Attenuate the Link Between Maternal Intrusiveness and Internalizing Behaviors at School Entry.

    Gueron-Sela, Noa; Bedford, Rachael; Wagner, Nicholas J; Propper, Cathi B

    2017-10-20

    The goal of this study was to examine the independent and interactive roles of harsh-intrusive maternal behaviors and children's executive function in the development of internalizing behaviors across the first years of school. A diverse sample (58% African American, 42% European American) of 137 children (48% female) was followed from kindergarten (age 5 years) through school entry (ages 6-7 years). At age 5, maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors were rated from a mother-child structured play task, and children completed 3 executive function tasks that measured inhibitory control, working memory, and attention set-shifting. Teachers reported on children's internalizing behaviors at ages 5, 6, and 7. Harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors at age 5 years were positively related to internalizing behaviors in the first years of school, whereas high executive function abilities at age 5 years were related to lower internalizing behaviors in the first years of school. In addition, executive function buffered the association between parenting behaviors and internalizing behaviors such that the link between harsh-intrusive parenting and child internalizing behaviors was evident only among children with low executive function and not among children with high executive function. Interventions that focus on reducing negative parenting behaviors and improving children's executive function may prevent internalizing behaviors from increasing during times of social and academic challenge.

  13. Elevated Plasma Corticosterone Decreases Yolk Testosterone and Progesterone in Chickens : Linking Maternal Stress and Hormone-Mediated Maternal Effects

    Henriksen, Rie; Groothuis, Ton G.; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Bartell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress

  14. Microglia, the missing link in maternal immune activation and fetal neurodevelopment; and a possible link in preeclampsia and disturbed neurodevelopment?

    Prins, Jelmer R; Eskandar, Sharon; Eggen, Bart J L; Scherjon, Sicco A

    Disturbances in fetal neurodevelopment have extensively been related to neurodevelopmental disorders in early and later life. Fetal neurodevelopment is dependent on adequate functioning of the fetal immune system. During pregnancy, the maternal immune system is challenged to both tolerate the

  15. Elaboration of Avogadro law

    Luk'yanov, A.T.

    1999-01-01

    In the report on the base of conducted experiments the conclusion about necessity of Avogadro law elaboration is made. It is suggested to add to existing formulation of the law 'In equal volumes of gases at similar pressure and temperature there are equal molecules number' - the elaboration 'and at same spectral content of heat sources'

  16. Medial prefrontal cortex: genes linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have altered expression in the highly social maternal phenotype

    Brian E Eisinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition to motherhood involves CNS changes that modify sociability and affective state. However, these changes also put females at risk for postpartum depression and psychosis, which impairs parenting abilities and adversely affects children. Thus, changes in expression and interactions in a core subset of genes may be critical for emergence of a healthy maternal phenotype, but inappropriate changes of the same genes could put women at risk for postpartum disorders. This study evaluated microarray gene expression changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a region implicated in both maternal behavior and psychiatric disorders. Postpartum mice were compared to virgin controls housed with females and isolated for identical durations. Using the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET, we found that the genetic landscape of maternal mPFC bears statistical similarity to gene databases associated with schizophrenia (5 of 5 sets and bipolar disorder (BPD, 3 of 3 sets. In contrast to previous studies of maternal lateral septum and medial preoptic area, enrichment of autism and depression-linked genes was not significant (2 of 9 sets, 0 of 4 sets. Among genes linked to multiple disorders were fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, glutamate metabotropic receptor 3 (Grm3, platelet derived growth factor, beta polypeptide (Pdgfrb, and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1. RT-qPCR confirmed these gene changes as well as FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1 and proenkephalin (Penk. Systems-level methods revealed involvement of developmental gene networks in establishing the maternal phenotype and indirectly suggested a role for numerous microRNAs and transcription factors in mediating expression changes. Together, this study suggests that a subset of genes involved in shaping the healthy maternal brain may also be dysregulated in mental health disorders and put females at risk for postpartum psychosis with aspects of schizophrenia and BPD.

  17. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Oudekerk, Barbara A; Allen, Joseph P; Hafen, Christopher A; Hessel, Elenda T; Szwedo, David E; Spilker, Ann

    2014-05-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior.

  18. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265

  19. The Link Between Daycare Experience and Attitudes Toward Daycare and Maternal Employment

    Shpancer, Noam; Bennett-Murphy, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Participants (n = 308; mean age = 20 years) completed questionnaires about their history, attitudes, and expectations regarding childcare, maternal employment and future parenting. Participants who experienced non-parental care as children had more favorable attitudes toward such care and toward maternal employment than did home-reared…

  20. The Socialization of Children’s Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children’s Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children’s autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were 3, 5, and 6 years of age, and the results reveal concurrent and longitudinal linkages between maternal conversational style in a mother-child reminiscing task and children’s autobiographical memory performance. Maternal conversational style while reminiscing was also significantly related to children’s strategic behaviors and recall in two deliberate memory tasks, both concurrently and longitudinally. Results from this examination replicate and extend what is known about the linkages between maternal conversational style, children’s abilities to talk about previous experiences, and children’s deliberate memory skills as they transition from the preschool to early elementary school years. PMID:29270083

  1. A Summary of Pathways or Mechanisms Linking Preconception Maternal Nutrition with Birth Outcomes.

    King, Janet C

    2016-07-01

    Population, human, animal, tissue, and molecular studies show collectively and consistently that maternal nutrition in the pre- or periconception period influences fetal growth and development, which subsequently affects the individual's long-term health. It is known that nutrition during pregnancy is an important determinant of the offspring's growth and health. However, now there is evidence that the mother's nutritional status at conception also influences pregnancy outcome and long-term health. For example, the mother's nutritional status at conception influences the way energy is partitioned between maternal and fetal needs. Furthermore, placental development during the first weeks of gestation reflects maternal nutrition and establishes mechanisms for balancing maternal and fetal nutritional needs. Also, maternal nutritional signals at fertilization influence epigenetic remodeling of fetal genes. These findings all indicate that maternal parenting begins before conception. The following papers from a symposium on preconception nutrition presented at the 2015 Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting of the ASN emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition at conception on the growth and long-term health of the child. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Re-examining the link between prenatal maternal anxiety and child emotional difficulties, using a sibling design.

    Bekkhus, Mona; Lee, Yunsung; Nordhagen, Rannveig; Magnus, Per; Samuelsen, Sven O; Borge, Anne I H

    2018-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety has been associated with child emotional difficulties in a number of epidemiological studies. One key concern, however, is that this link is vulnerable to confounding by pleiotropic genes or environmental family factors. Data on 82 383 mothers and children from the population-based Mother and Child Cohort Study and data on 21 980 siblings were used in this study. Mothers filled out questionnaires for each unique pregnancy, for infant difficulties at 6 months and for emotional difficulties at 36 months. The link between prenatal maternal anxiety and child difficulties were examined using logistic regression analyses and multiple linear regression analyses for the full study sample and the sibling sample. In the conventional full-cohort analyses, prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety was associated with child difficulties at both 6 months [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 (1.94-2.27)] and 36 months [OR = 2.72 (2.47-2.99)]. The findings were essentially the same whether we examined difficulties at 6 months or at 36 months. However, these associations were no longer present once we controlled for potential social and genetic confounders in the sibling comparison analyses, either at 6 months [OR = 1.32 (0.91-1.90)] or at 36 months [OR = 1.28 (0.63-2.60)]. Findings from multiple regression analyses with continuous measures were essentially the same. Our finding lends little support for there being an independent prenatal effect on child emotional difficulties; rather, our findings suggest that the link between prenatal maternal anxiety and child difficulties could be confounded by pleiotropic genes or environmental family factors. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  3. Maternal Depression Mediates the Link Between Therapeutic Alliance and Improvements in Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    Granic, I.; Otten, R.; Blokland, K.; Solomon, T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Ferguson, B.

    2012-01-01

    The current study: (1) examined the relation between therapeutic alliance and changes in adolescent externalizing behavior in Multisystemic Therapy; (2) tested whether maternal depression mediates this relation; and (3) determined whether mothers' and clinicians' perceptions of the alliance

  4. Attachment quality of children with ID and its link to maternal sensitivity and structuring.

    Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Joels, Tirtsa

    2018-05-01

    Attachment theory produced a fertile field of research and clinical application. Although the topic of attachment of children with intellectual disability (ID) has received increasing research attention over the past 15 years, the empirical evidence is still limited. We applied theoretical and empirical knowledge of parenting typically developing children to examine the mother-child relationship in the ID population. The aim was to examine maternal sensitivity and structuring and its association with children's attachment classification and their disability. Forty preschool children (mean age 47.25, range 26-75 months) with non-specific ID and their mothers participated in the study. The mean developmental age was 25.92 months (SD = 10.89), The DQ mean score was 55.45 (SD = 17.28). We assessed children's quality of attachment using the SSP and maternal interactive behavior using the Emotional Availability Scales. Forty percent of children showed secure attachment, and 32.5% showed disorganized attachment. Attachment classifications correlated significantly with maternal sensitivity and maternal structuring but not with the child's cognitive disability. The results point to the importance of maternal interactive behavior for children with ID. Clinical implication may consider interventions aiming to enhance maternal sensitivity and structuring to improve children's quality of attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  6. Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten.

    Coplan, Robert J; Arbeau, Kimberley A; Armer, Mandana

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the moderating role of maternal personality and parenting characteristics in the links between shyness and adjustment in kindergarten. Participants were 197 children enrolled in kindergarten programs (and their mothers and teachers). Multisource assessment was employed, including maternal ratings, behavioral observations, teacher ratings, and individual child interviews. Results indicated that shyness was associated with a wide range of socio-emotional and school adjustment difficulties in kindergarten. Moreover, support for the moderating role of parenting was also found. Relations between shyness and certain indices of maladjustment were stronger among children with mothers characterized by higher neuroticism, BIS sensitivity, and an overprotective parenting style, and weaker for mothers characterized by high agree-ableness and an authoritative parenting style.

  7. Linking data sources for measurement of effective coverage in maternal and newborn health: what do we learn from individual- vs ecological-linking methods?

    Willey, Barbara; Waiswa, Peter; Kajjo, Darious; Munos, Melinda; Akuze, Joseph; Allen, Elizabeth; Marchant, Tanya

    2018-06-01

    Improving maternal and newborn health requires improvements in the quality of facility-based care. This is challenging to measure: routine data may be unreliable; respondents in population surveys may be unable to accurately report on quality indicators; and facility assessments lack population level denominators. We explored methods for linking access to skilled birth attendance (SBA) from household surveys to data on provision of care from facility surveys with the aim of estimating population level effective coverage reflecting access to quality care. We used data from Mayuge District, Uganda. Data from household surveys on access to SBA were linked to health facility assessment census data on readiness to provide basic emergency obstetric and newborn care (BEmONC) in the same district. One individual- and two ecological-linking methods were applied. All methods used household survey reports on where care at birth was accessed. The individual-linking method linked this to data about facility readiness from the specific facility where each woman delivered. The first ecological-linking approach used a district-wide mean estimate of facility readiness. The second used an estimate of facility readiness adjusted by level of health facility accessed. Absolute differences between estimates derived from the different linking methods were calculated, and agreement examined using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. A total of 1177 women resident in Mayuge reported a birth during 2012-13. Of these, 664 took place in facilities within Mayuge, and were eligible for linking to the census of the district's 38 facilities. 55% were assisted by a SBA in a facility. Using the individual-linking method, effective coverage of births that took place with an SBA in a facility ready to provide BEmONC was just 10% (95% confidence interval CI 3-17). The absolute difference between the individual- and ecological-level linking method adjusting for facility level was one percentage

  8. Review: Adiponectin – The Missing Link between Maternal Adiposity, Placental Transport and Fetal Growth?

    Aye, Irving L. M. H.; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin has well-established insulin-sensitizing effects in non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant women who are obese or have gestational diabetes typically have low circulating levels of adiponectin, which is associated with increased fetal growth. Lean women, on the other hand, have high circulating levels of adiponectin. As a result, maternal serum adiponectin is inversely correlated to fetal growth across the full range of birth weights, suggesting that maternal adiponectin may limit fetal growth. In the mother, adiponectin is predicted to promote insulin sensitivity and stimulate glucose uptake in maternal skeletal muscle thereby reducing nutrient availability for placental transfer. Adiponectin prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid uptake in cultured primary human trophoblast cells by modulating insulin receptor substrate phosphorylation. Furthermore, chronic administration of adiponectin to pregnant mice inhibits placental insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, down-regulates the activity and expression of key placental nutrient transporters and decreases fetal growth. Preliminary findings indicate that adiponectin binds to the adiponectin receptor-2 on the trophoblast cell and activates p38 MAPK and PPAR-α, which inhibits the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. In contrast to maternal adiponectin, recent reports suggest that fetal adiponectin may promote expansion of adipose tissue and stimulate fetal growth. Regulation of placental function by adiponectin constitutes a novel physiological mechanism by which the endocrine functions of maternal adipose tissue influence fetal growth. These findings may help us better understand the factors determining birth weight in normal pregnancies and in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels such as obesity and gestational diabetes. PMID:23245987

  9. Children's Disclosure and Secrecy: Links to Maternal Parenting Characteristics and Children's Coping Skills

    Almas, Alisa N.; Grusec, Joan E.; Tackett, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The relations between maternal parenting characteristics, child disclosure and secrecy, and child outcomes (positive and negative strategies for coping with distress), were examined in a study of 140 children (10-12-year-olds) and their mothers. Child disclosure and secrecy were shown to be distinct but related constructs with authoritativeness…

  10. Depressive symptoms in adolescence : Longitudinal links with maternal empathy and psychological control

    Werner, Lente L. A. A.; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, Susan J. T.

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers'

  11. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control

    Werner, L.A.A.; van der Graaff, J.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/ S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms, through mothers’

  12. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions: Longitudinal links to adolescent disclosure and maternal control

    Van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.; Keijsers, L.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relations of emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions in early adolescence with adolescent disclosure and maternal control in early and late adolescence. Data were used from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13.05; 65.20% boys)

  13. International health policy and stagnating maternal mortality: is there a causal link?

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; Van Dessel, Patrick; Sen, Kasturi; De Paepe, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines why progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 on maternal health appears to have stagnated in much of the global south. We contend that besides the widely recognised existence of weak health systems, including weak services, low staffing levels, managerial weaknesses, and lack of infrastructure and information, this stagnation relates to the inability of most countries to meet two essential conditions: to develop access to publicly funded, comprehensive health care, and to provide the not-for-profit sector with needed political, technical and financial support. This paper offers a critical perspective on the past 15 years of international health policies as a possible cofactor of high maternal mortality, because of their emphasis on disease control in public health services at the expense of access to comprehensive health care, and failures of contracting out and public-private partnerships in health care. Health care delivery cannot be an issue both of trade and of right. Without policies to make health systems in the global south more publicly-oriented and accountable, the current standards of maternal and child health care are likely to remain poor, and maternal deaths will continue to affect women and their families at an intolerably high level.

  14. Community-Based Cause of Death Study Linked to Maternal and ...

    While Ethiopia has successfully reduced under-five childhood mortality, there have been slower gains in reducing neonatal (newborn) and maternal mortality rates. About 220,000 children and mothers die every year in Ethiopia. For most, the causes of death are unknown as fewer than 30% of Ethiopia's births and deaths ...

  15. A link between maternal malnutrition and depletion of glutathione in the developing lens: a possible explanation for idiopathic childhood cataract?

    Kumar, Deepa; Lim, Julie C; Donaldson, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Lens cataract is the leading cause of blindness in developing countries. While cataract is primarily a disease of old age and is relatively rare in children, accounting for only four per cent of global blindness, childhood cataract is responsible for a third of the economic cost of blindness. While many of the causes of cataract in children are known, over half of childhood cataracts are idiopathic with no known cause. The incidence of idiopathic cataract is highest in developing countries and studies have discovered that low birth weight is a risk factor in the development of idiopathic childhood cataract. As low birth weight is a reflection of poor foetal growth, it is possible that maternal malnutrition, which is endemic in some developing countries, results in the altered physiology of the foetal lens. We have conducted a review of the literature that provides evidence for a link between maternal malnutrition, low birth weight and the development of childhood cataract. Using our accumulated knowledge on the pathways that deliver nutrients to the adult lens, we propose a cellular mechanism, by which oxidative stress caused by maternal malnutrition affects the development of antioxidant defence pathways in the embryonic lens, leading to an accelerated onset of nuclear cataract in childhood. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  16. Quantifying maternal incarceration: a whole-population linked data study of Western Australian children born 1985-2011.

    Dowell, Caitlin M; Preen, David B; Segal, Leonie

    2016-11-20

    To measure the prevalence of children affected by maternal incarceration in Western Australia (WA). Using linked administrative data we identified all children born in WA between 1985 and 2011, whose biological mother was imprisoned during their childhood. Data was obtained through the WA Data Linkage Branch from the Department of Corrective Services, Midwives Notifications System and Birth Registrations data collections. Descriptive characteristics of the children (n=9,352) and their mothers (n=3,827) are reported. Prevalence was measured in two-ways, the proportion of children ever affected in childhood and affected annually. Childhood prevalence of maternal incarceration was 26-times higher (95%CI 23.9-28.2) for Indigenous children born 1992-1996 with 18.8% Indigenous children and 0.7% non-Indigenous children affected while aged 0-17 years. On average 1,544 children were affected each year across 2003-2011, at rates of 2,929 per 100,000 Indigenous children and 108 per 100,000 non-Indigenous children. The findings present the first census of children affected by maternal incarceration within an Australian State and identify a large disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Implications for Public Health: This study highlights the importance of formal consideration of children of women prisoners in the development of criminal justice policies and practices. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Maternal hemodynamics early in labor: a possible link with obstetric risk?

    Valensise, H; Tiralongo, G M; Pisani, I; Farsetti, D; Lo Presti, D; Gagliardi, G; Basile, M R; Novelli, G P; Vasapollo, B

    2018-04-01

    To determine if hemodynamic assessment in 'low-risk' pregnant women at term with an appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) fetus can improve the identification of patients who will suffer maternal or fetal/neonatal complications during labor. This was a prospective observational study of 77 women with low-risk term pregnancy and AGA fetus, in the early stages of labor. Hemodynamic indices were obtained using the UltraSonic Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM ® ) system. Patients were followed until the end of labor to identify fetal/neonatal and maternal outcomes, and those which developed complications of labor were compared with those delivering without complications. Eleven (14.3%) patients had a complication during labor: in seven there was fetal distress and in four there were maternal complications (postpartum hemorrhage and/or uterine atony). Patients who developed complications during labor had lower cardiac output (5.6 ± 1.0 vs 6.7 ± 1.3 L/min, P = 0.01) and cardiac index (3.1 ± 0.6 vs 3.5 ± 0.7 L/min/m 2 , P = 0.04), and higher total vascular resistance (1195.3 ± 205.3 vs 1017.8 ± 225.6 dynes × s/cm 5 , P = 0.017) early in labor, compared with those who did not develop complications. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis to determine cut-offs showed cardiac output ≤ 5.8 L/min (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 69.7%), cardiac index ≤ 2.9 L/min/m 2 (sensitivity, 63.6%; specificity, 76.9%) and total vascular resistance > 1069 dynes × s/cm 5 (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 63.6%) to best predict maternal or fetal/neonatal complications. The study of maternal cardiovascular adaptation at the end of pregnancy could help to identify low-risk patients who may develop complications during labor. In particular, low cardiac output and high total vascular resistance are apparently associated with higher risk of fetal distress or maternal complications. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley

  18. Low estriol levels in the maternal marker screen as a predictor of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita: Case report

    Durković Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC is a rare cause of adrenocortical insufficiency. Early postnatal diagnosis may prevent severe hypoglycemia, Addisonian crises and death. Low maternal estriol (E3 levels in the second trimester of pregnancy could indicate the possibility that the fetus suffers from a disorder that causes adrenal insufficiency. Suspicion is based on the fact that E3 originates from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA synthesized in the fetal adrenals. In case of adrenal insufficiency, the impaired production of fetal DHEA leads to a subsequent reduction of E3 concentrations in maternal serum. There are only a few reports of AHC suspected prenatally due to low maternal E3 levels. Case Outline. We describe two brothers with adrenal insufficiency due to AHC. The older brother was admitted to the hospital at the age of 33 days due to failure to thrive, vomiting, and dehydration. Genetic analysis revealed a hemizygous mutation in DAX-1 gene, thus confirming the diagnosis of ACH. The same mutation was detected in his mother. In the second pregnancy, E3 concentrations were determined from maternal serum. Estriol levels during the second trimester were extremely low suggesting the diagnosis of AHC. The diagnosis was confirmed during the neonatal period by genetic testing, and replacement therapy was started at the age of 10 days. This boy never experienced an adverse episode such as hypoglycemia or adrenal crises. Conclusion. Since determination of E3 is a simple, sensitive, noninvasive and cheap method, its use as an obligatory prenatal screening test should be accepted as a standard practice in Serbia.

  19. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  20. A Summary of Pathways or Mechanisms Linking Preconception Maternal Nutrition with Birth Outcomes123

    King, Janet C

    2016-01-01

    Population, human, animal, tissue, and molecular studies show collectively and consistently that maternal nutrition in the pre- or periconception period influences fetal growth and development, which subsequently affects the individual?s long-term health. It is known that nutrition during pregnancy is an important determinant of the offspring?s growth and health. However, now there is evidence that the mother?s nutritional status at conception also influences pregnancy outcome and long-term h...

  1. The placental problem: Linking abnormal cytotrophoblast differentiation to the maternal symptoms of preeclampsia

    Fisher Susan J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The placenta is a remarkable organ. In normal pregnancy its specialized cells (termed cytotrophoblasts differentiate into various specialized subpopulations that play pivotal roles in governing fetal growth and development. One cytotrophoblast subset acquires tumor-like properties that allow the cells to invade the decidua and myometrium, a process that attaches the placenta to the uterus. The same subset also adopts a vascular phenotype that allows these fetal cells to breach and subsequently line uterine blood vessels, a process that channels maternal blood to the rest of the placenta. In the pregnancy complication preeclampsia, which is characterized by the sudden onset of maternal hypertension, proteinuria and edema, cytotrophoblast invasion is shallow and vascular transformation incomplete. These findings, together with very recent evidence from animal models, suggest that preeclampsia is associated with abnormal placental production of vasculogenic/angiogenic substances that reach the maternal circulation with the potential to produce at least a subset of the clinical signs of this syndrome. The current challenge is to build on this knowledge to design clinically useful tests for predicting, diagnosing and treating this dangerous disorder.

  2. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects.

  3. Interrelations of maternal expressed emotion, maltreatment, and separation/divorce and links to family conflict and children's externalizing behavior.

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-02-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children's externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children's externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2 % males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children's externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children's externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. Key Words: expressed emotion, EE-Crit, Five-Minute Speech Sample; maltreatment, divorce

  4. Improving Information on Maternal Medication Use by Linking Prescription Data to Congenital Anomaly Registers

    de Jonge, Linda; Garne, Ester; Gini, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Research on associations between medication use during pregnancy and congenital anomalies is significative for assessing the safe use of a medicine in pregnancy. Congenital anomaly (CA) registries do not have optimal information on medicine exposure, in contrast to prescription...... databases. Linkage of prescription databases to the CA registries is a potentially effective method of obtaining accurate information on medicine use in pregnancies and the risk of congenital anomalies. METHODS: We linked data from primary care and prescription databases to five European Surveillance...... of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) CA registries. The linkage was evaluated by looking at linkage rate, characteristics of linked and non-linked cases, first trimester exposure rates for six groups of medicines according to the prescription data and information on medication use registered in the CA databases...

  5. The link between maternal sleep and permissive parenting during late adolescence.

    Tu, Kelly M; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2018-03-05

    Utilizing a multi-method design, the present study examined the association between maternal sleep, assessed via actigraphy and self-reports, and permissive parenting (e.g. lax, inconsistent discipline) during adolescence, as well as the extent to which this association differed by mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The sample was comprised of 234 mothers (M age = 41.76 years, SD = 6.25; 67% European-American, 31% African-American, 2% other race/ethnicities) and 237 adolescents (113 boys, 124 girls; M age = 15.80 years, SD = 0.80; 66% European-American, 34% African-American). Mothers' sleep duration (actual sleep minutes) and quality (sleep efficiency, latency, long wake episodes) were assessed using actigraphy. Mothers also reported on their sleep problems and adolescents reported on mothers' permissive parenting behaviours. Results revealed that actigraphy-based longer sleep duration and shorter sleep latency were associated with lower levels of permissive parenting. Further, mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status moderated the association between actigraphy-based sleep quality (i.e. sleep efficiency, long wake episodes) and permissive parenting. Specifically, a negative association between sleep efficiency and permissive parenting was evident only for African-American mothers. In addition, a positive association between more frequent night wakings and permissive parenting was evident only for mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. The findings highlight the benefits of longer and higher-quality sleep for reducing the risk of permissive parenting, especially among ethnic minority mothers and mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Maternal and paternal parenting styles: unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency.

    Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H; Smeenk, Wilma

    2011-10-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and mothers were linked to delinquency. A significant parenting style by sex interaction was found: neglectful parenting was related to higher levels of delinquency in males and permissive parenting was linked to delinquency in females. A long term relationship was found between fathers' neglectful parenting style and delinquency in males. Furthermore, results revealed that levels of delinquency were the lowest in families with at least one authoritative parent and highest in families with two neglectful parents, indicating that the level of delinquency was dependent on the combination of mother's and father's parenting styles. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An enzyme-linked immuno-filtration assay used to compare infant and maternal antibody profiles in toxoplasmosis.

    Pinon, J M; Thoannes, H; Gruson, N

    1985-02-28

    Enzyme-linked immuno-filtration assay is carried out on a micropore membrane. This doubly analytical technique permits simultaneous study of antibody specificity by immunoprecipitation and characterisation of antibody isotypes by immuno-filtration with enzyme-labelled antibodies. Recognition of the same T. gondii antigenic constituent by IgG, IgA, IgM or IgE antibodies produces couplets (IgG-IgM; IgG-IgA) or triplets (IgG-IgM-IgA; IgG-IgM-IgE) which identify the functional fractions of the toxoplasmosis antigen. In acquired toxoplasmosis, the persistence of IgM antibody long after infestation puts in question the implication of recent infestation normally linked to detection of this isotype. For sera of comparable titres, comparison of immunological profiles by the method described demonstrates disparities in the composition of the specific antibody content as expressed in international units. Use of the same method to detect IgM antibodies or distinguish between transmitted maternal IgG and IgG antibodies synthesised by the foetus or neonate makes a diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis possible in 85% of cases during the first few days of life. With the method described the diagnosis may be made on average 5 months earlier than with classical techniques. In the course of surveillance for latent congenital toxoplasmosis, the appearance of IgM or IgE antibodies raises the possibility of complications (hydrocephalus, chorioretinitis). After cessation of treatment, a rise in IgG antibodies indicating persistence of infection is detected earlier by the present than by classical methods.

  8. Public and private maternal health service capacity and patient flows in Southern Tanzania: using a geographic information system to link hospital and national census data.

    Tabatabai, Patrik; Henke, Stefanie; Sušac, Katharina; Kisanga, Oberlin M E; Baumgarten, Inge; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Ramroth, Heribert; Marx, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to improve maternal health in low-income countries are increasingly embracing partnership approaches between public and private stakeholders in health. In Tanzania, such partnerships are a declared policy goal. However, implementation remains challenging as unfamiliarity between partners and insufficient recognition of private health providers prevail. This hinders cooperation and reflects the need to improve the evidence base of private sector contribution. To map and analyse the capacities of public and private hospitals to provide maternal health care in southern Tanzania and the population reached with these services. A hospital questionnaire was applied in all 16 hospitals (public n=10; private faith-based n=6) in 12 districts of southern Tanzania. Areas of inquiry included selected maternal health service indicators (human resources, maternity/delivery beds), provider-fees for obstetric services and patient turnover (antenatal care, births). Spatial information was linked to the 2002 Population Census dataset and a geographic information system to map patient flows and socio-geographic characteristics of service recipients. The contribution of faith-based organizations (FBOs) to hospital maternal health services is substantial. FBO hospitals are primarily located in rural areas and their patient composition places a higher emphasis on rural populations. Also, maternal health service capacity was more favourable in FBO hospitals. We approximated that 19.9% of deliveries in the study area were performed in hospitals and that the proportion of c-sections was 2.7%. Mapping of patient flows demonstrated that women often travelled far to seek hospital care and where catchment areas of public and FBO hospitals overlap. We conclude that the important contribution of FBOs to maternal health services and capacity as well as their emphasis on serving rural populations makes them promising partners in health programming. Inclusive partnerships could increase

  9. What can child silhouette data tell us? Exploring links to parenting, food and activity behaviors, and maternal concerns

    Purpose: A study of resiliency to overweight explored how child silhouettes (maternal perception of child’s body size) related to child BMI, maternal concerns, parenting styles and practices. Methods: In a diverse, multi-state sample, 175 low-income mother-child (ages 3-11) dyads were assessed for...

  10. Children’s Perceptions of Maternal Hostility as a Mediator of the Link between Discipline and Children’s Adjustment in Four Countries

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Chang, Lei; Chaudhary, Nandita; Tapanya, Sombat; Oburu, Paul; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 195 dyads of mothers and children (age range = 8–12 years; M = 10.63) in four countries (China, India, the Philippines, and Thailand), this study examined children’s perceptions of maternal hostility as a mediator of the links between physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline and children’s adjustment. Both physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline had direct effects on mothers’ reports of children’s anxiety and aggression; three of these four links were mediated by children’s perceptions of maternal hostility. In contrast, there were no significant direct effects of physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline on children’s reports of their own anxiety and aggression. Instead, both physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline had indirect effects on the outcomes through children’s perceptions of maternal hostility. We identified a significant interaction between perceived normativeness and use of harsh verbal discipline on children’s perception of maternal hostility, but children’s perception of the normativeness of physical discipline did not moderate the relation between physical discipline and perceived maternal hostility. The effects of harsh verbal discipline were more adverse when children perceived that form of discipline as being nonnormative than when children perceived that form of discipline as being normative. Results are largely consistent with a theoretical model positing that the meaning children attach to parents’ discipline strategies is important in understanding associations between discipline and children’s adjustment, and that cultural context is associated with children’s interpretations of their parents’ behavior. PMID:20823943

  11. The link between infant regulatory problems, temperament traits, maternal depressive symptoms and children's psychopathological symptoms at age three: a longitudinal study in a German at-risk sample.

    Sidor, Anna; Fischer, Cristina; Cierpka, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Difficult conditions during childhood can limit an individual's development in many ways. Factors such as being raised in an at-risk family, child temperamental traits or maternal traits can potentially influence a child's later behaviour. The present study investigated the extent of regulatory problems in 6-month-old infants and their link to temperamental traits and impact on externalizing and internalizing problems at 36 months. Moderating effects of maternal distress and maternal depressive symptoms were tested as well. In a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study, a sample of 185 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk was investigated at 6 months with SFS (infants' regulatory problems) and at 3 years with CBCL (children's behavioural problems), EAS (children's temperament), ADS (maternal depressive symptoms) and PSI-SF (maternal stress). A hierarchical regression analysis yielded a significant association between infants' regulatory problems and both externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems at age 3 (accounting for 16% and 14% variance), with both externalizing and internalizing problems being linked to current maternal depressive symptoms (12 and 9% of the variance). Externalizing and internalizing problems were found to be related also to children's temperamental difficulty (18 and 13% of variance) and their negative emotionality. With temperamental traits having been taken into account, only feeding problems at 6 months contributed near-significant to internalizing problems at 3 years. Our results underscore the crucial role of temperament in the path between early regulatory problems and subsequent behavioural difficulties. Children's unfavourable temperamental predispositions such as negative emotionality and generally "difficult temperament" contributed substantially to both externalizing and internalizing behavioural problems in the high-risk sample. The decreased predictive power of regulatory problems following the inclusion of

  12. Maternal reflective functioning among mothers with childhood maltreatment histories: links to sensitive parenting and infant attachment security.

    Stacks, Ann M; Muzik, Maria; Wong, Kristyn; Beeghly, Marjorie; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Irwin, Jessica L; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships among maternal reflective functioning, parenting, infant attachment, and demographic risk in a relatively large (N = 83) socioeconomically diverse sample of women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment and their infants. Most prior research on parental reflective functioning has utilized small homogenous samples. Reflective functioning was assessed with the Parent Development Interview, parenting was coded from videotaped mother-child interactions, and infant attachment was evaluated in Ainsworth's Strange Situation by independent teams of reliable coders masked to maternal history. Reflective functioning was associated with parenting sensitivity and secure attachment, and inversely associated with demographic risk and parenting negativity; however, it was not associated with maternal maltreatment history or PTSD. Parenting sensitivity mediated the relationship between reflective functioning and infant attachment, controlling for demographic risk. Findings are discussed in the context of prior research on reflective functioning and the importance of targeting reflective functioning in interventions.

  13. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: exploring the link between maternal sensitivity and siblings' attachment styles.

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory asserts that secure attachment representations are developed through sensitive and consistent caregiving. If sensitive caregiving is a constant characteristic of the parent, then siblings should have concordant attachment classifications. The authors explored maternal attachment quality assessed by the Attachment Q-Set, maternal sensitivity, and specific mother-child interactions between siblings. Hour-long observations took place in the homes of 9 preschool sibling pairs and their immediate caregivers. The interactions were analyzed using a modified version of Bales' Small Group Analysis. The results reveal attachment discordance in a third of sibling pairs. While maternal sensitivity was higher with older siblings and mothers displayed more positive emotions when interacting with their younger siblings, attachment quality was not associated with birth order. Therefore, a shift toward a more contextual, family-based perspective of attachment is recommended to further understand how attachment strategies are created and maintained within the child's everyday context.

  14. Linking maternal and somatic 5S rRNA types with different sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons.

    Locati, Mauro D; Pagano, Johanna F B; Ensink, Wim A; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Zhu, Kongju; Spaink, Herman P; Girard, Geneviève; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J; Dekker, Rob J; Breit, Timo M

    2017-04-01

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo, and adult tissue identified maternal-type 5S rRNA that is exclusively accumulated during oogenesis, replaced throughout the embryogenesis by a somatic-type, and thus virtually absent in adult somatic tissue. The maternal-type 5S rDNA contains several thousands of gene copies on chromosome 4 in tandem repeats with small intergenic regions, whereas the somatic-type is present in only 12 gene copies on chromosome 18 with large intergenic regions. The nine-nucleotide variation between the two 5S rRNA types likely affects TFIII binding and riboprotein L5 binding, probably leading to storage of maternal-type rRNA. Remarkably, these sequence differences are located exactly at the sequence-specific target site for genome integration by the 5S rRNA-specific Mutsu retrotransposon family. Thus, we could define maternal- and somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies. Furthermore, we identified four additional maternal-type and two new somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies, each with their own target sequence. This target-site specificity, frequently intact maternal-type retrotransposon elements, plus specific presence of Mutsu retrotransposon RNA and piRNA in egg and adult tissue, suggest an involvement of retrotransposons in achieving the differential copy number of the two types of 5S rDNA loci. © 2017 Locati et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  15. Palmo-Plantar hyperkeratosis, intellectual disability, and spastic paraplegia in two maternal half brothers: further evidence for an X-linked inheritance.

    Isidor, Bertrand; Lefebvre, Tiphaine; Barbarot, Sébastien; Perrier, Julie; Mercier, Sandra; Péréon, Yann; Le Caignec, Cédric; David, Albert

    2013-06-01

    In 1983, Fitzsimmons et al. reported four brothers with an unrecognized disorder characterized by intellectual disability, spastic paraplegia, and palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis (OMIM 309500). In this report, we describe a family in which two males, maternal half-brothers, had learning disabilities. Both patients also showed spasticity in the lower limbs and palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis. The mother of the affected boys had learning difficulties but did not show any dermatological symptoms. This report confirms that the association of features reported by Fitzsimmons et al. is a distinct entity and further suggests an X-linked mode of inheritance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Algorithms for assessing person-based consistency among linked records for the investigation of maternal use of medications and safety

    Duong Tran

    2017-04-01

    Quality assessment indicated high consistency among linked records. The set of algorithms developed in this project can be applied to similar linked perinatal datasets to promote a consistent approach and comparability across studies.

  17. Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes

    Buchs, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Céline

    2004-01-01

    This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict elaboration—epistemic and relational—are identified. Epistemic elaborations focus students on task resolution leading to positive cognitive outcomes, an...

  18. Links between Family Social Status and Preschoolers' Persistence: The Role of Maternal Values and Quality of Parenting

    Mokrova, Irina L.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Children who develop persistence in the preschool years are likely to function more effectively during the transition into school. In this study of 231 3-year-old children and their mothers, we examined the relations among family social status, maternal values of self-direction, quality of parenting, and children's persistence in challenging…

  19. The Link between Perceived Maternal and Paternal Autonomy Support and Adolescent Well-Being across Three Major Educational Transitions

    Duineveld, Jasper J.; Parker, Philip D.; Ryan, Richard M.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2017-01-01

    To what extent does maternal and paternal autonomy support enhance well-being across the major transitions of high school? We tested the degree to which perceived autonomy supportive parenting facilitated positive changes in self-esteem and life satisfaction and buffered against negative changes in depressive symptoms and school related burnout in…

  20. CONSORT 2010 explanation and elaboration

    Moher, David; Hopewell, Sally; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2012-01-01

    improves the wording and clarity of the previous checklist and incorporates recommendations related to topics that have only recently received recognition, such as selective outcome reporting bias. This explanatory and elaboration document-intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination...... of the CONSORT statement-has also been extensively revised. It presents the meaning and rationale for each new and updated checklist item providing examples of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies. Several examples of flow diagrams are included. The CONSORT 2010 Statement...

  1. Training Mothers in Elaborative Reminiscing Enhances Children's Autobiographical Memory and Narrative

    Reese, Elaine; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal intervention assessed children's memory at 2-1/2 years (short-term posttest; N = 115) and their memory and narrative at 3-1/2 years (long-term posttest; N = 100) as a function of maternal training in elaborative reminiscing when children were 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 years. At both posttests, trained mothers were more elaborative in their…

  2. LINKING CHILD HEALTH, MATERNAL LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND HOUSEHOLD ASSET ENDOWMENTS IN CAMEROON: WHAT THE PEOPLE SAY

    Mbu Daniel Tambi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is targeted objectives: to document the determinants of child health as informed by focus group discussion, to analyze what the people say concerning the relationship between child health and maternal labour force participation, to explore the perception of the people on the effects of child health on asset accumulation and to suggest public policies on the basis of the findings. We used seven focus groups to explore what the people say based on different health domains: access to public goods; inputs to health; benefits from better health; better child health and complementary activities; benefits of maternity leave and better child health, decision making concerning family health. Each focus group was made of eight participants: housewife, traders, farmers, drivers, teachers, technicians, medical personnel and military drawn from different religious groups: catholic, protestant mainline, protestant non-mainline, other protestant, Muslim, systemic and traditional belief. We observed that, parents make used of the extra time accrue to them due to better health for their children and family to do extra work that fetched them money. The increased family income is use to send their children to better schools, carter for their wellbeing as well as to promote asset growth and redistribution, thus, improving economic well-being and reducing poverty. In case of retirement or sudden retrenchment from the labour market, parents make use of the accumulated assets to increase their family income and maintain well-being, hence, reducing the psychological trauma on parents due to poverty. Based on these findings, we recommend that decision makers and actors concern with child health issues should considered, ease and promote child health outcomes. This is a key to narrowing the poverty and inequality gap between the poor and non-poor, rural and urban household residence, married and unmarried, employed and the unemployed, promote maternal labour

  3. The link between perceived maternal and paternal autonomy support and adolescent well-being across three major educational transitions.

    Duineveld, Jasper J; Parker, Philip D; Ryan, Richard M; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2017-10-01

    To what extent does maternal and paternal autonomy support enhance well-being across the major transitions of high school? We tested the degree to which perceived autonomy supportive parenting facilitated positive changes in self-esteem and life satisfaction and buffered against negative changes in depressive symptoms and school related burnout in 3 Finnish longitudinal studies, each with a measurement point before and after a major transition (middle school, N1 = 760, 55.7% girls; high school, N2 = 214, 51.9% girls; post high school, N3 = 858, 47.8% girls). Results showed that perceived parental autonomy support was negatively related to depressive symptoms and positively related to self-esteem. The findings for the effects on depressive symptoms were replicated across all 3 transitions, while effects on self-esteem were only found for the high school and post high school transitions. Moreover, evidence of coregulation was found for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms before the transition were found to decrease autonomy support after the transition for both the high school and post high school transitions. Maternal and paternal autonomy support was of equal importance. Importantly, the effects on depressive symptoms increased as children developed, suggesting the continual importance of parents throughout high school and into emerging adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Interrelations of Maternal Expressed Emotion, Maltreatment, and Separation/Divorce and Links to Family Conflict and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children’s externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children’s externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2% males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children’s externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children’s externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. PMID:25037461

  5. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety

  6. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  7. The incidence of preeclampsia and eclampsia and associated maternal mortality in Australia from population-linked datasets: 2000-2008.

    Thornton, Charlene; Dahlen, Hannah; Korda, Andrew; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2013-06-01

    To determine the incidence of preeclampsia and eclampsia and associated mortality in Australia between 2000 and 2008. Analysis of statutorily collected datasets of singleton births in New South Wales using International Classification of Disease coding. Analyzed using cross tabulation, logistic regression, and means testing, where appropriate. The overall incidence of preeclampsia was 3.3% with a decrease from 4.6% to 2.3%. The overall rate of eclampsia was 8.6/10,000 births or 2.6% of preeclampsia cases, with an increase from 2.3% to 4.2%. The relative risk of eclampsia in preeclamptic women in 2008 was 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.92) when compared with the year 2000. The relative risk of a woman with preeclampsia/eclampsia dying in the first 12 months following birth compared with normotensive women is 5.1 (95% confidence interval, 3.07-8.60). Falling rates of preeclampsia have not equated to a decline in the incidence of eclampsia. An accurate rate of both preeclampsia and eclampsia is vital considering the considerable contribution that these diseases make to maternal mortality. The identification and treatment of eclampsia should remain a priority in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elaboration in the area of plasma technologies

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the Institute of Chemistry the plasma chemical method of forming of fine-dispersed semi-conductors, magnetic and amorphous powders of boron and aluminium nitride was elaborated, the method of aluminium hydride conversion for the receiving of fine-grained magnetic powders and alloys was elaborated

  9. Improving Reasoning and Recall: The Differential Effects of Elaborative Interrogation and Mnemonic Elaboration.

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Fifty-three adolescents with learning disabilities or mild mental retardation were taught reasons for dinosaur extinction. Those taught in a mnemonic elaborative interrogation condition recalled more reasons than did students who received direct teaching. Students in elaborative interrogation and mnemonic elaborative interrogation groups recalled…

  10. Children's 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the link between maternal criticism and attentional biases specifically for facial displays of anger.

    Gibb, Brandon E; Johnson, Ashley L; Benas, Jessica S; Uhrlass, Dorothy J; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E

    2011-09-01

    Theorists have proposed that negative experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of experience-specific information-processing biases, including attentional biases. There are also clear genetic influences on cognitive processes, with evidence that polymorphisms in specific candidate genes may moderate the impact of environmental stress on attentional biases (e.g., a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene; 5-HTTLPR). In the current study, we tested a gene×environment (G×E) model of risk for attentional biases. We hypothesised that children whose mothers exhibit high levels of expressed emotion criticism (EE-Crit) would display attentional biases specifically for angry, but not happy or sad, faces, and that this link would be stronger among children carrying one or two copies of the 5-HTTLPR short allele than among those homozygous for the long allele. Results generally supported these hypotheses, though we found that carriers of the 5-HTTLPR short allele who also had a critical mother exhibited attentional avoidance of angry faces rather than preferential attention.

  11. O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine deposition in placental proteins varies according to maternal glycemic levels.

    Dela Justina, Vanessa; Dos Passos Junior, Rinaldo R; Bressan, Alecsander F; Tostes, Rita C; Carneiro, Fernando S; Soares, Thaigra S; Volpato, Gustavo T; Lima, Victor Vitorino; Martin, Sebastian San; Giachini, Fernanda R

    2018-05-07

    Hyperglycemia increases glycosylation with O-linked N‑acetyl‑glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) contributing to placental dysfunction and fetal growth impairment. Our aim was to determine how O-GlcNAc levels are affected by hyperglycemia and the O-GlcNAc distribution in different placental regions. Female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: severe hyperglycemia (>300 mg/dL; n = 5); mild hyperglycemia (>140 mg/dL, at least than two time points during oral glucose tolerance test; n = 7) or normoglycemia (O-GlcNAc were detected in all regions, with increased O-GlcNAc levels in the hyperglycemic group compared to control and mild hyperglycemic rats. Proteins in endothelial and trophoblast cells were the main target for O-GlcNAc. Whereas no changes in O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) expression were detected, O-GlcNAcase (OGA) expression was reduced in placentas from the severe hyperglycemic group and augmented in placentas from the mild hyperglycemic group, compared with their respective control groups. Placental O-GlcNAc overexpression may contribute to placental dysfunction, as indicated by the placental index. Additionally, morphometric alterations, occurring simultaneously with increased O-GlcNAc accumulation in the placental tissue may contribute to placental dysfunction during hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Questioning the causal link between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring use of psychotropic medication: a sibling design analysis.

    Lovisa Söderström

    Full Text Available A recent population-based, longitudinal study from Finland observed a dose-response association between smoking during pregnancy (SDP and use of psychotropic medications in exposed children and young adults. However, this association may be confounded by unmeasured familial characteristics related to both SDP and offspring mental health. Consequently, we aim to investigate the effect of SDP by means of a sibling design that to some extent allows controlling for unknown environmental and genetic confounders. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register (1987-1993, which was linked to the Swedish Prescribed Drugs Register (July 2005-December 2008, we investigated 579,543 children and among them 39, 007 were discordant for use of psychotropic medication and 4,021 siblings discordant for both use of psychotropic medication and for smoking exposure. Replicating the Finnish study using traditional logistic regression methods we found an association between exposure to ≥10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy and psychotropic drug use (odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.56, 1.66. Similar in size to the association reported from Finland (odds ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval 1.53, 1.74. However, in the adjusted sibling analysis using conditional logistic regression, the association was considerably reduced (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 1.38. Preventing smoking is of major public health importance. However, SDP per se appears to have less influence on offspring psychotropic drug use than previously suggested.

  13. About the elaboration of pure uranium dicarbide

    Besson, J.; Blum, P.; Guinet, Ph.; Spitz, J.

    1963-01-01

    In order to develop methods for the elaboration of as pure as possible uranium dicarbide, the authors report the study of different elaboration processes based on the reaction between uranium and carbon, or between uranium and hydrocarbon, or between uranium oxide and carbon. They finally choose a method which comprises an arc-induced fusion of a mixture of uranium dioxide and carbon. The fusion process is described. The influence of thermal treatments is discussed as well as the graphite electrode carburization

  14. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System

    Birutė Mikulskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to design an assessment system to monitor and evaluate safety parameters and administrative efforts with the purpose to increase safety in municipalities. The safety monitoring system considered is to be the most important tool for creation and development of safe communities in Lithuania. Several methods were applied to achieve this purpose. In order to determine the role of local government in ensuring the safety of people, property and environment at the local level of a meta-analysis of research reports, the Lithuanian national legislation, strategic planning documents of the state and local government were carried out. Analysis of statistical data, structural analysis, comparative analysis and synthesis methods were used while investigating the areas of safety uncertainty, risk groups, identifying safety risk factors, determining their relationship, and creating a safe community assessment system. A safe community assessment system, which consists of two types of criteria, has been elaborated. The assessment system is based on the multi-level criteria for safety monitoring and the multi-level criteria for the evaluation of municipal activities in the field of building safety. Links between the criteria, peculiarities of their application and advantages in the process of safe community creation and development are analyzed. Design and implementation of the safe community assessment system is one of the most important stages to implement the idea of safe communities. The proposed system integrates a variety of risk areas, the safety achievement criteria are linked to the criteria used in the strategic planning. Periodic assessment of the safety situation using the proposed system ensures possibility to monitor current local safety conditions and assess the changes and the trends. A safe community assessment system is proposed to be used as a tool to unified municipalities safety comprehensiveness and compare safety level in

  15. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System

    Algirdas Astrauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to design an assessment system to monitor and evaluate safety parameters and administrative efforts with the purpose to increase safety in municipalities. The safety monitoring system considered is to be the most important tool for creation anddevelopment of safe communities in Lithuania. Several methods were applied to achieve this purpose. In order to determine the role of local government in ensuring the safety of people, property and environment at the local level of a meta-analysis of research reports,the Lithuanian national legislation, strategic planning documents of the state and local government were carried out. Analysis of statistical data, structural analysis, comparative analysis and synthesis methods were used while investigating the areas of safety uncertainty, risk groups, identifying safety risk factors, determining their relationship, and creating a safe community assessment system.A safe community assessment system, which consists of two types of criteria, has been elaborated. The assessment system is based on the multi-level criteria for safety monitoring and the multi-level criteria for the evaluation of municipal activities in the field of building safety. Links between the criteria, peculiarities of their application and advantages in the process of safe community creation and development are analyzed.Design and implementation of the safe community assessment system is one of the most important stages to implement the idea of safe communities. The proposed system integrates a variety of risk areas, the safety achievement criteria are linked to the criteria used in thestrategic planning. Periodic assessment of the safety situation using the proposed system ensures possibility to monitor current local safety conditions and assess the changes and the trends. A safe community assessment system is proposed to be used as a tool to unified municipalities safety comprehensiveness and compare safety level in

  16. A Potential Psychological Mechanism Linking Disaster-Related Prenatal Maternal Stress with Child Cognitive and Motor Development at 16 Months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study

    Moss, Katrina M.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P.; King, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has…

  17. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  18. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de d

  19. Radiotreated cocoa powder for frozen elaboration

    Rodriguez Jorge, M.; Alvarez Gil, M.; Prieto Miranda, E.; Morales Valladares, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present papers is to study the possibilities of 2.0 kGy gamma radiotreated cocoa powder to be used in the elaboration of powder mixture for the preparation of chocolate frozen. Three industrial productions were carried out. Microbiological and organoleptic evaluations of the final product were performed. The results showed that the use of radurized cocoa powder in the frozen elaboration is feasible. A good hygienic quality of this product was obtained and no organoleptic alterations were detected [es

  20. Tradeoff between robustness and elaboration in carotenoid networks produces cycles of avian color diversification.

    Badyaev, Alexander V; Morrison, Erin S; Belloni, Virginia; Sanderson, Michael J

    2015-08-20

    Resolution of the link between micro- and macroevolution calls for comparing both processes on the same deterministic landscape, such as genomic, metabolic or fitness networks. We apply this perspective to the evolution of carotenoid pigmentation that produces spectacular diversity in avian colors and show that basic structural properties of the underlying carotenoid metabolic network are reflected in global patterns of elaboration and diversification in color displays. Birds color themselves by consuming and metabolizing several dietary carotenoids from the environment. Such fundamental dependency on the most upstream external compounds should intrinsically constrain sustained evolutionary elongation of multi-step metabolic pathways needed for color elaboration unless the metabolic network gains robustness - the ability to synthesize the same carotenoid from an additional dietary starting point. We found that gains and losses of metabolic robustness were associated with evolutionary cycles of elaboration and stasis in expressed carotenoids in birds. Lack of metabolic robustness constrained lineage's metabolic explorations to the immediate biochemical vicinity of their ecologically distinct dietary carotenoids, whereas gains of robustness repeatedly resulted in sustained elongation of metabolic pathways on evolutionary time scales and corresponding color elaboration. The structural link between length and robustness in metabolic pathways may explain periodic convergence of phylogenetically distant and ecologically distinct species in expressed carotenoid pigmentation; account for stasis in carotenoid colors in some ecological lineages; and show how the connectivity of the underlying metabolic network provides a mechanistic link between microevolutionary elaboration and macroevolutionary diversification.

  1. [Elaboration and critical evaluation of clinical guidelines].

    García Villar, C

    2015-11-01

    Clinical guidelines are documents to help professionals and patients select the best diagnostic or therapeutic option. Elaborating guidelines requires an efficient literature search and a critical evaluation of the articles found to select the most appropriate ones. After that, the recommendations are formulated and then must be externally evaluated before they can be disseminated. Even when the guidelines are very thorough and rigorous, it is important to know whether they fulfill all the methodological requisites before applying them. With this aim, various scales have been developed to critically appraise guidelines. Of these, the AGREE II instrument is currently the most widely used. This article explains the main steps in elaborating clinical guidelines and the main aspects that should be analyzed to know whether the guidelines are well written. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Geographic assistance of decontamination strategy elaboration

    Davydchuk, V.; Arapis, G.

    1996-01-01

    Those who elaborates the strategy of decontamination of vast territories is to take into consideration the heterogeneity of such elements of landscape as relief, lithology, humidity and types of soils and, vegetation, both on local and regional level. Geographic assistance includes evaluation of efficacy of decontamination technologies in different natural conditions, identification of areas of their effective application and definition of ecological damage, estimation of balances of the radionuclides in the landscapes to create background of the decontamination strategy

  3. Review of Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion

    藤原, 武弘; 神山, 貴弥

    1989-01-01

    This article mainly introduces Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), proposed by Petty & Cacioppo, that is, a general attitude change theory. ELM posturates two routes to persuasion; central and peripheral route. Attitude change by central route is viewed as resulting from a diligent consideration of the issue-relevant informations presented. On the other hand, attitude change by peripheral route is viewed as resulting from peripheral cues in the persuasion context. Secondly we compare these tw...

  4. La toxicomanía en adolescentes, un intento fallido de retorno al vínculo materno. The addiction in adolescents, a failed attempt to return to the maternal link.

    Ortegón Machado, David Stevens

    2012-01-01

    The addiction in adolescents, a failed attempt to return to the maternal link. Resumen El articulo presenta resultados de investigación donde se buscó explorar la significación de la figura materna y su posible relación con la dependencia a sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes institucionalizados en un centro de tratamiento para las adicciones. El estudio asumió una perspectiva psicoanalítica de corte cualitativo, su población fue conformada por tres adolescentes y el método utilizado ...

  5. Insulin sensitivity linked skeletal muscle Nr4a1 DNA methylation is programmed by the maternal diet and modulated by voluntary exercise in mice

    Kasch, Juliane; Kanzleiter, Isabel; Saussenthaler, Sophie; Schürmann, Annette; Keijer, Jaap; Schothorst, Van Evert; Klaus, Susanne; Schumann, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal maternal high-fat consumption is known to increase the obesity and type 2 diabetes susceptibility and to impair exercise performance in the
    offspring. We hypothesize that epigenetic modifications in the skeletal muscle are partly responsible for this phenotype. To detect skeletal

  6. Linking high parity and maternal and child mortality: what is the impact of lower health services coverage among higher order births?

    Sonneveldt, Emily; DeCormier Plosky, Willyanne; Stover, John

    2013-01-01

    A number of data sets show that high parity births are associated with higher child mortality than low parity births. The reasons for this relationship are not clear. In this paper we investigate whether high parity is associated with lower coverage of key health interventions that might lead to increased mortality. We used DHS data from 10 high fertility countries to examine the relationship between parity and coverage for 8 child health intervention and 9 maternal health interventions. We also used the LiST model to estimate the effect on maternal and child mortality of the lower coverage associated with high parity births. Our results show a significant relationship between coverage of maternal and child health services and birth order, even when controlling for poverty. The association between coverage and parity for maternal health interventions was more consistently significant across countries all countries, while for child health interventions there were fewer overall significant relationships and more variation both between and within countries. The differences in coverage between children of parity 3 and those of parity 6 are large enough to account for a 12% difference in the under-five mortality rate and a 22% difference in maternal mortality ratio in the countries studied. This study shows that coverage of key health interventions is lower for high parity children and the pattern is consistent across countries. This could be a partial explanation for the higher mortality rates associated with high parity. Actions to address this gap could help reduce the higher mortality experienced by high parity birth.

  7. Maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices: a systematic review.

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Daniels, Lynne; Jansen, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Establishing healthy eating habits early in life is one important strategy to combat childhood obesity. Given that early maternal child feeding practices have been linked to child food intake and weight, identifying the maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices is important in order to understand the determinants of childhood obesity; this was the overall aim of the current review. Academic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between maternal child feeding practices and parenting, personal characteristics and psychopathology of mothers with preschoolers. Papers were limited to those published in English, between January 2000 and June 2012. Only studies with mothers of normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were included. There were no restrictions regarding the inclusion of maternal nationality or socioeconomic status (SES). Seventeen eligible studies were sourced. Information on the aim, sample, measures and findings of these was summarised into tables. The findings of this review support a relationship between maternal controlling parenting, general and eating psychopathology, and SES and maternal child feeding practices. The main methodological issues of the studies reviewed included inconsistency in measures of maternal variables across studies and cross-sectional designs. We conclude that the maternal correlates associated with maternal child feeding practices are complex, and the pathways by which maternal correlates impact these feeding practices require further investigation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Dual elaboration models in attitude change processes

    Žeželj Iris

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines empirical and theoretical developments in research on attitude change in the past 50 years. It focuses the period from 1980 till present as well as cognitive response theories as the dominant theoretical approach in the field. The postulates of Elaboration Likelihood Model, as most-researched representative of dual process theories are studied, based on review of accumulated research evidence. Main research findings are grouped in four basic factors: message source, message content, message recipient and its context. Most influential criticisms of the theory are then presented regarding its empirical base and dual process assumption. Some possible applications and further research perspectives are discussed at the end.

  9. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  10. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  11. Can formalizing links among community health workers, accredited drug dispensing outlet dispensers, and health facility staff increase their collaboration to improve prompt access to maternal and child care? A qualitative study in Tanzania.

    Dillip, Angel; Kimatta, Suleiman; Embrey, Martha; Chalker, John C; Valimba, Richard; Malliwah, Mariam; Meena, John; Lieber, Rachel; Johnson, Keith

    2017-06-19

    In Tanzania, progress toward achieving the 2015 Millennium Development Goals for maternal and newborn health was slow. An intervention brought together community health workers, health facility staff, and accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) dispensers to improve maternal and newborn health through a mechanism of collaboration and referral. This study explored barriers, successes, and promising approaches to increasing timely access to care by linking the three levels of health care provision. The study was conducted in the Kibaha district, where we applied qualitative approaches with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. In-depth interview participants included retail drug shop dispensers (36), community health workers (45), and health facility staff members (15). We conducted one focus group discussion with district officials and four with mothers of newborns and children under 5 years old. Relationships among the three levels of care improved after the linkage intervention, especially for ADDO dispensers and health facility staff who previously had no formal communication pathway. The study participants perceptions of success included improved knowledge of case management and relationships among the three levels of care, more timely access to care, increased numbers of patients/customers, more meetings between community health workers and health facility staff, and a decrease in child and maternal mortality. Reported challenges included stock-outs of medicines at the health facility, participating ADDO dispensers who left to work in other regions, documentation of referrals, and lack of treatment available at health facilities on the weekend. The primary issue that threatens the sustainability of the intervention is that local council health management team members, who are responsible for facilitating the linkage, had not made any supervision visits and were therefore unaware of how the program was running. The study highlights the benefits of

  12. Preschoolers' influence on and help with beverage selection at the grocery store is linked to maternal responsiveness and child beverage intake: An exploratory study.

    Lora, Karina R; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Guzman, Melissa; Wakefield, Dorothy; Sisson, Susan B; Mayeux, Lara

    2016-12-01

    Children's involvement in beverage selection or purchase has seldom been investigated. The responsiveness dimension of parental feeding styles has been related to healthy maternal feeding practices. Assessing mothers' reports of responsiveness and demandingness in grocery stores may shed light on influences on purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fruit juice (FJ). Study objectives were to explore whether (1) maternal responsiveness and demandingness were associated with preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases during grocery shopping and whether (2) preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases were associated with child intake of these beverages. Mothers of 3-to-5-year-old children (n=185) who co-shopped with the child completed the Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire, reported frequency of child help with selection and influence on beverage purchase via questionnaire, and provided a one-day weekend food recall for the child. In adjusted logistic regressions, responsiveness was associated with child help selecting FJ (OR=6.50, 95% CI[1.04, 40.75], pparenting behaviors associated with grocery shopping should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Outbreak of bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage type 3C/71 in a maternity ward linked to nasal carriage of a healthcare worker.

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Budzyńska, Anna; Dąbrowska-Szponar, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of bullous impetigo (BI) that occurred in a maternity unit and show phenotypic and genotypic properties and relatedness of isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. Clinical material was obtained from 11 affected neonates. Additionally, nasal swabs from 67 healthy care workers (HCWs) as well as 107 environmental swabs were investigated. All isolates were screened for exfoliative toxin genes (eta, etb), antibiotic susceptibility and phage typed. Chromosomal DNA was genotyped by MLVF method and PCR/RFLP of coagulase gene were tested. Affected neonates were infected by two clusters of eta-positive S. aureus of phage type 3C/71: (1) MLVF type A isolates resistant only to penicillin, and (2) MLVF type B isolates resistant to penicillin and erythromycin/clindamycin. All isolates were susceptible to methicillin. We found 19 of 67 HCWs to be S. aureus nasal carriers. Two nasal isolates from HCWs were related to the outbreak on the basis of phage typing, PCR detection of eta/etb genes, antibiotyping and genotyping. Additionally, environmental swabs from the maternity unit revealed a 3C/71 S. aureus in the mattress of a baby bed. This is the first documented case of an outbreak of BI caused by phage type 3C/71 eta-positive strain of S. aureus.

  14. Self-Criticism as a Mechanism Linking Childhood Maltreatment and Maternal Efficacy Beliefs in Low-Income Mothers With and Without Depression.

    Michl, Louisa C; Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-11-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to examine self-criticism as a potential mechanism mediating the relation between mothers' own childhood maltreatment history and changes in subsequent maternal efficacy beliefs in a diverse sample of low-income mothers with and without major depressive disorder. Longitudinal data were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression among low-income mothers and their 12-month-old infant. Results indicated that higher levels of maltreatment in childhood led mothers to hold more self-critical judgments in adulthood. Additionally, mothers who had experienced more extensive childhood maltreatment histories perceived themselves as less efficacious in their role as mother. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-criticism mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mothers' decreased perceived competency in her maternal role from when her child was an infant to the more demanding toddler years. Finally, this relationship held over and above the influence of mothers' depressive diagnostic status. Directions for future research and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Grief elaboration in families with handicapped member.

    Calandra, C; Finocchiaro, G; Raciti, L; Alberti, A

    1992-01-01

    Families with handicapped member seem to follow the same five stages (rejection and isolation, anger, dealing with the problem, depression, acceptance) of Kubler-Ross grief elaboration theory while dealing with the narcissistic wound of a handicapped child. Some of these families show a block in one of the stages. The effort of psychotherapy is to remove the block and let them reach the last stage. In this paper families under systemic psychotherapeutic treatment are analyzed, who had in common the birth of a child with low or modest invalidating signs and psychotic or autistic features. The families structure did not show the characteristics of a psychotic family. Nevertheless either one or both parents ignored the evidence of their child disease and they built a "disease-incongrous" wait around the child, trying to push away the painful reality. The authors explain the importance of this approach for the improvement of the autistic traits.

  16. First trimester bleeding and maternal cardiovascular morbidity

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2012-01-01

    First trimester bleeding without miscarriage is a risk factor for complications later in the pregnancy, such as preterm delivery. Also, first trimester miscarriage has been linked to subsequent maternal ischemic heart disease. We investigated the link between maternal cardiovascular disease prior...... to and subsequent to first trimester bleeding without miscarriage....

  17. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  18. Data cleaning and management protocols for linked perinatal research data: a good practice example from the Smoking MUMS (Maternal Use of Medications and Safety) Study.

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Havard, Alys; Jorm, Louisa R

    2017-07-11

    Data cleaning is an important quality assurance in data linkage research studies. This paper presents the data cleaning and preparation process for a large-scale cross-jurisdictional Australian study (the Smoking MUMS Study) to evaluate the utilisation and safety of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy. Perinatal records for all deliveries (2003-2012) in the States of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia were linked to State-based data collections including hospital separation, emergency department and death data (mothers and babies) and congenital defect notifications (babies in NSW) by State-based data linkage units. A national data linkage unit linked pharmaceutical dispensing data for the mothers. All linkages were probabilistic. Twenty two steps assessed the uniqueness of records and consistency of items within and across data sources, resolved discrepancies in the linkages between units, and identified women having records in both States. State-based linkages yielded a cohort of 783,471 mothers and 1,232,440 babies. Likely false positive links relating to 3703 mothers were identified. Corrections of baby's date of birth and age, and parity were made for 43,578 records while 1996 records were flagged as duplicates. Checks for the uniqueness of the matches between State and national linkages detected 3404 ID clusters, suggestive of missed links in the State linkages, and identified 1986 women who had records in both States. Analysis of content data can identify inaccurate links that cannot be detected by data linkage units that have access to personal identifiers only. Perinatal researchers are encouraged to adopt the methods presented to ensure quality and consistency among studies using linked administrative data.

  19. Stable aesthetic standards delusion: changing 'artistic quality' by elaboration.

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hesslinger, Vera M

    2014-01-01

    The present study challenges the notion that judgments of artistic quality are based on stable aesthetic standards. We propose that such standards are a delusion and that judgments of artistic quality are the combined result of exposure, elaboration, and discourse. We ran two experiments using elaboration tasks based on the repeated evaluation technique in which different versions of the Mona Lisa had to be elaborated deeply. During the initial task either the version known from the Louvre or an alternative version owned by the Prado was elaborated; during the second task both versions were elaborated in a comparative fashion. After both tasks multiple blends of the two versions had to be evaluated concerning several aesthetic key variables. Judgments of artistic quality of the blends were significantly different depending on the initially elaborated version of the Mona Lisa, indicating experience-based aesthetic processing, which contradicts the notion of stable aesthetic standards.

  20. Inadequate Gestational Weight Gain, the Hidden Link Between Maternal IBD and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Bengtson, May-Bente; Aamodt, Geir; Mahadevan, Uma; Vatn, Morten H

    2017-07-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are in general prone to weight loss. We explored the risk of inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG), and the impact of GWG on adverse pregnancy outcomes, among mothers with IBD in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The MoBa with 95,200 mothers enrolled from 1999 to 2008, comprised 217 mothers with ulcerative colitis and 166 with Crohn's disease. Demographics were ascertained through a basic questionnaire before the first ultrasound visit and an IBD history and disease activity during pregnancy through a questionnaire mailed out in 2013. Inadequate GWG was based on the US Institute of Medicine recommendations. The associations between IBD and inadequate GWG or adverse pregnancy outcomes were explored, adjusted for diabetes, hypertension, smoking, maternal age, education, and disease activity. Mothers with Crohn's disease (34.3%) and ulcerative colitis (26.7%) were more frequently exposed to inadequate GWG compared with non-IBD mothers (19.4%) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-2.86 and aOR = 1.46, 95% CI, 1.04-2.05, respectively). Mothers with IBD with inadequate GWG (exposed) had a 2-fold risk of small for gestational age infants compared with exposed non-IBD mothers (aOR = 1.93, 95% CI, 1.13-3.29). Exposed mothers with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis had a several-fold increased risk of small for gestational age compared with nonexposed IBD mothers (aOR = 4.5, 95% CI, 1.3-16.2, aOR = 5.5, 95% CI, 1.6-18.5). Disease activity was associated with reduced GWG (17.5 kg) (aOR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.33-8.38). Inadequate GWG should be considered as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes or as a marker of disease activity.

  1. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  2. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  3. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  4. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a validation study linking population survey derived coverage to maternal, newborn, and child health care records in rural China.

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available Accurate data on coverage of key maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH interventions are crucial for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Coverage estimates are primarily obtained from routine population surveys through self-reporting, the validity of which is not well understood. We aimed to examine the validity of the coverage of selected MNCH interventions in Gongcheng County, China.We conducted a validation study by comparing women's self-reported coverage of MNCH interventions relating to antenatal and postnatal care, mode of delivery, and child vaccinations in a community survey with their paper- and electronic-based health care records, treating the health care records as the reference standard. Of 936 women recruited, 914 (97.6% completed the survey. Results show that self-reported coverage of these interventions had moderate to high sensitivity (0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.50-0.63] to 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00] and low to high specificity (0 to 0.83 [95% CI: 0.80-0.86]. Despite varying overall validity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ranging between 0.49 [95% CI: 0.39-0.57] and 0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92], bias in the coverage estimates at the population level was small to moderate, with the test to actual positive (TAP ratio ranging between 0.8 and 1.5 for 24 of the 28 indicators examined. Our ability to accurately estimate validity was affected by several caveats associated with the reference standard. Caution should be exercised when generalizing the results to other settings.The overall validity of self-reported coverage was moderate across selected MNCH indicators. However, at the population level, self-reported coverage appears to have small to moderate degree of bias. Accuracy of the coverage was particularly high for indicators with high recorded coverage or low recorded coverage but high specificity. The study provides insights into the accuracy of

  5. Depth and Elaboration of Processing in Relation to Age.

    Simon, Eileen

    1979-01-01

    The recall effectiveness of semantic and phonemic cues was compared to uncover the pattern of deep and elaborate processing in relation to age and experimental treatment. It was concluded that aging results in poor elaboration, especially in inefficient integration of word events with the context of presentation. (Author/CP)

  6. Elaborative Processing in the Korsakoff Syndrome: Context versus Habit

    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2008-01-01

    Using a procedure of Hay and Jacoby [Hay, J. F., & Jacoby, L. L. (1999). "Separating habit and recollection in young and older adults: Effects of elaborative processing and distinctiveness." "Psychology and Aging," 14, 122-134], Korsakoff patients' capacity to encode and retrieve elaborative, semantic information was investigated. Habits were…

  7. The Challenge of Prenatal Diagnostic Work-Up of Maternally Inherited X-Linked Opitz G/BBB: Case Report and Literature Review

    Marialuigia Spinelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prenatal diagnosis of Optiz G/BBB syndrome (OS is challenging because the characteristic clinical features, such as facial and genitourinary anomalies, may be subtle at sonography and rather unspecific. Furthermore, molecular testing of the disease gene is not routinely performed, unless a specific diagnosis is suggested. Method. Both familial and ultrasound data were used to achieve the diagnosis of X-linked OS (XLOS, which was confirmed by molecular testing of MID1 gene (Xp22.3 at birth. Results. Sequencing of MID1 gene disclosed the nucleotide change c.1285 +1 G>T, previously associated with XLOS. Conclusions. This case illustrates current challenges of the prenatal diagnostic work-up of XLOS and exemplifies how clinical investigation, including family history, and accurate US foetal investigations can lead to the correct diagnosis.

  8. Maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families.

    Lawson, Monica; Valentino, Kristin; McDonnell, Christina G; Speidel, Ruth

    2018-05-01

    In the current investigation, we examined associations between maternal attachment and the way that mothers and children discuss past emotional experiences (i.e., reminiscing) among 146 maltreating and 73 nonmaltreating mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children. Recent studies demonstrate that maltreating mothers engage in less elaborative reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating mothers. To further explicate the nature of reminiscing among maltreating families, we examined maternal and child contributions to reminiscing, their interrelations, and associations with maternal attachment among dyads from maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Maternal attachment is theoretically and empirically associated with mother-child reminiscing, and an insecure maternal attachment style was hypothesized to exacerbate poor elaborative reminiscing among maltreating families. Mothers and children reminisced about four emotional experiences. Maternal attachment was measured with the Experience in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire. Mothers and children from maltreating families engaged in less elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating dyads. Maternal attachment anxiety was negatively associated with maternal elaborative reminiscing, but only among nonmaltreating mothers. Mother-child reminiscing among dyads with nonmaltreating and low attachment anxiety mothers was highly collaborative; whereas reminiscing among dyads with maltreating and high attachment anxiety mothers was less reciprocal. Our findings largely support communicative perspectives of attachment theory and also indicate that maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Children’s 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the link between maternal criticism and attentional biases specifically for facial displays of anger

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Benas, Jessica S.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Theorists have proposed that negative experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of experience-specific information-processing biases, including attentional biases. There are also clear genetic influences on cognitive processes, with evidence that polymorphisms in specific candidate genes may moderate the impact of environmental stress on attentional biases (e.g., a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene [5-HTTLPR]). In the current study, we tested a gene × environment (G × E) model of risk for attentional biases. We hypothesized that children whose mothers exhibit high levels of expressed emotion criticism (EE-Crit) would display attentional biases specifically for angry, but not happy or sad, faces, and that this link would be stronger among children carrying one or two copies of the 5-HTTLPR short allele than among those homozygous for the long allele. Results generally supported these hypotheses, though we found that carriers of the 5-HTTLPR short allele who also had a critical mother exhibited attentional avoidance of angry faces rather than preferential attention. PMID:21895572

  11. The effects of refreshing and elaboration on working memory performance, and their contributions to long-term memory formation.

    Bartsch, Lea M; Singmann, Henrik; Oberauer, Klaus

    2018-03-19

    Refreshing and elaboration are cognitive processes assumed to underlie verbal working-memory maintenance and assumed to support long-term memory formation. Whereas refreshing refers to the attentional focussing on representations, elaboration refers to linking representations in working memory into existing semantic networks. We measured the impact of instructed refreshing and elaboration on working and long-term memory separately, and investigated to what extent both processes are distinct in their contributions to working as well as long-term memory. Compared with a no-processing baseline, immediate memory was improved by repeating the items, but not by refreshing them. There was no credible effect of elaboration on working memory, except when items were repeated at the same time. Long-term memory benefited from elaboration, but not from refreshing the words. The results replicate the long-term memory benefit for elaboration, but do not support its beneficial role for working memory. Further, refreshing preserves immediate memory, but does not improve it beyond the level achieved without any processing.

  12. Preattentive processing, poststimulus elaboration, and memory for emotionally arousing stimuli.

    Migita, Mai; Otani, Hajime; Libkuman, Terry M; Sheffert, Sonya M

    2011-01-01

    Christianson (1992) proposed two mechanisms to explain emotionally enhanced memory: preattentive processing and poststimulus elaboration. Experiment 1 examined these processes by instructing participants to perform (1) a concurrent distractor task, (2) a continuous distractor task, or (3) both while viewing the negatively arousing, positively arousing, and neutral pictures. Recall of negatively arousing pictures showed a small decline in one of the distractor conditions, indicating that elaboration plays a minor role in remembering these pictures. Experiment 2 partially replicated Experiment 1 with an intentional learning instruction to investigate whether participants in Experiment 1 were anticipating a recall test. For all three picture types, recall declined in the continuous distractor task condition, indicating that elaboration played a role, even when the pictures were negatively arousing. Overall, these results were consistent with the notion that remembering negatively valenced stimuli is largely based on preattentive processing with a minor role played by poststimulus elaboration.

  13. Elaboration of Statistics Learning Objects for Mobile Devices

    Francisco Javier Tapia Moreno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile learning (m-learning allows a person to study using a mobile computer device anywhere and anytime. In this work we report the elaboration of learning objects for the teaching of introductory statistics using cellular phones.

  14. The elaboration likelihood model and communication about food risks.

    Frewer, L J; Howard, C; Hedderley, D; Shepherd, R

    1997-12-01

    Factors such as hazard type and source credibility have been identified as important in the establishment of effective strategies for risk communication. The elaboration likelihood model was adapted to investigate the potential impact of hazard type, information source, and persuasive content of information on individual engagement in elaborative, or thoughtful, cognitions about risk messages. One hundred sixty respondents were allocated to one of eight experimental groups, and the effects of source credibility, persuasive content of information and hazard type were systematically varied. The impact of the different factors on beliefs about the information and elaborative processing examined. Low credibility was particularly important in reducing risk perceptions, although persuasive content and hazard type were also influential in determining whether elaborative processing occurred.

  15. Elaboration of invariant safety properties from fault-tree analysis

    Henry , Sébastien; Faure , Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Formal verification of PLC programs using model-checking requires to elaborate previously temporal logic formulae which state in a formal way the properties that must be checked. Unfortunately temporal logic is a formalism totally unknown by automation engineers. This explains why PLC programs developers willing to verify the behavior of their programs are unable to use the existing modelchecking tools. Temporal logic formulae elaboration is a too difficult task. In or...

  16. Menyoal Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) dan Teori Retorika

    Yudi Perbawaningsih

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Persuasion is a communication process to establish or change attitudes, which can be understood through theory of Rhetoric and theory of Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). This study elaborates these theories in a Public Lecture series which to persuade the students in choosing their concentration of study. The result shows that in term of persuasion effectiveness it is not quite relevant to separate the message and its source. The quality of source is determined by the quality of ...

  17. Menyoal Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Dan Teori Retorika

    Perbawaningsih, Yudi

    2012-01-01

    : Persuasion is a communication process to establish or change attitudes, which can be understood through theory of Rhetoric and theory of Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). This study elaborates these theories in a Public Lecture series which to persuade the students in choosing their concentration of study. The result shows that in term of persuasion effectiveness it is not quite relevant to separate the message and its source. The quality of source is determined by the quality of the mess...

  18. Production improves memory equivalently following elaborative vs non-elaborative processing.

    Forrin, Noah D; Jonker, Tanya R; MacLeod, Colin M

    2014-01-01

    Words that are read aloud are better remembered than those read silently. Recent research has suggested that, rather than reflecting a benefit for produced items, this production effect may reflect a cost to reading silently in a list containing both aloud and silent items (Bodner, Taikh, & Fawcett, 2013). This cost is argued to occur because silent items are lazily read, receiving less attention than aloud items which require an overt response. We examined the possible role of lazy reading in the production effect by testing whether the effect would be reduced under elaborative encoding, which precludes lazy reading of silent items. Contrary to a lazy reading account, we found that production benefited generated words as much as read words (Experiment 1) and deeply imagined words as much as shallowly imagined words (Experiment 2). We conclude that production stands out as equally distinct-and consequently as equally memorable-regardless of whether it accompanies deep or shallow processing, evidence that is inconsistent with a lazy reading account.

  19. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  20. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  1. Elaboration of supports for beta emitting sources (with vyns)

    Cortes P, A.; Torre O, J. De la; Tejera R, A.; Becerril V, A.; Bribiesca S, L.

    1990-04-01

    The Laboratory of Radioactive patterns account with a 4 πβ-γ coincidence system of recent acquisition with which absolute measures of radioactive activity with uncertainties of the order of 0.1% can be made. Since the coincidence method for the activity measure consists on detecting to the particle and the photon corresponding to oneself nuclear disintegration, it is necessary to elaborate special radioactive sources on thin supports, in order to allowing the maximum possible fluence of β particles (∼ 100%). This work a technique for the elaboration of these sources and for the measure of the thickness of the walls of the support is presented. (Author)

  2. Knowledge-based support system for requirement elaboration in design

    Furuta, Kazuo; Kondo, Shunsuke

    1994-01-01

    Design requirements are the seeds of every design activity, but elicitation and formalization of them are not easy tasks. This paper proposes a method to support designers in such requirement elaboration process with a computer. In this method the cognitive work space of designers is modeled by abstraction and structural hierarchies, and supporting functions of knowledge-based requirement elaboration, requirement classification and assessment of contentment status of requirements are provided on this framework. A prototype system was developed and tested using fast breeder reactor design. (author)

  3. Maternal Resources, Parenting Practices, and Child Competence in Rural, Single-Parent African American Families.

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.

    1998-01-01

    Tested a model linking maternal/family characteristics to child cognitive and psychosocial competence in African-American 6- to 9-year olds in rural single-mother-headed households. Found that maternal education, religiosity, and financial resources were linked with parenting style, mother-child relationship, and maternal school involvement.…

  4. Depth and elaboration of processing in relation to age.

    Simon, E

    1979-03-01

    Processing at encoding and retrieval was jointly manipulated, and then the retrieval effectiveness of different cues was directly compared to uncover the relative pattern of deep and elaborate processing in relation to both age and different experimental manipulations. In experiment 1 phonemic and semantic cues were effective retrieval aids for to-be-remembered words in the youngest group; with increasing age, semantic cues decreased in effectiveness more than phonemic cues. These data showed phonemic features to have an importance that is not recognized in the data generated by the typical levels paradigm. When elaboration of the words was induced in Experiment 2 by presenting them in sentences, semantic and context cues were most effective in the youngest group whereas phonemic cues were most effective in the oldest group. Since the pattern of cue effectiveness in the elderly was similar to that in Experiment 1, where the same words were presented alone, it was concluded that aging results in poor elaboration, in particular, in inefficient integration of word events with the context of presentation. These age effects were mimicked in young subjects in Experiment 3 by experimentally restricting encoding time. The present approach uses somewhat modified views of depth and elaboration.

  5. An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...

  6. Learning about Posterior Probability: Do Diagrams and Elaborative Interrogation Help?

    Clinton, Virginia; Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    To learn from a text, students must make meaningful connections among related ideas in that text. This study examined the effectiveness of two methods of improving connections--elaborative interrogation and diagrams--in written lessons about posterior probability. Undergraduate students (N = 198) read a lesson in one of three questioning…

  7. Elaboration in the area of aluminium containing alloys

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the Institute of Chemistry was elaborated the experimental-industrial installation and technology of deep aluminium purification by the methods of zone melting and recrystallization. The developed technology let receive the metal of model A5 N A6 N dependence from number of induction zone passage

  8. Reconceptualizing Social Influence in Counseling: The Elaboration Likelihood Model.

    McNeill, Brian W.; Stoltenberg, Cal D.

    1989-01-01

    Presents Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion (a reconceptualization of the social influence process) as alternative model of attitude change. Contends ELM unifies conflicting social psychology results and can potentially account for inconsistent research findings in counseling psychology. Provides guidelines on integrating…

  9. Counseling Pretreatment and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Attitude Change.

    Heesacker, Martin

    1986-01-01

    Results of the application of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to a counseling context revealed that more favorable attitudes toward counseling occurred as subjects' ego involvement increased and as intervention quality improved. Counselor credibility affected the degree to which subjects' attitudes reflected argument quality differences.…

  10. Guide for the elaboration of plans to control emergencies

    1990-01-01

    This Venezuelan standard establishes the lines for the elaboration of plans to control emergencies. It includes general aspects for the control of any emergency originated by operational flaws, for the nature or for acts of third, in any industrial installation, working center, public or private building [es

  11. Maternal immunocompetence

    Harrison, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of distribution patterns of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes in pregnant mice were designed to explore the effect of pregnancy on the immunologic behaviour of the intact pregnant animal rather than on the isolated maternal lymphocyte. The distribution pattern of 51 Cr-labelled syngenic and semiallogenic lymphocytes was studied in intact primigravida mice, and there was no difference between interstrain and intrastrain pregnant mice, and there was no evidence of immunologically specific 'trapping' in the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the interstrain pregnant uterus. There is little evidence that the primigravida animal is even immunologically aware of the 'foreignness'of a semiallogenic fetus. (JIW)

  12. Maternal folate status in early pregnancy and child emotional and behavioral problems: The generation R study

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); S.J. Roza (Sabine); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Maternal prenatal folate status has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, but the association with child emotional and behavioral problems is unclear. Objectives: We assessed the association of maternal folate status during pregnancy with child emotional and behavioral

  13. Are species differences in maternal effects arising from maternal care adaptive?

    Benowitz, K M; Moody, K J; Moore, A J

    2015-02-01

    Parental care benefits offspring through maternal effects influencing their development, growth and survival. However, although parental care in general is likely the result of adaptive evolution, it does not follow that specific differences in the maternal effects that arise from care are also adaptive. Here, we used an interspecific cross-fostering design in the burying beetle species Nicrophorus orbicollis and N. vespilloides, both of which have elaborate parental care involving direct feeding of regurgitated food to offspring, to test whether maternal effects are optimized within a species and therefore adaptive. Using a full-factorial design, we first demonstrated that N. orbicollis care for offspring longer regardless of recipient species. We then examined offspring development and mass in offspring reared by hetero- or conspecific parents. As expected, there were species-specific direct effects independent of the maternal effects, as N. orbicollis larvae were larger and took longer to develop than N. vespilloides regardless of caregiver. We also found significant differences in maternal effects: N. vespilloides maternal care caused more rapid development of offspring of either species. Contrary to expectations if maternal effects were species-specific, there were no significant interactions between caretaker and recipient species for either development time or mass, suggesting that these maternal effects are general rather than optimized within species. We suggest that rather than coadaptation between parents and offspring performance, the species differences in maternal effects may be correlated with direct effects, and that their evolution is driven by selection on those direct effects. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Elaboration of recycled polyethylene foams reticulated by radiation

    Galicia M, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this work some obtained results are presented to make irradiation tests on recycled polymeric material (polyethylene) as well as mixtures of this with certain additive classes (foaming and reticulating agents) which will be used for the foams elaboration, objective of this work. Two types of foaming basically exist which are elaborated with low density polyethylene base. They are: a) the extruded and, b) the reticulated through ionizing radiation and chemically. Some of the properties that the expanded or foamed polyethylene are: flexibility, resistance, thermal stability, inter medium mechanical properties between the highly flexible foams and rigid among others. All of them determined by the cell type which conform them. Also was carried out the characterization of the obtained material contributing of this manner to diminish the quantity of solid wastes generated. (Author)

  15. Elaboration and characterisation of plutonium waste reference materials

    Perolat, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Analysis Methods Establishment Commission (CETAMA) has set up a program for the elaboration and characterisation of plutonium waste reference materials. The object of this program is to give laboratories the possibility to test and calibrate apparatus used in non-destructive methods for the analysis of plutonium waste. The different parameters of this program are presented: - characterisation of plutonium, - type and number of containers, - plutonium distribution inside the different containers, - description of the matrix

  16. ELABORATION OF THE COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF THE PLANETARY PRECESSIONAL TRANSMISSION

    BOSTAN Ion

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The specific character of sphere-spatial motion used in the precessional transmissions makes impossible the utilization of involute profiles of classical teeth. This fact requires the elaboration of new non-standard profiles, which in conditions of using the sphere-spatial motion with an immovable point of the satellite would assure constancy transfer function, the multiplicity of the precessional gear and consequently high carrying capacity of the precessional transmission in general.

  17. Penggunaan Elaboration Likelihood Model dalam Menganalisis Penerimaan Teknologi Informasi

    vitrian, vitrian2

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some technology acceptance models in an organization. Thorough analysis of how technology is acceptable help managers make any planning to implement new teachnology and make sure that new technology could enhance organization's performance. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) is the one which sheds light on some behavioral factors in acceptance of information technology. The basic tenet of ELM states that human behavior in principle can be influenced through central r...

  18. PROFESSIONAL COMPETITIVE EVOLUTION AND QUANTIFICATION MODELS IN ACCOUNTING SERVICE ELABORATION

    Gheorghe FATACEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article consists in using an assessment framework of the accounting service elaboration. The purpose of this model is the identification and revaluation of an elite group of expert accounts from Romania, which should provide solutions to solve the most complex legal matters in the legal field, in the field of criminal, tax, civil, or commercial clauses making the object of law suits.

  19. PPR: a database for radiologic protection plan elaboration

    Goncalves, M.; Farias, J.T. de; Batista, D.V.

    2001-01-01

    The Plan of Radiation Protection is a document demanded for Licensing of the Radioactive Installations. It establishes the system of Radioprotection to be implemented by the Service of Radiation Protection. Its main objective is to achieve the requirements of Radiation Protection and Safety constants in the regulations CNEN-NE-3.01 - Basic Guidelines of Radiation Protection and CNEN-NE-3.06 - Requirements of Radiation Protection and Safety for Services of Radiotherapy. The proposal presented here has the aim to easy the development and the uniformity of the elaboration of the Plan of Radiation Protection. Considering the difficulties found by the physicists responsible for the services in developing a Plan of Radiation Protection that contemplate all the necessary requirements, as well as the final analysis accomplished by CNEN, the present project was elaborated. This consists of a software of easy use, developed according to the most modern patterns of programming, allowing to the user to elaborate the Plan of Radiation Protection in agreement with to basic needs of the Installation. Soon the software will be available in the page web of CNEN for download. (author)

  20. Menyoal Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM dan Teori Retorika

    Yudi Perbawaningsih

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Persuasion is a communication process to establish or change attitudes, which can be understood through theory of Rhetoric and theory of Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM. This study elaborates these theories in a Public Lecture series which to persuade the students in choosing their concentration of study. The result shows that in term of persuasion effectiveness it is not quite relevant to separate the message and its source. The quality of source is determined by the quality of the message, and vice versa. Separating the two routes of the persuasion process as described in the ELM theory would not be relevant. Abstrak: Persuasi adalah proses komunikasi untuk membentuk atau mengubah sikap, yang dapat dipahami dengan teori Retorika dan teori Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM. Penelitian ini mengelaborasi teori tersebut dalam Kuliah Umum sebagai sarana mempersuasi mahasiswa untuk memilih konsentrasi studi studi yang didasarkan pada proses pengolahan informasi. Menggunakan metode survey, didapatkan hasil yaitu tidaklah cukup relevan memisahkan pesan dan narasumber dalam melihat efektivitas persuasi. Keduanya menyatu yang berarti bahwa kualitas narasumber ditentukan oleh kualitas pesan yang disampaikannya, dan sebaliknya. Memisahkan proses persuasi dalam dua lajur seperti yang dijelaskan dalam ELM teori menjadi tidak relevan.

  1. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  2. Re-usable templates for documenting the elaboration and architectural design of the CMS software

    Wellisch, J.P.; Tuura, L.

    2001-01-01

    Modern standards and definitions of deliverables for software development are provided by various standards like PSS-05, CMMI, ECSS, Volere, Rational Unified process or SPICE (ISO 15504). Modern document templates and the corresponding documents are based on atomic shells that cross-link, and can be subsequently assembled into a set of complete documents; views of the information in the shells. This makes the information easy to maintain, and enables selective views of the documentation. The authors will present a catalogue of document templates that has been developed in the context of the CMS CAFE forum, as well as their cross-linkage, using UML as the modelling language. The templates allow for documenting the elaboration and architectural design phases of software development. They can be used as the basis for establishing and documenting architecture, while establishing trace-ability to use-cases, requirements, constraints, and important technological choices in a maintainable manner

  3. nPEG-TiO₂ nanoparticles: a facile route to elaborate nanostructured surfaces for biological applications.

    Spadavecchia, J; Boujday, S; Landoulsi, J; Pradier, C-M

    2011-07-01

    We report the synthesis of diacid-terminated PEG-functionalized cubic TiO(2) nanocrystals by a simple one-step solvothermal method, and their further use to form nanostructured surfaces for protein immobilization. The relevance and major interest of the so-obtained nanocrystals are the presence of terminal carboxylic acid groups at their surface, as confirmed by infrared analyses, in addition to the surrounding PEG chains, essential to avoid non specific interactions. These functional chemical groups were used to (i) immobilize the synthesized nanocubes on a cysteamine-modified Au surface, and to (ii) attach proteins via a presumable covalent link. AFM images show that the shapes and the narrow size distribution of the nanocubes, observed by TEM, were preserved after their immobilization on the modified Au surface. Moreover, the efficiency and specificity of antigen recognition were demonstrated using spectroscopic analyses. Our successful approach provides a versatile and facile way to elaborate specific and sensitive nanostructured surfaces for biosensors.

  4. The protist, Monosiga brevicollis, has a tyrosine kinase signaling network more elaborate and diverse than found in any known metazoan.

    Manning, Gerard; Young, Susan L; Miller, W Todd; Zhai, Yufeng

    2008-07-15

    Tyrosine kinase signaling has long been considered a hallmark of intercellular communication, unique to multicellular animals. Our genomic analysis of the unicellular choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis discovers a remarkable count of 128 tyrosine kinases, 38 tyrosine phosphatases, and 123 phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-binding SH2 proteins, all higher counts than seen in any metazoan. This elaborate signaling network shows little orthology to metazoan counterparts yet displays many innovations reminiscent of metazoans. These include extracellular domains structurally related to those of metazoan receptor kinases, alternative methods for membrane anchoring and phosphotyrosine interaction in cytoplasmic kinases, and domain combinations that link kinases to small GTPase signaling and transcription. These proteins also display a wealth of combinations of known signaling domains. This uniquely divergent and elaborate signaling network illuminates the early evolution of pTyr signaling, explores innovative ways to traverse the cellular signaling circuitry, and shows extensive convergent evolution, highlighting pervasive constraints on pTyr signaling.

  5. Australian food life style segments and elaboration likelihood differences

    Brunsø, Karen; Reid, Mike

    As the global food marketing environment becomes more competitive, the international and comparative perspective of consumers' attitudes and behaviours becomes more important for both practitioners and academics. This research employs the Food-Related Life Style (FRL) instrument in Australia...... in order to 1) determine Australian Life Style Segments and compare these with their European counterparts, and to 2) explore differences in elaboration likelihood among the Australian segments, e.g. consumers' interest and motivation to perceive product related communication. The results provide new...

  6. Extrusion: An environmentally friendly process for PEMFC membrane elaboration

    Sanchez, J.-Y.; Iojoiu, C.; Marechal, M. [LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, ENSEEG, BP 75, F-38402, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Chabert, F.; El Kissi, N. [Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS-INPG-UJF, ENSHMG, BP 53, F-38041, Grenoble (France); Salomon, J.; Mercier, R. [LMOPS UMR CNRS 5041, BP 24, F-69390 Vernaison (France); Piffard, Y. [CNRS Universite de Nantes, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, UMR 6502, BP 32229, F-44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Galiano, H. [CEA, Le Ripault Research Center, BP 16, F-37260, Monts (France)

    2007-12-31

    The paper deals with the use of extrusion to process PEMFC filled and unfilled membranes. Several routes including the sulfonation of filled and unfilled extruded membranes and the extrusion of filled and unfilled ionomers are reported. Thanks to the use of selected water-soluble aid process plasticizers, acid and alkaline forms of sulfonated polyethersulfone were, for the first time, successfully extruded. The extrusion process did not lead to any degradation of the ionomer performances. Decreasing the membrane cost while using environmentally friendly elaboration conditions, it should be helpful to an industrial production. In addition, avoiding filler sedimentation it should allow homogeneous composite membranes to be obtained. (author)

  7. ELABORATION OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BULGARIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Tanya Dabeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to suggest some terms of reference for the elaboration of the superstructure of the Bulgarian hotel industry. The suggestions are based on the analysis of the superstructure at present. Its capacity, main types of accommodation establishments and their distribution by categories and territory are examined. An analysis is made of some resulting indices such as overnight stays and average stay. The main positive, respectively negative features of the superstructure have been analyzed. Concrete terms of reference have been given in order to overcome the problems specified.

  8. Changes across age groups in self-choice elaboration effects on incidental memory.

    Toyota, Hiroshi; Konishi, Tomoko

    2004-08-01

    The present study investigated age differences in the effects of a self-choice elaboration and an experimenter-provided elaboration on incidental memory. Adults, sixth grade, and second grade subjects chose which of two sentence frames the target fit better in a self-choice elaboration condition. They then judged whether each target made sense in its sentence frame in the experimenter-provided elaboration, then did free recall tests. Only adults recalled better the targets with an image sentence with self-choice elaboration, rather than experimenter-provided elaboration. However, self-choice elaboration was far superior for the recall of targets with nonimage sentences only for second graders. Thus, the effects of self-choice elaboration were determined both by age and by type of sentence frame.

  9. Elaboration in the area of low temperature chlorination of rare-metal crude ore

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical base of low temperature chlorination of rare-metal crude ore was elaborated. The chemical nature of chlorination process which pass at low temperature was decoded and scientifically elaborated

  10. Maternal Parity and Blood Oxidative Stress in Mother and Neonate

    Golalizadeh; Shobeiri; Ranjbar; Nazari

    2016-01-01

    Background Parturition has been associated with free radicals, itself linked with poor pregnancy outcome. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers levels of maternal and cord blood samples at the second stage of labor with the maternal parity number. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, subjects were ...

  11. Deep-Elaborative Learning of Introductory Management Accounting for Business Students

    Choo, Freddie; Tan, Kim B.

    2005-01-01

    Research by Choo and Tan (1990; 1995) suggests that accounting students, who engage in deep-elaborative learning, have a better understanding of the course materials. The purposes of this paper are: (1) to describe a deep-elaborative instructional approach (hereafter DEIA) that promotes deep-elaborative learning of introductory management…

  12. The Effects of Levels of Elaboration on Learners' Strategic Processing of Text

    Dornisch, Michele; Sperling, Rayne A.; Zeruth, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    In the current work, we examined learners' comprehension when engaged with elaborative processing strategies. In Experiment 1, we randomly assigned students to one of five elaborative processing conditions and addressed differences in learners' lower- and higher-order learning outcomes and ability to employ elaborative strategies. Findings…

  13. Review Maternally derived egg yolk steroid hormones and sex ...

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    some kind of functional link between maternally derived ... one progresses from the phylogenetically primitive boids to the more advanced ... but also in birds and fishes (Arcos 1972; Conley et al 1997;. McCormic ..... Ecology 79 1873–1883.

  14. Building maternal e-health in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... Home · Resources · Publications ... An electronic maternal health platform, called mMOM, links health system users ... Minority women are thus gaining knowledge and trust in reproductive health services available to them.

  15. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  16. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-05

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Elaboration over a discourse facilitates retrieval in sentence processing

    Melissa eTroyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’ leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions, processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators, one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’. The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican / Democrat} had voted for…’ contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’ or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’. We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’, where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich & West, 1989, providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b richer/more highly-structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe

  18. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  19. Maternity Protection at Work.

    World of Work, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need for maternity benefits for working women. Suggests that although most countries provide paid maternity leave by law, there is a gap between that law and practice. Includes a chart depicting maternity protection (length of leave, cash benefits, who pays) around the world. (JOW)

  20. Elaboration and Validation of the Medication Prescription Safety Checklist 1

    Pires, Aline de Oliveira Meireles; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Guimarães; do Nascimento, Kleiton Gonçalves; Felix, Márcia Marques dos Santos; Pires, Patrícia da Silva; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to elaborate and validate a checklist to identify compliance with the recommendations for the structure of medication prescriptions, based on the Protocol of the Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. Method: methodological research, conducted through the validation and reliability analysis process, using a sample of 27 electronic prescriptions. Results: the analyses confirmed the content validity and reliability of the tool. The content validity, obtained by expert assessment, was considered satisfactory as it covered items that represent the compliance with the recommendations regarding the structure of the medication prescriptions. The reliability, assessed through interrater agreement, was excellent (ICC=1.00) and showed perfect agreement (K=1.00). Conclusion: the Medication Prescription Safety Checklist showed to be a valid and reliable tool for the group studied. We hope that this study can contribute to the prevention of adverse events, as well as to the improvement of care quality and safety in medication use. PMID:28793128

  1. Ecofriendly bricks elaborated from coal waste of Moroccan Jerrada Mining

    Ez-zaki H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste generated during mining is one of the major environmental problems associated with this industrial activity. The best solution to overcome the environmental impact of this waste is to find recycling facilities in mass-produced products that can absorb the large quantities of these available byproducts. The present study shows the feasibility of using the coal waste of Moroccan Jerrada mining in the production of ecological brick. The first step consists of consecutive stages of crushing, grinding and heating at 650°C of the coal waste with a small amount of lime in order to promote the reactive products of elaborated binders. The second step of the process consists of mixing treated coal waste with a small amount of marble dust, sand, gravel, and water, then pressed and dried at room temperature to manufacture a laboratory ecofriendly bricks. The mechanical strength and thermal conductivity are investigated.

  2. A Novel Hall Effect Sensor Using Elaborate Offset Cancellation Method

    Vlassis N. Petoussis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect is caused by a traverse force that is formed in the electrons or holes of metal element or semiconductor when are polarized by current source and simultaneously all the system it is found vertical in external magnetic field. Result is finally the production of difference of potential (Hall voltage in address vertical in that of current and magnetic field directions. In the present work is presented a new Hall sensor exploiting the former operation. In combination with his pioneering form and using dynamic spinning current technique with an elaborate sequence, it leads to satisfactory results of produced Hall voltage with small noise in a presence of external magnetic field. Anyone can see both the spinning current and anti-Hall technique in the same sensor simultaneously.

  3. Elaboration of titanium nitride coatings by activated reactive evaporation

    Granier, Jean

    1978-01-01

    As titanium nitride is a very interesting and promising material for the protection against wear and corrosion of metals and alloys with a low fusion point, and notably steels, this research thesis reports the study of the elaboration of a TiN coating by activated reactive evaporation. In a first part, the author describes deposition processes based on evaporation and their characteristics. He explains the choice of the studied process. He discusses published data and results related to the titanium-nitrogen system. He describes the apparatus and reports the operation mode adjustment, and reports the study of the influence of operating conditions (substrate temperature, nitrogen pressure, evaporation rate, possible use of a discharge) on growth kinetics and on coating properties. A reaction mechanism is then proposed to describe and explain the obtained results [fr

  4. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    Rozenstrauha, I.; Sosins, G.; Krage, L.; Sedmale, G.; Vaiciukyniene, D.

    2013-01-01

    Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50 % of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminium borosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 degree centigrade). In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites) the mentioned by-products and illitic clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia) with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90 % was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA) and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15 - 35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45 - 65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 degree centigrade in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090 - 1100 degree centigrade with the most optimal properties - porosity 38 - 52 %, water absorption 39 -47 % and bulk density 1.35 - 1.67 g/cm 3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35 - 1.1 %, water absorption 0.7 - 2.6 % and bulk density 2.1 - 2.3 g/cm 3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected. (Author)

  5. Influences of maternal overprotection.

    Parker, G; Lipscombe, P

    1981-04-01

    While maternal overprotection appears associated with several neurotic and psychotic disorders, little is known about determinants of such a parental characteristic. Several hypotheses have been tested in a large nonclinical sample. Maternal and cultural factors seemed of greater relevance than characteristics in the child. Overprotective mothers gave evidence of marked maternal preoccupations before having children, of showing a capacity to be overprotective after the active stage of mothering, and of having personality characteristics of high anxiety, obsessionality and a need to control. Maternal overprotection appears associated with low, rather than with high maternal care. This has important primary prevention and treatment implications.

  6. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    Johannsen, Nis

    This dissertation constitutes a reflection on two initiatives seeking to reconfigure maternity care. One initiative sought to digitalise maternity records and included a pilot run of an electronic maternity record in a Danish county. The other consisted of a collaboration between a maternity ward...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity care, at least...... experimental designs are constructed. The consequences and the politics of the proposed changes are engaged with in laboratory manner through collaborative development of the designs and through exposing them to members of field of maternity care...

  7. Maternal Mortality in Texas.

    Baeva, Sonia; Archer, Natalie P; Ruggiero, Karen; Hall, Manda; Stagg, Julie; Interis, Evelyn Coronado; Vega, Rachelle; Delgado, Evelyn; Hellerstedt, John; Hankins, Gary; Hollier, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    A commentary on maternal mortality in Texas is provided in response to a 2016 article in Obstetrics & Gynecology by MacDorman et al. While the Texas Department of State Health Services and the Texas Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force agree that maternal mortality increased sharply from 2010 to 2011, the percentage change or the magnitude of the increase in the maternal mortality rate in Texas differs depending on the statistical methods used to compute and display it. Methodologic challenges in identifying maternal death are also discussed, as well as risk factors and causes of maternal death in Texas. Finally, several state efforts currently underway to address maternal mortality in Texas are described. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Changes across age groups in self-choice elaboration and incidental memory.

    Toyota, Hiroshi; Tatsumi, Tomoko

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated differences in the self-choice elaboration and an experimenter-provided elaboration on incidental memory of 7- to 12-yr.-olds. In a self-choice elaboration condition 34 second and 25 sixth graders were asked to choose one of the two sentence frames into which each target could fit more congruously, whereas in an experimenter-provided elaboration they were asked to judge the congruity of each target to each frame. In free recall, sixth graders recalled targets in bizarre sentence frames better than second graders for self-choice elaboration condition. An age difference was not found for the experimenter-provided elaboration. In cued recall self-choice elaboration led to better performance of sixth graders for recalling targets than an experimenter-provided elaboration in both bizarre and common sentence frames. However, the different types of elaboration did not alter the recall of second graders. These results were interpreted as showing that the effectiveness of a self-choice elaboration depends on the subjects' age and the type of sentence.

  9. A First Standardized Swiss Electronic Maternity Record.

    Murbach, Michel; Martin, Sabine; Denecke, Kerstin; Nüssli, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    During the nine months of pregnancy, women have to regularly visit several physicians for continuous monitoring of the health and development of the fetus and mother. Comprehensive examination results of different types are generated in this process; documentation and data transmission standards are still unavailable or not in use. Relevant information is collected in a paper-based maternity record carried by the pregnant women. To improve availability and transmission of data, we aim at developing a first prototype for an electronic maternity record for Switzerland. By analyzing the documentation workflow during pregnancy, we determined a maternity record data set. Further, we collected requirements towards a digital maternity record. As data exchange format, the Swiss specific exchange format SMEEX (swiss medical data exchange) was exploited. Feedback from 27 potential users was collected to identify further improvements. The relevant data is extracted from the primary care information system as SMEEX file, stored in a database and made available in a web and a mobile application, developed as prototypes of an electronic maternity record. The user confirmed the usefulness of the system and provided multiple suggestions for an extension. An electronical maternity record as developed in this work could be in future linked to the electronic patient record.

  10. Cesarean deliveries and maternal weight retention.

    Kapinos, Kandice A; Yakusheva, Olga; Weiss, Marianne

    2017-10-04

    Cesarean delivery accounts for nearly one-third of all births in the U.S. and contributes to an additional $38 billion in healthcare costs each year. Although Cesarean delivery has a long record of improving maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, increased utilization over time has yielded public health concerns and calls for reductions. Observational evidence suggests Cesarean delivery is associated with increased maternal postpartum weight, which may have significant implications for the obesity epidemic. Previous literature, however, typically does not address selection biases stemming from correlations of pre-pregnancy weight and reproductive health with Cesarean delivery. We used fetal malpresentation as a natural experiment as it predicts Cesarean delivery but is uncorrelated with pre-pregnancy weight or maternal health. We used hospital administrative data (including fields used in vital birth record) from the state of Wisconsin from 2006 to 2013 to create a sample of mothers with at least two births. Using propensity score methods, we compared maternal weight prior to the second pregnancy of mothers who delivered via Cesarean due to fetal malpresentation to mothers who deliver vaginally. We found no evidence that Cesarean delivery in the first pregnancy causally leads to greater maternal weight, BMI, or movement to a higher BMI classification prior to the second pregnancy. After accounting for correlations between pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and mode of delivery, there is no evidence of a causal link between Cesarean delivery and maternal weight retention.

  11. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Behavior: The Role of Maternal Psychopathology, Child Responsiveness and Maternal Attachment Style Insecurity.

    Reck, Corinna; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Zietlow, Anna-Lena

    Maternal depression and anxiety disorders are risk factors for the development of internalizing disorders in offspring. Maternal attachment has been discussed as one factor accounting for transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate child internalizing behavior at preschool age on a symptomatic and behavioral level and possible links to maternal mental health over time and maternal attachment style insecurity in a sample of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers. Child internalizing behavior at preschool age was rated by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), and during a mother-child free-play situation. We focused on child responsiveness as it has been linked to child internalizing behavior. Maternal attachment style insecurity was tested to mediate the link between maternal mental health (assessed postpartum and at preschool age with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders, SCID-I) and child internalizing behavior/child responsiveness. Of the overall sample (n = 58), 28 women were diagnosed with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and 30 were healthy controls. Data were collected 3-9 months after delivery and at preschool age (mean = 4.6 years). At preschool age, children of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers were rated significantly higher on child internalizing behavior by mothers, fathers, and additional caregivers compared to the control group. Child internalizing behavior rated by mothers was influenced by current psychiatric symptoms; maternal attachment style insecurity did not mediate this link. During interaction, children in the clinical group displayed significantly less child responsiveness compared to the control group. Maternal attachment style insecurity mediated the relationship between maternal mental health over time and child responsiveness. The results emphasize the need for interventions focusing on mother-child interaction and

  12. Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid ...

    Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid diagnostic tool for evaluating maternal care. L Cochet, R.C. Pattinson, A.P. Macdonald. Abstract. Objective. To analyse severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal mortality in the Pretoria region over a 2-year period (2000 - 2001). Setting.

  13. Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire: elaboration and validation 1

    Borges, José Wicto Pereira; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; de Andrade, Dalton Franscisco

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to elaborate an instrument for the measurement of the interpersonal relationship in nursing care through the Item Response Theory, and the validation thereof. Method: methodological study, which followed the three poles of psychometry: theoretical, empirical and analytical. The Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire was developed in light of the Imogene King’s Interpersonal Conceptual Model and the psychometric properties were studied through the Item Response Theory in a sample of 950 patients attended in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Health Care. Results: the final instrument consisted of 31 items, with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.90 and McDonald’s Omega of 0.92. The parameters of the Item Response Theory demonstrated high discrimination in 28 items, being developed a five-level interpretive scale. At the first level, the communication process begins, gaining a wealth of interaction. Subsequent levels demonstrate qualitatively the points of effectiveness of the interpersonal relationship with the involvement of behaviors related to the concepts of transaction and interaction, followed by the concept of role. Conclusion: the instrument was created and proved to be consistent to measure interpersonal relationship in nursing care, as it presented adequate reliability and validity parameters. PMID:29319743

  14. Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire: elaboration and validation

    José Wicto Pereira Borges

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to elaborate an instrument for the measurement of the interpersonal relationship in nursing care through the Item Response Theory, and the validation thereof. Method: methodological study, which followed the three poles of psychometry: theoretical, empirical and analytical. The Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire was developed in light of the Imogene King’s Interpersonal Conceptual Model and the psychometric properties were studied through the Item Response Theory in a sample of 950 patients attended in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Health Care. Results: the final instrument consisted of 31 items, with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.90 and McDonald’s Omega of 0.92. The parameters of the Item Response Theory demonstrated high discrimination in 28 items, being developed a five-level interpretive scale. At the first level, the communication process begins, gaining a wealth of interaction. Subsequent levels demonstrate qualitatively the points of effectiveness of the interpersonal relationship with the involvement of behaviors related to the concepts of transaction and interaction, followed by the concept of role. Conclusion: the instrument was created and proved to be consistent to measure interpersonal relationship in nursing care, as it presented adequate reliability and validity parameters.

  15. Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire: elaboration and validation.

    Borges, José Wicto Pereira; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Andrade, Dalton Franscisco de

    2018-01-08

    to elaborate an instrument for the measurement of the interpersonal relationship in nursing care through the Item Response Theory, and the validation thereof. methodological study, which followed the three poles of psychometry: theoretical, empirical and analytical. The Nursing Care Interpersonal Relationship Questionnaire was developed in light of the Imogene King's Interpersonal Conceptual Model and the psychometric properties were studied through the Item Response Theory in a sample of 950 patients attended in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Health Care. the final instrument consisted of 31 items, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.90 and McDonald's Omega of 0.92. The parameters of the Item Response Theory demonstrated high discrimination in 28 items, being developed a five-level interpretive scale. At the first level, the communication process begins, gaining a wealth of interaction. Subsequent levels demonstrate qualitatively the points of effectiveness of the interpersonal relationship with the involvement of behaviors related to the concepts of transaction and interaction, followed by the concept of role. the instrument was created and proved to be consistent to measure interpersonal relationship in nursing care, as it presented adequate reliability and validity parameters.

  16. The elaborate plumage in peacocks is not such a drag.

    Askew, Graham N

    2014-09-15

    One of the classic examples of an exaggerated sexually selected trait is the elaborate plumage that forms the train in male peafowl Pavo cristatus (peacock). Such ornaments are thought to reduce locomotor performance as a result of their weight and aerodynamic drag, but this cost is unknown. Here, the effect that the train has on take-off flight in peacocks was quantified as the sum of the rates of change of the potential and kinetic energies of the body (P(CoM)) in birds with trains and following the train's removal. There was no significant difference between P(CoM) in birds with and without a train. The train incurs drag during take-off; however, while this produces a twofold increase in parasite drag, parasite power only accounts for 0.1% of the total aerodynamic power. The train represented 6.9% of body weight and is expected to increase induced power. The absence of a detectable effect on take-off performance does not necessarily mean that there is no cost associated with possessing such ornate plumage; rather, it suggests that given the variation in take-off performance per se, the magnitude of any effect of the train has little meaningful functional relevance. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Soundscape elaboration from anthrophonic adaptation of community noise

    Teddy Badai Samodra, FX

    2018-03-01

    Under the situation of an urban environment, noise has been a critical issue in affecting the indoor environment. A reliable approach is required for evaluation of the community noise as one factor of anthrophonic in the urban environment. This research investigates the level of noise exposure from different community noise sources and elaborates the advantage of the noise disadvantages for soundscape innovation. Integrated building element design as a protector for noise control and speech intelligibility compliance using field experiment and MATLAB programming and modeling are also carried out. Meanwhile, for simulation analysis and building acoustic optimization, Sound Reduction-Speech Intelligibility and Reverberation Time are the main parameters for identifying tropical building model as case study object. The results show that the noise control should consider its integration with the other critical issue, thermal control, in an urban environment. The 1.1 second of reverberation time for speech activities and noise reduction more than 28.66 dBA for critical frequency (20 Hz), the speech intelligibility index could be reached more than fair assessment, 0.45. Furthermore, the environmental psychology adaptation result “Close The Opening” as the best method in high noise condition and personal adjustment as the easiest and the most adaptable way.

  18. Aluminosilicate glass thin films elaborated by pulsed laser deposition

    Carlier, Thibault [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Saitzek, Sébastien [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Méar, François O., E-mail: francois.mear@univ-lille1.fr [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Blach, Jean-François; Ferri, Anthony [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Huvé, Marielle; Montagne, Lionel [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Successfully deposition of a glassy thin film by PLD. • A good homogeneity and stoichiometry of the coating. • Influence of the deposition temperature on the glassy thin-film structure. - Abstract: In the present work, we report the elaboration of aluminosilicate glass thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition at various temperatures deposition. The amorphous nature of glass thin films was highlighted by Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction and no nanocristallites were observed in the glassy matrix. Chemical analysis, obtained with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, showed a good transfer and homogeneous elementary distribution with of chemical species from the target to the film a. Structural studies performed by Infrared Spectroscopy showed that the substrate temperature plays an important role on the bonding configuration of the layers. A slight shift of Si-O modes to larger wavenumber was observed with the synthesis temperature, assigned to a more strained sub-oxide network. Finally, optical properties of thins film measured by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry are similar to those of the bulk aluminosilicate glass, which indicate a good deposition of aluminosilicate bulk glass.

  19. Elaboration of optical glass-ceramic for frequency doubling

    Vigouroux, H.

    2012-01-01

    The High power laser development required the need of materials with nonlinear properties. Glass materials can be considered as ideal materials as they can be transparent and elaborated in very large dimension. Precipitation of non-centro symmetric crystalline particles in bulk glass leads to a material with bulk nonlinear properties. This glass-ceramic should be then easily integrated in such laser facilities. In this thesis, the results concerning the precipitation of the phase LiNbO 3 in the glassy-matrix 35 Li 2 O - 25 Nb 2 O 5 - 40 SiO 2 are detailed. The crystallization mechanism of this phase is studied through thermal analysis, optical and electronic microscopy as well as in-situ analyses. These studies reveal glass-ceramics are obtained through a precipitation of the lithium niobate crystalline phase in spherulite shape. The nonlinear optical properties are investigated on this materials and an original, isotropic Second Harmonic Generation Signal (SHG) is registered in the bulk glass-ceramic. A complete study using a multi-scale approach allows the correlation between the spherulite structure and the nonlinear optical properties. A mechanism at the origin of the SHG signal is proposed. This leads to a new approach for transparent inorganic materials development for isotropic SHG conversion. (author) [fr

  20. Homogenous reactor, elaborations, not released up to end

    Takibayev, Zh.S.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays the nuclear power uses mainly water moderated reactors, where water or heavy water works as neutron inhibitor or coolant, and fuel solid state is situated in reactor core discretely as fuel element packed in fuel assembly. Such fuel composition in solid state reactors leads to rise in price of reactor itself and, of course, many other inconveniences. Firstly, burning out depth is limited; secondary, agents absorbed neutrons are accumulated in fission products, i. e. it leads to poisoning slag derive and thirdly, there are too many outside agents in reactor core in the form of fuel elements and different constructional materials. It worsens neutron balance of reactor. There are many other inconveniences. Specialists understand this problem. They are looking for escaping of difficulty proposing to begin a wide-ranging design, for example, of a new generation of homogeneous reactor especially with salt liquid, liquid metal fuel. But this problem nowadays can not be nearly decided. It is clear enough that within at least 50-100 years the existing monopoly will not change its attitude to use of new elaboration, for example, reactor with salt liquid fuel unless a sharp necessity of opening up not only 1-2 % of uranium in the case of reactors on thermal neutrons or nearby 10-20 % for fast reactors as nowadays but effective use of all potential of nuclear fission energy contained in natural uranium and thorium resources will be realized. In the report the scheme of nuclear reactor with liquid metal or salt liquid is shown. Such approach can be in future one of possible variants of problem solution in effective opening up of all uranium-plutonium energy resource of our planet. The scheme shows only possible allocations of the container and the pipeline. Their proportioning is one of main problems of future elaborations. A mutual allocation of the container and pipelines was carried out in such way, that demand to the last ones where less than to the container

  1. Race of source effects in the elaboration likelihood model.

    White, P H; Harkins, S G

    1994-11-01

    In a series of experiments, we investigated the effect of race of source on persuasive communications in the Elaboration Likelihood Model (R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, 1981, 1986). In Experiment 1, we found no evidence that White participants responded to a Black source as a simple negative cue. Experiment 2 suggested the possibility that exposure to a Black source led to low-involvement message processing. In Experiments 3 and 4, a distraction paradigm was used to test this possibility, and it was found that participants under low involvement were highly motivated to process a message presented by a Black source. In Experiment 5, we found that attitudes toward the source's ethnic group, rather than violations of expectancies, accounted for this processing effect. Taken together, the results of these experiments are consistent with S.L. Gaertner and J.F. Dovidio's (1986) theory of aversive racism, which suggests that Whites, because of a combination of egalitarian values and underlying negative racial attitudes, are very concerned about not appearing unfavorable toward Blacks, leading them to be highly motivated to process messages presented by a source from this group.

  2. Maternal periodontal disease, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes.

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Gennaro, Susan; Hendricks-Muñoz, Karen D; Chhun, Nok

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the association between maternal periodontal disease and poor pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and outline the role nurses can play in improving the oral health of pregnant women. Maternal periodontal disease is linked to preterm birth, low birthweight, and preterm low birthweight, but treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy has been shown to be safe and effective. Nurses, nurse practitioners, and nurse-midwives are in a position to educate pregnant women on the benefits of good oral health and identify and refer women who are in need of dental care for treatment.

  3. Maternal irradiation and Down Syndrome

    Gibson, D.L.; Uh, S.H.; Miller, J.R.

    1978-04-01

    The role of preconception irradiation in the etiology of Down Syndrome was examined using the techniques of record linkage. Although 909 cases of Down Syndrome, born in B.C. between 1952-70, were ascertained through a system of linked vital and health registrations, interest was restricted to the 348 case/control pairs born in the greater Vancouver area. The maternal identifying information routinely recorded on birth and ill-health registrations was used to link 155 Down Syndrome mothers and 116 control mothers to patient files at the Vancouver General Hospital. Only 28 of the case and 25 of the control mothers were subjected to diagnostic irradiation at the Vancouver Ganeral Hospital. The difference was not significant at the 5% level

  4. Differentiation of subsequent memory effects between retrieval practice and elaborative study.

    Liu, Yi; Rosburg, Timm; Gao, Chuanji; Weber, Christine; Guo, Chunyan

    2017-07-01

    Retrieval practice enhances memory retention more than re-studying. The underlying mechanisms of this retrieval practice effect have remained widely unclear. According to the elaborative retrieval hypothesis, activation of elaborative information occurs to a larger extent during testing than re-studying. In contrast, the episodic context account has suggested that recollecting prior episodic information (especially the temporal context) contributes to memory retention. To adjudicate the distinction between these two accounts, the present study used the classical retrieval practice effect paradigm to compare retrieval practice and elaborative study. In an initial behavioral experiment, retrieval practice produced greater retention than elaboration and re-studying in a one-week delayed test. In a subsequent event-related potential (ERP) experiment, retrieval practice resulted in reliably superior accuracy in the delayed test compared to elaborative study. In the ERPs, a frontally distributed subsequent memory effect (SME), starting at 300ms, occurred in the elaborative study condition, but not in the retrieval practice condition. A parietal SME emerged in the retrieval practice condition from 500 to 700ms, but was absent in the elaborative study condition. After 700ms, a late SME was present in the retrieval practice condition, but not in the elaborative study condition. Moreover, SMEs lasted longer in retrieval practice than in elaboration. The frontal SME in the elaborative study condition might be related to semantic processing or working memory-based elaboration, whereas the parietal and widespread SME in the retrieval practice condition might be associated with episodic recollection processes. These findings contradict the elaborative retrieval theory, and suggest that contextual recollection rather than activation of semantic information contributes to the retrieval practice effect, supporting the episodic context account. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  5. Elaborating on systems thinking in health promotion practice.

    Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria; Wagemakers, Anne-Marie; Saan, Hans; de Hoog, Kees

    2009-03-01

    Health and well-being are the result of a series of complex processes in which an individual interacts with other people and the environment. A systematic approach ensures incorporation of individual, ecological, social and political factors. However, interactions between these factors can be overlooked within a systematical approach. A systemic approach can provide additional information by incorporating interactions and communication. The opportunities of a systems thinking perspective for health promotion were investigated for this paper. Although others have also made attempts to explore systems thinking in the field of health promotion, the implications of systems thinking in practice need attention. Other fields such as agricultural extension studies, organizational studies and development studies provide useful experiences with the use of a systems thinking perspective in practice. Building on experiences from these fields, we give a theoretical background in which processes of social learning and innovation play an important role. From this background, we derive an overview of important concepts for the practical application of a systems thinking perspective. These concepts are the structure of the system, meanings attached to actions, and power relations between actors. To make these concepts more explicit and reduce the theoretical character of systems thinking, we use an illustration to elaborate on these concepts in practice. For this purpose, we describe a health promotion partnership in The Netherlands using the concepts structure, meaning and power relations. We show how a systems perspective increases insight in the functioning of a partnership and how this can facilitate processes of social learning and innovation. This article concludes by identifying future opportunities and challenges in adopting systems thinking for health promotion practice. A systems perspective towards health promotion can help projects reaching a more integral and

  6. Thesis Abstract Fermented milk elaborated with Camellia sinensis.

    Ribeiro, O A S; Silva, M I A; Boari, C A

    2016-05-13

    This study aimed to develop and to characterize fermented dairy beverage formulated with Camellia sinensis. The infusion was elaborated with the addiction of dehydrated leaves of C. sinensis in whey (1g/100g) which added in sweetened milk (10% sucrose w/w) coagulated by Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus in proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% (v/w). The control treatment consisted of yogurt added with sucrose (10% w/w). Analysis were performed to quantify dry mass, moisture, ash, protein, fat, sodium, acidity, total quantification of lactic acid bacteria, total antioxidant activity and viscosity at the initial time of production and at 15 and 30 days of storage. Chromatographic determination of volatile compounds and sensory tests of acceptance and consumption intention were conducted at the initial time of production. Dry matter content, moisture, ash and total count of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk drink formulations were not significantly affected by the amount of infusion of C. sinensis. However, the content of protein, fat and sodium were significantly lower with the increase of the proportion of infusion incorporated into the product. Significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurs with the increase in the amount of infusion added. The total antioxidant activity of the formulations was significantly higher as higher were the amount of added infusion. The addition of infusion contributed to the diversification of volatile aroma and taste makers in the product. The formulation of fermented dairy drink with addition of 30% infusion C. sinensis was better evaluated in sensory tests, with greater acceptance and greater consumer intent of consumption.

  7. Operationalising elaboration theory for simulation instruction design: a Delphi study.

    Haji, Faizal A; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Ng, Gary; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating the Delphi process within the simplifying conditions method (SCM) described in elaboration theory (ET) to identify conditions impacting the complexity of procedural skills for novice learners. We generated an initial list of conditions impacting the complexity of lumbar puncture (LP) from key informant interviews (n = 5) and a literature review. Eighteen clinician-educators from six different medical specialties were subsequently recruited as expert panellists. Over three Delphi rounds, these panellists rated: (i) their agreement with the inclusion of the simple version of the conditions in a representative ('epitome') training scenario, and (ii) how much the inverse (complex) version increases LP complexity for a novice. Cronbach's α-values were used to assess inter-rater agreement. All panellists completed Rounds 1 and 2 of the survey and 17 completed Round 3. In Round 1, Cronbach's α-values were 0.89 and 0.94 for conditions that simplify and increase LP complexity, respectively; both values increased to 0.98 in Rounds 2 and 3. With the exception of 'high CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) pressure', panellists agreed with the inclusion of all conditions in the simplest (epitome) training scenario. Panellists rated patient movement, spinal anatomy, patient cooperativeness, body habitus, and the presence or absence of an experienced assistant as having the greatest impact on the complexity of LP. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using expert consensus to establish conditions impacting the complexity of procedural skills, and the benefits of incorporating the Delphi method into the SCM. These data can be used to develop and sequence simulation scenarios in a progressively challenging manner. If the theorised learning gains associated with ET are realised, the methods described in this study may be applied to the design of simulation training for other procedural and non-procedural skills

  8. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    breeding territories. In sum, this study reveals elaborate female vocal displays in a species widely depicted as an example of sexual selection for male extravagance, and thus highlights the hidden complexity of female vocalizations.

  9. Paid Maternity Leave in the United States: Associations with Maternal and Infant Health.

    Jou, Judy; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Abraham, Jean M; Blewett, Lynn A; McGovern, Patricia M

    2018-02-01

    Objectives The United States is one of only three countries worldwide with no national policy guaranteeing paid leave to employed women who give birth. While maternity leave has been linked to improved maternal and child outcomes in international contexts, up-to-date research evidence in the U.S. context is needed to inform current policy debates on paid family leave. Methods Using data from Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18-45 who gave birth in 2011-2012, we conducted multivariate logistic regression to predict the likelihood of outcomes related to infant health, maternal physical and mental health, and maternal health behaviors by the use and duration of paid maternity leave. Results Use of paid and unpaid leave varied significantly by race/ethnicity and household income. Women who took paid maternity leave experienced a 47% decrease in the odds of re-hospitalizing their infants (95% CI 0.3, 1.0) and a 51% decrease in the odds of being re-hospitalized themselves (95% CI 0.3, 0.9) at 21 months postpartum, compared to women taking unpaid or no leave. They also had 1.8 times the odds of doing well with exercise (95% CI 1.1, 3.0) and stress management (95% CI 1.1, 2.8), compared to women taking only unpaid leave. Conclusions for Practice Paid maternity leave significantly predicts lower odds of maternal and infant re-hospitalization and higher odds of doing well with exercise and stress management. Policies aimed at expanding access to paid maternity and family leave may contribute toward reducing socio-demographic disparities in paid leave use and its associated health benefits.

  10. Objectives, specification and elaboration of technical scenarios for emergency drills involving a French PWR

    Duco, J.

    1989-08-01

    All safety measures taken during the design, the construction and the operation of a nuclear power plant decrease to an extremely low level the probability of an accident with unacceptable consequences for the public. Nevertheless, for the case such an accident should be initiated, emergency plans have been elaborated: the on-site emergency plan to protect the plant personnel, terminate the accident and mitigate the consequences; the short-term and longer-term off-side emergency plans to protect the public and organise the return to acceptable living conditions. The appropriateness and preparedness of such plans have to be checked regularly by means of drills, which may be restricted to technical aspects concerning the nuclear units, or involve all actors, i.e. the utility, all the branches of the administration concerned and a media simulation. Some aspects of the choice of goals and preparation of drills are presented and illustrated by the national EPAULE exercice in 1987. Technically speaking, the drills have proved the validity of the current organization and evidenced its operability: uncertainties remain as regards the actual vs expected behavior of the population, due to emotional aspects linked to the lack of direct perception of the degree of danger and to the information received in an actual nuclear emergency

  11. Ethics in the medieval university: the importance of classics reading for the elaboration of Thomas Aquinas

    Tatyana Murer Cavalcante

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present some considerations about the importance of reading to the development of the ethics conceptions of Thomas Aquinas (1224 - 5? / 1274. At the dawn of the thirteenth century, the townspeople of Medieval West created a new institution designed for knowledge and education: the University. In it, teachers and disciples were debating key issues for the new society using mainly texts of Ancient Philosophy and Christians, but also Arab and Jewish writings. The literacy forms used encompassed mainly lectio and disputatio , and counteracted by distinct theoretical bases, those thinkers eventually recreated the summa , in a original and fundamental form to the philosophical elaboration of that time. To discuss the importance of reading in the formulation of the concept of ethics in the medieval university, we will present some characteristics of the production of knowledge in the thirteenth century linked to its historical context and then discuss some ethical considerations of Thomas Aquinas, one of the most prominent authors of that period. Considering the limits of this article, only one text, “The object of charity” based on Aquinas major work, the Summa of Theology, will be discussed in depth. Preliminarily, it is possible to state that as well as the reading of classical authors by Thomas Aquinas and other masters of the thirteenth century, helped them develop knowledge about ethics conforming to their time, historical reading of these authors helps in the understanding of today.

  12. Operative Links

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  13. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  14. Trends in adverse maternal outcomes during childbirth: a population-based study of severe maternal morbidity.

    Roberts, Christine L; Ford, Jane B; Algert, Charles S; Bell, Jane C; Simpson, Judy M; Morris, Jonathan M

    2009-02-25

    Maternal mortality is too rare in high income countries to be used as a marker of the quality of maternity care. Consequently severe maternal morbidity has been suggested as a better indicator. Using the maternal morbidity outcome indicator (MMOI) developed and validated for use in routinely collected population health data, we aimed to determine trends in severe adverse maternal outcomes during the birth admission and in particular to examine the contribution of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). We applied the MMOI to the linked birth-hospital discharge records for all women who gave birth in New South Wales, Australia from 1999 to 2004 and determined rates of severe adverse maternal outcomes. We used frequency distributions and contingency table analyses to examine the association between adverse outcomes and maternal, pregnancy and birth characteristics, among all women and among only those with PPH. Using logistic regression, we modelled the effects of these characteristics on adverse maternal outcomes. The impact of adverse outcomes on duration of hospital admission was also examined. Of 500,603 women with linked birth and hospital records, 6242 (12.5 per 1,000) suffered an adverse outcome, including 22 who died. The rate of adverse maternal outcomes increased from 11.5 in 1999 to 13.8 per 1000 deliveries in 2004, an annual increase of 3.8% (95%CI 2.3-5.3%). This increase occurred almost entirely among women with a PPH. Changes in pregnancy and birth factors during the study period did not account for increases in adverse outcomes either overall, or among the subgroup of women with PPH. Among women with severe adverse outcomes there was a 12% decrease in hospital days over the study period, whereas women with no severe adverse outcome occupied 23% fewer hospital days in 2004 than in 1999. Severe adverse maternal outcomes associated with childbirth have increased in Australia and the increase was entirely among women who experienced a PPH. Reducing or stabilising

  15. Trends in adverse maternal outcomes during childbirth: a population-based study of severe maternal morbidity

    Algert Charles S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality is too rare in high income countries to be used as a marker of the quality of maternity care. Consequently severe maternal morbidity has been suggested as a better indicator. Using the maternal morbidity outcome indicator (MMOI developed and validated for use in routinely collected population health data, we aimed to determine trends in severe adverse maternal outcomes during the birth admission and in particular to examine the contribution of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH. Methods We applied the MMOI to the linked birth-hospital discharge records for all women who gave birth in New South Wales, Australia from 1999 to 2004 and determined rates of severe adverse maternal outcomes. We used frequency distributions and contingency table analyses to examine the association between adverse outcomes and maternal, pregnancy and birth characteristics, among all women and among only those with PPH. Using logistic regression, we modelled the effects of these characteristics on adverse maternal outcomes. The impact of adverse outcomes on duration of hospital admission was also examined. Results Of 500,603 women with linked birth and hospital records, 6242 (12.5 per 1,000 suffered an adverse outcome, including 22 who died. The rate of adverse maternal outcomes increased from 11.5 in 1999 to 13.8 per 1000 deliveries in 2004, an annual increase of 3.8% (95%CI 2.3–5.3%. This increase occurred almost entirely among women with a PPH. Changes in pregnancy and birth factors during the study period did not account for increases in adverse outcomes either overall, or among the subgroup of women with PPH. Among women with severe adverse outcomes there was a 12% decrease in hospital days over the study period, whereas women with no severe adverse outcome occupied 23% fewer hospital days in 2004 than in 1999. Conclusion Severe adverse maternal outcomes associated with childbirth have increased in Australia and the increase was

  16. Maternal sensitivity: a concept analysis.

    Shin, Hyunjeong; Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Seomun, Gyeong-Ae

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a concept analysis of maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity is a broad concept encompassing a variety of interrelated affective and behavioural caregiving attributes. It is used interchangeably with the terms maternal responsiveness or maternal competency, with no consistency of use. There is a need to clarify the concept of maternal sensitivity for research and practice. A search was performed on the CINAHL and Ovid MEDLINE databases using 'maternal sensitivity', 'maternal responsiveness' and 'sensitive mothering' as key words. The searches yielded 54 records for the years 1981-2007. Rodgers' method of evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyse the material. Four critical attributes of maternal sensitivity were identified: (a) dynamic process involving maternal abilities; (b) reciprocal give-and-take with the infant; (c) contingency on the infant's behaviour and (d) quality of maternal behaviours. Maternal identity and infant's needs and cues are antecedents for these attributes. The consequences are infant's comfort, mother-infant attachment and infant development. In addition, three positive affecting factors (social support, maternal-foetal attachment and high self-esteem) and three negative affecting factors (maternal depression, maternal stress and maternal anxiety) were identified. A clear understanding of the concept of maternal sensitivity could be useful for developing ways to enhance maternal sensitivity and to maximize the developmental potential of infants. Knowledge of the attributes of maternal sensitivity identified in this concept analysis may be helpful for constructing measuring items or dimensions.

  17. Does pedagogical documentation support maternal reminiscing conversations?

    Bethany Fleck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When parents talk with their children about lessons learned in school, they are participating in reminiscing of an unshared event. This study sought to understand if pedagogical documentation, from the Reggio Approach to early childhood education, would support and enhance the conversation. Mother–child dyads reminisced two separate times about preschool lessons, one time with documentation available to them and one time without. Transcripts were coded extracting variables indicative of high and low maternal reminiscing styles. Results indicate that mother and child conversation characteristics were more highly elaborative when documentation was present than when it was not. In addition, children added more information to the conversation supporting the notion that such conversations enhanced memory for lessons. Documentation could be used as a support tool for conversations and children’s memory about lessons learned in school.

  18. Consolidity: Stack-based systems change pathway theory elaborated

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an elaborated analysis for investigating the stack-based layering processes during the systems change pathway. The system change pathway is defined as the path resulting from the combinations of all successive changes induced on the system when subjected to varying environments, activities, events, or any excessive internal or external influences and happenings “on and above” its normal stands, situations or set-points during its course of life. The analysis is essentially based on the important overall system paradigm of “Time driven-event driven-parameters change”. Based on this paradigm, it is considered that any affected activity, event or varying environment is intelligently self-recorded inside the system through an incremental consolidity-scaled change in system parameters of the stack-based layering types. Various joint stack-based mathematical and graphical approaches supported by representable case studies are suggested for the identification, extraction, and processing of various stack-based systems changes layering of different classifications and categorizations. Moreover, some selected real life illustrative applications are provided to demonstrate the (infinite stack-based identification and recognition of the change pathway process in the areas of geology, archeology, life sciences, ecology, environmental science, engineering, materials, medicine, biology, sociology, humanities, and other important fields. These case studies and selected applications revealed that there are general similarities of the stack-based layering structures and formations among all the various research fields. Such general similarities clearly demonstrate the global concept of the “fractals-general stacking behavior” of real life systems during their change pathways. Therefore, it is recommended that concentrated efforts should be expedited toward building generic modular stack-based systems or blocks for the mathematical

  19. Effects of Maternal Anxiety Disorders on Infant Self-Comforting Behaviors: The Role of Maternal Bonding, Infant Gender and Age.

    Müller, Mitho; Tronick, Ed; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Verschoor, Stephan; Träuble, Birgit

    We investigated the links between maternal bonding, maternal anxiety disorders, and infant self-comforting behaviors. Furthermore, we looked at the moderating roles of infant gender and age. Our sample (n = 69) comprised 28 mothers with an anxiety disorder (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 41 controls, each with their 2.5- to 8-month-old infant (41 females and 28 males). Infant behaviors were recorded during the Face-to-Face Still-Face paradigm. Maternal bonding was assessed by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Conditional process analyses revealed that lower maternal bonding partially mediated between maternal anxiety disorders and increased self-comforting behaviors but only in older female infants (over 5.5 months of age). However, considering maternal anxiety disorders without the influence of bonding, older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) showed decreased rates of self-comforting behaviors, while younger male infants (under 3 months of age) showed increased rates in the case of maternal anxiety disorder. The results suggest that older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) are more sensitive to lower maternal bonding in the context of maternal anxiety disorders. Furthermore, results suggest a different use of self-directed regulation strategies for male and female infants of mothers with anxiety disorders and low bonding, depending on infant age. The results are discussed in the light of gender-specific developmental trajectories. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Kinship support and maternal and adolescent well-being in economically disadvantaged African-American families.

    Taylor, R D; Roberts, D

    1995-12-01

    This study tested a conceptual model developed to explain the link between kinship support and the psychological well-being of economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. The relation of kinship support with maternal and adolescent well-being and mothers' child-rearing practices was assessed in 51 African-American families whose incomes placed them at or below the poverty threshold. Findings revealed that kinship social support to mothers/female guardians was positively associated with adolescent psychological well-being, maternal well-being, and more adequate maternal parenting practices (acceptance, firm control and monitoring of behavior, autonomy granting). Maternal well-being and more adequate maternal parenting practices were positively related to adolescent well-being. Evidence of the mediational role of maternal well-being and parenting practices was revealed. When the effects of maternal well-being and maternal parenting practices were controlled, significant relations between kinship support and adolescent well-being were no longer apparent.

  1. Team-Based Learning: Moderating Effects of Metacognitive Elaborative Rehearsal and Middle School History Content Recall

    Roberts, Greg; Scammacca, Nancy; Osman, David J.; Hall, Colby; Mohammed, Sarojani S.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content through Text (PACT) and similar team-based models directly engage and support students in learning situations that require cognitive elaboration as part of the processing of new information. Elaboration is subject to metacognitive control, as well (Karpicke, "Journal of Experimental…

  2. Using Elaborative Interrogation Enhanced Worked Examples to Improve Chemistry Problem Solving

    Pease, Rebecca Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Elaborative interrogation, which prompts students to answer why-questions placed strategically within informational text, has been shown to increase learning comprehension through reading. In this study, elaborative interrogation why-questions requested readers to explain why paraphrased statements taken from a reading were "true."…

  3. The Effects of Elaboration and Rehearsal on Long-Term Retention of Shape Names by Kindergarteners

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Elaboration and overt rehearsal are compared as instructional paradigms for memory retention. Superior long-term retention was produced in the elaboration condition when the initial acquisition effects were statistically removed. Short-term data suggest acquisition was complexly affected by experimental condition, I.Q., and task. Elaboration…

  4. The arison data acquisition and elaboration software package running on Hewlett-Packard minicomputer

    Diamantidis, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In this article, a data acquisition and elaboration system is described consisting in a PCM data acquisition and a spectrum analyser system and their data elaboration package for reactor safety or other general purposes. Measurements on temperature, noise fluctuations of temperature or other noise analysis dynamics, pressure, etc. Time series and their conversion in engineering units and their statistical and frequency analysis is provided

  5. ATTITUDE-CHANGE FOLLOWING PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION - INTEGRATING SOCIAL JUDGMENT THEORY AND THE ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL

    SIERO, FW; DOOSJE, BJ

    1993-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the influence of the perceived extremity of a message and motivation to elaborate upon the process of persuasion. The first goal was to test a model of attitude change relating Social Judgment Theory to the Elaboration Likelihood Model. The second objective was

  6. From planning to practice: building the national network for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity

    Bahamondes Maria V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving maternal health is one of the Millennium Development Goals for 2015. Recently some progress has been achieved in reducing mortality. On the other hand, in developed regions, maternal death is a relatively rare event compared to the number of cases of morbidity; hence studying maternal morbidity has become more relevant. Electronic surveillance systems may improve research by facilitating complete data reporting and reducing the time required for data collection and analysis. Therefore the purpose of this study was to describe the methods used in elaborating and implementing the National Network for the Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Brazil. Methods The project consisted of a multicenter, cross-sectional study for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity including near-miss, in Brazil. Results Following the development of a conceptual framework, centers were selected for inclusion in the network, consensus meetings were held among the centers, an electronic data collection system was identified, specific software and hardware tools were developed, research material was prepared, and the implementation process was initiated and analyzed. Conclusion The conceptual framework developed for this network was based on the experience acquired in various studies carried out in the area over recent years and encompasses maternal and perinatal health. It is innovative especially in the context of a developing country. The implementation of the project represents the first step towards this planned management. The system online elaborated for this surveillance network may be used in further studies in reproductive and perinatal health.

  7. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    Rozenstrauha, I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50% of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminiumborosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 ºC. In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites the mentioned by-products and illitic clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90% was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15–35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45–65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 ºC in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090–1100 ºC with the most optimal properties - porosity 38-52%, water absorption 39–47% and bulk density 1.35–1.67 g/cm3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35–1.1%, water absorption 0.7–2.6 % and bulk density 2.1–2.3 g/cm3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM. By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected.Durante la obtención de ciertas fibras de vidrio se generan dos subproductos o residuos principalmente: Lodo de arcilla montmorillonítica capaz de adsorber el 50 % de materia orgánica y un vidrio silicato alumínico con temperatura de reblandecimiento relativamente alta (> 600 ºC. Con el fin de elaborar nuevos

  8. Maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring

    Edlow, Andrea G.

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring. In addition, it highlights key mechanisms by which maternal obesity and maternal diet might impact fetal and offspring neurodevelopment, including neuroinflammation; increased oxidative stress, dysregulated insulin, glucose, and leptin signaling; dysregulated serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling; and perturbations in synaptic plasticity. Finally, the review summarizes available evidence regarding investigational therapeutic approaches to mitigate the harmful effects of maternal obesity on fetal and offspring neurodevelopment. PMID:27684946

  9. Reducing Maternal Mortality by Strengthening Community Maternal ...

    AJRH Managing Editor

    translated from Hausa to English language. Using a pre-determined coding framework, coding and thematic analyses were carried out on the qualitative data collected from the baseline. LGA. Community. Estimated. Community. Population. Community maternal support systems established. Community savings. Emergency.

  10. Maternal depression and co-occurring antisocial behaviour: testing maternal hostility and warmth as mediators of risk for offspring psychopathology.

    Sellers, Ruth; Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit; Rhoades, Kimberly A; Potter, Robert; Mars, Becky; Craddock, Nick; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Disruption in the parent-child relationship is a commonly hypothesized risk factor through which maternal depression may increase risk for offspring psychopathology. However, maternal depression is commonly accompanied by other psychopathology, including antisocial behaviour. Few studies have examined the role of co-occurring psychopathology in depressed mothers. Using a longitudinal study of offspring of mothers with recurrent depression, we aimed to test whether maternal warmth/hostility mediated links between maternal depression severity and child outcomes, and how far direct and indirect pathways were robust to controls for co-occurring maternal antisocial behaviour. Mothers with a history of recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring (9-17 years at baseline) were assessed three times between 2007 and 2010. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own depression severity and antisocial behaviour at Time 1 (T1). The parent-child relationship was assessed using parent-rated questionnaire and interviewer-rated 5-min speech sample at Time 2 (T2). Offspring symptoms of depression and disruptive behaviours were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment at Time 3 (T3). Maternal hostility and warmth, respectively, mediated the association between maternal depression severity and risk for offspring psychopathology. However, the effects were attenuated when maternal antisocial behaviour was included in the analysis. In tests of the full theoretical model, maternal antisocial behaviour predicted both maternal hostility and low warmth, maternal hostility predicted offspring disruptive behaviour disorder symptoms, but not depression, and maternal warmth was not associated with either child outcome. Parenting interventions aimed at reducing hostility may be beneficial for preventing or reducing adolescent disruptive behaviours in offspring of depressed mothers, especially when depressed mothers report co

  11. Elaboration and Validation of the Medication Prescription Safety Checklist.

    Pires, Aline de Oliveira Meireles; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Guimarães; Nascimento, Kleiton Gonçalves do; Felix, Márcia Marques Dos Santos; Pires, Patrícia da Silva; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2017-08-03

    to elaborate and validate a checklist to identify compliance with the recommendations for the structure of medication prescriptions, based on the Protocol of the Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. methodological research, conducted through the validation and reliability analysis process, using a sample of 27 electronic prescriptions. the analyses confirmed the content validity and reliability of the tool. The content validity, obtained by expert assessment, was considered satisfactory as it covered items that represent the compliance with the recommendations regarding the structure of the medication prescriptions. The reliability, assessed through interrater agreement, was excellent (ICC=1.00) and showed perfect agreement (K=1.00). the Medication Prescription Safety Checklist showed to be a valid and reliable tool for the group studied. We hope that this study can contribute to the prevention of adverse events, as well as to the improvement of care quality and safety in medication use. elaborar e validar um instrumento tipo checklist para identificar a adesão às recomendações na estrutura das prescrições de medicamentos, a partir do Protocolo do Ministério da Saúde e Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. pesquisa metodológica, conduzida por meio do processo de validade e análise de confiabilidade, com amostra de 27 prescrições eletrônicas. análises realizadas confirmaram a validade de conteúdo e a confiabilidade da versão do instrumento. A validade de conteúdo, obtida por meio da avaliação de juízes, foi considerada satisfatória por contemplar itens que representam a adesão às recomendações na estrutura das prescrições de medicamentos. A confiabilidade, avaliada por interobservadores, apresentou-se excelente (ICC=1,00) e de concordância perfeita (K=1,00). o instrumento Lista de Verificação de Segurança na Prescrição de Medicamentos demonstrou-se válido e confiável para o grupo estudado. Espera

  12. [Maternal death: unequal risks].

    Defossez, A C; Fassin, D

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality

  13. Recommendations for elaboration, transcultural adaptation and validation process of tests in Speech, Hearing and Language Pathology.

    Pernambuco, Leandro; Espelt, Albert; Magalhães, Hipólito Virgílio; Lima, Kenio Costa de

    2017-06-08

    to present a guide with recommendations for translation, adaptation, elaboration and process of validation of tests in Speech and Language Pathology. the recommendations were based on international guidelines with a focus on the elaboration, translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of tests. the recommendations were grouped into two Charts, one of them with procedures for translation and transcultural adaptation and the other for obtaining evidence of validity, reliability and measures of accuracy of the tests. a guide with norms for the organization and systematization of the process of elaboration, translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of tests in Speech and Language Pathology was created.

  14. Propagation engineering in radio links design

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Propagation Engineering in Radio Link Design covers the basic principles of radiowaves propagation in a practical manner.  This fundamental understanding enables the readers to design radio links efficiently. This book elaborates on new achievements as well as recently developed propagation models.  This is in addition to a comprehensive overview of fundamentals of propagation in various scenarios. It examines theoretical calculations, approaches and applied procedures needed for radio links design. The authors study and analysis of the main propagation phenomena and its mechanisms based on the recommendations of International Telecommunications Union, (ITU). The book has been organized in 9 chapters and examines the role of antennas and passive reflectors in radio services, propagation mechanisms related to radar, satellite, short distance, broadcasting and trans-horizon radio links, with two chapters devoted to radio noise and main  parameters of radio link design. The book presents some 278 illustration...

  15. Picture Superiority in Free Recall: The Effects of Organization and Elaboration.

    Ritchey, Gary H.

    1980-01-01

    Tests the notion that activation in children's semantic memory might best be considered in terms of both between-item and within-item elaboration. Subjects were 192 second, fourth, and sixth graders. (MP)

  16. Note of the 20 December 2016 on the elaboration of regional biomass schemes

    Michel, Laurent; GESLAIN-LANEELLE, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This official note informs Region prefects on modalities of elaboration of regional biomass schemes, and provides them with data on mobilizable biomass resources at the regional level. It briefly presents the legal framework of the scheme elaboration, the elaboration agenda, and the scope of usages of biomass to be considered within the scheme. It discusses the articulation between regional and national schemes, from a global point of view as well as in terms works of elaboration. It briefly describes how the regional scheme is to be assessed. Appendices present planning and programming elements to be taken into account, elements of explanation for the regional biomass table, institutions represented in the information and orientation committee of the national scheme, and regional biomass tables which contain detailed assessments of the various biomass resources for each French region

  17. ABOUT THE TERMINOLOGY USED DURING ELABORATION OF INNOVATION BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EXPERIMENTAL HAPLOIDY

    KRUGLOVA N.N.

    2017-01-01

    From the standpoint of plant embryology the terminology used during elaboration of innovation biotechnology of experimental haploidy is discussed. It is emphasized that morphogenic processes both in vivo and in vitro are universal.

  18. Methodological aspects to elaborate the management and procedure guides of severe accidents

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, F.; Jimenez Fernandez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The management guides in severe accidents are very important to know the procedures in these accidents. The present articles summarizes the methodological aspects to elaborate the management guides, in order to prevent the severe accidents

  19. Vocabulary development at home: A multimedia elaborated picture supporting parent-toddler interaction

    Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance. A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent-toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support

  20. Rural maternity care.

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  1. Support for maternal manipulation of developmental nutrition in a facultatively eusocial bee, Megalopta genalis (Halictidae)

    Kapheim, Karen M.; Bernal, Sandra P.; Smith, Adam R.; Nonacs, Peter; Wcislo, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental maternal effects are a potentially important source of phenotypic variation, but they can be difficult to distinguish from other environmental factors. This is an important distinction within the context of social evolution, because if variation in offspring helping behavior is due to maternal manipulation, social selection may act on maternal phenotypes, as well as those of offspring. Factors correlated with social castes have been linked to variation in developmental nutrition...

  2. Operative Links

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  3. Emotion processing in the aging brain is modulated by semantic elaboration

    Ritchey, Maureen; Bessette-Symons, Brandy; Hayes, Scott M.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The neural correlates of emotion processing have been shown to vary with age: older adults (OAs) exhibit increased frontal activations and, under some circumstances, decreased amygdala activations relative to young adults (YAs) during emotion processing. Some of these differences are additionally modulated by valence, with age-related biases toward positive versus negative stimuli, and are thought to depend on OAs’ capacity for controlled elaboration. However, the role of semantic elaboration...

  4. Lateral and medial prefrontal contributions to emotion generation by semantic elaboration during episodic encoding.

    Kaneda, Takumi; Shigemune, Yayoi; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    Memories for emotion-laden stimuli are remembered more accurately than those for neutral stimuli. Although this enhancement reflects stimulus-driven modulation of memory by emotions, functional neuroimaging evidence of the interacting mechanisms between emotions generated by intentional processes, such as semantic elaboration, and memory is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated how encoding-related activation is modulated by emotions generated during the process of semantic elaboration. During encoding with fMRI, healthy young adults viewed neutral (target) pictures either passively or with semantic elaboration. In semantic elaboration, participants imagined background stories related to the pictures. Encoding trials with semantic elaboration were subdivided into conditions in which participants imagined negative, positive, or neutral stories. One week later, memories for target pictures were tested. In behavioral results, memories for target pictures were significantly enhanced by semantic elaboration, compared to passive viewing, and the memory enhancement was more remarkable when negative or positive stories were imagined. fMRI results demonstrated that activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) were greater during the encoding of target pictures with semantic elaboration than those with passive viewing, and that these activations further increased during encoding with semantic elaboration of emotional stories than of neutral stories. Functional connectivity between the left inferior frontal gyrus and dmPFC/hippocampus during encoding significantly predicted retrieval accuracies of memories encoded with self-generated emotional stories. These findings suggest that networks including the left inferior frontal region, dmPFC, and hippocampus could contribute to the modulation of memories encoded with the emotion generation.

  5. Increasing the Persuasiveness of Fear Appeals: The Effect of Arousal and Elaboration.

    Keller, Punam Anand; Block, Lauren Goldberg

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which messages that prompt low and high levels of fear are likely to be effective. Our premise is that when a low level of fear is ineffective, it is because there is insufficient elaboration of the harmful consequences of engaging in the destructive behavior. By contrast, when appeals arousing high levels of fear are ineffective, it is because too much elaboration on the harmful consequences interferes with processing of the recommended change in behavior....

  6. Participation of industry experts in the elaboration of monographs and chapters of the European Pharmacopoeia.

    Rose, Ulrich

    2016-10-10

    The European Pharmacopoeia represents an important element in the European regulatory system for medicines. It is elaborated in a co-operation of experts from authorities, academia and industry, assisted by scientific staff from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM). This article describes the principles of its elaboration with particular focus on the involvement of industry experts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and construction of a device for elaborate films of Vyns or Cellulose with control thickness

    Patlan C, F.

    1998-01-01

    This work is a part of the studies about the elaboration of reference radioactive sources, which are done in the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. Specially concerns with the elaboration of α-β radioactive sources. The importance of this work is because their applications increase day by day. Medicine, engineering, agriculture and even the arts cannot escape to the influence and impact of the nuclear sciences. But, what are the radioactive sources?, what is a holder of a radioactive source?, why we elaborate holders with special materials?, which is the best technique to elaborate them?. These topics are commented in this work. The material is as follows: the introduction and objective are described in chapter one. The second chapter deals with concepts about atomic and molecular structures, general description of nuclear radiation and their characteristics, comments about radioactive law decay, interaction of the alpha particles with the matter and a short description about surface barrier detectors. The different methods for elaborate a radioactive source holders are described in the chapter three. This same chapter speaks the topic about the elaboration of vyns or cellulose films and a device is proposed for make them; are some methods described how to take measure of their thickness. Chapter four shows the results, analysis and the respective conclusions. (Author)

  8. Factors Influencing Maternal Behavioral Adaptability: Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negative Affect.

    Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    In early childhood, parents play an important role in children's socioemotional development. As such, parent training is a central component of many psychological interventions for young children (Reyno & McGrath, 2006). Maternal depressive symptoms have consistently been linked to maladaptive parenting behaviors (e.g., disengagement, intrusiveness), as well as to lower parent training efficacy in the context of child psychological intervention, suggesting that mothers with higher symptomatology may be less able to be adapt their behavior according to situational demands. The goal of the current study was to examine both maternal and child factors that may influence maternal behavioral adaptability. Ninety-one mothers and their toddlers ( M = 23.93 months, 59% male) participated in a laboratory visit during which children engaged in a variety of novelty episodes designed to elicit individual differences in fear/withdrawal behaviors. Mothers also completed a questionnaire battery. Maternal behavioral adaptability was operationalized as the difference in scores for maternal involvement, comforting, and protective behavior between episodes in which mothers were instructed to refrain from interaction and those in which they were instructed to act naturally. Results indicated that when children displayed high levels of negative affect in the restricted episodes, mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less able to adapt their involved behavior because they exhibited low rates of involvement across episodes regardless of instruction given. The current study serves as an intermediary step in understanding how maternal depressive symptoms may influence daily interactions with their children as well as treatment implementation and outcomes, and provides initial evidence that maternal internalizing symptoms may contribute to lower behavioral adaptability in the context of certain child behaviors due to consistent low involvement.

  9. Scandinavian links

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  10. Maternal morbidity and risk of death at delivery hospitalization.

    Campbell, Katherine H; Savitz, David; Werner, Erika F; Pettker, Christian M; Goffman, Dena; Chazotte, Cynthia; Lipkind, Heather S

    2013-09-01

    To examine the effect of underlying maternal morbidities on the odds of maternal death during delivery hospitalization. We used data that linked birth certificates to hospital discharge diagnoses from singleton live births at 22 weeks of gestation or later during 1995-2003 in New York City. Maternal morbidities examined included prepregnancy weight more than 114 kilograms (250 pounds), chronic hypertension, pregestational or gestational diabetes mellitus, chronic cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, chronic lung disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and preeclampsia or eclampsia. Associations with maternal mortality were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. During the specified time period, 1,084,862 live singleton births and 132 maternal deaths occurred. Patients with increasing maternal age, non-Hispanic black ethnicity, self-pay or Medicaid, primary cesarean delivery, and premature delivery had higher rates of maternal mortality during delivery hospitalization. From the entire study population, 4.1% had preeclampsia or eclampsia (n=44,004), 1.8% had chronic hypertension (n=19,647), 1.1% of patients were classified as obese (n=11,936), 0.7% had pregestational diabetes (n=7,474), 0.4% had HIV (n=4,665), and 0.01% had pulmonary hypertension (n=166). Preeclampsia or eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5-12.1), chronic hypertension (adjusted OR, 7.7; 95% CI 4.7-12.5), underlying maternal obesity (adjusted OR, 2.9; 95% CI 1.1-8.1), pregestational diabetes (adjusted OR, 3.3; 95% CI 1.3-8.1), HIV (adjusted OR, 7.7; 95% CI 3.4-17.8), and pulmonary hypertension (adjusted OR, 65.1; 95% CI 15.8-269.3) were associated with an increased risk of death during the delivery hospitalization. The presence of maternal disease significantly increases the odds of maternal mortality at the time of delivery hospitalization. II.

  11. Association between Maternal Obesity and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis

    Li, Ya-Min; Ou, Jian-Jun; Liu, Li; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Jing-Ping; Tang, Si-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    As the link between maternal obesity and risk of autism among offspring is unclear, the present study assessed this association. A systematic search of an electronic database was performed to identify observational studies that examined the association between maternal obesity and autism. The outcome measures were odds ratios comparing offspring…

  12. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...

  13. Maternal Mortality in a Nigerian Maternity Hospital | Olopade ...

    Despite recent focus on maternal mortality in Nigeria, its rates remain unacceptably high in Nigeria. A retrospective case-control study was carried out at Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan between January 2003 and December 2004. This was to determine the maternal mortality ratio in a secondary health facility, to identify ...

  14. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    Background: Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred through the placenta from mother to foetus. A relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of ...

  15. Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence.

    Delker, Brianna C; Noll, Laura K; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2014-12-01

    Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent's own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother's history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child's first 24-36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N=488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children's birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child's birth through 36 months, and at age 9-11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child's early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Hickman, M Ashley; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Beck, James D; Offenbacher, Steven

    2011-03-01

    We sought to determine if maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress as measured by serum 8-isoprostane. A secondary analysis was conducted using prospective data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy Study. Healthy women enrolled at periodontal disease status was categorized as healthy, mild, or moderate to severe by clinical criteria. Maternal serum was analyzed for 8-isoprostane using ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated 8-isoprostane level was defined as ≥ 75th percentile. Maternal factors associated with elevated 8-isoprostane were determined using chi-square or T test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess association between elevated 8-isoprostane and maternal factors. Seven hundred ninety-one women had complete data. Median (interquartile) 8-isoprostane serum level was 1806 (16 to 81,870) pg/dL. Using bivariate analysis, maternal age, race, marital status, utilization of public assistance, and mild or moderate to severe periodontal disease were associated with elevated serum 8-isoprostane. Using logistic regression, moderate to severe periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 5.0) remained significantly associated with an elevated serum 8-isoprostane level. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy. Further study is needed to determine the role of maternal oxidative stress in periodontal disease-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  17. Ancient origin and maternal inheritance of blue cuckoo eggs.

    Fossøy, Frode; Sorenson, Michael D; Liang, Wei; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Moksnes, Arne; Møller, Anders P; Rutila, Jarkko; Røskaft, Eivin; Takasu, Fugo; Yang, Canchao; Stokke, Bård G

    2016-01-12

    Maternal inheritance via the female-specific W chromosome was long ago proposed as a potential solution to the evolutionary enigma of co-existing host-specific races (or 'gentes') in avian brood parasites. Here we report the first unambiguous evidence for maternal inheritance of egg colouration in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Females laying blue eggs belong to an ancient (∼2.6 Myr) maternal lineage, as evidenced by both mitochondrial and W-linked DNA, but are indistinguishable at nuclear DNA from other common cuckoos. Hence, cuckoo host races with blue eggs are distinguished only by maternally inherited components of the genome, which maintain host-specific adaptation despite interbreeding among males and females reared by different hosts. A mitochondrial phylogeny suggests that blue eggs originated in Asia and then expanded westwards as female cuckoos laying blue eggs interbred with the existing European population, introducing an adaptive trait that expanded the range of potential hosts.

  18. Article Commentary: Prenatal Substance Use: Exploring Assumptions of Maternal Unfitness

    Mishka Terplan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the growing knowledge and understanding of addiction as a chronic relapsing medical condition, individuals with substance use disorders (SUD continue to experience stigmatization. Pregnant women who use substances suffer additional stigma as their use has the potential to cause fetal harm, calling into question their maternal fitness and often leading to punitive responses. Punishing pregnant women denies the integral interconnectedness of the maternal-fetal dyad. Linking substance use with maternal unfitness is not supported by the balance of the scientific evidence regarding the actual harms associated with substance use during pregnancy. Such linkage adversely impacts maternal, child, and family health by deterring pregnant women from seeking both obstetrical care and SUD treatment. Pregnant women who use substances deserve compassion and care, not pariah-status and punishment.

  19. Emotion processing in the aging brain is modulated by semantic elaboration

    Ritchey, Maureen; Bessette-Symons, Brandy; Hayes, Scott M.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The neural correlates of emotion processing have been shown to vary with age: older adults (OAs) exhibit increased frontal activations and, under some circumstances, decreased amygdala activations relative to young adults (YAs) during emotion processing. Some of these differences are additionally modulated by valence, with age-related biases toward positive versus negative stimuli, and are thought to depend on OAs’ capacity for controlled elaboration. However, the role of semantic elaboration in mediating valence effects in the aging brain has not yet been explicitly tested. In the present study, YAs and OAs were scanned while they viewed negative, neutral, and positive pictures during either a deep, elaborative task or a shallow, perceptual task. FMRI results reveal that emotion-related activity in the amygdala is preserved in aging and insensitive to elaboration demands. This study provides novel evidence that differences in valence processing are modulated by elaboration: relative to YAs, OAs show enhanced activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventrolateral PFC in response to positive versus negative stimuli, but only during elaborative processing. These positive valence effects are predicted by individual differences in executive function in OAs for the deep but not shallow task. Finally, psychophysiological interaction analyses reveal age effects on valence-dependent functional connectivity between medial PFC and ventral striatum, as well as age and task effects on medial PFC-retrosplenial cortex interactions. Altogether, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that valence shifts in the aging brain are mediated by controlled processes such as semantic elaboration, self-referential processing, and emotion regulation. PMID:20869375

  20. Emotion processing in the aging brain is modulated by semantic elaboration.

    Ritchey, Maureen; Bessette-Symons, Brandy; Hayes, Scott M; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-03-01

    The neural correlates of emotion processing have been shown to vary with age: older adults (OAs) exhibit increased frontal activations and, under some circumstances, decreased amygdala activations relative to young adults (YAs) during emotion processing. Some of these differences are additionally modulated by valence, with age-related biases toward positive versus negative stimuli, and are thought to depend on OAs' capacity for controlled elaboration. However, the role of semantic elaboration in mediating valence effects in the aging brain has not yet been explicitly tested. In the present study, YAs and OAs were scanned while they viewed negative, neutral, and positive pictures during either a deep, elaborative task or a shallow, perceptual task. fMRI results reveal that emotion-related activity in the amygdala is preserved in aging and insensitive to elaboration demands. This study provides novel evidence that differences in valence processing are modulated by elaboration: relative to YAs, OAs show enhanced activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventrolateral PFC in response to positive versus negative stimuli, but only during elaborative processing. These positive valence effects are predicted by individual differences in executive function in OAs for the deep but not shallow task. Finally, psychophysiological interaction analyses reveal age effects on valence-dependent functional connectivity between medial PFC and ventral striatum, as well as age and task effects on medial PFC-retrosplenial cortex interactions. Altogether, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that valence shifts in the aging brain are mediated by controlled processes such as semantic elaboration, self-referential processing, and emotion regulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal and child health project in Nigeria.

    Okafor, Chinyelu B

    2003-12-01

    Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.

  2. Social competence of elementary-school children: relationships to maternal authoritativeness, supportive maternal responses and children's coping strategies.

    Chan, S M

    2011-07-01

    Although the influences of parenting on children's development of social competence have been well established, research on the underlying mechanisms of this link is relatively limited. The present study examined children's coping strategies as a mediator of the effects of maternal authoritativeness and maternal inductive responses on their social competence. The mothers of 183 Hong Kong Chinese children aged 6 to 8 years (89 girls and 94 boys) reported on their adoption of authoritative parenting and their responses to their children's expressions of emotion, and rated their children's adoption of constructive coping strategies. The children's teachers reported on the children's prosocial behaviour, and rated their level of peer acceptance at school. A model of maternal authoritativeness and supportive maternal responses affecting children's social competence is presented. The study results show that the effects of authoritative parenting on children's adoption of constructive coping strategies were mediated by supportive maternal responses to children's expression of emotion, and that the effects of maternal authoritativeness and maternal responses on children's social competence were mediated by children's coping strategies. These results suggest that school personnel should organize training programmes on emotion-coping strategies for both parents and children. The findings imply that positive parenting facilitates children's acquisition of constructive emotion-coping strategies. Programmes on emotion-coping strategies should be introduced for both parents and school children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Engagement of the ATEE in the elaboration of regulation texts; L`action de l`atee lors de l`elaboration des textes reglementaires

    Jacubowiez, I. [ATEE, Association Technique Energie Environnement, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    The French technical association for energy savings (ATEE) has been involved in the elaboration of regulations concerning efficiency and pollution of medium-power combustion equipment (boilers, engines, dryers, furnaces...), with the aim of promoting energy efficiency and rational utilization of energy. It has thus been involved in the development of a new classification of these equipment with regard to their fuel and energy sources (decree 2910), and decrees on boiler (lower than 50 MW) efficiency, technical inspections, and classification of heat networks

  4. Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism

    user

    Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism. Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health. Maternal health is a major health priority for international agencies and the Ethiopian. Government. Many low income countries including. Ethiopia, made substantial improvements in maternal health achieving ...

  5. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  6. Maternity Leave Policies

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  7. Anemia and pregnancy: a link to maternal chronic diseases.

    Gangopadhyay, Raja; Karoshi, Mahantesh; Keith, Louis

    2011-11-01

    Anemia is a global public health problem. It has serious short- and long-term consequences during pregnancy and beyond. The anemic condition is often worsened by the presence of other chronic diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and diabetes. Untreated anemia also leads to increased morbidity and mortality from these chronic conditions as well. It is surprising that despite these chronic conditions (such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV) often being preventable, they still pose a real threat to public health. This article aims to review the current understanding of the pathophysiology, risks, prevention, and treatment of anemia in the light of these chronic conditions. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Maternal Employment and Children's School Readiness in Contemporary Families

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among children generalized to modern families. Using a representative sample of children born in the United States in 2001 (N = 10,100), ordinary least squares regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links…

  9. West and Central African Partnership for Maternal, Newborn, Child ...

    High rates of maternal death and teen pregnancy persist in West and Central Africa. Research and programming efforts are not sustainably reducing these rates. The challenge is how to link the evidence on useful health interventions with evidence on how to deliver the interventions effectively. This project aims to build the ...

  10. Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

  11. Infant feeding-related maternity care practices and maternal report of breastfeeding outcomes.

    Nelson, Jennifer M; Perrine, Cria G; Freedman, David S; Williams, Letitia; Morrow, Brian; Smith, Ruben A; Dee, Deborah L

    2018-02-07

    Evidence-based maternity practices and policies can improve breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. Maternity facilities report practices through the Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey, but individual outcomes, such as breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, are not collected. mPINC data on maternity care practices for 2009 were linked to data from the 2009 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), which collects information on mothers' behaviors and experiences around pregnancy. We calculated total mPINC scores (range 0-100). PRAMS data on any and exclusive breastfeeding at 8 weeks were examined by total mPINC score quartile. Of 15 715 women in our sample, 53.7% were breastfeeding any at 8 weeks, and 29.3% were breastfeeding exclusively. They gave birth at 1016 facilities that had a mean total mPINC score of 65/100 (range 19-99). Care dimension subscores ranged from 41 for facility discharge care to 81 for breastfeeding assistance. In multivariable analysis adjusting for covariates, a positive relationship was found between total mPINC score quartile and both any breastfeeding (quartile 2: odds ratio [OR] 1.40 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.08-1.83], quartile 3: OR 1.50 [95% CI 1.15-1.96], quartile 4: OR 2.12 [95% CI 1.61-2.78] vs quartile 1) and exclusive breastfeeding (quartile 3: OR 1.41 [95% CI 1.04-1.90], quartile 4: OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.41-2.55] vs quartile 1) at 8 weeks. These data demonstrate that evidence-based maternity care practices and policies are associated with better breastfeeding outcomes. Maternity facilities may evaluate their practices and policies to ensure they are helping mothers achieve their breastfeeding goals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Early maternal depressive symptom trajectories: Associations with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior.

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E; Wang, Yan; Black, Maureen M

    2017-06-01

    This study examines potential mechanisms linking maternal depressive symptoms over 2 years postpartum with child behavior problems at school-age in a sample of adolescent mothers and their first-born child. Potential mechanisms include: mother-reported caregiving engagement at 6 months; observed parental nurturance and control, and child competence and affect at 24 months; and mother-reported resilience at 7 years based on achievement of adult developmental tasks. One hundred eighteen low-income African American adolescent mothers were recruited at delivery and followed through child age 7 years. Maternal depressive symptom trajectories over 24 months were estimated (low, medium, and high) based on mother-reported depressive symptoms. Direct and indirect associations between depressive symptom trajectories with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems were examined. The high maternal depressive symptom trajectory was associated with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms (b = 5.52, SE = 1.65, p child internalizing problems (b = 7.60, SE = 3.12, p = .02) and externalizing problems (b = 6.23, SE = 3.22, p = .05). Caregiving engagement among high depressive symptom trajectory mothers was significantly associated with observed child affect (b = -0.21, SE = 0.11, p = 0.05). Parental nurturance in toddlerhood mediated the association between high maternal depressive symptom trajectory and child internalizing problems at 7 years (indirect effect b = 2.33, 95% CI: 0.32-5.88). Findings suggest that family based interventions to promote parenting and adolescent resiliency strengthening may be beneficial in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Elaborated contextual framing is necessary for action-based attitude acquisition.

    Laham, Simon M; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Dix, Jennifer; Wheeler, Melissa; Levis, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Although arm flexion and extension have been implicated as conditioners of attitudes, recent work casts some doubt on the nature and strength of the coupling of these muscle contractions and stimulus evaluation. We propose that the elaborated contextual framing of flexion and extension actions is necessary for attitude acquisition. Results showed that when flexion and extension were disambiguated via elaborated contextual cues (i.e., framed as collect and discard within a foraging context), neutral stimuli processed under flexion were liked more than neutral stimuli processed under extension. However, when unelaborated framing was used (e.g., mere stimulus zooming effects), stimulus evaluation did not differ as a function of muscle contractions. These results suggest that neither arm contractions per se nor unelaborated framings are sufficient for action-based attitude acquisition, but that elaborated framings are necessary.

  14. Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes.

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Fraser, Drora

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge on maternal nutritional requirements during pregnancy, with a focus on the nutrients that have been most commonly investigated in association with birth outcomes. Data sourcing and extraction included searches of the primary resources establishing maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy (e.g., Dietary Reference Intakes), and searches of Medline for "maternal nutrition"/[specific nutrient of interest] and "birth/pregnancy outcomes," focusing mainly on the less extensively reviewed evidence from observational studies of maternal dietary intake and birth outcomes. The authors used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors (e.g., baseline maternal nutritional status, socioeconomic status of the study populations, timing and methods of assessing maternal nutritional variables) into account when interpreting study findings. The authors conclude that maternal nutrition is a modifiable risk factor of public health importance that can be integrated into efforts to prevent adverse birth outcomes, particularly among economically developing/low-income populations.

  15. Exploring the social determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in prenatal care utilization and maternal outcome.

    Gadson, Alexis; Akpovi, Eloho; Mehta, Pooja K

    2017-08-01

    Rates of maternal morbidity and mortality are rising in the United States. Non-Hispanic Black women are at highest risk for these outcomes compared to those of other race/ethnicities. Black women are also more likely to be late to prenatal care or be inadequate users of prenatal care. Prenatal care can engage those at risk and potentially influence perinatal outcomes but further research on the link between prenatal care and maternal outcomes is needed. The objective of this article is to review literature illuminating the relationship between prenatal care utilization, social determinants of health, and racial disparities in maternal outcome. We present a theoretical framework connecting the complex factors that may link race, social context, prenatal care utilization, and maternal morbidity/mortality. Prenatal care innovations showing potential to engage with the social determinants of maternal health and address disparities and priorities for future research are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A framework for elaborating a geological disposal safety case: Main issues to be addressed

    Besnus, F.; Gay, D.

    2002-01-01

    International guidance on safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste is being elaborated by IAEA. A comparison of experiences acquired in developing deep repository projects shows that many important issues related to the progressive building of confidence in the safety demonstration of such facilities are commonly addressed by the various organisations involved in radioactive waste management. However, there is still some discrepancies in defining the steps that form the staged elaboration of a safety case. This paper intends to propose a framework for defining the safety case in describing the main issues to be addressed and highlighting questions of consistency between former steps. (author)

  17. Nonlinear generalized synchronization of chaotic systems by pure error dynamics and elaborate nondiagonal Lyapunov function

    Ge Zhengming; Chang Chingming

    2009-01-01

    By applying pure error dynamics and elaborate nondiagonal Lyapunov function, the nonlinear generalized synchronization is studied in this paper. Instead of current mixed error dynamics in which master state variables and slave state variables are presented, the nonlinear generalized synchronization can be obtained by pure error dynamics without auxiliary numerical simulation. The elaborate nondiagonal Lyapunov function is applied rather than current monotonous square sum Lyapunov function deeply weakening the powerfulness of Lyapunov direct method. Both autonomous and nonautonomous double Mathieu systems are used as examples with numerical simulations.

  18. Sintering by infiltration of loose mixture of powders, a method for metal matrix composite elaboration

    Constantinescu, V.; Orban, R.; Colan, H.

    1993-01-01

    Starting from the observation that Sintering by Infiltration of Loose Mixture of Powders confers large possibilities for both complex shaped and of large dimensions Particulate Reinforced Metal Matrix Composite components elaboration, its mechanism comparative with those of the classical melt infiltration was investigated. Appropriate measures in order to prevent an excessive hydrostatic flow of the melt and, consequently, reinforcement particle dispersion, as well as to promote wetting in both infiltration and liquid phase sintering stages of the process were established as necessary. Some experimental results in the method application to the fusion tungsten carbide and diamond reinforced metal matrix composite elaboration are, also, presented. (orig.)

  19. Research on Shore-Ship Photonic Link Performance for Two- Frequency-Band Signals

    Zuo, Yanqin; Cong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Ka and Ku bands links for shore-ship communications suffer limited bandwidth and high loss. In this paper, photonics-based links are proposed and modeled. The principle of phase modulation (PM) is elaborated and analyzed. It is showed that PM can effectively suppress high-order inter-modulation distortion (IMD), reduce the insert loss and improve the reliability of the system.

  20. The Life of Metis: Cunning Maternal Interventions

    Amber Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper charts the different and co-existent uses of the Greek myth and concept of Metis for feminist philosophy. I show how the move from using the myth of Metis to an engagement with the marginalised ancient Greek concept of cunning intelligence (metis is significant in addressing problems of agency and political action in contemporary feminist debates. The paper addresses the concept of metis cunning intelligence in relation to the maternal and argues for a theory of metis charcterised by a double action, and finally links this approach to recent ideas in Deleuzian feminist theory.

  1. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  2. Syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with neural tube defects (I).

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as acrocallosal syndrome, autosomal dominant brachydactyly-clinodactyly syndrome, Manouvrier syndrome, short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Disorganization ( Ds )-like human malformations, isolated hemihyperplasia, X-linked NTDs, meroanencephaly, schisis association, diprosopus, fetal valproate syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, folic acid antagonists, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  3. Different implications of paternal and maternal atopy for perinatal IgE production and asthma development.

    Wu, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Rong-Fu; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-beta are associated with lung function and allergic sensitization, respectively. In IgE production and asthma development, the maternal influence on gene-environment interaction is greater than paternal influence. Maternal, paternal, and/or postnatal environmental modulation of allergic responses have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, which may be good targets for early prevention of asthma.

  4. Different Implications of Paternal and Maternal Atopy for Perinatal IgE Production and Asthma Development

    Chih-Chiang Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-beta are associated with lung function and allergic sensitization, respectively. In IgE production and asthma development, the maternal influence on gene-environment interaction is greater than paternal influence. Maternal, paternal, and/or postnatal environmental modulation of allergic responses have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, which may be good targets for early prevention of asthma.

  5. Good maternal nutrition

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  6. Maternal obesity and infant mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Meehan, Sean; Beck, Charles R; Mair-Jenkins, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Puleston, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Despite numerous studies reporting an elevated risk of infant mortality among women who are obese, the magnitude of the association is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the association between maternal overweight or obesity and infant mortality. Four health care databases and gray literature sources were searched and screened against the protocol eligibility criteria. Observational studies reporting on the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and infant mortality were included. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were performed. Twenty-four records were included from 783 screened. Obese mothers (BMI ≥30) had greater odds of having an infant death (odds ratio 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.63; P obese (BMI >35) (odds ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.61-2.56; P obese mothers and that this risk may increase with greater maternal BMI or weight; however, residual confounding may explain these findings. Given the rising prevalence of maternal obesity, additional high-quality epidemiologic studies to elucidate the actual influence of elevated maternal mass or weight on infant mortality are needed. If a causal link is determined and the biological basis explained, public health strategies to address the issue of maternal obesity will be needed. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Maternal nutrition knowledge and child nutritional outcomes in urban Kenya.

    Debela, Bethelhem Legesse; Demmler, Kathrin M; Rischke, Ramona; Qaim, Matin

    2017-09-01

    We examine the link between maternal nutrition knowledge and nutritional outcomes of children and adolescents (5-18 years) measured in terms of height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ). One particular focus is on the role of different types of nutrition knowledge. The analysis builds on household-level and individual-level data collected in urban Kenya in 2012 and 2015. Various regression models are developed and estimated. Results show that maternal nutrition knowledge - measured through an aggregate knowledge score - is positively associated with child HAZ, even after controlling for other influencing factors such as household living standard and general maternal education. However, disaggregation by type of knowledge reveals important differences. Maternal knowledge about food ingredients only has a weak positive association with child HAZ. For maternal knowledge about specific dietary recommendations, no significant association is detected. The strongest positive association with child HAZ is found for maternal knowledge about the health consequences of not following recommended dietary practices. These findings have direct relevance for nutrition and health policies, especially for designing the contents of educational campaigns and training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreased maternal plasma apelin concentrations in preeclampsia.

    Bortoff, Katherine D; Qiu, Chunfang; Runyon, Scott; Williams, Michelle A; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder that complicates 3-7% of pregnancies. The development of preeclampsia has not been completely elucidated and current therapies are not broadly efficacious. The apelinergic system appears to be involved in hypertensive disorders and experimental studies indicate a role of this system in preeclampsia. Thus, an epidemiological evaluation of apelin protein concentration in plasma was conducted in case-control study of pregnant women. Data and maternal plasma samples were collected from pregnant women with confirmed preeclampsia (n = 76) or normotensive controls (n = 79). Concentrations of apelin peptides were blindly measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Plasma apelin concentrations, measured at delivery, were lower in preeclampsia cases compared with controls (mean ± standard deviation: 0.66 ± 0.29 vs. 0.78 ± 0.31 ng/mL, p = 0.02). After controlling for confounding by maternal age, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index, odds of preeclampsia were 48% lower for women with high versus low plasma apelin (≥0.73 vs. preclampsia and other hypertensive maternal disorders.

  9. UNDERSTANDING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN ATTACHMENT TRAUMA AND MATERNAL SELF-EFFICACY IN DEPRESSED MOTHERS.

    Brazeau, Natalie; Reisz, Samantha; Jacobvitz, Deborah; George, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy predicts sensitive and responsive caregiving. Low maternal self-efficacy is associated with a higher incidence of postpartum depression. Maternal self-efficacy and postpartum depression can both be buffered by social support. Maternal self-efficacy and postpartum depression have both been linked independently, albeit in separate studies, to the experience of violent trauma, childhood maltreatment, and spousal abuse. This study proposed a model in which postpartum depression mediates the relation between attachment trauma and maternal self-efficacy, with emotional support as a moderator. Participants were 278 first-time mothers of infants under 14 months. Cross-sectional data were collected online. Mothers completed questionnaires on attachment trauma, maternal self-efficacy, postpartum depression, and emotional support. A moderated mediation model was tested in a structural equation modeling framework using Mplus' estimate of indirect effects. Postpartum depression fully mediated the relation between trauma and maternal self-efficacy. Emotional support moderated only the pathway between postpartum depression and maternal self-efficacy. Attachment trauma's implications for maternal self-efficacy should be understood in the context of overall mental health. Mothers at the greatest risk for low maternal self-efficacy related to attachment trauma also are those suffering from postpartum depression. Emotional support buffered mothers from postpartum depression, though, which has implications for intervention and future research. © 2017 The Authors. Infant Mental Health Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  11. Erotic Education: Elaborating a Feminist and Faith-Based Pedagogy for Experiential Learning in Religious Studies

    Carbine, Rosemary P.

    2010-01-01

    This essay explores intersections among Jesuit, Quaker, and feminist theologies and pedagogies of social justice education in order to propose and elaborate an innovative theoretical and theological framework for experiential learning in religious studies that prioritizes relationality, called erotic education. This essay then applies the…

  12. The Role of Elaboration in the Comprehension and Retention of Prose: A Critical Review.

    Reder, Lynne M.

    1980-01-01

    Recent research in the area of prose comprehension is reviewed, including factors that affect amount of recall, representations of text structures, and use of world knowledge to aid comprehension. The need for more information processing models of comprehension is emphasized. Elaboration is considered important for comprehension and retention.…

  13. A few examples go a long way: Constructing query models from elaborate query formulations

    Balog, K.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.; Myaeng, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We address a specific enterprise document search scenario, where the information need is expressed in an elaborate manner. In our scenario, information needs are expressed using a short query (of a few keywords) together with examples of key reference pages. Given this setup, we investigate how the

  14. Discourse, Complexity, Normativity: Tracing the Elaboration of Foucault's Materialist Concept of Discourse

    Olssen, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I want to suggest that it is through the elaboration of the concept of discourse that the differences between Foucault and thinkers like Habermas, Hegel and Marx can best be understood. Foucault progressively develops a conception of discourse as a purely historical category that resists all reference to transcendental principles…

  15. Simulations with Elaborated Worked Example Modeling: Beneficial Effects on Schema Acquisition

    Meier, Debra K.; Reinhard, Karl J.; Carter, David O.; Brooks, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Worked examples have been effective in enhancing learning outcomes, especially with novice learners. Most of this research has been conducted in laboratory settings. This study examined the impact of embedding elaborated worked example modeling in a computer simulation practice activity on learning achievement among 39 undergraduate students…

  16. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Program on the Elaborations of Students Working in Dyads

    Krol, K.; Janssen, J.J.H.M.; Veenman, S.A.M.; Linden, A.A.M. van der

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a school improvement program on cooperative learning (CL) with respect to the elaborations of 6th-grade students working in mixed-ability and mixed-sex dyads on 2 cooperative tasks were examined. A posttest-only design with a control group was used to investigate the

  17. Vocabulary Development at Home: A Multimedia Elaborated Picture Supporting Parent-Toddler Interaction

    Gremmen, M. C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance. A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent-toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support this rich home language environment. This study…

  18. Zeus and Trojan advantage: traces of elaborations of the tradition in the Iliad

    Pietro Verzina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a theoretical model, this article assumes that the poet of the Iliad is aware of the potential inconsistency between the traditional account of the wrath and the version which he elaborates, and shows how the poem manages both according to its expressive and structural purposes.

  19. Elaboration of high-temperature friction polymer material and study of its wear aspects

    Gventsadze, L.

    2009-01-01

    High-temperature friction composite material is elaborated and its physical, mechanical and tribologic features are studied. It is shown, that addition to the friction material composition of filling material having nanopores -diatomite-and its modification with polyethilensilan leads to friction materials friction coefficient stability and wear resistance increase at high temperatures (400-600 ℃). (author)

  20. Processing Depth, Elaboration of Encoding, Memory Stores, and Expended Processing Capacity.

    Eysenck, Michael W.; Eysenck, M. Christine

    1979-01-01

    The effects of several factors on expended processing capacity were measured. Expended processing capacity was greater when information was retrieved from secondary memory than from primary memory, when processing was of a deep, semantic nature than when it was shallow and physical, and when processing was more elaborate. (Author/GDC)

  1. Social justifications for moral emotions: when reasons for disgust are less elaborated than for anger.

    Russell, Pascale Sophie; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2011-06-01

    In the present research, we tested the unreasoning disgust hypothesis: moral disgust, in particular in response to a violation of a bodily norm, is less likely than moral anger to be justified with cognitively elaborated reasons. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to explain why they felt anger and disgust toward pedophiles. Participants were more likely to invoke elaborated reasons, versus merely evaluative responses, when explaining their anger, versus disgust. Experiment 2 used a between-participants design; participants explained why they felt either anger or disgust toward seven groups that either violated a sexual or nonsexual norm. Again, elaborated reasons were less prevalent when explaining their disgust versus anger and, in particular, when explaining disgust toward a group that violated a sexual norm. Experiment 3 further established that these findings are due to a lower accessibility of elaborated reasons for bodily disgust, rather than inhibition in using them when provided. From these findings, it can be concluded that communicating external reasons for moral disgust at bodily violations is made more difficult due to the unavailability of those reasons to people.

  2. Elaboration and characterisation of acids catalyst for the obtention of amines

    Khemaissia, S.; Zaoui, B.; Nibou, D.

    1997-04-01

    The nuclear energy has shown the interest of aminated substances as solvents for removal and purification. These extractants are generally used in uranium ores treatment processes and several technology fields, specially, in organic and pharmaceutical industries. The present work deals with elaboration and characterization of acidic solid catalyst used in aminated extractants obtaining

  3. Expanding Evolutionary Theory beyond Darwinism with Elaborating, Self-Organizing, and Fractionating Complex Evolutionary Systems

    Fichter, Lynn S.; Pyle, E. J.; Whitmeyer, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Earth systems increase in complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness with time, driven by tectonic/solar energy that keeps the systems far from equilibrium. The evolution of Earth systems is facilitated by three evolutionary mechanisms: "elaboration," "fractionation," and "self-organization," that share…

  4. Multiple motives and persuasive communication : Creative elaboration as a result of impression motivation and accuracy motivation

    Nienhuis, AE; Manstead, ASR; Spears, R

    The authors examined the influence of impression motivation (Experiments 1 and 2) and the combined effects of accuracy motivation and impression motivation (Experiment 3) on the elaboration of persuasive messages as reflected in attitude change and cognitive responses. Intermediate levels of

  5. Elaborations in the area of complex reprocessing of mineral raw materials

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In present time complex using of raw materials has important significance as it connected with solving problems of creating of waste less and ecologically clean technologies. Elaboration and assimilation of waste less technologies has special significance for chemical, mountain-chemical, metallurgical branches of industry. In this part of book author gives several methods of waste less and ecologically clean technologies

  6. Organized mesoporous silica films as templates for the elaboration of organized nanoparticle networks

    Gacoin, T; Besson, S; Boilot, J P

    2006-01-01

    Tremendous work achieved in the last 20 years on nanoparticle synthesis has allowed us to study many new physical properties that are found in the nanometre size range. New developments are now expected when considering assemblies of nanoparticles such as 2D or 3D organized arrays. These systems are indeed expected to exhibit original physical properties resulting from particle-particle interactions. Studies in this field are clearly dependent on the elaboration of materials with controlled particle size, organization and interparticle distance. This paper presents a strategy of elaboration that is based on the use of organized mesoporous silica films as templates. These films are made by sol-gel polymerization around surfactant assemblies and further elimination of the surfactant. This provides porous matrices with a pore organization that is the almost perfect replica of the initial micellar structure. The use of such films for the elaboration of organized arrays of nanoparticles is detailed in the case of CdS and Ag particles. The formation of particles inside the pores is achieved through impregnation with precursors that are allowed to diffuse inside the pores. This leads to particles with a size and a spatial arrangement that is directly related to the initial pore structure of the films. This process opens a wide range of investigations due to the relative ease of fabrication over large surfaces and the numerous possibilities offered by the elaboration of porous films with different pore sizes and organizations

  7. Evaluation of Smoking Prevention Television Messages Based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from…

  8. Source and Message Factors in Persuasion: A Reply to Stiff's Critique of the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

    Petty, Richard E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Answers James Stiff's criticism of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion. Corrects certain misperceptions of the ELM and criticizes Stiff's meta-analysis that compares ELM predictions with those derived from Kahneman's elastic capacity model. Argues that Stiff's presentation of the ELM and the conclusions he draws based on the data…

  9. The Elaboration Likelihood Model: Implications for the Practice of School Psychology.

    Petty, Richard E.; Heesacker, Martin; Hughes, Jan N.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a contemporary theory of attitude change, the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion, and addresses its relevance to school psychology. Claims that a key postulate of ELM is that attitude change results from thoughtful (central route) or nonthoughtful (peripheral route) processes. Illustrations of ELM's utility for school…

  10. Examining Sex Differences in Altering Attitudes About Rape: A Test of the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Intervention sought to improve first-year college students' attitudes about rape. Used the Elaboration Likelihood Model to examine men's and women's attitude change process. Found numerous sex differences in ways men and women experienced and changed during and after intervention. Women's attitude showed more lasting change while men's was more…

  11. Application of the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Attitude Change to Assertion Training.

    Ernst, John M.; Heesacker, Martin

    1993-01-01

    College students (n=113) participated in study comparing effects of elaboration likelihood model (ELM) based assertion workshop with those of typical assertion workshop. ELM-based workshop was significantly better at producing favorable attitude change, greater intention to act assertively, and more favorable evaluations of workshop content.…

  12. The Elaboration Likelihood Model and Proxemic Violations as Peripheral Cues to Information Processing.

    Eaves, Michael

    This paper provides a literature review of the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) as applied in persuasion. Specifically, the paper addresses distraction with regard to effects on persuasion. In addition, the application of proxemic violations as peripheral cues in message processing is discussed. Finally, the paper proposes to shed new light on…

  13. Effects of Semantic Elaboration and Typicality on Picture Naming in Alzheimer Disease

    Morelli, Claudia A.; Altmann, Lori J. P.; Kendall, Diane; Fischler, Ira; Heilman, Kennneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with probable Alzheimer disease (pAD) are frequently impaired at picture naming. This study examined whether a semantic elaboration task would facilitate naming in pAD, and whether training either semantically typical or atypical stimulus items facilitated generalized improvement in picture naming and category generation…

  14. Vocabulary development at home: A multimedia elaborated picture supporting parent-toddler interaction

    Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance.A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent–toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support

  15. Maternally acquired runt disease.

    Beer, A E; Billingham, R E

    1973-01-19

    Without altering the structural integrity of the placenta by irradiation or drugs, we have shown that it is possible to immunize females both adoptively and actively against the paternally inherited transplantation antigens of their fetuses. Such immunization causes a high incidence of runt disease among the litters. Although the putative chimeric status of the affected offspring has yet to be confirmed, the results of our experiments support the thesis that runt disease is caused by the activities of "unwanted" immigrant lymphocytes from the maternal circulation. Our results suggest that immunologically activated cells are more likely to cross the placenta than normal cells and that this greater mobility may not be related to the immunologic specificity of the activated cells. Two factors may have contributed to the apparent failure of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate the capacity of transplantation immunity to affect the well-being of a fetus or, more correctly, its placenta, in the way that might be expected of a homograft. (i) Investigators were preoccupied with obtaining a classic type of rejection, in utero, analogous to the rejection of an orthotopic skin homograft. The birth of consistently healthy-looking litters, interpreted as a failure of the experiment, convinced the investigators of the efficacy of nature's solution of the homograft problem and there was no reason for them to suspect its possible limitations. Observation of the litters for several weeks might have uncovered the phenomenon of maternally induced runt disease. (ii) Most investigators resorted to hyperimmunization of the mothers. This would have facilitated the synthesis of protective isoantibodies capable of interfering with the expression of the potentially harmful cellular immune response (6). Ever since the abnormalities of runt disease were first described they have repeatedly been compared to those observed in patients with certain lymphomas (17). Various theories have been

  16. The experience on public consultation in the elaboration of nuclear regulations

    Monteiro, Iara A.; Pitta, Maria Adelia R.; Pereira, Enneite S.; Wieland, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the process of public consultation followed by the regulatory body, Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN), during the elaboration of nuclear regulations. In this paper, the due legislation on federal administration, law n. 9784/99, is referred to and the procedures established by CNEN for the elaboration of a nuclear regulation are described. The public consultation has the objective of improving the democratization of nuclear regulations elaboration process, allowing the participation of interested parties such as professional associations directly involved, organizations interested in its application and the general public. During the process of elaboration of a nuclear regulation, the basic text is, first of all, discussed and improved by a task group. This group is composed by CNEN's officials and representatives of organizations, enterprises and public agencies involved in the related area. Once the first version of the proposed regulation is ready, it is formally open to consultation and posted at CNEN website for a period of time. The suggestions, therein presented on-line, are analyzed by the task group and the conclusions are also posted at the site; those considered pertinent are incorporated to proposed regulation. As an example, the public consultation results obtained in 2008 with the revision of the CNEN-NN-6.02: Licensing of Radioactive Facilities regulation, are presented. Such results cover two aspects: the analysis of the participants profile and the analysis of the contributions. Public participation in the elaboration of nuclear regulations is a new way for CNEN to know the licensees and public demands, doubts and needs. This tool has demonstrated usefulness and therefore must be maintained by the regulatory body. (author)

  17. Use of software to optimize time and costs in the elaboration of the basic drawing

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to choose areas to implement pipe yards, terminals, campsite, pipeline path and other areas of assistance for the construction and assembly of the pipeline, it is necessary previous location studies to elaborate the basic drawing. However it is not always possible to contract a company registered in aerial survey to elaborate this type of drawing, either for the cost or time, and where the lack of a basic drawing can lead to an erroneous choice or one which reflects an exaggerated estimate or not adequate logistics. In order to minimize costs and optimizing time, without compromising quality, this study proposes the use of software 'virtual globe' type for mapping and geographic location available on the internet to assist in the gathering of geographical, altimetric, hydro graphic, road, environmental, socioeconomic and aerial images, information necessary to elaborate the basic drawing. This article includes a case study of the oil pipeline Cacimbas-Barra do Riacho project and a proposed procedure to be used in the elaboration of basic drawings using data generated using the referred to software. In 2007 the Pipeline Construction and Assembly sector, CMDPI unit of PETROBRAS Engenharia/IETEG/IEDT was designated to select an area of 2 hectares where the pipe storage yard for pipes to be used in the Oil Pipeline Cacimbas- Barra do Riacho in Espirito Santo state would be constructed. The area was chosen following some pre-requisites and using as main resources in the gathering of information necessary to select the area, 'virtual globe' type software and a CAD type software with the capacity to import images and altimetric identification as well as exporting drawing data to the mentioned. The activity, much simpler than hiring an aerial survey, was elaborated surpassing expectations of time-costs besides complying with the necessary technical demands. (author)

  18. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  19. Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy

    Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

  20. The role of maternal care in borderline personality disorder and dependent life stress.

    Ball Cooper, Ericka; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2018-01-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) affects 0.9%-3.2% of adolescents, and more than 20% of inpatient adolescents. Life stress has been linked to BPD across the lifespan, and previous research in adults has linked BPD to dependent stress (i.e., stress induced by the individual). However, prior research has not examined dependent stress alongside BPD in adolescents. Additionally, the potential protective effect of maternal care has not been considered in this relation. This study tested a moderation model expecting that (1) BPD would be positively associated with dependent life stress, (2) maternal care would be negatively associated with BPD, and (3) maternal care would moderate the relation between BPD and dependent life stress. The sample consisted of 184 adolescents recruited from an inpatient psychiatric facility serving a diverse population in the Southwestern United States. Dependent life stress, BPD, and maternal care were measured using the UCLA Life Stress Interview, DSM-IV Childhood Interview for BPD, and Kerns Security Scale, respectively. Results supported the first two hypotheses; BPD diagnosis was significantly, positively associated with dependent life stress, and negatively associated with maternal availability and dependability. Contrary to the third hypothesis, no significant evidence that maternal care acts as a buffer in the relation between BPD and dependent life stress was found. Although maternal care was not found to moderate the association between BPD and dependent life stress, results supported previously found relations between BPD, dependent life stress, and maternal care, and did so within a diverse inpatient adolescent sample.

  1. Embryo-maternal communication

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  2. Maternal obesity in Europe

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...

  3. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-01-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

  4. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  5. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    EB

    relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth. Methods: One hundred and fifty three mother-infant pairs were enrolled in this study using the ...

  6. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  7. Congenital toxoplasmosis presenting with fetal atrial flutter after maternal ingestion of infected moose meat.

    Colosimo, Sarah M; Montoya, Jose G; Westley, Benjamin P; Jacob, Jack; Isada, Nelson B

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of undercooked game meat during pregnancy is considered a risk factor for congenital toxoplasmosis, but cases definitively linking ingestion of infected meat to clinical disease are lacking. We report a confirmed case of congenital toxoplasmosis identified because of atrial flutter in the fetus and linked to maternal consumption of Toxoplasma gondii PCR-positive moose meat.

  8. Using an Adoption–Biological Family Design to Examine Associations Between Maternal Trauma, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Child Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    Grabow, Aleksandria Perez; Khurana, Atika; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Harold, Gordon T.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal trauma is a complex risk factor that has been linked to adverse child outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study, which included adoptive and biological families, examined the heritable and environmental mechanisms by which maternal trauma and associated depressive symptoms are linked to child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Path analyses were used to analyze data from 541 adoptive mother–adopted child (AM–AC) dyads and 126 biological mother–biological child (BM–BC) dyads; the two family types were linked through the same biological mother. Rearing mother’s trauma was associated with child internalizing and externalizing behaviors in AM–AC and BM–BC dyads, and this association was mediated by rearing mothers’ depressive symptoms, with the exception of biological child externalizing behavior, for which biological mother trauma had a direct influence only. Significant associations between maternal trauma and child behavior in dyads that share only environment (i.e., AM–AC dyads) suggest an environmental mechanism of influence for maternal trauma. Significant associations were also observed between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing behavior in dyads that were only genetically related, with no shared environment (i.e., BM–AC dyads), suggesting a heritable pathway of influence via maternal depressive symptoms. PMID:29162177

  9. Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care.

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Examined data on 900 European American children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care to explore links between maternal employment during the child's first year and child cognitive outcomes. Found that maternal employment by the child's ninth month related to lower school readiness scores at 36 months, with more pronounced effects for certain…

  10. Maternal Depression and Mother-Child Interaction Patterns: Association with Toddler Problems and Continuity of Effects to Late Childhood

    Leckman-Westin, Emily; Cohen, Patricia R.; Stueve, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Increased behavior problems have been reported in offspring of mothers with depression. In-home observations link maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) and mother-child interaction patterns with toddler behavior problems and examine their persistence into late childhood. Method: Maternal characteristics (N = 153) and behaviors of…

  11. Mother- versus Infant-Centered Correlates of Maternal Mind-Mindedness in the First Year of Life

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Arnott, Bronia; Turner, Michelle; Leekam, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal mind-mindedness in infant-mother interaction related to aspects of obstetric history and infant temperament. Study 1, conducted with a socially diverse sample of 206 eight-month-old infants and their mothers, focused on links between maternal mind-mindedness and (i) planned conception, (ii) perception of pregnancy,…

  12. Maternal Concern for Child Undereating.

    Brown, Callie L; Pesch, Megan H; Perrin, Eliana M; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C

    To describe features of maternal concern for her child undereating; examine maternal and child correlates of maternal concern for undereating; and determine whether maternal concern for undereating is associated with feeding practices. This was a cross-sectional analysis of an observational study with 286 mother-child dyads (mean child age, 71 months). Maternal concern for undereating was assessed using a semistructured interview. Mothers completed questionnaires to assess picky eating, food neophobia, and feeding practices. Feeding practices were further assessed using videotaped mealtime observations. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of maternal and child characteristics with maternal concern for undereating. Regression was used to assess the association of maternal concern for undereating with feeding practices, controlling for covariates. Over a third of mothers (36.5%) expressed concern that their child does not eat enough. Correlates of concern for undereating included child body mass index z-score (BMIz; odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.77) and picky eating (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.26-4.59). Maternal concern for undereating was associated with greater reported pressure to eat (relative risk [RR] = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.55-2.50), greater observed bribery (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.50-4.60), and higher observed pressure (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.08-3.36) during mealtimes. Mothers of children who are picky eaters and have a lower BMIz are more likely to be concerned that their children do not eat enough, and maternal concern for undereating is associated with pressuring and bribing children to eat. Pediatricians might address maternal concern for undereating by advising feeding practices that do not involve pressure and bribery, particularly among healthy weight children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal employment and childhood obesity--a European perspective.

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eiben, Gabriele; M Fernandéz-Alvira, Juan; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kovács, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal DHA levels and toddler free-play attention.

    Kannass, Kathleen N; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels at birth and toddler free-play attention in the second year. Toddler free-play attention was assessed at 12 and 18 months, and maternal erythrocyte (red-blood cell; RBC) phospholipid DHA (percentage of total fatty acids) was measured from mothers at delivery. Overall, higher maternal DHA status at birth was associated with enhanced attentional functioning during the second year. Toddlers whose mothers had high DHA at birth exhibited more total looking and fewer episodes of inattention during free-play than did toddlers whose mothers had low DHA at birth. Analyses also provided further information on changes in attention during toddlerhood. These findings are consistent with evidence suggesting a link between DHA and cognitive development in infancy and early childhood.

  15. Sex-linked dominant

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  16. Differential-associative processing or example elaboration: Which strategy is best for learning the definitions of related and unrelated concepts?

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-10-01

    Definitions of related concepts (e.g., genotype - phenotype ) are prevalent in introductory classes. Consequently, it is important that educators and students know which strategy(s) work best for learning them. This study showed that a new comparative elaboration strategy, called differential-associative processing, was better for learning definitions of related concepts than was an integrative elaborative strategy, called example elaboration. This outcome occurred even though example elaboration was administered in a naturalistic way (Experiment 1) and students spent more time in the example elaboration condition learning (Experiments 1, 2, 3), and generating pieces of information about the concepts (Experiments 2 and 3). Further, with unrelated concepts ( morpheme-fluid intelligence ), performance was similar regardless if students used differential-associative processing or example elaboration (Experiment 3). Taken as a whole, these results suggest that differential-associative processing is better than example elaboration for learning definitions of related concepts and is as good as example elaboration for learning definitions of unrelated concepts.

  17. Effects of Forward and Backward Contextual Elaboration on Lexical Inferences: Evidence from a Semantic Relatedness Judgment Task

    Hamada, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the process of lexical inferences differs according to the direction of contextual elaboration using a semantic relatedness judgment task. In Experiment 1, Japanese university students read English sentences where target unknown words were semantically elaborated by prior contextual information (forward lexical…

  18. Revising Tinto's Interactionalist Theory of Student Departure Through Theory Elaboration: Examining the Role of Organizational Attributes in the Persistence Process.

    Berger, Joseph B.; Braxton, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A study used theory elaboration to help revise Tinto's interactionalist theory of individual student departure from college to include the effects of organizational attributes on student withdrawal. Results provide strong support for including concepts from organizational theory and suggest future research should use theory elaboration to look for…

  19. Worry, problem elaboration and suppression of imagery: the role of concreteness.

    Stöber, J

    1998-01-01

    Both lay concept and scientific theory claim that worry may be helpful for defining and analyzing problems. Recent studies, however, indicate that worrisome problem elaborations are less concrete than worry-free problem elaborations. This challenges the problem solving view of worry because abstract problem analyses are unlikely to lead to concrete problem solutions. Instead the findings support the avoidance theory of worry which claims that worry suppresses aversive imagery. Following research findings in the dual-coding framework [Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston; Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: a dual coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.], the present article proposes that reduced concreteness may play a central role in the understanding of worry. First, reduced concreteness can explain how worry reduces imagery. Second, it offers an explanation why worrisome problem analyses are unlikely to arrive at solutions. Third, it provides a key for the understanding of worry maintenance.

  20. Elaboration Likelihood Model and an Analysis of the Contexts of Its Application

    Aslıhan Kıymalıoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM, which supports the existence of two routes to persuasion: central and peripheral routes, has been one of the major models on persuasion. As the number of studies in the Turkish literature on ELM is limited, a detailed explanation of the model together with a comprehensive literature review was considered to be contributory for this gap. The findings of the review reveal that the model was mostly used in marketing and advertising researches, that the concept most frequently used in elaboration process was involvement, and that argument quality and endorser credibility were the factors most often employed in measuring their effect on the dependant variables. The review provides valuable insights as it presents a holistic view of the model and the variables used in the model.

  1. Regulation imposed to nuclear facility operators for the elaboration of 'waste studies' and 'waste statuses'

    2001-01-01

    This decision from the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) aims at validating the new versions of the guidebook for the elaboration of 'waste studies' for nuclear facilities and of the specifications for the elaboration of 'waste statuses' for nuclear facilities. This paper includes two documents. The first one is a guidebook devoted to nuclear facility operators which fixes the rules of production of waste studies according to the articles 20 to 26 of the inter-ministry by-law from December 31, 1999 (waste zoning conditions and ASN's control modalities). The second document concerns the specifications for the establishment of annual waste statuses according to article 27 of the inter-ministry by-law from December 31, 1999 (rational management of nuclear wastes). (J.S.)

  2. Controlled elaboration of large-area plasmonic substrates by plasma process

    Pugliara, A; Despax, B; Makasheva, K; Bonafos, C; Carles, R

    2015-01-01

    Elaboration in a controlled way of large-area and efficient plasmonic substrates is achieved by combining sputtering of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and plasma polymerization of the embedding dielectric matrix in an axially asymmetric, capacitively coupled RF discharge maintained at low gas pressure. The plasma parameters and deposition conditions were optimized according to the optical response of these substrates. Structural and optical characterizations of the samples confirm the process efficiency. The obtained results indicate that to deposit a single layer of large and closely situated AgNPs, a high injected power and short sputtering times must be privileged. The plasma-elaborated plasmonic substrates appear to be very sensitive to any stimuli that affect their plasmonic response. (paper)

  3. [Attitude change toward body image: the role of elaboration on attitude strength].

    Gasco, Margarita; Briñol, Pablo; Horcajo, Javier

    2010-02-01

    Attitude change toward body image: The role of elaboration on attitude strength. Attitudes toward body image have been shown to play a central role in the understanding and treating of eating disorders. In the present research, participants' attitudes toward their body image were changed through a persuasive procedure involving high mental elaboration (self-persuasion) or through a less engaging procedure involving less active participation (passive exposure). As expected, participants in these two groups showed more favourable attitudes toward their bodies than those in the control group. Despite that both treatments were equally efficient in changing attitudes, the strength associated with those attitudes was significantly different depending on the amount of thinking involved in the process of change. Specifically, attitudes were stronger in the high rather than low thinking group of treatment. This finding is important because the strength of the attitude may determine the long-term consequences of an intervention.

  4. Maternal Emotion Regulation and Adolescent Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Family Functioning and Parenting.

    Crandall, AliceAnn; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Day, Randal D; Riley, Anne W

    2016-11-01

    Prior research links poor maternal emotion regulation to maladaptive parenting and child behaviors, but little research is available on these relationships during the adolescent period. We use structural equation modeling to assess the influence of poor maternal emotion regulation, measured as emotional reactivity and distancing, on adolescent behaviors (measured as aggression and prosocial behaviors) among 478 adolescents (53 % female; baseline age 10-13 years) and their mothers over a 5 year period. We also tested the possible mediating roles of family functioning and parenting behaviors between maternal emotion regulation and adolescent behaviors. Results indicated that higher baseline maternal emotional distancing and reactivity were not directly predictive of adolescents' behaviors, but they were indirectly related through family functioning and parenting. Specifically, indulgent parenting mediated the relationship between maternal emotional reactivity and adolescent aggression. Maternal-reported family functioning significantly mediated the relationship between maternal emotional distancing and adolescent aggression. Family functioning also mediated the relationship between emotional distancing and regulation parenting. The results imply that poor maternal emotion regulation during their child's early adolescence leads to more maladaptive parenting and problematic behaviors during the later adolescent period. However, healthy family processes may ameliorate the negative impact of low maternal emotion regulation on parenting and adolescent behavioral outcomes. The implications for future research and interventions to improve parenting and adolescent outcomes are discussed.

  5. Disentangling Genetic and Prenatal Maternal Effects on Offspring Size and Survival.

    Pick, Joel L; Ebneter, Christina; Hutter, Pascale; Tschirren, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Organizational processes during prenatal development can have long-term effects on an individual's phenotype. Because these early developmental stages are sensitive to environmental influences, mothers are in a unique position to alter their offspring's phenotype by differentially allocating resources to their developing young. However, such prenatal maternal effects are difficult to disentangle from other forms of parental care, additive genetic effects, and/or other forms of maternal inheritance, hampering our understanding of their evolutionary consequences. Here we used divergent selection lines for high and low prenatal maternal investment and their reciprocal line crosses in a precocial bird-the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)-to quantify the relative importance of genes and prenatal maternal effects in shaping offspring phenotype. Maternal but not paternal origin strongly affected offspring body size and survival throughout development. Although the effects of maternal egg investment faded over time, they were large at key life stages. Additionally, there was evidence for other forms of maternal inheritance affecting offspring phenotype at later stages of development. Our study is among the first to successfully disentangle prenatal maternal effects from all other sources of confounding variation and highlights the important role of prenatal maternal provisioning in shaping offspring traits closely linked to fitness.

  6. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity

    Natália P. Castro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM% was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001 and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19 were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  7. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity.

    Castro, Natália P; Euclydes, Verônica V; Simões, Fernanda A; Vaz-de-Lima, Lourdes R A; De Brito, Cyro A; Luzia, Liania A; Devakumar, Delan; Rondó, Patrícia H C

    2017-02-23

    Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM%) was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin ( p = 0.001) and pre-pregnancy BMI ( p < 0.001; adj. R ² = 0.19) were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  8. National level maternal health decisions

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4

  9. Maternal Involvement and Academic Achievement.

    Lopez, Linda C.; Holmes, William M.

    The potential impact of several maternal involvement behaviors on teachers' ratings of children's academic skills was examined through statistical analyses. Data, based on mothers' responses to selected questions concerning maternal involvement and on teachers' ratings on the Classroom Behavior Inventory, were obtained for 115 kindergarten…

  10. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development.

    Montemayor, Raymond; Clayton, Mark D.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development is enormously complex, and no simple generalizations are possible. Many intervening variables alter the impact that maternal employment has on adolescent development. There is an urgent need to discover what impact this arrangement has on adolescent development. (CJ)

  11. Elaboration of procedure for analysis of industrial and economic activities: the experience of LUKoil petroleum company

    Ulanov, V.L.; Kirpichev, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    The research and engineering centre within LUKoil company for economic studies has elaborated a method permitting analysis of production and economic activities of the LUKOIL petroleum production complex. The method envisages the following trends of analysis: general assessment of production and economic activities, analysis of basic production assets, manpower and wages use, net cost of marketable products, the state of finances, as well as specific features in analyzing the activities undertaken by joint ventures

  12. A review of studies on persuasion from the viewpoint of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (1)

    Fukada, Hiromi; Kimura, Kenichi; Makino, Koshi; Higuchi, Masataka

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review studies on persuasion from the viewpoint of the Elaboration Likelihood Model based on Petty & Wegener (1998). The paper consists of the following four parts. 1. Introduction. 2. Multiple roles for persuasion variables. 3. Source variables: (1) credibility (expertise, trustworthiness), (2) attractiveness/likableness, (3) power, (4) additional source factors related to credibility, liking and power (speed of speech, demographic variables, majority/minorit...

  13. Elaboration Likelihood Model and an Analysis of the Contexts of Its Application

    Aslıhan Kıymalıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), which supports the existence of two routes to persuasion: central and peripheral routes, has been one of the major models on persuasion. As the number of studies in the Turkish literature on ELM is limited, a detailed explanation of the model together with a comprehensive literature review was considered to be contributory for this gap. The findings of the review reveal that the model was mostly used in marketing and advertising researches, that the concept...

  14. Degree of elaborative processing in two implicit and two explicit memory tasks

    Pitarque, Alfonso; Algarabel González, Salvador; Meseguer, Enrique

    1992-01-01

    The level of elaborative processing made by subjects to pairs of words (read vs. generated) and the degree of relationship between the words of each pair (related, rhymed, or rhymed and related) were manipulated on two explicit tasks (cued recall and recognition) and two implicit tasks (word-stem completion and tachistoscopic word identification) to test the empirical validity of the processing-approach theory (see, e.g., Roediger, 1990a, 1990b; Roediger, Srinivas, & Weldon, 1989) of explicit...

  15. Elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate

    Smirnov, G.I.; Chernyak, A.S.; Kostromina, O.N.; Kachur, N.Ya.; Shpeyzer, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate. Thus, the isotherms of sorption of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium ions with amorphous tin phosphate depending on their concentration, ph of solution, sorbent quantity are obtained. The parameters of extraction of potassium microquantities from sodium salts are defined. Ultra pure sodium chloride, sodium iodide, sodium sulphate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium phosphate are synthesized.

  16. Elaboration of Ariane 6 operational concept with a concurrent engineering approach

    David, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    In December 2014, the ESA Council at Ministerial level has decided to go ahead with the Ariane 6 and Vega-C development programmes. The overarching aim of Ariane 6 is to provide guaranteed access to space for Europe at a competitive price. ESA has the role of Procuring entity and Launch System Architect (LSA). As Launch System Architect, ESA ensures the coherence on the Launcher System and the Launch base in the elaboration of the operational concept. The ambitious High Level R...

  17. Elaborations of grounded theory in information research: arenas/social worlds theory, discourse and situational analysis

    Vasconcelos, A.C.; Sen, B.A.; Rosa, A.; Ellis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores elaborations of Grounded Theory in relation to Arenas/Social Worlds Theory. The notions of arenas and social worlds were present in early applications of Grounded Theory but have not been as much used or recognised as the general Grounded Theory approach, particularly in the information studies field. The studies discussed here are therefore very unusual in information research. The empirical contexts of these studies are those of (1) the role of discourse in the organisat...

  18. Procedure for the elaboration of extended sources beta and/or gamma emitting

    Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.

    1991-12-01

    In the laboratory of radioactive standards they have been come manufacturing punctual sources gauged gamma emitting during several years. Before the demand of extended radioactive homogeneous sources of beta particles emitting, in particular with nuclides that are simultaneously gamma and beta emitting, it was designed a procedure for it elaboration based on the one that we use at the moment for the elaboration of the punctual gamma sources. This procedure consists on the integration of a compact group of this type of sources on a single extended support, sealed one of its faces with a film of transparent material in satisfactory grade to the beta particles. In this work this procedure is described and it is applied in the elaboration of two sources that its were requested by the Laguna Verde Central (CFE), one with area of 20 cm 2 and the other one of 100 cm 2 . The homogeneity, measure as the dispersion of the activities of the aliquot ones distributed in the active surfaces was inside 2%. The percentage of attenuation of the beta particles was also measured by the film (window) with the one that the sources were sealed. (Author)

  19. Elaborating European Pharmacopoeia monographs for biotherapeutic proteins using substances from a single source.

    Buda, M; Wicks, S; Charton, E

    2016-01-01

    For more than twenty years, the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monographs for biotherapeutic proteins have been elaborated using the multisource approach (Procedure 1), which has led to robust quality standards for many of the first-generation biotherapeutics. In 2008, the Ph. Eur. opened up the way towards an alternative mechanism for the elaboration of monographs (Procedure 4-BIO pilot phase), which is applied to substances still under patent protection, based on a close collaboration with the Innovator company, to ensure a harmonised global standard and strengthen the quality of the upcoming products. This article describes the lessons learned during the P4-BIO pilot phase and addresses the current thinking on monograph elaboration in the field of biotherapeutics. Case studies are described to illustrate the standardisation challenges associated with the complexity of biotherapeutics and of analytical procedures, as well as the approaches that help ensure expectations are met when setting monograph specifications and allow for compatibility with the development of biosimilars. Emphasis is put on monograph flexibility, notably by including tests that measure process-dependent microheterogeneity (e.g. glycosylation) in the Production section of the monograph. The European Pharmacopoeia successfully concluded the pilot phase of the P4-BIO during its 156 th session on 22-23 November 2016.

  20. The Impact of Elaborated Feedback on Competency Assessment of IT Professionals

    Elena Alexandra TOADER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feedback represents an important component in the process of assessing the competencies of the IT professionals as it allows to evaluate their performance and helps their managers to personalize the learning content according to employees’ needs and profiles. In the current paper we propose a computer-based formative feedback framework that provides personalized feedback for the technical employees. Extensive research has been carried out focusing on formative assessment aspects that includes the elaborate feedback. An online competency assessment tool was designed and it is going to be implemented in order to measure the professionals’ performance in software organizations. The subjects of the study are going to be software developers, working in departments of IT Romanian companies. Their performance is going to be evaluated through the competency-based assessment tool. At the end of the assessment process, an elaborate feedback is provided in order to improve their current level of competency acquired. The current paper reveals the role of the computer-based formative assessment within software organizations as well as the importance of an elaborate feedback that can improve the employees’ knowledge and skills.

  1. Institutions, Anomie, and Violent Crime: Clarifying and Elaborating Institutional-Anomie Theory

    Richard Rosenfeld

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A limited but accumulating body of research and theoretical commentary offers support for core claims of the “institutional-anomie theory” of crime (IAT and points to areas needing further development. In this paper, which focuses on violent crime, we clarify the concept of social institutions, elaborate the cultural component of IAT, derive implications for individual behavior, summarize empirical applications, and propose directions for future research. Drawing on Talcott Parsons, we distinguish the “subjective” and “objective” dimensions of institutional dynamics and discuss their interrelationship. We elaborate on the theory’s cultural component with reference to Durkheim’s distinction between “moral” and “egoistic” individualism and propose that a version of the egoistic type characterizes societies in which the economy dominates the institutional structure, anomie is rampant, and levels of violent crime are high. We also offer a heuristic model of IAT that integrates macro- and individual levels of analysis. Finally, we discuss briefly issues for the further theoretical elaboration of this macro-social perspective on violent crime. Specifically, we call attention to the important tasks of explaining the emergence of economic dominance in the institutional balance of power and of formulating an institutional account for distinctive punishment practices, such as the advent of mass incarceration in the United States.

  2. Estimation of the intrinsic stresses in α-alumina in relation with its elaboration mode

    Boumaza, A.; Djelloul, A.

    2010-01-01

    The specific signatures of α-Al 2 O 3 by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were investigated to estimate the intrinsic stress in this compound according to its elaboration mode. Thus, α-alumina was prepared either by calcination of boehmite or gibbsite and also generated by oxidation of a metallic FeCrAl alloy. FTIR results were mainly supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns that allowed to determine the crystallite size and the strain in the various alpha aluminas. Moreover, the infrared peak at 378.7 cm -1 was used as a reference for stress free α-alumina and the shift of this peak allowed to estimate intrinsic stresses, which were related to the morphology and to the specific surface area of aluminas according to their elaboration mode. These interpretations were confirmed by results obtained by cathodoluminescence experiments. - Graphical abstract: The infrared peak at 378.7 cm -1 was used as a reference for stress free α-alumina and the shift of this peak allowed to estimate intrinsic stresses, which were related to the morphology and to the specific surface area of aluminas according to their elaboration mode.

  3. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and risk for inattention and negative emotionality in children.

    Rodriguez, Alina

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714). Mothers and kindergarten teachers rated children's ADHD symptoms, presence and duration of problems, and emotionality. Dichotomized outcomes examined difficulties of clinical relevance (top 15% of the distribution). Analyses adjusted for pregnancy (maternal smoking, depressive symptoms, life events, education, age, family structure), birth outcomes (birth weight, gestational age, infant sex) and concurrent variables (family structure, maternal depressive symptoms, parental ADHD symptoms, and child overweight) in an attempt to rule out confounding. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity predicted high inattention symptom scores and obesity was associated with a two-fold increase in risk of difficulties with emotion intensity and emotion regulation according to teacher reports. Means of maternal ratings were unrelated to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Presence and duration of problems were associated with both maternal over and underweight according to teachers. Despite discrepancies between maternal and teacher reports, these results provide further evidence that maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with child inattention symptoms and extend previous work by establishing a link between obesity and emotional difficulties. Maternal adiposity at the time of conception may be instrumental in programming child mental health, as prenatal brain development depends on maternal energy supply. Possible mechanisms include disturbed maternal metabolic function. If maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is a causal risk factor, the potential for prevention is great.

  4. Maternal and obstetrical predictors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    Friedmann, Isabel; Dahdouh, Elias M; Kugler, Perlyne; Mimran, Gracia; Balayla, Jacques

    2017-10-01

    Public Health initiatives, such as the "Safe to Sleep" campaign, have traditionally targeted infants' risk factors for the prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). However, controversy remains regarding maternal and obstetrical risk factors for SIDS. In our study, we sought out to determine both modifiable and non-modifiable obstetrical and maternal risk factors associated with SIDS. We conducted a population-based cohort study using the CDC's Linked Birth-Infant Death data from the United States for the year 2010. The impact of several obstetrical and maternal risk factors on the risk of overall infant mortality and SIDS was estimated using unconditional regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Our cohort consisted of 4,007,105 deliveries and 24,174 infant deaths during the first year of life, of which 1991 (8.2%) were due to SIDS. Prominent risk factors for SIDS included (OR [95% CI]): black race, 1.89 [1.68-2.13]; maternal smoking, 3.56 [3.18-3.99]; maternal chronic hypertension, 1.73 [1.21-2.48]; gestational hypertension, 1.51 [1.23-1.87]; premature birth <37 weeks, 2.16 [1.82-2.55]; IUGR, 2.46 [2.14-2.82]; and being a twin, 1.81 [1.43-2.29], p < 0.0001. Relative to a cohort of infants who died of other causes, risk factors with a predilection for SIDS were maternal smoking, 2.48 [2.16-2.83] and being a twin, 1.52 [1.21-1.91], p < 0.0001. Conclusions for practice: While certain socio-demographic and gestational characteristics are important risk factors, maternal smoking remains the strongest prenatal modifiable risk factor for SIDS. We recommend the continuation of Public Health initiatives that promote safe infant sleeping practices and smoking cessation during and after pregnancy.

  5. Maternal depression as a risk factor for family homelessness.

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2014-09-01

    We estimated the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum year, which is often an unexpected event, on subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness in a national sample of urban, mostly low-income mothers. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and both homelessness and risk of homelessness 2 to 3 years later, controlling for maternal and family history of depression, prenatal housing problems, and other covariates. Risk factors for homelessness included experiencing evictions or frequent moves and moving in with family or friends and not paying rent. We found robust associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness, even among mothers who had no history of mental illness, whose own mothers did not have a history of depressive symptoms, and who had no previous housing problems. This study provides robust evidence that maternal mental illness places families with young children at risk for homelessness, contributes to the scant literature elucidating directional and causal links between mental illness and homelessness, and contributes to a stagnant but important literature on family homelessness.

  6. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  7. Investigating financial incentives for maternal health: an introduction.

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    feedback on recommendations which the teams included in their final papers appearing in this Supplement. Papers in this Supplement review the evidence for a specific financial incentive mechanism (e.g. pay for performance, conditional cash transfer) to improve the use and quality of maternal healthcare and makes recommendations for programmes and future research. While data on programmes using financial incentives for improved use and indications of the quality of maternal health services support specific conclusions and recommendations, including those for future research, data linking the use of financial incentives with improved health outcomes are minimal.

  8. The effect of women's decision-making power on maternal health services uptake: evidence from Pakistan.

    Hou, Xiaohui; Ma, Ning

    2013-03-01

    A large body of research has explored the links between women's decision making and their uptake of maternal health services, but the evidence so far is inconclusive. This study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey to examine the influence of household decision making on women's uptake of maternal health services. We find that women's decision-making power has a significant positive correlation with maternal health services uptake and that influential males' decision-making power has the opposite effect, after controlling for socio-economic indicators and supply-side conditions. Our findings suggest that empowering women and increasing their ability to make decisions may increase their uptake of maternal health services. They also suggest that policies directed toward improving women's utilization of maternal health services in Pakistan must target men as well as women.

  9. Increased placental nutrient transport in a novel mouse model of maternal obesity with fetal overgrowth.

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To identify possible mechanisms linking obesity in pregnancy to increased fetal adiposity and growth, a unique mouse model of maternal obesity associated with fetal overgrowth was developed, and the hypothesis that maternal obesity causes up-regulation of placental nutrient transporter expression and activity was tested. C57BL/6J female mice were fed a control (C) or a high-fat/high-sugar (HF/HS) pelleted diet supplemented by ad libitum access to sucrose (20%) solution, mated, and studied at embryonic day 18.5. HF/HS diet increased maternal fat mass by 2.2-fold (P Maternal circulating insulin, leptin, and cholesterol were increased (P maternal obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  10. Improving maternal healthcare utilisation in sub-Saharan Africa through micro-finance.

    Abekah-Nkrumah, Gordon; Abor, Patience Aseweh; Abor, Joshua; Adjasi, Charles K D

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to examine links between women's access to micro-finance and how they use maternal healthcare services in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The authors use theoretical and empirical literature to propose a framework to sustain and improve women's access to maternal healthcare services through micro-financing. It is found that improved access to micro-finance by women, combined with education may enhance maternal health service uptake. The paper does not consider empirical data in the analysis. The authors advocate empirically testing the framework proposed in other SSA countries. It is important to empower women by facilitating their access to education and micro-finance. This has implications for improving maternal healthcare utilization in SSA. The paper moves beyond poor access to maternal health services in SSA and proposes a framework for providing sustainable solutions.

  11. The functional neuroanatomy of maternal love: mother's response to infant's attachment behaviors.

    Noriuchi, Madoka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Senoo, Atsushi

    2008-02-15

    Maternal love, which may be the core of maternal behavior, is essential for the mother-infant attachment relationship and is important for the infant's development and mental health. However, little has been known about these neural mechanisms in human mothers. We examined patterns of maternal brain activation in response to infant cues using video clips. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements while 13 mothers viewed video clips, with no sound, of their own infant and other infants of approximately 16 months of age who demonstrated two different attachment behaviors (smiling at the infant's mother and crying for her). We found that a limited number of the mother's brain areas were specifically involved in recognition of the mother's own infant, namely orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), periaqueductal gray, anterior insula, and dorsal and ventrolateral parts of putamen. Additionally, we found the strong and specific mother's brain response for the mother's own infant's distress. The differential neural activation pattern was found in the dorsal region of OFC, caudate nucleus, right inferior frontal gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, thalamus, substantia nigra, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and PFC. Our results showed the highly elaborate neural mechanism mediating maternal love and diverse and complex maternal behaviors for vigilant protectiveness.

  12. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  13. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    Zamora, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  14. Maternal Social Coaching Quality Interrupts the Development of Relational Aggression During Early Childhood.

    Werner, Nicole E; Eaton, Ashley D; Lyle, Kelsey; Tseng, Heidi; Holst, Brooke

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has shown that parents of socially competent young children provide them with elaborative, explicit, appropriate and emotion-laden advice about peer interactions. The current study analyzed mothers' conversations with preschoolers (N=175; 52% female; M age = 52 months, SD = 7 months) about peer conflicts involving relational aggression. Conversations were coded for maternal elaboration, emotion references, and discussion of norm violations. Information about relational and physical aggression was collected from teachers at two assessments approximately 12 months apart for a subsample of 136 children. Regression analyses, controlling for physical aggression, showed that average and high levels of effective coaching operated as a protective factor against stable high levels of relational aggression. Theoretical and practical implications for our understanding of the early development of relational aggression are discussed.

  15. New composites graphite/salt for high temperature thermal energy storage: From elaboration to development of thermal characterization methods for orthotropic conductive materials

    Acem, Zoubir

    2007-01-01

    This PhD is carried out within the framework of DISTOR (European) and HTPSTOCK (French) projects, which have for objective to conceive and study new graphite/salt composites dedicated to high temperature energy storage (>200 deg. C). She is split into two distinct part. The first one focused mainly on works linked with elaboration and thermal characterisation of these new composites. The different composites ways of elaboration (Dispersion, uniaxial compression, isostatic) associated to the different kind of graphite (Natural expanded graphite (ENG), synthetic graphite) investigated during the PhD are presented. The results of the thermal characterization campaign of these composites are also presented and permit to highlight the impact of graphite in the thermal behaviour of studied materials. Based on these results, modelling studies of the evolution of the thermal conductivity have been undertaken to deepen the understanding of the effect of graphite (quantity, size of particles) on the effective conductivity composites. The second one describes the thermal characterization devices and associated thermo-kinetics models which had to be developed and adapted to the specificities of newly developed materials. This concerns mainly the materials prepared by compression, which present orthotropic properties and are difficult to reproduce. So, the characterization of this kind of material is very difficult and tedious. That is why we are committed to develop and adapt existing methods of characterization to allow the complete thermal characterisation of an orthotropic conductive material from a single experimentation on a single sample. (author) [fr

  16. Fortification of maternal milk

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  17. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Maternal Behavior

    Bridges, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of maternal behavior in mammals is regulated by the developmental and experiential events over a female’s lifetime. In this review the relationships between the endocrine and neural systems that play key roles in these developmental and experiential that affect both the establishment and maintenance of maternal care are presented. The involvement of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and lactogens are discussed in the context of ligand, receptor, and gene activity in rodents and to a lesser extent in higher mammals. The roles of neuroendocrine factors, including oxytocin, vasopressin, classical neurotransmitters, and other neural gene products that regulate aspects of maternal care are set forth, and the interactions of hormones with central nervous system mediators of maternal behavior are discussed. The impact of prior developmental factors, including epigenetic events, and maternal experience on subsequent maternal care are assessed over the course of the female’s lifespan. It is proposed that common neuroendocrine mechanisms underlie the regulation of maternal care in mammals. PMID:25500107

  18. Maternal employment and childhood obesity : a European perspective

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Posa, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Henauw, Stefaan de; Eiben, Gabriele; Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Kovacs, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measure...

  19. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Toddler Emotion Regulation, and Subsequent Emotion Socialization

    Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between...

  20. PPO.02 Severe maternal morbidity in Ireland

    Manning, E.; Lutomski, J.E.; O'Connor, L.; Corcoran, P.; Greene, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and examine associated factors in Ireland. METHODS: In 2011, 67,806 maternities were reported from 19 maternity units, representing 93% of maternities in Ireland. SMM was classified as the presence of one or more of 15 categories

  1. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality

    de Graaf, J.P.; Schutte, J.M.; Poeran, J.J.; van Roosmalen, J.; Bonsel, G.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study regional differences in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential inquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Setting Nationwide. Population A total of 3 108 235 live births and 337 maternal deaths. Methods Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period

  2. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    Schutte, J. M.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Schuitemaker, N. W. E.; Santema, J. G.; de Boer, K.; Pel, M.; Vermeulen, G.; Visser, W.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2010-01-01

    To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Nationwide in the Netherlands. 2,557,208 live births. Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period 1993-2005. Maternal mortality.

  3. Maternal age and trajectories of cannabis use.

    De Genna, Natacha M; Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

    2015-11-01

    Becoming a mother is a developmental transition that has been linked to desistance from substance use. However, timing of motherhood may be a key determinant of cannabis use in women, based on preliminary evidence from teenage mothers. The goal of this study was to identify trajectories of maternal cannabis use, and to determine if maternal age was associated with different trajectories of use. This prospective study examined 456 pregnant women recruited at a prenatal clinic, ranging in age from 13 to 42 years. The women were interviewed about their cannabis use 1 year prior to pregnancy and during each trimester of pregnancy, and at 6, 10, 14, and 16 years post-partum. A growth mixture model of cannabis use reported at each time point clearly delineated four groups: non/unlikely to use, decreasing likelihood of use, late desistance, and increasing likelihood/chronic use (Lo-Mendell-Rubin adjusted LRT test statistic=35.7, pdepressive symptoms were also associated with more frequent use. These findings have implications for both prevention and treatment of cannabis use in mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of maternal history of depression and early life maltreatment on children's health-related quality of life.

    Dittrich, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Bermpohl, Felix; Meyer, Justus; Führer, Daniel; Reichl, Corinna; Reck, Corinna; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Kaess, Michael; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Möhler, Eva; Bierbaum, Anna-Lena; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Jaite, Charlotte; Winter, Sibylle Maria; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bödeker, Katja; Resch, Franz

    2018-01-01

    There is a well-established link between maternal depression and child mental health. Similar effects have been found for maternal history of early life maltreatment (ELM). However, studies investigating the relationship of children's quality of life and maternal depression are scarce and none have been conducted for the association with maternal ELM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal history of ELM and depression on children's health-related quality of life and to identify mediating factors accounting for these effects. Our study involved 194 mothers with and without history of depression and/or ELM and their children between five and 12 years. Children's health-related quality of life was assessed by maternal proxy- and child self-ratings using the KIDSCREEN. We considered maternal sensitivity and maternal parenting stress as potential mediators. We found an effect of maternal history of depression but not of maternal history of ELM on health-related quality of life. Maternal stress and sensitivity mediated the effects of maternal depression on child global health-related quality of life, as well as on the dimensions Autonomy & Parent Relation, School Environment (maternal and child rating), and Physical Wellbeing (child rating). Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causal interpretations must be made with caution. Some scales yielded low internal consistency. Maternal impairments in areas of parenting which possibly developed during acute depression persist even after remission of acute affective symptoms. Interventions should target parenting stress and sensitivity in parents with prior depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elaboration of mini plates with U-Mo for irradiation in a high flux reactor

    Pasqualini, Enrique E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: International new efforts for the reconversion of HEU in research, testing and radioisotopes production reactors, have greatly incremented U-Mo fuels qualification activities. These qualifications require the resolution of undesired interaction at high fluxes between UMo particles and the aluminum matrix in the case of dispersed fuels and the development of U-Mo monolithic fuels. These efforts are being manifested in the planning and execution of additional series of irradiation tests of mini plates and full size plates. Recently, CNEA has elaborated mini plates with different proposals for the irradiation at the ATR reactor (250 MWTH, maximum thermal neutron flux 10 15 n.cm -2 .seg -1 ) at Idaho National Laboratory, USA. Uranium 7% (w/w) molybdenum (U-7Mo) particles were coated with silicon. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of silane and high temperature diffusion of silicon were used. Hydrided, milled and dehydrated (HMD) particles heat treated at 1000 C degrees during four hours and centrifugal atomized powder were coated and the results compared. Mini plates were elaborated with both kinds of particles. Mini plates were also elaborated with U-7Mo and silicon particles dispersed in the aluminium matrix. Monolithic mini plates were also developed by co lamination of U-7Mo with a Zircaloy-4 cladding. The different steps of this process are detailed and the method is shown to be versatile, can be easily scaled up and is performed with small modifications of usual equipment in fuel plants. The irradiation experiment is called RERTR-7A, includes a total of 32 mini plates and it is planed to finalize by mid 2006. (author) [es

  6. Learning terms and definitions: Drawing and the role of elaborative encoding.

    Wammes, Jeffrey D; Meade, Melissa E; Fernandes, Myra A

    2017-09-01

    Traditionally, students adopt the strategy of taking written notes when attending a class or learning from a textbook in educational settings. Informed by previous work showing that learning by doing improves memory performance, we examined whether drawing to-be-remembered definitions from university textbooks would improve later memory, relative to a more typical strategy of rote transcription. Participants were asked to either write out the definition, or to draw a picture representative of the definition. Results indicated that drawing, relative to verbatim writing, conferred a reliable memorial benefit that was robust, even when participants' preexisting familiarity with the terms was included as a covariate (in Experiment 1) or when the to-be-remembered terms and definitions were fictitious, thus removing the influence of familiarity (in Experiment 2). We reasoned that drawing likely facilitates retention at least in part because at encoding, participants must retain and elaborate upon information regarding the meaning of the definition, to translate it into a new form (a picture). This is not the case when participants write out the definitions verbatim. In Experiment 3 we showed that paraphrasing during encoding, which, like drawing and in contrast with verbatim writing, requires self-generated elaboration, led to memory performance that was comparable to drawing. Taken together, results suggest that drawing is a powerful tool which improves memory, and that drawing produces a similar level of retention as does paraphrasing. This suggests that elaborative encoding plays a critical role in the memorial benefit that drawing confers to memory for definitions of academic terms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Modern Approach to the Elaboration and Selection of Strategic Alternatives for Resource Regions

    Valeriy Anatolyevich Kryukov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For many countries and regions (both in Russia and abroad, natural resources are the crucial factor for socio-economic development. The role and significance of natural resources in the economy of different areas substantially depend on the institutional environment, including the resource regime. Today, we have a qualitative complication of conditions for mineral resources exploitation, we start to develop new, non-traditional types of resources, which haven’t been available (or demanded earlier for the economic and technological reasons. The changes in the characteristics of natural objects, as well as the increasing of uncertainty in the resource sector, actualize the search for alternatives of the development of resource-type regions and for the elaboration of appropriate strategies. In new conditions of resource regions, it is necessary to place emphasis on the aspects of expanded specific understanding of inclusiveness. It implies the possibility of active participation of regional authorities in the management and regulation of the mineral complex, as well as their involvement in the development of the association of a wide range of communities. These communities consist of the organizations representing the interests of indigenous peoples as well as professional communities: industry associations, environmental organizations, representatives of the innovation industry. Modern approaches to the elaboration of strategic directions for the resource regions development (primarily based on the development of the mineral industry should be based on sustainable development principles, the principles of inclusiveness and the need for innovations. As a result of the convergence of these characteristics, a new socio-economic concept is formed. This concept can be defined as the harmonious development that is extremely important for the Russian regions. The proposed approach can be used for the elaboration of strategic alternatives of the

  8. Review of technological elaborations in innovation activity in Institute of Atomic Energy

    Logachev, U.V.; Koltigin, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: One of the most important directions of IAE activity is works on safety substantiation of perspective reactors on fast neutrons with liquid metallic heat-transfer. Hard conditions of reactor and out-of pile experiments have required the elaboration of series of special measurement systems. Realized system parameters allow to use them not only in the experiments above, but in other industrial fields. One of the basic controlled experiment parameters is short-time pressure impulse appeared under melt hitting of fuel composition into metallic heat-transfer. The original measurement system of pressure impulse in liquid sodium was elaborated. System operating conditions are as follows: influence of reactor gamma radiation; operating temperatures span 273-673 K; pressure measurement span 5 MPa and 20 MPa; transfer temperature in impulse 273-1500 K; sizes in power point are no more than diameter 50 mm; At the same time the system should provide pressure measurement error no high than 6 %. Block of factors data did not allow using state or pressure impulse measurement systems offered at the market. During system elaboration a number of difficult technical problems were solved. As the result the pressure impulse measurement system in liquid sodium for reactor experiments with models of reactor channels on fast neutrons with liquid metallic heat-transfer under temperature up to 400 deg.C was elaborated. The system includes a pressure sensor, thermo protective device consisting of a membrane unit and impulse line with metallic extended with boiling temperature higher than 1000 deg. C. The line length is up to 5 m. A generator of pressure impulses for pressure impulse measurement system control was elaborated. The generator allows to form the regulated pressure impulse with amplitude up to 60 MPa and leading edge duration up to 5 ms. Impulse duration is from 20 to 100 ms.The operation results can be used during elaboration of fast operating pressure impulse

  9. Elaboration of technology organizational models of constructing high-rise buildings in plans of construction organization

    Osipenkova, Irina; Simankina, Tatyana; Syrygina, Taisiia; Lukinov, Vitaliy

    2018-03-01

    This article represents features of the elaboration of technology organizational models of high-rise building construction in technology organizational documentation on the example of the plan of construction organization. Some examples of enhancing the effectiveness of high-rise building construction based on developments of several options of the organizational and technological plan are examined. Qualitative technology organizational documentation allows to increase the competitiveness of construction companies and provides prime cost of construction and assembly works reductions. Emphasis is placed on the necessity to comply with the principle of comprehensiveness of engineering, scientific and research works, development activities and scientific and technical support.

  10. A real-time data acquisition and elaboration system for instabilities control in the FTU tokamak

    Alessi, E., E-mail: alessi@ifp.cnr.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Boncagni, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Galperti, C.; Marchetto, C.; Nowak, S.; Sozzi, C. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Apruzzese, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Bin, W. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Belli, F.; Botrugno, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); D' Antona, G.; Davoudi, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica (Italy); Figini, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Ferrero, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica (Italy); Gabellieri, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Grosso, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, C.R. Frascati (Italy); and others

    2013-08-21

    A real-time data acquisition and elaboration system is being implemented to control the new ECH launcher recently installed at FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The system is aimed at controlling different kinds of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, in particular the deleterious 3/2 and 2/1 (neoclassical) tearing modes, (N)TM, and the saw teeth period in order to prevent the seeding of NTMs. The complete system is presented here together with preliminary offline and real-time tests. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.

  11. CONSORT 2010 Explanation and Elaboration: Updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials

    Moher, David; Hopewell, Sally; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2010-01-01

    improves the wording and clarity of the previous checklist and incorporates recommendations related to topics that have only recently received recognition, such as selective outcome reporting bias. This explanatory and elaboration document-intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination...... of the CONSORT statement-has also been extensively revised. It presents the meaning and rationale for each new and updated checklist item providing examples of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies. Several examples of flow diagrams are included. The CONSORT 2010 Statement...

  12. Application of sol-gel process on the elaboration of SnO2 based ceramics

    Prescatan, R.T.; Silva, D.V. da; Hiratsuka, R.S.; Santilli, C.V.; Pulcinelli, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    The electrical, optical and chemical peculiar properties of SnO 2 confers it-self some potential application. The densification difficulty during sintering of SnO 2 compromises its elaboration by ceramic conventional process. In this work the preparation of SnO 2 ceramics by sol-gel process was investigated. Some parameters envolved on the colloidal stability, sol-gel transition and drying process were analysed. The obtained materials were characterized by rheological, X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy and pores size distribution measurements. The results show that a considerable densification during sintering at 400 and 600 0 C was obtained. (author) [pt

  13. CONSORT 2010 Explanation and Elaboration: Updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials

    Moher, David; Hopewell, Sally; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence shows the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal. Without transparent reporting, readers cannot judge the reliability and validity of trial findings nor extract information for systematic reviews. Recent methodological analyses indicate...... that inadequate reporting and design are associated with biased estimates of treatment effects. Such systematic error is seriously damaging to RCTs, which are considered the gold standard for evaluating interventions because of their ability to minimise or avoid bias. A group of scientists and editors developed......, this revised explanatory and elaboration document, and the associated website (www.consort-statement.org) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of randomised trials....

  14. CONSORT 2010 Explanation and Elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials (Chinese version)

    Moher, David; Hopewell, Sally; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence shows the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal. Without transparent reporting, readers cannot judge the reliability and validity of trial findings nor extract information for systematic reviews. Recent methodological analyses indicate...... that inadequate reporting and design are associated with biased estimates of treatment effects. Such systematic error is seriously damaging to RCTs, which are considered the gold standard for evaluating interventions because of their ability to minimise or avoid bias. A group of scientists and editors developed......, this revised explanatory and elaboration document, and the associated website (www.consort-statement.org) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of randomised trials....

  15. Metallic nanoparticle-based strain sensors elaborated by atomic layer deposition

    Puyoo, E.; Malhaire, C.; Thomas, D.; Rafaël, R.; R'Mili, M.; Malchère, A.; Roiban, L.; Koneti, S.; Bugnet, M.; Sabac, A.; Le Berre, M.

    2017-03-01

    Platinum nanoparticle-based strain gauges are elaborated by means of atomic layer deposition on flexible polyimide substrates. Their electro-mechanical response is tested under mechanical bending in both buckling and conformational contact configurations. A maximum gauge factor of 70 is reached at a strain level of 0.5%. Although the exponential dependence of the gauge resistance on strain is attributed to the tunneling effect, it is shown that the majority of the junctions between adjacent Pt nanoparticles are in a short circuit state. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of an all-plastic pressure sensor integrating Pt nanoparticle-based strain gauges in a Wheatstone bridge configuration.

  16. Elaboration of the technology of forming a conical product of sheet metal

    W. Matysiak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a general knowledge about spinning draw pieces of sheets, one of multi-operational processes of spinning a sheet metal conical product without machining. The objective of the work was to elaborate both the technology of forming conical products of sheet metal and execution of technological tests as well as to determine the technological parameters for the process of spinning a conical insert. As a result of the investigations, the products with improved mechanical properties, stricter execution tolerance and low roughness have been obtained. The series of 200 prototype conical inserts for the shipbuilding industry have been made.

  17. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.

  18. Maternity leave in normal pregnancy.

    Leduc, Dean

    2011-08-01

    To assist maternity care providers in recognizing and discussing health- and illness-related issues in pregnancy and their relationship to maternity benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., maternity benefits) and key words (e.g., maternity, benefits, pregnancy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.

  19. Identifying maternity services in public hospitals in rural and remote Australia.

    Longman, Jo; Pilcher, Jennifer M; Donoghue, Deborah A; Rolfe, Margaret; Kildea, Sue V; Kruske, Sue; Oats, Jeremy J N; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Barclay, Lesley M

    2014-06-01

    This paper articulates the importance of accurately identifying maternity services. It describes the process and challenges of identifying the number, level and networks of rural and remote maternity services in public hospitals serving communities of between 1000 and 25000 people across Australia, and presents the findings of this process. Health departments and the national government's websites, along with lists of public hospitals, were used to identify all rural and remote Australian public hospitals offering maternity services in small towns. State perinatal reports were reviewed to establish numbers of births by hospital. The level of maternity services and networks of hospitals within which services functioned were determined via discussion with senior jurisdictional representatives. In all, 198 rural and remote public hospitals offering maternity services were identified. There were challenges in sourcing information on maternity services to generate an accurate national picture. The nature of information about maternity services held centrally by jurisdictions varied, and different frameworks were used to describe minimum requirements for service levels. Service networks appeared to be based on a combination of individual links, geography and transport infrastructure. The lack of readily available centralised and comparable information on rural and remote maternity services has implications for policy review and development, equity, safety and quality, network development and planning. Accountability for services and capacity to identify problems is also compromised.

  20. Pediatric Food Allergies and Psychosocial Functioning: Examining the Potential Moderating Roles of Maternal Distress and Overprotection.

    Chow, Candice; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2015-01-01

    Identify factors associated with maternal perceptions of health-related quality of life (QoL) among youth with food allergies (FA), and identify maternal factors that may moderate relationships between FA-related challenges and child QoL. In all, 533 mothers of children with FA completed measures assessing characteristics of their child's FA, maternal perceptions of child QoL, maternal psychological distress, and maternal overprotection. FA severity, maternal psychological distress, and overprotection were significantly associated with maternal reports of poorer child functioning and/or poorer QoL among youth with FA. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed an FA severity by maternal distress interaction in the prediction of child FA-related anxiety; children of higher stress mothers showed a stronger link between auto-injector use and anxiety than children of lower stress mothers. When identifying youth with FA who are at risk for low QoL, it is important to assess history of FA-related challenges, parental psychological distress, and overprotection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Maternal leptin and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin is produced mainly by adipocytes. Levels are increased in women with obesity and during pregnancy. Increased levels are also associated with pregnancy complications such as, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: We studied what component of body composition correlated best with maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy and, whether maternal leptin correlated better with visceral fat rather than fat distributed elsewhere. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Women were recruited in the first trimester. Maternal adiposity was measured using body mass index and advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maternal leptin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. RESULTS: Of the 100 subjects studied, the mean leptin concentration was 37.7 ng\\/ml (range: 2.1-132.8). Leptin levels did not correlate with gestational age in the first trimester, maternal age, parity or birth weight. Serum leptin correlated positively with maternal weight and body mass index, and with the different parameters of body composition. On multiple regression analysis, serum leptin correlated with visceral fat but not fat distributed elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Visceral fat is the main determinant of circulating maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy. This raises the possibility that maternal leptin in early pregnancy may be a marker for the development of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes mellitus.

  2. Pathways of disadvantage: Explaining the relationship between maternal depression and children's problem behaviors.

    Turney, Kristin

    2012-11-01

    A large body of literature documents that children of depressed mothers have impaired cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes throughout the life course, though much less is known about the mechanisms linking maternal depression to children's outcomes. In this paper, I use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to estimate and explain the consequences of maternal depression for 5-year-old children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Ordinary least squared (OLS) regression models and propensity score models show that children exposed to both chronic and intermittent maternal depression have more problem behaviors than their counterparts with never depressed mothers. Results also show that economic resources and maternal parenting behaviors mediate much of the association between maternal depression and children's problem behaviors, but that relationships with romantic partners and social support do little to explain this association. This research extends past literature by illuminating some mechanisms through which maternal depression matters for children; by utilizing longitudinal measures of depression; by employing rigorous statistical techniques to lend confidence to the findings; and by using a large, diverse, and non-clinical sample of children most susceptible to maternal depression. Given that early childhood problem behaviors lay a crucial foundation for short- and long-term life trajectories, the social consequences of maternal depression may be far-reaching. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal Childhood Maltreatment History and Child Mental Health: Mechanisms in Intergenerational Effects.

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2016-04-12

    The objectives of this study were to examine whether a maternal history of maltreatment in childhood has a detrimental impact on young children's mental health and to test theoretically and empirically informed pathways by which maternal history may influence child mental health. Mother-child dyads (N = 187) were evaluated between birth and 64 months of age via home and laboratory observations, medical and child protection record reviews, and maternal interviews to assess maternal history of childhood maltreatment and microsystem and exosystem measures of the caregiving context, including child maltreatment, maternal caregiving quality, stress exposures, and social support. When the children were 7 years of age, mothers and teachers reported on child emotional and behavioral problems. Analyses examined whether the caregiving context variables linked maternal maltreatment history with child emotional and behavioral problems, controlling for child sex (54% male), race/ethnicity (63% White), and family sociodemographic risk at birth. Maltreated mothers experienced greater stress and diminished social support, and their children were more likely to be maltreated across early childhood. By age 7, children of maltreated mothers were at increased risk for clinically significant emotional and behavioral problems. A path analysis model showed mediation of the effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child symptoms, with specific effects significant for child maltreatment. Interventions that reduce child maltreatment risk and stress exposures and increase family social support may prevent deleterious effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child mental health.

  4. The question of autonomy in maternal health in Africa: a rights-based consideration.

    Amzat, Jimoh

    2015-06-01

    Maternal mortality is still very high in Africa, despite progress in control efforts at the global level. One elemental link is the question of autonomy in maternal health, especially at the household level where intrinsic human rights are undermined. A rights-based consideration in bioethics is an approach that holds the centrality of the human person, with a compelling reference to the fundamental human rights of every person. A philosophical and sociological engagement of gender and the notion of autonomy within the household reveals some fundamental rights-based perplexities for bioethical considerations in maternal health. The right to self-determination is undermined, and therefore women's dignity, freedom and autonomy, capacities, and choices are easily defiled. This study applies a rights-based approach to maternal health and demonstrates how rights concerns are associated with negative outcomes in maternal health in Africa. The discussion is situated at the household level, which is the starting point in health care. The paper submits that beyond legal and political rights within the context of the state, rights-based issues manifest at the household level. Many of those rights issues, especially relating to women's autonomy, are detrimental to maternal health in Africa. Therefore, a rights-based approach in the social construction of maternal health realities will contribute to alleviating the burden of maternal mortality in Africa.

  5. Paradoxes of maternal mourning.

    Brice, C W

    1991-02-01

    It has been customary to conceptualize mourning as a phasic or stage phenomenon (Lindemann 1944; Parkes 1972; Bowlby 1980; Knapp 1986). Such a conceptualization has proved to be of tremendous didactic value, especially in terms of succinctly organizing and communicating the major affects, behaviors, and reactions of mourning. It is, however, my belief, based upon clinical experience with many forms of bereavement, that the phenomenon of mourning is not comprised of clearly delineated stages and phases. I have come to conceptualize the phenomenon of mourning the death of a loved person as involving the bereaved's struggle with a series of more or less unresolvable paradoxes rather than as a progression through stages that possess relatively distinct and predictable beginning and ending points. The specific paradoxes encountered by a bereaved person differ, of course, in accordance with the relationship that was lost (mother, father, spouse, child, or sibling), the developmental stage of the bereaved (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, or maturity), the type of death (sudden or prolonged), and the cause of death (illness, murder, suicide, or accident). In this paper, I will address those paradoxes that seem specific to maternal mourning - that is, to mothers who are mourning the death of a child.

  6. Programming social behavior by the maternal fragile X protein.

    Zupan, B; Sharma, A; Frazier, A; Klein, S; Toth, M

    2016-07-01

    The developing fetus and neonate are highly sensitive to maternal environment. Besides the well-documented effects of maternal stress, nutrition and infections, maternal mutations, by altering the fetal, perinatal and/or early postnatal environment, can impact the behavior of genetically normal offspring. Mutation/premutation in the X-linked FMR1 (encoding the translational regulator FMRP) in females, although primarily responsible for causing fragile X syndrome (FXS) in their children, may also elicit such maternal effects. We showed that a deficit in maternal FMRP in mice results in hyperactivity in the genetically normal offspring. To test if maternal FMRP has a broader intergenerational effect, we measured social behavior, a core dimension of neurodevelopmental disorders, in offspring of FMRP-deficient dams. We found that male offspring of Fmr1(+/-) mothers, independent of their own Fmr1 genotype, exhibit increased approach and reduced avoidance toward conspecific strangers, reminiscent of 'indiscriminate friendliness' or the lack of stranger anxiety, diagnosed in neglected children and in patients with Asperger's and Williams syndrome. Furthermore, social interaction failed to activate mesolimbic/amygdala regions, encoding social aversion, in these mice, providing a neurobiological basis for the behavioral abnormality. This work identifies a novel role for FMRP that extends its function beyond the well-established genetic function into intergenerational non-genetic inheritance/programming of social behavior and the corresponding neuronal circuit. As FXS premutation and some psychiatric conditions that can be associated with reduced FMRP expression are more prevalent in mothers than full FMR1 mutation, our findings potentially broaden the significance of FMRP-dependent programming of social behavior beyond the FXS population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  7. Conceptual design of a system to help the elaboration of healthcare waste management plans

    Reis, Sergio C. dos; Silva, Eliane M.P. da; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Cussiol, Noil A.M.; Bahia, Jean V.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays the daily amount of wastes generated in the world is enormous. There are several categories of wastes with specific characteristics, some of them hazardous. These features, when associated with not properly waste disposal can put at risk both life quality and natural resources of present-day as well as future generations. From 10% to 25% of the wastes generated by health care facilities require special handling care due to their physical, biological, chemical, or radiological characteristics. This requires, among other things, the implementation of specific measures for their environmentally safe management. These measures shall be provided in a formal document, named Health care Waste Management Plan, which shall be written by all health care providers. In Brazil, general guides for elaboration of these documents are well defined by regulatory bodies and technical advices. At federal level, these directives are given by the following organizations: National Health Surveillance Agency - ANVISA, National Council for the Environment - CONAMA, and Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN. At CDTN (Center of Nuclear Technology Development), as part of a doctoral thesis at State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), a methodology that systematizes the management of the several activities involved with hazardous and radioactive wastes was developed, in order to be used as a guidance tool for this task. The objective of this present work is to adapt this methodology to health care waste management and present a conceptual design of a semi-expert system to help the elaboration of Health care Waste Management Plans. (author)

  8. Elaboration of a semiconductive thin film device technology on the basis of monocrystalline gallium arsenide

    Antoshenko, V.; Taurbaev, T.; Skirnevskaya, E.; Shorin, V.; Mihajlov, L.; Bajganatova, Sh.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the project: To elaborate the economical technological process of preparing super thin monocrystalline GaAs substrates and device structures for semiconductive electronics. To realize the project it is necessary to solve following problems: o to elaborate and produce the equipment for preparing of separated films and thin film multilayer structures with p-n-junction; - to study conditions of preparing plane crystal perfect separated Ga(Al)As - films; - to optimize regimes of preparing thin film structures with p- and n-conductive - layers; - to determine the optimal methods of transferring autonomous films and structures over the second substrates; - to work out preparing methods of ohmic contacts and electrical commutation; - to optimize the process of repeated use of initial monocrystalline GaAs substrate; - to prepare the samples of discrete thin film photo- and emitting devices. As the result of project realization there will be created cheap ecological technology of heterojunction optoelectronic devices on the basis of GaAs and AlGaAs solid solutions, the laboratory samples of thin film devices will be presented

  9. Elaboration of gluten free cupcakes from xanthosoma flours, taro, rice, cassava and their mixtures

    Quiros Alpizar, Silvia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The effect of taro flour, xanthosoma, cassava and rice, their possible mixtures and two different percentages of egg protein in cupcakes with total substitution of wheat flour are studied. Flours of xanthosoma and taro were elaborated and have utilized flours of cassava and rice existing in market. The moisture was evaluated and found that taro flour presents a lower water content compared to rice flour, xanthosoma and cassava in all flours. 22 formulations of cupcakes were elaborated using the flours (100% substitutions), flour mixture (substitution 50:50 of each flour) and wheat as control, also the egg content (standard content to egg and lower content to egg), to analyze their sensory characteristics and consumer preferences. The study data was carried out with two independents groups of people, a trained panel that has conducted the descriptive analysis and a consumer group that has made the study of acceptance. An analysis of variance was applied to data, test Fisher LSD and external preference mapping, an analysis of ''cluster '' for proof of acceptance, with witch were identified the three consumer groups, composed by 19, 51, 35 people. All three groups have preferred the control samples with wheat in groups 2 and 3 cupcakes with rice-cassava with content standard and less content of egg, and cassava with less egg, have showed without significant differences in preference (p [es

  10. Psychoanalytic psychodrama in France and group elaboration of counter-transference: Therapeutic operators in play therapy.

    Blanc, Adrien; Boutinaud, Jérôme

    2017-06-01

    In France, psychoanalytic psychodrama is mainly envisioned in its individual form - that is, a single patient working with a group of therapists. Its originality consists in bringing together several clinicians within a clinical experience that is shared as a group. This experience is fundamentally different from traditional individual therapies, psychotherapies or group co-led therapies. Its configuration may be confusing or overwhelming due to the large number of co-therapists involved in the setting. However, thanks to group elaboration based on the transferential-countertransferential dynamics induced by the treated patient, this potential 'cacophony' can lead to fruitful psychic development embedded in play. This is tied to the co-therapists' positioning in the transitional space shared with the patient as well as to the patient's subjective appropriation of their initiatives. By reflecting on clinical material taken from actual sessions as well as from the exchanges and elaborations occurring at their margins, this article shows how psychodrama and group come to metabolize the transferential elements, shaping the engagement of participants in the context of improvised play. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  11. SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration: guidance for protocols of clinical trials.

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Altman, Douglas G; Mann, Howard; Berlin, Jesse A; Dickersin, Kay; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Schulz, Kenneth F; Parulekar, Wendy R; Krleza-Jeric, Karmela; Laupacis, Andreas; Moher, David

    2013-01-08

    High quality protocols facilitate proper conduct, reporting, and external review of clinical trials. However, the completeness of trial protocols is often inadequate. To help improve the content and quality of protocols, an international group of stakeholders developed the SPIRIT 2013 Statement (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials). The SPIRIT Statement provides guidance in the form of a checklist of recommended items to include in a clinical trial protocol. This SPIRIT 2013 Explanation and Elaboration paper provides important information to promote full understanding of the checklist recommendations. For each checklist item, we provide a rationale and detailed description; a model example from an actual protocol; and relevant references supporting its importance. We strongly recommend that this explanatory paper be used in conjunction with the SPIRIT Statement. A website of resources is also available (www.spirit-statement.org). The SPIRIT 2013 Explanation and Elaboration paper, together with the Statement, should help with the drafting of trial protocols. Complete documentation of key trial elements can facilitate transparency and protocol review for the benefit of all stakeholders.

  12. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  13. Action-research and the elaboration of teaching knowledge in sciences

    Maria Nizete de Azevedo

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the way in which a training process, in which the methodological option approaches an action-research in teacher education, contributes with the elaboration of teaching knowledge in sciences by a group of teachers of the initial school years. In colaborative situations of teaching knowledge, those teachers elect education problems, for which they seek for solutions through planned, developed and reflected actions. We explored data obtained from a wide research, realized in a public school which took as basis this formative process. The results analysed under a qualitative approach show that the action-research contributes with the elaboration of the teaching knowledge, creating situations of learning necessary to the organization and development of education. We identified important knowledge related to indicating elements of learning about teaching, such as self-organization and formation, the disposition to study and to research, a way to teach sciences through investigative activities, the construction of cooperative practice at school, the articulation of science teaching with the alphabetization process in the native language, the consideration of the school's social and cultural context in its teaching plans, among others. Those results take us to reinforce the potential of action-research on teacher’s formation and on the improvement of the practiced teaching.

  14. Simulation, elaboration and analysis of inter-digitated back contacts photovoltaic cells

    Nichiporuk, O.

    2005-05-01

    Solar energy is the most promising and powerful energy source among renewable energies. Photovoltaic electricity is obtained by direct transformation of the sunlight into electricity by means of photovoltaic cells. The objective of this work is to develop photovoltaic cells with back inter-digitated contacts. In the first chapter, we recall the principle of operation and the fundamental parameters of a photovoltaic cell. In a second part, we explain specificities of the inter-digitated back-contact solar cells, as well as the advantages and the disadvantages of such cells. In the second chapter we study the operation of inter-digitated back-contacts solar cells by two dimensional numerical simulation in order to optimize the geometry and doping profiles of the cell. The third chapter relates to the techniques and the methods of characterization of photovoltaic devices and components. In the fourth chapter, we describe the elaboration of inter-digitated back-contact cells. Three technological processes are presented in order to develop a simple technology for cells realization. In particular, we develop the auto-aligned technological process, which enables to elaborate the cells by using only one lithography step. In the last chapter we examine various approaches to reduce the surface recombination: SiO 2 , silicon nitride deposited by UVCVD, hydrogen annealing, etc.. (author)

  15. Simulation, elaboration and analysis of inter-digitated back-contacts photovoltaic cells

    Nichiporuk, O.

    2005-05-01

    Solar energy is the most promising and powerful energy source among renewable energies. Photovoltaic electricity is obtained by direct transformation of the sunlight into electricity by means of photovoltaic cells. The objective of this work is to develop photovoltaic cells with back inter-digitated contacts. In the first chapter, we recall the principle of operation and the fundamental parameters of a photovoltaic cell. In a second part, we explain specificities of the inter-digitated back-contact solar cells, as well as the advantages and the disadvantages of such cells. In the second chapter we study the operation of inter-digitated back-contacts solar cells by two dimensional numerical simulation in order to optimize the geometry and doping profiles of the cell. The third chapter relates to the techniques and the methods of characterization of photovoltaic devices and components. In the fourth chapter, we describe the elaboration of inter-digitated back-contact cells. Three technological processes are presented in order to develop a simple technology for cells realization. In particular, we develop the auto-aligned technological process, which enables to elaborate the cells by using only one lithography step. In the last chapter we examine various approaches to reduce the surface recombination: SiO 2 , silicon nitride deposited by UVCVD, hydrogen annealing, etc... (author)

  16. METHODS ELABORATION ON DETECTION OF SOME ATYPICAL NEUROLYTIC AGENTS FOR CHEMICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    I. P. Remezova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to elaborate methods of atypical neuroleptic agents detection as individual substances and in different combinations as well for diagnosis of poisoning by some of them: clozapine, risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine, aripiprazole. The purpose of this work is methods elaboration of detection of clozapine, risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine, aripiprazole, haloperidol, oxazepam, carbamazapine using TLC, HPLC and UV spectrophotometry methods. During this work we used tablet forms of clozapine, risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine, aripiprazole. It is possible to use solution systems like ethanol-water-25% ammonia solution (8:1:1, toluolacetone-ethanol-25% ammonia solution (45:45:7.5:2.5, dioxan-chloroform-acetone-25% ammonia solution (47.5:45:5:2.5 for preliminary examination of atypical neuroleptic agents under study in combination with typical neuroleptics and tranquilizers with undirected analysis (general screening. System of solvents ethyl-acetate-chloroform-25% ammonia solution (85:10:5 is recommended to use for individual screening of risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine, haloperidol, benzol-ethanol-25% ammonia solution (50:10:0.5 system to use for clozapine, sertindole, olanzapine. Ethanol-25% ammonia solution (100:1.5 system is reasonable to use for chromatographic clearance of extracts from biological substances under study. We recommend using HPLC method and UV spectrophotometry for carrying out of a principal examination of clozapine, risperidone, sertindole, olanzapine and aripiprazole in case one of the substances under study is determined in the object.

  17. SOXE neofunctionalization and elaboration of the neural crest during chordate evolution

    Tai, Andrew; Cheung, Martin; Huang, Yong-Heng; Jauch, Ralf; Bronner, Marianne E.; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.

    2016-01-01

    During chordate evolution, two genome-wide duplications facilitated acquisition of vertebrate traits, including emergence of neural crest cells (NCCs), in which neofunctionalization of the duplicated genes are thought to have facilitated development of craniofacial structures and the peripheral nervous system. How these duplicated genes evolve and acquire the ability to specify NC and their derivatives are largely unknown. Vertebrate SoxE paralogues, most notably Sox9/10, are essential for NC induction, delamination and lineage specification. In contrast, the basal chordate, amphioxus, has a single SoxE gene and lacks NC-like cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that duplication and divergence of an ancestral SoxE gene may have facilitated elaboration of NC lineages. By using an in vivo expression assay to compare effects of AmphiSoxE and vertebrate Sox9 on NC development, we demonstrate that all SOXE proteins possess similar DNA binding and homodimerization properties and can induce NCCs. However, AmphiSOXE is less efficient than SOX9 in transactivation activity and in the ability to preferentially promote glial over neuronal fate, a difference that lies within the combined properties of amino terminal and transactivation domains. We propose that acquisition of AmphiSoxE expression in the neural plate border led to NCC emergence while duplication and divergence produced advantageous mutations in vertebrate homologues, promoting elaboration of NC traits. PMID:27734831

  18. Methodological guide for the follow-up and elaboration of performance assessments of a methanization plant

    Bastide, Guillaume

    2014-06-01

    This guide aims at giving indications required for a good implementation of an exploitation follow-up of a methanization plant. More precisely, it aims at foreseeing equipment necessary to the follow-up of installation construction, at preparing the operator to the follow-up and command of his installation, at elaborating operation assessments and performance interpretations, at proposing solutions and/or improvements. The described follow-up process can be applied to all the process stages (from receipt to by-product valorization), and addresses technical as well as economic aspects. Thus, four types of assessments are made: technical, energetic, environmental, and social-economic. This guide comprises five parts: a presentation of follow-up objectives (information to be looked for, benefits and drawbacks, follow-up level to be implemented), the follow-up methodology, follow-up assessments (what they are and how to elaborate them), practical sheets (practical presentation of techniques, typical Excel spreadsheets), and a glossary which explains the main technical terms

  19. Effects of self-schema elaboration on affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant information.

    Petersen, L E; Stahlberg, D; Dauenheimer, D

    2000-02-01

    The basic assumption of the integrative self-schema model (ISSM; L.-E. Petersen, 1994; L.-E. Petersen, D. Stahlberg, & D. Dauenheimer, 1996; D. Stahlberg, L.-E. Petersen, & D. Dauenheimer, 1994, 1999) is that self-schema elaboration (schematic vs. aschematic) affects reactions to self-relevant information. This assumption is based on the idea that schematic dimensions occupy a more central position in the cognitive system than aschematic dimensions. In the first study, this basic prediction could be clearly confirmed: The results showed that schematic dimensions possessed stronger cognitive associations with other self-relevant cognitions as well as a higher resistance to change than aschematic dimensions did. In the second study, the main assumptions of the ISSM concerning the affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant feedback were tested: The ISSM proposes that, on schematic dimensions, reactions to self-relevant feedback will most likely follow principles of self-consistency theory, whereas on aschematic dimensions positive feedback should elicit the most positive reactions that self-enhancement theory would predict. The experimental results clearly confirmed the hypotheses derived from the ISSM for affective reactions. Cognitive reactions, however, were in line with self-consistency principles and were not modified by the elaboration of the self-schema dimension involved.

  20. ELABORATION OF A DRYING SCHEDULE FOR Eucalyptus spp HYBRIDS CLONES WOODS

    Celso Gonçalves Barbosa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of adequate drying schedules is essential to produce high quality conventional kiln dried lumber.Eucalyptus woods are particularly difficult to dry, and, for this reason, it is desirable that the drying schedule be carefullydeveloped. The objectives of this work were to elaborate a drying schedule for woods of ten Eucalyptus hybrids clones and toverify the propensity of these woods to post drying defects. For this purpose, it was applied the methodology of drastic drying at100°C, which associates intensity of defects, time and rate of drying, presented by small wood samples, with the behaviourto be presented by lumber after the conventional drying. The results allowed developing a drying schedule common to the tenclone lumbers. This program is based on an initial temperature of 40°C, final temperature of 66°C and drying potential equal to2.2. The drying time can be reduced, if the clones were grouped in accordance to their drying rate. The clones presented lowpropensity to split and high propensity to collapse.

  1. Elaboration, structural and optical investigations of ZnO/epoxy nanocomposites

    Moussa, S.; Namouchi, F.; Guermazi, H.

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites were elaborated by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a transparent epoxy polymer matrix, using the direct dispersion method. The effect of the nanoparticles on the structural and optical properties of the polymer matrix was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopies. Nanocomposites FTIR spectra showed a variation of band intensities attributed to nanoparticles agglomeration within the polymer. The UV-Visible measurements showed a redshift on the band gap energy of the nanocomposites differently from neat epoxy resin, caused by interactions between ZnO NPs and polymer chains. Raman spectra confirm these interactions and the formation of hydrogen bonds in the nanocomposites. The UV-Visible transmittance spectra revealed that addition of a very low concentration (0.2wt%) of ZnO nanoparticles to a transparent epoxy matrix would maintain high visible-light transparency. The decrease of transmittance with increasing ZnO percentage is due to light scattering which originates from the agglomeration of nanoparticles in the matrix, the mismatch between the refractive index of ZnO and that of the epoxy matrix, and the increase of the surface roughness of the nanocomposite with increasing ZnO addition. Moreover, the UV-vis absorption spectra revealed that adding more than 1wt% ZnO leads to the improvement of the UV shielding properties of the nanocomposites. These results prove that the elaborated ZnO/epoxy nanocomposites can be used as UV shielding materials.

  2. Conceptual design of a system to help the elaboration of healthcare waste management plans

    Reis, Sergio C. dos; Silva, Eliane M.P. da; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Cussiol, Noil A.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: reissc@cdtn.br; silvaem@cdtn.br; vasconv@cdtn.br; cussiol@cdtn.br; Bahia, Jean V. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: jeanvb@cdtn.br; Jordao, Elizabete [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: bete@feq.unicamp.br

    2007-07-01

    Nowadays the daily amount of wastes generated in the world is enormous. There are several categories of wastes with specific characteristics, some of them hazardous. These features, when associated with not properly waste disposal can put at risk both life quality and natural resources of present-day as well as future generations. From 10% to 25% of the wastes generated by health care facilities require special handling care due to their physical, biological, chemical, or radiological characteristics. This requires, among other things, the implementation of specific measures for their environmentally safe management. These measures shall be provided in a formal document, named Health care Waste Management Plan, which shall be written by all health care providers. In Brazil, general guides for elaboration of these documents are well defined by regulatory bodies and technical advices. At federal level, these directives are given by the following organizations: National Health Surveillance Agency - ANVISA, National Council for the Environment - CONAMA, and Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN. At CDTN (Center of Nuclear Technology Development), as part of a doctoral thesis at State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), a methodology that systematizes the management of the several activities involved with hazardous and radioactive wastes was developed, in order to be used as a guidance tool for this task. The objective of this present work is to adapt this methodology to health care waste management and present a conceptual design of a semi-expert system to help the elaboration of Health care Waste Management Plans. (author)

  3. Elaboration of metallic and composite fillings by plasma transferred arc. Process analysis and tribological study

    Rochette, Philippe

    1987-01-01

    The experimental part of this research thesis addresses the parametric study of two surface filling processes (by plasma transferred arc, and by plasma arc projection followed by a coating remelting by electron beam), the elaboration by plasma transferred arc and the metallurgical characterization of fillings of nickel base alloys and composite materials made of tungsten carbides dispersed in a nickel matrix, and the characterization of fretting wear of the so-elaborated fillings in aqueous environment. The results show that the plasma transferred arc filling technique allows coating quality and microstructure to be controlled by adjusting the mass energy of the transferred arc. Besides, this technique results in a very good control of nickel alloy coatings. The various studied composites show that it is better to use a matrix with very few alloying elements or pre-coated carbides in order to avoid any cracking phenomenon. The content of dispersed carbides must not be greater than 60 per cent in weight. The best wear behaviour is obtained with polyhedral tungsten carbides dispersed within a low alloyed nickel matrix [fr

  4. 2-Furoylmethyl amino acids as indicators of Maillard reaction during the elaboration of black garlic.

    Ríos-Ríos, Karina L; Vázquez-Barrios, M Estela; Gaytán-Martínez, Marcela; Olano, Agustín; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar

    2018-02-01

    This study reports the formation of 2-furomethyl-amino acids (2-FM-AA) as indicators of Maillard reaction (MR) in black garlic elaboration, followed by the determination of furosine by ion-pair RP-HPLC-UV. The method was assessed for accuracy, repeatability and detection and quantitation limits indicating its adequacy. Traditional procedure of black garlic obtainment and the inclusion of convective drying (CDP) and ohmic heating (OHP) were assayed. For comparison purposes, three commercial black garlic samples were used. Together with furosine (2-FM-lysine), 2-furoylmethyl-γ-aminobutyric acid and 2-FM-arginine were detected. Levels of furosine were higher in CDP (46.6-110.1mg/100g protein) than in OHP (13.7-42.0mg/100g protein) samples, probably due to the most severe processing conditions used in the former. These results highlight the suitability of 2-FM-AA as chemical indicators to monitor the process of black garlic elaboration in order to obtain high quality products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors influencing public risk-benefit considerations of nanotechnology: Assessing the effects of mass media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing.

    Ho, Shirley S; Scheufele, Dietram A; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing on public perception of benefits and risks of nanotechnology, based on a large-scale nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adult citizens. Results indicate that cognitive processes in the form of news elaboration had a significant positive main effect on benefits outweigh risks perception. The influences of attention to science in newspapers, attention to science news on television, and interpersonal communication about science on public perception of benefits outweigh risks were moderated by elaborative processing, after controlling for socio-demographic variables, religious beliefs, trust in scientists, and scientific knowledge. The findings highlight the importance of elaborative processing when it comes to understanding how the mass media differentially influence public benefits outweigh risks perception of emerging technologies. Specifically, high elaborative processing emphasizes higher levels of perceived benefits outweigh risks than low elaborative processing. This study explores explanations for this phenomenon and offers implications for future research and policy.

  6. Linked data management

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  7. Maternal Parity and Blood Oxidative Stress in Mother and Neonate

    Golalizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Parturition has been associated with free radicals, itself linked with poor pregnancy outcome. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers levels of maternal and cord blood samples at the second stage of labor with the maternal parity number. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, subjects were selected from Fatemieh teaching hospital, Hamadan, Iran, and allocated into the two groups according to their number of parity: the primiparous group (n = 33, and multiparous group (n = 35. Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were taken from all subjects and then assessed for catalas activity (CAT, total thiol molecules (TTM and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Results Total antioxidant capacity levels were significantly higher in newborns of primiparous women compared to multiparous women (P = 0.006. The CAT levels were significantly lower (P = 0.04 and TAC levels significantly higher (P = 0.03 in maternal plasma of primiparous women compared to those of multiparous women. Conclusions Increment in the number of parity can lead to decrease antioxidant defense mechanisms in multiparous women and their newborns. So, control of oxidative stress is considered to be beneficial in multiparous women.

  8. Materno-infantilism, feminism and maternal health policy in Brazil.

    Diniz, Simone

    2012-06-01

    In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prehospital maternity care in Norway.

    Egenberg, Signe; Puntervoll, Stein Atle; Øian, Pål

    2011-11-29

    Out-of-hospital maternity care in Norway is randomly organised and not properly formalized. We wished to examine the extent, organisation and quality of this service. We obtained information from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry on all unplanned out-of-hospital births in 2008. A questionnaire was sent to all maternity institutions, municipalities and emergency dispatch centres, with questions regarding the practical and formal organisation of the service using figures from 2008. 430 children, all above 22 weeks gestation, were born unplanned outside of hospitals in Norway in 2008. Of these, 194 were born unplanned at home, 189 while being transported and 47 in other locations (doctor's offices, infirmaries, unknown). Five out of 53 maternity institutions (9 %) confirmed they had a formal midwife service agreement for out-of-hospital births. 247 municipalities (79 %) claimed to have no such assistance. Of these, 33 are located at least 90 minutes away from the nearest maternity ward. Half of the emergency dispatch centres had no registration identifying formal agreements on assistance by midwives for out-of-hospital births. There is an urgent need to put in place formal agreements between the regional health authorities and the municipalities on out-of-hospital midwife services. A distance of 90 minutes' journey time to a maternity ward to fulfil the right to qualified assistance is not well-founded.

  10. Depression, Sensation Seeking, and Maternal Smoking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking

    Judy van de Venne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine maternal and adolescent depression, maternal and teen sensation seeking, and maternal smoking, and their associations with adolescent smoking. Data were collected from a sample of 47 male and 66 female adolescents (ages 11—18 years and their mothers from three different health clinics. The findings indicated that maternal sensation seeking was linked indirectly with adolescent smoking through teen sensation seeking, both of which were significantly associated with teen smoking (β = 0.29, p < 0.001 and β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Teen depression was associated positively with teen smoking (β = 0.24, p < 0.01 when controlling for sensation seeking behaviors. Maternal smoking was also directly linked to adolescent smoking (β = 0.20, p < 0.05. These findings underscore a potentially important role of sensation seeking in the origins of adolescent smoking, and clarify pathways of influence with regard to maternal attitudes and behaviors in subsequent teenage nicotine use.

  11. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal development

    Howell, Kristy R.; Powell, Theresa L.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and pregnancies in obese mothers have increased risk for complications including gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, preterm birth and caesarian section. Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease and are susceptible to develop neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. Changes in placental function not only play a critical role in the development of pregnancy complications but may also be involved in linking maternal obesity to long-term health risks in the infant. Maternal adipokines i.e., interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), leptin and adiponectin link maternal nutritional status and adipose tissue metabolism to placental function. Adipokines and metabolic hormones have direct impact on placental function by modulating placental nutrient transport. Nutrient delivery to the fetus is regulated by a complex interaction between insulin signaling, cytokine profile and insulin responsiveness, which is modulated by adiponectin and IL-1β. In addition, obese pregnant women are at risk for hypertension and preeclampsia with reduced placental vascularity and blood flow, which would restrict placental nutrient delivery to the developing fetus. These sometimes opposing signals regulating placental function may contribute to the diversity of short and long-term outcomes observed in pregnant obese women. This review focuses on the changes in adipokines and obesity-related metabolic hormones, how these factors influence placental function and fetal development to contribute to long-term metabolic and behavioral consequences of children born to obese mothers. PMID:27864335

  13. Maternal exposure to the holocaust and health complaints in offspring.

    Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Although the link between chronic stress and the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases of adulthood has been known for some time, there is growing recognition that early environmental influences may result in developmental programming via epigenetic mechanisms, thereby affecting the developmental trajectory of disease progression. Previous studies support the idea that offspring of Holocaust survivors may have been subjected to early developmental programming. We evaluated the relationship between parental exposure to the Holocaust and self-reported health ratings and disorders made by their adult offspring (i.e., second generation Holocaust survivors). A total of 137 subjects were evaluated. Regression analyses demonstrated that maternal but not paternal exposure to the Holocaust was related to poorer subjective impressions of emotional and physical health. This relationship was diminished when the offspring's own level of trait anxiety was considered. Offspring with maternal, but not paternal, Holocaust exposure also reported greater use of psychotropic and other medications, including medications for the treatment of hypertension and lipid disorders. The mechanism linking these health outcomes and maternal exposure deserves further investigation, including the possibility that fetal or early developmental programming is involved.

  14. Maternal immune activation results in complex microglial transcriptome signature in the adult offspring that is reversed by minocycline treatment

    Mattei, D.; Ivanov, A.; Ferrai, C.; Jordan, P.; Guneykaya, D.; Buonfiglioli, A.; Schaafsma, W.; Przanowski, P.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Brust, P.; Hesse, S.; Patt, M.; Sabri, O.; Ross, T. L.; Eggen, B. J. L.; Boddeke, E. W. G. M.; Kaminska, B.; Beule, D.; Pombo, A.; Kettenmann, H.; Wolf, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of developing psychiatric pathologies in later life. This link may be bridged by a defective microglial phenotype in the offspring induced by MIA, as microglia have key roles in the development and maintenance of

  15. Maternal Sensitivity and Effortful Control in Early Childhood as Predictors of Adolescents' Adjustment: The Mediating Roles of Peer Group Affiliation and Social Behaviors

    Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Davis, Alexandra N.; Karahuta, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal links between early childhood temperament, maternal sensitivity, and adolescents' adjustment have been proposed and found in several longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms of influence have not been explored. The authors examined the paths from maternal sensitivity and temperament in early childhood to adolescents' prosocial,…

  16. Social representations elaborated by nurses about climacteric women in primary health care

    Smithanny Barros da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : to understand the social representations elaborated by nurses from the family health strategy concerning the assistance to climacteric women. Methods : qualitative research conducted with 28 nurses. One adopted the reference of procedural approach of the theory of social representations. The interviews were recorded and transcribed completely and processed by the Software of Lexical Analysis of co-occurrence in simple statements of a text, version 4.7. Results: nurses recognize the menopause as a phase of women’s life that needs to be assisted in its entirety, however, they showed difficulty in helping them, as they just carry out the cytological examination collection, request laboratory tests and forward them to a doctor. Conclusion: the climacteric period is a multifaceted phenomenon and the assistance to those people should be systematized from a qualified listening, in an approach that respects its uniqueness and autonomy.

  17. Elaboration of training and methodological guidance for handling with radioactive waste issues in Kazakhstan

    Kayukov, P.; Fyodorov, G.; Belych, V.; Shkolnick, T.

    1998-01-01

    With a great potential for the development and civilian use of the uranium industrial complex in Kazakhstan, there are several existing obstacles in the form of public opinion which still possesses a strong ''radiation phobia'' as a result of past military activity in the Republic. It is not enough to have talks on the radio or articles in newspapers from famous authoritative individuals to overcome this radiation phobia. Systematic education of the public is necessary in order to cultivate a new generation of ecological specialists and business specialists. Therefore, it is necessary to create a plan to carry out this daunting task. In this paper, the creation of such a plan is elaborated. (author)

  18. Elaboration of natural polyfunctional preparations with antiparasitic and biostimulating properties for plant growing.

    Iutynska, G O

    2012-01-01

    Producer of macrolide antibiotic avermectin Streptomyces avermitilis UCM Ac-2179 has been isolated from Ukrainian chernozem soil, its biosynthetic activity has been increased by the traditional selection and chemical mutagenesis methods. Streptomyces avermitilis UCM Ac-2179 synthesizes avermectin with the content of anti-parasitic B-components more than 40%. Addition of exogenous Na-pyruvate (1.5 mg/L) in cultural medium promotes a 2.5-fold augmentation of the avermectin synthesis. The preparation Avercom has been obtained by the method of ethanol extraction from the producer biomass. This preparation includes antibiotic avermectin and other biologically active substances: free amino acids, lipids, phytohormones. Avercom has high nematicidic activity and raises plant resistance to fungal and viral diseases. On the base of Avercom and plant growth regulators the complex preparations Actinolan and Ascoldia have been elaborated. The effectiveness of the biopreparations as nematicidic and plantstimulating means under experimental and industrial conditions was confirmed.

  19. The elaboration of motor programs for the automation of letter production.

    Thibon, Laurence Séraphin; Gerber, Silvain; Kandel, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    We investigated how children learn to write letters. Letter writing evolves from stroke-by-stroke to whole-letter programming. Children of ages 6 to 9 (N=98) wrote letters of varying complexity on a digitizer. At ages 6 and 7 movement duration, dysfluency and trajectory increased with stroke number. This indicates that the motor program they activated mainly coded information on stroke production. Stroke number affected the older children's production much less, suggesting that they programmed stroke chunks or the whole letter. The fact that movement duration and dysfluency decreased from ages 6 to 8, and remained stable at ages 8 and 9 suggests that automation of letter writing begins at age 8. Automation seems to require the elaboration of stroke chunks and/or letter-sized motor programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic tools for biodiversity. An elaboration of TEEB recommendations with regard to the Taskforce Biodiversity

    Davidson, M.D.; Bergsma, G.C.; Blom, M.J.

    2011-07-01

    The working group on Economic Instruments of the Biodiversity and Natural Resources Task Force addressed the question how the recommendations of the report of the United Nations 'The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity' (TEEB) can be realized in the Netherlands. A selection of topics has been made for which policy proposals are developed which might be promising and can lead to a better protection of the biodiversity. The following proposals were investigated and/or elaborated: decrease of the social discount rate; further greening of the tax system; import levy on bulk commodities; taxes on non-sustainable wood; levy on the use of open space; differential tax on animal proteins; and a revision of biomass incentives. [nl

  1. A methodology proposal for collaborative business process elaboration using a model-driven approach

    Mu, Wenxin; Bénaben, Frédérick; Pingaud, Hervé

    2015-05-01

    Business process management (BPM) principles are commonly used to improve processes within an organisation. But they can equally be applied to supporting the design of an Information System (IS). In a collaborative situation involving several partners, this type of BPM approach may be useful to support the design of a Mediation Information System (MIS), which would ensure interoperability between the partners' ISs (which are assumed to be service oriented). To achieve this objective, the first main task is to build a collaborative business process cartography. The aim of this article is to present a method for bringing together collaborative information and elaborating collaborative business processes from the information gathered (by using a collaborative situation framework, an organisational model, an informational model, a functional model and a metamodel and by using model transformation rules).

  2. Elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide thin films on metal substrates by chemical solution deposition

    Seveno, R. [Universite de Nantes, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)]. E-mail: raynald.seveno@univ-nantes.fr; Braud, A. [Universite de Nantes, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Gundel, H.W. [Universite de Nantes, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2005-12-22

    In order to improve the structural interface between a metal substrate and a lead zirconate titanate (Pb(ZrTi)O{sub 3}, PZT) ferroelectric thin film, the elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide (SrRuO{sub 3}) by chemical solution deposition is studied. The SrRuO{sub 3} thin films were realized by multiple spin-coating technique and the temperature of the rapid thermal annealing process was optimized. The crystallization behavior was examined by X-ray diffraction; surface analyses using scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope techniques showed the influence of the SrRuO{sub 3} layer at the interface PZT/metal on the morphology of the ferroelectric thin film. From the electrical measurements, a coercive electric field around 25 kV/cm and a remanent polarization of approximately 30 {mu}C/cm were found.

  3. The Elaboration Process of Municipal Education Plans in the Greater São Paulo ABC Region

    Paulo Sérgio Garcia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the elaboration process of the Municipal Education Plans (PME in Greater São Paulo ABC region (Brazil, placing the analysis in a broader framework to understand the influences made by the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT movement and those practiced by the Catholic Church. A case study was used as a methodological approach. Results revealed the loosening in the drawing up of plans, the influence of the Church over the councilmen, inducing them to make alterations in final documents, ratifying the Church’s influence, which is historic in Brazil, and the education weakening regarding prejudice and discrimination, that are recognized demands of the LGBT movement. These results are important in order to provoke the debate in Education Departments and universities.

  4. Oral melanocytic nevi: Report of two cases with immunohistochemical elaboration of their probable origin and maturation

    Dipti Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral melanocytic nevi are localized developmental tissue malformations of nevus cells in the oral mucosa. Relatively rare in occurrence compared to their dermal counterparts, considerable debate exists in the literature related to their origin, development and maturation, and their relationship to oral melanocytes.We report two cases of oral melanocytic nevi with classical clinical presentation. The histopathology was consistent with the known patterns of oral melanocytic nevi. Special stains such as Masson Fontana, further substantiated the observation. S-100 and HMB-45 were applied to immunohistochemically elaborate the cell population. Interestingly two distinct cell populations were detected in the lesions. "Type A" cells in the center of the lesion were S-100 positive, indicating a neural origin and immaturity in development, while peripheral "type B" cells stained positive with HMB-45, indicating melanocytic origin and mature development.

  5. Elaboration of Langmuir-Blodgett films of oligothiophenes derivatives for solid state polymerisation

    Isz, Sandrine

    1995-01-01

    Molecular electronics requires the elaboration of highly organised conductive architectures, and this research thesis addresses the fabrication of oriented conductive molecular wires. Precursors can be oriented by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Synthesized molecules are oligothiophenes. After a UV-visible study in solution, these molecules have been tested under the form of Langmuir-Blodgett films. Their behaviour at the air-water interface has been characterized by using various techniques (compression isothermal, Brewster angle microscope, transmission electronic microscope, atomic force microscope) to check that higher oligothiophenes are forming a molecular film. Crystal structure reveals an almost vertical orientation of molecules at the water surface. A solid state coupling between these organised molecules has been attempted by electrochemical, thermal, and chemical ways [fr

  6. 1,1-Dimetallic reagents for the elaboration of stereoselectively di- or trisubstituted linear substrates.

    Normant, J F

    2001-08-01

    Although gem-dimetallic species have been known for a long time, and reacted once or twice with electrophiles, the allyl zincation of substituted vinyl metals has emerged as a particularly efficient access to such species. This is due to a high face selectivity, in the addition to the C=C bond, which can be governed by vicinal or more remote heteroatoms. This strategy has some aspects in common with the well-known allylations or aldol condensations to carbonyl derivatives. But in the present case, the C=C bond has a low polarity. We present here some examples which lead to di- or polysubstituted linear substrates, of given geometry, where the organodimetallic obtained has been doubly protonated by water. Further elaborations (to alkenes, ketones, etc.) are possible.

  7. Elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide thin films on metal substrates by chemical solution deposition

    Seveno, R.; Braud, A.; Gundel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the structural interface between a metal substrate and a lead zirconate titanate (Pb(ZrTi)O 3 , PZT) ferroelectric thin film, the elaboration of strontium ruthenium oxide (SrRuO 3 ) by chemical solution deposition is studied. The SrRuO 3 thin films were realized by multiple spin-coating technique and the temperature of the rapid thermal annealing process was optimized. The crystallization behavior was examined by X-ray diffraction; surface analyses using scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope techniques showed the influence of the SrRuO 3 layer at the interface PZT/metal on the morphology of the ferroelectric thin film. From the electrical measurements, a coercive electric field around 25 kV/cm and a remanent polarization of approximately 30 μC/cm were found

  8. Contribution to the elaboration and implementation of LEP-L3 second level microcoded Trigger

    Chollet, F.

    1988-03-01

    This thesis is devoted to the elaboration of the L3 second level trigger which is based on the dedicated programmable XOP processor. This system will reduce the trigger rate by a factor of ten and will ensure that the hardwired level-one processors function correctly. The present document describes all developments that L.A.P.P. is engaged in from the system design up to the complete experimental set up, especially: - The hardware development of the fast input memories as well as the FASTBUS interface unit which allows the microprocessor XOP to run as a performant FASTBUS Master, - the associated software developments, - the implementation of a VME test system dedicated to all control tasks [fr

  9. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects.

  10. Elaboration, morphology and properties of starch/polyester nano-biocomposites based on sepiolite clay.

    Olivato, J B; Marini, J; Pollet, E; Yamashita, F; Grossmann, M V E; Avérous, L

    2015-03-15

    The incorporation of nano-sized sepiolite clays into thermoplastic starch/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (TPS/PBAT) blends has been investigated with the goal of improving the matrix properties. TPS/PBAT nano-biocomposites were elaborated with two different proportions of the polymeric phases. The influence of the sepiolite nanoclays on the mechanical, thermal and structural properties of the corresponding blends was evaluated. SEM images confirmed the good dispersion of the sepiolite clay, with a low occurrence of small aggregates in the polymeric matrix. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction showed no significant alteration of the crystalline structures of PBAT and starch induced by the sepiolite clay. The addition of sepiolite slightly affected the thermal degradation of the nano-biocomposites; however, the mechanical tests revealed an increase in some mechanical properties, demonstrating that sepiolite is a promising nanofiller for TPS-based materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elaboration of pellets of LiF: Mg, Cu, P and its dosimetric properties

    Gutierrez C, A.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Azorin N, J.

    1991-03-01

    The LiF: Mg, Cu, P is at the moment in the entire world one of the TL materials of more interest, by its equivalence with the tissue, as well as for its high sensitivity, which is 25 to 35 times greater than of the TLD-100 of Harshaw (USA). In our laboratory dosemeters of this material have been developed in form of sinterized pellets. The importance of these new dosemeters in pellet form is due to that in this form its manipulation is facilitated. Due to its high sensitivity, these dosemeters result to be those but appropriate to measure the ionizing radiations, in intervals of extremely low dose. In this report the method of elaboration of the pellets, as well as its main dosimetric characteristics are presented. (Author)

  12. Elaboration and characterization of Japanese Raisin Tree (Hovenia dulcis Thumb. pseudofruits fermented alcoholic beverage

    Juliana Tensol PINTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Hovenia dulcis pseudofruits have underexplored properties for food purposes, despite their pleasant sensory characteristics and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this study was the elaboration and chemical characterization of the alcoholic fermented beverage of H. dulcis, using selected strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CCMA 0200. The resulting fermented beverage presented high content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity when compared to other fruits and beverages (DPPH and ABTS assay. The alcohol content was 12.9 oGL and total sugars 3.57g/L. By the GC-MS analysis, 39 compounds were identified including metabolites with therapeutic potential such as eugenol, trans-farnesol salicylates. The flavonoid dihidromyricetin was identified and quantified (75.17 mg/L by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-MS/MS. The results reinforce the interest on nutraceutical and functional properties of this beverage and opens perspectives for new studies that value this underexplored pseudofruit.

  13. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  14. Site of delivery contribution to black-white severe maternal morbidity disparity.

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Egorova, Natalia N; Balbierz, Amy; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Hebert, Paul L

    2016-08-01

    The black-white maternal mortality disparity is the largest disparity among all conventional population perinatal health measures, and the mortality gap between black and white women in New York City has nearly doubled in recent years. For every maternal death, 100 women experience severe maternal morbidity, a life-threatening diagnosis, or undergo a life-saving procedure during their delivery hospitalization. Like maternal mortality, severe maternal morbidity is more common among black than white women. A significant portion of maternal morbidity and mortality is preventable, making quality of care in hospitals a critical lever for improving outcomes. Hospital variation in risk-adjusted severe maternal morbidity rates exists. The extent to which variation in hospital performance on severe maternal morbidity rates contributes to black-white disparities in New York City hospitals has not been studied. We examined the extent to which black-white differences in severe maternal morbidity rates in New York City hospitals can be explained by differences in the hospitals in which black and white women deliver. We conducted a population-based study using linked 2011-2013 New York City discharge and birth certificate datasets (n = 353,773 deliveries) to examine black-white differences in severe maternal morbidity rates in New York City hospitals. A mixed-effects logistic regression with a random hospital-specific intercept was used to generate risk-standardized severe maternal morbidity rates for each hospital (n = 40). We then assessed differences in the distributions of black and white deliveries among these hospitals. Severe maternal morbidity occurred in 8882 deliveries (2.5%) and was higher among black than white women (4.2% vs 1.5%, P rates among New York City hospitals ranged from 0.8 to 5.7 per 100 deliveries. White deliveries were more likely to be delivered in low-morbidity hospitals: 65% of white vs 23% of black deliveries occurred in hospitals in the lowest

  15. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  16. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ways maternal deaths are classified in national statistical offices in Europe and to evaluate the ways classification affects published rates. METHODS: Data on pregnancy-associated deaths were collected in 13 European countries. Cases were classified by a European panel....... This change was substantial in three countries (P statistical offices appeared to attribute fewer deaths to obstetric causes. In the other countries, no differences were detected. According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes. An ICD-9 code (International Classification of Diseases) was attributed to each case. These were compared to the codes given in each country. Correction indices were calculated, giving new estimates of maternal mortality rates. SUBJECTS: There were...

  17. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual......I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time...

  18. Practitioner review: maternal mood in pregnancy and child development--implications for child psychology and psychiatry.

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    The empirical base suggesting a link between prenatal maternal anxiety, stress or depression and cognitive, behavioral, and biological outcomes in the infant and child has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. In this review, we consider the relevance of prenatal maternal mood for child mental health practitioners; the empirical base for a likely causal impact of the link between prenatal anxiety, depression, or stress and child outcomes; the degree to which the available evidence is sufficient for informing or altering clinical practice; and the possible role of prenatal interventions for promoting child health and development. A selective review of PubMed, Cochrane Library and other sources was undertaken. Clinically significant links between maternal prenatal distress and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes have been reported; predictions to stress physiology, immunology, and neurodevelopment have been reported but the effect sizes and clinical significance is less clear. Several candidate mechanisms have been proposed, with some supporting evidence. Many behavioral treatments for prenatal maternal distress exist, but their application to promoting child health is largely unknown. Research on maternal prenatal distress is a good example of translational research and offers a strong paradigm for promoting interdisciplinary clinical research on child health and development. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Influences of maternal postpartum depression on fathers and on father-infant interaction.

    Goodman, Janice H

    2008-11-01

    Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) has been shown to negatively influence mother-infant interaction; however, little research has explored how fathers and father-infant interaction are affected when a mother is depressed. This study examined the influence of maternal PPD on fathers and identified maternal and paternal factors associated with father-infant interaction in families with depressed as compared with nondepressed mothers. A convenience sample of 128 mother-father-infant triads, approximately half of which included women with significant symptoms of PPD at screening, were recruited from a screening sample of 790 postpartum women. Mothers and fathers completed measures of depression, marital satisfaction, and parenting stress at 2 to 3 months' postpartum and were each videotaped interacting with their infants. Results indicate that maternal PPD is associated with increased paternal depression and higher paternal parenting stress. Partners of depressed women demonstrated less optimal interaction with their infants, indicating that fathers do not compensate for the negative effects of maternal depression on the child. Although mother-infant interaction did not influence father-infant interaction, how the mother felt about her relationship with the infant did, even more so than maternal depression. The links between maternal PPD, fathers, and father-infant interaction indicate a need for further understanding of the reciprocal influences between mothers, fathers, and infants. Copyright © 2008 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. Maternal Household Decision-Making Autonomy and Adolescent Education in Honduras.

    Hendrick, C Emily; Marteleto, Leticia

    2017-06-01

    Maternal decision-making autonomy has been linked to positive outcomes for children's health and well-being early in life in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world. However, there is a dearth of research examining if and how maternal autonomy continues to influence children's outcomes into adolescence and whether it impacts other domains of children's lives beyond health, such as their education. The goal of this study was to determine whether high maternal decision-making was associated with school enrollment for secondary school-aged youth in Honduras. Further, we aimed to assess whether the relationships between maternal autonomy and school enrollment varied by adolescents' environmental contexts and individual characteristics such as gender. Our analytical sample included 6,579 adolescents ages 12-16 living with their mothers from the Honduran Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2011-12. We used stepwise logistic regression models to investigate the association between maternal household decision-making autonomy and adolescents' school enrollment. Our findings suggest that adolescents, especially girls, benefit from their mothers' high decision-making autonomy. Findings suggest that maternal decision-making autonomy promotes adolescents' school enrollment above and beyond other maternal, household, and regional influences.

  1. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA......AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies....... Maternal smoking induces gene-specific DNA methylation alterations as well as global DNA hypermethylation in the term placentas and hypomethylation in the cord blood. Early pregnancy represents a developmental time where the fetal epigenome is remodeled and accordingly can be expected to be highly prone...

  2. Preventing infant and child morbidity and mortality due to maternal depression.

    Surkan, Pamela J; Patel, Shivani A; Rahman, Atif

    2016-10-01

    This review provides an overview of perinatal depression and its impacts on the health of mothers, their newborns, and young children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We define and describe the urgency and scope of the problem of perinatal depression for mothers, while highlighting some specific issues such as suicidal ideation and decreased likelihood to seek health care. Pathways through which stress may link maternal depression to childhood growth and development (e.g., the hypo-pituitary axis) are discussed, followed by a summary of the adverse effects of depression on birth outcomes, parenting practices, and child growth and development. Although preliminary studies on the association between maternal depressive symptoms and maternal and child mortality exist, more research on these topics is needed. We describe the available interventions and suggest strategies to reduce maternal depressive symptoms in LMICs, including integration of services with existing primary health-care systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Maternal cultural values and parenting practices: longitudinal associations with Chinese adolescents' aggression.

    Shuster, Michael M; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2012-04-01

    Interrelations among cultural values, parenting practices, and adolescent aggression were examined using longitudinal data collected from Chinese adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents' overt and relational aggression were assessed using peer nominations at Time 1 (7th grade) and Time 2 (9th grade). Mothers reported endorsement of cultural values (collectivism and social harmony) and parenting practices (psychological control and inductive reasoning) at Time 1. While controlling for Time 1 adolescent aggression, maternal collectivism and social harmony indirectly and longitudinally linked to adolescent aggression through maternal parenting practices. Specifically, maternal collectivism was positively related to inductive reasoning, which, in turn, negatively related to adolescent overt aggression at Time 2. Similarly, maternal social harmony negatively related to psychological control that positively predicted later adolescent relational aggression. Results of the present study shed light on mechanisms through which culture may indirectly influence adolescent aggression. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal Depression and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomatology: Severity and Chronicity of Past Maternal Depression and Current Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    O’Connor, Erin E.; Langer, David A.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal depression is a well-documented risk factor for youth depression, and taking into account its severity and chronicity may provide important insight into the degree of risk conferred. This study explored the degree to which the severity/chronicity of maternal depression history explained variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms above and beyond current maternal depressive symptoms among 171 youth (58% male) ages 8 to 12 over a span of three years. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression and current maternal depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of parent-reported youth internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, as well as youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression did not account for additional variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at Time 1 beyond what was accounted for by maternal depressive symptoms at Time 1. Longitudinal growth curve modeling indicated that prior severity/chronicity of maternal depression predicted levels of youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each time point when controlling for current maternal depressive symptoms at each time point. Chronicity of maternal depression, apart from severity, also predicted rate of change in youth externalizing symptoms over time. These findings highlight the importance of screening and assessing for current maternal depressive symptoms, as well as the nature of past depressive episodes. Possible mechanisms underlying the association between severity/chronicity of maternal depression and youth outcomes, such as residual effects from depressive history on mother–child interactions, are discussed. PMID:27401880

  5. Maternal Mortality – A Challenge?

    Shital G. Sonone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The current maternal mortality rate (MMR in Maharashtra is 104/100000 live births, ranking 3rd in India. There is scope for reducing it as majority of the causes of MMR are preventable and curable. Aims and Objectives: To study the sociodemographic profile and causes of maternal deaths at Dr. V. M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur. Material and Methods: The study population included all deliveries i.e. women admitted in the hospital during pregnancy, child-birth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated due to pregnancy during the period of 2 years from 1st August 2009 to 31st July 2011. IPD case records and autopsy reports of all maternal deaths were taken and various variables were studied. The present study is prospective study of maternal mortality conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. V. M. Medical College Solapur. Cases were distributed ac-cording to their age, literacy rate, residence,socioeconomic status, ante-natal care, gestational age, gravida/parity, place of referral, pregnancy outcome, and place of delivery, perinatal outcome and etiological factors. This study also suggests the measures to reduce maternal mortality. Results: The total number of live births during the study period were 13,188 and total number of maternal deaths were 63 and MMR was 477 per 1, 00,000 live births. In the maternal deaths studied, 1/3rd of the women were illiterate, half of the women belonged to urban slum areas and of lower socioeconomic class.1/3rd of the deaths occurred in primigravida,within 24 hrs from admission, 58.73% of the patients were referred from outside. Out of that 86.49% of women were sent from private hospital and died in post partum period, having poor perinatal outcome. Haemorrhage (28.57% and hypertension (12.69% are two direct causes and severe anemia (33.33% is most common in direct cause of maternal death in our study.

  6. Inferential false memories of events: negative consequences protect from distortions when the events are free from further elaboration.

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico; Grassano, Massimo; Cornoldi, Cesare; Melinder, Annika

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate whether negative emotionally charged and arousing content of to-be-remembered scripted material would affect propensity towards memory distortions. We further investigated whether elaboration of the studied material through free recall would affect the magnitude of memory errors. In this study participants saw eight scripts. Each of the scripts included an effect of an action, the cause of which was not presented. Effects were either negatively emotional or neutral. Participants were assigned to either a yes/no recognition test group (recognition), or to a recall and yes/no recognition test group (elaboration + recognition). Results showed that participants in the recognition group produced fewer memory errors in the emotional condition. Conversely, elaboration + recognition participants had lower accuracy and produced more emotional memory errors than the other group, suggesting a mediating role of semantic elaboration on the generation of false memories. The role of emotions and semantic elaboration on the generation of false memories is discussed.

  7. Elaborative rehearsal of nontemporal information interferes with temporal processing of durations in the range of seconds but not milliseconds.

    Rammsayer, Thomas; Ulrich, Rolf

    2011-05-01

    The distinct timing hypothesis suggests a sensory mechanism for processing of durations in the range of milliseconds and a cognitively controlled mechanism for processing of longer durations. To test this hypothesis, we employed a dual-task approach to investigate the effects of maintenance and elaborative rehearsal on temporal processing of brief and long durations. Unlike mere maintenance rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal as a secondary task involved transfer of information from working to long-term memory and elaboration of information to enhance storage in long-term memory. Duration discrimination of brief intervals was not affected by a secondary cognitive task that required either maintenance or elaborative rehearsal. Concurrent elaborative rehearsal, however, impaired discrimination of longer durations as compared to maintenance rehearsal and a control condition with no secondary task. These findings endorse the distinct timing hypothesis and are in line with the notion that executive functions, such as continuous memory updating and active transfer of information into long-term memory interfere with temporal processing of durations in the second, but not in the millisecond range. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services

    ... Educators Search English Español Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services KidsHealth / For Parents / Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services What's in this article? Giving Birth at ...

  9. Maternal death and near miss measurement

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    2008-05-26

    May 26, 2008 ... Maternal health services need to be accountable more than ever ... of maternal death and near miss audit, surveillance and review is ..... (d) A fundamental principle of these ..... quality assurance in obstetrics in Nigeria - a.

  10. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  11. Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal ...

    Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal Health Services ... the state of maternal health in the country reflects poorly on public health priorities. ... A number of international agencies and civil society organizations are ...

  12. Maternity waiting homes: A panacea for maternal/neonatal ...

    women to inadequately equipped delivery settings 4,5. Eritrea has made some ... Maternity waiting homes were introduced in Eritrea in 2007 as a strategy to mitigate .... 24(4):472-8. 5. Chandramohan D, Cutts F, Millard P The effect of stay in.

  13. Effects of maternal confidence and competence on maternal parenting stress in newborn care.

    Liu, Chien-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Yeh, Yen-Po; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of maternal confidence and maternal competence to maternal parenting stress during newborn care. Maternal role development is a cognitive and social process influenced by cultural and family contexts and mother and child characteristics. Most knowledge about maternal role development comes from western society. However, perceptions of the maternal role in contemporary Taiwanese society may be affected by contextual and environmental factors. A prospective correlational design was used to recruit 372 postpartum Taiwanese women and their infants from well-child clinics at 16 health centres in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria for mothers were gestational age >37 weeks, ≥18 years old, and healthy, with infants maternal confidence, maternal competence and self-perceived maternal parenting stress. After controlling for maternal parity and infant temperament, high maternal confidence and competence were associated with low maternal parenting stress. Maternal confidence influenced maternal parenting stress both directly and indirectly via maternal competence. To assist postpartum women in infant care programmes achieve positive outcomes, nurses should evaluate and bolster mothers' belief in their own abilities. Likewise, nurses should not only consider mothers' infant care skills, but also mothers' parity and infant temperament. Finally, it is crucial for nurses and researchers to recognize that infant care programmes should be tailored to mothers' specific maternal characteristics. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy in the Netherlands

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Schutte, Joke M.; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Zwart, Joost J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    Objective: To assess maternal death and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in the Netherlands. Study design: A retrospective study of all cases of maternal mortality in the Netherlands between 1983 and 2006 and all cases of severe maternal morbidity in the

  15. Problems of contemporary maternity: psychological aspect

    I. V. Puz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of modern motherhood and studies the phenomenon of deviant maternal behavior. Based on the literature, present study analyzes such forms of violation of maternal behavior as mother's refusal from a baby; mother's cruel treatment of a baby; frequent abortions; maternity in the early reproductive age; conscious maternity postponement for a later reproductive age. Also the factors that contribute to various manifestations of deviant motherhood are described.

  16. [Maternal and perinatal health].

    1991-01-01

    After a year-long diagnosis of Chile's health situation, the Ministry of Health in 1991 formulated a new maternal-child health program designed to assure that all pregnancies would be desired and would occur under optimal conditions. Orientation for responsible parenthood will be an important part of the process. Other objectives include reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and of sexually transmitted diseases. The pregnancy rate for young women 15-19 changed very little in Chile between 1952-82, because of the lack of sex education and family planning services. Family planning programs designed especially for adolescents would help to combat unwanted pregnancies and could offer the methods most suitable for young women. The well-known longitudinal study in Czechoslovakia which followed the development of children whose mothers were denied legal abortions in the 1960s showed the children to be at increased risk of unsatisfactory social adjustment in later life and suggested some consequences of unwanted pregnancy. A study of unwanted pregnancy in Chile was initiated in 4 prenatal care centers in a working class area of Santiago in 1984. 2485 women in the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy were classified according to their existing family sizes. Only 33.1% of the women desired the pregnancy at that time and 38.4% desired it but at a later time. 28.5% did not desire it at all. Women who did not desire the pregnancy waited significantly longer to obtain prenatal care than women who desired it. Age, economic problems, being single, family conflicts, already having the desired number of children, and short intervals since the most recent birth were associated with not desiring the current pregnancy. Of the 1663 women who did not desire the pregnancy, only 13.1% of those single, 35.8% of those in union, and 44.0% of those married used a contraceptive method. 2133 of the mothers were interviewed 6 months and 1977 12 months after delivery. Birth weights did not vary

  17. Moderating effects of maternal emotional availability on language and cognitive development in toddlers of mothers exposed to a natural disaster in pregnancy: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    Austin, Marie-Paule; Christl, Bettina; McMahon, Cathy; Kildea, Sue; Reilly, Nicole; Yin, Carolyn; Simcock, Gabrielle; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal maternal stress exposure has been linked to sub-optimal developmental outcomes in toddlers, while maternal emotional availability is associated with better cognitive and language abilities. It is less clear whether early care-giving relationships can moderate the impact of prenatal stress on child development. The current study investigates the impact of stress during pregnancy resulting from the Queensland Floods in 2011 on toddlers' cognitive and language development, and examines how maternal emotional availability is associated with these outcomes. Data were available from 131 families. Measures of prenatal stress (objective hardship, cognitive appraisal, and three measures of maternal subjective stress) were collected within one year of the 2011 Queensland floods. Maternal emotional availability was rated from video-taped mother-child play sessions at 16 months: sensitivity (e.g., affective connection, responsiveness to signals) and structuring (e.g., scaffolding, guidance, limit-setting). The toddlers' cognitive and language development was assessed at 30 months. Interactions were tested to determine whether maternal emotional availability moderated the relationship between prenatal maternal stress and toddler cognitive and language functioning. Prenatal stress was not correlated with toddlers' cognitive and language development at 30 months. Overall, the higher the maternal structuring and sensitivity, the better the toddlers' cognitive outcomes. However, significant interactions showed that the effects of maternal structuring on toddler language abilities depended on the degree of prenatal maternal subjective stress: when maternal subjective stress was above fairly low levels, the greater the maternal structuring, the higher the child vocabulary level. The current study highlights the importance of maternal emotional availability, especially structuring, for cognitive and language development in young children. Findings suggest that toddlers

  18. Eggshell spottiness reflects maternally transferred antibodies in blue tits.

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices. We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks

  19. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); W. Perng (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic

  20. Epidemiology of Maternal Mortality in Malawi

    live births. Causes and determinants of maternal mortal- ity. Global causes of maternal mortality. Across the globe the causes of maternal deaths are strik- ..... at home”. Findings from Thyolo, Mangochi and Chik- wawa were similar". Perceived qua/ity of care. Like anywhere in the world, the perceived quality of care in ...

  1. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  2. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data.

    Katie Harron

    Full Text Available Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England.Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013.Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42% linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56% records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district or that include missing values (delivery variables. The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%. The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England.Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common.

  3. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data

    Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Design and Setting Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Results Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Conclusion Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common. PMID:27764135

  4. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data.

    Harron, Katie; Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common.

  5. Association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and offspring cognitive function during childhood and adolescence; a systematic review.

    Veena, Sargoor R; Gale, Catharine R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Kehoe, Sarah H; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2016-08-12

    The mother is the only source of nutrition for fetal growth including brain development. Maternal nutritional status (anthropometry, macro- and micro-nutrients) before and/or during pregnancy is therefore a potential predictor of offspring cognitive function. The relationship of maternal nutrition to offspring cognitive function is unclear. This review aims to assess existing evidence linking maternal nutritional status with offspring cognitive function. Exposures considered were maternal BMI, height and weight, micronutrient status (vitamins D, B12, folate and iron) and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat). The outcome was any measure of cognitive function in children aged nutritional status during pregnancy as defined by BMI, single micronutrient studies, or macronutrient intakes influences offspring cognitive function is inconclusive. There is a need for more trials especially in populations with high rates of maternal undernutrition. Registered in PROSPERO CRD42013005702 .

  6. Plotting Maternity in Three Persons

    Kinser, Amber E.

    2012-01-01

    This performance text examines complexities of personal and maternal identity in family life. Speaking in first, second, and third person voices, the author offers autoethnographic accounts of the tensions between separateness and connectedness, normative and subjective motherhood, and novice and seasoned perspectives. The piece functions as a…

  7. Intergenerational Attitudes toward Maternal Employment.

    Heaven, Catherine P.; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen

    Intergenerational attitudes toward child care were examined among college-age students and their parents through the use of questionnaires, the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment Scale (BACMEC), and the Bias in Attitudes toward Women Scale (BIAS). Findings indicated that traditional attitudes were more prevalent in males of both…

  8. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition

    Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germ-line transmission through alterations in DNA methylation. PMID:24896533

  9. Longitudinal pathways from early maternal depression to children's dysregulated representations: a moderated mediation analysis of harsh parenting and gender.

    Martoccio, Tiffany L; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Maupin, Angela N; Robinson, Joann L

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence linking maternal depression, harsh parenting, and children's internal representations of attachment, yet, longitudinal examinations of these relationships and differences in the developmental pathways between boys and girls are lacking. Moderated mediation growth curves were employed to examine harsh parenting as a mechanism underlying the link between maternal depression and children's dysregulated representations using a nationally-representative, economically-vulnerable sample of mothers and their children (n = 575; 49% boys, 51% girls). Dysregulation representations were measured using the MacArthur Story Stem Battery at five years of age (M = 5.14, SD = 0.29). Harsh parenting mediated the association between early maternal depression and dysregulated representations for girls. Though initial harsh parenting was a significant mediator for boys, a stronger direct effect of maternal depression to dysregulated representations emerged over time. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention efforts aimed at promoting early supportive parenting.

  10. Teaching and learning grade 7 science concepts by elaborate analogies: Mainstream and East and South Asian ESL students' experiences

    Kim, Judy Joo-Hyun

    This study explored the effectiveness of an instructional tool, elaborate analogy, in teaching the particle theory to both Grade 7 mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students. Ten Grade 7 science classes from five different schools in a large school district in the Greater Toronto area participated. Each of the ten classes were designated as either Group X or Y. Using a quasi-experimental counterbalanced design, Group X students were taught one science unit using the elaborate analogies, while Group Y students were taught by their teachers' usual methods of teaching. The instructional methods used for Group X and Y were interchanged for the subsequent science unit. Quantitative data were collected from 95 students (50 mainstream and 45 ESL) by means of a posttest and a follow-up test for each of the units. When the differences between mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students were analyzed, the results indicate that both groups scored higher on the posttests when they were instructed with elaborate analogies, and that the difference between the two groups was not significant. That is, the ESL students, as well as the mainstream students, benefited academically when they were instructed with the elaborate analogies. The students obtained higher inferential scores on the posttest when their teacher connected the features of less familiar and more abstract scientific concepts to the features of the familiar and easy-to-visualize concept of school dances. However, after two months, the students were unable to recall inferential content knowledge. This is perhaps due to the lack of opportunity for the students to represent and test their initial mental models. Rather than merely employing elaborate analogies, perhaps, science teachers can supplement the use of elaborate analogies with explicit guidance in helping students to represent and test the coherence of their mental models.

  11. BDNF Methylation and Maternal Brain Activity in a Violence-Related Sample.

    Dominik A Moser

    Full Text Available It is known that increased circulating glucocorticoids in the wake of excessive, chronic, repetitive stress increases anxiety and impairs Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF signaling. Recent studies of BDNF gene methylation in relation to maternal care have linked high BDNF methylation levels in the blood of adults to lower quality of received maternal care measured via self-report. Yet the specific mechanisms by which these phenomena occur remain to be established. The present study examines the link between methylation of the BDNF gene promoter region and patterns of neural activity that are associated with maternal response to stressful versus non-stressful child stimuli within a sample that includes mothers with interpersonal violence-related PTSD (IPV-PTSD. 46 mothers underwent fMRI. The contrast of neural activity when watching children-including their own-was then correlated to BDNF methylation. Consistent with the existing literature, the present study found that maternal BDNF methylation was associated with higher levels of maternal anxiety and greater childhood exposure to domestic violence. fMRI results showed a positive correlation of BDNF methylation with maternal brain activity in the anterior cingulate (ACC, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, regions generally credited with a regulatory function toward brain areas that are generating emotions. Furthermore we found a negative correlation of BDNF methylation with the activity of the right hippocampus. Since our stimuli focus on stressful parenting conditions, these data suggest that the correlation between vmPFC/ACC activity and BDNF methylation may be linked to mothers who are at a disadvantage with respect to emotion regulation when facing stressful parenting situations. Overall, this study provides evidence that epigenetic signatures of stress-related genes can be linked to functional brain regions regulating parenting stress, thus advancing our understanding of

  12. Preparation of metallic uranium tubes; Elaboration des tubes d'uranium metallique

    Lerouge, G.; Decours, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The production furnace is an induction heated vacuum furnace having a capacity at the moment of 250 kg. Previously the crucible was heated by the inductor, the mould being outside the inductor. The tubes thus produced contained cavities, the alloy structure was fine; this was cold-mould casting, At the moment the top of the moulds are pre-heated, this is the so called hot-mould casting. This method has the advantage of eliminating the cavities but leads to a less fine microstructure. The alloy used for the 18 x 40 mm and 23 x 43 mm tubes is U-Mo (1.1 per cent). Since the moulds are now heated at the top, the solidification of the metal is very slow in this zone leading to a pronounced {gamma} grain, whereas towards the base the faster cooling leads to a smaller {gamma} grain. The {gamma} structure depends essentially on the solidification rate and on the time spent in this zone. In order to obtain a fine and homogeneous grain along the whole length of the tube, a controlled cooling treatment is effected. It consists in heating the uranium tubes in the {gamma} place and then in cooling them at a rate of between 20 and 50 deg C/mm down to 400 deg C. The 77 x 95 mm and 54 x 70 mm annular elements are at the moment being produced for research purposes. Their preparation is similar to that of 18 x 40 mm and 23 x 43 mm elements. The 77 x 95 mm tubes are at the moment made from U-Cr alloy (0.1 per cent); because of their size, their preparation is carried out in 600 mm diameter furnaces. (authors) [French] Le four d'elaboration est un four sous vide chaufffe par induction, dont la capacite actuelle est de 250 kg. Anterieurement le creuset seul etait chauffe par l'inducteur, les moules etaient hors de l'inducteur. Les tubes obtenus presentaient des cavites, la structure de l'alliage etait fine, c'etait la coulee en moules froids. Actuellement on prechauffe le haut des moules, c'est la coulee dite en moules chauds. Cette facon de faire a l

  13. Preparation of metallic uranium tubes; Elaboration des tubes d'uranium metallique

    Lerouge, G; Decours, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The production furnace is an induction heated vacuum furnace having a capacity at the moment of 250 kg. Previously the crucible was heated by the inductor, the mould being outside the inductor. The tubes thus produced contained cavities, the alloy structure was fine; this was cold-mould casting, At the moment the top of the moulds are pre-heated, this is the so called hot-mould casting. This method has the advantage of eliminating the cavities but leads to a less fine microstructure. The alloy used for the 18 x 40 mm and 23 x 43 mm tubes is U-Mo (1.1 per cent). Since the moulds are now heated at the top, the solidification of the metal is very slow in this zone leading to a pronounced {gamma} grain, whereas towards the base the faster cooling leads to a smaller {gamma} grain. The {gamma} structure depends essentially on the solidification rate and on the time spent in this zone. In order to obtain a fine and homogeneous grain along the whole length of the tube, a controlled cooling treatment is effected. It consists in heating the uranium tubes in the {gamma} place and then in cooling them at a rate of between 20 and 50 deg C/mm down to 400 deg C. The 77 x 95 mm and 54 x 70 mm annular elements are at the moment being produced for research purposes. Their preparation is similar to that of 18 x 40 mm and 23 x 43 mm elements. The 77 x 95 mm tubes are at the moment made from U-Cr alloy (0.1 per cent); because of their size, their preparation is carried out in 600 mm diameter furnaces. (authors) [French] Le four d'elaboration est un four sous vide chaufffe par induction, dont la capacite actuelle est de 250 kg. Anterieurement le creuset seul etait chauffe par l'inducteur, les moules etaient hors de l'inducteur. Les tubes obtenus presentaient des cavites, la structure de l'alliage etait fine, c'etait la coulee en moules froids. Actuellement on prechauffe le haut des moules, c'est la coulee dite en moules chauds. Cette facon de faire a l'avantage de supprimer les cavites

  14. Inhibitory Control in Siblings Discordant for Exposure to Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy

    Micalizzi, Lauren; Marceau, Kristine; Brick, Leslie A.; Palmer, Rohan H.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Heath, Andrew C.; Evans, Allison; Knopik, Valerie S.

    2018-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) has been linked to poorer offspring executive function across development, but SDP does not occur independent of other familial risk factors. As such, poor and inconsistent control for potential confounds, notably shared familial (i.e., genetic and environmental) confounds, preclude concluding causal effects…

  15. The Role of Pregnancy, Perinatal Factors, and Hormones in Maternal Cancer Risk

    Troisi, Rebecca; Bjørge, Tone; Gissler, Mika

    2018-01-01

    differ by malignancy. Linking health-registries and pooling of data in the Nordic countries have provided opportunities to conduct epidemiologic research of pregnancy exposures and subsequent cancer. We review the maternal risk of several malignancies, including those with a well-known hormonal etiology...

  16. Does Maternal Employment Following Childbirth Support or Inhibit Low-Income Children's Long-Term Development?

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among middle-class and White children generalized to other groups. Using a representative sample of urban, low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic families ("n" = 444), ordinary least squares regression…

  17. First-Year Maternal Employment and Child Development in the First 7 Years

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the first 2 phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, the authors examine the links between maternal employment in the first 12 months of life and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children at age 3, at age 4.5, and in first grade. Drawing on theory and prior research from developmental psychology as well as…

  18. Perceived Quality of Maternal Care in Childhood and Structure and Function of Mothers' Brain

    Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Newman, Michal-Ann; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that early maternal care has long-term effects on brain areas related to social attachment and parenting, whereas neglectful mothering is linked with heightened stress reactivity in the hippocampus across the lifespan. The present study explores the possibility, using magnetic resonance imaging, that perceived quality of…

  19. Economic Stress, Social Support, and Maternal Depression: Is Social Support Deterioration Occurring

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…

  20. Time and nature of the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy in the pig

    Meulen, van der J.

    1989-01-01

    A vital link in a complex of physiological processes occurring during early pregnancy is the so-called maternal recognition of pregnancy: the prolongation of ovarian luteal function for continuation of progesterone secretion by an anti-luteolytic action of the developing embryos.