WorldWideScience

Sample records for linkage potential effect

  1. Potential Linkage Between Cerebrovascular Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Firoz, Chelapram Kandy; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Shakil, Shazi; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Tabrez, Shams

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease (CD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are two devastating health dilemma that continues to be a potential contributor to disability and mortality in human population all across the world. Scientific data clearly shows several mechanistic similarities between these two co-existing and interlinked conditions. The linkage exacerbates ongoing patho-physiological condition towards more lethal events. In view of the presence of modifiable risk factors in both CD and MetS, their management holds potential therapeutic value. Hence, developing common treatment strategies for these diseases could involve common molecular agents. In this communication, we have summarized some of the common pathological conditions viz. abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and endothelial dysfunction that further deteriorate existing homeostasis in CD and MetS. Based on our article, it is advocated that substantial improvements in novel multi-targeted drug discovery could provide the effective treatment methods in order to avoid the fatal complications related with CD and MetS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and completeness of data linkage and may be associated with systematic bias in reported outcomes. Methods A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records. Results The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8% met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies, sex (50% of studies, race (64% of studies, geographical/hospital site (93% of studies, socio-economic status (82% of studies and health status (72% of studies. Conclusion A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies.

  3. MNC Strategies and Linkage Effects in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Wendelboe; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    . It is hypothesized that compared to investments undertaken by MNCs following strategies of global integration, investments of MNCs pursuing local responsiveness create more jobs but imply less job upgrading in developing countries. The hypotheses are tested on a sample of Danish MNCs with extensive investments......The paper addresses the question of which implications MNC strategies have to FDI linkage effects in developing countries. Two contrasting MNC strategies reflecting an integration-responsiveness dichotomy are scrutinized as to their job effects on local linkage partners in developing countries...... in developing countries....

  4. Analysis of Linkage Effects among Currency Networks Using REER Data

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    Haishu Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We modeled the currency networks through the use of REER (real effective exchange rate instead of a bilateral exchange rate in order to overcome the confusion in selecting base currencies. Based on the MST (minimum spanning tree approach and the rolling-window method, we constructed time-varying and correlation-based networks with which we investigate the linkage effects among different currencies. In particular, and as the source of empirical data, we chose the monthly REER data for a set of 61 major currencies during the period from 1994 to 2014. The study demonstrated that obvious linkage effects existed among currency networks and the euro (EUR was confirmed as the predominant world currency. Additionally, we used the rolling-window method to investigate the stability of linkage effects, doing so by calculating the mean correlations and mean distances as well as the normalized tree length and degrees of those currencies. The results showed that financial crises during the study period had a great effect on the currency network’s topology structure and led to more clustered currency networks. Our results suggested that it is more appropriate to estimate the linkage effects among currency networks through the use of REER data.

  5. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Qiu, Tian; Shen, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175079) and the Young Scientist Training Project of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20133BCB23017).

  6. Effect of Linkage Disequilibrium on the Identification of Functional Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alun; Abel, Haley J; Di, Yanming; Faye, Laura L; Jin, Jing; Liu, Jin; Wu, Zheyan; Paterson, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the contributions of Group 9 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 17. This group addressed the problems of linkage disequilibrium and other longer range forms of allelic association when evaluating the effects of genotypes on phenotypes. Issues raised by long-range associations, whether a result of selection, stratification, possible technical errors, or chance, were less expected but proved to be important. Most contributors focused on regression methods of various types to illustrate problematic issues or to develop adaptations for dealing with high-density genotype assays. Study design was also considered, as was graphical modeling. Although no method emerged as uniformly successful, most succeeded in reducing false-positive results either by considering clusters of loci within genes or by applying smoothing metrics that required results from adjacent loci to be similar. Two unexpected results that questioned our assumptions of what is required to model linkage disequilibrium were observed. The first was that correlations between loci separated by large genetic distances can greatly inflate single-locus test statistics, and, whether the result of selection, stratification, possible technical errors, or chance, these correlations seem overabundant. The second unexpected result was that applying principal components analysis to genome-wide genotype data can apparently control not only for population structure but also for linkage disequilibrium. PMID:22128051

  7. The effects of selection on linkage analysis for quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, M J; Georges, M A

    1992-12-01

    The effects of within-sample selection on the outcome of analyses detecting linkage between genetic markers and quantitative traits were studied. It was found that selection by truncation for the trait of interest significantly reduces the differences between marker genotype means thus reducing the power to detect linked quantitative trait loci (QTL). The size of this reduction is a function of proportion selected, the magnitude of the QTL effect, recombination rate between the marker locus and the QTL, and the allele frequency of the QTL. Proportion selected was the most influential of these factors on bias, e.g., for an allele substitution effect of one standard deviation unit, selecting the top 80%, 50% or 20% of the population required 2, 6 or 24 times the number of progeny, respectively, to offset the loss of power caused by this selection. The effect on power was approximately linear with respect to the size of gene effect, almost invariant to recombination rate, and a complex function of QTL allele frequency. It was concluded that experimental samples from animal populations which have been subjected to even minor amounts of selection will be inefficient in yielding information on linkage between markers and loci influencing the quantitative trait under selection.

  8. A potential novel spontaneous preterm birth gene, AR, identified by linkage and association analysis of X chromosomal markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Karjalainen

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. In many cases, it has severe life-long consequences for the health and neurological development of the newborn child. More than 50% of all preterm births are spontaneous, and currently there is no effective prevention. Several studies suggest that genetic factors play a role in spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB. However, its genetic background is insufficiently characterized. The aim of the present study was to perform a linkage analysis of X chromosomal markers in SPTB in large northern Finnish families with recurrent SPTBs. We found a significant linkage signal (HLOD = 3.72 on chromosome locus Xq13.1 when the studied phenotype was being born preterm. There were no significant linkage signals when the studied phenotype was giving preterm deliveries. Two functional candidate genes, those encoding the androgen receptor (AR and the interleukin-2 receptor gamma subunit (IL2RG, located near this locus were analyzed as candidates for SPTB in subsequent case-control association analyses. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within these genes and an AR exon-1 CAG repeat, which was previously demonstrated to be functionally significant, were analyzed in mothers with preterm delivery (n = 272 and their offspring (n = 269, and in mothers with exclusively term deliveries (n = 201 and their offspring (n = 199, all originating from northern Finland. A replication study population consisting of individuals born preterm (n = 111 and term (n = 197 from southern Finland was also analyzed. Long AR CAG repeats (≥ 26 were overrepresented and short repeats (≤ 19 underrepresented in individuals born preterm compared to those born at term. Thus, our linkage and association results emphasize the role of the fetal genome in genetic predisposition to SPTB and implicate AR as a potential novel fetal susceptibility gene for SPTB.

  9. A potential novel spontaneous preterm birth gene, AR, identified by linkage and association analysis of X chromosomal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Minna K; Huusko, Johanna M; Ulvila, Johanna; Sotkasiira, Jenni; Luukkonen, Aino; Teramo, Kari; Plunkett, Jevon; Anttila, Verneri; Palotie, Aarno; Haataja, Ritva; Muglia, Louis J; Hallman, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth is the major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. In many cases, it has severe life-long consequences for the health and neurological development of the newborn child. More than 50% of all preterm births are spontaneous, and currently there is no effective prevention. Several studies suggest that genetic factors play a role in spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). However, its genetic background is insufficiently characterized. The aim of the present study was to perform a linkage analysis of X chromosomal markers in SPTB in large northern Finnish families with recurrent SPTBs. We found a significant linkage signal (HLOD = 3.72) on chromosome locus Xq13.1 when the studied phenotype was being born preterm. There were no significant linkage signals when the studied phenotype was giving preterm deliveries. Two functional candidate genes, those encoding the androgen receptor (AR) and the interleukin-2 receptor gamma subunit (IL2RG), located near this locus were analyzed as candidates for SPTB in subsequent case-control association analyses. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes and an AR exon-1 CAG repeat, which was previously demonstrated to be functionally significant, were analyzed in mothers with preterm delivery (n = 272) and their offspring (n = 269), and in mothers with exclusively term deliveries (n = 201) and their offspring (n = 199), all originating from northern Finland. A replication study population consisting of individuals born preterm (n = 111) and term (n = 197) from southern Finland was also analyzed. Long AR CAG repeats (≥ 26) were overrepresented and short repeats (≤ 19) underrepresented in individuals born preterm compared to those born at term. Thus, our linkage and association results emphasize the role of the fetal genome in genetic predisposition to SPTB and implicate AR as a potential novel fetal susceptibility gene for SPTB.

  10. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: global simulation of processes and linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-07-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatiotemporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a process-based representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded world map of irrigation efficiencies that are calculated in direct linkage to differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with the lowest values (values (> 60 %) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2469 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1257 km3, of which 608 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e., lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76 %, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15 %, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for

  11. Effectiveness of service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Parker Sharon; Holdsworth Louise; Perkins David; Fuller Jeffrey D; Kelly Brian; Roberts Russell; Martinez Lee; Fragar Lyn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background With the move to community care and increased involvement of generalist health care providers in mental health, the need for health service partnerships has been emphasised in mental health policy. Within existing health system structures the active strategies that facilitate effective partnership linkages are not clear. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence from peer reviewed literature regarding the effectiveness of service linkages in primary mental he...

  12. The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Autophagy in Periodontitis and Their Potential Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes damage to periodontal tissues, which include the gingiva, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The major cause of periodontal tissue destruction is an inappropriate host response to microorganisms and their products. Specifically, a homeostatic imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS and antioxidant defense systems has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Elevated levels of ROS acting as intracellular signal transducers result in autophagy, which plays a dual role in periodontitis by promoting cell death or blocking apoptosis in infected cells. Autophagy can also regulate ROS generation and scavenging. Investigations are ongoing to elucidate the crosstalk mechanisms between ROS and autophagy. Here, we review the physiological and pathological roles of ROS and autophagy in periodontal tissues. The redox-sensitive pathways related to autophagy, such as mTORC1, Beclin 1, and the Atg12-Atg5 complex, are explored in depth to provide a comprehensive overview of the crosstalk between ROS and autophagy. Based on the current evidence, we suggest that a potential linkage between ROS and autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

  13. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  14. Effectiveness of service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Sharon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the move to community care and increased involvement of generalist health care providers in mental health, the need for health service partnerships has been emphasised in mental health policy. Within existing health system structures the active strategies that facilitate effective partnership linkages are not clear. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence from peer reviewed literature regarding the effectiveness of service linkages in primary mental health care. Methods A narrative and thematic review of English language papers published between 1998 and 2009. Studies of analytic, descriptive and qualitative designs from Australia, New Zealand, UK, Europe, USA and Canada were included. Data were extracted to examine what service linkages have been used in studies of collaboration in primary mental health care. Findings from the randomised trials were tabulated to show the proportion that demonstrated clinical, service delivery and economic benefits. Results A review of 119 studies found ten linkage types. Most studies used a combination of linkage types and so the 42 RCTs were grouped into four broad linkage categories for meaningful descriptive analysis of outcomes. Studies that used multiple linkage strategies from the suite of "direct collaborative activities" plus "agreed guidelines" plus "communication systems" showed positive clinical (81%, service (78% and economic (75% outcomes. Most evidence of effectiveness came from studies of depression. Long term benefits were attributed to medication concordance and the use of case managers with a professional background who received expert supervision. There were fewer randomised trials related to collaborative care of people with psychosis and there were almost none related to collaboration with the wider human service sectors. Because of the variability of study types we did not exclude on quality or attempt to weight findings according to power or effect

  15. Effective population size, extended linkage disequilibrium and signatures of selection in the rare dog breed lundehund.

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    Sophia Pfahler

    Full Text Available The Lundehund is an old dog breed with remarkable anatomical features including polydactyly in all four limbs and extraordinary flexibility of the spine. We genotyped 28 Lundehund using the canine Illumina high density beadchip to estimate the effective population size (Ne and inbreeding coefficients as well as to identify potential regions of positive selection. The decay of linkage disequilibrium was slow with r2 = 0.95 in 50 kb distance. The last 7-200 generations ago, Ne was at 10-13. An increase of Ne was noted in the very recent generations with a peak value of 19 for Ne at generation 4. The FROH estimated for 50-, 65- and 358-SNP windows were 0.87, 087 and 0.81, respectively. The most likely estimates for FROH after removing identical-by-state segments due to linkage disequilibria were at 0.80-0.81. The extreme loss of heterozygosity has been accumulated through continued inbreeding over 200 generations within a probably closed population with a small effective population size. The mean inbreeding coefficient based on pedigree data for the last 11 generations (FPed = 0.10 was strongly biased downwards due to the unknown coancestry of the founders in this pedigree data. The long-range haplotype test identified regions with genes involved in processes of immunity, olfaction, woundhealing and neuronal development as potential targets of selection. The genes QSOX2, BMPR1B and PRRX2 as well as MYOM1 are candidates for selection on the Lundehund characteristics small body size, increased number of digits per paw and extraordinary mobility, respectively.

  16. Parent-of-origin effects in autism identified through genome-wide linkage analysis of 16,000 SNPs.

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    Delphine Fradin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism is a common heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with complex etiology. Several genome-wide linkage and association scans have been carried out to identify regions harboring genes related to autism or autism spectrum disorders, with mixed results. Given the overlap in autism features with genetic abnormalities known to be associated with imprinting, one possible reason for lack of consistency would be the influence of parent-of-origin effects that may mask the ability to detect linkage and association. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have performed a genome-wide linkage scan that accounts for potential parent-of-origin effects using 16,311 SNPs among families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH autism repository. We report parametric (GH, Genehunter and allele-sharing linkage (Aspex results using a broad spectrum disorder case definition. Paternal-origin genome-wide statistically significant linkage was observed on chromosomes 4 (LOD(GH = 3.79, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex = 2.96, p = 0.008, 15 (LOD(GH = 3.09, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex = 3.62, empirical p = 0.003 and 20 (LOD(GH = 3.36, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex = 3.38, empirical p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS: These regions may harbor imprinted sites associated with the development of autism and offer fruitful domains for molecular investigation into the role of epigenetic mechanisms in autism.

  17. Potential linkage disequilibrium between schizophrenia and locus D22S278 on the long arm of chromosome 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moises, H.W.; Yang, L.; Havsteen, B. [Kiel Univ. (Germany)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Locus D22S278 at 22q12 has been implicated in schizophrenia by sib-pair analysis. In order to replicate these results, we performed the transmission test for linkage disequilibrium (TDT) in 113 unrelated schizophrenic patients and their 226 parents. Evidence for potential linkage disequilibrium was obtained between schizophrenia and allele 243 of the marker AFM 182xd12 at the locus D22S278 (P = 0.02). The results of our study suggest a detectable oligogenic gene in a multigene system for schizophrenia closely linked to D22S278 on the long arm of chromosome 22. If confirmed by others, this finding could lead to the identification of a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  18. FDI and the relevance of spatial linkages : Do third-country effects matter for Dutch FDI?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, J.H.; Peeters, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test for the relevance of spatial linkages for Dutch (outbound) foreign direct investment (FDI). We estimate a spatial lag model for Dutch FDI to 18 host countries. After controlling for fixed effects, we find for our sample period 1984-2004 that third-country effects mat

  19. Can Network Linkage Effects Determine Return? Evidence from Chinese Stock Market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishu Qiao

    Full Text Available This study used the dynamic conditional correlations (DCC method to identify the linkage effects of Chinese stock market, and further detected the influence of network linkage effects on magnitude of security returns across different industries. Applying two physics-derived techniques, the minimum spanning tree and the hierarchical tree, we analyzed the stock interdependence within the network of the China Securities Index (CSI industry index basket. We observed that that obvious linkage effects existed among stock networks. CII and CCE, CAG and ITH as well as COU, CHA and REI were confirmed as the core nodes in the three different networks respectively. We also investigated the stability of linkage effects by estimating the mean correlations and mean distances, as well as the normalized tree length of these indices. In addition, using the GMM model approach, we found inter-node influence within the stock network had a pronounced effect on stock returns. Our results generally suggested that there appeared to be greater clustering effect among the indexes belonging to related industrial sectors than those of diverse sectors, and network comovement was significantly affected by impactive financial events in the reality. Besides, stocks that were more central within the network of stock market usually had higher returns for compensation because they endured greater exposure to correlation risk.

  20. Can Network Linkage Effects Determine Return? Evidence from Chinese Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Haishu; Xia, Yue; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study used the dynamic conditional correlations (DCC) method to identify the linkage effects of Chinese stock market, and further detected the influence of network linkage effects on magnitude of security returns across different industries. Applying two physics-derived techniques, the minimum spanning tree and the hierarchical tree, we analyzed the stock interdependence within the network of the China Securities Index (CSI) industry index basket. We observed that that obvious linkage effects existed among stock networks. CII and CCE, CAG and ITH as well as COU, CHA and REI were confirmed as the core nodes in the three different networks respectively. We also investigated the stability of linkage effects by estimating the mean correlations and mean distances, as well as the normalized tree length of these indices. In addition, using the GMM model approach, we found inter-node influence within the stock network had a pronounced effect on stock returns. Our results generally suggested that there appeared to be greater clustering effect among the indexes belonging to related industrial sectors than those of diverse sectors, and network comovement was significantly affected by impactive financial events in the reality. Besides, stocks that were more central within the network of stock market usually had higher returns for compensation because they endured greater exposure to correlation risk.

  1. Elastodynamic Effects of Mass-Balancing: Experimental Investigation of a Four-Bar Linkage

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    Alberto Martini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with static balancing of closed-loop mechanisms. The long-term goal of the research is enhancing the performance of parallel robots by means of effective static balancing strategies that take into account the system dynamic behaviour. In this contribution, the influence of mass-balancing on the elastodynamic performance of a four-bar linkage, intended as the simplest example of closed-loop mechanism, is experimentally investigated. The design of the experimental apparatus is discussed and the results of tests on both an unbalanced linkage and its balanced variant are presented. Base-transmitted forces and vibrations are monitored for constant-speed operations and for velocity ramp tests in order to characterize the elastodynamic behaviour of the linkages. The analysis is supported by implementing a flexible multibody model of the experimental apparatus that enhances the interpretation of the experimental data.

  2. Linkage Analysis in Autoimmune Addison's Disease: NFATC1 as a Potential Novel Susceptibility Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anna L; Bøe Wolff, Anette; MacArthur, Katie; Weaver, Jolanta U; Vaidya, Bijay; Erichsen, Martina M; Darlay, Rebecca; Husebye, Eystein S; Cordell, Heather J; Pearce, Simon H S

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a rare, highly heritable autoimmune endocrinopathy. It is possible that there may be some highly penetrant variants which confer disease susceptibility that have yet to be discovered. DNA samples from 23 multiplex AAD pedigrees from the UK and Norway (50 cases, 67 controls) were genotyped on the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array. Linkage analysis was performed using Merlin. EMMAX was used to carry out a genome-wide association analysis comparing the familial AAD cases to 2706 UK WTCCC controls. To explore some of the linkage findings further, a replication study was performed by genotyping 64 SNPs in two of the four linked regions (chromosomes 7 and 18), on the Sequenom iPlex platform in three European AAD case-control cohorts (1097 cases, 1117 controls). The data were analysed using a meta-analysis approach. In a parametric analysis, applying a rare dominant model, loci on chromosomes 7, 9 and 18 had LOD scores >2.8. In a non-parametric analysis, a locus corresponding to the HLA region on chromosome 6, known to be associated with AAD, had a LOD score >3.0. In the genome-wide association analysis, a SNP cluster on chromosome 2 and a pair of SNPs on chromosome 6 were associated with AAD (P <5x10-7). A meta-analysis of the replication study data demonstrated that three chromosome 18 SNPs were associated with AAD, including a non-synonymous variant in the NFATC1 gene. This linkage study has implicated a number of novel chromosomal regions in the pathogenesis of AAD in multiplex AAD families and adds further support to the role of HLA in AAD. The genome-wide association analysis has also identified a region of interest on chromosome 2. A replication study has demonstrated that the NFATC1 gene is worthy of future investigation, however each of the regions identified require further, systematic analysis.

  3. Linkage Analysis in Autoimmune Addison's Disease: NFATC1 as a Potential Novel Susceptibility Locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Mitchell

    Full Text Available Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD is a rare, highly heritable autoimmune endocrinopathy. It is possible that there may be some highly penetrant variants which confer disease susceptibility that have yet to be discovered.DNA samples from 23 multiplex AAD pedigrees from the UK and Norway (50 cases, 67 controls were genotyped on the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array. Linkage analysis was performed using Merlin. EMMAX was used to carry out a genome-wide association analysis comparing the familial AAD cases to 2706 UK WTCCC controls. To explore some of the linkage findings further, a replication study was performed by genotyping 64 SNPs in two of the four linked regions (chromosomes 7 and 18, on the Sequenom iPlex platform in three European AAD case-control cohorts (1097 cases, 1117 controls. The data were analysed using a meta-analysis approach.In a parametric analysis, applying a rare dominant model, loci on chromosomes 7, 9 and 18 had LOD scores >2.8. In a non-parametric analysis, a locus corresponding to the HLA region on chromosome 6, known to be associated with AAD, had a LOD score >3.0. In the genome-wide association analysis, a SNP cluster on chromosome 2 and a pair of SNPs on chromosome 6 were associated with AAD (P <5x10-7. A meta-analysis of the replication study data demonstrated that three chromosome 18 SNPs were associated with AAD, including a non-synonymous variant in the NFATC1 gene.This linkage study has implicated a number of novel chromosomal regions in the pathogenesis of AAD in multiplex AAD families and adds further support to the role of HLA in AAD. The genome-wide association analysis has also identified a region of interest on chromosome 2. A replication study has demonstrated that the NFATC1 gene is worthy of future investigation, however each of the regions identified require further, systematic analysis.

  4. Linkages and Interactions Analysis of Major Effect Drought Grain Yield QTLs in Rice.

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    Prashant Vikram

    Full Text Available Quantitative trait loci conferring high grain yield under drought in rice are important genomic resources for climate resilient breeding. Major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs usually co-locate with flowering and/or plant height QTLs, which could be due to either linkage or pleiotropy. Five mapping populations used for the identification of major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs underwent multiple-trait, multiple-interval mapping test (MT-MIM to estimate the significance of pleiotropy effects. Results indicated towards possible linkages between the drought grain yield QTLs with co-locating flowering and/or plant height QTLs. Linkages of days to flowering and plant height were eliminated through a marker-assisted breeding approach. Drought grain yield QTLs also showed interaction effects with flowering QTLs. Drought responsiveness of the flowering locus on chromosome 3 (qDTY3.2 has been revealed through allelic analysis. Considering linkage and interaction effects associated with drought QTLs, a comprehensive marker-assisted breeding strategy was followed to develop rice genotypes with improved grain yield under drought stress.

  5. A Linkage Between Parent Materials of Soil and Potential Risk of Heavy Metals in Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large area exceeding soil quality standards for heavy metals in South western China has been identified previously reported on a nationwide survey of soil pollution, yet the ecological risk of heavy metal in soil is unknown or uncertainty.To assess thoroughly the ecological risk in this region, seven soil profiles with a depth of 2m on the different parent materials of soil were conducted in Yunnan province, China, and the level of total concentrations and the fraction of water soluble, ion exchangeable, carbonates, humic acid, iron and manganese oxides and organic matter of As, Cd, Hg and Pb was investigated in soil profiles. The results indicate that parent materials of soil critically influenced the ecological risk of heavy metal.The fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable of Cd and Hg in alluvial material and in terrigenous clastic rocks showed 2-6 times higher than those in carbonate rock; As and Pb has almost same fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable in three parent materials of soil.The findings suggest that parent materials of soil play a critical role in ecological risk of heavy metal.Thus, more studies are needed to better understand a linkage between the parent materials of soil, different soil-forming processes and the potential risk of heavy metals under various geographic conditions, which is the key for the evaluating soil quality and food safety. Those soils with high concentration of Cd and Hg originated alluvial material and terrigenous clastic rocks need to be continuously monitored before determining a cost-effective remediation technology. Keywords: Heavy metals; Ecological risk;Parent materials of soil;China

  6. Dynamic effects of linkage joints in electrostatic microengines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.J.; Miller, S.L.; LaVigne, G.F. [and others

    1998-05-01

    The electrostatic micro-engine is one of the major actuators used in MEMS applications. To ensure this MEMS actuator is operated in a fashion that will produce peak performance and long life, the system dynamics must be fully understood. One of the major trade-offs in the micro-engine design is the use of either pin or flexure joints. This paper will develop the equations of motion for flexure-jointed and pin-jointed surface micromachined microengines. An analytical mechanics approach will be used to derive the equations of motion and the appropriate equations of constraint. The effect of the flexure joints on the drive signals of the micro engine is experimentally shown to be significant during static tests.

  7. Subsidiary Linkage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Perri, Alessandra; Nell, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of subsidiaries' local vertical linkages under varying levels of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Contrary to most previous literature, we explicitly account for the double role of such linkages as conduits of learning prospects as well as potential...

  8. An investigation into the effect of brand linkages on brand ratings and brand perceptions in a contemporary business environment

    OpenAIRE

    Nhedzi, Abyshey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: While the effectiveness of brand linkage strategy is internationally undisputed, no studies have empirically explored and identified the effectiveness of linked brands in the South African context. Brand linkage is an often used marketing strategy to leverage brands in a contemporary, postmodern business environment cluttered with me-too non-differentiated competing brands, and it has been referred to by various scholars in one form or another for seven decades. In most cases, the n...

  9. Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Effective Population Size with Immigrants from Divergent Populations: A Case Study on Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Gilbert Michael; Broderick, Damien; Buckworth, Rik C; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2013-03-11

    Estimates of genetic effective population size (Ne) using molecular markers are a potentially useful tool for the management of endangered through to commercial species. But, pitfalls are predicted when the effective size is large, as estimates require large numbers of samples from wild populations for statistical validity. Our simulations showed that linkage disequilibrium estimates of Ne up to 10,000 with finite confidence limits can be achieved with sample sizes around 5000. This was deduced from empirical allele frequencies of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in a commercially harvested fisheries species, the narrow barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson). As expected, the smallest standard deviation of Ne estimates occurred when low frequency alleles were excluded. Additional simulations indicated that the linkage disequilibrium method was sensitive to small numbers of genotypes from cryptic species or conspecific immigrants. A correspondence analysis algorithm was developed to detect and remove outlier genotypes that could possibly be inadvertently sampled from cryptic species or non-breeding immigrants from genetically separate populations. Simulations demonstrated the value of this approach in Spanish mackerel data. When putative immigrants were removed from the empirical data, 95% of the Ne estimates from jacknife resampling were above 24,000.

  10. Effective Linkages of Continuum of Care for Improving Neonatal, Perinatal, and Maternal Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiyo Kikuchi

    Full Text Available Continuum of care has the potential to improve maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH by ensuring care for mothers and children. Continuum of care in MNCH is widely accepted as comprising sequential time (from pre-pregnancy to motherhood and childhood and space dimensions (from community-family care to clinical care. However, it is unclear which linkages of care could have a greater effect on MNCH outcomes. The objective of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of different continuum of care linkages for reducing neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries.We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that addressed two or more linkages of continuum of care and attempted to increase mothers' uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. The outcome variables were neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality.Out of the 7,142 retrieved articles, we selected 19 as eligible for the final analysis. Of these studies, 13 used packages of intervention that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. One study each used packages that linked antenatal care and skilled birth attendance or skilled birth attendance and postnatal care. Four studies used an intervention package that linked antenatal care and postnatal care. Among the packages that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care, a significant reduction was observed in combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality risks (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.89, I2 79%. Furthermore, this linkage reduced combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality when integrating the continuum of care space dimension (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.93, I2 81%.Our review suggests that continuous uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care is necessary to improve MNCH outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The review was conclusive for the

  11. The Hubble effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

  12. Examining uncertainties in the linkage between global climate change and potential human health impacts in the western USA -- Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Goldman, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-09-30

    Industrial societies have altered the earth`s environment in ways that could have important, long-term ecological, economic, and health implications. In this paper the authors define, characterize, and evaluate parameter and outcome uncertainties using a model that links global climate change with predictions of chemical exposure and human health risk in the western region of the US. They illustrate the impact of uncertainty about global climate change on such potential secondary outcomes using as a case study the public health consequences related to the behavior environmentally of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), an ubiquitous multimedia pollutant. They begin by constructing a matrix that reveals the linkage between global environmental change and potential regional human-health effects that might be induced directly and/or indirectly by HCB released into the air and water. This matrix is useful for translating critical uncertainties into terms that can be understood and used by policy makers to formulate strategies against potential adverse irreversible health and economic consequences. Specifically, the authors employ a combined uncertainty/sensitivity analysis to investigate how the HCB that has been released is affected by increasing atmospheric temperature and the accompanying climate alterations that are anticipated and how such uncertainty propagates to affect the expected magnitude and calculational precision of estimates of associated potential human exposures and health effects.

  13. The Effect of Local and Global Linkages on the Innovativeness in ICT SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslesen, Heidi Wiig; Harirchi, Gouya

    2015-01-01

    Countries differ significantly with regard to the location-specific contexts in which they are embedded. The aim of this paper is to extend the discussion on the effects of local and global innovation collaborations on the degree of novelty of innovation by considering this context. Our main...... question is: Does embeddedness in the developed or emerging country context affect the likelihood of benefiting from local or global linkages for innovations with higher novelty? The paper is based on data gathered through a survey of firms in the ICT sector in an emerging economy (India) context and from...

  14. Potential linkages between mineral magnetic measurements and urban roadside soil pollution (part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C J; Fullen, M A; Booth, C A

    2014-03-01

    Use of mineral magnetic concentration parameters (χLF, χARM and SIRM) as a potential pollution proxy for soil samples collected from Wolverhampton (UK) is explored. Comparison of soil-related analytical data by correlation analyses between each magnetic parameter and individual geochemical classes (i.e. Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd), are reported. χLF, χARM and SIRM parameters reveal significant (p soils in certain environments and/or specific settings that are appropriate for monitoring techniques. The mineral magnetic technique offers a simple, reliable, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and non-destructive approach that could be a valuable pollution proxy for soil contamination studies.

  15. Potential Linkages Between Changing Climate and Summertime Hypoxia in Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. V.; Bravo, H.; Waples, J. T.; LaBuhn, S.; Valenta, T.; Kennedy, J.; Lorenz, D.; Fermanich, K.; Baumgart, P.; Hamidi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Summertime hypoxia has been a recurring feature of the Green Bay ecosystem for several decades. High rates of nutrient loading from the watershed, principally the Fox River, drive hypereutrophic conditions and excessive algal blooms in the southern portions of the bay. Recent observations within the last 3 decades suggest that hypoxia may becoming both more frequent and more persistent. Warming climate and shifts in the mean summertime wind field both have the potential to exacerbate hypoxia, though prolonging stratification in the first instance, and by reducing water mass exchange with Lake Michigan in response to shifts in the mean meteorological conditions over the Great Lakes basin in late summer. In addition, regional climate change projections of a wetter climate, with an increasing frequency of intense precipitation events, point to persistent algal blooms and increased nutrient loading from a watershed that has high density of intense agricultural land use. Combined these impacts have the potential to increase the efficiency of particle trapping and the retention of organic material within the bay, fueling increasing rates of benthic metabolism and sediment oxygen consumption, and increased bottom water oxygen depletion rates.

  16. A Linkage Learning Genetic Algorithm with Linkage Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The goal of linkage learning, or building block identification, is the creation of a more effective Genetic Algorithm (GA). This paper proposes a new Linkage Learning Genetic Algorithms, named m-LLGA. With the linkage learning module and the linkage-based genetic operation, m-LLGA is not only able to learn and record the linkage information among genes without any prior knowledge of the function being optimized. It also can use the linkage information stored in the linkage matrix to guide the selection of crossover point. The preliminary experiments on two kinds of bounded difficulty problems and a TSP problem validated the performance of m-LLGA. The m-LLGA learns the linkage of different building blocks parallel and therefore solves these problems effectively; it can also reasonably reduce the probability of building blocks being disrupted by crossover at the same time give attention to getting away from local minimum.

  17. Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis: potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William

    2003-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases.

  18. Sequential strategy to identify a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia: Report of potential linkage on chromosome 22q12-q13.1: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulver, A.E.; Wolyniec, P.S.; Lasseter, V.K. [The John Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-15

    To identify genes responsible for the susceptibility for schizophrenia, and to test the hypothesis that schizophrenia is etiologically heterogeneous, we have studied 39 multiplex families from a systematic sample of schizophrenic patients. Using a complex autosomal dominant model, which considers only those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder as affected, a random search of the genome for detection of linkage was undertaken. Pairwise linkage analyses suggest a potential linkage (LRH = 34.7 or maximum lod score = 1.54) for one region (22q12-q13.1). Reanalyses, varying parameters in the dominant model, maximized the LRH at 660.7 (maximum lod score 2.82). This finding is of sufficient interest to warrant further investigation through collaborative studies. 72 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Cross-linkage effect of cellulose/laponite hybrids in aqueous dispersions and solid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zaiwu; Fan, Qingrui; Dai, Xiaonan; Zhao, Chao; Lv, Aijie; Zhang, Jingjing; Xu, Guiying; Qin, Menghua

    2014-02-15

    Homogenous cellulose/laponite aqueous dispersions and composite films were respectively prepared from the pre-cooling NaOH/urea aqueous systems. Rheological measurements of aqueous dispersions demonstrated a sol-to-gel transition triggered by loading of laponite, reflecting a cross-linkage effect of cellulose/laponite hybrids. Similarly, based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations, as well as mechanical and thermal measurements, the cross-linkage effect of cellulose/laponite hybrids was also found in solid films, which played an important role in improving the tensile strength (σb) of composite films. For instance, the σb exhibited a largest enhancement up to 75.7% at a critical laponite content of 0.100 wt%, indicating that the property of composite film was closely related with the dispersion and interaction state of laponite, i.e. its content in cellulose matrix. These results were expected to provide significant information for fabrication and utility of cellulose-based materials.

  20. Subsidiary Linkage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf; Nell, Phillip C.;

    This paper investigates local vertical linkages of foreign subsidiaries and the dual role of such linkages as conduits for learning as well as potential channels for spillovers to competitors. On the basis of data from 97 subsidiaries, we analyze the quality of such linkages under varying levels...... of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Our theoretical development and the results from the analysis document a far more complex and dynamic relationship between levels of competition and MNCs’ local participation in knowledge intensive activities, i.e. learning and spillovers, than previous studies do. We...

  1. Building effective service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Sharon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care services have not generally been effective in meeting mental health care needs. There is evidence that collaboration between primary care and specialist mental health services can improve clinical and organisational outcomes. It is not clear however what factors enable or hinder effective collaboration. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that enable effective collaboration between specialist mental health services and primary mental health care. Methods A narrative and thematic review of English language papers published between 1998 and 2009. An expert reference group helped formulate strategies for policy makers. Studies of descriptive and qualitative design from Australia, New Zealand, UK, Europe, USA and Canada were included. Data were extracted on factors reported as enablers or barriers to development of service linkages. These were tabulated by theme at clinical and organisational levels and the inter-relationship between themes was explored. Results A thematic analysis of 30 papers found the most frequently cited group of factors was "partnership formation", specifically role clarity between health care workers. Other factor groups supporting clinical partnership formation were staff support, clinician attributes, clinic physical features and evaluation and feedback. At the organisational level a supportive institutional environment of leadership and change management was important. The expert reference group then proposed strategies for collaboration that would be seen as important, acceptable and feasible. Because of the variability of study types we did not exclude on quality and findings are weighted by the number of studies. Variability in local service contexts limits the generalisation of findings. Conclusion The findings provide a framework for health planners to develop effective service linkages in primary mental health care. Our expert reference group proposed five areas of

  2. Probabilistic data linkage: a case study of comparative effectiveness in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Blanchette

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this era of comparative effectiveness research, new, advanced techniques are being investigated by the research community to overcome the limitations of existing data sources. We describe the approach of probabilistic data linkage as a means to address this critical issue. Methods: We employed a historical retrospective cohort design. Patients aged 40 and older with a principal or secondary diagnosis of COPD (ICD-9-CM codes 491.xx, 492.xx, and 496 and at least 3 years of continuous enrollment between January 1, 2004 and April 30, 2009 were selected from two US-based commercial administrative claims databases. The index date was designated as the date of the first claim (defined by a 12-month wash-out pre-index period for the study drugs, for illustration purposes referred to as Treatment 1 or Treatment 2. The primary effectiveness measure was risk of any COPD-related exacerbation observed in the 12-month post-index period, with baseline characteristics being identified in the 12-month pre-index period. Results: The percentage of the study sample receiving Treatment 1 at index who had an exacerbation was 39.3% for Database A and 39.7% for Database B; for Treatment 2, the percentages were 46.3% and 47.1%, respectively. The event rate of hospitalizations in each database sample was nearly identical as were the odds ratio and corresponding confidence intervals from the adjusted logistic regression models (OR – Database A: 0.72, Database B: 0.74, Database A with imputed outcomes: 0.72. Conclusions: The probabilistic linkage demonstrated that patients from different databases matched on similar pre-index characteristics may demonstrate similar outcomes in the post-index period.

  3. The Potential Linkage between Emergency Medical Services Systems and Health Systems Agencies to Civil Defense Related Health and Medical Care Plans and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Objective 10 B. Study Methodology 10 IV. E 7SS/HSA LINKAGE TO CIVIL DEFEN SE 13 V. HEALTH AND MEDICAL PLANNING FUNCIONS 31 A. Primarily Non-Health...Department Responsibilities 31 B. Primarily Health Department Responsibilities 41 VI. DISASTER MEDICAL PLANNING IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA 62 VII...Agency B-i APPENDIX C - State Emergency Health Service Planning Functions: Potential Agency Input C-i APPENDIX D - San Francisco Bay Area Planning D

  4. Building an Entrepreneurial University in Brazil: The Role and Potential of University-Industry Linkages in Promoting Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Marcelo; Ferreira, Andre; Teodoro, Pitias

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of a broader research project, conducted by the Triple Helix Research Group--Brazil, focusing on university-industry-government linkages in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The case study reported here is that of the Regional University of Volta Redonda: the aim was to develop an understanding of how a regional university can be…

  5. Extent of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uimari, P; Tapio, M

    2011-03-01

    The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig populations were studied using a whole genome SNP panel (Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip) and pedigree data. Genotypic data included 86 Finnish Landrace and 32 Finnish Yorkshire boars. Pedigree data included 608,138 Finnish Landrace 554,237 and Finnish Yorkshire pigs, and on average 15 ancestral generations were known for the reference animals, born in 2005 to 2009. The breeding animals of the 2 populations have been kept separate in the breeding programs. Based on the pedigree data, the current effective population size for Finnish Landrace is 91 and for Finnish Yorkshire 61. Linkage disequilibrium measures (D' and r(2)) were estimated for over 1.5 million pairs of SNP. Average r(2) for SNP 30 kb apart was 0.47 and 0.49 and for SNP 5 Mb apart 0.09 and 0.12 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Average LD (r(2)) between adjacent SNP in the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip was 0.43 (57% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Landrace and 0.46 (60% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Yorkshire, and average r(2) > 0.2 extended to 1.0 and 1.5 Mb for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Effective population size estimates based on the decay of r(2) with distance were similar to those based on the pedigree data: 80 and 55 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Thus, the results indicate that the effective population size of Finnish Yorkshire is smaller than of Finnish Landrace and has a clear effect on the extent of LD. The current effective population size of both breeds is above the recommended minimum of 50 but may get smaller than that in the near future, if no action is taken to balance the inbreeding rate and selection response. Because a moderate level of LD extends over a long distance, selection based on whole genome SNP markers (genomic selection) is expected

  6. Within-family outliers: segregating alleles or environmental effects? A linkage analysis of height from 5815 sibling pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamin, Beben; Perola, Markus; Cornes, Belinda K; Madden, Pamela Af; Palotie, Aarno; Nyholt, Dale R; Montgomery, Grant W; Peltonen, Leena; Martin, Nicholas G; Visscher, Peter M

    2008-04-01

    Most information in linkage analysis for quantitative traits comes from pairs of relatives that are phenotypically most discordant or concordant. Confounding this, within-family outliers from non-genetic causes may create false positives and negatives. We investigated the influence of within-family outliers empirically, using one of the largest genome-wide linkage scans for height. The subjects were drawn from Australian twin cohorts consisting of 8447 individuals in 2861 families, providing a total of 5815 possible pairs of siblings in sibships. A variance component linkage analysis was performed, either including or excluding the within-family outliers. Using the entire dataset, the largest LOD scores were on chromosome 15q (LOD 2.3) and 11q (1.5). Excluding within-family outliers increased the LOD score for most regions, but the LOD score on chromosome 15 decreased from 2.3 to 1.2, suggesting that the outliers may create false negatives and false positives, although rare alleles of large effect may also be an explanation. Several regions suggestive of linkage to height were found after removing the outliers, including 1q23.1 (2.0), 3q22.1 (1.9) and 5q32 (2.3). We conclude that the investigation of the effect of within-family outliers, which is usually neglected, should be a standard quality control measure in linkage analysis for complex traits and may reduce the noise for the search of common variants of modest effect size as well as help identify rare variants of large effect and clinical significance. We suggest that the effect of within-family outliers deserves further investigation via theoretical and simulation studies.

  7. [Linkage of large secondary and registry data sources with data of cohort studies : usage of a dual potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Svenja; Stallmann, Christoph; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-08-01

    Cohort studies provide the best evidence of all epidemiological observational studies for the identification of causal relationships between risk factors and diseases. However, this design may lead to drawbacks that may affect the validity and reliability of the results. This follows in particular from systematic errors, such as selection bias or recall bias. One possibility to avoid or counteract some of these drawbacks is to link primary data from cohort studies with secondary and register data. The linkage of these data may also be used for mutual validations. Data that were previously linked with primary data within the context of cohort studies in Germany were obtained from statutory health insurances and pensions as well as data from the Federal Employment Agency and cancer registries. All these data have two features in common: First, they all cover detailed information about a large population and over a long period of time. Second, all sources are in principle able to provide data on an individual level such that an individual data linkage, e.g. with primary data, is possible. However, use and linkage of each of these data sources are restricted by several limitations. These have to be accounted for as well as numerous legal restrictions that exist in Germany to especially prevent the misuse of social data.

  8. The effect of genotyping errors on the robustness of composite linkage disequilibrium measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu Mei Li; Yang Xiang

    2011-12-01

    We conclude that composite linkage disequilibrium (LD) measures be adopted in population-based LD mapping or association mapping studies since it is unaffected by Hardy–Weinberg disequilibrium. Although some properties of composite LD measures have been recently studied, the effects of genotyping errors on composite LD measures have not been examined. In this report, we derived deterministic formulas to evaluate the impact of genotyping errors on the composite LD measures $\\Delta'_{AB}$ and $r_{AB}$, and compared the robustness of $\\Delta'_{AB}$ and $r_{AB}$ in the presence of genotyping errors. The results showed that $\\Delta'_{AB}$ and $r_{AB}$ depend on the allele frequencies and the assumed error model, and show varying degrees of robustness in the presence of errors. In general, whether there is HWD or not, $r_{AB}$ is more robust than $\\Delta'_{AB}$ except some special cases and the difference of robustness between $\\Delta'_{AB}$ and $r_{AB}$ becomes less severe as the difference between the frequencies of two SNP alleles and becomes smaller.

  9. Extent of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in four South African Sanga cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sithembile Olga Makina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD in livestock populations is essential to determine the minimum distance between markers required for effective coverage when conducting genome-wide association studies. This study evaluated the extent of LD, persistence of allelic phase and effective population size (Ne for four Sanga cattle breeds in South Africa including the Afrikaner (n=44, Nguni (n=54, Drakensberger (n=47 and Bonsmara breeds (n=46, using Angus (n=31 and Holstein (n=29 as reference populations. We found that moderate LD extends up to inter-marker distances of 40-60 kb in Angus (0.21 and Holstein (0.21 and up to 100 kb in Afrikaner (0.20. This suggests that genomic selection and association studies performed within these breeds using an average inter-marker r2 ≥ 0.20 would require about 30,000 -50,000 SNPs. However, r2 ≥ 0.20 extended only up to 10-20 kb in the Nguni and Drakensberger and 20-40 kb in the Bonsmara indicating that 75,000 to 150,000 SNPs would be necessary for genome-wide association studies in these breeds. Correlation between alleles at contiguous loci indicated that phase was not strongly preserved between breeds. This suggests the need for breed-specific reference populations in which a much greater density of markers should be scored to identify breed specific haplotypes which may then be imputed into multi-breed commercial populations. Analysis of effective population size based on the extent of LD, revealed Ne=95 (Nguni, Ne=87 (Drakensberger, Ne=77 (Bonsmara and Ne=41 (Afrikaner. Results of this study form the basis for implementation of genomic selection programs in the Sanga breeds of South Africa.

  10. Parent-Of-Origin Effects in Autism Identified through Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis of 16,000 SNPs

    OpenAIRE

    Delphine Fradin; Keely Cheslack-Postava; Christine Ladd-Acosta; Craig Newschaffer; Aravinda Chakravarti; Arking, Dan E.; Andrew Feinberg; M Daniele Fallin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autism is a common heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with complex etiology. Several genome-wide linkage and association scans have been carried out to identify regions harboring genes related to autism or autism spectrum disorders, with mixed results. Given the overlap in autism features with genetic abnormalities known to be associated with imprinting, one possible reason for lack of consistency would be the influence of parent-of-origin effects that may mask the ability to d...

  11. Linkage design effect on the reliability of surface micromachined microengines driving a load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, D.M.; Peterson, K.A.; Irwin, L.W.; Tangyunyong, P.; Miller, W.M.; Eaton, W.P.; Smith, N.F.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1998-08-01

    The reliability of microengines is a function of the design of the mechanical linkage used to connect the electrostatic actuator to the drive. The authors have completed a series of reliability stress tests on surface micromachined microengines driving an inertial load. In these experiments, the authors used microengines that had pin mechanisms with guides connecting the drive arms to the electrostatic actuators. Comparing this data to previous results using flexure linkages revealed that the pin linkage design was less reliable. The devices were stressed to failure at eight frequencies, both above and below the measured resonance frequency of the microengine. Significant amounts of wear debris were observed both around the hub and pin joint of the drive gear. Additionally, wear tracks were observed in the area where the moving shuttle rubbed against the guides of the pin linkage. At each frequency, they analyzed the statistical data yielding a lifetime (t{sub 50}) for median cycles to failure and {sigma}, the shape parameter of the distribution. A model was developed to describe the failure data based on fundamental wear mechanisms and forces exhibited in mechanical resonant systems. The comparison to the model will be discussed.

  12. Avatars, Media Usage, and the Linkages to E-learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    relevant theories/models related to information technology and educational psychology , specifically addressing media usage linkages with learning...main theoretical themes: educational psychology and information technology, and hypothesized avatars to be the most engaging media channel... Educational psychology addressed the psychological learning process and how it leads to learning outcomes. Information technology theory addressed the

  13. University-Industry Linkages in Developing Countries: Perceived Effect on Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaland, Terje I.; Ishengoma, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceptions of both universities and the resource-extractive companies on the influence of university-industry linkages (UILs) on innovation in a developing country. Design/Methodology/Approach: A total of 404 respondents were interviewed. Descriptive analysis and multinomial logistic regression…

  14. Evolution and variability of the Asian monsoon and its potential linkage with uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Ryuji; Zheng, Hongbo; Clift, Peter D.

    2016-12-01

    Uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau (HTP) and its linkage with the evolution of the Asian monsoon has been regarded as a typical example of a tectonic-climate linkage. Although this linkage remains unproven because of insufficient data, our understanding has greatly advanced in the past decade. It is thus timely to summarize our knowledge of the uplift history of the HTP, the results of relevant climate simulations, and spatiotemporal changes in the Indian and East Asian monsoons since the late Eocene. Three major pulses of the HTP uplift have become evident: (1) uplift of the southern and central Tibetan Plateau (TP) at ca. 40-35 Ma, (2) uplift of the northern TP at ca. 25-20 Ma, and (3) uplift of the northeastern to eastern TP at ca. 15-10 Ma. Modeling predictions suggest that (i) uplift of the southern and central TP should have intensified the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and the Somali Jet at 40-35 Ma; (ii) uplift of the northern TP should have intensified the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), as well as the desertification of inland Asia at 25-20 Ma; and (iii) uplift of the northeastern and eastern TP should have further intensified the EASM and EAWM at 15-10 Ma. We tested these predictions by comparing them with paleoclimate data for the time intervals of interest. There are insufficient paleoclimate data to test whether the ISM and Somali Jet intensified with the uplift of the southern and central TP at 40-35 Ma, but it is possible that such uplift enhanced erosion and weathering that drew down atmospheric CO2 and resulted in global cooling. There is good evidence that the EASM and EAWM intensified, and desertification started in inland Asia at 25-20 Ma in association with the uplift of the northern TP. The impact of the uplift of the northeastern and eastern TP on the Asian monsoon at 15-10 Ma is difficult to evaluate because that interval was also a time of global cooling and Antarctic glaciation that might also

  15. Effective potential for relativistic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Elbistan, Mahmut; Balog, Janos

    2016-01-01

    We consider quantum inverse scattering with singular potentials and calculate the Sine-Gordon model effective potential in the laboratory and centre-of-mass frames. The effective potentials are frame dependent but closely resemble the zero-momentum potential of the equivalent Ruijsenaars-Schneider model.

  16. A method for detecting recent changes in contemporary effective population size from linkage disequilibrium at linked and unlinked loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, C M; Portnoy, D S; Gold, J R

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of contemporary effective population size (Ne) from linkage disequilibrium (LD) between unlinked pairs of genetic markers has become an important tool in the field of population and conservation genetics. If data pertaining to physical linkage or genomic position are available for genetic markers, estimates of recombination rate between loci can be combined with LD data to estimate contemporary Ne at various times in the past. We extend the well-known, LD-based method of estimating contemporary Ne to include linkage information and show via simulation that even relatively small, recent changes in Ne can be detected reliably with a modest number of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. We explore several issues important to interpretation of the results and quantify the bias in estimates of contemporary Ne associated with the assumption that all loci in a large SNP data set are unlinked. The approach is applied to an empirical data set of SNP genotypes from a population of a marine fish where a recent, temporary decline in Ne is known to have occurred.

  17. Linkage of GLO with HLA and Bf. Effect of population and sex on recombination frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkamp, L R

    1976-05-01

    Further data on the linkage relationships of red cell glyoxalase I(GLO) with HLA and Bf are reported. The most likely order of loci is GLO: Bf: HLA-B: HLA-A. No sex difference in the frequency of recombination between GLO and HLA was noted, but recombination was more frequent for both males and females in the American black population than in the white population.

  18. The centrality of laboratory services in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade: The need for effective linkages and referrals in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Fonjungo, Peter; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Peter, Trevor; Kantor, Rami; Nkengasong, John

    2014-05-01

    Strong laboratory services and systems are critical for delivering timely and quality health services that are vital to reduce patient attrition in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade. However, challenges exist in ensuring effective laboratory health systems strengthening and linkages. In particular, linkages and referrals between laboratory testing and other services need to be considered in the context of an integrated health system that includes prevention, treatment, and strategic information. Key components of laboratory health systems that are essential for effective linkages include an adequate workforce, appropriate point-of-care (POC) technology, available financing, supply chain management systems, and quality systems improvement, including accreditation. In this review, we highlight weaknesses of and gaps between laboratory testing and other program services. We propose a model for strengthening these systems to ensure effective linkages of laboratory services for improved access and retention in care of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

  19. CURRENCY LINKAGES AMONG ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    CHIN LEE; M. Azali

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential linkages among ASEAN-5 currencies, in particular the possibility of a Singapore dollar bloc during the pre- and post-crisis periods by using the Johansen multivariate cointegration test and the Granger causality test. Significant nonstationarity and the presence of unit roots were documented for each currency under both study periods. Using ASEAN-4 exchange rates against the Singapore dollar, the Johansen cointegration test showed that the...

  20. Potential enhancement of antibacterial activity of graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite by introducing C2 carbon chain linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyosuk; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Lee, Kyungmi; Jeon, Seungwon; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    Various carbon chain linkages were introduced during the process of synthesizing silver-nanoparticles (AgNPs)-decorated graphene nanocomposites [referred to as GO-Cx-Ag where, HS-(CH2)x-SH = Cx and x = 0, 2, or 4] to evaluate antibacterial properties. The nano-structures of GO-Cx-Ag were characterized using TEM and XPS, revealing that GO-C2-Ag comprises well-dispersed and smaller AgNPs anchored onto the surface of graphene sheets than the GO-C0-Ag and GO-C4-Ag. The antibacterial activities of those nanocomposites were assessed using paper-disk diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The results showed that carbon chain linkers enhanced the antibacterial activity against Gram-negative Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. In particular, GO-C2-Ag showed higher antibacterial activity than GO-C0-Ag and GO-C4-Ag due to nearly eight times higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation which determined by fluorescence-based ROS detection experiment. Also, LC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LC-ICP-MS) demonstrated that the Ag release from GO-Cx-Ag was insignificant (0.03%). However, the higher ROS formation from GO-C2-Ag was facilitated by higher dispersion, smaller size, and well attachment of AgNPs with AgO species onto graphene sheets. These results suggest that the medium length carbon chain linkers in between Ag and GO can be utilized to improve antibacterial activity.

  1. Estimating effective population size from linkage disequilibrium between unlinked loci: theory and application to fruit fly outbreak populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Sved

    Full Text Available There is a substantial literature on the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD to estimate effective population size using unlinked loci. The Ne estimates are extremely sensitive to the sampling process, and there is currently no theory to cope with the possible biases. We derive formulae for the analysis of idealised populations mating at random with multi-allelic (microsatellite loci. The 'Burrows composite index' is introduced in a novel way with a 'composite haplotype table'. We show that in a sample of diploid size S, the mean value of x2 or r2 from the composite haplotype table is biased by a factor of 1-1/(2S-12, rather than the usual factor 1+1/(2S-1 for a conventional haplotype table. But analysis of population data using these formulae leads to Ne estimates that are unrealistically low. We provide theory and simulation to show that this bias towards low Ne estimates is due to null alleles, and introduce a randomised permutation correction to compensate for the bias. We also consider the effect of introducing a within-locus disequilibrium factor to r2, and find that this factor leads to a bias in the Ne estimate. However this bias can be overcome using the same randomised permutation correction, to yield an altered r2 with lower variance than the original r2, and one that is also insensitive to null alleles. The resulting formulae are used to provide Ne estimates on 40 samples of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, from populations with widely divergent Ne expectations. Linkage relationships are known for most of the microsatellite loci in this species. We find that there is little difference in the estimated Ne values from using known unlinked loci as compared to using all loci, which is important for conservation studies where linkage relationships are unknown.

  2. A novel four-bar linkage prosthetic knee based on magnetorheological effect: principle, structure, simulation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Dai-Hua; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Gang; Hu, Lei-Zi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the principle and structure of the four-bar linkage prosthetic knee based on the magnetorheological effect (FLPKME) are proposed and realized by individually integrating the upper and lower link rods of the four-bar linkage with the piston rod and the outer cylinder of the magnetorheological (MR) damper. The integrated MR damper, in which the MR fluid is operated in the shear mode, has a double-ended structure. The prototype of the FLPKME is designed and fabricated. Utilizing the developed FLPKME, the lower limb prosthesis is developed, modeled, and simulated. On these bases, the control algorithm for the FLPKME is developed. A test platform for the FLPKME is developed and the performance of the FLPKME with seven constant currents and controlled currents by the control algorithm developed in this paper are experimentally tested. The results show that the FLPKME with a constant current of 1.6 A possesses the basic stable gait, and the FLPKME with the controlled currents by the control algorithm developed in this paper is able to track the motions well and to imitate the natural motions of a healthy human knee joint.

  3. Effective Interpersonal Health Communication for Linkage to Care After HIV Diagnosis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuto, Tonderai; Charalambous, Salome; Hoffmann, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Early in the global response to HIV, health communication was focused toward HIV prevention. More recently, the role of health communication along the entire HIV care continuum has been highlighted. We sought to describe how a strategy of interpersonal communication allows for precision health communication to influence behavior regarding care engagement. We analyzed 1 to 5 transcripts from clients participating in longitudinal counseling sessions from a communication strategy arm of a randomized trial to accelerate entry into care in South Africa. The counseling arm was selected because it increased verified entry into care by 40% compared with the standard of care. We used thematic analysis to identify key aspects of communication directed specifically toward a client's goals or concerns. Of the participants, 18 of 28 were female and 21 entered HIV care within 90 days of diagnosis. Initiating a communication around client-perceived consequences of HIV was at times effective. However, counselors also probed around general topics of life disruption-such as potential for child bearing-as a technique to direct the conversation toward the participant's needs. Once individual concerns and needs were identified, counselors tried to introduce clinical care seeking and collaboratively discuss potential barriers and approaches to overcome to accessing that care. Through the use of interpersonal communication messages were focused on immediate needs and concerns of the client. When effectively delivered, it may be an important communication approach to improve care engagement.

  4. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport, and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.......4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (∼40-45 Mb Sanger sequencing per site) was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and....../or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G + C content) and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed...

  5. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus;

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze, and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high......-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.......4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (∼40-45 Mb Sanger sequencing per site) was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and...

  6. Multicenter dizygotic twin cohort study confirms two linkage susceptibility loci for body mass index at 3q29 and 7q36 and identifies three further potential novel loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettunen, J; Perola, M; Martin, N G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify common loci and potential genetic variants affecting body mass index (BMI, kg m(-2)) in study populations originating from Europe. DESIGN: We combined genome-wide linkage scans of six cohorts from Australia, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom...... with an approximately 10-cM microsatellite marker map. Variance components linkage analysis was carried out with age, sex and country of origin as covariates. SUBJECTS: The GenomEUtwin consortium consists of twin cohorts from eight countries (Australia, Denmark, the Netherlands, Finland, Italy, Norway, Sweden...

  7. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of metagenome sequence from high-temperature archaeal habitats demonstrate linkages between metabolic potential and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Inskeep

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP provide an unparalled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (~40-45 Mbase Sanger sequencing per site was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and/or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G+C content and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.g., sulfide, oxygen, pH. These observations provide an ecological basis for understanding the distribution of indigenous archaeal lineages across high temperature systems of YNP.

  8. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus J; Kozubal, Mark A; Rusch, Douglas B; Tringe, Susannah G; Macur, Richard E; Jennings, Ryan deM; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R; Roberto, Francisco F

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze, and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (∼40-45 Mb Sanger sequencing per site) was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and/or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G + C content) and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport, and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.g., sulfide, oxygen, pH). These observations provide an ecological basis for understanding the distribution of indigenous archaeal lineages across high-temperature systems of YNP.

  9. Legal barriers to effective ecosystem management: exploring linkages between liability, regulations, and prescribed fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonkka, Carissa L; Rogers, William E; Kreuter, Urs P

    2015-12-01

    Resistance to the use of prescribed fire is strong among many private land managers despite the advantages it offers for maintaining fire-adapted ecosystems. Even managers who are aware of the benefits of using prescribed fire as a management tool avoid using it, citing potential liability as a major reason for their aversion. Recognizing the importance of prescribed fire for ecosystem management and the constraints current statutory schemes impose on its use, several states in the United States have undertaken prescribed burn statutory reform. The stated purpose of these statutory reforms, often called "right to burn" or "prescribed burning" acts, is to encourage prescribed burning for resource protection, public safety, and land management. Our research assessed the consequences of prescribed burn statutory reform by identifying legal incentives and impediments to prescribed fire application for ecosystem restoration and management, as well as fuel reduction. Specifically, we explored the relationship between prescribed burning laws and decisions made by land managers by exploiting a geographic-based natural experiment to compare landowner-prescribed fire use in contiguous counties with different regulations and legal liability standards. Controlling for potentially confounding variables, we found that private landowners in counties with gross negligence liability standards burn significantly more hectares than those in counties with simple negligence standards (F6,72 = 4.16, P = 0.046). There was no difference in hectares burned on private land between counties with additional statutorily mandated regulatory requirements and those requiring only a permit to complete a prescribed burn (F6,72 = 1.42, P = 0.24) or between counties with burn ban exemptions for certified prescribed burn managers and those with no exemptions during burn bans (F6,72 = 1.39, P = 0.24). Lawmakers attempting to develop prescribed burning statutes to promote the safe use of prescribed fire

  10. Linkage of bioaccumulation and biological effects to changes in pollutant loads in south San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, M.I.; Luoma, S.N.; Cain, D.J.; Parchaso, F.; Brown, C.L.; Bouse, R.M.; Wellise, C.; Thompson, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    The developed world has invested billions of dollars in waste treatment since the 1970s; however, changes in ecological or biological responses are rarely associated with reductions in metal pollutants. Here we present a novel, 23-yr time series of environmental change from a San Francisco Bay mudflat located 1 km from the discharge of a suburban domestic sewage treatment plant. Samples of surface sediment, the bioindicator Macoma balthica, and metals loading data were used to establish links between discharge, bioaccumulation, and effects. Mean annual Ag concentrations in M. balthica were 106 ??g/g in 1978 and 3.67 ??g/g in 1998. Concentrations of Cu declined from 287 ??g/g in 1980 to a minimum of 24 ??g/g in 1991. Declining Cu bioaccumulation was strongly correlated with decreasing Cu loads from the plant between 1977 and 1998. Relationships with bioaccumulation and total annual precipitation suggested that inputs from nonpoint sources were most important in controlling Zn bioavailability during the same period. Ecoepidemiological criteria were used to associate failed gamete production in M. balthica to a metals-enriched environment. Reproduction persistently failed between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s; it recovered after metal contamination declined. Other potential environmental causes such as food availability, sediment chemistry, or seasonal salinity fluctuations were not related to the timing of the change in reproductive capability. The results establish an associative link, suggesting that it is important to further investigate the chemical interference of Cu and/or Ag with invertebrate reproduction at relatively moderate levels of environmental contamination.

  11. Effect of azo and ester linkages on rod shaped Schiff base liquid crystals and their photophysical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarasu, Chinnaiyan; Kannan, Palaninathan

    2016-12-01

    Two new series of rod shaped Schiff base containing liquid crystal compounds with azo and ester linkages have been synthesized and characterized respectively. The rod like molecules containing cinnamate linkages with four different alkyl spacers (n = 6, 8, 10 and 12) and influence of linking group have been elucidated. Considerable changes in mesomorphic properties were noticed starting from Nematic to Smectic-C on changing of azo and ester linkages along with different terminal alkyl chain lengths. The mesomorphic properties of both series are compared. Photosensitive azobenzene group undergoes photoisomerization under UV light and monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy.

  12. Potential neuroprotective effects of cinnamon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Crews Stavinoha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases involves complex interactions between multiple mechanisms, including but not limited to oxidative stress, inflammation, and proteotoxicity, which have yet to be ameliorated by pharmaceutical drugs with single targets. Natural products have been recognized for their health promoting effects for thousands of years. Plants produce a vast collection of secondary products, such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, and terpenes that have shown health benefits in a variety of conditions including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the search for more effective and safe treatment options for neurodegenerative diseases, several dietary sources of phytochemicals have been investigated. Historical usage in traditional medicine, along with modern research has identified several key products with potential benefits in neurodegenerative diseases. Among the dietary sources, cinnamon shows particular merit as a therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence suggesting neuroprotective effects via modulation of various risk factors relevant to neurodegeneration has been reviewed here. Industrial relevance. Cinnamon has been cherished for its health-promoting effects for thousands of years. Today, while modern medicine provides critical pharmaceutical agents that have assisted in ameliorating many diseases and extended the average lifespan significantly in the past century, these agents are associated with many side effects and expenses. As such, the search for efficient therapies with limited side effects is a significant target of research. Cinnamon, as a rich source of phytochemicals and long history in traditional medicine, has been a popular spice in recent decades for investigations elucidating its health-promoting effects. This review evaluates the therapeutic potential of cinnamon in ameliorating the risk factors responsible for the development

  13. Linkage disequilibrium analysis in young populations: Pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets and the founder effect in French Canadians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuda, M.; Glorieux, F.H. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada); Labuda, D.; Korab-Laskowska, M. [Universite de Montreal (Canada)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets (PDDR) was mapped close to D12S90 and between proximal D12S312 and distal (D12S305, D12S104) microsatellites that were subsequently found on a single YAC clone. Analysis of a complex haplotype in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the disease discriminated among distinct founder effects in French Canadian populations in Acadia and in Charlevoix-Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (Ch-SLSJ), as well as an earlier one in precolonial Europe. A simple demographic model suggested the historical age of the founder effect in Ch-SLSJ to be {approximately}12 generations. The corresponding LD data are consistent with this figure when they are analyzed within the framework of Luria-Delbruck model, which takes into account the population growth. Population sampling due to a limited number of first settlers and the rapid demographic expansion appear to have played a major role in the founding of PDDR in Ch-SLSJ and, presumably, other genetic disorders endemic to French Canada. Similarly, the founder effect in Ashkenazim, coinciding with their early settlement in medieval Poland and subsequent expansion eastward, could explain the origin of frequent genetic diseases in this population. 48 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. MEETING IN PORTUGAL: LINKAGE OF EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS USING GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS IN SMALL FISH MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    With an interdisciplinary team of scientists from U.S. Government Agencies and Universities, we are utilizing zebrafish and fathead minnow to develop techniques for extrapolation of chemical stressor impacts across species, chemicals and endpoints. The linkage of responses acros...

  15. The effective crystal field potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mulak, J

    2000-01-01

    As it results from the very nature of things, the spherical symmetry of the surrounding of a site in a crystal lattice or an atom in a molecule can never occur. Therefore, the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of any bound ion or atom have to differ from those of spherically symmetric respective free ions. In this way, the most simplified concept of the crystal field effect or ligand field effect in the case of individual molecules can be introduced. The conventional notion of the crystal field potential is narrowed to its non-spherical part only through ignoring the dominating spherical part which produces only a uniform energy shift of gravity centres of the free ion terms. It is well understood that the non-spherical part of the effective potential "seen" by open-shell electrons localized on a metal ion plays an essential role in most observed properties. Light adsorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering and basic characteristics derived from magnetic and thermal measurements, ar...

  16. The synthesis of alternating alpha,beta-oligodeoxyribonucleotides with alternating (3'-->3')- and (5'-->5')-internucleotic linkages as potential therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M; Geyer, S J; Regan, J B; Beaucage, S L

    1993-01-01

    A simplified synthesis of alpha-2'-deoxyribonucleoside derivatives has been developed and the solid-phase preparation of antisense alpha,beta-oligodeoxyribonucleotides with alternating (3'-->3')- and (5'-->5')-internucleotidic phosphodiester linkages, targeted against HIV-1 tat mRNA, has been accomplished. Hybridization properties of these oligonucleotide analogues have been investigated.

  17. Financial crisis, virtual carbon in global value chains, and the importance of linkage effects. The Spain-china case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Luis-Antonio; Arce, Guadalupe; Zafrilla, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Trade has a disproportionate environmental impact, while the international fragmentation of production promotes different patterns of intermediate inputs and final goods. Therefore, we split up the balance of domestic embodied emissions in trade (BDEET) to assess it. We find that Spain has a significant emissions deficit with China between 2005 and 2011. The Global Financial Crisis of 2008 reduced Spanish imports of pollution-intensive inputs from China and slightly improved the BDEET. China primarily exports indirect virtual carbon, representing 86% of the total, especially from Production of electricity, gas, and water sector. These linkages effects in China indicate that post-Kyoto agreements must focus not only on traded goods but also on the environmental efficiency of all domestic production chains. The methodology proposed allows us to identify the agents responsible for this trade in both Spain and China, namely the sectors importing intermediate inputs (Construction and Transport equipment) and industries and consumers importing final goods (Textiles, Other manufactures, Computers, and Machinery). The relevant sectors uncertainties found when we compare the results for BDEET and emissions embodied in bilateral trade (BEET) lead us to recommend the former methodology to evaluate the implications of environmental and energy policy for different industries and agents.

  18. Reaching across the Mekong: Local Socioeconomic and Gender Effects of Lao-Thai Crossborder Linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edgardo Gomez, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following trade agreements between ASEAN states, the expansion of cross-border roads and bridges between Laos and Thailand has linked local communities and distant markets in increasingly diverse ways. Although the planned impacts of such integration are expected to be beneficial, effects on the ground vary, as witnessed at a sleepy outpost in Xayabury and a more vibrant crossing in Savannakhet. This paper discusses first the physical setting of such border facilities, and then explores their actual local effects on traders’ activities, highlighting changes in gender roles and perceptions of entrepreneurial competition participated in by women in the two research sites.

  19. High Dams and Marine-Freshwater Linkages: Effects on Native and Introduced Fauna in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Yoshioka, Beverly Buchanan

    1998-01-01

    Caribbean streams are dominated by a shrimp and fish assemblage for which amphidromy (eggs or larvae carried to the ocean followed by migration of juveniles upriver) is suspected. Effects of dams on this assemblage are likely to demonstrate complex interactions as a function of reproductive strategy and type of dam structure. Our goals were to determine (1) whether high dams reduce or eliminate stream corridor permeability with respect to migration, (2) the extent to which permeability is a f...

  20. Reductions in Hard Drug Use Among Homeless Youth Receiving a Strength-Based Outreach Intervention: Comparing the Long-Term Effects of Shelter Linkage Versus Drop-in Center Linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha

    2017-06-07

    The current study sought to test hard drug use outcomes for youth receiving a strengths-based outreach and advocacy intervention that linked youth to either a shelter or a drop-in center. Homeless youth (14-24 years old) were engaged by research assistants (RAs) at soup kitchens, parks, libraries, and other locations that homeless youth were known to frequent. Youth were randomly assigned to receive six months of advocacy that focused on linking youth to a drop-in center (n = 40) or to a crisis shelter (n = 39). Follow-up assessments were conducted at 3, 6, and 9 months post-baseline. Hard drug use over time was the main outcome. Intervention condition and service connection were used as predictors for the baseline level and the slope of change in hard drug use over time. Data analysis was conducted with Bernoulli Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling in HLM7. The current study found that those who were in the drop-in linkage condition exhibited a greater reduction in their odds of using hard drugs during the follow-up points than their counterparts in the shelter linkage condition. And finally, those who utilized services more often during the follow-ups were those who exhibited less hard drug use at baseline and less reduction in their odds of using hard drugs. This study suggests that drop-in centers, which are often characterized by low-demand programming and few behavioral restrictions, are effective for addressing hard drug use among homeless youth.

  1. Status of effective potential calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Quiros, M.

    1995-01-01

    We review various effective potential methods which have been useful to compute the Higgs mass spectrum and couplings of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We compare results where all-loop next-to-leading-log corrections are resummed by the renormalization group, with those where just the leading-log corrections are kept. Pole masses are obtained from running masses by addition of convenient self-energy diagrams. Approximate analytical expressions are worked out, providing an excellent approximation to the numerical results which include all next-to-leading-log terms. An appropriate treatment of squark decoupling allows to consider large values of the stop and/or sbottom mixing parameters and thus fix a reliable upper bound on the mass of the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass.

  2. New concepts in air quality indices-linkage to health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagden, P.; Henderson, D. [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada

    2004-04-07

    The health effects of air pollution were discussed. Air pollution is responsible for thousands of mortalities and hospital admissions for cardiac and respiratory illnesses such as asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The air quality index is a communications tool that presents air quality information. It simplifies many measurements into a single unit scale with ranges and categories. Canada's current index structure is similar to that in the United States, with a slight difference in the category ranges which in Canada, are used to calculate a subindex for each pollutant. Recent improvements in the index structure include the provision for PM2.5, updated health messaging, and improved air quality forecasts. The air quality index is generally determined by either ozone or PM content. The advantages and disadvantages of the current index structure were also described along with a proposal for a health risk based index. The challenge of developing a risk based formula lies in the estimation of relative health risks, the selection of pollutants, and the fact that linear increase in risk does not yield simple categories. A national health risk based air quality index will require an agreement on health based formula, the ability to forecast multiple pollutants, cooperation with partners, and a well organized transition from old formats. 1 fig.

  3. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulekhani Sedwell Khanyile

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterised and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population’s genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n =146, Malawi (n =30 and Zimbabwe (n =136 were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29-0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK and 0.24 (VD at SNP marker interval of 500kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective population

  4. The genetic architecture of domestication in the chicken: effects of pleiotropy and linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D; Rubin, C-J; Martinez Barrio, A; Schütz, K; Kerje, S; Brändström, H; Kindmark, A; Jensen, P; Andersson, L

    2010-12-01

    The extent of pleiotropy and epistasis in quantitative traits remains equivocal. In the case of pleiotropy, multiple quantitative trait loci are often taken to be pleiotropic if their confidence intervals overlap, without formal statistical tests being used to ascertain if these overlapping loci are statistically significantly pleiotropic. Additionally, the degree to which the genetic correlations between phenotypic traits are reflected in these pleiotropic quantitative trait loci is often variable, especially in the case of antagonistic pleiotropy. Similarly, the extent of epistasis in various morphological, behavioural and life-history traits is also debated, with a general problem being the sample sizes required to detect such effects. Domestication involves a large number of trade-offs, which are reflected in numerous behavioural, morphological and life-history traits which have evolved as a consequence of adaptation to selective pressures exerted by humans and captivity. The comparison between wild and domestic animals allows the genetic analysis of the traits that differ between these population types, as well as being a general model of evolution. Using a large F(2) intercross between wild and domesticated chickens, in combination with a dense SNP and microsatellite marker map, both pleiotropy and epistasis were analysed. The majority of traits were found to segregate in 11 tight 'blocks' and reflected the trade-offs associated with domestication. These blocks were shown to have a pleiotropic 'core' surrounded by more loosely linked loci. In contrast, epistatic interactions were almost entirely absent, with only six pairs identified over all traits analysed. These results give insights both into the extent of such blocks in evolution and the development of domestication itself.

  5. Linkage-Based Frameworks for Sustainability Assessment: Making a Case for Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Veitch

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to discuss different approaches, identify challenges, and to select a framework for delivering effective sustainability assessments. Sustainable development is an idealistic concept and its assessment has always been a challenge. Several approaches, methodologies and conceptual frameworks have been developed in various disciplines, ranging from engineering to business and to policy making. The paper focuses mainly on various linkage-based frameworks and demonstrates that the driving force-state-exposure-effect-action (DPSEEA framework can be used to achieve sustained health benefits and environmental protection in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, especially because of its resemblance to the environmental risk assessment and management paradigms. The comparison of linkage-based frameworks is demonstrated through an example of sustainability in a higher educational institution.

  6. Aspects of record linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Marijn Paul

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an exploration of the subject of historical record linkage. The general goal of historical record linkage is to discover relations between historical entities in a database, for any specific definition of relation, entity and database. Although this task originates from historical

  7. Of River Linkage and Issue Linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, Jeroen Frank

    2016-01-01

    It is a truism in mainstream International Relations that issue linkage promotes regime formation and integration. The present article applies this idea to the transboundary lower river Meuse and finds its history of integration to be a tortuous one. Contextual political factors have at times

  8. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanyile, Khulekani S; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective

  9. Comparing linkage designs based on land facets to linkage designs based on focal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Brian M; Beier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5-16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches.

  10. Interactive Record Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to carry out demographic analyses at individual and group levels, a manual method of linking individual event records from parish registers was developed in the late 1950s. In order to save time and to work with larger areas than small parishes, systems for automatic record linkage were developed a couple of decades later. A third method, an interactive record linkage, named Demolink, has been developed even more recently. The main new feature of the method is the possibility of linking from more than two historical sources simultaneously. This improves the process of sorting out which events belong to which individual life courses. This paper discusses how Demolink was used for record linkage in a large Norwegian parish for the period 1801-1878.

  11. Potential Ergogenic Effects of Saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Rajabi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Crocus sativus, commonly known as saffron, is a rich source of carotenoids with many health benefits. The muscular strength, pulmonary function, and reaction time are vital to the athlete's performance, and this study aimed to investigate an ergogenic effect of saffron. Twenty-eight nonactive and healthy male university students were randomly assigned into the saffron (n = 14) and control (n = 15) groups. The experimental group received dried saffron stigma (300 mg/day for 10 days) and the control group received a placebo. After one session, familiarization with the tests, anthropometric parameters, visual and audio reaction times, and the maximum isometric and isotonic forces on a leg press machine were measured accordingly, 1 day before and after the supplementation period. This study shows that 10 days of supplementation with saffron significantly increased (10.1%) the isometric force (p saffron (increase in the forces) may contribute to increase in the muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and positive effect on the motor cortex, both of which may explain faster audio and visual reaction times. Saffron supplementation was also possibly responsible for improvement of muscle blood perfusion and facilitation in the oxygen transport.

  12. Identification of weak and gender specific effects in a short 3 weeks intervention study using barley and oat mixed linkage β-glucan dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimigno, Alessia; Khakimov, Bekzod; Castro Mejia, Josue Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mixed-linkage (1→3),(1→4)-β-d-glucans (BG) reduce cholesterol level and insulin response in humans. Despite this, their role in human metabolism and a mode of action remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of three structurally different BG on human fecal...... a dominating effect of inter-individual variances followed by a gender effect. Weak effects of BG intake were identified including an increased level of gamma-amino-butyrate and palmitoleic acid in males and a decreased level of enterolactone in females. Barley and oat derived BG were found to influence......, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study show that human fecal metabolome largely reflects individual (∼28% variation) and gender (∼15% variation) differences, whereas the treatment effect of the BG (∼8% variation) only manifests in a few key metabolites (primarily by the metabolites: d-2-aminobutyric acid...

  13. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-07-01

    Psilocybin and other 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist classic psychedelics have been used for centuries as sacraments within indigenous cultures. In the mid-twentieth century they were a focus within psychiatry as both probes of brain function and experimental therapeutics. By the late 1960s and early 1970s these scientific inquires fell out of favor because classic psychedelics were being used outside of medical research and in association with the emerging counter culture. However, in the twenty-first century, scientific interest in classic psychedelics has returned and grown as a result of several promising studies, validating earlier research. Here, we review therapeutic research on psilocybin, the classic psychedelic that has been the focus of most recent research. For mood and anxiety disorders, three controlled trials have suggested that psilocybin may decrease symptoms of depression and anxiety in the context of cancer-related psychiatric distress for at least 6 months following a single acute administration. A small, open-label study in patients with treatment-resistant depression showed reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms 3 months after two acute doses. For addiction, small, open-label pilot studies have shown promising success rates for both tobacco and alcohol addiction. Safety data from these various trials, which involve careful screening, preparation, monitoring, and follow-up, indicate the absence of severe drug-related adverse reactions. Modest drug-related adverse effects at the time of medication administration are readily managed. US federal funding has yet to support therapeutic psilocybin research, although such support will be important to thoroughly investigate efficacy, safety, and therapeutic mechanisms.

  14. A parametrized optimized effective potential for atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarsa, A; Galvez, F J; BuendIa, E [Departamento de FIsica Moderna, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2003-11-28

    The optimized effective potential equations for atoms have been solved by parametrizing the potential. The expansion is tailored to match the known asymptotic behaviour of the effective potential at both short and long distances. Both single configuration and multi-configuration trial wavefunctions are implemented. Applications to several atomic systems are presented, improving on previous works. The results obtained here are very close to those calculated in either the Hartree-Fock (HF) or the multi-configurational HF framework.

  15. Cosmopolitan linkage disequilibrium maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Jane

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linkage maps have been invaluable for the positional cloning of many genes involved in severe human diseases. Standard genetic linkage maps have been constructed for this purpose from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain and other panels, and have been widely used. Now that attention has shifted towards identifying genes predisposing to common disorders using linkage disequilibrium (LD and maps of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, it is of interest to consider a standard LD map which is somewhat analogous to the corresponding map for linkage. We have constructed and evaluated a cosmopolitan LD map by combining samples from a small number of populations using published data from a 10-megabase region on chromosome 20. In support of a pilot study, which examined a number of small genomic regions with a lower density of markers, we have found that a cosmopolitan map, which serves all populations when appropriately scaled, recovers 91 to 95 per cent of the information within population-specific maps. Recombination hot spots appear to have a dominant role in shaping patterns of LD. The success of the cosmopolitan map might be attributed to the co-localisation of hot spots in all populations. Although there must be finer scale differences between populations due to other processes (mutation, drift, selection, the results suggest that a whole-genome standard LD map would indeed be a useful resource for disease gene mapping.

  16. Effective potential in the BET formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Bessa, A; Fraga, E S; Gelis, F

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the one-loop effective potential at finite temperature for a system of massless scalar fields with quartic interaction $\\lambda\\phi^4$ in the framework of the boundary effective theory (BET) formalism. The calculation relies on the solution of the classical equation of motion for the field, and Gaussian fluctuations around it. Our result is non-perturbative and differs from the standard one-loop effective potential for field values larger than $T/\\sqrt{\\lambda}$.

  17. Invasive European bird cherry disrupts stream-riparian linkages: effects on terrestrial invertebrate prey subsidies for juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.; Blanchard, Arny L.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of invasive species in riparian forests has the potential to affect both terrestrial and aquatic organisms linked through cross-ecosystem resource subsidies. However, this potential had not been explored in regards to terrestrial prey subsidies for stream fishes. To address this, we examined the effects of an invasive riparian tree, European bird cherry (EBC, Prunus padus), spreading along urban Alaskan salmon streams, by collecting terrestrial invertebrates present on the foliage of riparian trees, their subsidies to streams, and their consumption by juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Riparian EBC supported four to six times less terrestrial invertebrate biomass on its foliage and contributed two to three times lower subsidies relative to native deciduous trees. This reduction in terrestrial invertebrate biomass was consistent between two watersheds over 2 years. In spite of this reduction in terrestrial prey resource input, juvenile coho salmon consumed similar levels of terrestrial invertebrates in stream reaches bordered by EBC. Although we did not see ecological effects extending to stream salmonids, reduced terrestrial prey subsidies to streams are likely to have negative consequences as EBC continues to spread.

  18. From Enclave to Linkage Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    and local enterprises by themselves will indeed produce linkages, the scope, depth and development impacts of linkages eventually depend on government intervention. Resource-rich African countries’ governments are aware of this and linkage promotion is increasingly becoming a key element...

  19. Two Loop Effective Kähler Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Nyawelo, T S; Nyawelo, Tino S.; Nibbelink, Stefan Groot

    2007-01-01

    In this talk we study the renormalization of the effective Kaehler potential at one and two loops for general four dimensional (non--renormalizable) N=1 supersymmetric theories described by arbitrary Kaehler potential, superpotential and gauge kinetic function. We consider the Wess-Zumino model as an example.

  20. Potential Health Effects from Groundwater Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the growing awareness of potential toxicological effects of synthetic organic chemicals contaminating groundwater. Problems concerning pesticides, chlorination, epidemiologic studies, cancer, nephrotoxicity, and considerations of risk are addressed. Additional research in this area is advocated. (DH)

  1. Potential environmental effects of controlled thermonuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) the fusion reaction, (2) approach to the environmental analysis, (3) the reference CTR, (4) CTR environmental effects, (5) CTR accident potential, and (6) the advanced CTR. (MOW)

  2. Linkage to HIV care after home-based HIV counselling and testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzagira, Eugene; Baisley, Kathy; Kamali, Anatoli; Biraro, Samuel; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2017-07-01

    Home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) has the potential to increase HIV testing uptake in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but data on linkage to HIV care after HBHCT are scarce. We conducted a systematic review of linkage to care after HBHCT in SSA. Five databases were searched for studies published between 1st January 2000 and 19th August 2016 that reported on linkage to care among adults newly identified with HIV infection through HBHCT. Eligible studies were reviewed, assessed for risk of bias and findings summarised using the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 14 studies from six countries met the eligibility criteria; nine used specific strategies (point-of-care CD4 count testing, follow-up counselling, provision of transport funds to clinic and counsellor facilitation of HIV clinic visit) in addition to routine referral to facilitate linkage to care. Time intervals for ascertaining linkage ranged from 1 week to 12 months post-HBHCT. Linkage ranged from 8.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.8-9.8%] to 99.1% (95% CI, 96.9-99.9%). Linkage was generally lower (80%) if additional strategies were used. Only one study assessed linkage by means of a randomised trial. Five studies had data on cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis and 12 on ART eligibility and initiation. CTX uptake among those eligible ranged from 0% to 100%. The proportion of persons eligible for ART ranged from 16.5% (95% CI, 12.1-21.8) to 77.8% (95% CI, 40.0-97.2). ART initiation among those eligible ranged from 14.3% (95% CI, 0.36-57.9%) to 94.9% (95% CI, 91.3-97.4%). Additional linkage strategies, whilst seeming to increase linkage, were not associated with higher uptake of CTX and/or ART. Most of the studies were susceptible to risk of outcome ascertainment bias. A pooled analysis was not performed because of heterogeneity across studies with regard to design, setting and the key variable definitions. Only few studies from SSA investigated linkage to care among adults newly diagnosed with HIV through

  3. Effective Potential in Noncommutative BTZ Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Jafar; Shajiee, Vahid Reza

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigated the noncommutative rotating BTZ black hole and showed that such a space-time is not maximally symmetric. We calculated effective potential for the massive and the massless test particle by geodesic equations, also we showed effect of non-commutativity on the minimum mass of BTZ black hole.

  4. Elite capture and the development of natural resource linkages in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Monjane, Celso Marcos

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores from a political economy perspective, the broader processes of fairness in natural resource governance focusing on linkage creation in Mozambique related to mega-projects in natural resource extraction. From a resource fairness perspective, linkage creation is essential...... as it allows for a more fair distribution of opportunities for local firms to gain from large-scale natural resource investments and for learning and spillover effects to other parts of the economy. In a longer term perspective, it is a potential key source of economic transformation towards higher value added...

  5. Evaluation of potential reaction mechanisms leading to the formation of coniferyl alcohol α-linkages in lignin: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heath D; Mohamed, Mohamed Naseer Ali; Kubicki, James D

    2011-12-21

    Five potential reaction mechanisms, each leading to the formation of an α-O-4-linked coniferyl alcohol dimer, and one scheme leading to the formation of a recently proposed free-radical coniferyl alcohol trimer were assessed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. These potential reaction mechanisms were evaluated using both the calculated Gibbs free energies, to predict the spontaneity of the constituent reactions, and the electron-density mapped Fukui function, to determine the most reactive sites of each intermediate species. The results indicate that each reaction in one of the six mechanisms is thermodynamically favorable to those in the other mechanisms; what is more, the Fukui function for each free radical intermediate corroborates with the thermochemical results for this mechanism. This mechanism proceeds via the formation of two distinct free-radical intermediates, which then react to produce the four α-O-4 stereoisomers.

  6. Increased nucleotide diversity with transient Y linkage in Drosophila americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant F McAllister

    Full Text Available Recombination shapes nucleotide variation within genomes. Patterns are thought to arise from the local recombination landscape, influencing the degree to which neutral variation experiences hitchhiking with selected variation. This study examines DNA polymorphism along Chromosome 4 (element B of Drosophila americana to identify effects of hitchhiking arising as a consequence of Y-linked transmission. A centromeric fusion between the X and 4(th chromosomes segregates in natural populations of D. americana. Frequency of the X-4 fusion exhibits a strong positive correlation with latitude, which has explicit consequences for unfused 4(th chromosomes. Unfused Chromosome 4 exists as a non-recombining Y chromosome or as an autosome proportional to the frequency of the X-4 fusion. Furthermore, Y linkage along the unfused 4 is disrupted as a function of the rate of recombination with the centromere. Inter-population and intra-chromosomal patterns of nucleotide diversity were assayed using six regions distributed along unfused 4(th chromosomes derived from populations with different frequencies of the X-4 fusion. No difference in overall level of nucleotide diversity was detected among populations, yet variation along the chromosome exhibits a distinct pattern in relation to the X-4 fusion. Sequence diversity is inflated at loci experiencing the strongest Y linkage. These findings are inconsistent with the expected reduction in nucleotide diversity resulting from hitchhiking due to background selection or selective sweeps. In contrast, excessive polymorphism is accruing in association with transient Y linkage, and furthermore, hitchhiking with sexually antagonistic alleles is potentially responsible.

  7. Potential for the Australian and New Zealand paediatric intensive care registry to enhance acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Australia: a data-linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    Hobday, Linda K; Thorley, Bruce R; Alexander, Janet; Aitken, Thomas; Peter D Massey; Cretikos, Michelle; Slater, Anthony; DURRHEIM, DAVID N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Australia uses acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance to monitor its polio-free status. The World Health Organization criterion for a sensitive AFP surveillance system is the annual detection of at least one non-polio AFP case per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years, a target Australia has not consistently achieved. Children exhibiting AFP are likely to be hospitalised and may be admitted to an intensive care unit. This provides a potential opportunity for active AFP surve...

  8. A generalization of Kempe's linkages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO De-can; LUO Yao-zhi; YOU Zhong

    2007-01-01

    A new, general type of planar linkages is presented, which extends the classical linkages developed by Kempe consisting of two single-looped kinematic chains of linkages, interconnected by revolute hinges. Together with a locking device, these new linkages have only one degree of freedom (DOF), which makes them ideal for serving as deployable structures for different purposes. Here, we start with a fresh matrix method of analysis for double-loop planar linkages, using 2D transformation matrices and a new symbolic notation. Further inspection for one case of Kempe's linkages is provided. Basing on the inspection, by means of some novel algebraic and geometric techniques, one particularly fascinating solution was found. Physical models were built to show that the derivation in this paper is valid and the new mechanisms are correct.

  9. Effective potential in density matrix functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Amovilli, C

    2004-10-01

    In the previous paper it was shown that in the ground state the diagonal of the spin independent second-order density matrix n can be determined by solving a single auxiliary equation of a two-particle problem. Thus the problem of an arbitrary system with even electrons can be reduced to a two-particle problem. The effective potential of the two-particle equation contains a term v(p) of completely kinetic origin. Virial theorem and hierarchy of equations are derived for v(p) and simple approximations are proposed. A relationship between the effective potential u(p) of the shape function equation and the potential v(p) is established.

  10. Distinct Bacterial Communities Associated with Massive and Branching Scleractinian Corals and Potential Linkages to Coral Susceptibility to Thermal or Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayuan Liang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that different coral species have different tolerances to thermal or cold stress, which is presumed to be related to the density of Symbiodinium. However, the intrinsic factors between stress-tolerant characteristics and coral-associated bacteria are rarely studied. In this study, 16 massive coral and 9 branching coral colonies from 6 families, 10 genera, and 18 species were collected at the same time and location (Xinyi Reef in the South China Sea to investigate the bacterial communities. The results of an alpha diversity analysis showed that bacterial diversities associated with massive corals were generally higher than those with branching corals at different taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, and so on. In addition, hierarchical clustering tree and PCoA analyses showed that coral species were clustered into two large groups according to the similarity of bacterial communities. Group I consisted of massive Goniastrea, Plesiastrea, Leptastrea, Platygyra, Echinopora, Porites, and Leptoria, and group II consisted of branching Acropora and Pocillopora. These findings suggested that both massive corals and branching corals have their own preference for the choice of associated bacteria, which may be involved in observed differences in thermal/cold tolerances. Further analysis found that 55 bacterial phyla, including 43 formally described phyla and 12 candidate phyla, were detected in these coral species. Among them, 52 phyla were recovered from the massive coral group, and 46 phyla were recovered from the branching coral group. Formally described coral pathogens have not been detected in these coral species, suggesting that they are less likely to be threatened by disease in this geographic area. This study highlights a clear relationship between the high complexity of bacterial community associated with coral, skeletal morphology of coral and potentially tolerances to thermal or cold stress.

  11. The Stark effect in linear potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, R W [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: rick@phys.psu.edu

    2010-01-15

    We examine the Stark effect (the second-order shifts in the energy spectrum due to an external constant force) for two one-dimensional model quantum mechanical systems described by linear potentials, the so-called quantum bouncer (defined by V(z) = Fz for z > 0 and V(z) = {infinity} for z < 0) and the symmetric linear potential (given by V(z) = F|z|). We show how straightforward use of the most obvious properties of the Airy function solutions and simple Taylor expansions gives closed form results for the Stark shifts in both systems. These exact results are then compared to other approximation techniques, such as perturbation theory and WKB methods. These expressions add to the small number of closed-form descriptions available for the Stark effect in model quantum mechanical systems.

  12. The Stark effect in linear potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Robinett, R W

    2009-01-01

    We examine the Stark effect (the second-order shift in the energy spectrum due to an external constant force) for two 1-dimensional model quantum mechanical systems described by linear potentials, the so-called quantum bouncer (defined by V(z) = Fz for z>0 and V(z) infinite for z<0) and the symmetric linear potential (given by V(z) = F|z|). We show how straightforward use of the most obvious properties of the Airy function solutions and simple Taylor expansions give closed form results for the Stark shifts in both systems. These exact results are then compared to other approximation techniques, such as perturbation theory and WKB methods. These expressions add to the small number of closed-form descriptions available for the Stark effect in model quantum mechanical systems.

  13. A Formalization of Linkage Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Christensen, A.I.; Hansen, Jens A.

    In this report a formalization of genetic linkage analysis is introduced. Linkage analysis is a computationally hard biomathematical method, which purpose is to locate genes on the human genome. It is rooted in the new area of bioinformatics and no formalization of the method has previously been ...

  14. A Formalization of Linkage Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Christensen, A.I.; Hansen, Jens A.

    In this report a formalization of genetic linkage analysis is introduced. Linkage analysis is a computationally hard biomathematical method, which purpose is to locate genes on the human genome. It is rooted in the new area of bioinformatics and no formalization of the method has previously been...

  15. The Stark Effect in Linear Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, R. W.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the Stark effect (the second-order shifts in the energy spectrum due to an external constant force) for two one-dimensional model quantum mechanical systems described by linear potentials, the so-called quantum bouncer (defined by V(z) = Fz for z greater than 0 and V(z) = [infinity] for z less than 0) and the symmetric linear potential…

  16. Effective Depletion Potential of Colloidal Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-Hua; MA Hong-Ru

    2004-01-01

    @@ A new semianalytical method, which is a combination of the density functional theory with Rosenfeld density functional and the Ornstein-Zernike equation, is proposed for the calculation of the effective depletion potentials between a pair of big spheres immersed in a small hard sphere fluid. The calculated results are almost identical to the integral equation method with the Percus-Yevick approximation, and are also in agreement well with the Monte Carlo simulation results.

  17. Using linkage models to explore skull kinematic diversity and functional convergence in arthrodire placoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Philip S L

    2010-08-01

    Biomechanical models offer a powerful set of tools for quantifying the diversity of function across fossil taxa. A computer-based four-bar linkage model previously developed to describe the potential feeding kinematics of Dunkleosteus terrelli is applied here to several other arthrodire placoderm taxa from different lineages. Arthrodire placoderms are a group of basal gnathostomes showing one of the earliest diversifications of jaw structures. The linkage model allows biomechanical variation to be compared across taxa, identify trends in skull morphology among arthrodires that potentially influence function and explore the role of linkage systems in the early evolution of jaw structures. The linkage model calculates various kinematic metrics including gape angle, effective mechanical advantage, and kinematic transmission coefficients. Results indicate that the arthrodire feeding system may be more diverse and complex than previously thought. A range of potential kinematic profiles among arthrodire taxa illustrate a diversity of feeding function comparable with modern teleost fishes. Previous estimates of bite force in Dunkleosteus are revised based on new morphological data. High levels of kinematic transmission among arthrodires suggest the potential for rapid gape expansion and possible suction feeding. Morphological comparisons indicate that there were several morphological solutions for obtaining these fast kinematics, which allowed different taxa to achieve similar kinematic profiles while varying other aspects of the feeding apparatus. Mapping of key morphological components of the linkage system on a general placoderm phylogeny illustrates the potential importance of four-bar systems to the early evolution of jaw structures. J. Morphol. 271:990-1005, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Taming Infrared Divergences in the Effective Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Elias-Miro, J; Konstandin, T

    2014-01-01

    The Higgs effective potential in the Standard Model (SM), calculated perturbatively, generically suffers from infrared (IR) divergences when the (field-dependent) tree-level mass of the Goldstone bosons goes to zero. Such divergences can affect both the potential and its first derivative and become worse with increasing loop order. In this paper we show that these IR divergences are spurious, we perform a simple resummation of all IR-problematic terms known (up to three loops) and explain how to extend the resummation to cure all such divergences to any order. The method is of general applicability and would work in scenarios other than the SM. Our discussion has some bearing on a scenario recently proposed as a mechanism for gauge mediation of scale breaking in the ultraviolet, in which it is claimed that the low-energy Higgs potential is non-standard. We argue that all non-decoupling effects from the heavy sector can be absorbed in the renormalization of low-energy parameters leading to a SM-like effective ...

  19. Could piracetam potentiate behavioural effects of psychostimulants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slais, Karel; Machalova, Alena; Landa, Leos; Vrskova, Dagmar; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Press and internet reports mention abuse of nootropic drug piracetam (PIR) in combination with psychostimulants methamphetamine (MET) or 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These combinations are believed to produce more profound desirable effects, while decreasing hangover. However, there is a lack of valid experimental studies on such drug-drug interactions in the scientific literature available. Our hypothesis proposes that a functional interaction exists between PIR and amphetamine psychostimulants (MET and MDMA) which can potentiate psychostimulant behavioural effects. Our hypothesis is supported by the results of our pilot experiment testing acute effects of drugs given to mice intraperitoneally (Vehicle, n=12; MET 2.5mg/kg, n=10; MDMA 2.5mg/kg, n=11; PIR 300 mg/kg, n=12; PIR+MET, n=12; PIR+MDMA, n=11) in the Open Field Test (Actitrack, Panlab, Spain). PIR given alone caused no significant changes in mouse locomotor/exploratory behaviour, whereas the same dose combined with either MET or MDMA significantly enhanced their stimulatory effects. Different possible neurobiological mechanism underlying drug-drug interaction of PIR with MET or MDMA are discussed, as modulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic brain systems. However, the interaction with membrane phospholipids seems as the most plausible mechanism explaining PIR action on activities of neurotransmitter systems. Despite that our behavioural experiment cannot serve for explanation of the pharmacological mechanisms of these functional interactions, it shows that PIR effects can increase behavioural stimulation of amphetamine drugs. Thus, the reported combining of PIR with MET or MDMA by human abusers is not perhaps a coincidental phenomenon and may be based on existing PIR potential to intensify acute psychostimulant effects of these drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Groebner bases via linkage

    CERN Document Server

    Gorla, Elisa; Nagel, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give a sufficient condition for a set $\\mathal G$ of polynomials to be a Gr\\"obner basis with respect to a given term-order for the ideal $I$ that it generates. Our criterion depends on the linkage pattern of the ideal $I$ and of the ideal generated by the initial terms of the elements of $\\mathcal G$. We then apply this criterion to ideals generated by minors and pfaffians. More precisely, we consider large families of ideals generated by minors or pfaffians in a matrix or a ladder, where the size of the minors or pfaffians is allowed to vary in different regions of the matrix or the ladder. We use the sufficient condition that we established to prove that the minors or pfaffians form a reduced Gr\\"obner basis for the ideal that they generate, with respect to any diagonal or anti-diagonal term-order. We also show that the corresponding initial ideal is Cohen-Macaulay. Our proof relies on known results in liaison theory, combined with a simple Hilbert function computation. In particular, our...

  1. Effective potential evaluations in a modified PQCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabo Montes de Oca, A.; Martinez-Pedrera, D. [International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, Group of Theoretical Physics, La Habana (Cuba)

    2006-08-15

    A procedure discussed in a previous work for properly defining the Feynman diagrams at any number of loops in a modified version of PQCD, is employed here to evaluate some zero- and one-loop corrections to the effective potential, as functions of the gluon and quark condensate parameters. The calculated terms indicate an instability of massless QCD under the development of quark condensates even in the absence of the gluon one. Therefore, a mechanism is suggested for the dynamical generation of quark masses and condensates. The absence of indications coming from lattice calculations to this possibility could be determined by the current limitations in treating fermion determinants. (orig.)

  2. Summary report on the project to develop recommendations on effective linkages between state IRP, facility siting and regional transmission planning in a competitive environment. Final report, May 24, 1994--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This project, which began on May 1, 1994, was designed to: improve the understanding of the types of linkages (or lack of linkages) between utility-specific IRP, state facility siting, and regional transmission planning given (1) the current level of competition, (2) increased generation competition, and (3) retail competition; identify opportunities to better coordinate utility-specific IRP and state facility siting with regional transmission planning, including better regional market and transmission planning information for utility-specific plans; and improve the understanding of the influence of competition on utility-specific IRP in terms of planning objectives, planning process, plan implementation and plan output, and identify potential changes to utility-specific IRP to allow IRP to meet planning objectives in a competitive environment.

  3. Effect of different price indices on linkage between real GDP growth and real minimum wage growth in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Sunal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of Turkish CPI as a price deflator is questionable especially when it comes to calculating real minimum wages. In this study we investigate the effect of different price indices on the relation between real GDP growth rates and real minimum wage growth rates by using a Granger causality analysis framework using VAR based granger causality tests. Result reveals that there is no causality between real minimu wage growth rates and real GDP growth rates in both directions. We also find a biderectional Granger causality between nominal minimum wage growth rates and COLI (an alternative price indice growth rates. The results also showed that in line with our assumptions when an alternative deflator is used, the causality relations significantly differes.

  4. Proximity effect on the general base catalysed hydrolysis of amide linkage: The role of cationic surfactant, CTABr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarat C Dash; Anadi C Dash

    2011-07-01

    The bis phenoxide forms of (1,2)bis(2-hydroxybenzamido)ethane(I), (1,5)bis(2-hydroxybenzamido) 3-azapentane(II), (1,3)bis(2-hydroxybenzamido)propane(III), and (1,8)bis(2-hydroxybenzamido)3,6-diazaoctane(IV) undergo facile hydrolysis of one of the amide groups (0.02 ≤ [OH−] (mol dm-3) ≤ 0.5, 10% MeOH (v/v) + H2O medium) without exhibiting [OH−] dependence. The reactivity trend follows I ∼ II > > III ∼ IV with low activation enthalpy {25.7 ± 2.8 ≤ H≠(kJ mol-1) $≤ 64.8 ± 7.0}). The high negative and comparable values of activation entropy {-234 ± 8 ≤ S≠}(J K-1 mol-1) ≤ −127 ± 20} are consistent with closely similar, and ordered transition states which can be assembled by favourably oriented phenoxide groups. The solvent kinetic isotope effect for I, H2O/D2O+H2O ∼ 1 (20 and 50 volume% D2O), indicates that proton transfer is not involved as a part of the rate controlling process. The observed slowing down of the rate of this reaction for I in the micellar pseudo phase of CTABr also supports the proposed mechanism. Under premicellar conditions, however, rate acceleration is observed, a consequence believed to be associated with the capping effect of the hydrophobic tail of the surfactant cation forming the reactive ion-pair, CTA+, (I-2H)2− exclusively in the aqueous pseudo phase.

  5. Sex-linkage of sexually antagonistic genes is predicted by female, but not male, effects in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mank, Judith E; Ellegren, Hans

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that sexually antagonistic loci will be preferentially sex-linked, and this association can be empirically testes with data on sex-biased gene expression with the assumption that sex-biased gene expression represents the resolution of past sexual antagonism. However, incomplete dosage compensating mechanisms and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation have hampered efforts to connect expression data to theoretical predictions regarding the genomic distribution of sexually antagonistic loci in a variety of animals. Here we use data on the underlying regulatory mechanism that produce expression sex-bias to test the genomic distribution of sexually antagonistic genes in chicken. Using this approach, which is free from problems associated with the lack of dosage compensation in birds, we show that female-detriment genes are significantly overrepresented on the Z chromosome, and female-benefit genes underrepresented. By contrast, male-effect genes show no over- or underrepresentation on the Z chromosome. These data are consistent with a dominant mode of inheritance for sexually antagonistic genes, in which male-benefit coding mutations are more likely to be fixed on the Z due to stronger male-specific selective pressures. After fixation of male-benefit alleles, regulatory changes in females evolve to minimize antagonism by reducing female expression.

  6. The first-generation Daphnia magna linkage map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Meester Luc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daphnia magna is a well-established model species in ecotoxicology, ecology and evolution. Several new genomics tools are presently under development for this species; among them, a linkage map is a first requirement for estimating the genetic background of phenotypic traits in quantitative trait loci (QTL studies and is also very useful in assembling the genome. It also enables comparative studies between D. magna and D. pulex, for which a linkage map already exists. Results Here we describe the first genetic linkage map of D. magna. We generated 214 F2 (intercross clonal lines as the foundation of the linkage analysis. The linkage map itself is based on 109 microsatellite markers, which produced ten major linkage groups ranging in size from 31.1 cM to 288.5 cM. The total size of this linkage map extends to 1211.6 Kosambi cM, and the average interval for the markers within linkage groups is 15.1 cM. The F2 clones can be used to map QTLs for traits that differ between the parental clones. We successfully mapped the location of two loci with infertility alleles, one inherited from the paternal clone (Iinb1 and the other from the maternal clone (Xinb3. Conclusions The D. magna linkage map presented here provides extensive coverage of the genome and a given density of markers that enable us to detect QTLs of moderate to strong effects. It is similar in size to the linkage map of D. pulex.

  7. ANALYSIS OF INTER SECTORAL LINKAGES IN SEMARANG REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafurida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze inter economic sectoral linkages and to arrange the Klassen typology of economic sectors in Semarang Regency. The Klassen typology is composed from the result of the linkage analysis. To construct the analysis, this paper also utulizes the input-output analysis. It finds that service sector has the highest backward linkage while farming sector has the highest forward linkage. Based on the Klassen typology analysis, sectors with the highest backward and forward linkages and potential to be the leading sector are farming sector, dan trade, hotel and restaurant sector.Keywords: Backward linkage,forward linkage, Klassen typologyJEL classification number: R15, O21AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji seberapa besar keterkaitan antar sektor ekonomi di Kabupaten Semarang dan memetakan tipologi Klassennya. Tipologi Klasen disusun berdasarkan hasil perhitungan analisis keterkaitannya. Untuk menyusun analisis tersebut, paper ini juga menggunakan analisis input-output. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sektor jasa memiliki keterkaitan ke belakang tertinggi dibandingkan dengan sektor lainnya. Sementara itu, sektor pertanian merupakan sektor yang memiliki keterkaitan ke depan tertinggi. Berdasarkan hasil analisis tipologi Klassen, sektor yang memiliki keterkaitan ke depan dan ke belakang yang tinggi dan dapat menjadi sektor unggulan adalah sektor perdagangan, hotel dan sektor restoran.Kata kunci: Keterkaitan ke belakang, keterkaitan ke depan, tipologi KlassenJEL classification numbers: R15, O21

  8. Emergency Linkage Mode of Power Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power emergency disposal needs take full advantage of the power enterprise within the external emergency power and resources. Based on analyzing and summarizing the relevant experience of domestic and foreign emergency linkage, this paper draws the Emergency Linkage subjects, Emergency Linkage contents, Emergency Linkage level, which are three key elements if power enterprise Emergency Linkage. Emergency Linkage subjects are divided into the two types of inner subjects and the external body; Emergency Linkage contents are in accordance with four phases of prevention, preparedness, response and recovery; Emergency Linkage level is divided into three levels of enterprise headquarter, provincial enterprise and incident unite. Binding power enterprise emergency management practice, this paper studies the internal Emergency Linkage modes (including horizontal mode and vertical mode, external Emergency Linkage mode and comprehensive Emergency Linkage Mode of power enterprise based on Fishbone Diagram and Process Management Technology.

  9. STAKEHOLDER LINKAGES FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    stakeholder interactions for SLM in the study areas. Key words: Stakeholders; farmer-expert linkages; resource management; Ethiopia ... management practices in many parts of Africa. Farmers .... chosen with consideration of distance to the.

  10. Linkage effects to nonlinear optical properties of porphyrin-appended mixed (porphyrinato)(phthalocyaninato) yttrium(III) double-decker complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Xianyao; Yan, Xingzhong; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2011-10-01

    Third-order nonlinear optical properties of three isomeric tetrapyrrole triads, i.e. mixed (porphyrinato)(phthalocyaninato) yttrium double-decker complexes appended with one metal free porphyrin chromophore at the para, meta, and orthoposition, respectively, of one meso-phenyl group of the porphyrin ligand in the double-decker unit through ester linkage, 3-5, were comparatively investigated along with the model compounds metal free meso-tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl) porphyrin H2TBPP (1) and mixed [meso-tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrinato] [1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(butyloxyl)phthalocyaninato] yttrium double-decker complex YIIIH(TBPP) [Pc(α-OC4H9)8] (2) by using Z-scan technique with the fundamental (800 nm) laser emission from a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser system. Strong reverse saturable absorption (RSA) properties of complexes 2-5 were observed. Interestingly, under highly intense irradiation, an RSA-SA-RSA-SA-RSA switch behavior was evolved in the tight focal intensity regime on the Z-scan profiles of complexes 3-5. Under the laser irradiation with focal intensity of 7.48-8.39 GW.cm-2, the triads 3 and 4 with the metal free porphyrin chromophore appended at the para or meta positions of the meso-phenyl group of the porphyrin ligand in the double-decker unit retained a characteristic response of RSA. In contrast, the triad 5 with the metal free porphyrin chromophore appended at the ortho position has already shown a trend of SA peaks at the same intensity range, revealing the effect of the position of porphyrin-substituent on the nonlinear optical properties of the triads.

  11. Influence of genotyping error in linkage mapping for complex traits – an analytic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the current trend towards large epidemiological studies of unrelated individuals, linkage studies in families are still thoroughly being utilized as tools for disease gene mapping. The use of the single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNP array technology in genotyping of family data has the potential to provide more informative linkage data. Nevertheless, SNP array data are not immune to genotyping error which, as has been suggested in the past, could dramatically affect the evidence for linkage especially in selective designs such as affected sib pair (ASP designs. The influence of genotyping error on selective designs for continuous traits has not been assessed yet. Results We use the identity-by-descent (IBD regression-based paradigm for linkage testing to analytically quantify the effect of simple genotyping error models under specific selection schemes for sibling pairs. We show, for example, that in extremely concordant (EC designs, genotyping error leads to decreased power whereas it leads to increased type I error in extremely discordant (ED designs. Perhaps surprisingly, the effect of genotyping error on inference is most severe in designs where selection is least extreme. We suggest a genomic control for genotyping errors via a simple modification of the intercept in the regression for linkage. Conclusion This study extends earlier findings: genotyping error can substantially affect type I error and power in selective designs for continuous traits. Designs involving both EC and ED sib pairs are fairly immune to genotyping error. When those designs are not feasible the simple genomic control strategy that we suggest offers the potential to deliver more robust inference, especially if genotyping is carried out by SNP array technology.

  12. Pneumococcal vaccination may induce anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies that have potentially protective effects against cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, B; Hansbro, P; Thambar, S; McEvoy, M; Peel, R; Attia, J

    2012-06-08

    Many animal and human studies have found an inverse association between anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) antibodies (anti-oxLDL) and atherosclerotic burden. Furthermore, anti-oxLDL antibodies have been shown to cause regression of atherosclerotic plaque in mice. Animal studies indicate that the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine may induce the production of these potentially protective anti-oxLDL antibodies, and human epidemiological studies support their potentially beneficial effect in reducing cardiovascular events. Here we describe the association between self-reported pneumococcal vaccination, vaccination verified by linkage to health records, and anti-pneumococcal antibody titers, and anti-ox-LDL titers in a group of 116 older people. We found a bimodal distribution of anti-oxLDL antibodies, and a significant association between pneumococcal IgG and anti-oxLDL antibody titers that remained after multivariate adjustment for potential confounders (p=0.04). There was no significant association between self-reported vaccination or vaccination verified by health record linkage and ox-LDL titers, which may be due to reporting error or variability in response to the vaccine. These results support a mechanistic link between pneumococcal vaccination and a potential protective effect on cardiovascular disease, and indicate that self-reported or verified vaccine status may not be sufficient to detect this association. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  14. A Conservative Meta-Analysis of Linkage and Linkage-Association Studies of Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2005-01-01

    Linkage studies of complex phenotypes such as reading ability/disability (developmental dyslexia or reading disorder) and related componential processes, where the effects attributable to individual genes appear to be modest, are critically dependent on the nature and composition of the samples and the phenotypes analyzed. Thus, it might be…

  15. Kinematic and Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of Bennett’ s Linkage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng Li

    2015-01-01

    Bennett’ s linkage is a spatial fourlink linkage, and has an extensive application prospect in the deployable linkages.Its kinematic and dynamic characteristics analysis has a great significance in its synthesis and application. According to the geometrical conditions of Bennett ’ s linkage, the motion equations are established,and the expressions of angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration of the followers and the displacement, velocity and acceleration of mass center of link are shown. Based on Lagrange’ s equation, the multi⁃rigid⁃body dynamic model of Bennett’ s linkage is established. In order to solve the reaction forces and moments of joint, screw theory and reciprocal screw method are combined to establish the computing method.The number of equations and unknown reaction forces and moments of joint are equal through adding link deformation equations. The influence of the included angle of adjacent axes on Bennett ’ s linkage ’ s kinematic characteristics, the dynamic characteristics and the reaction forces and moments of joint are analyzed. Results show that the included angle of adjacent axes has a great effect on velocity, acceleration, the reaction forces and moments of Bennett’ s linkage. The change of reaction forces and moments of joint are apparent near the singularity configuration.

  16. Effective field theory approaches for tensor potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Maximilian

    2016-11-14

    Effective field theories are a widely used tool to study physical systems at low energies. We apply them to systematically analyze two and three particles interacting via tensor potentials. Two examples are addressed: pion interactions for anti D{sup 0}D{sup *0} scattering to dynamically generate the X(3872) and dipole interactions for two and three bosons at low energies. For the former, the one-pion exchange and for the latter, the long-range dipole force induce a tensor-like structure of the potential. We apply perturbative as well as non-perturbative methods to determine low-energy observables. The X(3872) is of major interest in modern high-energy physics. Its exotic characteristics require approaches outside the range of the quark model for baryons and mesons. Effective field theories represent such methods and provide access to its peculiar nature. We interpret the X(3872) as a hadronic molecule consisting of neutral D and D{sup *} mesons. It is possible to apply an effective field theory with perturbative pions. Within this framework, we address chiral as well as finite volume extrapolations for low-energy observables, such as the binding energy and the scattering length. We show that the two-point correlation function for the D{sup *0} meson has to be resummed to cure infrared divergences. Moreover, next-to-leading order coupling constants, which were introduced by power counting arguments, appear to be essential to renormalize the scattering amplitude. The binding energy as well as the scattering length display a moderate dependence on the light quark masses. The X(3872) is most likely deeper bound for large light quark masses. In a finite volume on the other hand, the binding energy significantly increases. The dependence on the light quark masses and the volume size can be simultaneously obtained. For bosonic dipoles we apply a non-perturbative, numerical approach. We solve the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the two-dipole system and the Faddeev

  17. Method to eliminate flux linkage DC component in load transformer for static transfer switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Mao, Chengxiong; Lu, Jiming; Wang, Dan; Tian, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2 ~ 30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method.

  18. Method to Eliminate Flux Linkage DC Component in Load Transformer for Static Transfer Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2~30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method.

  19. Physiological linkage in couples and its implications for individual and interpersonal functioning: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Adela C; Margolin, Gayla; Saxbe, Darby E

    2015-10-01

    Do partners' levels of physiological arousal become linked in close relationships? The term physiological linkage describes covariation between people in their moment-to-moment physiological states. The current review presents a conceptual framework to guide research on linkage in romantic relationships and discusses the potential implications of being linked. Evidence of linkage was found across a broad range of physiological indices and in a variety of contexts, including during laboratory-based conflict and in daily life. Four hypotheses regarding how linkage relates to individual and interpersonal functioning are evaluated: (a) coactivation of the sympathetic nervous system or the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis is "bad," (b) moderate physiological linkage is "just right," (c) physiological linkage is problematic if the individual or couple is overloaded, and (d) the implications of physiological linkage depend on the emotional context. We found partial support for the first hypothesis and determined that more research is needed to evaluate the remaining hypotheses. Linkage in cortisol was negatively associated with relationship satisfaction; but, at the same time, linkage in multiple systems was positively associated with indices of relationship connectedness, such as the amount of time spent together and the ability to identify the emotions of one's partner. These results suggest that linkage may confer benefits but also may put couples at risk if they become entrenched in patterns of conflict or stress. With research in this area burgeoning in recent years, this review indicates that linkage is a promising construct with applications for interventions targeting individual health and couple functioning.

  20. Fine mapping of multiple interacting quantitative trait loci using combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their additive, dominance and epistatic effects play a critical role in complex trait variation. It is often infeasible to detect multiple interacting QTL due to main effects often being confounded by interaction effects.Positioning interacting QTL within a small region is even more difficult. We present a variance component approach nested in an empirical Bayesian method, which simultaneously takes into account additive, dominance and epistatic effects due to multiple interacting QTL. The covariance structure used in the variance component approach is based on combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage (LDL) information. In a simulation study where there are complex epistatic interactions between QTL, it is possible to simultaneously fine map interacting QTL using the proposed approach. The present method combined with LDL information can efficiently detect QTL and their dominance and epistatic effects, making it possible to simultaneously fine map main and epistatic QTL.

  1. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, E. [Emory Univ. School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lamb, N.E.; Sherman, S.L. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Certain genetic disorders are rare in the general population, but more common in individuals with specific trisomies. Examples of this include leukemia and duodenal atresia in trisomy 21. This paper presents a linkage analysis method for using trisomic individuals to map genes for such traits. It is based on a very general gene-specific dosage model that posits that the trait is caused by specific effects of different alleles at one or a few loci and that duplicate copies of {open_quotes}susceptibility{close_quotes} alleles inherited from the nondisjoining parent give increased likelihood of having the trait. Our mapping method is similar to identity-by-descent-based mapping methods using affected relative pairs and also to methods for mapping recessive traits using inbred individuals by looking for markers with greater than expected homozygosity by descent. In the trisomy case, one would take trisomic individuals and look for markers with greater than expected homozygosity in the chromosomes inherited from the nondisjoining parent. We present statistical methods for performing such a linkage analysis, including a test for linkage to a marker, a method for estimating the distance from the marker to the trait gene, a confidence interval for that distance, and methods for computing power and sample sizes. We also resolve some practical issues involved in implementing the methods, including how to use partially informative markers and how to test candidate genes. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Views of healthcare professionals to linkage of routinely collected healthcare data: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Hopf, Y. M.; Bond, C.; Francis, J.; Haughney, J.; Helms, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the views of healthcare professionals to the linkage of healthcare data and to identify any potential barriers and/or facilitators to participation in a data linkage system.\\ud \\ud Methods: Published papers describing the views of healthcare professionals (HCPs) to data sharing and linkage were identified by searches of Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, and PsychINFO. The searches were limited to papers published in the English language from 2001 to 2011....

  3. Dubin's Minimal Linkage Construct Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Donald P.

    This paper contains a theoretical analysis and empirical study that support the major premise of Robert Dubin's minimal-linkage construct-that restricting communication links increases organizational stability. The theoretical analysis shows that fewer communication links are associated with less uncertainty, more redundancy, and greater…

  4. Constructing dense genetic linkage maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Jong, de A.G.; Ooijen, van J.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a novel combination of techniques for the construction of dense genetic linkage maps. The construction of such maps is hampered by the occurrence of even small proportions of typing errors. Simulated annealing is used to obtain the best map according to the optimality criterion:

  5. North-South Business Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical studies of linkages between TNCs and local firms in India, Malaysia, Vietnam, Ghana and South Africa, five themes are discussed and related to present theoretical perspectives. The themes are (1) Linakge Governance; (2) Globalisation and the dynamics in developing countries (the...

  6. Effects of electron emission on sheath potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ansel; Khrabrov, Alexander; Kaganovich, Igor; Schamis, Hanna

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the potential profile of a sheath under the influence of surface electron emission. The plasma and sheath profiles are simulated using the Large Scale Plasma (LSP) particle-in-cell code. Using one dimensional models we corroborate the analytical relationship between sheath potential and plasma electron and emitted electron temperatures derived earlier. This work was made possible by funding from the Department of Energy for the Summer Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Exploiting linkage disequilibrium in statistical modelling in quantitative genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei

    Alleles at two loci are said to be in linkage disequilibrium (LD) when they are correlated or statistically dependent. Genomic prediction and gene mapping rely on the existence of LD between gentic markers and causul variants of complex traits. In the first part of the thesis, a novel method...... to quantify and visualize local variation in LD along chromosomes in describet, and applied to characterize LD patters at the local and genome-wide scale in three Danish pig breeds. In the second part, different ways of taking LD into account in genomic prediction models are studied. One approach is to use...... the recently proposed antedependence models, which treat neighbouring marker effects as correlated; another approach involves use of haplotype block information derived using the program Beagle. The overall conclusion is that taking LD information into account in genomic prediction models potentially improves...

  8. Resource linkages and sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouti, Yahya

    prices we estimate that the demand for gasoline could be reduced by 7.8 percent and that of diesel by 5.9 percent. This would lead to not only reduction in the associated negative externalities, but also to the generation of more than USD400 billion in revenues for governments. However, the partial equilibrium analysis in essay one ignores the general equilibrium effects that will be mainly driven by how the government spends the subsidy. In essay 2, we build the case for phasing out these subsidies and accompanying that by a welfare compensating cash transfer. In order to evaluate the impact of that on consumer's welfare, we develop a numerical model for Saudi Arabia in a general equilibrium setting to discuss a phase out of transport fuel subsidies that is. Results show that the Saudi government can increase its consumers' welfare up to five percentage points. In case the cash transfer is adjusted to keep consumers' utility at the pre-reform level, the required compensating transfer would leave the government with three percentage points of additional revenues. Finally, we highlight policy implications of phasing out the transport fuel subsidies. Finally, in essay 3 we turn our focus to the application of local content policies in the oil and gas sector. There is limited literature that investigates economic linkages from the extractive industries, assesses intertemporal tradeoffs, and guides the design of efficient and sustainable policies. Our contribution in this essay is three-fold. First, we present the first comprehensive analysis of economic linkages from the oil and gas sector across 48 countries. Then, we analyze the economic distortions from applying local content policies using a Hotelling type optimal control model with an international oil company maximizing its profits subject to a local content requirement. Finally, we investigate the presence of a socially optimal local content level when the social planner maximizing the net benefits from the

  9. Exploitation of linkage learning in evolutionary algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ying-ping

    2010-01-01

    The exploitation of linkage learning is enhancing the performance of evolutionary algorithms. This monograph examines recent progress in linkage learning, with a series of focused technical chapters that cover developments and trends in the field.

  10. Effect of Parabolic Potential on Bipolaron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUANYong-Hong; CHENQing-Hu; JIAOZheng-Kuan

    2004-01-01

    We apply a Feynman path-integral variational approach combining with the average for the relative motion to study the stability of bipolaron in a quantum dot. The binding energy is calculated in different parameters. We find that an optimum quantum potential favors the formation of bipolaron. Compared with other methods in literature, the present approach is better than Laudau Pekar one in all coupling regime and full path-integral one in the strong coupling regime.

  11. Effect of Parabolic Potential on Bipolaron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Yong-Hong; CHEN Qing-Hu; JIAO Zheng-Kuan

    2004-01-01

    We apply a Feynman path-integral variational approach combining with the average for the relative motion to study the stability of bipolaron in a quantum dot. The binding energy is calculated in different parameters. We find that an optimum quantum potential favors the formation of bipolaron. Compared with other methods in literature, the present pproach is better than Laudau-Pekar one in all coupling regime and full path-integral one in the strong coupling regime.

  12. Potential negative ecological effects of corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nick M; Brudvig, Lars A; Damschen, Ellen I; Evans, Daniel M; Johnson, Brenda L; Levey, Douglas J; Orrock, John L; Resasco, Julian; Sullivan, Lauren L; Tewksbury, Josh J; Wagner, Stephanie A; Weldon, Aimee J

    2014-10-01

    Despite many studies showing that landscape corridors increase dispersal and species richness for disparate taxa, concerns persist that corridors can have unintended negative effects. In particular, some of the same mechanisms that underlie positive effects of corridors on species of conservation interest may also increase the spread and impact of antagonistic species (e.g., predators and pathogens), foster negative effects of edges, increase invasion by exotic species, increase the spread of unwanted disturbances such as fire, or increase population synchrony and thus reduce persistence. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of each of these negative effects. We found no evidence that corridors increase unwanted disturbance or non-native species invasion; however, these have not been well-studied concerns (1 and 6 studies, respectively). Other effects of corridors were more often studied and yielded inconsistent results; mean effect sizes were indistinguishable from zero. The effect of edges on abundances of target species was as likely to be positive as negative. Corridors were as likely to have no effect on antagonists or population synchrony as they were to increase those negative effects. We found 3 deficiencies in the literature. First, despite studies on how corridors affect predators, there are few studies of related consequences for prey population size and persistence. Second, properly designed studies of negative corridor effects are needed in natural corridors at scales larger than those achievable in experimental systems. Third, studies are needed to test more targeted hypotheses about when corridor-mediated effects on invasive species or disturbance may be negative for species of management concern. Overall, we found no overarching support for concerns that construction and maintenance of habitat corridors may result in unintended negative consequences. Negative edge effects may be mitigated by widening

  13. Further analysis of previously implicated linkage regions for Alzheimer's disease in affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannfelt Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide linkage studies for Alzheimer's disease have implicated several chromosomal regions as potential loci for susceptibility genes. Methods In the present study, we have combined a selection of affected relative pairs (ARPs from the UK and the USA included in a previous linkage study by Myers et al. (Am J Med Genet, 2002, with ARPs from Sweden and Washington University. In this total sample collection of 397 ARPs, we have analyzed linkage to chromosomes 1, 9, 10, 12, 19 and 21, implicated in the previous scan. Results The analysis revealed that linkage to chromosome 19q13 close to the APOE locus increased considerably as compared to the earlier scan. However, linkage to chromosome 10q21, which provided the strongest linkage in the previous scan could not be detected. Conclusion The present investigation provides yet further evidence that 19q13 is the only chromosomal region consistently linked to Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Intervalence transfer of ferrocene moieties adsorbed on electrode surfaces by a conjugated linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Brown, Lauren E.; Konopelski, Joseph P.; Chen, Shaowei

    2009-03-01

    Effective intervalence transfer occurred between the metal centers of ferrocene moieties that were adsorbed onto a ruthenium thin film surface by ruthenium-carbene π bonds, a direct verification of Hush's four-decade-old prediction. Electrochemical measurements showed two pairs of voltammetric peaks where the separation of the formal potentials suggested a Class II behavior. Additionally, the potential spacing increased with increasing ferrocene surface coverage, most probably as a consequence of the enhanced contribution from through-space electronic interactions between the metal centers. In contrast, the incorporation of a sp 3 carbon spacer into the ferrocene-ruthenium linkage led to the diminishment of interfacial electronic communication.

  15. Linkage analysis in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windemuth, C; Hahn, A; Strauch, K; Baur, M P; Wienker, T F

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol dependence often is a familial disorder and has a genetic component. Research in causative factors of alcoholism is coordinated by a multi-center program, COGA [The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, Begleiter et al., 1995]. We analyzed a subset of the COGA family sample, 84 pedigrees of Caucasian ancestry comprising 745 persons, 339 of whom are affected according to DSM-III-R and Feighner criteria. Using parametric and nonparametric methods, evidence for linkage was found on chromosome 1 (near markers D1S532, D1S1588, and D1S534), as well as on chromosome 15 (near marker D15S642). Other regions of the genome showed suggestive evidence for contributing loci. Related findings are discussed in recent publications investigating linkage in humans [Reich et al., 1998] and mice [Melo et al., 1996].

  16. Cropping system effects on wind erosion potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion of soil is a destructive process impacting crop productivity and human health and safety. The mechanics of wind erosion and soil properties that influence erosion are well understood. Less well-studied are the effects that cropping intensity has upon those soil properties. We collected ...

  17. The potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Louisse, Jochem; Beekmann, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17-β-oestradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)oestrogenic effects by binding to the oestrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is to

  18. The potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Louisse, Jochem; Beekmann, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17-β-oestradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)oestrogenic effects by binding to the oestrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is

  19. Genetic effects and potential parents in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tiago Cunha Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Six cowpea genotypes and their F2 hybrid combinations were evaluated for general and specific combining ability. The Griffing’s diallel cross design, Method 2, and mixed model B were used. The genotypes and hybrids differed statistically (p <0.01 for the 10 studied traits. With regard to the general and specific combining ability, there were statistical differences at 1% probability for all traits. The presence of additive and non-additive gene effects paves the way for breeding new hybrid cultivars. However, additive gene effects were predominant in the trait expression. Genotypes CE-542, CE-954 and CE-796 were identified as the most promising of the test group for inclusion in cowpea breeding programs.

  20. Linkages between development and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K. [UNEP, Roskilde (Denmark); Verhagen, J. [Plant Res. International, Wageningen (Netherlands); Rovere, E. La [Centro Clima. Centre for Integrated Studies on Climate Change and Environment, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Klein, R. [Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impacts Res., PIK, Potsdam (DE); Huq, S. [International Inst. for Environment and Development, IIED, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-11-01

    This paper aims at assessing how the development and climate change literature has considered potential linkages and synergies between general development policies and climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. The starting point for this review is to give an overview of how alternative economic development paradigms can be used as a background for understanding and assessing development and climate linkages. In this way, it is demonstrated how climate change issues are related to basic factors in economic and social development processes, as an introduction to a discussion about how alternative policy recommendations for integrated development and climate policies can be understood in the context of different development paradigms. The last part of the paper returns to the climate change and sustainable development discussion that in recent years has been running in parallel to the Third Assessment of IPCC. This discussion, to a large extent has been dominated by the climate change agenda rather than a broader development policy perspectives, and the paper finally suggests a number of areas where integrated development and climate studies could anchor climate change studies more in the development agenda. (au)

  1. Potential beneficial effects of garlic in oncohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, F; Calapai, G

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-conventional medicines, especially herbal medicine, is common in patients with cancers including haematologic malignancies. Diet components may also modify the risk of cancer through the influence on multiple processes, including DNA repair, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Garlic (Allium sativum), considered either food or herbal medicine, possesses antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties that can be used in anticancer interventions. We analyzed literature data on effects of garlic and garlic compounds which can serve as basic information to design clinical approach in oncohematology. Garlic contains water soluble and oil-soluble sulfur compounds. The latter are responsible for anticancer effects exerted through multiple mechanisms such as: inhibition of metabolic carcinogenic activation, arrest of cell cycle, antioxidant and pro-apoptotic action. Evidence about the effects of main sulfur compounds diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide (DATS), ajoene and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) in oncohematology was described. Our research highlights that data on garlic in oncohematology are essentially represented by pre-clinical studies. Although these studies must be considered as preliminary, they provided insight into biological activities of garlic compounds and support a rationale for the use of substances such as DAS, DADS, DATS and ajoene as promising anticancer agents in oncohematology.

  2. Potential effect of ultrasound on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Smritilekha; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Martin, Jacob T; Singh, Man

    2015-06-17

    The use of ultrasound has emerged as one of the most useful alternative energy sources for the synthesis of carbohydrate-derived biologically and pharmaceutically potential compounds. Spectacular advances have been made in the field of sonication-assisted organic reactions, which are known for producing superior yields, enhanced reactivity of the reactant, improved stereoselectivity, and shortened reaction times. Orthogonal protection-deprotection reactions and/or modification and manipulation of functional groups in carbohydrates are common synthetic steps in carbohydrate chemistry. These reaction steps can be driven by the ultrasonic energy generated by acoustic cavitation via the formation and subsequent collapse of ultrasound-induced bubbles. The ultrasound-assisted synthesis of differently functionalised monosaccharides is useful in a wide variety of applications of carbohydrate chemistry such as the glycosylation of oligosaccharides, one pot domino reactions, thioglycoside syntheses, azidoglycoside syntheses, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, and syntheses of natural products. This review article covers ultrasound-mediated reactions on carbohydrates that have been described in the literature since 2000.

  3. Effective Kratzer and Coulomb potentials as limit cases of a multiparameter exponential-type potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Ravelo, J., E-mail: g.ravelo@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Menéndez, A.; García-Martínez, J. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Schulze-Halberg, A. [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, IN 46408 (United States)

    2014-06-13

    We show that the effective Kratzer and Coulomb potentials can be obtained by taking particular limits of a multiparameter exponential potential that was studied recently. Moreover, we demonstrate that the bound state solutions of the exponential potential reduce correctly to their well-known counterparts associated with the Kratzer and Coulomb potentials. As a byproduct, we obtain a new limit relation for the hypergeometric function. - Highlights: • Kratzer and Coulomb potentials are limit cases of an exponential-type potential. • From exact s-waves, approximate solutions for l-waves are obtained. • l-waves of the potential tend to the solutions of the Kratzer and Coulomb potentials. • A non-evident identity between hypergeometric functions is demonstrated.

  4. Comparison of functional and nutritional characteristics of barley and oat mixed linkage ß-glucans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Skau

    It is well accepted that dietary fibres, especially mixed linkage (1→3, 1→4)-β-Dglucans (β-glucan) from barley and oat, have beneficial effects on health and prevent modern lifestyle diseases. Even though recent research has shed some light on the mechanisms of action and structure...... showed that consumption of 3.3 g/day extracted barley and oat β-glucan for 3 weeks does not significantly lower total and LDL cholesterol levels in young and healthy adults. However, an indicated potential effect of oat suggests the importance of solubility for β-glucan interference with the cholesterol...

  5. Beyond the Coleman–Weinberg Effective Potential

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The Two-Particle-Irreducible (2PI) formalism as introduced by Cornwall, Jackiw and Tomboulis provides a systematic analytic approach to consistently describing non-perturbative phenomena in Quantum Field Theory. In spite of its great success, one major problem of the 2PI approach is that its loopwise expansion gives rise to residual violations of symmetries and hence to massive Goldstone bosons in the spontaneously broken phase of the theory. In my talk I will present a novel symmetry-improved 2PI formalism which consistently encodes global symmetries in a loopwise expansion. Unlike other methods, I will illustrate how the symmetry-improved 2PI effective action satisfies a number of important field-theoretic properties, such as the masslessness of the Goldstone boson and the fact that the phase transition is of second order in O(N) theories, already in the Hartree-Fock approximation. After taking the sunset diagrams into account, I show how the symmetry-improved 2PI approach properly describe...

  6. Predicting protein linkages in bacteria: Which method is best depends on task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leach Sonia M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of computational methods for predicting protein functional linkages are increasing. In recent years, several bacteria-specific methods for predicting linkages have been developed. The four major genomic context methods are: Gene cluster, Gene neighbor, Rosetta Stone, and Phylogenetic profiles. These methods have been shown to be powerful tools and this paper provides guidelines for when each method is appropriate by exploring different features of each method and potential improvements offered by their combination. We also review many previous treatments of these prediction methods, use the latest available annotations, and offer a number of new observations. Results Using Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillus subtilis, linkage predictions made by each of these methods were evaluated against three benchmarks: functional categories defined by COG and KEGG, known pathways listed in EcoCyc, and known operons listed in RegulonDB. Each evaluated method had strengths and weaknesses, with no one method dominating all aspects of predictive ability studied. For functional categories, as previous studies have shown, the Rosetta Stone method was individually best at detecting linkages and predicting functions among proteins with shared KEGG categories while the Phylogenetic profile method was best for linkage detection and function prediction among proteins with common COG functions. Differences in performance under COG versus KEGG may be attributable to the presence of paralogs. Better function prediction was observed when using a weighted combination of linkages based on reliability versus using a simple unweighted union of the linkage sets. For pathway reconstruction, 99 complete metabolic pathways in E. coli K12 (out of the 209 known, non-trivial pathways and 193 pathways with 50% of their proteins were covered by linkages from at least one method. Gene neighbor was most effective individually on pathway reconstruction

  7. Matter-wave bright solitons in effective bichromatic lattice potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Golam Ali Sekh

    2013-08-01

    Matter-wave bright solitons in bichromatic lattice potentials are considered and their dynamics for different lattice environments are studied. Bichromatic potentials are created from superpositions of (i) two linear optical lattices and (ii) a linear and a nonlinear optical lattice. Effective potentials are found for the solitons in both bichromatic lattices and a comparative study is done on the dynamics of solitons with respect to the effective potentials. The effects of dispersion on solitons in bichromatic lattices are studied and it is found that the dispersive spreading can be minimized by appropriate combinations of lattice and interaction parameters. Stability of nondispersive matter-wave solitons is checked from phase portrait analysis.

  8. Identification of quantitative trait loci underlying milk traits in Spanish dairy sheep using linkage plus combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gámez, E; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Suarez-Vega, A; de la Fuente, L F; Arranz, J J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, 2 procedures were used to analyze a data set from a whole-genome scan, one based on linkage analysis information and the other combing linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis (LDLA), to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing milk production traits in sheep. A total of 1,696 animals from 16 half-sib families were genotyped using the OvineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) and analysis was performed using a daughter design. Moreover, the same data set has been previously investigated through a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis and a comparison of results from the 3 methods has been possible. The linkage analysis and LDLA methodologies yielded different results, although some significantly associated regions were common to both procedures. The linkage analysis detected 3 overlapping genome-wise significant QTL on sheep chromosome (OAR) 2 influencing milk yield, protein yield, and fat yield, whereas 34 genome-wise significant QTL regions were detected using the LDLA approach. The most significant QTL for protein and fat percentages was detected on OAR3, which was reported in a previous GWA analysis. Both the linkage analysis and LDLA identified many other chromosome-wise significant associations across different sheep autosomes. Additional analyses were performed on OAR2 and OAR3 to determine the possible causality of the most significant polymorphisms identified for these genetic effects by the previously reported GWA analysis. For OAR3, the analyses demonstrated additional genetic proof of the causality previously suggested by our group for a single nucleotide polymorphism located in the α-lactalbumin gene (LALBA). In summary, although the results shown here suggest that in commercial dairy populations, the LDLA method exhibits a higher efficiency to map QTL than the simple linkage analysis or linkage disequilibrium methods, we believe that comparing the 3 analysis methods is the best approach to obtain a global

  9. Taming the Goldstone contributions to the effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Stephen P. [Fermilab

    2014-07-28

    The standard perturbative effective potential suffers from two related problems of principle involving the field-dependent Goldstone boson squared mass, G. First, in general G can be negative, and it actually is negative in the Standard Model; this leads to imaginary contributions to the effective potential that are not associated with a physical instability, and therefore spurious. Second, in the limit that G approaches zero, the effective potential minimization condition is logarithmically divergent already at two-loop order, and has increasingly severe power-law singularities at higher loop orders. I resolve both issues by resumming the Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential. For the resulting resummed effective potential, the minimum value and the minimization condition that gives the vacuum expectation value are obtained in forms that do not involve G at all.

  10. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, E.; Lamb, N.E.; Sherman, S.L. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Certain genetic disorders (e.g. congenital cataracts, duodenal atresia) are rare in the general population, but more common in people with Down`s syndrome. We present a method for using individuals with trisomy 21 to map genes for such traits. Our methods are analogous to methods for mapping autosomal dominant traits using affected relative pairs by looking for markers with greater than expected identity-by-descent. In the trisomy case, one would take trisomic individuals and look for markers with greater than expected reduction to homozygosity in the chromosomes inherited form the non-disjoining parent. We present statistical methods for performing such a linkage analysis, including a test for linkage to a marker, a method for estimating the distance from the marker to the gene, a confidence interval for that distance, and methods for computing power and sample sizes. The methods are described in the context of gene-dosage model for the etiology of the disorder, but can be extended to other models. We also resolve some practical issues involved in implementing the methods, including how to use partially informative markers, how to test candidate genes, and how to handle the effect of reduced recombination associated with maternal meiosis I non-disjunction.

  11. HaploSNP affinities and linkage map positions illuminate subgenome composition in the octoploid, cultivated strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, D J; Yang, Y; Šurbanovski, N; Bianco, L; Buti, M; Velasco, R; Giongo, L; Davis, T M

    2016-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa possesses a genetically complex allo-octoploid genome. Advances in genomics research in Fragaria, including the release of a genome sequence for F. vesca, have permitted the development of a high throughput whole genome genotyping array for strawberry, which promises to facilitate genetics and genomics research. In this investigation, we used the Axiom® IStraw90®)array for linkage map development, and produced a linkage map containing 8,407 SNP markers spanning 1,820cM. Whilst the linkage map provides good coverage of the genome of both parental genotypes, the map of 'Monterey' contained significantly fewer mapped markers than did that of 'Darselect'. The array contains a novel marker class known as haploSNPs, which exploit homoeologous sequence variants as probe destabilization sites to effectively reduce marker ploidy. We examined these sites as potential indicators of subgenomic identities by using comparisons to allele states in two ancestral diploids. On this basis, haploSNP loci could be inferred to be derived from F. vesca, F. iinumae, or from an unknown source. When the identity classifications of haploSNPs were considered in conjunction with their respective linkage map positions, it was possible to define two discrete subgenomes, while the remaining homoeologues of each chromosome could not be partitioned into two discrete subgenomic groupings. These findings suggested a novel hypothesis regarding octoploid strawberry subgenome structure and evolutionary origins.

  12. Synthesis and size control of iron(II) hexacyanochromate(III) nanoparticles and the effect of particle size on linkage isomerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Matthieu F; Risset, Olivia N; Knowles, Elisabeth S; Yamamoto, Takashi; Pajerowski, Daniel M; Meisel, Mark W; Talham, Daniel R

    2013-04-15

    The controlled synthesis of monodisperse nanoparticles of the cubic Prussian blue analogue iron(II) hexacyanochromate(III) is reported along with a kinetic study, using cyanide stretching frequencies, showing the variations of the activation energy (E(a)) of the linkage isomerism as a function of the particle size. Highly reproducible, cubic-shaped iron(II) hexacyanochromate(III) nanocrystals, with sizes ranging from 2 to 50 nm, are synthesized using a microemulsion technique, whereas a bulk synthesis yields nonuniform less monodisperse particles with sizes greater than 100 nm. Monitoring the cyanide stretching frequency with FTIR spectroscopy shows that the rate of isomerization is faster for smaller particles. Moreover, a kinetic analysis at different temperatures (255 K ≤ T ≤ 321 K) gives insight into the evolution of E(a) with the particle size. Finally, time-dependent powder X-ray diffraction and net magnetization confirm the FTIR observations. The data are interpreted within the concept of a simple two-component model with different activation energies for structures near the surface of the solid and within the bulk.

  13. The specific cleavage of lactone linkage to open-loop in cyclic lipopeptide during negative ESI tandem mass spectrometry: the hydrogen bond interaction effect of 4-ethyl guaiacol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengzhe Guo

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry is a valuable tool for the analysis and identification of chemical compounds, particularly proteins and peptides. Lichenysins G, the major cyclic lipopeptide of lichenysin, and the non-covalent complex of lichenysins G and 4-ethylguaiacol were investigated with negative ion ESI tandem mass spectrometry. The different fragmentation mechanisms for these compounds were investigated. Our study shows the 4-ethylguaiacol hydrogen bond with the carbonyl oxygen of the ester group in the loop of lichenysins G. With the help of this hydrogen bond interaction, the ring structure preferentially opens in lactone linkage rather than O-C bond of the ester-group to produce alcohol and ketene. Isothermal titration 1H-NMR analysis verified the hydrogen bond and determined the proportion of subject and ligand in the non-covalent complex to be 1∶1. Theoretical calculations also suggest that the addition of the ligand can affect the energy of the transition structures (TS during loop opening.

  14. Directed Graphs, Decompositions, and Spatial Linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Shai, Offer; Whiteley, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The decomposition of a system of constraints into small basic components is an important tool of design and analysis. Specifically, the decomposition of a linkage into minimal components is a central tool of analysis and synthesis of linkages. In this paper we prove that every pinned 3-isostatic (minimally rigid) graph (grounded linkage) has a unique decomposition into minimal strongly connected components (in the sense of directed graphs) which we call 3-Assur graphs. This analysis extends the Assur decompositions of plane linkages previously studied in the mathematical and the mechanical engineering literature. These 3-Assur graphs are the central building blocks for all kinematic linkages in 3-space. They share a number of key combinatorial and geometric properties with the 2-Assur graphs, including an associated lower block-triangular decomposition of the pinned rigidity matrix which provides a format for extending the motion induced by inserting one driver in a bottom Assur linkage to the joints of the e...

  15. Genome scan of human systemic lupus erythematosus: Evidence for linkage on chromosome 1q in African-American pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kathy L.; Neas, Barbara R.; Salmon, Jane E.; Yu, Hua; Gray-McGuire, Courtney; Asundi, Neeraj; Bruner, Gail R.; Fox, Jerome; Kelly, Jennifer; Henshall, Stephanie; Bacino, Debra; Dietz, Myron; Hogue, Robert; Koelsch, Gerald; Nightingale, Lydia; Shaver, Tim; Abdou, Nabih I.; Albert, Daniel A.; Carson, Craig; Petri, Michelle; Treadwell, Edward L.; James, Judith A.; Harley, John B.

    1998-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by production of autoantibodies against intracellular antigens including DNA, ribosomal P, Ro (SS-A), La (SS-B), and the spliceosome. Etiology is suspected to involve genetic and environmental factors. Evidence of genetic involvement includes: associations with HLA-DR3, HLA-DR2, Fcγ receptors (FcγR) IIA and IIIA, and hereditary complement component deficiencies, as well as familial aggregation, monozygotic twin concordance >20%, λs > 10, purported linkage at 1q41–42, and inbred mouse strains that consistently develop lupus. We have completed a genome scan in 94 extended multiplex pedigrees by using model-based linkage analysis. Potential [log10 of the odds for linkage (lod) > 2.0] SLE loci have been identified at chromosomes 1q41, 1q23, and 11q14–23 in African-Americans; 14q11, 4p15, 11q25, 2q32, 19q13, 6q26–27, and 12p12–11 in European-Americans; and 1q23, 13q32, 20q13, and 1q31 in all pedigrees combined. An effect for the FcγRIIA candidate polymorphism) at 1q23 (lod = 3.37 in African-Americans) is syntenic with linkage in a murine model of lupus. Sib-pair and multipoint nonparametric analyses also support linkage (P 2.0). Our results are consistent with the presumed complexity of genetic susceptibility to SLE and illustrate racial origin is likely to influence the specific nature of these genetic effects. PMID:9843982

  16. Learning and Competence Building through Cross-cultural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study upgrading of companies in developing countries in a learning perspective. Both formal and experiential and tacit knowledge is discussed. Learning effects of different management modes, expatriates, linkages to customers and suppliers are discussed as are learnin...

  17. Effect of the earth's ellipticity on the lunar tidal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The earth's orbital acceleration about the moon is influenced by its ellipticity. In this paper it shown that the ellipticity affects tidal gravity by contributing directly to the lunar tide-generating potential (in addition to effecting the elastic-gravitational response of the solid earth and oceans to this potential).

  18. Effective potentials for atom-atom interaction at low temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Bo

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the concept and design of effective atom-atom potentials that accurately describe any physical processes involving only states around the threshold. The existence of such potentials gives hope to a quantitative, and systematic, understanding of quantum few-atom and quantum many-atom systems at relatively low temperatures.

  19. Software for analysis and manipulation of genetic linkage data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R; Helms, C; Mishra, S K; Donis-Keller, H

    1992-06-01

    We present eight computer programs written in the C programming language that are designed to analyze genotypic data and to support existing software used to construct genetic linkage maps. Although each program has a unique purpose, they all share the common goals of affording a greater understanding of genetic linkage data and of automating tasks to make computers more effective tools for map building. The PIC/HET and FAMINFO programs automate calculation of relevant quantities such as heterozygosity, PIC, allele frequencies, and informativeness of markers and pedigrees. PREINPUT simplifies data submissions to the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) data base by creating a file with genotype assignments that CEPH's INPUT program would otherwise require to be input manually. INHERIT is a program written specifically for mapping the X chromosome: by assigning a dummy allele to males, in the nonpseudoautosomal region, it eliminates falsely perceived noninheritances in the data set. The remaining four programs complement the previously published genetic linkage mapping software CRI-MAP and LINKAGE. TWOTABLE produces a more readable format for the output of CRI-MAP two-point calculations; UNMERGE is the converse to CRI-MAP's merge option; and GENLINK and LINKGEN automatically convert between the genotypic data file formats required by these packages. All eight applications read input from the same types of data files that are used by CRI-MAP and LINKAGE. Their use has simplified the management of data, has increased knowledge of the content of information in pedigrees, and has reduced the amount of time needed to construct genetic linkage maps of chromosomes.

  20. Electric potential invariants and ions-in-molecules effective potentials for molecular Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Stephen L.; Grimes, David D.; Zhou, Yan; Field, Robert W.; Wong, Bryan M.

    2016-12-01

    The dependence of multipole moments and polarizabilities on external fields appears in many applications including biomolecular molecular mechanics, optical non-linearity, nanomaterial calculations, and the perturbation of spectroscopic signatures in atomic clocks. Over a wide range of distances, distributed multipole and polarizability potentials can be applied to obtain the variation of atom-centered atoms-in-molecules electric properties like bonding-quenched polarizability. For cylindrically symmetric charge distributions, we examine single-center and atom-centered effective polarization potentials in a non-relativistic approximation for Rydberg states. For ions, the multipole expansion is strongly origin-dependent, but we note that origin-independent invariants can be defined. The several families of invariants correspond to optimized representations differing by origin and number of terms. Among them, a representation at the center of dipole polarizability optimizes the accuracy of the potential with terms through 1/r4. We formulate the single-center expansion in terms of polarization-modified effective multipole moments, defining a form related to the source-multipole expansion of Brink and Satchler. Atom-centered potentials are an origin independent alternative but are limited both by the properties allowed at each center and by the neglected effects like bond polarizability and charge flow. To enable comparisons between single-center effective potentials in Cartesian or spherical form and two-center effective potentials with differing levels of mutual induction between atomic centers, we give analytical expressions for the bond-length and origin-dependence of multipole and polarizability terms projected in the multipole and polarizability expansion of Buckingham. The atom-centered potentials can then be used with experimental data and ab initio calculations to estimate atoms-in-molecules properties. Some results are given for BaF+ and HF showing the

  1. Trial Study of Vibration-Induced Effects on Spontaneous Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunWeibin; QiuWeiting; HeZhanxiang

    2003-01-01

    Vibratory excitation generates not only reflections and refractions of wave fields on the subsurface interfaces but also electromagnetic waves with different frequencies. In this paper we address the vibration-induced effects on the spontaneous potential field. The effects of controllable vibration on the spontaneous potential field were studied under real field geologic conditions. Experimental data confirmed that the vibration-induced effects on the spontaneous potential field do exist under field conditions. Monitoring records over a long time interval showed that there existed three information zones in the vibration-induced effects on spontaneous potential field:These are the signal-variant zone, the extreme-stable zone and the relaxation-recovery zone. Combined with different well-site data, it was concluded that the time-variant features of the anomalies in the information zones was closely related to the properties of the subsurface liquid (oil and water).

  2. Emerging evidence of ozone metabolic effects and potential mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOT 2014 Abstract: Invitational Emerging evidence of ozone metabolic effects and potential mechanisms U.P. Kodavanti NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC Recent evidence suggests that air pollutants are linked to metabolic syndrome and impact several key metabolic proce...

  3. Linkages between NAMA - LEDS - MRV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang-Bonsu, William; Benioff, Ron; Cox, Sadie

    Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS), Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) are three of the key conceptual components emerging as part of the global architecture for a new climate agreement by 2015. The three components are devel......Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS), Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) are three of the key conceptual components emerging as part of the global architecture for a new climate agreement by 2015. The three components...... how the three components are conceptually interlinked. Identifying the linkages can inform the work on each component and strengthen coordination of work in the context of the three big partnerships; the International Partnership on Mitigation and MRV, the LEDS Global Partnership and the NAMA...

  4. Effect of Ionic Diffusion on Extracellular Potentials in Neural Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Halnes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recorded potentials in the extracellular space (ECS of the brain is a standard measure of population activity in neural tissue. Computational models that simulate the relationship between the ECS potential and its underlying neurophysiological processes are commonly used in the interpretation of such measurements. Standard methods, such as volume-conductor theory and current-source density theory, assume that diffusion has a negligible effect on the ECS potential, at least in the range of frequencies picked up by most recording systems. This assumption remains to be verified. We here present a hybrid simulation framework that accounts for diffusive effects on the ECS potential. The framework uses (1 the NEURON simulator to compute the activity and ionic output currents from multicompartmental neuron models, and (2 the electrodiffusive Kirchhoff-Nernst-Planck framework to simulate the resulting dynamics of the potential and ion concentrations in the ECS, accounting for the effect of electrical migration as well as diffusion. Using this framework, we explore the effect that ECS diffusion has on the electrical potential surrounding a small population of 10 pyramidal neurons. The neural model was tuned so that simulations over ∼100 seconds of biological time led to shifts in ECS concentrations by a few millimolars, similar to what has been seen in experiments. By comparing simulations where ECS diffusion was absent with simulations where ECS diffusion was included, we made the following key findings: (i ECS diffusion shifted the local potential by up to ∼0.2 mV. (ii The power spectral density (PSD of the diffusion-evoked potential shifts followed a 1/f2 power law. (iii Diffusion effects dominated the PSD of the ECS potential for frequencies up to several hertz. In scenarios with large, but physiologically realistic ECS concentration gradients, diffusion was thus found to affect the ECS potential well within the frequency range picked up in

  5. The effect of jogging on P300 event related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Nishimoto, K; Akamatu, M; Takahashi, M; Maruyama, A

    1999-03-01

    Physical exercise has beneficial effects not only on cardiovascular system and fat metabolism, may also directly effect the cognitive process. We studied the effect of physical exercise on cognitive processes by measuring the P300 event related-potential (ERP) after jogging. Seven well-trained joggers were enrolled in this study and the P300 potentials using auditory oddball paradigm. ERPs were measured before and after 30 minutes of jogging. The amplitude of the P300 significantly increased after jogging compared to values recorded before jogging. These findings suggest that jogging has the effect of facilitating cognitive processes involved in generation of the P300.

  6. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Veenendaal, T.; Ovcharenko, I.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Gordon, L.; Stubbs, L.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Rodoinov, A.; Gaginskaya, E.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the economically important traits in chicken are multifactorial and governed by multiple genes located at different quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The optimal marker density to identify these QTLs in linkage and association studies is largely determined by the extent of linkage

  7. Instanton effects on the heavy-quark static potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhshiev, U. T.; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Turimov, B.; Musakhanov, M. M.; Hiyama, Emiko

    2017-08-01

    We investigate instanton effects on the heavy-quark potential, including its spin-dependent part, based on the instanton liquid model. Starting with the central potential derived from the instanton vacuum, we obtain the spin-dependent part of the heavy-quark potential. We discuss the results of the heavy-quark potential from the instanton vacuum. Finally, we solve the nonrelativistic two-body problem, associated with the heavy-quark potential from the instanton vacuum. The instanton effects on the quarkonia spectra are marginal but are required for quantitative description of the spectra. Supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea funded by the Korean government (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, MEST), Grant Numbers 2016R1D1A1B03935053 (UY) and 2015R1D1A1A01060707 (HChK) and The work was also partly Supported by RIKEN iTHES Project

  8. Effective polarization interaction potentials of the partially ionized dense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, T S [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96a, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Dzhumagulova, K N [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96a, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Omarbakiyeva, Yu A [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96a, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Roepke, G [Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2006-04-28

    The effective polarization interaction potential between charged and neutral particles is considered for a partially ionized plasma. This pseudopotential is deduced taking into account quantum-mechanical effects at short distances as well as screening effects at large distances. Furthermore, a cutoff radius is obtained using a modified effective-range theory. Explicit results for parameters describing the interaction of the atom with charged particles are given.

  9. Effective Form of Reproducing the Total Financial Potential of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portna Oksana V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of scientific principles of reproducing the total financial potential of the country and its effective form is an urgent problem both in theoretical and practical aspects of the study, the solution of which is intended to ensure the active mobilization and effective use of the total financial potential of Ukraine, and as a result — its expanded reproduction as well, which would contribute to realization of the internal capacities for stabilization of the national economy. The purpose of the article is disclosing the essence of the effective form of reproducing the total financial potential of the country, analyzing the results of reproducing the total financial potential of Ukraine. It has been proved that the basis for the effective form of reproducing the total financial potential of the country is the volume and flow of resources, which are associated with the «real» economy, affect the dynamics of GDP and define it, i.e. resource and process forms of reproducing the total financial potential of Ukraine (which precede the effective one. The analysis of reproducing the total financial potential of Ukraine has shown that in the analyzed period there was an increase in the financial possibilities of the country, but steady dynamics of reduction of the total financial potential was observed. If we consider the amount of resources involved in production, creating a net value added and GDP, it occurs on a restricted basis. Growth of the total financial potential of Ukraine is connected only with extensive quantitative factors rather than intensive qualitative changes.

  10. An Internal Standard-Assisted Synthesis and Degradation Proteomic Approach Reveals the Potential Linkage between VPS4B Depletion and Activation of Fatty Acid β-Oxidation in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongping Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The endosomal/lysosomal system, in particular the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs, plays an essential role in regulating the trafficking and destination of endocytosed receptors and their associated signaling molecules. Recently, we have shown that dysfunction and down-regulation of vacuolar protein sorting 4B (VPS4B, an ESCRT-III associated protein, under hypoxic conditions can lead to the abnormal accumulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and aberrant EGFR signaling in breast cancer. However, the pathophysiological consequences of VPS4B dysfunction remain largely elusive. In this study, we used an internal standard-assisted synthesis and degradation mass spectrometry (iSDMS method, which permits the direct measurement of protein synthesis, degradation and protein dynamic expression, to address the effects of VPS4B dysfunction in altering EGF-mediated protein expression. Our initial results indicate that VPS4B down-regulation decreases the expression of many proteins involved in glycolytic pathways, while increased the expression of proteins with roles in mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation were up-regulated in VPS4B-depleted cells. This observation is also consistent with our previous finding that hypoxia can induce VPS4B down-regulated, suggesting that the adoption of fatty acid β-oxidation could potentially serve as an alternative energy source and survival mechanism for breast cancer cells in response to hypoxia-mediated VPS4B dysfunction.

  11. Mapping multiple QTL using linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis information and multitrait data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goddard Mike E

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A multi-locus QTL mapping method is presented, which combines linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD information and uses multitrait data. The method assumed a putative QTL at the midpoint of each marker bracket. Whether the putative QTL had an effect or not was sampled using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods. The method was tested in dairy cattle data on chromosome 14 where the DGAT1 gene was known to be segregating. The DGAT1 gene was mapped to a region of 0.04 cM, and the effects of the gene were accurately estimated. The fitting of multiple QTL gave a much sharper indication of the QTL position than a single QTL model using multitrait data, probably because the multi-locus QTL mapping reduced the carry over effect of the large DGAT1 gene to adjacent putative QTL positions. This suggests that the method could detect secondary QTL that would, in single point analyses, remain hidden under the broad peak of the dominant QTL. However, no indications for a second QTL affecting dairy traits were found on chromosome 14.

  12. INDONESIAN COUNTRY PAPER MECHANISMS USED TO STRENGTHEN INFORMATION LINKAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Djuhamsa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ENSICNET-Indonesia provides dissemination of information on the field of water supply and sanitation to potential users by using different methods which depend on their own function and duty. Linkage mechanisms are developed to make users aware of the sources, to identify and define user n~eds and to make the contact 'between the user need and the information sources. Several forms of communication which can link information resources to an individual or groups are disscussed.

  13. Higgs effective potential in a perturbed Robertson-Walker background

    CERN Document Server

    Maroto, Antonio L

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the one-loop effective potential of a scalar field in a Robertson-Walker background with scalar metric perturbations. A complete set of orthonormal solutions of the perturbed equations is obtained by using the adiabatic approximation for comoving observers. After analyzing the problem of renormalization in inhomogeneous backgrounds, we get the explicit contribution of metric perturbations to the effective potential. We apply these results to the Standard Model Higgs effective potential and evaluate the effects of metric perturbations on the Higgs vacuum expectation value. Space-time variations are found, which are proportional to the gravitational slip parameter, with a typical amplitude of the order of $\\Delta\\phi/\\phi\\simeq 10^{-11}$ on cosmological scales. We also discuss possible astrophysical signatures in the Solar System and in the Milky Way that could open new possibilities to explore the symmetry breaking sector of the electroweak interactions.

  14. A genetic linkage map and comparative mapping of the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Larry J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster is an emerging rodent model for investigating the genetics, evolution and molecular mechanisms of social behavior. Though a karyotype for the prairie vole has been reported and low-resolution comparative cytogenetic analyses have been done in this species, other basic genetic resources for this species, such as a genetic linkage map, are lacking. Results Here we report the construction of a genome-wide linkage map of the prairie vole. The linkage map consists of 406 markers that are spaced on average every 7 Mb and span an estimated ~90% of the genome. The sex average length of the linkage map is 1707 cM, which, like other Muroid rodent linkage maps, is on the lower end of the length distribution of linkage maps reported to date for placental mammals. Linkage groups were assigned to 19 out of the 26 prairie vole autosomes as well as the X chromosome. Comparative analyses of the prairie vole linkage map based on the location of 387 Type I markers identified 61 large blocks of synteny with the mouse genome. In addition, the results of the comparative analyses revealed a potential elevated rate of inversions in the prairie vole lineage compared to the laboratory mouse and rat. Conclusions A genetic linkage map of the prairie vole has been constructed and represents the fourth genome-wide high-resolution linkage map reported for Muroid rodents and the first for a member of the Arvicolinae sub-family. This resource will advance studies designed to dissect the genetic basis of a variety of social behaviors and other traits in the prairie vole as well as our understanding of genome evolution in the genus Microtus.

  15. Effective attractive potential between identical dielectric molecules via Lifshitz theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈来文; 李椿萱

    2001-01-01

    A general theory of Van der Waals forces developed by Lifshitz based on quantum electrodynamics theory is applied in the range Rλ0 (where the Casimir effects may be neglected) to construct Van der Waals attractive potential between identical dielectric molecules in rarefied media in order that the effective attractive potential between the like-molecules (including the repeat units) is offered. A closed form solution for the integral formulation of the attractive potential between like-particles is first obtained based on certain assumptions made in this work. On the basis of the theory of electric polarization, the derived expression in terms of bulk properties is then compared with the well-known London formula, the former differs from the latter only by the factor (4)/(π)or (4)/(π)(ε∞+2)/(3)2. The validity of the effective potential can be verified by testing cases composed of several types of dielectric materials. The computed results are presented in this paper, and comparisons with the results computed by London dispersion formula, as well as the recommended values in virtue of the experimental and theoretical techniques, are also presented. The effective potential of polyethylene is also computed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed model, and it is found that the computed well depth fall within a reasonable range of accuracy.

  16. Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Kiet A., E-mail: kiet.nguyen@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States); Pachter, Ruth, E-mail: kiet.nguyen@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Day, Paul N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States)

    2014-06-28

    We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.

  17. Effect of functionalization on drug delivery potential of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonam; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of the present investigation was to explore the effect of functionalization on drug delivery potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and to compare the in vitro and in vivo cancer targeting potential of doxorubicin HCL (DOX)-loaded ox-/multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), DOX-loaded PEG-MWCNTs and DOX-loaded FA-PEG-MWCNTs. The DOX/PEG-FA-MWCNTs showed enhanced cytotoxicity and were most preferentially taken up by the cancerous cells. The obtained results also support the extended resistance time and sustained release profile of drug-loaded surface-engineered MWCNTs. Overall, we concluded that the developed MWCNTs nanoformulations have higher cancer targeting potential.

  18. The REBUS-MCNP linkage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, J. G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-04-24

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program uses the REBUS-PC computer code to provide reactor physics and core design information such as neutron flux distributions in space, energy, and time, and to track isotopic changes in fuel and neutron absorbers with burnup. REBUS-PC models the complete fuel cycle including shuffling capability. REBUS-PC evolved using the neutronic capabilities of multi-group diffusion theory code DIF3D 9.0, but was extended to apply the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP for one-group fluxes and cross-sections. The linkage between REBUS-PC and MCNP has recently been modernized and extended, as described in this manual. REBUS-PC now calls MCNP via a system call so that the user can apply any valid MCNP executable. The interface between REBUS-PC and MCNP requires minimal changes to an existing MCNP model, and little additional input. The REBUS-MCNP interface can also be used in conjunction with DIF3D neutronics to update an MCNP model with fuel compositions predicted using a DIF3D based depletion.

  19. A single particle effective potential for interacting positron and positronium

    CERN Document Server

    Zubiaga, A; Puska, M

    2013-01-01

    We have studied small systems composed by an atom and a positron or a positronium atom. We have used many-body quantum mechanical calculations to describe the correlation effects of light particles. Explicitly correlated gaussian for the basis functions and a stochastical variational optimization method has allowed to obtain accurate wavefunctions and energies. We have discussed the chemistry of positrons in those systems by means of analyzing the densities of the light particles (electrons and positrons). During the discussion, we propose an effective potential that describes the properties of the positron in those systems, valid also when it forms a Ps cluster. The effective potential is a mean field description of the interaction of the positron that can be used to calculate the distribution of the positron and its interaction energy. This potential can be a step forward for an accurate single particle description of the positron in cases when it forms positronium, specially molecular soft matter.

  20. Effective constraint potential in lattice Weinberg - Salam model

    CERN Document Server

    Polikarpov, M I

    2011-01-01

    We investigate lattice Weinberg - Salam model without fermions for the value of the Weinberg angle $\\theta_W \\sim 30^o$, and bare fine structure constant around $\\alpha \\sim 1/150$. We consider the value of the scalar self coupling corresponding to bare Higgs mass around 150 GeV. The effective constraint potential for the zero momentum scalar field is used in order to investigate phenomena existing in the vicinity of the phase transition between the physical Higgs phase and the unphysical symmetric phase of the lattice model. This is the region of the phase diagram, where the continuum physics is to be approached. We compare the above mentioned effective potential (calculated in selected gauges) with the effective potential for the value of the scalar field at a fixed space - time point. We also calculate the renormalized fine structure constant using the correlator of Polyakov lines and compare it with the one - loop perturbative estimate.

  1. DYNAMIC DESIGN OF VARIABLE SPEED PLANAR LINKAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yanan; Yan Hongsen; Zou Huijun

    2005-01-01

    A method for improving dynamic characteristics of planar linkages by actively varying the speed function of the input link is presented. Design criteria and constraints for the dynamic design of variable speed planar linkages are developed. Both analytical and optimization approaches for determining suitable input speed functions to minimize the driving torque, the shaking moment, or both simultaneously of planar linkages, subject to various design requirements and constraints, are derived.Finally, some examples are given to illustrate the design procedure and to verify its feasibility.

  2. Potentials for food waste minimization and effects on potential biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Anna Bernstad Saraiva; Vukicevic, Sanita; Bohn, Irene; Andersson, Tova

    2013-08-01

    Several treatment alternatives for food waste can result in both energy and nutrient recovery, and thereby potential environmental benefits. However, according to the European Union waste management hierarchy, waste prevention should be the prioritized strategy to decrease the environmental burdens from all solid waste management. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the potential for food waste minimization among Swedish households through an investigation of the amount of avoidable food waste currently disposed of. A further aim was to investigate the effect on the national biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion of food waste, considering minimization potentials. A method for waste composition analyses of household food waste, where a differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable food waste is made, was used in a total of 24 waste composition analyses of household waste from Swedish residential areas. The total household food waste generation reached 3.4 kg (household and week)(-1), on average, of which 34% is avoidable. The theoretical methane (CH4) potential in unavoidable food waste reached 442 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1) or 128 Nm(3) tonne(-1) wet waste, while the measured (mesophilic CH4 batch tests) CH4 production reached 399 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1), which is lower than several previous assessments of CH4 production from household food waste. According to this study the combination of a decrease in food waste generation-in case of successful minimization-and decreased CH4 production from unavoidable food waste will thus result in lower total potential energy recovery from household food waste through anaerobic digestion CH4 potential than previously stated.

  3. A COMPARISON BETWEEN SINGLE LINKAGE AND COMPLETE LINKAGE IN AGGLOMERATIVE HIERARCHICAL CLUSTER ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFYING TOURISTS SEGMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Rashidah Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Cluster Analysis is a multivariate method in statistics. Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis is one of approaches in Cluster Analysis. There are two linkage methods in Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis which are Single Linkage and Complete Linkage. The purpose of this study is to compare between Single Linkage and Complete Linkage in Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The comparison of performances between these linkage methods was shown by using Kruskal-Wallis tes...

  4. Exact RG invariance and symmetry improved 2PI effective potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Pilaftsis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Symmetry Improved Two-Particle-Irreducible (SI2PI formalism is a powerful tool to calculate the effective potential beyond perturbation theory, whereby infinite sets of selective loop-graph topologies can be resummed in a systematic and consistent manner. In this paper we study the Renormalization-Group (RG properties of this formalism, by proving for the first time a number of new field-theoretic results. First, the RG runnings of all proper 2PI couplings are found to be UV finite, in the Hartree–Fock and sunset approximations of the 2PI effective action. Second, the SI2PI effective potential is exactly RG invariant, in contrast to what happens in the ordinary One-Particle-Irreducible (1PI perturbation theory, where the effective potential is RG invariant only up to higher orders. Finally, we show how the effective potential of an O(2 theory evaluated in the SI2PI framework, appropriately RG improved, can reach a higher level of accuracy, even up to one order of magnitude, with respect to the corresponding one obtained in the 1PI formalism.

  5. Exact RG invariance and symmetry improved 2PI effective potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Teresi, Daniele

    2017-07-01

    The Symmetry Improved Two-Particle-Irreducible (SI2PI) formalism is a powerful tool to calculate the effective potential beyond perturbation theory, whereby infinite sets of selective loop-graph topologies can be resummed in a systematic and consistent manner. In this paper we study the Renormalization-Group (RG) properties of this formalism, by proving for the first time a number of new field-theoretic results. First, the RG runnings of all proper 2PI couplings are found to be UV finite, in the Hartree-Fock and sunset approximations of the 2PI effective action. Second, the SI2PI effective potential is exactly RG invariant, in contrast to what happens in the ordinary One-Particle-Irreducible (1PI) perturbation theory, where the effective potential is RG invariant only up to higher orders. Finally, we show how the effective potential of an O (2) theory evaluated in the SI2PI framework, appropriately RG improved, can reach a higher level of accuracy, even up to one order of magnitude, with respect to the corresponding one obtained in the 1PI formalism.

  6. Effective potentials in a bidimensional vibrated granular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Pérez, Stephanie; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Nahmad-Molinari, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    We present a numerical study of the spatial correlations of a quasi-two-dimensional granular fluid kept in a nonstatic steady state via vertical shaking. The simulations explore a wide range of vertical accelerations, restitution coefficients, and packing fractions, always staying below the crystallization limit. From the simulations we obtain the relevant pair distribution functions (PDFs), and effective potentials for the interparticle interaction are extracted from these PDFs via the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the Percus-Yevick closure. The correlations in the granular structures originating from these effective potentials are checked against the originating PDF using standard Monte Carlo simulations, and we find in general an excellent agreement. The resulting effective potentials show an increase of the spatial correlation at contact with the decreasing values of the restitution coefficient, and a tendency of the potentials to display deeper wells for more dissipative dynamics. A general exception to this trend appears for a range of values of the forcing, which depends on the restitution coefficient, but not on the density, where resonant bouncing increases correlations, resulting in deeper potential wells. The nature of these resonances is explored and shown to be the result of synchronization in the parabolic flights of the particles.

  7. Cointegration and causal linkages in fertilizer markets across different regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2017-04-01

    Cointegration and causal linkages among five different fertilizer markets are investigated during low and high market regimes. The database includes prices of rock phosphate (RP), triple super phosphate (TSP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), urea, and potassium chloride (PC). It is found that fertilizer markets are closely linked to each other during low and high regimes; and, particularly during high regime (after 2007 international financial crisis). In addition, there is no evidence of bidirectional linear relationship between markets during low and high regime time periods. Furthermore, all significant linkages are only unidirectional. Moreover, some causality effects have emerged during high regime. Finally, the effect of an impulse during high regime time period persists longer and is stronger than the effect of an impulse during low regime time period (before 2007 international financial crisis).

  8. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Berni Canani; Margherita Di Costanzo; Ludovica Leone; Monica Pedata; Rosaria Meli; Antonio Calignano

    2011-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from nonabsorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport,ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status,reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition,a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases,hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different;many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine.

  9. QCD Effective action at high temperature and small chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Villavicencio, C

    2007-01-01

    We present a construction of an effective Yang-Mills action for QCD, from the expansion of the fermionic determinant in terms of powers of the chemical potential at high temperature, for the case of massless quarks. We analyze this expansion in the perturbative region and find that it gives extra spurious information. We propose for the non-perturbative sector a simplified effective action which, in principle, contains only the relevant information.

  10. [Classic psychedelic drugs and their potential therapeutic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Michael

    2017-09-11

    Over the past decade we have witnessed a renewed scientific interest in the classic hallucinogens (psychedelic drugs). These are substances which exert their effects by an agonist action on the 5-HT2A receptors. The purpose of this paper is to provide a short review and discussion of the psychedelic drugs, their safety profile and their potential antidepressive, anxiolytic and antiaddictive effects. The article primarily focusses on the most recent clinical trials.

  11. Screening and damping effects on the thermodynamic potential in QGP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 李家荣

    2003-01-01

    By using the spectral functions of gluons, which contain Debye screening and soft damping effects,the effective two-loop thermodynamic potential in quark-gluon plasma was evaluated via real-time temperatureQCD. The result that depends on screening and damping of gluons as physical parameters is obtained. It canbe seen that our analytical result and the recent lattice results are in agreement for T〉~2Tc.

  12. Potential effects of environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeland, G.V.; Boies, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    The potential effects of several types of applicable environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development were assessed, and particular problem areas were identified. The possible impact of procedures adopted pursuant to the following Federal statutes were analyzed: Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. State regulations applicable, or potentially applicable, to geothermal facilities were also reviewed to determine: permit information requirements; pre-permit air or water quality monitoring requirements; effect of mandated time frames for permit approval; and potential for exemption of small facilities. The regulations of the following states were covered in the review: Alaska; Arizona; California; Colorado; Hawaii; Idaho; Montana; Nevada; New Mexico; Oregon; Utah; Washington; and Wyoming. (MHR)

  13. Potentiators exert distinct effects on human, murine, and Xenopus CFTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guiying; Khazanov, Netaly; Stauffer, Brandon B; Infield, Daniel T; Imhoff, Barry R; Senderowitz, Hanoch; McCarty, Nael A

    2016-08-01

    VX-770 (Ivacaftor) has been approved for clinical usage in cystic fibrosis patients with several CFTR mutations. Yet the binding site(s) on CFTR for this compound and other small molecule potentiators are unknown. We hypothesize that insight into this question could be gained by comparing the effect of potentiators on CFTR channels from different origins, e.g., human, mouse, and Xenopus (frog). In the present study, we combined this comparative molecular pharmacology approach with that of computer-aided drug discovery to identify and characterize new potentiators of CFTR and to explore possible mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that 1) VX-770, NPPB, GlyH-101, P1, P2, and P3 all exhibited ortholog-specific behavior in that they potentiated hCFTR, mCFTR, and xCFTR with different efficacies; 2) P1, P2, and P3 potentiated hCFTR in excised macropatches in a manner dependent on the degree of PKA-mediated stimulation; 3) P1 and P2 did not have additive effects, suggesting that these compounds might share binding sites. Also 4) using a pharmacophore modeling approach, we identified three new potentiators (IOWH-032, OSSK-2, and OSSK-3) that have structures similar to GlyH-101 and that also exhibit ortholog-specific potentiation of CFTR. These could potentially serve as lead compounds for development of new drugs for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. The ortholog-specific behavior of these compounds suggest that a comparative pharmacology approach, using cross-ortholog chimeras, may be useful for identification of binding sites on human CFTR.

  14. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  15. [Dystroglycan linkage and muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Teruo

    2002-11-01

    Dystroglycan is a key complex between basal lamina laminin, extracellularly and membrano-cytoskeleton, intracellularly. The damage of this linkage is turned out to cause muscular dystrophies. Dystroglycan knockout is lethal. Dystroglycan-associated intracellular proteins such as dystrophin, dystrobrevin, sarcoglycans, plectin and caveolin-3 are responsible for causing severe (Duchenne type) and moderate forms (Becker, LGMDs). Laminin, dystroglycan-binding extracellular protein, is deficient in the most severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy with normal intelligence and eye. Recently, a remarkable progress is made in most severe forms of congenital muscular dystrophy with anomalies of brain and eye such as Fukuyama type (Japan) and muscle-eye-brain disease (Finland). The gene product for Fukuyama type, fukutin, belongs to a family of glycosylation enzymes in bacteria and yeast. Since alpha-dystroglycan contains 14-15 o-glycans, ser/thr-mannose 2-1 GlcNAc 4-1 Gal 3-2 Sial in the middle third mucin-domain and the sial-o-glycan is essential for laminin-binding, and since alpha-dystroglycan is defective in Fukuyama type sarcolemma with anti both sugar moiety- and peptide-antidodies, defective fukutin causes incomplete o-glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. In '02, it is clarified that a glycosylation enzyme, POMGnT1 which modifies GlcNAc onto ser/thr-mannose, is defective in 6 MEB patients. The loss of the enzyme activity is turned out to lose alpha-dystroglycan from sarcolemma of MEB. These data strongly suggests that o-glycosylation defect of alpha-dystroglycan causes the most severe congenital muscular dystrophy such as Fukuyama type, MEB and Walker Warburg syndrome.

  16. An estimating function approach to linkage heterogeneity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    He Gao; Ying Zhou; Weijun Ma; Haidong Liu; Linan Zhao

    2013-12-01

    Testing linkage heterogeneity between two loci is an important issue in genetics. Currently, there are four methods (K-test, A-test, B-test and D-test) for testing linkage heterogeneity in linkage analysis, which are based on the likelihood-ratio test. Among them, the commonly used methods are the K-test and A-test. In this paper, we present a novel test method which is different from the above four tests, called G-test. The new test statistic is based on estimating function, possessing a theoretic asymptotic distribution, and therefore demonstrates its own advantages. The proposed test is applied to analyse a real pedigree dataset. Our simulation results also indicate that the G-test performs well in terms of power of testing linkage heterogeneity and outperforms the current methods to some degree.

  17. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  18. Connectivity and Linkages Between Isolated Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Proposed areas where connectiviy and linkages between isolated habitat on the San Joaquin Valley floor and natural lands in the surrounding foothills should be...

  19. Examining triclosan-induced potentiation of the estrogen uterotrophic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triclosan (TCS), a widely used antibacterial, has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor. We reported previously that TCS potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth in rats orally administered 3 μg/kg EE and TCS (2 to 18 mg/kg) in the utero...

  20. Potential effects of chlorogenic acids on platelet activiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee (Coffea sp) is a most consumed beverage world-wide. Chlorogenic acids (CHAs) are naturally occurring phenolic acid esters abundantly found in coffee. They are reported to have potential health effects on several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). At...

  1. Why are effective potentials 'soft'?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, Sabine H L; Diestler, Dennis J; Schoen, Martin [Stranski-Laboratorium fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Sekretariat TC7, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17 Juni 124, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2004-10-20

    This paper is concerned with effective potentials W{sub 1}(R) between interacting supramolecular particles separated by a distance R. We focus on the question of why these potentials are typically 'soft', i.e., remain finite for R {yields} 0 and vary more weakly with R than the underlying interatomic interaction potentials. On the basis of a general expression linking W{sub 1}(R) to the free energy F of the supramolecular system we investigate the origin of the apparent 'softness' of W{sub 1}(R) by considering a number of special model systems, starting with an atom and a diatomic molecule. This simple model already yields a W{sub 1}(R) that is finite at R = 0, but W{sub 1}(R) does not exhibit the slowly varying character typical of effective potentials for realistic systems. We then show that the larger length scale is recovered when one introduces both many-body interactions and thermal fluctuations within the framework of a 'toy model', that is disc-shaped supramolecular units composed of thermalized configurations of Lennard-Jones atoms. In this case, W{sub 1}(R) varies so slowly that it can be parametrized by estimating the free energy change associated with the overlap of the discs. The resulting overlap approximation to W{sub 1}(R) behaves qualitatively like ad hoc effective potentials used in mesoscale simulations, such as dissipative particle dynamics. Indeed, on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations and a solution of hypernetted chain integral equations, we find that fluids interacting via DPD and overlap potentials have very similar structural and thermophysical properties. Moreover, the 'overlap' fluid (like other 'effective' fluids) turns out to be so 'soft' that its properties, particularly at high densities, can be very well estimated by a mean-field treatment.

  2. Evolution of zygotic linkage disequilibrium in a finite local population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Sheng Hu

    Full Text Available One crucial feature of zygotic linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis is its direct use of diploid genotyping data, irrespective of the type of mating system. Previous theories from an evolutionary perspective mainly focus on gametic LD, but the equivalent development for zygotic LD is not available. Here I study the evolution of zygotic LD and the covariances between gametic and zygotic LDs or between distinct zygotic LDs in a finite local population under constant immigration from a continent population. I derive the analytical theory under genetic hitchhiking effects or in a neutral process. Results indicate that zygotic LDs (diploid level are more informative than gametic LD (haploid level in indicating the effects of different evolutionary forces. Zygotic LDs may be greater than or comparable to gametic LD under the epistatic selection process, but smaller than gametic LD under the non epistatic selection process. The covariances between gametic and zygotic LDs are strongly affected by the mating system, linkage distance, and genetic drift effects, but weakly affected by seed and pollen flow and natural selection. The covariances between different zygotic LDs are generally robust to the effects of gene flow, selection, and linkage distance, but sensitive to the effects of genetic drift and mating system. Consistent patterns exist for the covariances between the zygotic LDs for the two-locus genotypes with one common genotype at one locus or without any common genotype at each locus. The results highlight that zygotic LDs can be applied to detecting natural population history.

  3. Asymptotic Near Nucleus Structure of the Electron-Interaction Potential in Local Effective Potential Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Viraht; Qian, Zhixin

    2007-03-01

    In previous work, it has been shown that for spherically symmetric or sphericalized systems, the asymptotic near nucleus structure of the electron-interaction potential is vee(r) = vee(0) + βr + γr^2. In this paper we prove via time-independent Quantal Density Functional Theory[1](Q-DFT): (i) correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle and Coulomb repulsion do not contribute to the linear structure;(ii) these Pauli and Coulomb correlations contribute quadratically; (iii) the linear structure is solely due to Correlation-Kinetic effects, the coefficient β being determined analytically. By application of adiabatic coupling constant perturbation theory via QDFT we further prove: (iv) the Kohn-Sham (KS-DFT) `exchange' potential vx(r) approaches the nucleus linearly, this structure being due solely to lowest- order Correlation-Kinetic effects: (v) the KS-DFT `correlation' potential vc(r) also approaches the nucleus linearly, being solely due to higher-order Correlation-Kinetic contributions. The above conclusions are equally valid for system of arbitrary symmetry, provided spherical averages of the properties are employed. 1 Quantal Density Functional Theory, V. Sahni (Springer-Verlag 2004)

  4. Quantum mechanics of effective potential at a metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomatin, Alexander

    In this thesis we study the nonuniform electron density system at a metal-vacuum interface via the corresponding local effective potential confining the electrons, the metal being represented by the jellium and structureless pseudopotential models. The study is performed within conventional Kohn-Sham (KS) density-functional theory and its recently derived quantum-mechanical interpretation. In the latter, properties are determined in terms of the separate electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion and the correlation contribution to the kinetc energy. We have derived the exact analytical structure, valid for self-consistent orbitals, of the KS theory exchange potential in the classically forbidden region. This structure is image-potential-like of the form -alphasb{KS,x}(beta)chi where the parameter betasp2 is the ratio of the surface barrier height to the metal Fermi energy. For a Wigner-Seitz radius of rsb{s} = 4.1, which is approximately that for which jellium metal is stable, the decay coefficient is precisely 1/4. Over the metallic range of densities rsb{s} = 2-6, the coefficient ranges from 0.195 to 0.274. Thus, if the asymptotic structure of the KS exchange-correlation potential is the image potential, then this structure is due principally to KS exchange effects, the KS correlation contribution being an order of magnitude smaller. These results, then lead to the concept of an 'image' charge localized to the surface region for asymptotic positions of the electron. We have further derived the exact analytical structure in the vacuum of the Slater exchange potential, and of the Pauli-correlation and correlation-kinetic components of the KS exchange potential. These structures are all image-potential-like, decaying respectively as -alphasb{S}(beta)chi,\\ -alphasb{W}(beta)chi and alphasbsp{tsb{c}}{(1)}(beta)/chi. The Pauli-correlation component constitutes the major fraction of the KS exchange potential asymptotically, but there

  5. 连接链长对双核钌分子内与分子间协同 ECL影响研究%Research on effect of different carbon chain linkage on concerted intra- & intermolecular ECL of bimetallic ruthenium complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤玉; 孙世国; 高玉龙

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of carbon chain linkage on both intramolecular and intra‐&intermolecular electrochemiluminescence ( ECL ) of bimetallic ruthenium complexes Ru(bpy)2+3 (CH2 )nRu(bpy)2+3 (n=3 ,5 ,8) ,ECL measurement has been performed with and without the presence of amine co‐reactants ,such as dibutylaminoethanol (DBAE) and tripropylamine (TPA) , on different working electrodes ,such as Pt ,glassy carbon (GC) and Au .The experimental results demonstrate that the longer the carbon chain linkage , the stronger the ECL intensity , and quite different ECL performance can be observed on different working electrodes .All these results can lay a solid foundation for structure designing of bimetallic ECL labels , and improvement of the ECL efficiency through combining both intra‐ & intermolecular interaction .%  为深入研究连接碳链长度 n对双核三联吡啶钌标记物Ru(bpy)2+3(CH2)nRu(bpy)2+3(n=3,5,8)自身分子内,以及不同外加碱存在下的分子内与分子间协同ECL性能,考察了在DBAE(二丁基乙醇胺)、TPA(三丙胺)等共反应碱存在下,Pt、Au、GC等不同工作电极上,连接碳链长度 n对双核标记物自身分子内,以及外加碱存在下的分子内与分子间协同EC L性能的影响规律。结果表明,EC L强度随着连接碳链长度的增加逐渐增大,并且工作电极种类将直接影响EC L结果,这为今后该类双核标记物的结构设计以及双核标记物分子内与分子间协同EC L性能的提升奠定了基础。

  6. Effects of auroral potential drops on plasma sheet dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Sheng; Lotko, William; Zhang, Binzheng; Wiltberger, Michael; Lyon, John

    2016-11-01

    The reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to dynamic auroral potential drops is investigated using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global model including, for the first time in a global simulation, the dissipative load of field-aligned potential drops in the low-altitude boundary condition. This extra load reduces the field-aligned current (j||) supplied by nightside reconnection dynamos. The system adapts by forcing the nightside X line closer to Earth, with a corresponding reduction in current lensing (j||/B = constant) at the ionosphere and additional contraction of the plasma sheet during substorm recovery and steady magnetospheric convection. For steady and moderate solar wind driving and with constant ionospheric conductance, the cross polar cap potential and hemispheric field-aligned current are lower by approximately the ratio of the peak field-aligned potential drop to the cross polar cap potential (10-15%) when potential drops are included. Hemispheric ionospheric Joule dissipation is less by 8%, while the area-integrated, average work done on the fluid by the reconnecting magnetotail field increases by 50% within |y| < 8 RE. Effects on the nightside plasma sheet include (1) an average X line 4 RE closer to Earth; (2) a 12% higher mean reconnection rate; and (3) dawn-dusk asymmetry in reconnection with a 17% higher rate in the premidnight sector.

  7. Evaluation Of Potential Cytotoxic Effects Of Herbal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanovic Ana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have played an important role in treating different diseases since ancient times. Bioactive components of medicinal plants are a good starting point for discovering new drugs such as chemotherapeutics. Currently, there are four classes of plant-derived chemotherapeutic drugs used in clinical practice. However, to discover new potential cytotoxic molecules, the research effort on herbal extracts has not diminished. The aim of this review was to evaluate the chemical constituents of plants that possess cytotoxicity, the signalling pathways responsible for this effect, and the influence of solvent polarity on potential cytotoxic effect and to present the cytotoxic activity of selected herbal extracts. The polyphenolic, anthraquinon, diterpneoid, triterpenoid, flavonoid, betulinic acid and berberine content contributes to cytotoxicity of herbal extracts. The inhibitory effect on cancer cells viability could be a consequence of the non-apoptotic processes, such as cell cycle arrestment, and the apoptotic process in tumour cells through different signalling pathways. The influence of solvent polarity on potential cytotoxic effect of herbal extracts should not be ignored. In general, the best cytotoxic activity was found in nonpolar and moderately polar herbal extracts. The herbal extract with IC50 below 30 μg/ml could be considered a very strong cytotoxic agent. Considering that many antitumor drugs have been discovered from natural products, further research on plants and plant-derived chemicals may result in the discovery of potent anticancer agents.

  8. Comparative linkage analysis and visualization of high-density oligonucleotide SNP array data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Richard JH

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of disease-associated genes using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs has been increasingly reported. In particular, the Affymetrix Mapping 10 K SNP microarray platform uses one PCR primer to amplify the DNA samples and determine the genotype of more than 10,000 SNPs in the human genome. This provides the opportunity for large scale, rapid and cost-effective genotyping assays for linkage analysis. However, the analysis of such datasets is nontrivial because of the large number of markers, and visualizing the linkage scores in the context of genome maps remains less automated using the current linkage analysis software packages. For example, the haplotyping results are commonly represented in the text format. Results Here we report the development of a novel software tool called CompareLinkage for automated formatting of the Affymetrix Mapping 10 K genotype data into the "Linkage" format and the subsequent analysis with multi-point linkage software programs such as Merlin and Allegro. The new software has the ability to visualize the results for all these programs in dChip in the context of genome annotations and cytoband information. In addition we implemented a variant of the Lander-Green algorithm in the dChipLinkage module of dChip software (V1.3 to perform parametric linkage analysis and haplotyping of SNP array data. These functions are integrated with the existing modules of dChip to visualize SNP genotype data together with LOD score curves. We have analyzed three families with recessive and dominant diseases using the new software programs and the comparison results are presented and discussed. Conclusions The CompareLinkage and dChipLinkage software packages are freely available. They provide the visualization tools for high-density oligonucleotide SNP array data, as well as the automated functions for formatting SNP array data for the linkage analysis programs Merlin and Allegro and calling

  9. Music listening after stroke: beneficial effects and potential neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Soto, David

    2012-04-01

    Music is an enjoyable leisure activity that also engages many emotional, cognitive, and motor processes in the brain. Here, we will first review previous literature on the emotional and cognitive effects of music listening in healthy persons and various clinical groups. Then we will present findings about the short- and long-term effects of music listening on the recovery of cognitive function in stroke patients and the underlying neural mechanisms of these music effects. First, our results indicate that listening to pleasant music can have a short-term facilitating effect on visual awareness in patients with visual neglect, which is associated with functional coupling between emotional and attentional brain regions. Second, daily music listening can improve auditory and verbal memory, focused attention, and mood as well as induce structural gray matter changes in the early poststroke stage. The psychological and neural mechanisms potentially underlying the rehabilitating effect of music after stroke are discussed. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Electron interactions in graphene through an effective Coulomb potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joao N. B.; Adam, Shaffique

    A recent numerical work [H.-K. Tang et al, PRL 115, 186602 (2015)] considering graphene's π-electrons interacting through an effective Coulomb potential that is finite at short-distances, stressed the importance of the sp2 -electrons in determining the semimetal to Mott insulator phase transition in graphene. Some years ago, I. F. Herbut [PRL 97, 146401 (2006)] studied such a transition by mapping graphene's π-electrons into a Gross-Neveu model. From a different perspective, D. T. Son [PRB 75, 235423 (2007)] put the emphasis on the long-range interactions by modelling graphene as Dirac fermions interacting through a bare Coulomb potential. Here we build on these works and explore the phase diagram of Dirac fermions interacting through an effective Coulomb-like potential screened at short-distances. The interaction potential used allows for analytic results that controllably switch between the two perspectives above. This work was supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF-NRFF2012-01 and CA2DM medium-sized centre program) and by the Singapore Ministry of Education and Yale-NUS College (R-607-265-01312).

  11. Effective balance equations for elastic composites subject to inhomogeneous potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penta, Raimondo; Ramírez-Torres, Ariel; Merodio, José; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reinaldo

    2017-08-01

    We derive the new effective governing equations for linear elastic composites subject to a body force that admits a Helmholtz decomposition into inhomogeneous scalar and vector potentials. We assume that the microscale, representing the distance between the inclusions (or fibers) in the composite, and its size (the macroscale) are well separated. We decouple spatial variations and assume microscale periodicity of every field. Microscale variations of the potentials induce a locally unbounded body force. The problem is homogenizable, as the results, obtained via the asymptotic homogenization technique, read as a well-defined linear elastic model for composites subject to a regular effective body force. The latter comprises both macroscale variations of the potentials, and nonstandard contributions which are to be computed solving a well-posed elastic cell problem which is solely driven by microscale variations of the potentials. We compare our approach with an existing model for locally unbounded forces and provide a simplified formulation of the model which serves as a starting point for its numerical implementation. Our formulation is relevant to the study of active composites, such as electrosensitive and magnetosensitive elastomers.

  12. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinemann@tu-berlin.de; Klapp, Sabine H. L., E-mail: klapp@physik.tu-berlin.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Palczynski, Karol, E-mail: karol.palczynski@helmholtz-berlin.de; Dzubiella, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.dzubiella@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institut für Physik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB), Institute of Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-07

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations.

  13. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Thomas; Palczynski, Karol; Dzubiella, Joachim; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2014-12-07

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations.

  14. Forest-stream linkages: effects of terrestrial invertebrate input and light on diet and growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a boreal forest stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erős, Tibor; Gustafsson, Pär; Greenberg, Larry A; Bergman, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Subsidies of energy and material from the riparian zone have large impacts on recipient stream habitats. Human-induced changes, such as deforestation, may profoundly affect these pathways. However, the strength of individual factors on stream ecosystems is poorly understood since the factors involved often interact in complex ways. We isolated two of these factors, manipulating the flux of terrestrial input and the intensity of light in a 2×2 factorial design, where we followed the growth and diet of two size-classes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and the development of periphyton, grazer macroinvertebrates, terrestrial invertebrate inputs, and drift in twelve 20 m long enclosed stream reaches in a five-month-long experiment in a boreal coniferous forest stream. We found that light intensity, which was artificially increased 2.5 times above ambient levels, had an effect on grazer density, but no detectable effect on chlorophyll a biomass. We also found a seasonal effect on the amount of drift and that the reduction of terrestrial prey input, accomplished by covering enclosures with transparent plastic, had a negative impact on the amount of terrestrial invertebrates in the drift. Further, trout growth was strongly seasonal and followed the same pattern as drift biomass, and the reduction of terrestrial prey input had a negative effect on trout growth. Diet analysis was consistent with growth differences, showing that trout in open enclosures consumed relatively more terrestrial prey in summer than trout living in covered enclosures. We also predicted ontogenetic differences in the diet and growth of old and young trout, where we expected old fish to be more affected by the terrestrial prey reduction, but we found little evidence of ontogenetic differences. Overall, our results showed that reduced terrestrial prey inputs, as would be expected from forest harvesting, shaped differences in the growth and diet of the top predator, brown trout.

  15. Forest-stream linkages: effects of terrestrial invertebrate input and light on diet and growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta in a boreal forest stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Erős

    Full Text Available Subsidies of energy and material from the riparian zone have large impacts on recipient stream habitats. Human-induced changes, such as deforestation, may profoundly affect these pathways. However, the strength of individual factors on stream ecosystems is poorly understood since the factors involved often interact in complex ways. We isolated two of these factors, manipulating the flux of terrestrial input and the intensity of light in a 2×2 factorial design, where we followed the growth and diet of two size-classes of brown trout (Salmo trutta and the development of periphyton, grazer macroinvertebrates, terrestrial invertebrate inputs, and drift in twelve 20 m long enclosed stream reaches in a five-month-long experiment in a boreal coniferous forest stream. We found that light intensity, which was artificially increased 2.5 times above ambient levels, had an effect on grazer density, but no detectable effect on chlorophyll a biomass. We also found a seasonal effect on the amount of drift and that the reduction of terrestrial prey input, accomplished by covering enclosures with transparent plastic, had a negative impact on the amount of terrestrial invertebrates in the drift. Further, trout growth was strongly seasonal and followed the same pattern as drift biomass, and the reduction of terrestrial prey input had a negative effect on trout growth. Diet analysis was consistent with growth differences, showing that trout in open enclosures consumed relatively more terrestrial prey in summer than trout living in covered enclosures. We also predicted ontogenetic differences in the diet and growth of old and young trout, where we expected old fish to be more affected by the terrestrial prey reduction, but we found little evidence of ontogenetic differences. Overall, our results showed that reduced terrestrial prey inputs, as would be expected from forest harvesting, shaped differences in the growth and diet of the top predator, brown trout.

  16. Driving torque reduction in linkage mechanisms using joint compliance for robot head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chunhao; Yang, Xiaojun

    2015-09-01

    The conventional linkage mechanisms with compliant joint have been widely studied and implemented for increasing the adaptability of the mechanism to external contacts. However, the analysis of how compliant joints in linkage mechanism can reduce the energy consumption isn't still studied deeply. In a mobile service robot head, the actions of blinking the eyes and moving the eyeballs are realized by the planar linkage mechanism respectively. Therefore, minimizing the driving torques through motion trajectories for the linkage mechanism, which will be beneficial to extend the working time for mobile service robots. The dynamic modeling of the linkage mechanism with springs-loaded compliant joint is established. An optimization procedure for obtaining the optimal parameters of springs is proposed for minimizing the max value of driving torques within a range of desired operating conditions. The Simulations prove that the linkage mechanism with compliant joints can effectively reduce the driving torques, and reduce the energy consumption consequently. The framework can also be applied in other similar applications to reduce the driving torque and save energy. Compared with previous efforts, this is the first attempt that the linkage mechanism with complaint joint is applied in the robot head for reducing the driving torque.

  17. Partner influence and in-phase versus anti-phase physiological linkage in romantic couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Rebecca G; Randall, Ashley K; Post, Jessica H; Butler, Emily A

    2013-06-01

    Between-partner physiological linkage can be in-phase (changes in unison), or anti-phase (changes in opposite directions). In the context of conversation we predicted that in-phase linkage would occur when partners exert strong influence on each other; anti-phase linkage would occur due to the behavioral coordination of turn taking. To test this, blood pressure, inter-beat interval, and skin conductance were recorded from 44 heterosexual couples while they discussed how they influence each other's health-related behaviors. Partner influence was assessed in two ways: 1) partners' global perceptions of how they try to influence each other's health; and 2) behavioral manifestations of influence, specifically demand-withdraw behavior. As predicted, both measures of partner influence moderated physiological linkage of blood pressure such that at low levels of influence linkage was "anti-phase" and at high levels linkage was "in-phase." Several alternative hypotheses were ruled out; the effects were not due to relationship conflict, emotional experience, or simply the pattern of blood pressure over time. These results suggest that partner influence may be driving physiological linkage, which may be one avenue through which partners can affect each other's health.

  18. Potential neoplastic effects of parathion-methyl on rat liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Nisa UNALDI CORAL; Sonay UCMAN; Hasan YILDIZ; Haydar OZTAS; Semih DALKILIC

    2009-01-01

    The mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of parathion-methyl were examined by bacterial reverse assay and a long term experiment with Wistar rats. The potential mutagenic effect of parathion-methyl in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 bacterial cells was observed without rat liver S9 metabolic activation. Parathion-methyl was further investigated for pathological changes in rat pancreas and liver. The long-term rat experiments showed that parathion-methyl exposure for 3 months can cause pathological changes in rat pancreases acinar cells and pancreatic hepatocytes. Atypical acinar cell focuses (AACF) were determined in the liver and pancreas of the rats. The results from short-term Ames test and long-term rat experiments suggest that parathion-methyl would be potential carcinogenic.

  19. Linear models for joint association and linkage QTL mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rohan L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populational linkage disequilibrium and within-family linkage are commonly used for QTL mapping and marker assisted selection. The combination of both results in more robust and accurate locations of the QTL, but models proposed so far have been either single marker, complex in practice or well fit to a particular family structure. Results We herein present linear model theory to come up with additive effects of the QTL alleles in any member of a general pedigree, conditional to observed markers and pedigree, accounting for possible linkage disequilibrium among QTLs and markers. The model is based on association analysis in the founders; further, the additive effect of the QTLs transmitted to the descendants is a weighted (by the probabilities of transmission average of the substitution effects of founders' haplotypes. The model allows for non-complete linkage disequilibrium QTL-markers in the founders. Two submodels are presented: a simple and easy to implement Haley-Knott type regression for half-sib families, and a general mixed (variance component model for general pedigrees. The model can use information from all markers. The performance of the regression method is compared by simulation with a more complex IBD method by Meuwissen and Goddard. Numerical examples are provided. Conclusion The linear model theory provides a useful framework for QTL mapping with dense marker maps. Results show similar accuracies but a bias of the IBD method towards the center of the region. Computations for the linear regression model are extremely simple, in contrast with IBD methods. Extensions of the model to genomic selection and multi-QTL mapping are straightforward.

  20. Quantum effective potential, electron transport and conformons in biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandoloff, Rossen [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Balakrishnan, Radha [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2005-07-08

    In the Kirchhoff model of a biopolymer, conformation dynamics can be described in terms of solitary waves, for certain special cross-section asymmetries. Applying this to the problem of electron transport, we show that the quantum effective potential arising due to the bends and twists of the polymer enables us to formalize and quantify the concept of a conformon that has been hypothesized in biology. Its connection to the soliton solution of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation emerges in a natural fashion.

  1. Opinion on potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In January 2015, the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) published its final opinion on "Potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields." The purpose of this document was to update previous SCENIHR opinions in the light of recently available information since then, and to give special consideration to areas that had not been dealt with in the previous opinions or in which important knowledge gaps had been identified.

  2. EFFECTS OF MANGANESE ON THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS: POTENTIAL LINKS

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, OP; Aschner, M.

    2007-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace nutrient that is potentially toxic at high levels of exposure. As a constituent of numerous enzymes and a cofactor, manganese plays an important role in a number of physiologic processes in mammals. The manganese-containing enzyme, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), is the principal antioxidant enzyme which neutralizes the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species. Other manganese-containing enzymes include oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, l...

  3. RAPD linkage mapping in a longleaf pine x slash pine F1 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisiak, T L; Nelson, C D; Nance, W L; Stine, M

    1995-06-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to construct linkage maps of the parent of a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englm.) F1 family. A total of 247 segregating loci [233 (1∶1), 14 (3∶1)] and 87 polymorphic (between parents), but non-segregating, loci were identified. The 233 loci segregating 1∶1 (testcross configuration) were used to construct parent-specific linkage maps, 132 for the longleaf-pine parent and 101 for the slash-pine parent. The resulting linkage maps consisted of 122 marker loci in 18 groups (three or more loci) and three pairs (1367.5 cM) for longleaf pine, and 91 marker loci in 13 groups and six pairs for slash pine (952.9 cM). Genome size estimates based on two-point linkage data ranged from 2348 to 2392 cM for longleaf pine, and from 2292 to 2372 cM for slash pine. Linkage of 3∶1 loci to testcross loci in each of the parental maps was used to infer further linkages within maps, as well as potentially homologous counterparts between maps. Three of the longleaf-pine linkage groups appear to be potentially homologous counterparts to four different slash-pine linkage groups. The number of heterozygous loci (previously testcross in parents) per F1 individual, ranged from 96 to 130. With the 87 polymorphic, but non-segregating, loci that should also be heterozygous in the F1 progeny, a maximum of 183-217 heterozygous loci could be available for mapping early height growth (EHG) loci and for applying genomic selection in backcross populations.

  4. Effective potential and Goldstone bosons in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate nonperturbative infrared effects for the O(N) linear sigma model in de Sitter space using the two-particle irreducible effective action at the Hartree truncation level. This approximation resums the infinite series of so-called superdaisy diagrams. For the proper treatment of ultraviolet divergences, we first study the renormalization of this approximation on a general curved background. Then, we calculate radiatively corrected masses and the effective potential. As a result, spontaneous symmetry breaking is possible, on the other hand, the Goldstone modes acquire a positive definite mass term due to the screening effects of interaction. Possible infrared divergence is self-regulated by the mass term. Furthermore, there is a symmetry restoring phase transition as a function of the Hubble parameter. In our approximation, the phase transition is of first order.

  5. The Optimization Design of Six-bar Linkage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At present, multi-bar linkage mechanism is one of the most important directions of mechanical presses’ development. Utilizing the typical multi-linkage drawing mechanism of the plunger slide and compounding its parameters scientifically are a fairly effective way to realize the drawing technology demand. This paper established kinematics mode of the six-bar drawing mechanism by bar-group method, and produced simulated system by Visual Basic, which simulated the actual motion of the mechanism. With the objective function-velocity fluctuation in drawing and drawing depth, using chaos genetic algorithm method, carried out optimization design of the mechanism, and acquired several groups’ data. The optimization results showed that their performance in kinematics was improved greatly and had exceeded the original mechanism.  

  6. Hofmeister effects: interplay of hydration, nonelectrostatic potentials, and ion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Drew F; Boström, Mathias; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Ninham, Barry W

    2011-07-21

    The classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloids, and corresponding theories of electrolytes, are unable to explain ion specific forces between colloidal particles quantitatively. The same is true generally, for surfactant aggregates, lipids, proteins, for zeta and membrane potentials and in adsorption phenomena. Even with fitting parameters the theory is not predictive. The classical theories of interactions begin with continuum solvent electrostatic (double layer) forces. Extensions to include surface hydration are taken care of with concepts like inner and outer Helmholtz planes, and "dressed" ion sizes. The opposing quantum mechanical attractive forces (variously termed van der Waals, Hamaker, Lifshitz, dispersion, nonelectrostatic forces) are treated separately from electrostatic forces. The ansatz that separates electrostatic and quantum forces can be shown to be thermodynamically inconsistent. Hofmeister or specific ion effects usually show up above ≈10(-2) molar salt. Parameters to accommodate these in terms of hydration and ion size had to be invoked, specific to each case. Ionic dispersion forces, between ions and solvent, for ion-ion and ion-surface interactions are not explicit in classical theories that use "effective" potentials. It can be shown that the missing ionic quantum fluctuation forces have a large role to play in specific ion effects, and in hydration. In a consistent predictive theory they have to be included at the same level as the nonlinear electrostatic forces that form the skeletal framework of standard theory. This poses a challenge. The challenges go further than academic theory and have implications for the interpretation and meaning of concepts like pH, buffers and membrane potentials, and for their experimental interpretation. In this article we overview recent quantitative developments in our evolving understanding of the theoretical origins of specific ion, or Hofmeister effects. These are demonstrated

  7. Fine mapping quantitative trait loci under selective phenotyping strategies based on linkage and linkage disequilibrium criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari-Mahyari, S; Berg, P; Lund, M S

    2009-01-01

    In fine mapping of a large-scale experimental population where collection of phenotypes are very expensive, difficult to record or time-demanding, selective phenotyping could be used to phenotype the most informative individuals. Linkage analyses based sampling criteria (LAC) and linkage...... disequilibrium-based sampling criteria (LDC) for selecting individuals to phenotype are compared to random phenotyping in a quantitative trait loci (QTL) verification experiment using stochastic simulation. Several strategies based on LAC and LDC for selecting the most informative 30%, 40% or 50% of individuals...... for phenotyping to extract maximum power and precision in a QTL fine mapping experiment were developed and assessed. Linkage analyses for the mapping was performed for individuals sampled on LAC within families and combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analyses was performed for individuals sampled across...

  8. Thermal grill conditioning: Effect on contact heat evoked potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutzeler, Catherine R.; Warner, Freda M.; Wanek, Johann; Curt, Armin; Kramer, John L. K.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘thermal grill illusion’ (TGI) is a unique cutaneous sensation of unpleasantness, induced through the application of interlacing warm and cool stimuli. While previous studies have investigated optimal parameters and subject characteristics to evoke the illusion, our aim was to examine the modulating effect as a conditioning stimulus. A total of 28 healthy control individuals underwent three testing sessions on separate days. Briefly, 15 contact heat stimuli were delivered to the right hand dorsum, while the left palmar side of the hand was being conditioned with either neutral (32 °C), cool (20 °C), warm (40 °C), or TGI (20/40 °C). Rating of perception (numeric rating scale: 0–10) and evoked potentials (i.e., N1 and N2P2 potentials) to noxious contact heat stimuli were assessed. While cool and warm conditioning decreased cortical responses to noxious heat, TGI conditioning increased evoked potential amplitude (N1 and N2P2). In line with other modalities of unpleasant conditioning (e.g., sound, visual, and olfactory stimulation), cortical and possibly sub-cortical modulation may underlie the facilitation of contact heat evoked potentials. PMID:28079118

  9. Structural properties of effective potential model by liquid state theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yuan-Tao; Andrej Jamnik; Yang Kai-Wei

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the structural properties of a model fluid dictated by an effective inter-particle oscillatory potential by grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo (GCEMC) simulation and classical liquid state theories. The chosen oscillatory potential incorporates basic interaction terms used in modeling of various complex fluids which is composed of mesoscopic particles dispersed in a solvent bath, the studied structural properties include radial distribution function in bulk and inhomogeneous density distribution profile due to influence of several external fields. The GCEMC results are employed to test the validity of two recently proposed theoretical approaches in the field of atomic fluids. One is an Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory approach; the other is a third order + second order perturbation density functional theory. Satisfactory agreement between the GCEMC simulation and the pure theories fully indicates the ready adaptability of the atomic fluid theories to effective model potentials in complex fluids, and classifies the proposed theoretical approaches as convenient tools for the investigation of complex fluids under the single component macro-fluid approximation.

  10. Combining Slater-type orbitals and effective core potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Michał; Tucholska, Aleksandra M.; Moszynski, Robert

    2017-05-01

    We present a general methodology to evaluate matrix elements of the effective core potentials (ECPs) within a one-electron basis set of Slater-type orbitals (STOs). The scheme is based on translation of individual STO distributions in the framework of the Barnett-Coulson method. We discuss different types of integrals which naturally appear and reduce them to a few basic quantities which can be calculated recursively or purely numerically. Additionally, we consider evaluation of the STOs matrix elements involving the core polarization potentials and effective spin-orbit potentials. Construction of the STOs basis sets designed specifically for use with ECPs is discussed and differences in comparison with all-electron basis sets are briefly summarized. We verify the validity of the present approach by calculating excitation energies, static dipole polarizabilities, and valence orbital energies for the alkaline-earth metals (Ca, Sr, and Ba). Finally, we evaluate interaction energies, permanent dipole moments, and ionization energies for barium and strontium hydrides, and compare them with the best available experimental and theoretical data.

  11. The Effects of Calorie Restriction in Depression and Potential Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Changhong; Zhao, Yinghao; Zhang, Xingyi; Li, Bingjin; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Depression, also called major depressive disorder, is a neuropsychiatric disorder jeopardizing an increasing number of the population worldwide. To date, a large number of studies have devoted great attention to this problematic condition and raised several hypotheses of depression. Based on these theories, many antidepressant drugs were developed for the treatment of depression. Yet, the depressed patients are often refractory to the antidepressant therapies. Recently, increasing experimental evidences demonstrated the effects of calorie restriction in neuroendocrine system and in depression. Both basic and clinical investigations indicated that short-term calorie restriction might induce an antidepressant efficacy in depression, providing a novel avenue for treatment. Molecular basis underlying the antidepressant actions of calorie restriction might involve multiple physiological processes, primarily including orexin signaling activation, increased CREB phosphorylation and neurotrophic effects, release of endorphin and ketone production. However, the effects of chronic calorie restriction were quite controversial, in the cases that it often resulted in the long-term detrimental effects via inhibiting the function of 5-HT system and decreasing leptin levels. Here we review such dual effects of calorie restriction in depression and potential molecular basis behind these effects, especially focusing on antidepressant effects. PMID:26412073

  12. Inter-organizational linkages and resource dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod B. McNaughton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the relationship between inter-industry, inter-corporate ownership (ICO patterns and inter-industry resource exchange patterns. Using data from Statistics Canada, this paper reveals a positive association between the degree of ICO linkages and the degree of input–output dependence among Canadian industry groups. This provides empirical support for the primary assertion of resource dependence theory: that corporations employ ICO linkages to manage their input–output dependence resulting from recurrent resource exchanges. This research differs from extant tests of resource dependence in that it uses data for the population of firms (over a size threshold in Canada and includes all forms of interdependence between enterprises. The findings suggest scenarios in which corporations can adopt ICO linkages to manage resource dependence and reduce transaction costs.

  13. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion—communicative expression and physiological state—to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence. PMID:26903913

  14. Intragroup emotions: physiological linkage and social presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eJärvelä

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion – communicative expression and physiological state – to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member’s physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  15. Linkage disequilibrium fine mapping of quantitative trait loci: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Enciso Miguel

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD to locate genes which affect quantitative traits (QTL has received an increasing interest, but the plausibility of fine mapping using linkage disequilibrium techniques for QTL has not been well studied. The main objectives of this work were to (1 measure the extent and pattern of LD between a putative QTL and nearby markers in finite populations and (2 investigate the usefulness of LD in fine mapping QTL in simulated populations using a dense map of multiallelic or biallelic marker loci. The test of association between a marker and QTL and the power of the test were calculated based on single-marker regression analysis. The results show the presence of substantial linkage disequilibrium with closely linked marker loci after 100 to 200 generations of random mating. Although the power to test the association with a frequent QTL of large effect was satisfactory, the power was low for the QTL with a small effect and/or low frequency. More powerful, multi-locus methods may be required to map low frequent QTL with small genetic effects, as well as combining both linkage and linkage disequilibrium information. The results also showed that multiallelic markers are more useful than biallelic markers to detect linkage disequilibrium and association at an equal distance.

  16. Brain potentials associated with the outcome processing in framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Feng, Yandong; Xu, Qing; Bian, Jun; Tang, Huixian

    2012-10-24

    Framing effect is a cognitive bias referring to the phenomenon that people respond differently to different but objectively equivalent descriptions of the same problem. By measuring event-related potentials, the present study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the framing effect, especially how the negative and positive frames influence the outcome processing in our brain. Participants were presented directly with outcomes framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large and small group conditions, and were asked to rate the favorableness of each of them. The behavioral results showed that the framing effect occurred in both group size conditions, with more favorable evaluations associated with positive framing. Compared with outcomes in positive framing condition, a significant feedback-related negativity (FRN) effect was elicited by outcomes in negative framing condition, even though the outcomes in different conditions were objectively equivalent. The results are explained in terms of the associative model of attribute framing effect which states that attribute framing effect occurs as a result of a valence-based associative processing.

  17. The RG-improved Twin Higgs effective potential at NNLL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Davide; Mimouni, Kin

    2016-11-01

    We present the Renormalization Group improvement of the Twin Higgs effective potential at cubic order in logarithmic accuracy. We first introduce a model-independent low-energy effective Lagrangian that captures both the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson nature of the Higgs field and the twin light degrees of freedom charged under a copy of the Standard Model. We then apply the background field method to systematically re-sum all the one loop diagrams contributing to the potential. We show how this technique can be efficient to implicitly renormalize the higher-dimensional operators in the twin sector without classifying all of them. A prediction for the Higgs mass in the Twin Higgs model is derived and found to be of the order of M H ˜ 120 GeV with an ultraviolet cut-off m * ˜ 10-20 TeV. Irrespective of any possible ultraviolet completion of the low-energy Lagrangian, the infrared degrees of freedom alone are therefore enough to account for the observed value of the Higgs mass through running effects.

  18. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage studies across autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forabosco, Paola; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Ng, Mandy Y; Hermanowski, Jane; Fisher, Sheila A; Criswell, Lindsey A; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are chronic disorders initiated by a loss of immunologic tolerance to self-antigens. They cluster within families, and patients may be diagnosed with more than one disease, suggesting pleiotropic genes are involved in the aetiology of different diseases. To identify potential loci, which confer susceptibility to autoimmunity independent of disease phenotype, we pooled results from genome-wide linkage studies, using the genome scan meta-analysis method (GSMA). The meta-analysis included 42 independent studies for 11 autoimmune diseases, using 7350 families with 18 291 affected individuals. In addition to the HLA region, which showed highly significant genome-wide evidence for linkage, we obtained suggestive evidence for linkage on chromosome 16, with peak evidence at 10.0–19.8 Mb. This region may harbour a pleiotropic gene (or genes) conferring risk for several diseases, although no such gene has been identified through association studies. We did not identify evidence for linkage at several genes known to confer increased risk to different autoimmune diseases (PTPN22, CTLA4), even in subgroups of diseases consistently found to be associated with these genes. The relative risks conferred by variants in these genes are modest (<1.5 in most cases), and even a large study like this meta-analysis lacks power to detect linkage. This study illustrates the concept that linkage and association studies have power to identify very different types of disease-predisposing variants. PMID:18781189

  19. Tracing evolutionary footprints to identify novel gene functional linkages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    Full Text Available Systematic determination of gene function is an essential step in fully understanding the precise contribution of each gene for the proper execution of molecular functions in the cell. Gene functional linkage is defined as to describe the relationship of a group of genes with similar functions. With thousands of genomes sequenced, there arises a great opportunity to utilize gene evolutionary information to identify gene functional linkages. To this end, we established a computational method (called TRACE to trace gene footprints through a gene functional network constructed from 341 prokaryotic genomes. TRACE performance was validated and successfully tested to predict enzyme functions as well as components of pathway. A so far undescribed chromosome partitioning-like protein ro03654 of an oleaginous bacteria Rhodococcus sp. RHA1 (RHA1 was predicted and verified experimentally with its deletion mutant showing growth inhibition compared to RHA1 wild type. In addition, four proteins were predicted to act as prokaryotic SNARE-like proteins, and two of them were shown to be localized at the plasma membrane. Thus, we believe that TRACE is an effective new method to infer prokaryotic gene functional linkages by tracing evolutionary events.

  20. Linkage between interests and verbal fluency of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Slavica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The incentive for studying the linkage between interests and creativity is based on the results of biographical studies that indicate that highly creative individuals had wider and more intensive interests than their peers already in the period of childhood. In the process of defining interests, the child tests his/her capacities and discovers the domain in which he/she will later provide creative contributions. The subject of this paper is the linkage between interests of primary school pupils and their verbal fluency, as basic characteristic of creative thinking. It was determined that the wideness of the span of interests is positively correlated with verbal fluency, whereby the correlation between interests and verbal fluency is somewhat higher for boys (r= 0.33, p = .007 than for girls (r = 0.24, p = .030. Also, the intensity of scientific interest of boys and girls is significantly correlated with their verbal fluency (for boys: = 0.39; for girls: r=0.35. But, when school achievement is statistically controlled, the correlation between the intensity of scientific interests and verbal fluency remains significant for boys, while it disappears for girls. It was concluded that the results confirmed the theoretical assumptions about the importance of interest in creativity and pointed out to the need for paying attention to the effect of gender. Besides the span and intensity of interests, the domain in which interests are manifested and creativity is measured is also important for the linkage with creativity.

  1. Postmarketing drug surveillance by record linkage in Tayside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, I K; Brown, S V; Hamley, J G

    1984-09-01

    The feasibility of conducting postmarketing drug surveillance by record linkage in Tayside was assessed. The key feature of the method is that all hospital discharge data are already computerised by the area health board and may be accessed through the unique community health number (CHNo) which has been allocated to all Tayside residents. The 12 861 prescriptions for cimetidine dispensed in Tayside over a nine month period were collected and the CHNo identified for 76%. These corresponded to 3802 individuals and their discharge data, together with those for an equal number of controls matched by age, sex, and general practitioner were retrieved from the computer. The expected excess of those diseases for which cimetidine is prescribed (peptic ulcer and oesophagitis) was observed. Other drug-disease associations were observed but may have been due to confounding and emphasise the inadequacy of community based controls. The major advantages of record linkage are, firstly, the low cost of the method, the present study costing just over pounds 12 000, and, secondly, the duration of patient follow up which may may be extended for as many years as required simply by rerunning the computer programs. To assemble large patient cohorts the study would have to be extended to other area health boards that are currently developing similar computer systems. Record linkage may provide a cost effective method for the follow up of patients to identify serious adverse drug reactions, particularly those that take several years to develop.

  2. Some methods for blindfolded record linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen Peter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The linkage of records which refer to the same entity in separate data collections is a common requirement in public health and biomedical research. Traditionally, record linkage techniques have required that all the identifying data in which links are sought be revealed to at least one party, often a third party. This necessarily invades personal privacy and requires complete trust in the intentions of that party and their ability to maintain security and confidentiality. Dusserre, Quantin, Bouzelat and colleagues have demonstrated that it is possible to use secure one-way hash transformations to carry out follow-up epidemiological studies without any party having to reveal identifying information about any of the subjects – a technique which we refer to as "blindfolded record linkage". A limitation of their method is that only exact comparisons of values are possible, although phonetic encoding of names and other strings can be used to allow for some types of typographical variation and data errors. Methods A method is described which permits the calculation of a general similarity measure, the n-gram score, without having to reveal the data being compared, albeit at some cost in computation and data communication. This method can be combined with public key cryptography and automatic estimation of linkage model parameters to create an overall system for blindfolded record linkage. Results The system described offers good protection against misdeeds or security failures by any one party, but remains vulnerable to collusion between or simultaneous compromise of two or more parties involved in the linkage operation. In order to reduce the likelihood of this, the use of last-minute allocation of tasks to substitutable servers is proposed. Proof-of-concept computer programmes written in the Python programming language are provided to illustrate the similarity comparison protocol. Conclusion Although the protocols described in

  3. Landscape response to normal fault growth and linkage in the Southern Apennines, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; Whittaker, Alex

    2016-04-01

    It is now well-established that landscape can record spatial and temporal variations in tectonic rates. However, decoding this information to extract detailed histories of fault growth is often a complex problem that requires careful integration of tectonic and geomorphic data sets. Here, we present new data addressing both normal fault evolution and coupled landscape response for two normal faults in the Southern Apennines: the Vallo di Diano and East Agri faults. By integrating published constraints with new data, we show that these faults have total throws of up to 2100 m, and Holocene throw rates of up to 1 mm/yr at their maximum. We demonstrate that geomorphology is effectively recording tectonics, with relief, channel and catchment slopes varying along fault strike as normal fault activity does. Therefore, valuable information about fault growth and interaction can be extracted from their geomorphic expression. We use the spatial distribution of knickpoints on the footwall channels to infer two episodes of base level change, which can be associated with distinct fault interaction events. From our detailed fault throw profiles, we reconstruct the amount of throw accumulated after each of these events, and the segments involved in each, and we use slip rate enhancement factors derived from fault interaction theory to estimate the magnitude of the tectonic perturbation in each case. From this approach, we are able to reconstruct pre-linkage throw rates, and we estimate that fault linkage events likely took place 0.7 ± 0.2 Ma and 1.9 ± 0.6 Ma in the Vallo di Diano fault, and 1.1 ± 0.1 and 2.3 ± 0.9 Ma in the East Agri fault. Our study suggests that both faults started their activity at 3.6 ± 0.5 Ma. These fault linkage scenarios are consistent with the knickpoint heights, and may relate to soft-linkage interaction with the Southern Apennines normal fault array, the existence of which has been the subject of considerable debate. Our combined geomorphic and

  4. Occurrence and Potential Biological Effects of Amphetamine on Stream Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sylvia S; Paspalof, Alexis M; Snow, Daniel D; Richmond, Erinn K; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Kelly, John J

    2016-09-06

    The presence of pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs in aquatic systems, is a topic of environmental significance because of their global occurrence and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health, but few studies have examined the ecological effects of illicit drugs. We conducted a survey of several drug residues, including the potentially illicit drug amphetamine, at 6 stream sites along an urban to rural gradient in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. We detected numerous drugs, including amphetamine (3 to 630 ng L(-1)), in all stream sites. We examined the fate and ecological effects of amphetamine on biofilm, seston, and aquatic insect communities in artificial streams exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (1 μg L(-1)) of amphetamine. The amphetamine parent compound decreased in the artificial streams from less than 1 μg L(-1) on day 1 to 0.11 μg L(-1) on day 22. In artificial streams treated with amphetamine, there was up to 45% lower biofilm chlorophyll a per ash-free dry mass, 85% lower biofilm gross primary production, 24% greater seston ash-free dry mass, and 30% lower seston community respiration compared to control streams. Exposing streams to amphetamine also changed the composition of bacterial and diatom communities in biofilms at day 21 and increased cumulative dipteran emergence by 65% and 89% during the first and third weeks of the experiment, respectively. This study demonstrates that amphetamine and other biologically active drugs are present in urban streams and have the potential to affect both structure and function of stream communities.

  5. Effective Potential Theory for Diffusion in Binary Ionic Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R; Daligault, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Self-diffusion and interdiffusion coefficients of binary ionic mixtures are evaluated using the Effective Potential Theory (EPT), and the predictions are compared with the results of molecular dynamics simulations. We find that EPT agrees with molecular dynamics from weak coupling well into the strong coupling regime, which is a similar range of coupling strengths as previously observed in comparisons with the one-component plasma. Within this range, typical relative errors of approximately 20% and worst-case relative errors of approximately 40% are observed. We also examine the Darken model, which approximates the interdiffusion coefficients based on the self-diffusion coefficients.

  6. Virgin coconut oil and its potential cardioprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lavie, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    Emphasis on diet to improve the cardiovascular (CV) risk profile has been the focus of many studies. Recently, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been growing in popularity due to its potential CV benefits. The chemical properties and the manufacturing process of VCO make this oil healthier than its copra-derived counterpart. This review highlights the mechanism through which saturated fatty acids contribute to CV disease (CVD), how oils and fats contribute to the risk of CVD, and the existing views on VCO and how its cardioprotective effects may make this a possible dietary intervention in isolation or in combination with exercise to help reduce the burden of CVDs.

  7. Resummation of Goldstone boson contributions to the MSSM effective potential

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Nilanjana

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the resummation of the Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). This eliminates the formal problems of spurious imaginary parts and logarithmic singularities in the minimization conditions when the tree-level Goldstone boson squared masses are negative or approach zero. The numerical impact of the resummation is shown to be almost always very small. We also show how to write the two-loop minimization conditions so that Goldstone boson squared masses do not appear at all, and so that they can be solved without iteration.

  8. Resummation of Goldstone boson contributions to the MSSM effective potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nilanjana; Martin, Stephen P.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the resummation of the Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. This eliminates the formal problems of spurious imaginary parts and logarithmic singularities in the minimization conditions when the tree-level Goldstone boson squared masses are negative or approach zero. The numerical impact of the resummation is shown to be almost always very small. We also show how to write the two-loop minimization conditions so that Goldstone boson squared masses do not appear at all, and so that they can be solved without iteration.

  9. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  10. Potentiating Effects of Lactuca sativa on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been recommended for its hypnotic property. The present study was planned to investigate sleep-prolonging effect of this plant. The hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of lettuce and its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were administrated (IP) to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. Moreover, both in-vivo and in-vitro toxicity of the extracts were determined. The quality of HAE and NBF was also evaluated using HPLC fingerprint. The HAE prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration at dose of 400 mg/Kg. The NBF was the only fraction which could increase the sleep duration and decrease sleep latency. The effects of NBF were comparable to those of induced by diazepam. The LD50-value for HAE was found to be 4.8 g/Kg. No neurotoxic effect was observed either by HAE or by its fractions in cultured PC12 neuron-like cells. The results suggest that lettuce potentiates pentobarbital hypnosis without major toxic effect. The main component(s) responsible for this effect is most likely to be non-polar agent(s) which found in NBF of this plant.

  11. The Potential Effect of Puerarin in Preventing Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆磊; 何爱霞; 韩慧蓉; 吕欣然; 王士雯

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the activity of Puerarin (Pue) in scavenging oxygen free radical(OFR) and its inhibitory effect on the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Methods:Riboflavin-light system was used to generate superoxide anion, and Fenton reaction to generate hydroxylfree radical to study the activity of Pue in scavenging OFR. Hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis wasused to study the effect of Pue on erythrocyte hemolysis and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. And ul-traviolet ray and cupric sulfate were used to cause the oxidative modification of LDL for studying the inhib-itory effect of Pue on LDL oxidative modification. Results: (1) Pue could, at concentration of 0.01-1.0mmol/L, scavenge superoxide anion radical and at concentration of 7.5-75μmol/L scavenge hydroxyl rad-ical in a concentration dependent manner. (2) Pue could, at concentration of 0.1-10 mmol/L, inhibit sig-nificantly oxidative hemolysis and MDA production of erythrocyte induced by hydrogen peroxide. (3) Pueof 0.01-1.0 mmol/L could inhibit the oxidative modification of LDL in a concentration dependent man-ner. Conclusion: Pue has an anti-peroxidation effect and shows a potential effect in preventing atherosclero-sis.

  12. Baroreceptor activation attenuates attentional effects on pain-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Marcus A; Minati, Ludovico; Paoletti, Giulia; Critchley, Hugo D

    2010-12-01

    Focused attention typically enhances neural nociceptive responses, reflected electroencephalographically as increased amplitude of pain-evoked event-related potentials (ERPs). Additionally, pain-evoked ERPs are attenuated by hypertension and baroreceptor activity, through as yet unclear mechanisms. There is indirect evidence that these two effects may interact, suggesting that baroreceptor-related modulation of nociception is more than a low-level gating phenomenon. To address this hypothesis, we explored in a group of healthy participants the combined effects of cue-induced expectancy and baroreceptor activity on the amplitude of pain-evoked ERPs. Brief nociceptive skin stimuli were delivered during a simple visual task; half were preceded by a visual forewarning cue, and half were unpredictable. Nociceptive stimuli were timed to coincide either with systole (maximum activation of cardiac baroreceptors) or with diastole (minimum baroreceptor activation). We observed a strong interaction between expectancy and cardiac timing for the amplitude of the P2 ERP component; no effects were observed for the N2 component. Cued stimuli were associated with larger P2 amplitude, but this effect was abolished for stimuli presented during baroreceptor activation. No cardiac timing effect was observed for un-cued stimuli. Taken together, these findings suggest a close integration of cognitive-affective aspects of expectancy and baroreceptor influences on pain, and as such may cast further light on mechanisms underlying mental and physiological contributions to clinical pain.

  13. Lithium effects: protection against nitrogen narcosis, potentiation of HPNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P B; Leventhal, B L; Coggin, R; Roby, J; Racanska, L

    1980-03-01

    The effect of either 10, 8, or 6 meq/kg of intraperitoneal lithium chloride or sodium chloride on the loss of righting response (RR50) produced by 18.2 ATA N2-ATA O2 was examined in rats. Results were compared to the effects of 10, 8, 6, or 4 meq/kg of intraperitoneal lithium chloride given 24 h before determination of the convulsion pressure (PC) in 40 rats compressed with He-O2 at 160 atm/h at 37 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Lithium (10 meq/kg) prevented the nitrogen-narcosis-induced loss of righting response but significantly potentiated the pressure (depth) at which convulsions and tremors occurred.

  14. The RG-improved Twin Higgs effective potential at NNLL

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We present the Renormalization Group improvement of the Twin Higgs effective potential at cubic order in logarithmic accuracy. We first introduce a model-independent low-energy effective Lagrangian that captures both the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson nature of the Higgs field and the twin light degrees of freedom charged under a copy of the Standard Model. We then apply the background field method to systematically re-sum all the one loop diagrams contributing to the potential. We show how this technique can be efficient to implicitly renormalize the higher-dimensional operators in the twin sector without classifying all of them. A prediction for the Higgs mass in the Twin Higgs model is derived and found to be of the order of $M_H \\sim 120 ~\\text{GeV}$ with an ultraviolet cut-off $m_*\\sim 10-20 ~\\text{TeV}$. Irrespective of any possible ultraviolet completion of the low-energy Lagrangian, the infrared degrees of freedom alone are therefore enough to account for the observed value of the Higgs mass through run...

  15. Effects of metformin on weight loss: potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Kashyap, Sangeeta R

    2014-10-01

    Despite the known glucose-lowering effects of metformin, more recent clinical interest lies in its potential as a weight loss drug. Herein, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which metformin decreases appetite and opposes unfavorable fat storage in peripheral tissues. Many individuals struggle to maintain clinically relevant weight loss from lifestyle and bariatric surgery interventions. Long-term follow-up from the Diabetes Prevention Program demonstrates that metformin produces durable weight loss, and decreased food intake by metformin is the primary weight loss mechanism. Although the effect of metformin on appetite is likely to be multifactorial, changes in hypothalamic physiology, including leptin and insulin sensitivity, have been documented. In addition, novel work in obesity highlights the gastrointestinal physiology and circadian rhythm changes by metformin as not only affecting food intake, but also the regulation of fat oxidation and storage in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. Metformin induces modest weight loss in overweight and obese individuals at risk for diabetes. A more detailed understanding of how metformin induces weight loss will likely lead to optimal co-prescription of lifestyle modification with pharmacology for the treatment of obesity independent of diabetes.

  16. Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nurul H M; Suhaimi, Farah W; Vadivelu, Raja K; Hassan, Zurina; Rümler, Anne; Rotter, Andrea; Amato, Davide; Dringenberg, Hans C; Mansor, Sharif M; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Müller, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    Mitragynine is the major psychoactive alkaloid of the plant kratom/ketum. Kratom is widely used in Southeast Asia as a recreational drug, and increasingly appears as a pure compound or a component of 'herbal high' preparations in the Western world. While mitragynine/kratom may have analgesic, muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects, its addictive properties and effects on cognitive performance are unknown. We isolated mitragynine from the plant and performed a thorough investigation of its behavioural effects in rats and mice. Here we describe an addictive profile and cognitive impairments of acute and chronic mitragynine administration, which closely resembles that of morphine. Acute mitragynine has complex effects on locomotor activity. Repeated administration induces locomotor sensitization, anxiolysis and conditioned place preference, enhances expression of dopamine transporter- and dopamine receptor-regulating factor mRNA in the mesencephalon. While there was no increase in spontaneous locomotor activity during withdrawal, animals showed hypersensitivity towards small challenging doses for up to 14 days. Severe somatic withdrawal signs developed after 12 hours, and increased level of anxiety became evident after 24 hours of withdrawal. Acute mitragynine independently impaired passive avoidance learning, memory consolidation and retrieval, possibly mediated by a disruption of cortical oscillatory activity, including the suppression of low-frequency rhythms (delta and theta) in the electrocorticogram. Chronic mitragynine administration led to impaired passive avoidance and object recognition learning. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug.

  17. Producer Services, Manufacturing Linkages, and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); J. Kepler; J. Woerz

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWorking with a mix of panel data on goods and services trade for the OECD for 1994-2004, combined with social accounts data (i.e. data on intermediate linkages) for 78 countries benchmarked to the panel midpoint, we examine the role of services as inputs in manufacturing, with a particul

  18. Asset Market Linkages in Crisis Periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hartmann; S. Straetmans; C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe characterize asset return linkages during periods of stress by an extremal dependence measure. Contrary to correlation analysis, this non-parametric measure is not predisposed towards the normal distribution and can account for non-linear relationships. Our estimates for the G-5 count

  19. Asset Market Linkages in Crisis Periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hartmann; S. Straetmans; C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe characterize asset return linkages during periods of stress by an extremal dependence measure. Contrary to correlation analysis, this non-parametric measure is not predisposed towards the normal distribution and can account for non-linear relationships. Our estimates for the G-5

  20. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    : wst5 (white streaks), necl (necrotic leaf spots), Ml-nn (powdery mildew resistance), and Pa4 (leaf rust resistance). Further, the two sections of the map are united, and the precision of the map is improved. A system for designating the positions of the loci on the linkage map is proposed. A 0...

  1. Potential Climate Effects of Dust Aerosols' over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    JI, Z.; Wang, G.; Pal, J. S.; Yu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate in West Africa is under the influence of the West African monsoon circulation and mineral dust emitted from the Sahara desert (which is the world's largest source of mineral dust emission). Dust aerosols alter the atmospheric radiative fluxes and act as cloud condensation nuclei in the process of emission, transportation and deposition. However, our understanding regarding how dust aerosols influence the present-day and future climate of West Africa is very limited. In this study, a regional climate model RegCM4.3.4-CLM4.5 is used to investigate the potential climatic effects of dust aerosols both in present (1981-2000) and future (2081-2100) periods over WA. First, the model performance and dust climatic effects are evaluated. The contribution of dust climatic effects under RCP8.5 scenario and their confounding effects with land use change are assessed. Our results indicate that the model can reproduce with reasonable accuracy the spatial and temporal distribution of climatology, aerosol optical depth and surface concentration over WA. The shortwave radiative forcing of dust is negative in the surface and positive in the atmosphere, with greater changes in JJA and MAM compared to those in SON and DJF. Over most of West Africa, cooling is the dominant effect on temperature. Their impact on precipitation features a dipole pattern, with decrease in the north and increase in the south of West Africa. Despite the dust-induced decrease of precipitation amount, dusts cause extreme precipitation to increase. To evaluate the uncertainties surrounding our modeling results, sensitivity experiments driven by ICBC from MIROC-ESM and CESM and their dynamic downscaling results are used for comparisons. Results from these sensitivity experiments indicate that the impact of dust aerosols on present and future climate is robust.

  2. Potential ergogenic effects of arginine and creatine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Børsheim, Elisabet; Wolfe, Robert R

    2004-10-01

    The rationale for the use of nutritional supplements to enhance exercise capacity is based on the assumption that they will confer an ergogenic effect above and beyond that afforded by regular food ingestion alone. The proposed or advertised ergogenic effect of many supplements is based on a presumptive metabolic pathway and may not necessarily translate to quantifiable changes in a variable as broadly defined as exercise performance. L-arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that has received considerable attention due to potential effects on growth hormone secretion and nitric oxide production. In some clinical circumstances (e.g., burn injury, sepsis) in which the demand for arginine cannot be fully met by de novo synthesis and normal dietary intake, exogenous arginine has been shown to facilitate the maintenance of lean body mass and functional capacity. However, the evidence that supplemental arginine may also confer an ergogenic effect in normal healthy individuals is less compelling. In contrast to arginine, numerous studies have reported that supplementation with the arginine metabolite creatine facilitates an increase in anaerobic work capacity and muscle mass when accompanied by resistance training programs in both normal and patient populations. Whereas improvement in the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis is largely responsible for improvements in acute work capacity, the direct effect of creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle protein synthesis is less clear. The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of arginine and its metabolite creatine in the context of a nutrition supplement for use in conjunction with an exercise stimulus in both healthy and patient populations.

  3. Potential biological and ecological effects of flickering artificial light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Inger

    Full Text Available Organisms have evolved under stable natural lighting regimes, employing cues from these to govern key ecological processes. However, the extent and density of artificial lighting within the environment has increased recently, causing widespread alteration of these regimes. Indeed, night-time electric lighting is known significantly to disrupt phenology, behaviour, and reproductive success, and thence community composition and ecosystem functioning. Until now, most attention has focussed on effects of the occurrence, timing, and spectral composition of artificial lighting. Little considered is that many types of lamp do not produce a constant stream of light but a series of pulses. This flickering light has been shown to have detrimental effects in humans and other species. Whether a species is likely to be affected will largely be determined by its visual temporal resolution, measured as the critical fusion frequency. That is the frequency at which a series of light pulses are perceived as a constant stream. Here we use the largest collation to date of critical fusion frequencies, across a broad range of taxa, to demonstrate that a significant proportion of species can detect such flicker in widely used lamps. Flickering artificial light thus has marked potential to produce ecological effects that have not previously been considered.

  4. Quality of record linkage in a highly automated cancer registry that relies on encrypted identity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidtmann, Irene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the absence of unique ID numbers, cancer and other registries in Germany and elsewhere rely on identity data to link records pertaining to the same patient. These data are often encrypted to ensure privacy. Some record linkage errors unavoidably occur. These errors were quantified for the cancer registry of North Rhine Westphalia which uses encrypted identity data. Methods: A sample of records was drawn from the registry, record linkage information was included. In parallel, plain text data for these records were retrieved to generate a gold standard. Record linkage error frequencies in the cancer registry were determined by comparison of the results of the routine linkage with the gold standard. Error rates were projected to larger registries.Results: In the sample studied, the homonym error rate was 0.015%; the synonym error rate was 0.2%. The F-measure was 0.9921. Projection to larger databases indicated that for a realistic development the homonym error rate will be around 1%, the synonym error rate around 2%.Conclusion: Observed error rates are low. This shows that effective methods to standardize and improve the quality of the input data have been implemented. This is crucial to keep error rates low when the registry’s database grows. The planned inclusion of unique health insurance numbers is likely to further improve record linkage quality. Cancer registration entirely based on electronic notification of records can process large amounts of data with high quality of record linkage.

  5. One-loop potential with scale invariance and effective operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D M

    2016-01-01

    We study quantum corrections to the scalar potential in classically scale invariant theories, using a manifestly scale invariant regularization. To this purpose, the subtraction scale $\\mu$ of the dimensional regularization is generated after spontaneous scale symmetry breaking, from a subtraction function of the fields, $\\mu(\\phi,\\sigma)$. This function is then uniquely determined from general principles showing that it depends on the dilaton only, with $\\mu(\\sigma)\\sim \\sigma$. The result is a scale invariant one-loop potential $U$ for a higgs field $\\phi$ and dilaton $\\sigma$ that contains an additional {\\it finite} quantum correction $\\Delta U(\\phi,\\sigma)$, beyond the Coleman Weinberg term. $\\Delta U$ contains new, non-polynomial effective operators like $\\phi^6/\\sigma^2$ whose quantum origin is explained. A flat direction is maintained at the quantum level, the model has vanishing vacuum energy and the one-loop correction to the mass of $\\phi$ remains small without tuning (of its self-coupling, etc) bey...

  6. Effective potential for moment-method simulation of quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriman, A. M.; Zhou, J.-R.; Kluksdahl, N. C.; Choi, H. H.; Ferry, D. K.

    1989-12-01

    In the simulation of submicron devices, complete quantum descriptions can be extremely computationally intensive, and reduced descriptions are desirable. One such description utilizes a few low-order moments of the momentum distribution that are defined by the Wigner function. Two major difficulties occur in applying this moment method: (i) An independent calculation is required to find quantum mechanically accurate initial conditions. (ii) For a system in a mixed state, the hierarchy of time evolution equations for the moments does not close. We describe an approach to solve these problems. The initial distribution is determined in equilibrium by means of a new effective potential, chosen for its ability to treat the sharp potential features which occur in heterostructures. It accurately describes barrier penetration and repulsion, as well as quantum broadening of the momentum distribution. The moment equation hierarchy is closed at the level of the second-moment time evolution equation, using a closure that is exact for a shifted Fermi distribution. Band-bending is included by simultaneous self-consistent determination of all the moments.

  7. Estimation of Potential Population Level Effects of Contaminants on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.

    2001-06-11

    The objective of this project is to provide DOE with improved methods to assess risks from contaminants to wildlife populations. The current approach for wildlife risk assessment consists of comparison of contaminant exposure estimates for individual animals to literature-derived toxicity test endpoints. These test endpoints are assumed to estimate thresholds for population-level effects. Moreover, species sensitivities to contaminants is one of several criteria to be considered when selecting assessment endpoints (EPA 1997 and 1998), yet data on the sensitivities of many birds and mammals are lacking. The uncertainties associated with this approach are considerable. First, because toxicity data are not available for most potential wildlife endpoint species, extrapolation of toxicity data from test species to the species of interest is required. There is no consensus on the most appropriate extrapolation method. Second, toxicity data are represented as statistical measures (e.g., NOAEL s or LOAELs) that provide no information on the nature or magnitude of effects. The level of effect is an artifact of the replication and dosing regime employed, and does not indicate how effects might increase with increasing exposure. Consequently, slight exceedance of a LOAEL is not distinguished from greatly exceeding it. Third, the relationship of toxic effects on individuals to effects on populations is poorly estimated by existing methods. It is assumed that if the exposure of individuals exceeds levels associated with impaired reproduction, then population level effects are likely. Uncertainty associated with this assumption is large because depending on the reproductive strategy of a given species, comparable levels of reproductive impairment may result in dramatically different population-level responses. This project included several tasks to address these problems: (1) investigation of the validity of the current allometric scaling approach for interspecies extrapolation

  8. An effective quintessence field with a power-law potential

    CERN Document Server

    Khurshudyan, M; Myrzakulov, R; Chattopadhyay, S; Kahya, E O

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we will consider an effective quintessence scalar field with a power-law potential interacting with a $P_{b}=\\xi q\\rho_{b}$ barotropic fluid as a first model, where $q$ is a deceleration parameter. For the second model we assume viscous polytropic gas interacting with the scalar field. We investigate problem numerically and analyze behavior of different cosmological parameter concerning to components and behavior of Universe. We also compare our results with observational data to fix parameters of the models. We find some instabilities in the first model which may disappear in the second model for the appropriate parameters. Therefore, we can propose interacting quintessence dark energy with viscous polytropic gas as a successful model to describe Universe.

  9. Effective potential kinetic theory for strongly coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, Scott D.; Daligault, Jérôme

    2016-11-01

    The effective potential theory (EPT) is a recently proposed method for extending traditional plasma kinetic and transport theory into the strongly coupled regime. Validation from experiments and molecular dynamics simulations have shown it to be accurate up to the onset of liquid-like correlation parameters (corresponding to Γ ≃ 10-50 for the one-component plasma, depending on the process of interest). Here, this theory is briefly reviewed along with comparisons between the theory and molecular dynamics simulations for self-diffusivity and viscosity of the one-component plasma. A number of new results are also provided, including calculations of friction coefficients, energy exchange rates, stopping power, and mobility. The theory is also cast in the Landau and Fokker-Planck kinetic forms, which may prove useful for enabling efficient kinetic computations.

  10. Effective Potential and Interdiffusion in Binary Ionic Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Beznogov, M V

    2014-01-01

    We calculate interdiffusion coefficients in a two-component, weakly or strongly coupled ion plasma (gas or liquid, composed of two ion species immersed into a neutralizing electron background). We use an effective potential method proposed recently by Baalrud and Daligaut [PRL, 110, 235001, (2013)]. It allows us to extend the standard Chapman-Enskog procedure of calculating the interdiffusion coefficients to the case of strong Coulomb coupling. We compute binary diffusion coefficients for several ionic mixtures and fit them by convenient expressions in terms of the generalized Coulomb logarithm. These fits cover a wide range of plasma parameters spanning from weak to strong Coulomb couplings. They can be used to simulate diffusion of ions in ordinary stars as well as in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  11. Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia; Linkage analysis and evidence for linkage to chromosome 2p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figlewicz, D.A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Dube, M.P.; Rouleau, G.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) is a degenerative disorder of the motor system characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs. Little is known about the pathophysiology of this disorder. FSP can be inherited as an autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive, or X-linked trait. We have undertaken linkage analysis for a group of 36 AD FSP families from which we have collected blood samples from 427 individuals, including 148 affected individuals. Typing of polymorphic markers has allowed us to exclude more than 50% of the genome. Recently, linkage for AD FSP to a locus on chromosome 14q was reported. Our AD FSP kindreds were tested for linkage to markers spanning the 20 cM region between D14S69 and D14S66; however, we were not able to establish linkage for any of our families to chromosome 14. Lod scores suggestive of linkage for some AD FSP kindreds have been obtained for markers on chromosome 2p. We have tested seven polymorphic markers spanning the region between D2S405 and D2S177. Our highest aggregate lod score, including all families tested, was obtained at the locus D2S352: 2.4 at 20 cM. Results from HOMOG analysis for linkage heterogeneity will be reported.

  12. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  13. Effect of stimulus check size on multifocal visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Chandra; Klistorner, Alexander I; Graham, Stuart L

    2003-03-01

    In this study we examined the effects of varying stimulus check size on multifocal visual evoked potential (VEP). We also evaluated the currently used cortical scaling of stimulus segments. The ObjectiVision multifocal objective perimeter stimulates the eye with random check patterns at 56 cortically scaled segments within the visual field extending to a radius of 26 degrees. All cortically scaled segments have equal number of checks, which gradually increase in size from the center to the periphery, proportional to the size of the segment. Stimuli with 9, 16, 25, 36 and 49 checks/segment were tested on 10 eyes belonging to 10 normal subjects. The check size varied inversely with number of checks per segment. VEP was recorded using bipolar occipital cross electrodes (7 min/eye), the amplitude and latency of responses obtained were compared with the check size at different eccentricities. Our findings suggest that the existing setting with 16 checks/segment subtending 26' to 140' from center to periphery, is the most effective amongst all the check sizes. Decreasing the check size prolongs the latency in the central field only. Cortical scaling of segments generates responses of the same order of magnitude throughout the field, but could be improved slightly to enhance the signal from the outer two rings.

  14. Investigations on potential co-mutagenic effects of formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speit, Günter; Linsenmeyer, Regina; Duong, Giang; Bausinger, Julia

    2014-02-01

    The genotoxicity and mutagenicity of formaldehyde (FA) has been well-characterized during the last years. Besides its known direct DNA-damaging and mutagenic activity in sufficiently exposed cells, FA at low concentrations might also enhance the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of other environmental mutagens by interfering with the repair of DNA lesions induced by these mutagens. To further assess potential co-mutagenic effects of FA, we exposed A549 human lung cells to FA in combination with various mutagens and measured the induction and removal of DNA damage by the comet assay and the production of chromosomal mutations by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN assay). The mutagens tested were ionizing radiation (IR), (±)-anti-B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), N-nitroso-N-methylurea (methyl nitrosourea; MNU) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). FA (10-75μM) did not enhance the genotoxic and mutagenic activity of these mutagens under the test conditions applied. FA alone and in combination with MNU or MMS did not affect the expression (mRNA level) of the gene of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in A549 cells. The results of these experiments do not support the assumption that low FA concentrations might interfere with the repair of DNA damage induced by other mutagens.

  15. Potential of carbon nanotube field effect transistors for analogue circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Hayat, Khizar

    2013-05-11

    This Letter presents a detailed comparison of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs) and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with special focus on carbon nanotube FET\\'s potential for implementing analogue circuits in the mm-wave and sub-terahertz range. The latest CNFET lithographic dimensions place it at-par with complementary metal oxide semiconductor in terms of current handling capability, whereas the forecasted improvement in the lithography enables the CNFETs to handle more than twice the current of MOSFETs. The comparison of RF parameters shows superior performance of CNFETs with a g m , f T and f max of 2.7, 2.6 and 4.5 times higher, respectively. MOSFET- and CNFET-based inverter, three-stage ring oscillator and LC oscillator have been designed and compared as well. The CNFET-based inverters are found to be ten times faster, the ring oscillator demonstrates three times higher oscillation frequency and CNFET-based LC oscillator also shows improved performance than its MOSFET counterpart.

  16. Potential energetic effects of mountain climbers on foraging grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.; Kendall, K.C.; Picton, H.D.

    1999-01-01

    Most studies of the effects of human disturbance on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) have not quantified the energetic effects of such interactions. In this study, we characterized activity budgets of adult grizzly bears as they foraged on aggregations of adult army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) in the alpine of Glacier National Park, Montana, during 1992, 1994, and 1995. We compared the activity budgets of climber-disturbed bears to those of undisturbed bears to estimate the energetic impact of climber disturbance. When bears detected climbers, they subsequently spent 53% less time foraging on moths, 52% more time moving within the foraging area, and 23% more time behaving aggressively, compared to when they were not disturbed. We estimated that grizzly bears could consume approximately 40,000 moths/day or 1,700 moths/hour. At 0.44 kcal/moth, disruption of moth feeding cost bears approximately 12 kcal/minute in addition to the energy expended in evasive maneuvers and defensive behaviors. To reduce both climber interruption of bear foraging and the potential for aggressive bear-human encounters, we recommend routing climbers around moth sites used by bears or limiting access to these sites during bear-use periods.

  17. 人民币隔夜利率互换境内外市场联动效应研究%Linkage effects of onshore and offshore RMB overnight interest rate swap market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于孝建; 菅映茜

    2011-01-01

    本文研究了2008年-2010年期间3个月、6个月、9个月和1年期的以隔夜SHIBOR为标的的境外无本金交割人民币隔夜利率互换市场和境内人民币隔夜利率互换市场的联动效应,通过采用Granger因果检验和二元BEKK-GARCH(1,1)模型进行检验分析。研究发现:境内外市场之间无明显的报酬溢出效应;仅3个月期境内外市场存在显著双向波动溢出,其他期限均表现为境内对境外的单向波动溢出;动态相关性分析表明各期限境内外利率互换报价基本保持同向变化,但关系不稳定;央行基准利率的调整事件对相关系数的变化方向有显著影响。%This paper investigates the linkage effects between the market of RMB Non-Deliverable Interest Rate Swap(NDIRS) and the market of onshore RMB interest rate swap(IRS) in 2008-2010 period.The interest rate swap with 3 month,6 month,9 month,and 1 year have been studied,which all based on overnight SHIBOR(Shanghai Interbank Offered Rate).The results of Granger causality test indicate that there are no significant return spillovers between NDIRS and IRS with term less than 1year.Using the bivariate BEKK-GARCH(1,1) model,this paper finds there are only one-way strong statistical evidence of volatility spillover from the IRS into NDIRS,except 3 month which has two-way volatility spillovers.The dynamic correlations of IRS and NDIRS are unstable,but suggest that each term of offshore and onshore interest rate swap changes in the same direction.Interestingly,the benchmark rate adjustments of the People's Bank of China have significant influence on the change direction of the dynamic correlations.

  18. Harmonic expansion of the effective potential in a functional renormalization group at finite chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaföldi, G. G.; Jakovác, A.; Pósfay, P.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method to study the functional renormalization group (FRG) at finite chemical potential. The method consists of mapping the FRG equations within the Fermi surface into a differential equation defined on a rectangle with zero boundary conditions. To solve this equation we use an expansion of the potential in a harmonic basis. With this method we determined the phase diagram of a simple Yukawa-type model; as expected, the bosonic fluctuations decrease the strength of the transition.

  19. Unidimensional nonnegative scaling for genome-wide linkage disequilibrium maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Haiyong; Ng, Michael; Fung, Eric; Sham, Pak C

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to propose and develop a unidimensional nonnegative scaling model to construct Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) maps. The proposed constrained scaling model can be efficiently solved by transforming it to an unconstrained model. The method is implemented in PC Clusters at Hong Kong Baptist University. The LD maps are constructed for four populations from Hapmap data sets with chromosomes of several ten thousand Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). The similarities and dissimilarities of the LD maps are studied and analysed. Computational results are also reported to show the effectiveness of the method using parallel computation.

  20. Learning and Competence Building through Cross-cultural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study upgrading of companies in developing countries in a learning perspective. Both formal and experiential and tacit knowledge is discussed. Learning effects of different management modes, expatriates, linkages to customers and suppliers are discussed as are learning...... thorugh actual production as well as through explicit transfer of knowledge. The chapter in this way makes an attempt to provide an overview of the multiplicity og learning interfaces. It is concluded that the learning perspective need to be adressed more both by managers and scholars....

  1. Monetary Policy with Sectoral Linkages and Durable Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrella, Ivan; Rossi, Raffaele; Santoro, Emiliano

    We study the normative implications of a New Keynesian model featuring intersectoral trade of intermediate goods between two sectors that produce durables and non-durables. The interplay between durability and sectoral production linkages fundamentally alters the intersectoral stabilization trade....... Aggregating durable and non-durable inflation depending on the relative degrees of sectoral price stickiness may induce a severe bias. Input materials attenuate the response of sectoral inflations to movements in the real marginal costs, so that the effective slopes of the sectoral supply schedules...

  2. Performance prediction for windmills with linkage-guided blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahas, M.N.; Akyurt, M. (Mechanical Engineering Dept., King Abdul Aziz Univ., Jeddah (SA))

    1992-01-01

    Three windmills with linkage-guided blades that were previously described by the authors are future studied to predict their performance. The present paper concentrates on the guiding mechanisms of the active power producing surfaces (or blades) and on the output torque. Also investigated here is the effect of the orientation of these blades with respect to their guiding links. The fluctuation in the output torque of one-blade windmills has led to the investigation of the output torque that can be obtained from three-bladed machines. These latter windmills are found to reduce the fluctuation in the output torque considerably. Areas for further improvement are discussed.

  3. Semantic Linkage of Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Control systems are sets of interconnected hardware and software components which regulate the behaviour of processes. The software of modern control systems rises for some years by requirements regarding the flexibility and functionality. Thus the force of innovation grows on enterprises, since ever newer products in ever shorter time intervals must be made available. Associated hereby is the crucial shortening of the product life cycle, whose effects show up in reduced care of the software and the spares inventory. The aim, the concept presented here and developed in a modeling environment, is proved and ensures a minimum functionality of software components. Replacing software components of a control system verified for functionality by a framework at run-time and if necessary the software conditions will become adapted. Quintessential point of this implementation is the usage of an abstract syntax tree. Within its hierarchical structure meta information is attached to nodes and processed by the framework. With the development of the concept for semantic proving of software components the lifetime of software-based products is increased.

  4. Optimizing Opt-Out Consent for Record Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Marcel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study testing the effects of different ways of administering an opt-out consent for record linkage in a probability-based Internet panel. First, we conducted cognitive interviews to explore reactions to a draft version of the opt-out consent text. Second, we conducted a two-factor experiment to test the effects of content manipulations and mode. The results indicate that the way in which respondents were informed did not have much effect on opting out. Results from a follow-up survey on attitudes regarding privacy, confidentiality, and trust, along with knowledge questions about the process of linking, showed no evidence that presenting the opt-out consent statement makes respondents more concerned about privacy. Knowledge about the aspects of record linkage is generally not high. When looking at long-term effects of sending an opt-out consent statement, we found no evidence that this leads to higher attrition or lower participation rates.

  5. Varieties of religion-family linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarey, J R; Dollahite, D C

    2001-12-01

    The 4 articles in this special issue make important contributions to both family and religious studies as well as to their interface. This commentary begins by considering 4 unifying themes present across all of the articles, including meaningful religion-family linkages, the importance of gender differences in the faith-family interface, the significance of intergenerational relationships, and the need for better theory. The authors then discuss the unique major strength and secondary limitations of each study. Finally, the commentary focuses on two challenges inhibiting the contemporary study of religion and the family--a relative lack of racial and religious diversity in samples and the lack of a unifying theory of religion-family linkages--and suggests how to adjust the trajectory of future theory and research to address these issues.

  6. A Statistical Approach to Crime Linkage

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The object of this paper is to develop a statistical approach to criminal linkage analysis that discovers and groups crime events that share a common offender and prioritizes suspects for further investigation. Bayes factors are used to describe the strength of evidence that two crimes are linked. Using concepts from agglomerative hierarchical clustering, the Bayes factors for crime pairs are combined to provide similarity measures for comparing two crime series. This facilitates crime series...

  7. Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping of fiber quality traits in G. hirsutum L. variety germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Jonnie N; Buriev, Zabardast T; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Scheffler, Brain E; Pepper, Alan E; Yu, John Z; Kohel, Russell J; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor

    2009-07-01

    Cotton is the world's leading cash crop, but it lags behind other major crops for marker-assisted breeding due to limited polymorphisms and a genetic bottleneck through historic domestication. This underlies a need for characterization, tagging, and utilization of existing natural polymorphisms in cotton germplasm collections. Here we report genetic diversity, population characteristics, the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and association mapping of fiber quality traits using 202 microsatellite marker primer pairs in 335 G. hirsutum germplasm grown in two diverse environments, Uzbekistan and Mexico. At the significance threshold (r (2) >or= 0.1), a genome-wide average of LD extended up to genetic distance of 25 cM in assayed cotton variety accessions. Genome wide LD at r (2) >or= 0.2 was reduced to approximately 5-6 cM, providing evidence of the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in cotton. Results suggest linkage, selection, inbreeding, population stratification, and genetic drift as the potential LD-generating factors in cotton. In two environments, an average of ~20 SSR markers was associated with each main fiber quality traits using a unified mixed liner model (MLM) incorporating population structure and kinship. These MLM-derived significant associations were confirmed in general linear model and structured association test, accounting for population structure and permutation-based multiple testing. Several common markers, showing the significant associations in both Uzbekistan and Mexican environments, were determined. Between 7 and 43% of the MLM-derived significant associations were supported by a minimum Bayes factor at 'moderate to strong' and 'strong to very strong' evidence levels, suggesting their usefulness for marker-assisted breeding programs and overall effectiveness of association mapping using cotton germplasm resources.

  8. JLIN: A java based linkage disequilibrium plotter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCaskie Pamela A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A great deal of effort and expense are being expended internationally in attempts to detect genetic polymorphisms contributing to susceptibility to complex human disease. Techniques such as Linkage Disequilibrium mapping are being increasingly used to examine and compare markers across increasingly large datasets. Visualisation techniques are becoming essential to analyse the ever-growing volume of data and results available with any given analysis. Results JLIN (Java LINkage disequilibrium plotter is a software package designed for customisable, intuitive visualisation of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD across all common computing platforms. Customisation allows the user to choose particular visualisations, statistical measures and measurement ranges. JLIN also allows the user to export images of the LD visualisation in several common document formats. Conclusion JLIN allows the user to visually compare and contrast the results of a range of statistical measures on the input dataset(s. These measures include the commonly used D' and r2 statistics and empirical p-values. JLIN has a number of unique and novel features that improve on existing LD visualisation tools.

  9. Model-based methods for linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John P; Saccone, Nancy L; Corbett, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The logarithm of an odds ratio (LOD) score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential so that pedigrees or LOD curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders where the maximum LOD score statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional LOD score approach, but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the LOD score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  10. Structural synthesis of linkages for quadruped bio-robot legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, O.; Robu, C.; Antonescu, P.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a few kinematic schemes of planar mechanisms with bars (linkages) used as part of the quadruped robot legs. The Dunshee linkage having only four elements as crank-rocker mechanism is analyzed. Further, the Klann linkage, which is accomplished by amplifying the crank-rocker mechanism with a dyadic kinematic chain, is also presented. More than that, the Jansen linkage, which is obtained by extending and amplifying the crank-rocker mechanism with two dyadic kinematic chains, is also analyzed. At the end of the paper, the authors present a novel linkage application consisting of a quadric kinematic chain.

  11. Potential Health Effects of Enzymatic Protein Hydrolysates from Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Sedighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chlorella vulgaris is a multi-cellular edible algal species with abundant proteins. Extraction of high value protein fractions for pharmaceutical and nutritional applications can significantly increase the commercial value of microalga biomasses. There is no known report on the anticancer peptides derived from the Chlorella vulgaris abundant protein.Materials and Methods: This study examined the antimicrobial and anticancer effects of peptides from a hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris protein with 62 kDa molecular weight. Protein hydrolysis was done by pepsin as a gastrointestinal protease, and was monitored through protein content measurement, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and high performance liquidchromatography measurements. Inhibitory effect of the produced peptides on Escherichia coli cells and breast cancer cell lines was assayed.Results and Conclusion: Hydrolyzed peptides induced a decrease of about 34.1% in the growth of Escherichia coli, and the peptides of 3 to 5 kDa molecular weight had strong impact on the viability of breast cancer cells with IC50 value of 50 μg μl-1. The peptide fractions demonstrating antimicrobial and anti-cancer activities have the potential for use as functional food ingredients for health benefits. These results demonstrate that inexpensive algae proteinscould be a new alternative to produce anticancer peptides.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  12. Age and gender effects on submental motor-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Oshrat; Jones, Richard D; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether there are age- and/or gender-related differences in magnitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the submental muscles. Knowledge of this is important in investigations of neurophysiological aspects of swallowing. Forty healthy participants (20 males, 20 females; 20 young [21-35 years], 20 old [53-88 years]) were recruited. Surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed at midline underlying the submental muscle group. Age- and gender-related differences were evaluated in two neurophysiologic measures of swallowing: MEPs stimulated by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex and surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded from the same submental muscle group during non-stimulated swallows. The older participants had larger MEPs during saliva swallowing than the young participants (p = 0.04, d = 0.86). Conversely, the older participants had lower amplitude submental EMG activity during non-stimulated swallows (p = 0.045, d = 0.67). Gender had no significant effect on MEP magnitude and on submental activity during saliva swallowing. There were no effects of age or gender on MEP latencies. These findings suggest deterioration in muscle function with age in a sample of healthy adults presenting with functional swallowing. We speculate that muscular decline is partially ameliorated by increased cortical activity-i.e., increased submental MEPs-so as to preserve swallowing function in healthy older subjects. These findings emphasize the need for different reference points for evaluation of submental MEPs of different age groups.

  13. Investigations on potential co-mutagenic effects of formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speit, Günter, E-mail: guenter.speit@uni-ulm.de; Linsenmeyer, Regina; Duong, Giang; Bausinger, Julia

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A549 cells were exposed to formaldehyde in combination with various mutagens. • Formaldehyde did not affect the induction and removal of DNA damage (comet assay). • Formaldehyde did not affect the induction of micronuclei by the mutagens tested. • The expression of the O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase was not affected. - Abstract: The genotoxicity and mutagenicity of formaldehyde (FA) has been well-characterized during the last years. Besides its known direct DNA-damaging and mutagenic activity in sufficiently exposed cells, FA at low concentrations might also enhance the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of other environmental mutagens by interfering with the repair of DNA lesions induced by these mutagens. To further assess potential co-mutagenic effects of FA, we exposed A549 human lung cells to FA in combination with various mutagens and measured the induction and removal of DNA damage by the comet assay and the production of chromosomal mutations by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN assay). The mutagens tested were ionizing radiation (IR), (±)-anti-B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), N-nitroso-N-methylurea (methyl nitrosourea; MNU) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). FA (10–75 μM) did not enhance the genotoxic and mutagenic activity of these mutagens under the test conditions applied. FA alone and in combination with MNU or MMS did not affect the expression (mRNA level) of the gene of the O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in A549 cells. The results of these experiments do not support the assumption that low FA concentrations might interfere with the repair of DNA damage induced by other mutagens.

  14. Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: effects and potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W M M S Bandara; Gamini Seneviratne; S A Kulasooriya

    2006-12-01

    Plants benefit extensively by harbouring endophytic microbes. They promote plant growth and confer enhanced resistance to various pathogens. However, the way the interactions among endophytes influence the plant productivity has not been explained. Present study experimentally showed that endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) used as the test plant produced two types of interactions; biofilms (bacteria attached to mycelia) and mixed cultures with no such attachments. Acidity, as measured by pH in cultures with biofilms was higher than that of fungi alone, bacteria alone or the mixed cultures. Production of indoleacetic acid like substances (IAAS) of biofilms was higher than that of mixed cultures, fungi or bacteria. Bacteria and fungi produced higher quantities of IAAS than mixed cultures. In mixed cultures, the potential of IAAS production of resident microbes was reduced considerably. There was a negative relationship between IAAS and pH of the biofilms, indicating that IAAS was the main contributor to the acidity. However, such a relationship was not observed in mixed cultures. Microbial acid production is important for suppressing plant pathogens. Thus the biofilm formation in endophytic environment seems to be very important for healthy and improved plant growth. However, it is unlikely that an interaction among endophytes takes place naturally in the endophytic environment, due to physical barriers of plant tissues. Further, critical cell density dependant quorum sensing that leads to biofilm formation may not occur in the endophytic environment as there is a limited space. As such in vitro production and application of beneficial biofilmed inocula of endophytes are important for improved plant production in any agro-ecosystem. The conventional practice of plant inoculation with monocultures or mixed cultures of effective microbes may not give the highest microbial effect, which may only be achieved by biofilm formation.

  15. [Effect of sleep deprivation on visual evoked potentials and brain stem auditory evoked potentials in epileptics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urumova, L T; Kovalenko, G A; Tsunikov, A I; Sumskiĭ, L I

    1984-01-01

    The article reports on the first study of the evoked activity of the brain in epileptic patients (n = 20) following sleep deprivation. An analysis of the data obtained has revealed a tendency to the shortening of the peak latent intervals of visual evoked potentials in the range of 100-200 mu sec and the V component and the interpeak interval III-V of evoked auditory trunk potentials in patients with temporal epilepsy. The phenomenon may indicate the elimination of stabilizing control involving the specific conductive pathways and, possibly, an accelerated conduction of a specific sensor signal.

  16. Potential Effects of Pomegranate Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Eleonora; Ferruzzi, Lorenzo; Fimognari, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death and is becoming the leading one in old age. Vegetable and fruit consumption is inversely associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Currently, interest in a number of fruits high in polyphenols has been raised due to their reported chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic potential. Pomegranate has been shown to exert anticancer activity, which is generally attributed to its high content of polyphenols. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of known targets and mechanisms along with a critical evaluation of pomegranate polyphenols as future anticancer agents. Pomegranate evokes antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antimetastatic effects, induces apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 proteins, upregulates p21 and p27, and downregulates cyclin-cdk network. Furthermore, pomegranate blocks the activation of inflammatory pathways including, but not limited to, the NF-κB pathway. The strongest evidence for its anticancer activity comes from studies on prostate cancer. Accordingly, some exploratory clinical studies investigating pomegranate found a trend of efficacy in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. However, the genotoxicity reported for pomegranate raised certain concerns over its safety and an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit should be performed before suggesting the use of pomegranate or its polyphenols for cancer-related therapeutic purposes.

  17. Effects of discontinuities of the derivatives of the inflaton potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego Cadavid, Alexander [Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Enea Romano, Antonio [Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); University of Crete, Department of Physics, Heraklion (Greece)

    2015-12-15

    We study the effects of a class of features of the inflaton potential, corresponding to discontinuities in its derivatives. We perform fully numerical calculations and derive analytical approximations for the curvature perturbations spectrum and the bispectrum which are in good agreement with the numerical results. The spectrum of primordial perturbations has oscillations around the scale k{sub 0} which leaves the horizon at the time τ{sub 0} when the feature occurs, with the amplitude and phase of the oscillations determined by the size and the order of the discontinuity. The large scale bispectrum in the squeezed and equilateral limits have a very similar form and are linearly suppressed. Both in the squeezed and the equilateral small scale limit the bispectrum has an oscillatory behavior whose phase depends on the parameters determining the discontinuity, and whose amplitude is inversely proportional to the scale. Given the generality of this class of features they could be used to model or classify phenomenologically different types of non-Gaussian features encountered in observational data such as the cosmic microwave background radiation or large scale structure. (orig.)

  18. Potential estrogenic effects of phosphorus-containing flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Lu, Meiya; Dong, Xiaowu; Wang, Cui; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping; Zhao, Meirong

    2014-06-17

    As the substitute of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), further assessments about the potential ecological safety and health risks of phosphorus-containing flame retardants (PFRs) are required because the worldwide demand for PFRs has been increasing every year. In this study, we examined the agonistic/antagonistic activity of a group of PFRs by three in vitro models (luciferase reporter gene assay, yeast two-hybrid assay, and E-screen assay). Molecule docking was used to further explain the interactions between ERα and PFRs. Data from luciferase reporter gene analysis showed three members of the nine tested PFRs significantly induced estrogenic effects, with the order of TPP > TCP > TDCPP, while TCEP and TEHP have remarkable antiestrogenic properties with calculated REC20 and RIC20 values of 10(-6) M or lower. Results from the luciferase reporter gene method are generally consistent with results obtained from the yeast two-hybrid assay and E-screen, except for the positive estrogenic activity of TBP in E-screen testing. Docking results showed that binding between ligands and ERα was stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. As a proposed alternative for brominated flame retardant, PFRs may have anti/estrogenic activity via ERα at the low dose typical of residue in environmental matrix or animals. PFRs with a short chain, halogen, and benzene ring in the substituent group tend to be estrogenic. Our research suggests that comprehensive evaluations, including health and ecological assessments, are required in determining whether PFRs are preferable as an emerging industrial substitute.

  19. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Meditation for Treating Affective Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie T. Y. Leung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective dysregulation is at the root of many psychopathologies, including stress induced disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression. The root of these disorders appears to be an attenuated, top-down cognitive control from the prefrontal cortices over the maladaptive subcortical emotional processing. A form of mental training, long-term meditation practice can trigger meditation-specific neuroplastic changes in the brain regions underlying cognitive control and affective regulation, suggesting that meditation can act as a kind of mental exercise to foster affective regulation and possibly a cost-effective intervention in mood disorders. Increasing research has suggested that the cultivation of awareness and acceptance along with a nonjudgmental attitude via meditation promotes adaptive affective regulation. This review examined the concepts of affective regulation and meditation and discussed behavioral and neural evidence of the potential clinical application of meditation. Lately, there has been a growing trend toward incorporating the “mindfulness” component into existing psychotherapeutic treatment. Promising results have been observed thus far. Future studies may consider exploring the possibility of integrating the element of “compassion” into current psychotherapeutic approaches.

  20. Effects of discontinuities of the derivatives of the inflaton potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadavid, Alexander Gallego [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A.1226, Medellin (Colombia); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Romano, Antonio Enea, E-mail: aer@physics.uoc.gr [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A.1226, Medellin (Colombia); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003, Heraklion (Greece)

    2015-12-12

    We study the effects of a class of features of the inflaton potential, corresponding to discontinuities in its derivatives. We perform fully numerical calculations and derive analytical approximations for the curvature perturbations spectrum and the bispectrum which are in good agreement with the numerical results. The spectrum of primordial perturbations has oscillations around the scale k{sub 0} which leaves the horizon at the time τ{sub 0} when the feature occurs, with the amplitude and phase of the oscillations determined by the size and the order of the discontinuity. The large scale bispectrum in the squeezed and equilateral limits have a very similar form and are linearly suppressed. Both in the squeezed and the equilateral small scale limit the bispectrum has an oscillatory behavior whose phase depends on the parameters determining the discontinuity, and whose amplitude is inversely proportional to the scale. Given the generality of this class of features they could be used to model or classify phenomenologically different types of non-Gaussian features encountered in observational data such as the cosmic microwave background radiation or large scale structure.

  1. Listening to every other word: examining the strength of linkage variables in forming streams of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Gerald; Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R

    2008-12-01

    In a variation on a procedure originally developed by Broadbent [(1952). "Failures of attention in selective listening," J. Exp. Psychol. 44, 428-433] listeners were presented with two sentences spoken in a sequential, interleaved-word format. Sentence one (target) comprised the odd-numbered words in the sequence and sentence two (masker) comprised the even-numbered words in the sequence. The task was to report the words in sentence one. The goal was to determine the effectiveness of cues linking the words of the target (or masker) over time. Three such "linkage variables" were examined: (1) fixed talker, (2) fixed perceived interaural location, and (3) correct syntactic structure. All of the linkage variables provided a significant advantage when applied to the target compared to the baseline condition in which the linkage variables were randomized. However, these linkage variables were not effective when applied to the masker. Word position effects were found such that performance in the baseline condition declined, and the advantages of the linkage variables increased, for the words near the end of the sentence. Overall, this approach appears to be useful for examining interference in speech recognition that has little or no peripheral component. The results suggest that variables that link target words together improve their resiliency to interference and/or their recall.

  2. Combined linkage and association mapping of flowering time in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadic, Elena; Coque, Marie; Vear, Felicity; Grezes-Besset, Bruno; Pauquet, Jerôme; Piquemal, Joël; Lippi, Yannick; Blanchard, Philippe; Romestant, Michel; Pouilly, Nicolas; Rengel, David; Gouzy, Jerôme; Langlade, Nicolas; Mangin, Brigitte; Vincourt, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Association mapping and linkage mapping were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and/or causative mutations involved in the control of flowering time in cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus. A panel of 384 inbred lines was phenotyped through testcrosses with two tester inbred lines across 15 location × year combinations. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprising 273 lines was phenotyped both per se and through testcrosses with one or two testers in 16 location × year combinations. In the association mapping approach, kinship estimation using 5,923 single nucleotide polymorphisms was found to be the best covariate to correct for effects of panel structure. Linkage disequilibrium decay ranged from 0.08 to 0.26 cM for a threshold of 0.20, after correcting for structure effects, depending on the linkage group (LG) and the ancestry of inbred lines. A possible hitchhiking effect is hypothesized for LG10 and LG08. A total of 11 regions across 10 LGs were found to be associated with flowering time, and QTLs were mapped on 11 LGs in the RIL population. Whereas eight regions were demonstrated to be common between the two approaches, the linkage disequilibrium approach did not detect a documented QTL that was confirmed using the linkage mapping approach.

  3. A ddRAD Based Linkage Map of the Cultivated Strawberry, Fragaria xananassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Davik

    Full Text Available The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array's construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀ and Babette (♂. A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. × ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. × ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry.

  4. A ddRAD Based Linkage Map of the Cultivated Strawberry, Fragaria xananassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davik, Jahn; Sargent, Daniel James; Brurberg, May Bente; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew; Alsheikh, Muath

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array's construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀) and Babette (♂). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. × ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. × ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry.

  5. A first generation microsatellite- and SNP-based linkage map of Jatropha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Ming Wang

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a potential plant species for biodiesel production. However, its seed yield is too low for profitable production of biodiesel. To improve the productivity, genetic improvement through breeding is essential. A linkage map is an important component in molecular breeding. We established a first-generation linkage map using a mapping panel containing two backcross populations with 93 progeny. We mapped 506 markers (216 microsatellites and 290 SNPs from ESTs onto 11 linkage groups. The total length of the map was 1440.9 cM with an average marker space of 2.8 cM. Blasting of 222 Jatropha ESTs containing polymorphic SSR or SNP markers against EST-databases revealed that 91.0%, 86.5% and 79.2% of Jatropha ESTs were homologous to counterparts in castor bean, poplar and Arabidopsis respectively. Mapping 192 orthologous markers to the assembled whole genome sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana identified 38 syntenic blocks and revealed that small linkage blocks were well conserved, but often shuffled. The first generation linkage map and the data of comparative mapping could lay a solid foundation for QTL mapping of agronomic traits, marker-assisted breeding and cloning genes responsible for phenotypic variation.

  6. Availability of Insurance Linkage Programs in U.S. Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Kanak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As millions of uninsured citizens who use emergency department (ED services are now eligible for health insurance under the Affordable Care Act, the ED is ideally situated to facilitate linkage to insurance. Forty percent of U.S. EDs report having an insurance linkage program. This is the first national study to examine the characteristics of EDs that offer or do not offer these programs. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey for Preventive Health Services in U.S. EDs conducted in 2008-09. We compared EDs with and without insurance programs across demographic and operational factors using univariate analysis. We then tested our hypotheses using multivariable logistic regression. We also further examined program capacity and priority among the sub-group of EDs with no insurance linkage program. Results: After adjustment, ED-insurance linkage programs were more likely to be located in the West (RR= 2.06, 95% CI = 1.33 – 2.72. The proportion of uninsured patients in an ED, teaching hospital status, and public ownership status were not associated with insurance linkage availability. EDs with linkage programs also offer more preventive services (RR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.37–2.35 and have greater social worker availability (RR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.12–2.33 than those who do not. Four of five EDs with a patient mix of ≥25% uninsured and no insurance linkage program reported that they could not offer a program with existing staff and funding. Conclusion: Availability of insurance linkage programs in the ED is not associated with the proportion of uninsured patients served by an ED. Policy or hospital-based interventions to increase insurance linkage should first target the 27% of EDs with high rates of uninsured patients that lack adequate program capacity. Further research on barriers to implementation and cost effectiveness may help to facilitate increased adoption of insurance linkage programs. [West J

  7. Tropical glaciers and climate dynamics: Resolving the linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölg, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale atmosphere/ocean circulation and mountain glaciers represent two entirely different scales in the climate system. Therefore, statistical linkages between the two mask a cascade of processes that act on different temporal and spatial dimensions. Low-latitude glaciers are particularly well suited for studying such processes, since these glaciers are situated in the "heart" of the global climate system (the tropics). This presentation gives an overview of a decade of research on tropical climate and glaciers on Kilimanjaro (East Africa), which is, to our knowledge, the only case where space/time linkages between high-altitude glaciers and climate dynamics have been investigated systematically throughout the main scales. This includes the complex modification of atmospheric flow when air masses impinge on high mountains, an aspect that has been widely neglected from a cryospheric viewpoint. The case of Kilimanjaro demonstrates (1) the great potential of learning about climate system processes and their connections, (2) advances in our understanding of the importance of moisture for glaciers that lie far above the mean freezing level, and (3) methodological advances in combining atmospheric and cryospheric modelling.

  8. Zenith Pass Problem of Inter-satellite Linkage Antenna Based on Program Guidance Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Kun; Yang Di

    2008-01-01

    While adopting an elevation-over-azimuth architecture by an inter-satellite linkage antenna of a user satellite, a zenith pass problem always occurs when the antenna is tracing the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS). This paper deals with this problem by way of,firstly, introducing movement laws of the inter-satellite linkage to predict the movement of the user satellite antenna followed by analyzing the potential pass moment and the actual one of the zenith pass in detail. A number of specific orbit altitudes for the user satellite that can remove the blindness zone are obtained. Finally, on the base of the predicted results from the movement laws of the inter-satellite linkage, the zenith pass tracing strategies for the user satellite antenna are designed under the program guidance using a trajectory preprocessor. Simulations have confirmed the reasonability and feasibility of the strategies in dealing with the zenith pass problem.

  9. Supersymmetry of Demkov-Ostrovsky effective potentials at zero energy

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, H C; Wolf, K B; Obregón, O; Rosu, Haret C; Reyes, Marco A; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo; Obregon, Octavio

    1995-01-01

    We present a Natanzon-type supersymmetric analysis of the wave problem with Demkov-Ostrovsky (DO) spherically symmetric class of focusing potentials at zero energy. It is known that at zero binding energy there exists a degenerate ``bound" state for this class of potentials. Working at zero energy and in the so-called R_{0}=0 sector, we obtain the corresponding superpartner (fermionic) DO scattering potentials within the standard one-dimensional supersymmetric procedure.

  10. Detection of tandam duplications and implications for linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matise, T.C.; Weeks, D.E. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Chakravarti, A. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Patel, P.I.; Lupski, J.R. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Nelis, E.; Timmerman, V.; Van Broeckhoven, C. (Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium))

    1994-06-01

    The first demonstration of an autosomal dominant human disease caused by segmental trisomy came in 1991 for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). For this disorder, the segmental trisomy is due to a large tandem duplication of 1.5 Mb of DNA located on chromosome 17p11.2-p12. The search for the CMT1A disease gene was misdirected and impeded because some chromosome 17 genetic markers that are linked to CMT1A lie within this duplication. To better understand how such a duplication might affect genetic analyses in the context of disease gene mapping, the authors studied the effects of marker duplication on transmission probabilities of marker alleles, on linkage analysis of an autosomal dominant disease, and on tests of linkage homogeneity. They demonstrate that the undetected presence of a duplication distorts transmission ratios, hampers fine localization of the disease gene, and increases false evidence of linkage heterogeneity. In addition, they devised a likelihood-based method for detecting the presence of a tandemly duplicated marker when one is suspected. They tested their methods through computer simulations and on CMT1A pedigrees genotyped at several chromosome 17 markers. On the simulated data, the method detected 96% of duplicated markers (with a false-positive rate of 5%). On the CMT1A data the method successfully identified two of three loci that are duplicated (with no false positives). This method could be used to identify duplicated markers in other regions of the genome and could be used to delineate the extent of duplications similar to that involved in CMT1A. 18 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Effect of fixation tasks on multifocal visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alessandra; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart; Billson, Frank

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive influence on the multifocal visual evoked potential (mVEP) at different levels of eccentricity. Three different foveal fixation conditions were utilized involving varying levels of task complexity. A more complex visual fixation task has been known to suppress peripheral signals in subjective testing. Twenty normal subjects had monocular mVEPs recorded using the AccuMap objective perimeter. This allowed simultaneous stimulation of 58 segments of the visual field to an eccentricity of 24 degrees. The mVEP was recorded using three different fixation conditions in random order. During task 1 the subject passively viewed the central fixation area. For task 2 alternating numbers were displayed within the fixation area; the subject on viewing the number '3' in the central fixation area indicated recognition by pressing a button. Throughout task 3, numbers were displayed as in task 2. The subject had the cognitive task of summating all the numbers. Analysis revealed that the increased attention and concentration demanded by tasks 2 and 3 in comparison with task 1 resulted in significantly enhanced central amplitudes of 9.41% (Mann-Whitney P = 0.0002) and 13.45% (P = 0.0002), respectively. These amplitudes became reduced in the periphery and approached those of task 1, resulting in no significant difference between the three tasks. Latencies demonstrated no significant difference between each task nor at any eccentricity (P > 0.05). As the complexity of each task increased the amount of alpha rhythm was significantly reduced. Our findings indicate that task 1 required a minimal demand of cognition and was associated with the greatest amount of alpha rhythm. It was also the most difficult to perform because of loss of interest. The other two tasks required a greater demand of higher order cognitive skills resulting in significantly enhanced amplitudes centrally and the attenuation of alpha rhythm. Therefore, amplitudes are

  12. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  13. Postadoption and Guardianship: An Evaluation of the Adoption Preservation, Assessment, and Linkage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Minli; Testa, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the effects of the Adoption Preservation, Assessment, and Linkage (APAL) postpermanency program. Method: A quasi-experimental, posttest-only design was used to estimate the program's effects on youth discharged from foster care to adoption or legal guardianship. A random sample was surveyed (female = 44.7%; African…

  14. EFFECTIVE DIFFUSION AND EFFECTIVE DRAG COEFFICIENT OF A BROWNIAN PARTICLE IN A PERIODIC POTENTIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyun Wang

    2011-01-01

    We study the stochastic motion of a Brownian particle driven by a constant force over a static periodic potential.We show that both the effective diffusion and the effective drag coefficient are mathematically well-defined and we derive analytic expressions for these two quantities.We then investigate the asymptotic behaviors of the effective diffusion and the effective drag coefficient,respectively,for small driving force and for large driving force.In the case of small driving force,the effective diffusion is reduced from its Brownian value by a factor that increases exponentially with the amplitude of the potential.The effective drag coefficient is increased by approximately the same factor.As a result,the Einstein relation between the diffusion coefficient and the drag coefficient is approximately valid when the driving force is small.For moderately large driving force,both the effective diffusion and the effective drag coefficient are increased from their Brownian values,and the Einstein relation breaks down. In the limit of very large driving force,both the effective diffusion and the effective drag coefficient converge to their Brownian values and the Einstein relation is once again valid.

  15. Effect of electric potential and heating on surface of KCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The purpose of the work is research of morphology of structural changes of a surface { 100} crystals KCl under action of heating and electric field potential enclosed to one of fasets of a crystal.

  16. Effect of electric potential and heating on surface of KCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feodorov; Victor; A.; Sterelukhin; Andrey; A.; Karyev; Leonid; G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the work is research of morphology of structural changes of a surface { 100} crystals KCl under action of heating and electric field potential enclosed to one of fasets of a crystal.……

  17. Compactification of gauge models and the effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtykov, N.N. (Leningrad State University, Leningrad (SU))

    1989-07-01

    The one-loop potential for bosons and massive fermions in an Abelian model is obtained on the {ital M}{sup 2}{times}{ital S1}{times}{ital S1} manifold. Stability of the total potential against arbitrary homogeneous deformations of {ital S}{sup 1}{times}{ital S1} is studied. It is shown that attraction or repulsion depends on the relations connecting the radii of the spheres, the fermion masses, and the coupling constant.

  18. Proprioceptive event related potentials: gating and task effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M

    2005-01-01

    The integration of proprioception with vision, touch or audition is considered basic to the developmental formation of perceptions, conceptual objects and the creation of cognitive schemes. Thus, mapping of proprioceptive information processing is important in cognitive research. A stimulus...... of a brisk change of weight on a hand held load elicit a proprioceptive evoked potential (PEP). Here this is used to examine early and late information processing related to weight discrimination by event related potentials (ERP)....

  19. Effects of Asymmetry of Potential on Stochastic Stokes' Drift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-Xiao; CAO Tian-Guang; WU Xi-Zhen; ZHUO Yi-Zhong

    2001-01-01

    The directed motion of Brownian particles is generated by a travelling asymmetric potential The asymptotic behaviour of the probability density of the particles at a long tie is a solitary wave. The Brownian particles can work against an external opposing force with high efficiency. The analytical expressions of the solitary wave and the efficiency of the Brownian particles are obtained. The average velocity and the efficiency of the particles depends strongly on the travelling speed and the asymmetry of the potential.

  20. Effects of Nonlocal One-Pion-Exchange Potential in Deuteron

    OpenAIRE

    Forest, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The off-shell aspects of the one-pion-exchange potential (OPEP) are discussed. Relativistic Hamiltonians containing relativistic kinetic energy, relativistic OPEP with various off-shell behaviors and Argonne $v_{18}$ short-range parameterization are used to study the deuteron properties. The OPEP off-shell behaviors depend on whether a pseudovector or pseudoscalar pion-nucleon coupling is used and are characterized by a parameter $\\mu$. We study potentials having $\\mu$=-1, 0 and +1 and we fin...

  1. Multivariate Stable Isotope Analysis to Determine Linkages between Benzocaine Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, H. F.; Meier-Augenstein, W.; Collins, M.; Salouros, H.; Cunningham, A.; Harrison, M.

    2012-04-01

    In July 2010, a woman was jailed for nine years in the UK after the prosecution successfully argued that attempting to import a cutting agent was proof of involvement in a conspiracy to supply Cocaine. That landmark ruling provided law enforcement agencies with much greater scope to tackle those involved in this aspect of the drug trade, specifically targeting those importing the likes of benzocaine or lidocaine. Huge quantities of these compounds are imported into the UK and between May and August 2010, four shipments of Benzocaine amounting to more then 4 tons had been seized as part of Operation Kitley, a joint initiative between the UK Border Agency and the Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA). By diluting cocaine, traffickers can make it go a lot further for very little cost, leading to huge profits. In recent years, dealers have moved away from inert substances, like sugar and baby milk powder, in favour of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), including anaesthetics like Benzocaine and Lidocaine. Both these mimic the numbing effect of cocaine, and resemble it closely in colour, texture and some chemical behaviours, making it easier to conceal the fact that the drug has been diluted. API cutting agents have helped traffickers to maintain steady supplies in the face of successful interdiction and even expand the market in the UK, particularly to young people aged from their mid teens to early twenties. From importation to street-level, the purity of the drug can be reduced up to a factor of 80 and street level cocaine can have a cocaine content as low as 1%. In view of the increasing use of Benzocaine as cutting agent for Cocaine, a study was carried out to investigate if 2H, 13C, 15N and 18O stable isotope signatures could be used in conjunction with multivariate chemometric data analysis to determine potential linkage between benzocaine exhibits seized from different locations or individuals to assist with investigation and prosecution of drug

  2. Population-environment linkages in international law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babor, D.D.M.

    1999-03-31

    This article explores population-environment linkages both within developed and developing nations, and considers the consequences of a population growth rate which, as one hectare of arable land is simultaneously lost or destroyed, currently results in eight live births every three seconds. In order to better comprehend the forces governing their perceptions, Part 1 of this article will discuss eight interactive variables which inform decision-making. Part 2 will examine the existence of legal duties under international law to limit or constrain the level of consumption and the right to freely reproduce, particularly as applicable in states considered free of a population problem.

  3. LINKAGES FOR QUADRUPED BIO-ROBOT WALKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu ANTONESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the Jansen mechanism. It then presents a few pictures of a mobile quadruped robot, which will help to describe how the robot moves. We take into consideration the kinematic scheme of the spatial mechanism with bars (spatial linkage, which is used for each of the four robot legs. Each leg mechanism is driven by two rotate brushless actuators that include a spur gear low-ratio transmission. By means of analyzing the kinematic scheme, the spatial mechanism mobility that operates in both horizontal and vertical plane is calculated

  4. Linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci in the presence of heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Dalgaard, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Variance component modeling for linkage analysis of quantitative traits is a powerful tool for detecting and locating genes affecting a trait of interest, but the presence of genetic heterogeneity will decrease the power of a linkage study and may even give biased estimates of the location of the quantitative trait loci. Many complex diseases are believed to be influenced by multiple genes and therefore genetic heterogeneity is likely to be present for many real applications of linkage analysis. We consider a mixture of multivariate normals to model locus heterogeneity by allowing only a proportion of the sampled pedigrees to segregate trait-influencing allele(s) at a specific locus. However, for mixtures of normals the classical asymptotic distribution theory of the maximum likelihood estimates does not hold, so tests of linkage and/or heterogeneity are evaluated using resampling methods. It is shown that allowing for genetic heterogeneity leads to an increase in power to detect linkage. This increase is more prominent when the genetic effect of the locus is small or when the percentage of pedigrees not segregating trait-influencing allele(s) at the locus is high.

  5. Linkage studies on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: what is the strategy of choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heutink, P; van de Wetering, B J; Pakstis, A J; Kurlan, R; Sandor, P; Oostra, B A; Sandkuijl, L A

    1995-08-01

    For a linkage study it is important to ascertain family material that is sufficiently informative. The statistical power of a linkage sample can be determined via computer simulation. For complex traits uncertain parameters such as incomplete penetrance, frequency of phenocopies, gene frequency and variable expression have to be taken into account. One can either include only the most severe phenotype in the analysis or apply multiple linkage tests for a gradually broadened disease phenotype. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by multiple, intermittent motor and vocal tics. Segregation analyses suggest that GTS and milder phenotypes are caused by a single dominant gene. We report here the results of an extensive simulation study on a large set of families. We compared the effectiveness of linkage tests with only the GTS phenotype versus multiple tests that included various milder phenotypes and different gene frequencies. The scenario of multiple tests yielded superior power. Our results show that computer simulation can indicate the strategy of choice in linkage studies of multiple, complex phenotypes.

  6. A new model of care collaboration for community-dwelling elders: findings and lessons learned from the NORC-health care linkage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Kyriacou

    2011-05-01

    improvements in distal outcomes: falls risk decreased; clinical indicators for diabetes management improved; and inappropriate hospitalizations decreased.   Discussion: Using simple, familiar and relatively low-tech approaches to sharing critical patient information among collaborating organizations, inter-sector linkages were successfully established at all four sites.  Seven critical success factors emerged that increase the likelihood that linkages will be implemented, effective and sustained: 1 careful goal selection; 2 meaningful collaboration; 3 appropriate role for patients/clients; 4 realistic interventions; 5 realistic expectations for implementation environment; 6 continuous focus on outcomes; and, 7 stable leadership. Focused, micro-level collaborations have the potential to improve care, increasing the chance that organizations will undertake such endeavors.

  7. A new model of care collaboration for community-dwelling elders: findings and lessons learned from the NORC-health care linkage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Kyriacou

    2011-05-01

    in distal outcomes: falls risk decreased; clinical indicators for diabetes management improved; and inappropriate hospitalizations decreased. Discussion: Using simple, familiar and relatively low-tech approaches to sharing critical patient information among collaborating organizations, inter-sector linkages were successfully established at all four sites.  Seven critical success factors emerged that increase the likelihood that linkages will be implemented, effective and sustained: 1 careful goal selection; 2 meaningful collaboration; 3 appropriate role for patients/clients; 4 realistic interventions; 5 realistic expectations for implementation environment; 6 continuous focus on outcomes; and, 7 stable leadership. Focused, micro-level collaborations have the potential to improve care, increasing the chance that organizations will undertake such endeavors.

  8. HLA region excluded by linkage analyses of early onset periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.; Wang, S.; Lopez, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies suggested that HLA genes may influence susceptibility to early-onset periodontitis (EOP). Segregation analyses indicate that EOP may be due to a single major gene. We conducted linkage analyses to assess possible HLA effects on EOP. Fifty families with two or more close relatives affected by EOP were ascertained in Virginia and Chile. A microsatellite polymorphism within the HLA region (at the tumor necrosis factor beta locus) was typed using PCR. Linkage analyses used a donimant model most strongly supported by previous studies. Assuming locus homogeneity, our results exclude a susceptibility gene within 10 cM on either side of our marker locus. This encompasses all of the HLA region. Analyses assuming alternative models gave qualitatively similar results. Allowing for locus heterogeneity, our data still provide no support for HLA-region involvement. However, our data do not statistically exclude (LOD <-2.0) hypotheses of disease-locus heterogeneity, including models where up to half of our families could contain an EOP disease gene located in the HLA region. This is due to the limited power of even our relatively large collection of families and the inherent difficulties of mapping genes for disorders that have complex and heterogeneous etiologies. Additional statistical analyses, recruitment of families, and typing of flanking DNA markers are planned to more conclusively address these issues with respect to the HLA region and other candidate locations in the human genome. Additional results for markers covering most of the human genome will also be presented.

  9. A population genetics model of linkage disequilibrium in admixed populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) created in admixed population and the rate of decay in the disequilibrium over evolution is an important subject in population genetics theory and in disease gene mapping in human populations. The present study represents the theoretical investigation of effects of gene frequencies, levels of LD and admixture proportions of donor populations on the evolutionary dynamics of the LD of the admixed population. We examined the conditions under which the admixed population reached linkage equilibrium or the peak level of the LD. The study reveals the inappropriateness in approximating the dynamics of the LD generated by population admixture by the commonly used formula in literature. An appropriate equation for the dynamics is proposed. The distinct feature of the newly suggested formula is that the value of the nonlinear component of the LD remains constant in the first generation of the population evolution. Comparison between the predicted disequilibrium dynamics shows that the error will be caused by using the old formula, and thus resulting in a misguidance in using the evolutionary information of the admixed population in gene mapping.

  10. Testing the sensitivity of trade linkages in Europe to compound drought events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Koks, Elco; Thissen, Mark; Wahl, Thomas; Haigh, Ivan; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Droughts can be defined as spatially extensive events that are characterized by temporal deficits in precipitation, soil moisture or streamflow, and have the potential to cause large direct and indirect economic losses. Many European countries face drought as an economically important hazard, with agriculture, livestock, forestry, energy, industry, and water sectors particularly at risk, causing economic losses of 139 billion US over the past 30 years. Apart from these direct impacts, business production and the flow of goods and services can be affected indirectly by droughts. With consequences that can propagate through the economic system affecting regions not directly hit by the drought event itself, or in time-periods long after the original drought event occurred. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of existing trade linkages between the different NUTS-2 regions in Europe to the coupled occurrence of hydro-meteorological drought events, and their associated production losses. Using a multi-regional supply-use model for Europe, we have, on a product level, insight in the existing trade linkages between NUTS-2 regions. Using this information in combination with historical drought data, we assessed and identified for a selection of water related products: 1) the dependency-structures of the NUTS-2 regions within Europe for the import and export of products (and therein water); 2) the coupled nature of drought events occurring in regions that are linked via these trade-patterns; 3) the probability of not meeting demands (on a product level) due to drought events and the associated (indirect economic) impacts; and 4) regions that lose or benefit from their selection of trade-partners given the coupled nature of drought events, as well as the net effects for Europe as a whole.

  11. Linkage between acoustic parameters and seabed sediment properties in the south-western Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Michael; Endler, Rudolf; Bobertz, Bernd; Leipe, Thomas; Arz, Helge W.

    2015-04-01

    Acoustic profiling methods are widely used to provide a rapid view into geological structures. For the interpretation of acoustic profiling results (single- and multi-beam), reliable geo-acoustic models are needed. Suitable geo-acoustic models covering a wide range of sediment types do not exist to date for the Baltic Sea. Based on surface sediment datasets, geo-acoustic models have been set up for the prediction of acoustical parameters derived from sedimentological data for south-western Baltic Sea surface sediments. Empirical relationships were created to predict key in situ parameters (p-wave velocity, wet bulk density) from sedimentological core data, notably grain density and water content. The Gassmann-Hamilton equations were used to set up a more generic physically based model. For the first time semi-empirical equations for the calculation of the elastic frame modulus and the solid sediment particle modulus were established by an iterative Gassmann-Hamilton fitting procedure. The resulting models have a remarkably good performance with, for example, a calculated sound velocity accuracy of about 17-32 m s-1 depending on model input data. The acoustic impedance of seafloor sediments can be estimated from single-beam echosounding if the contribution of seafloor reflectivity is extracted from the total acoustic signal. The data reveal a strong linkage between acoustic impedance and selected sediment properties (e.g. grain size, water content). This underlines the potential for effective mapping of seafloor sediment properties (e.g. habitat mapping). Furthermore, these geo-acoustic models can be used by marine geologists for a precise linkage between sediment facies identified in longer cores and corresponding acoustic facies recorded by high-resolution seismic profiling in future work.

  12. Effects of Nonlocal One-Pion-Exchange Potential in Deuteron

    CERN Document Server

    Forest, J L

    2000-01-01

    The off-shell aspects of the one-pion-exchange potential (OPEP) are discussed. Relativistic Hamiltonians containing relativistic kinetic energy, relativistic OPEP with various off-shell behaviors and Argonne $v_{18}$ short-range parameterization are used to study the deuteron properties. The OPEP off-shell behaviors depend on whether a pseudovector or pseudoscalar pion-nucleon coupling is used and are characterized by a parameter $\\mu$. We study potentials having $\\mu$=-1, 0 and +1 and we find that they are nearly unitarily equivalent. We also find that a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian containing local potentials and nonrelativistic kinetic energy provides a good approximation to a Hamiltonian containing a relativistic OPEP based on pseudovector pion-nucleon coupling and relativistic kinetic energy.

  13. Long Range Potential Effects in Low Density Krypton Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formisano, F.; Barocchi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Formisano, F.; Barocchi, F.; Magli, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Sezione di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Benmore, C.J.; Egelstaff, P.A. [Physics Department, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (CANADA); Bafile, U. [Istituto di Elettronica Quantistica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Panciatichi 56/30, I-50127 Firenze (Italy); Magli, R. [Dipartimento di Energetica S. Stecco, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via di S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Verkerk, P. [Interfacultair Reactor Instituut, Technische Universiteit Delft, 2629 JB Delft (The Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) in low density {sup 86}Kr gas has been performed in order to measure the small-k behavior of the static structure factor S(k) . Three number densities between 1.52 and 2.42 nm{sup {minus}3} along the T=297 K isotherm have been studied. The small-k dependence of the Fourier transform c(k) of the direct correlation function c(r) has been derived. The experimental determination of the k{sup 3} term in the behavior of c(k) has led to a direct measurement of the London dispersion interaction in the pair potential of krypton. Also the contribution of the three-body potential in the asymptotic behavior of c(r) has been observed and related to the magnitude of the three-body interaction potential. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Heavy quark potential from QCD-related effective coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, César; González, Pedro; Vento, Vicente

    2016-12-01

    We implement our past investigations of quark-antiquark interaction through a non-perturbative running coupling defined in terms of a gluon mass function, similar to that used in some Schwinger-Dyson approaches. This coupling leads to a quark-antiquark potential, which satisfies not only asymptotic freedom but also describes linear confinement correctly. From this potential, we calculate the bottomonium and charmonium spectra below the first open flavor meson-meson thresholds and show that for a small range of values of the free parameter determining the gluon mass function an excellent agreement with data is attained.

  15. Relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects in the helium pair potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybytek, M; Cencek, W; Komasa, J; Łach, G; Jeziorski, B; Szalewicz, K

    2010-05-01

    The helium pair potential was computed including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics contributions as well as improved accuracy adiabatic ones. Accurate asymptotic expansions were used for large distances R. Error estimates show that the present potential is more accurate than any published to date. The computed dissociation energy and the average R for the (4)He(2) bound state are 1.62+/-0.03 mK and 47.1+/-0.5 A. These values can be compared with the measured ones: 1.1(-0.2)(+0.3) mK and 52+/-4 A [R. E. Grisenti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2284 (2000)].

  16. Music listening after stroke: beneficial effects and potential neural mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Särkämö, Teppo; Soto, David

    2012-01-01

    .... Then we will present findings about the short‐ and long‐term effects of music listening on the recovery of cognitive function in stroke patients and the underlying neural mechanisms of these music effects...

  17. Amides are excellent mimics of phosphate internucleoside linkages and are well tolerated in short interfering RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutisya, Daniel; Selvam, Chelliah; Lunstad, Benjamin D; Pallan, Pradeep S; Haas, Amanda; Leake, Devin; Egli, Martin; Rozners, Eriks

    2014-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become an important tool in functional genomics and has an intriguing therapeutic potential. However, the current design of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is not optimal for in vivo applications. Non-ionic phosphate backbone modifications may have the potential to improve the properties of siRNAs, but are little explored in RNAi technologies. Using X-ray crystallography and RNAi activity assays, the present study demonstrates that 3'-CH2-CO-NH-5' amides are excellent replacements for phosphodiester internucleoside linkages in RNA. The crystal structure shows that amide-modified RNA forms a typical A-form duplex. The amide carbonyl group points into the major groove and assumes an orientation that is similar to the P-OP2 bond in the phosphate linkage. Amide linkages are well hydrated by tandem waters linking the carbonyl group and adjacent phosphate oxygens. Amides are tolerated at internal positions of both the guide and passenger strand of siRNAs and may increase the silencing activity when placed near the 5'-end of the passenger strand. As a result, an siRNA containing eight amide linkages is more active than the unmodified control. The results suggest that RNAi may tolerate even more extensive amide modification, which may be useful for optimization of siRNAs for in vivo applications.

  18. Name segmentation using hidden Markov models and its application in record linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Braga Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the use of hidden Markov models (HMM for the segmentation of person names and its influence on record linkage. A HMM was applied to the segmentation of patient’s and mother’s names in the databases of the Mortality Information System (SIM, Information Subsystem for High Complexity Procedures (APAC, and Hospital Information System (AIH. A sample of 200 patients from each database was segmented via HMM, and the results were compared to those from segmentation by the authors. The APAC-SIM and APAC-AIH databases were linked using three different segmentation strategies, one of which used HMM. Conformity of segmentation via HMM varied from 90.5% to 92.5%. The different segmentation strategies yielded similar results in the record linkage process. This study suggests that segmentation of Brazilian names via HMM is no more effective than traditional segmentation approaches in the linkage process.

  19. Mind games : the effects of diazepam on Evoked Potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Marie-Louise Albertien

    2000-01-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) represents the electrical activity of the brain. Evoked Potentials (EPs) are small voltage fluctuations in the EEG resulting from sensory, cognitive or motor evoked neural activity. Variations in the EP waveform may be caused by several factors. 1. By employing differe

  20. Tetrandrine potentiated hypnotic effect of pentobarbital through serotonergic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinZHAO; Yong-heZHAN; Xiang-yuCUI; Bao-qiongCHEN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hypnotic activity and mechanism of tetrandrine (TET, a major component of Stephania tetrandrae) in mice. METHODS: Each mouse was observed for the onset and duration of sleep, with the criterion for sleep being loss of righting reflex. RESULTS: TET potentiated pentobarbital (45 mg/kg, ip)-induced hypnosis significantly by reducing sleep latency and

  1. The need for combining IEA and IE tools. The potential effects of a global ban on PVC on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleijn, Rene; Van der Voet, Ester; Udo de Haes, Helias A. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2008-04-01

    Over the last decades the concepts of Integrated Environmental Assessment (IEA) and Industrial Ecology (IE), both claiming to provide analyses and solutions for sustainability issues, have been developed separately as they emerged in response to questions from different policy-fields. In both fields, specific tools are used to support national and international environmental policy. The focus of IEA and IE tools, however, is different. IEA tools focus on one or a limited number of specific environmental issues. They often model the chain environmental processes with high spatial (and temporal) resolution, but have a low resolution for the material structure of the economy and only partly take into account indirect effects that occur via physical and socio-economic linkages. IE tools take into account all environmental issues related to a specific substance or product. They have a high resolution for the material structure of the economy and take into account indirect effects that occur via physical linkages, however, their environmental modelling is very limited. Both IE and IEA tools have proven to be very useful and neither is superior to the other. However, a combination of both can provide additional information that can be used for more effective policy making. We use the case of a hypothetical world-wide ban on PVC to show that a measure that is not directly related to climate change could still have significant climate effects. This indirect effect is a result of the linkages of material flows in society. We show that IEA tools are not well suited to include these types of effects and that IE tools can fill this gap partially. What is really needed is a broader systems perspective that takes into account the full range of possible side-effects of environmental policy measures. (author)

  2. Genetic Mapping in Xenopus Laevis: Eight Linkage Groups Established

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    Inheritance of alleles at 29 electrophoretically detected protein loci and one pigment locus (albinism) was analyzed in Xenopus laevis by backcrossing multiply heterozygous individuals generated by intersubspecies hybridization. Pairwise linkage tests revealed eight classical linkage groups. These groups have been provisionally numbered from 1 to 8 in an arbitrarily chosen order. Linkage group 1 includes ALB-2 (albumin), ADH-1 (alcohol dehydrogenase), NP (nucleoside phosphorylase), and a(p) (...

  3. Model-free linkage analysis of a binary trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Bull, Shelley B; Mirea, Lucia; Greenwood, Celia M T

    2012-01-01

    Genetic linkage analysis aims to detect chromosomal regions containing genes that influence risk of specific inherited diseases. The presence of linkage is indicated when a disease or trait cosegregates through the families with genetic markers at a particular region of the genome. Two main types of genetic linkage analysis are in common use, namely model-based linkage analysis and model-free linkage analysis. In this chapter, we focus solely on the latter type and specifically on binary traits or phenotypes, such as the presence or absence of a specific disease. Model-free linkage analysis is based on allele-sharing, where patterns of genetic similarity among affected relatives are compared to chance expectations. Because the model-free methods do not require the specification of the inheritance parameters of a genetic model, they are preferred by many researchers at early stages in the study of a complex disease. We introduce the history of model-free linkage analysis in Subheading 1. Table 1 describes a standard model-free linkage analysis workflow. We describe three popular model-free linkage analysis methods, the nonparametric linkage (NPL) statistic, the affected sib-pair (ASP) likelihood ratio test, and a likelihood approach for pedigrees. The theory behind each linkage test is described in this section, together with a simple example of the relevant calculations. Table 4 provides a summary of popular genetic analysis software packages that implement model-free linkage models. In Subheading 2, we work through the methods on a rich example providing sample software code and output. Subheading 3 contains notes with additional details on various topics that may need further consideration during analysis.

  4. Adaptive Linkage Disequilibrium Between Two Esterase Loci of a Salamander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, T. Preston

    1973-01-01

    In some populations of the salamander Plethodon cinereus, two polymorphic esterase loci are in linkage disequilibrium. Short-term stability of the linkage disequilibrium is demonstrated by an age class analysis. Long, perhaps very long, term stability is suggested by its distribution. This stability and concordant geographic variation in allelic frequencies imply selective origin and maintenance. Data on the frequencies of two color morphs suggest that formation of the linkage disequilibrium is dependent on the genetic background. Images PMID:4515614

  5. Cumulant dynamics in a finite population linkage equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rattray, M; Rattray, Magnus; Shapiro, Jonathan L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of a finite population at linkage equilibrium is described in terms of the dynamics of phenotype distribution cumulants. This provides a powerful method for describing evolutionary transients and we elucidate the relationship between the cumulant dynamics and the diffusion approximation. A separation of time-scales between the first and higher cumulants for low mutation rates is demonstrated in the diffusion limit and provides a significant simplification of the dynamical system. However, the diffusion limit may not be appropriate for strong selection as the standard Fisher-Wright model of genetic drift can break down in this case. Two novel examples of this effect are considered: we shown that the dynamics may depend on the number of loci under strong directional selection and that environmental variance results in a reduced effective population size. We also consider a simple model of a changing environment which cannot be described by a diffusion equation and we derive the optimal mutation ra...

  6. A genome-wide linkage study of individuals with high scores on NEO personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, N; Schuur, M; Gusareva, E S; Isaacs, A; Aulchenko, Y S; Kirichenko, A V; Zorkoltseva, I V; Axenovich, T I; Oostra, B A; Janssens, A C J W; van Duijn, C M

    2012-10-01

    The NEO-Five-Factor Inventory divides human personality traits into five dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness. In this study, we sought to identify regions harboring genes with large effects on the five NEO personality traits by performing genome-wide linkage analysis of individuals scoring in the extremes of these traits (>90th percentile). Affected-only linkage analysis was performed using an Illumina 6K linkage array in a family-based study, the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. We subsequently determined whether distinct, segregating haplotypes found with linkage analysis were associated with the trait of interest in the population. Finally, a dense single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array (Illumina 318K) was used to search for copy number variations (CNVs) in the associated regions. In the families with extreme phenotype scores, we found significant evidence of linkage for conscientiousness to 20p13 (rs1434789, log of odds (LOD)=5.86) and suggestive evidence of linkage (LOD >2.8) for neuroticism to 19q, 21q and 22q, extraversion to 1p, 1q, 9p and12q, openness to 12q and 19q, and agreeableness to 2p, 6q, 17q and 21q. Further analysis determined haplotypes in 21q22 for neuroticism (P-values = 0.009, 0.007), in 17q24 for agreeableness (marginal P-value = 0.018) and in 20p13 for conscientiousness (marginal P-values = 0.058, 0.038) segregating in families with large contributions to the LOD scores. No evidence for CNVs in any of the associated regions was found. Our findings imply that there may be genes with relatively large effects involved in personality traits, which may be identified with next-generation sequencing techniques.

  7. A SSR-based composite genetic linkage map for the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shaoxiong

    2010-01-01

    , respectively. These distorted loci tended to cluster on LG1, LG3, LG4 and LG5. There were only 15 EST-SSR markers mapped due to low polymorphism. By comparison, there were potential synteny, collinear order of some markers and conservation of collinear linkage groups among the maps and with the AA genome but not fully conservative. Conclusion A composite linkage map was constructed from three individual mapping populations with 175 SSR markers in 22 composite linkage groups. This composite genetic linkage map is among the first "true" tetraploid peanut maps produced. This map also consists of 47 SSRs that have been used in the published AA genome maps, and could be used in comparative mapping studies. The primers described in this study are PCR-based markers, which are easy to share for genetic mapping in peanuts. All 1044 primer pairs are provided as additional files and the three RIL populations will be made available to public upon request for quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis and linkage map improvement.

  8. Automated Generation of Kempe Linkage and Its Complexity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小山; 朱长才

    1999-01-01

    It is a famous result of Kempe that a linkage can be designed to generate any given plane algebraic curve.In this paper,Kempe's result is improved to give a precise algorithm for generating Kempe linkage.We proved that for an algebraic plane curve of degrenn n,Kempe linkage uses at most O(n4) links.Efforts to implement a program which may generate Kempe linkage and simulation of the generation process of the plane curves are presented in the paper.

  9. The effect of nonlinearity in relativistic nucleon–nucleon potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Sahu; S K Singh; M Bhuyan; S K Patra

    2014-04-01

    A simple form for nucleon–nucleon (NN) potential is introduced as an alternative to the popular M3Y form using the relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) with the non-linear terms in -meson for the first time. In contrast to theM3Y form, the new interaction becomes exactly zero at a finite distance and the expressions are analogous with the M3Y terms. Further, its applicability is examined by the study of proton and cluster radioactivity by folding it with the RMFT-densities of the cluster and daughter nuclei to obtain the optical potential in the region of proton-rich nuclides just above the double magic core 100Sn. The results obtained were found comparable with the widely used M3Y interactions.

  10. Reduction of Electronic Wavefunctions to Kohn-Sham Effective Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Staroverov, Viktor N

    2015-01-01

    A method for calculating the Kohn--Sham exchange-correlation potential, $v_\\text{XC}(\\mathbf{r})$, from a given electronic wavefunction is devised and implemented. It requires on input one- and two-electron density matrices and involves construction of the generalized Fock matrix. The method is free from numerical limitations and basis-set artifacts of conventional schemes for constructing $v_\\text{XC}(\\mathbf{r})$ in which the potential is recovered from a given electron density, and is simpler than various many-body techniques. The chief significance of this development is that it allows one to directly probe the functional derivative of the true exchange-correlation energy functional and to rigorously test and improve various density-functional approximations.

  11. [Effects of nicotine on visually evoked EEG potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, P P; Bättig, K; Rosecrans, J A

    1982-10-01

    The effects of nicotine were measured on the averaged visual evoked response (AVER) through the use of two types of experimental cigarettes which differed only in nicotine content (i.e., 0.14 vs. 1.34 mg/cig.). The results indicate that the restorative and/or enhancing effects of cigarette smoking on peak amplitudes are due predominantly to nicotine's psychopharmacologic effects, and support past research indicating that nicotine may enhance visual attentional processes in the quiescent smoker. This contrasts with other reports indicating nicotine to have a depressant effect on auditory processes.

  12. Shrubs and Runoff in Semiarid Landscapes: Whats the Linkage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, B. P.; Owens, M. K.; Knight, R.; Lyons, R. K.

    2001-12-01

    Here we examine linkage between streamflow and shrub cover in semiarid landscapes with a focus on the extensive Texas rangelands covered by mesquite and juniper. The conclusions drawn are consistent with results from field studies and with our understanding of runoff processes from rangelands. Whether and how shrub control will affect streamflow depends on shrub characteristics, precipitation, soils, and geology. Precipitation is perhaps the most fundamental of these factors: there is little if any real potential for increasing streamflow where annual precipitation is below about 500 mm. For areas in which precipitation is sufficient, an excellent indicator that there is potential for increasing streamflow through shrub control is that base flow is an important component of streamflow. Another key indicator is shallow soils underlain by fractured parent material; under such conditions, increased streamflows are possible mainly because water that would otherwise be lost through interception by the canopy instead moves into the soil and quickly travels beyond the root zone. Conversely, where soils are deep there is little evidence that streamflow can be significantly increased by reducing brush cover. Results from a 10 year small watershed study where juniper was selectively removed in the Edwards plateau region of Texas will be summarized in this presentation. In assessing the potential for shrub control to increase streamflow, the runoff generation process should be explicitly identified. Areas in which Horton overland flow is the primary runoff mechanism offer little potential for increasing streamflow via vegetation management.

  13. Analysis of some potential social effects of four coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.

    1980-09-01

    This is an analysis of the potential social impacts of four coal technologies: conventional combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, liquifaction, and gasification. Because of their flexibility, and the abundance and relatively low costs of coal, the potential benefits of these technologies would seem to outweigh their potential social costs, both in the intermediate and long term. Nevertheless, the social costs of a coal industry are far more obscure and hard to quantify than the benefits. In general, however, it maybe expected that those technologies that can be deployed most quickly, that provide fuels that can substitute most easily for oil and natural gas, that are the cheapest, and that are the most thermally efficient will minimize social costs most in the intermediate term, while technologies that can guide energy infrastructure changes to become the most compatable with the fuels that will be most easily derived from inexhaustible sources (electricity and hydrogen) will minimize social costs most in the long run. An industry structured to favor eastern over western coal and plant sites in moderate sized communities, which could easily adapt to inexhaustible energy technologies (nuclear or solar) in the future, would be favored in either time period.

  14. Newer Approaches to Identify Potential Untoward Effects in Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Palma Ann; Birkenbach, Victoria L; Hayes, A Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has greatly accelerated the numbers and variety of food and beverage products available worldwide. The exchange among greater numbers of countries, manufacturers, and products in the United States and worldwide has necessitated enhanced quality measures for nutritional products for larger populations increasingly reliant on functionality. These functional foods, those that provide benefit beyond basic nutrition, are increasingly being used for their potential to alleviate food insufficiency while enhancing quality and longevity of life. In the United States alone, a steady import increase of greater than 15% per year or 24 million shipments, over 70% products of which are food related, is regulated under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This unparalleled growth has resulted in the need for faster, cheaper, and better safety and efficacy screening methods in the form of harmonized guidelines and recommendations for product standardization. In an effort to meet this need, the in vitro toxicology testing market has similarly grown with an anticipatory 15% increase between 2010 and 2015 of US$1.3 to US$2.7 billion. Although traditionally occupying a small fraction of the market behind pharmaceuticals and cosmetic/household products, the scope of functional food testing, including additives/supplements, ingredients, residues, contact/processing, and contaminants, is potentially expansive. Similarly, as functional food testing has progressed, so has the need to identify potential adverse factors that threaten the safety and quality of these products.

  15. University students' psychopathology: correlates and the examiner's potential bias effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito Santo

    2015-02-01

    Aims: the main objective was to verify if there is a difference on psychopathological symptoms between two groups questioned by two different examiners, controlling for the potential role of social desirability, and other potential covariates. Additionally, we want to assess the level of psychopathology and its socio-demographic correlates.Methods: 185 Coimbra's university students completed the Brief Symptom Inventory/BSI and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. In one group the examiner was of the same age and academic status as the students, while in the other group the examiner was older and a teacher. We studied the psychopathological correlates with Pearson, point-biserial correlations, and qui-square analyses, and we controlled the potential role of covariates through Quade non-parametric ANCOVAs. Results: The level of distress was lower in comparison with other investigations. Women had higher level of distress and more symptoms of somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsion, and depression. The students that live a higher distance from home had more anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The group assessed by the younger examiner scored higher in distress and in some BSI factors, and had lower levels on social desirability. Conclusions: Sex and distance from home seem important factors for university students' mental health. However, the examiner does have an influence in the evaluation, probably because of social desirability, suggesting that the examiner's characteristics should be given in investigations involving university students.

  16. Linkage of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and the Texas Water Availability Model to simulate the effects of brush management on monthly storage of Canyon Lake, south-central Texas, 1995-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, developed and applied an approach to create a linkage between the published upper Guadalupe River Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) brush-management (ashe juniper [Juniperus ashei]) model and the full authorization version Guadalupe River Water Availability Model (WAM). The SWAT model was published by the USGS, and the Guadalupe River WAM is available from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The upper Guadalupe River watershed is a substantial component of the Guadalupe River WAM. This report serves in part as documentation of a proof of concept on the feasibility of linking these two water-resources planning models for the purpose of simulating possible increases in water storage in Canyon Lake as a result of different brush-management scenarios.

  17. Quantum vacuum effects from boundaries of designer potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopka, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Vacuum energy in quantum field theory, being the sum of zero-point energies of all field modes, is formally infinite but yet, after regularization or renormalization, can give rise to finite observable effects. One way of understanding how these effects arise is to compute the vacuum energy in an id

  18. Slow high-frequency effects in mechanics: problems, solutions, potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Strong high-frequency excitation (HFE) may change the ‘slow’ (i.e. effective or average) properties of mechanical systems, e.g. their stiffness, natural frequencies, equilibriums, equilibrium stability, and bifurcation paths. This tutorial describes three general HFE effects: Stiffening – an appa......Strong high-frequency excitation (HFE) may change the ‘slow’ (i.e. effective or average) properties of mechanical systems, e.g. their stiffness, natural frequencies, equilibriums, equilibrium stability, and bifurcation paths. This tutorial describes three general HFE effects: Stiffening...... and compared: The Method of Direct Separation of Motions, the Method of Averaging, and the Method of Multiple Scales. The tutorial concludes by suggesting that more vibration experts, researchers and students should know about HFE effects, for the benefit not only of general vibration troubleshooting, but also...

  19. Genome-wide linkage scan identifies two novel genetic loci for coronary artery disease: in GeneQuest families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hanxiang; Li, Lin; Rao, Shaoqi; Shen, Gongqing; Xi, Quansheng; Chen, Shenghan; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Kai; Ellis, Stephen G; Chen, Qiuyun; Topol, Eric J; Wang, Qing K

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified >50 common variants associated with CAD or its complication myocardial infarction (MI), but collectively they account for missing heritability". Rare variants with large effects may account for a large portion of missing heritability. Genome-wide linkage studies of large families and follow-up fine mapping and deep sequencing are particularly effective in identifying rare variants with large effects. Here we show results from a genome-wide linkage scan for CAD in multiplex GeneQuest families with early onset CAD and MI. Whole genome genotyping was carried out with 408 markers that span the human genome by every 10 cM and linkage analyses were performed using the affected relative pair analysis implemented in GENEHUNTER. Affected only nonparametric linkage (NPL) analysis identified two novel CAD loci with highly significant evidence of linkage on chromosome 3p25.1 (peak NPL  = 5.49) and 3q29 (NPL  = 6.84). We also identified four loci with suggestive linkage on 9q22.33, 9q34.11, 17p12, and 21q22.3 (NPL  = 3.18-4.07). These results identify novel loci for CAD and provide a framework for fine mapping and deep sequencing to identify new susceptibility genes and novel variants associated with risk of CAD.

  20. Developing Telecommunication Linkages for Microcomputer-Aided Instruction. TDC Research Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinn, Charles R.; And Others

    A project undertaken at the University of Minnesota evaluated two microcomputer teletraining systems (audiographic conferencing) to determine the effectiveness of this technology for point-to-point and multipoint distance education. System design requirements included broadcast keystrokes, error checking, master-slave linkages, simultaneous voice…

  1. Vocational Imagination and Labour Market Literacy: Young New Zealanders Making Education-Employment Linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jane; Nairn, Karen; Sligo, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the concepts of vocational imagination and labour market literacy, arguing that these are important elements in the crafting of effective education-employment linkages. Evidence of truncated understandings of both is found in the talk of 93 young New Zealanders in transition from secondary school to their post-school lives. We…

  2. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci using linkage disequilibria with closely linked marker loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Goddard, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    A multimarker linkage disequilibrium mapping method was developed for the fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using a dense marker map. The method compares the expected covariances between haplotype effects given a postulated QTL position to the covariances that are found in the data. The

  3. Combined genome-wide linkage and targeted association analysis of head circumference in autism spectrum disorder families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury-Smith, M; Bilder, D A; Morgan, J; Jerominski, L; Darlington, T; Dyer, T; Paterson, A D; Coon, H

    2017-01-01

    It has long been recognized that there is an association between enlarged head circumference (HC) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the genetics of HC in ASD is not well understood. In order to investigate the genetic underpinning of HC in ASD, we undertook a genome-wide linkage study of HC followed by linkage signal targeted association among a sample of 67 extended pedigrees with ASD. HC measurements on members of 67 multiplex ASD extended pedigrees were used as a quantitative trait in a genome-wide linkage analysis. The Illumina 6K SNP linkage panel was used, and analyses were carried out using the SOLAR implemented variance components model. Loci identified in this way formed the target for subsequent association analysis using the Illumina OmniExpress chip and imputed genotypes. A modification of the qTDT was used as implemented in SOLAR. We identified a linkage signal spanning 6p21.31 to 6p22.2 (maximum LOD = 3.4). Although targeted association did not find evidence of association with any SNP overall, in one family with the strongest evidence of linkage, there was evidence for association (rs17586672, p = 1.72E-07). Although this region does not overlap with ASD linkage signals in these same samples, it has been associated with other psychiatric risk, including ADHD, developmental dyslexia, schizophrenia, specific language impairment, and juvenile bipolar disorder. The genome-wide significant linkage signal represents the first reported observation of a potential quantitative trait locus for HC in ASD and may be relevant in the context of complex multivariate risk likely leading to ASD.

  4. An effective theory for QCD with an axial chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianov, Alexander A; Espriu, Domenec; Planells, Xumeu

    2013-01-01

    We consider the low energy realization of QCD in terms of meson fields when an axial chemical potential is present; a situation that may be relevant in heavy ion collisions. We shall demonstrate that the presence of an axial charge constitutes an explicit source of parity breaking. The eigenstates of strong interactions do not have a definite parity and interactions that would otherwise be forbidden compete with the familiar ones. In this work, we first focus on scalars and pseudoscalars that are described by a generalized linear sigma model; and next, we give some hints on how the Vector Meson Dominance model describes the vector sector.

  5. The potential protective effects of erythropoietin and estrogen on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha I. Hussien

    2015-12-30

    Dec 30, 2015 ... Conclusion: It seems that EPO could protect the kidney against RIR, while this protective effect ... EPO is an essential growth factor of hemopoietic progeni- ...... Jerald Mahesh, Kuncha Madhusudana, Rachamalla Shyam Sun-.

  6. Effective potential for Polyakov loops in lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Y.; RBC Collaboration

    2003-05-01

    Toward the derivation of an effective theory for Polyakov loops in lattice QCD, we examine Polyakov loop correlation functions using the multi-level algorithm which was recently developed by Luscher and Weisz.

  7. Action-specific effects in perception and their potential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Jessica K.; Linkenauger, Sally; Wickens, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Spatial perception is biased by action. Hills appear steeper and distances appear farther to individuals who would have to exert more effort to transverse the space. Objects appear closer, smaller, and faster when they are easier to obtain. Athletes who are playing better than others see their targets as bigger. These phenomena are collectively known as action-specific effects on perception. In this target article, we review evidence for action-specific effects, including evidence that they r...

  8. High-Resolution Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping Identifies Susceptibility Loci for BMI in the Chinese Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Li, Shuxia

    2012-01-01

    The genetic loci affecting the commonly used BMI have been intensively investigated using linkage approaches in multiple populations. This study aims at performing the first genome-wide linkage scan on BMI in the Chinese population in mainland China with hypothesis that heterogeneity in genetic...... in western countries. Multiple loci showing suggestive linkage were found on chromosome 1 (lod score 2.38 at 242 cM), chromosome 8 (2.48 at 95 cM), and chromosome 14 (2.2 at 89.4 cM). The strong linkage identified in the Chinese subjects that is consistent with that found in populations of European origin...... could suggest the existence of evolutionarily preserved genetic mechanisms for BMI whereas the multiple suggestive loci could represent genetic effect from gene-environment interaction as a result of population-specific environmental adaptation....

  9. Potential effects of climate change on ecosystem distribution in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, R.R.; Farr, D.; Boutin, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Hamann, A.; Wang, X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept of Renewable Resources

    2009-05-15

    This paper proposed a method of extending the utility of bioclimatic envelope models for land use planning and adaptation under climate change. The trajectory of vegetation changes was set by the model, while the rate of transition was determined using a disturbance model. The method was used to explore potential changes to the distribution of ecosystems in Alberta under various climate and disturbance scenarios. The study showed that use of the disturbance model slowed the rate of ecosystem transition when compared with the results obtained from the bioclimatic envelope model alone. A northward shift of grasslands into large areas of existing parklands occurred over the simulation's 50-year time period. Between 12 and 21 per cent of Alberta's Boreal region was converted to parklands. Boreal transitions will initially occur in forests adjacent to current parklands and spread outwards. Fires over 100 km {sup 2} provided an indication of the anticipated size of potential transition patches. It was concluded that using a disturbance model to quantify transition logs can improve uncertainties in the parameter estimates of bioclimatic envelope models. 43 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Validation of de-identified record linkage to ascertain hospital admissions in a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English Dallas R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cohort studies can provide valuable evidence of cause and effect relationships but are subject to loss of participants over time, limiting the validity of findings. Computerised record linkage offers a passive and ongoing method of obtaining health outcomes from existing routinely collected data sources. However, the quality of record linkage is reliant upon the availability and accuracy of common identifying variables. We sought to develop and validate a method for linking a cohort study to a state-wide hospital admissions dataset with limited availability of unique identifying variables. Methods A sample of 2000 participants from a cohort study (n = 41 514 was linked to a state-wide hospitalisations dataset in Victoria, Australia using the national health insurance (Medicare number and demographic data as identifying variables. Availability of the health insurance number was limited in both datasets; therefore linkage was undertaken both with and without use of this number and agreement tested between both algorithms. Sensitivity was calculated for a sub-sample of 101 participants with a hospital admission confirmed by medical record review. Results Of the 2000 study participants, 85% were found to have a record in the hospitalisations dataset when the national health insurance number and sex were used as linkage variables and 92% when demographic details only were used. When agreement between the two methods was tested the disagreement fraction was 9%, mainly due to "false positive" links when demographic details only were used. A final algorithm that used multiple combinations of identifying variables resulted in a match proportion of 87%. Sensitivity of this final linkage was 95%. Conclusions High quality record linkage of cohort data with a hospitalisations dataset that has limited identifiers can be achieved using combinations of a national health insurance number and demographic data as identifying variables.

  11. PolyUbiquitin Chain Linkage Topology Selects the Functions from the Underlying Binding Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Tang, Chun; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) can generate versatile molecular signals and lead to different celluar fates. The functional poly-valence of Ub is believed to be resulted from its ability to form distinct polymerized chains with eight linkage types. To provide a full picture of ubiquitin code, we explore the binding landscape of two free Ub monomers and also the functional landscapes of of all eight linkage types by theoretical modeling. Remarkably, we found that most of the compact structures of covalently connected dimeric Ub chains (diUbs) pre-exist on the binding landscape. These compact functional states were subsequently validated by corresponding linkage models. This leads to the proposal that the folding architecture of Ub monomer has encoded all functional states into its binding landscape, which is further selected by different topologies of polymeric Ub chains. Moreover, our results revealed that covalent linkage leads to symmetry breaking of interfacial interactions. We further propose that topological constraint not only limits the conformational space for effective switching between functional states, but also selects the local interactions for realizing the corresponding biological function. Therefore, the topological constraint provides a way for breaking the binding symmetry and reaching the functional specificity. The simulation results also provide several predictions that qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with experiments. Importantly, the K48 linkage model successfully predicted intermediate states. The resulting multi-state energy landscape was further employed to reconcile the seemingly contradictory experimental data on the conformational equilibrium of K48-diUb. Our results further suggest that hydrophobic interactions are dominant in the functional landscapes of K6-, K11-, K33- and K48 diUbs, while electrostatic interactions play a more important role in the functional landscapes of K27, K29, K63 and linear linkages. PMID:24992446

  12. Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of

  13. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits.

  14. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L. A. Rich.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusama Marubodee

    Full Text Available Vigna vexillata (L. A. Rich. (tuber cowpea is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s source for V. unguiculata (cowpea, since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean, V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean. An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1 and susceptible (V5 accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits.

  15. Some remarks about flux linkage and inductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kurz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of computational electromagnetics there is an increasing demand for various coupled simulations. One example is the coupling between field and circuit simulation for the description of electromagnetic devices. In the context of such couplings, theoretical questions arise as well. How can a field device be represented as an equivalent multiport circuit element? What is meant by flux linkage if the considered conductors are not filamentary? What is meant by inductance if the magnetic media exhibit nonlinear behaviour? These questions and their answers are not new. However, according to the author’s view, these issues are not sufficiently addressed in the usual textbooks. The aim of the paper is therefore to (hopefully answer the questions concisely and correctly. The modern language of differential forms will be employed for this purpose.

  16. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...... for estimating a linkage map; it involves (1) transformation by the Kosambi mapping function of the available recombination percentages to additive map distances, (2) calculations of a set of map distances from the transformed recombination percentages by a maximum likelihood method in which all the available...... data are utilized jointly, and (3) omission of inconsistent data and determination of the most likely order of the loci. This procedure was applied to the 42 recombination percentages available for the 13 “mapped” loci. Due to inconsistencies 14 of the recombination percentages and, therefore, two...

  17. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Hodson, Elke [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Heath, Garvin [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  18. Cigarette smoke effects on innate immune mechanisms in the nasal mucosa. Potential effects on the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), through active smoking and through exposure to secondhand smoke, has immunosuppressive effects, yet how this might affect the microbiome is not known. In this manuscript we focus on the effects of CS on innate host defense response, with particular emphasis on the role of epithelial cells and mucosal immune responses in the nose and the potential effects on the microbiome. The studies described here briefly summarize the effects of CS on specific innate immune cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages/monocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. A detailed description of how CS affects epithelial cells and why we consider this to be a central defect in the overall immunosuppressive effects of CS in the lung is provided. We summarize data on the role of the "epimmunome" in the context of CS exposure, including the effects on soluble mediator production, such as cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense mediators. Separate emphasis is put on the expression of ligands on epithelial cells, which directly interact with receptors on immune cells, and the effects of CS on these interactions. We introduce the nose and nasal mucosa as a model to study the effects of CS exposure on host defense responses and changes in the microbiome in humans in vivo. Understanding the dynamics of a healthy microbiome and how CS affects this balance is important to uncovering the mechanisms of CS-induced disease.

  19. [Conservative therapy of female urinary incontinence--potential and effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcicka, L; Chmel, R; Novácková, M

    2005-01-01

    Non-surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence is not as effective as surgical methods but it is very successful in indicated cases. Rehabilitation of the pelvic floor muscles (Kegel exercises, vaginal cones, and electrostimulation of the pelvic floor muscles), drug treatment (alfa-mimetics, tricyclic antidepressives, estrogens, duloxetin), pessarotherapy and uretral obturator devices represent possibilities of conservative therapy of the stress incontinence. Conservative therapy is the method of choice in the treatment of urge incontinence. The most successful are anticholinergic drugs but they have very frequent serious side effects (dryness of the mucous membranes, accommodation disorders, constipation). Spasmolytics, estrogens and tricyclic antidepressives are the other popular used drugs. Life style modification, bladder training and electrostimulation represent very important parts of the conservative treatment. Effectiveness of the non-surgical treatment of both urge and stress urinary incontinence can not reach 100 percent but it helps very much in the quality of life improvement of incontinent women.

  20. Fluids in porous media. IV. Quench effect on chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, C. Z.; Zhao, S. L.; Liu, H. L.; Dong, W.

    2017-06-01

    It appears to be a common sense to measure the crowdedness of a fluid system by the densities of the species constituting it. In the present work, we show that this ceases to be valid for confined fluids under some conditions. A quite thorough investigation is made for a hard sphere (HS) fluid adsorbed in a hard sphere matrix (a quench-annealed system) and its corresponding equilibrium binary mixture. When fluid particles are larger than matrix particles, the quench-annealed system can appear much more crowded than its corresponding equilibrium binary mixture, i.e., having a much higher fluid chemical potential, even when the density of each species is strictly the same in both systems, respectively. We believe that the insight gained from this study should be useful for the design of functionalized porous materials.

  1. Effects of MPTP, MPP+ and paraquat on mitochondrial potential and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Ce; Bondy, SC

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and 1,1-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridinium (paraquat) upon the electrical potential across the plasma and mitochondrial membranes within synaptosomes has been investigated. MPTP selectively depressed plasma membrane potential while MPP+ specifically reduced mitochondrial potential. The structurally similar compound paraquat had no effect on either membrane potential. Enhancement of the lipid peroxidat...

  2. HIV testing and linkage to services for youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Kurth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV testing is the portal to serostatus knowledge that can empower linkage to care for HIV treatment and HIV prevention. However, young people's access to HIV testing is uneven worldwide. The objective of this paper is to review the context and concerns faced by youth around HIV testing in low- as well as high-income country settings. Discussion: HIV testing is a critical entry point for primary and secondary prevention as well as care and treatment for young people including key populations of vulnerable youth. We provide a framework for thinking about the role of testing in the continuum of prevention and care for young people. Brief case study examples from Kenya and the US illustrate some of the common barriers and issues involved for young people. Conclusions: Young people worldwide need more routine access to HIV testing services that effectively address the developmental, socio-political and other issues faced by young women and men.

  3. A Linkage Map and QTL Analysis for Pyrethroid Resistance in the Bed Bug Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Toby; Ravinet, Mark; Naylor, Richard; Reinhardt, Klaus; Butlin, Roger K

    2016-12-07

    The rapid evolution of insecticide resistance remains one of the biggest challenges in the control of medically and economically important pests. Insects have evolved a diverse range of mechanisms to reduce the efficacy of the commonly used classes of insecticides, and finding the genetic basis of resistance is a major aid to management. In a previously unstudied population, we performed an F2 resistance mapping cross for the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, for which insecticide resistance is increasingly widespread. Using 334 SNP markers obtained through RAD-sequencing, we constructed the first linkage map for the species, consisting of 14 putative linkage groups (LG), with a length of 407 cM and an average marker spacing of 1.3 cM. The linkage map was used to reassemble the recently published reference genome, facilitating refinement and validation of the current genome assembly. We detected a major QTL on LG12 associated with insecticide resistance, occurring in close proximity (1.2 Mb) to a carboxylesterase encoding candidate gene for pyrethroid resistance. This provides another example of this candidate gene playing a major role in determining survival in a bed bug population following pesticide resistance evolution. The recent availability of the bed bug genome, complete with a full list of potential candidate genes related to insecticide resistance, in addition to the linkage map generated here, provides an excellent resource for future research on the development and spread of insecticide resistance in this resurging pest species. Copyright © 2016 Fountain et al.

  4. A Linkage Map and QTL Analysis for Pyrethroid Resistance in the Bed Bug Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Fountain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of insecticide resistance remains one of the biggest challenges in the control of medically and economically important pests. Insects have evolved a diverse range of mechanisms to reduce the efficacy of the commonly used classes of insecticides, and finding the genetic basis of resistance is a major aid to management. In a previously unstudied population, we performed an F2 resistance mapping cross for the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, for which insecticide resistance is increasingly widespread. Using 334 SNP markers obtained through RAD-sequencing, we constructed the first linkage map for the species, consisting of 14 putative linkage groups (LG, with a length of 407 cM and an average marker spacing of 1.3 cM. The linkage map was used to reassemble the recently published reference genome, facilitating refinement and validation of the current genome assembly. We detected a major QTL on LG12 associated with insecticide resistance, occurring in close proximity (1.2 Mb to a carboxylesterase encoding candidate gene for pyrethroid resistance. This provides another example of this candidate gene playing a major role in determining survival in a bed bug population following pesticide resistance evolution. The recent availability of the bed bug genome, complete with a full list of potential candidate genes related to insecticide resistance, in addition to the linkage map generated here, provides an excellent resource for future research on the development and spread of insecticide resistance in this resurging pest species.

  5. A Linkage Map and QTL Analysis for Pyrethroid Resistance in the Bed Bug Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Toby; Ravinet, Mark; Naylor, Richard; Reinhardt, Klaus; Butlin, Roger K.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid evolution of insecticide resistance remains one of the biggest challenges in the control of medically and economically important pests. Insects have evolved a diverse range of mechanisms to reduce the efficacy of the commonly used classes of insecticides, and finding the genetic basis of resistance is a major aid to management. In a previously unstudied population, we performed an F2 resistance mapping cross for the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, for which insecticide resistance is increasingly widespread. Using 334 SNP markers obtained through RAD-sequencing, we constructed the first linkage map for the species, consisting of 14 putative linkage groups (LG), with a length of 407 cM and an average marker spacing of 1.3 cM. The linkage map was used to reassemble the recently published reference genome, facilitating refinement and validation of the current genome assembly. We detected a major QTL on LG12 associated with insecticide resistance, occurring in close proximity (1.2 Mb) to a carboxylesterase encoding candidate gene for pyrethroid resistance. This provides another example of this candidate gene playing a major role in determining survival in a bed bug population following pesticide resistance evolution. The recent availability of the bed bug genome, complete with a full list of potential candidate genes related to insecticide resistance, in addition to the linkage map generated here, provides an excellent resource for future research on the development and spread of insecticide resistance in this resurging pest species. PMID:27733453

  6. Quantifying landscape linkages among giant panda subpopulations in regional scale conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dunwu; Hu, Yibo; Gu, Xiaodong; Yang, Xuyi; Yang, Guang; Wei, Fuwen

    2012-06-01

    Understanding habitat requirements and identifying landscape linkages are essential for the survival of isolated populations of endangered species. Currently, some of the giant panda populations are isolated, which threatens their long-term survival, particularly in the Xiaoxiangling mountains. In the present study, we quantified niche requirements and then identified potential linkages of giant panda subpopulations in the most isolated region, using ecological niche factor analysis and a least-cost path model. Giant pandas preferred habitat with conifer forest and gentle slopes (>20 to ≤30°). Based on spatial distribution of suitable habitat, linkages were identified for the Yele subpopulation to 4 other subpopulations (Liziping, Matou, Xinmin and Wanba). Their lengths ranged from 15 to 54 km. The accumulated cost ranged from 693 to 3166 and conifer forest covered over 31%. However, a variety of features (e.g. major roads, human settlements and large unforested areas) might act as barriers along the linkages for giant panda dispersal. Our analysis quantified giant panda subpopulation connectivity to ensure long-term survival.

  7. Synthesis and properties of ApA analogues with shortened phosphonate internucleotide linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králíková, Sárka; Buděšínský, Miloš; Barvík, Ivan; Masojídková, Milena; Točík, Zdeněk; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    A complete series of the 2 '-5 ' and 3 '-5 ' regioisomeric types of r(ApA) and 2 '-d(ApA) analogues with the α-hydroxy-phosphonate C3 '-O-P-CH(OH)-C4 ″ internucleotide linkage, isopolar but non-isosteric with the phosphodiester one, were synthesized and their hybridization properties with polyU studied. Due to the chirality on the 5 '-carbon atom of the modified internucleotide linkage bearing phosphorus and hydroxy moieties, each regioisomeric type of ApA dimer is split into epimeric pairs. To examine the role of the 5 '-hydroxyl of the α-hydroxy-phosphonate moiety during hybridization, the appropriate r(ApA) analogues with 3 '(2 ')-O-P-CH(2)-C4 ″ linkage lacking the 5 '-hydroxyl were synthesized. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy study on the conformation of the modified sugar-phosphate backbone, along with the hybridization measurements, revealed remarkable differences in the stability of complexes with polyU, depending on the 5 '-carbon atom configuration. Potential usefulness of the α-hydroxy-phosphonate linkage in modified oligoribonucleotides is discussed.

  8. Keep your opponents close: social context affects EEG and fEMG linkage in a turn-based computer game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M Spapé

    Full Text Available In daily life, we often copy the gestures and expressions of those we communicate with, but recent evidence shows that such mimicry has a physiological counterpart: interaction elicits linkage, which is a concordance between the biological signals of those involved. To find out how the type of social interaction affects linkage, pairs of participants played a turn-based computer game in which the level of competition was systematically varied between cooperation and competition. Linkage in the beta and gamma frequency bands was observed in the EEG, especially when the participants played directly against each other. Emotional expression, measured using facial EMG, reflected this pattern, with the most competitive condition showing enhanced linkage over the facial muscle-regions involved in smiling. These effects were found to be related to self-reported social presence: linkage in positive emotional expression was associated with self-reported shared negative feelings. The observed effects confirmed the hypothesis that the social context affected the degree to which participants had similar reactions to their environment and consequently showed similar patterns of brain activity. We discuss the functional resemblance between linkage, as an indicator of a shared physiology and affect, and the well-known mirror neuron system, and how they relate to social functions like empathy.

  9. Viral Genetic Linkage Analysis in the Presence of Missing Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley H Liu

    Full Text Available Analyses of viral genetic linkage can provide insight into HIV transmission dynamics and the impact of prevention interventions. For example, such analyses have the potential to determine whether recently-infected individuals have acquired viruses circulating within or outside a given community. In addition, they have the potential to identify characteristics of chronically infected individuals that make their viruses likely to cluster with others circulating within a community. Such clustering can be related to the potential of such individuals to contribute to the spread of the virus, either directly through transmission to their partners or indirectly through further spread of HIV from those partners. Assessment of the extent to which individual (incident or prevalent viruses are clustered within a community will be biased if only a subset of subjects are observed, especially if that subset is not representative of the entire HIV infected population. To address this concern, we develop a multiple imputation framework in which missing sequences are imputed based on a model for the diversification of viral genomes. The imputation method decreases the bias in clustering that arises from informative missingness. Data from a household survey conducted in a village in Botswana are used to illustrate these methods. We demonstrate that the multiple imputation approach reduces bias in the overall proportion of clustering due to the presence of missing observations.

  10. Spatial and seasonal patterns in stream water contamination across mountainous watersheds: Linkage with landscape characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, L.; Shi, Z. H.; Yin, W.; Huang, X.

    2015-04-01

    Landscape characteristics are widely accepted as strongly influencing stream water quality in heterogeneous watersheds. Understanding the relationships between landscape and specific water contaminant can greatly improve the predictability of potential contamination and the assessment of contaminant export. In this work, we examined the combined effects of watershed complexity, in terms of land use and physiography, on specific water contaminant across watersheds close to the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The land use composition, land use pattern, morphometric variables and soil properties were calculated at the watershed scale and considered potential factors of influence. Due to high co-dependence of these watershed characteristics, partial least squares regression was used to elucidate the linkages between some specific water contaminants and the 16 selected watershed characteristic variables. Water contaminant maps revealed spatial and seasonal heterogeneity. The dissolved oxygen values in the dry season were higher than those in the wet season, whereas the other contaminant concentrations displayed the opposite trend. The studied watersheds which are influenced strongly by urbanization, showed higher levels of ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, potassium permanganate index and petroleum, and lower levels of dissolved oxygen. The urban land use, largest patch index and the hypsometric integral were the dominant factors affecting specific water contaminant.

  11. Review article : anthranoid laxatives and their potential carcinogenic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, B A; de Vries, E G; Karrenbeld, A; Kleibeuker, J H

    1999-01-01

    Anthranoid laxatives are widely used laxatives of natural origin, Because of their chemical structure they are carried unabsorbed to the large bowel, where metabolism to the active aglycones takes place, These aglycones exert their laxative effect by damaging epithelial cells, which leads directly a

  12. Slow high-frequency effects in mechanics: problems, solutions, potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2005-01-01

    and compared: The Method of Direct Separation of Motions, the Method of Averaging, and the Method of Multiple Scales. The tutorial concludes by suggesting that more vibration experts, researchers and students should know about HFE effects, for the benefit not only of general vibration troubleshooting, but also...

  13. Effects of captopril on the heart mechanisms and therapeutic potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graeff, Pieter Andries de

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes the experimental and clinical effects of captopril on the heart. Captopril was the first angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor for oral administration. This enzyme is responsiblef or the conversion of angiotensin I in angiotensinII , one of the most potent pressor substances

  14. Psychological Theory and Pedagogical Effectiveness: The Learning Promotion Potential Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background: After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. Aims: To propose an analytical or…

  15. NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI DC. POTENTIAL HERB WITH CNS EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    AMRITPAL SINGH,ANIL KUMAR, SANJIV DUGGAL

    2013-01-01

    Nardostachys jatamansi is classified as hypno-sedative in Ayurveda. It is used intreatment of insomnia, hysteria and depressive illness. The plant abounds insesquiterpenes predominantly; jatamansone and nardostachone. The plant hasdemonstrated several pharmacological activities including hepatoprotective, cardioprotective and hypolipidemic and antifungal. The significant effect is on the centralnervous system, as diverse pharmacological actions, ranging from sedative to nootropichave been rep...

  16. Modeling Potentially Time-Varying Effects of Promotions on Sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.A. Sijthoff

    2001-01-01

    textabstractA commonly applied modeling tool for the analysis of promotional effects on weekly sales data is a linear regression model. Usually, such a model includes 0/1 dummy variables for promotions, where weeks with a promotion get a value of 1. When these variables are included in a model with

  17. Antidiabetic potentials of Momordica charantia: multiple mechanisms behind the effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja

    2012-02-01

    Momordica charantia fruits are used as a vegetable in many countries. From time immemorial, it has also been used for management of diabetes in the Ayurvedic and Chinese systems of medicine. Information regarding the standardization of this vegetable for its usage as an antidiabetic drug is scanty. There are many reports on its effects on glucose and lipid levels in diabetic animals and some in clinical trials. Reports regarding its mechanism of action are limited. So in the present review all the information is considered to produce some concrete findings on the mechanism behind its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Studies have shown that M. charantia repairs damaged β-cells, increases insulin levels, and also enhance the sensitivity of insulin. It inhibits the absorption of glucose by inhibiting glucosidase and also suppresses the activity of disaccharidases in the intestine. It stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones and adiponectin and enhances the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Effects of M. charantia like transport of glucose in the cells, transport of fatty acids in the mitochondria, modulation of insulin secretion, and elevation of levels of uncoupling proteins in adipose and skeletal muscles are similar to those of AMPK and thyroxine. Therefore it is proposed that effects of M. charantia on carbohydrate and fat metabolism are through thyroxine and AMPK.

  18. Skin-lightening cosmetics: frequent, potentially severe adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Skin-lightening cosmetics are used by many women and men around the world. The products contain a variety of substances, which are often unknown to the users. Most of these products include topical corticosteroids, hydroquinone and mercury salts. Many other substances may be added. Several surveys and cohort studies, including several thousand individuals, have shown that regular application of skin-lightening cosmetics to large surface areas can have irreversible cutaneous adverse effects, such as patchy hyper- or hypopigmentation, skin atrophy, stretch marks and delayed wound healing, and can also mask or, on the contrary, promote or reactivate skin infections. Cases of skin cancer have been attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics. A Senegalese cohort study of 147 women showed a statistically significant increase in the risk of hypertension and diabetes linked to the use of skin-lightening agents. Other systemic adverse effects attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics include Cushing's syndrome, adrenal insufficiency, nephrotic syndrome, neurological disorders, and ocular disorders. Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have also been attributed to these products. Many skin-lightening cosmetics contain substances that can harm the unborn child. For example, tretinoin is teratogenic while salicylic acid is feto-toxic. In practice, users are often unaware of the risk of severe adverse effects associated with skin-lightening cosmetics. Users should be informed of these adverse effects and encouraged to stop using these products, especially when skin disorders appear.

  19. Antioxidative actions of statins: potential mechanisms for antiathersclerotic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takanori; Yasunari, Kenichi; Nakamura, Munehoro

    2006-05-01

    Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase (statins) are widely used for the prevention of atherosclerotic diseases. The effects of statins on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by in vitro and in vivo were studied. Administration of statins significantly decreased ROS generation in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Ameliorative effect and potential mechanism of Ermiao san on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of prostaglandin (PG) E2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α and interleukin (IL)-1β in serum were determined by ... and toxic effects, expensive costs and limited efficacy spur ..... Xu Q, Yuan K, Lu J, Wang R, Wu F. A new strategy for regulating the ...

  1. Inferring short-range linkage information from sequencing chromatograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Beggel

    Full Text Available Direct Sanger sequencing of viral genome populations yields multiple ambiguous sequence positions. It is not straightforward to derive linkage information from sequencing chromatograms, which in turn hampers the correct interpretation of the sequence data. We present a method for determining the variants existing in a viral quasispecies in the case of two nearby ambiguous sequence positions by exploiting the effect of sequence context-dependent incorporation of dideoxynucleotides. The computational model was trained on data from sequencing chromatograms of clonal variants and was evaluated on two test sets of in vitro mixtures. The approach achieved high accuracies in identifying the mixture components of 97.4% on a test set in which the positions to be analyzed are only one base apart from each other, and of 84.5% on a test set in which the ambiguous positions are separated by three bases. In silico experiments suggest two major limitations of our approach in terms of accuracy. First, due to a basic limitation of Sanger sequencing, it is not possible to reliably detect minor variants with a relative frequency of no more than 10%. Second, the model cannot distinguish between mixtures of two or four clonal variants, if one of two sets of linear constraints is fulfilled. Furthermore, the approach requires repetitive sequencing of all variants that might be present in the mixture to be analyzed. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of our method on the two in vitro test sets shows that short-range linkage information of two ambiguous sequence positions can be inferred from Sanger sequencing chromatograms without any further assumptions on the mixture composition. Additionally, our model provides new insights into the established and widely used Sanger sequencing technology. The source code of our method is made available at http://bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de/publications/beggel/linkageinformation.zip.

  2. Privacy-preserving record linkage on large real world datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Boyd, James H; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Semmens, James B

    2014-08-01

    Record linkage typically involves the use of dedicated linkage units who are supplied with personally identifying information to determine individuals from within and across datasets. The personally identifying information supplied to linkage units is separated from clinical information prior to release by data custodians. While this substantially reduces the risk of disclosure of sensitive information, some residual risks still exist and remain a concern for some custodians. In this paper we trial a method of record linkage which reduces privacy risk still further on large real world administrative data. The method uses encrypted personal identifying information (bloom filters) in a probability-based linkage framework. The privacy preserving linkage method was tested on ten years of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australian (WA) hospital admissions data, comprising in total over 26 million records. No difference in linkage quality was found when the results were compared to traditional probabilistic methods using full unencrypted personal identifiers. This presents as a possible means of reducing privacy risks related to record linkage in population level research studies. It is hoped that through adaptations of this method or similar privacy preserving methods, risks related to information disclosure can be reduced so that the benefits of linked research taking place can be fully realised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A fabrication process for electrostatic microactuators with integrated gear linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Berenschot, Erwin; Elwenspoek, Miko; Fluitman, Jan H.

    1997-01-01

    A surface micromachining process is presented which has been used to fabricate electrostatic microactuators. These microactuators are interconnected with each other and linked to other movable microstructures by integrated gear linkages. The gear linkages consist of rotational and linear gear struct

  4. Genome-wide linkage analysis for human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekman, Marian; Blanché, Hélène; Perola, Markus

    2013-01-01

    sibling pairs that have been enrolled in 15 study centers of 11 European countries as part of the Genetics of Healthy Aging (GEHA) project. In the joint linkage analyses, we observed four regions that show linkage with longevity; chromosome 14q11.2 (LOD = 3.47), chromosome 17q12-q22 (LOD = 2...

  5. Electrostatic microactuators with integrated gear linkages for mechanical power transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, R.; Berenschot, J.W.; Elwenspoek, M.C.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a surface micromachining process is presented which has been used to fabricate electrostatic microactuators that are interconnected with each other and linked to other movable microstructures by integrated gear linkages. The gear linkages consist of rotational and linear gear structure

  6. Potential therapeutic effects of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Ban, Jung Ok; Park, Kyung-Ran; Lee, Chong Kil; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2014-05-01

    The medicinal properties of functionally active organosulfur compounds such as allin, diallyl disulfide, S-allylmercaptocysteine, and S-trityl-L-cysteine isolated from garlic have received great attention from a large number of investigators who have studied their pharmacological effects for the treatment of various diseases. These organosulfur compounds are able to prevent for development of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, and liver diseases as well as allergy and arthritis. There have been also many reports on toxicities and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. The aim of this study is to review a variety of experimental and clinical reports, and describe the effectiveness, toxicities and pharmacokinetics, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential Health Effects of Enzymatic Protein Hydrolysates from Chlorella vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Chlorella vulgaris is a multi-cellular edible algal species with abundant proteins. Extraction of high value protein fractions for pharmaceutical and nutritional applications can significantly increase the commercial value of microalga biomasses. There is no known report on the anticancer peptides derived from the Chlorella vulgaris abundant protein.Materials and Methods: This study examined the antimicrobial and anticancer effects of peptides from a hydrolyzed Chlor...

  8. Effects of stimulus duration on gustatory evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotvel, Camilla Arndal; Møller, Stine; Kivisaar, Kätlin

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of tastant stimulus duration on the brain response. The brain response was measured by electroencephalography (EEG) which measures neural processes with high temporal resolution and may therefore complement sensory panel assessments...... sucralose stimulation duration resulted in larger GEP peak amplitude above the gustatory cortex and may indicate higher intensity perception (Kelling and Halpern, 1988)....

  9. Potentiating Effects of Lactuca sativa on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been recommended for its hypnotic property. The present study was planned to investigate sleep-prolonging effect of this plant. The hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of lettuce and its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were administrated (IP) to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. Moreover, both in-vivo and in-vitro toxicity of the extracts were determined. The quality of HAE and NBF was also eva...

  10. Potential immunomodulatory effects of latent toxoplasmosis in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stříž Ilja

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 30% of the population worldwide are infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Latent toxoplasmosis has many specific behavioral and physiological effects on the human organism. Modified reactivity of the immune system has been suggested to play a key role in many of these effects. For example, the immunosuppression hypothesis explains the higher probability of the birth of male offspring observed in Toxoplasma-positive humans and mice by the protection of the (more immunogenic male embryos against abortion. Methods Here we searched for indices of immunosuppression in Toxoplasma-positive subjects by comparing clinical records of immunology outpatients. Results Our cohort study showed that the male patients with latent toxoplasmosis had decreased and the Toxoplasma-positive women had increased leukocyte, NK-cell and monocyte counts in comparison with controls. The B-cell counts were reduced in both Toxoplasma-positive men and women. The difference between Toxoplasma-positive and Toxoplasma-negative subjects diminished with the decline of the specific Toxoplasma antibody titre (a proxy for the length of infection, which is consistent with the observed decreasing strength of the effect of latent toxoplasmosis on human reproduction. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in 128 male patients was unusually low (10.9% which contrasted with normal prevalence in 312 female patients (23.7% and in general population Prague (20-30%. Conclusions Latent toxoplasmosis has immunomodulatory effects in human and probably protects men against some classes of immunopathological diseases. The main limitation of the present study was the absence of the data on the immunoreactivity of immune cells subpopulations. Therefore further studies are needed to search for indices of immunosuppression in human using more specific markers.

  11. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Oleuropein Aglycone in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Miquel; Forman, Katherine; Castro, Natalia; Capó, Xavier; Tejada, Silvia; Sureda, Antoni

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-associated neurodegenerative amyloid disease and is considered a social and clinical problem the last decades, particularly in the Western countries. Amyloid diseases are characterized by the deposition of typically aggregated protein/peptides in tissues that are associated with brain degeneration and progressive cognitive impairment. The amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles arise as a result of self-assembly into fibrillar material of amyloid-β protein and hyperphosphorylated tau, respectively. Moreover, mounting evidence shows that oxidative and nitrosative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. Oleuropein belongs to a specific group of polyphenols, the secoiridoids, which are abundant in Oleaceae. Oleuropein aglycone is abundant in extra virgin olive oil and it is generated as a product of a glucosidase released when olive fruits are crushed. This secoiridoid compound has radical-scavenging activity and antioxidative effects and it is considered a promising target to prevent amyloid toxicity as an inhibitor of the oligomer nucleation and growth. The neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of flavonoids have been found to strongly depend on their structure and functional groups. Oleuropein aglycone counteracts amyloid aggregation and toxicity affecting different pathways: amyloid precursor protein processing, amyloid-β peptide and tau aggregation, autophagy impairment, and neuroinflammation. In the current work, available literature on oleuropein aglycone effects as antioxidant and inhibitor of amyloid deposits in AD is reviewed. Moreover, we discuss the chemistry, food sources and bioavailability of oleuropein aglycone.

  12. Effect of YSZ sintering temperature on mixed potential sensor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhar, Praveen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rangachary, Mukundan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toracco, Dennis [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the influence of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) sintering temperature on a Pt/YSZ/La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CrO{sub 3} mixed potential sensor performance is reported. The sintering temperature of YSZ was varied from 1000 to 1200 C. Mercury porosity measurements were performed to estimate the porosity and tortuosity of the YSZ sample as a function of sintering temperature. Further, the surface area of YSZ was computed by the BET method. After YSZ characterization, the unbiased and biased sensor response was recorded. The 1000 C sintered YSZ sample was taken as the reference for comparison purposes. Experimental results indicated a 30% reduction in porosity for the 1200 C sintered YSZ sample, accounting for a 14-fold increase in the sensor response rise time. In addition, for the same sample, a 13-fold increase in sensitivity was observed upon exposure to propylene (100 ppm), associated with a 76% reduction in surface area. The slow response time of the sensor with YSZ sintered at higher temperatures has been attributed to higher tortuosity (delay in gas permeation to the three phase interface). Whereas, reduced heterogeneous catalysis induced by lower surface area accounts for the rise in sensitivity levels. The optimum YSZ sintering temperature was found to lie between 1100 and 1150 C.

  13. Space Nutrition: Effects on Bone and Potential Nutrition Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and , if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first eight International Space Station (ISS) missions. Bone loss during space flight remains one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. An increase in bone resorption of ISS crew members after flight was indicated by several markers. Vitamin D status also remains a challenge for long-duration space travelers, who lack ultraviolet light exposure in the shielded craft. Many nutrients affect bone, including calcium, protein, fatty acids, sodium, and others. Data supporting their potential as countermeasures for space flight, as published in many papers, will be reviewed in this presentation. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health. Please note, this abstract is not required for the meeting. A presentation on the topics described above will be given. This abstract is for travel documentation only.

  14. Effect of pupil size on multifocal pattern visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alessandra; Balachandran, Chandra; Klistorner, Alexander I; Graham, Stuart L; Billson, Francis A

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of pupil diameter on the amplitude and latency of multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP). The multifocal objective perimeter (Accumap; Objectivision) was used to stimulate the visual field at 56 sites extending to 32 degrees using a pseudo-random pattern stimulus. The mfVEP were recorded using bipolar occipital electrodes, 7 min/eye. Ten normal subjects were recruited from the community and one eye was randomly selected for testing. The mfVEP were recorded at four different pupil diameters (2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm), obtained by applying tropicamide (0.5%) or pilocarpine (2%) in different dilutions. Appropriate refractive correction was provided to overcome cycloplegia and achieve a visual acuity of 6/7.5 or better. Analysis revealed that at most pupil diameters the normalized full field amplitude did not show significant variation, except at the most miotic pupil diameter (2 mm), where the amplitude became reduced, based on 2-way anova and Tukey's T method. There was, however, significant correlation between latency and pupil area (correlation coefficient: upper field -0.63, lower field -0.76). The results suggest that even in the presence of mydriatics or miotics, the mfVEP test can be used to assess diseases that affect amplitude, provided near correction is used. The interpretation of latency, however, must be made with caution, as a borderline conduction defect with a dilated pupil may appear normal.

  15. Potential effects of xanthone on inflammation status in atherosclerotic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2013-02-01

    Method: A total of 32 Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=8, including control, hypercholesterolemic diet groups, hypercholesterolemic diet + xanthone at dose 35; 70; and 140 mg/kg body weight (mg/kgBW. Control group received standard diet for 60 days. Hypercholesterolemic diet group received standard diet plus yellow egg, sheep oil, cholic acid, and pig oil for 60 days per oral. Analysis of nuclear factor-kappa beta p65/p50 distribution and tumor necrosis factor-alpha level, was done using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. Analysis of nitric oxide level was done by colorimetric technique using spectrophotometer. Results: Hypercholesterolemic diet significantly increased nuclear factor-kappa beta p65/p50 distribution, tumor necrosis factor-alpha level, and nitric oxide level compared with the control group (p<0.05. Xanthone decreased nuclear factor-kappa beta p65/p50 distribution in line with the distribution at standard diet at doses 70 and 140 mg/kg body weight. Xanthone significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha level compared with atherosclerotic diet group at all doses, although it did not reach the level at standard diet. Xanthone decreased nitric oxide level, reaching the level at standard diet in all doses. Conclusion: Xanthone has antiinflammatory potentials by inhibiting distribution of nuclear factor-kappa beta p65/p50, decreasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide level. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 53-56

  16. Linkage studies of bipolar disorder with chromosome 18 markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T; Kirov, G; Gill, M; Spurlock, G; Vallada, H P; Murray, R M; McGuffin, P; Collier, D A; Owen, M J; Craddock, N

    1999-10-15

    Evidence consistent with the existence of genetic linkage between bipolar disorder and three regions on chromosome 18, the pericentromeric region, 18q21, and 18q22-q23 have been reported. Some analyses indicated greater evidence for linkage in pedigrees in which paternal transmission of disease occurs. We have undertaken linkage analyses using 12 highly polymorphic markers spanning these three regions of interest in a sample of 48 U.K. bipolar pedigrees. The sample comprises predominantly nuclear families and includes 118 subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) bipolar I disorder and 147 subjects with broadly defined phenotype. Our data do not provide support for linkage using either parametric or nonparametric analyses. Evidence for linkage was not significantly increased by analyses that allowed for heterogeneity nor by analysing the subset of pedigrees consistent with paternal transmission.

  17. Potentiation of Anticancer Drugs: Effects of Pentoxifylline on Neoplastic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Barancik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The drug efflux activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a product of the mdr1 gene, ABCB1 member of ABC transporter family represents a mechanism by which tumor cells escape death induced by chemotherapeutics. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX on P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR in mouse leukemia L1210/VCR cells. Parental sensitive mouse leukemia cells L1210, and multidrug-resistant cells, L1210/VCR, which are characterized by the overexpression of P-gp, were used as experimental models. The cells were exposed to 100 μmol/L PTX in the presence or absence of 1.2 μmol/L vincristine (VCR. Western blot analysis indicated a downregulation of P-gp protein expression when multidrug-resistant L1210/VCR cells were exposed to PTX. The effects of PTX on the sensitization of L1210/VCR cells to VCR correlate with the stimulation of apoptosis detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide apoptosis necrosis kit and proteolytic activation of both caspase-3 and caspase-9 monitored by Western blot analysis. Higher release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, especially MMP-2, which could be attenuated by PTX, was found in L1210/VCR than in L1210 cells by gelatin zymography in electrophoretic gel. Exposure of resistant cells to PTX increased the content of phosphorylated Akt kinase. In contrast, the presence of VCR eliminated the effects of PTX on Akt kinase phosphorylation. Taken together, we conclude that PTX induces the sensitization of multidrug-resistant cells to VCR via downregulation of P-gp, stimulation of apoptosis and reduction of MMPs released from drug-resistant L1210/VCR cells. These facts bring new insights into the mechanisms of PTX action on cancer cells.

  18. Effects of experimental income on demand for potentially real cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Wilson, Arlington George; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette demand, or the change in cigarette consumption as a function of price, is a measure of reinforcement that is associated with level of tobacco dependence and other clinically relevant measures, but the effects of experimentally controlled income on real-world cigarette consumption have not been examined. In this study, income available for cigarette purchases was manipulated to assess the effect on cigarette demand. Tobacco-dependent cigarette smokers (n = 15) who smoked 10-40 cigarettes per day completed a series of cigarette purchasing tasks under a variety of income conditions meant to mimic different weekly cigarette budgets: $280, approximately $127, $70, or approximately $32 per week. Prices of $0.12, $0.25, $0.50, and $1.00 per cigarette were assessed in each income condition. Participants were instructed to purchase as many cigarettes as they would like for the next week and to only consume cigarettes purchased in the context of the study. One price in 1 income condition was randomly chosen to be "real," and the cigarettes and the excess money in the budget for that condition were given to the participant. Results indicate that demand elasticity was negatively correlated with income. Demand intensity (consumption at low prices) was unrelated to income condition and remained high across incomes. These results indicate that the amount of income that is available for cigarette purchases has a large effect on cigarette consumption, but only at high prices. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI DC. POTENTIAL HERB WITH CNS EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMRITPAL SINGH,ANIL KUMAR, SANJIV DUGGAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nardostachys jatamansi is classified as hypno-sedative in Ayurveda. It is used intreatment of insomnia, hysteria and depressive illness. The plant abounds insesquiterpenes predominantly; jatamansone and nardostachone. The plant hasdemonstrated several pharmacological activities including hepatoprotective, cardioprotective and hypolipidemic and antifungal. The significant effect is on the centralnervous system, as diverse pharmacological actions, ranging from sedative to nootropichave been reported. Animal and clinical research with jatamansone, the active principleof the plant, has justified hypno-sedative claim of Ayurveda. The review summarizes,phytochemical and pharmacological investigations carried out on the plant.

  20. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewertz, Marianne (Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)); Bonde Jensen, Anders (Inst. of Clinical Research, Univ. of Southern Denmark (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement in 35%. Physiotherapy is the standard treatment for the latter while no pain intervention trials have been published. Chemotherapy may cause infertility and premature menopause, resulting in vasomotor symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, which are similar to the side effects of endocrine treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms include fear of recurrence, sleep disturbances, cognitive problems, fatigue, and sexual problems. Discussion. To improve rehabilitation, specific goals have to be formulated into national guidelines and high priority directed towards research into developing and testing new interventions for alleviating symptoms and side effects experienced by breast cancer survivors

  1. Gravitational effects on vanishing Higgs potential at the Planck scale

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2014-01-01

    We investigate gravitational effects on so-called multiple point criticality principle (MPCP) at the Planck scale. The MPCP requires two degenerate vacua, whose necessary conditions are expressed by vanishing Higgs quartic coupling ($\\lambda(M_{\\rm Pl})=0$) and vanishing its $\\beta$-function ($\\beta_\\lambda(M_{\\rm Pl})=0$). In order to satisfy the conditions, we find that the top pole mass and the Higgs mass should be $170.8\\,{\\rm GeV} \\lesssim M_t\\lesssim 171.7\\, {\\rm GeV}$ and $M_h=125.7\\pm0.4\\, {\\rm GeV}$, respectively, as well as suitable magnitude of gravitational effects (a coefficient of gravitational contribution as $|a_\\lambda| > 2$). In this case, however, since the Higgs quartic coupling $\\lambda$ becomes negative below the Planck scale, two vacua are not degenerate. We find that $M_h \\gtrsim 131.5\\, {\\rm GeV}$ with $M_t \\gtrsim 174\\, {\\rm GeV}$ is required by the realization of the MPCP. Therefore, the MPCP at the Planck scale cannot be realized in the SM and also the SM with gravity since $M_h \\g...

  2. Potential effects of forest management on surface albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, J.; Bréon, F.-M.; Schelhaas, M.-J.; Pinty, B.; Luyssaert, S.

    2012-04-01

    Currently 70% of the world's forests are managed and this figure is likely to rise due to population growth and increasing demand for wood based products. Forest management has been put forward by the Kyoto-Protocol as one of the key instruments in mitigating climate change. For temperate and boreal forests, the effects of forest management on the stand-level carbon balance are reasonably well understood, but the biophysical effects, for example through changes in the albedo, remain elusive. Following a modeling approach, we aim to quantify the variability in albedo that can be attributed to forest management through changes in canopy structure and density. The modelling approach chains three separate models: (1) a forest gap model to describe stand dynamics, (2) a Monte-Carlo model to estimate the probability density function of the optical path length of photons through the canopy and (3) a physically-based canopy transfer model to estimate the interaction between photons and leaves. The forest gap model provides, on a monthly time step the position, height, diameter, crown size and leaf area index of individual trees. The Monte-Carlo model computes from this the probability density function of the distance a photon travels through crown volumes to determine the direct light reaching the forest floor. This information is needed by the canopy transfer model to calculate the effective leaf area index - a quantity that allows it to correctly represent a 3D process with a 1D model. Outgoing radiation is calculated as the result of multiple processes involving the scattering due to the canopy layer and the forest floor. Finally, surface albedo is computed as the ratio between incident solar radiation and calculated outgoing radiation. The study used two time series representing thinning from below of a beech and a Scots pine forest. The results show a strong temporal evolution in albedo during stand establishment followed by a relatively stable albedo once the canopy

  3. [MapDraw: a microsoft excel macro for drawing genetic linkage maps based on given genetic linkage data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Hu; Meng, Jin-Ling

    2003-05-01

    MAPMAKER is one of the most widely used computer software package for constructing genetic linkage maps.However, the PC version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for PC, could not draw the genetic linkage maps that its Macintosh version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for Macintosh,was able to do. Especially in recent years, Macintosh computer is much less popular than PC. Most of the geneticists use PC to analyze their genetic linkage data. So a new computer software to draw the same genetic linkage maps on PC as the MAPMAKER for Macintosh to do on Macintosh has been crying for. Microsoft Excel,one component of Microsoft Office package, is one of the most popular software in laboratory data processing. Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is one of the most powerful functions of Microsoft Excel. Using this program language, we can take creative control of Excel, including genetic linkage map construction, automatic data processing and more. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel macro called MapDraw is constructed to draw genetic linkage maps on PC computer based on given genetic linkage data. Use this software,you can freely construct beautiful genetic linkage map in Excel and freely edit and copy it to Word or other application. This software is just an Excel format file. You can freely copy it from ftp://211.69.140.177 or ftp://brassica.hzau.edu.cn and the source code can be found in Excel's Visual Basic Editor.

  4. Potential Effects of Disruptive Political Trends in International Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Öztüren

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the prospective effects of the latest political incidences on the international tourism market. In this context, the arguments are based on the implications of the USA elections and the Brexit. The methodology of this paper comprises the discussion of the debates related to the recent political experiences. International tourism activities cannot be isolated from the political environment. It is clear that the new political incidences will require novel insights and strategies in conducting international tourism business globally. This paper provides a viewpoint of the today’s political scenarios that will certainly affect the international tourism market. It can be used to comprehend insights that can be used to plan the tourism futures.

  5. Potential therapeutic effects of oral bisphosphonates on the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazianas, Michael; Russell, R Graham G

    2011-12-01

    Bisphosphonates are the principal drugs prescribed for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. They are bone specific but poorly absorbed. In oral formulations, almost 99% of the administered dose remains within the intestinal tract and reaches the small and large bowel. Although the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates can irritate the distal esophageal/gastric mucosa, they improve drug-induced colitis in animal models and exhibit antitumor properties on intestinal cells in vitro. Several recent epidemiological studies provide evidence of a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in osteoporotic patients treated with oral bisphosphonates, notably alendronate. In this review, we will explore the possible mechanisms of action underlying these effects and raise the question of whether these agents might be used in the chemoprophylaxis against colorectal cancer. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    the association between exposure to dietary flavonoids and the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in a nested case-control study. The bioavailability and metabolism of hesperetin and naringenin was investigated by analysing urine and plasma from 16 subjects after consumption of three treatments of orange juice...... epidemiological studies but the evidence is inconclusive. One major obstacle for epidemiological studies investigating associations between flavonoid intake and risk of CHD is the estimation of flavonoid intake. There is a vast variety of flavonoids in commonly eaten food products but only limited knowledge...... of their content. In addition, variation in individual metabolic genotype and microflora may greatly affect the actual flavonoid exposure. The preventive effects of flavonoids on CHD are mainly ascribed to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant...

  7. Potential Climatic Effects on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet covers an area of 1,720,000 sq. km and contains approximately 2,600,000 cu km of ice. Most of the ice sheet receives an excess of snow accumulation over the amount of ice lost to wind, meltwater run-off or other ablative processes. The majority of mass loss occurs at the margin of the ice sheet as either surface melt, which flows into the sea or calving of icebergs from the tongues of outlet glaciers. Many estimates of these processes were published. An average of five published estimates is summarized. If these estimates are correct, then the Greenland Ice Sheet is in approximate equilibrium and contributes 490 cu km/a of fresh water to the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. Climate effects, ice sheet flow, and application of remote sensing to tracking of the ice sheet are discussed.

  8. Potential health effects of greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, C; Bryant, E A; Calvert, G D; Marthick, J; Condon-Paoloni, D

    1991-04-15

    To identify potential health effects of the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion in Australia. Data were derived from a number of sources: (i) published articles accessed from relevant databases in the disciplines of health, public health and climatology over the past 20 years; (ii) published conference proceedings, review monographs and government reports covering the topic; (iii) a survey of experts in public health and climatology/geography (150 individuals were surveyed in the first phase with a 63% response rate); and (iv) a consensus conference in which 22 invited experts reviewed the results of the literature review and survey and a second conference in which 18 senior members of the health bureaucracy and public health profession considered the implications of the findings. Over 200 published articles or monographs were reviewed. Criteria for selection were whether the papers contributed information to the objectives of the review. Because of the nature of the problem under investigation, predictions based on reasonable scientific assumptions were the major content of the review rather than conclusions based on scientific research. The major predicted health effects of long-term climatic change in Australia are skin and eye damage from increased ultraviolet radiation exposure, increased incidence of some respiratory diseases, vector-borne and water-borne diseases, and the social and physical effects of natural hazards and social and economic restructuring. The most vulnerable groups include the aged, the very young, the chronically ill, those living in poorly designed neighbourhoods and those working in outdoor occupations or heavy industry. The potential effects on health of long-term climatic change cover the broad spectrum of public health concerns. Detailed predictions of likely problems in specific geographic areas are not yet possible, but progressive development of such predictive capability is a high priority. Doctors will have an

  9. Plant effects on soil denitrification - a review of potential mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malique, Francois; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Denitrification is a microbial process occurring in soils, both producing and consuming the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (NO), competing for nitrate with plants and hydrological leaching pathways, removing nutrients and reactive nitrogen from the biosphere, and closing the global nitrogen cycle. Despite its obvious importance, denitrification remained among the least well quantified biogeochemical processes in soils. This is due to enormous methodological difficulties involved in the direct quantification of soil microbial denitrification rates (mainly with regard to the terminal product N2) and the denitrification nitrogen gas product ratios (NO:N2O:N2), Plants may affect denitrification through a myriad of mechanisms such as e.g., competition for nitrate and water, through oxygen consumption, by regulating litter quality and changing soil pH, and via the exudation of labile carbon or secondary plant compounds involved in shaping the rhizospheric microbial community. However, plant effects on denitrification so far hardly were quantified so that the actual extent of plant control on denitrification is largely unknown. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on mechanisms how plants can affect denitrification rates and N gas product ratios in soils at temporal scales from hours to days and years. We review earlier research to quantify plant effects on denitrification as well as critically discuss the limited methods currently available to quantify plant-soil-denitrifier interactions. Finally, we provide pointers to use plants as tools to manage denitrification, e.g. to improve N use efficiency in agricultural ecosystems and to minimize soil nitrous oxide emissions.

  10. Potentiation of the hypotensive effect of adrenomedullin in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, I; Shibata, K; Makino, Y; Kangawa, K; Kawarabayashi, T

    1999-12-03

    The hypotensive effect of adrenomedullin, a potent vasodilator peptide, was examined in conscious pregnant (6, 13 and 20 days of pregnancy) and non-pregnant rats. The intravenous administration of adrenomedullin (0.01-3.0 nmol/kg) produced a dose-dependent depressor response in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. At low doses (0.01-0.1 nmol/kg), the maximum decrease in blood pressure was significantly higher in pregnant rats (20 days pregnant) than in non-pregnant rats. At high doses, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Furthermore, the administration of adrenomedullin did not significantly affect the basal mean blood pressure (MBP) at any dose when compared to the non-pregnant group at 6 and 13 days of pregnancy. In the ovariectomized rats, the depressor responses in 17beta-estradiol-treated, progesterone-treated and 17beta-estradiol+progesterone-treated rats were not significantly different from that in the control rats, suggesting that the augmented effect on the depressor response to adrenomedullin in pregnant rats may not be due to hormonal changes during pregnancy. The adrenomedullin receptor mRNA level of the descending thoracic aorta was significantly higher in the late-pregnancy rats (20 days of pregnancy). However, the levels did not show any difference between the early-pregnant rats (6 and 13 days of pregnancy) and the non-pregnant rats. These findings suggested that the changes in the depressor response to adrenomedullin which occur at term in pregnant rats may be mediated by changes of adrenomedullin receptor gene expression rather than by sex hormones.

  11. Tea polyphenols, their biological effects and potential molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Milacic, V; Chen, M S; Wan, S B; Lam, W H; Huo, C; Landis-Piwowar, K R; Cui, Q C; Wali, A; Chan, T H; Dou, Q P

    2008-04-01

    Tea is the most popular beverage in the world, second only to water. Tea contains an infusion of the leaves from the Camellia sinensis plant rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, the most abundant of which is (-)-EGCG. Although tea has been consumed for centuries, it has only recently been studied extensively as a health-promoting beverage that may act to prevent a number of chronic diseases and cancers. The results of several investigations indicate that green tea consumption may be of modest benefit in reducing the plasma concentration of cholesterol and preventing atherosclerosis. Additionally, the cancer-preventive effects of green tea are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols were shown to affect several biological pathways, including growth factor-mediated pathway, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent pathway, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment with green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Recently, phase I and II clinical trials have been conducted to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in humans. A major challenge of cancer prevention is to integrate new molecular findings into clinical practice. Therefore, identification of more molecular targets and biomarkers for tea polyphenols is essential for improving the design of green tea trials and will greatly assist in a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer activity.

  12. Exploited species impacts on trophic linkages along reef-seagrass interfaces in the Florida Keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, John F; Heck, Kenneth L; Blackmon, Derrick; Goecker, Margene E; Christian, Juliet; Kroutil, Ryan M; Peterson, Bradley J; Vanderklift, Mathew A; Kirsch, Kevin D; Beck, Mike

    2008-09-01

    The removal of fish biomass by extensive commercial and recreational fishing has been hypothesized to drastically alter the strength of trophic linkages among adjacent habitats. We evaluated the effects of removing predatory fishes on trophic transfers between coral reefs and adjacent seagrass meadows by comparing fish community structure, grazing intensity, and invertebrate predation potential in predator-rich no-take sites and nearby predator-poor fished sites in the Florida Keys (USA). Exploited fishes were more abundant at the no-take sites than at the fished sites. Most of the exploited fishes were either omnivores or invertivores. More piscivores were recorded at no-take sites, but most (approximately 95%) were moderately fished and unexploited species (barracuda and bar jacks, respectively). Impacts of these consumers on lower trophic levels were modest. Herbivorous and smaller prey fish (seagrass grazing diminished with distance from reefs and were not negatively impacted by the elevated densities of exploited fishes at no-take sites. Predation by reef fishes on most tethered invertebrates was high, but exploited species impacts varied with prey type. The results of the study show that, even though abundances of reef-associated fishes have been reduced at fished sites, there is little evidence that this has produced cascading trophic effects or interrupted cross-habitat energy exchanges between coral reefs and seagrasses.

  13. Linkage disequilibrium at the Machado-Joseph disease spinal cerebellar ataxia 3 locus: Evidence for a common founder effect in French and Portuguese-Brazilian families as well as a second ancestral Portuguese-Azorean mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanin, G.; Cancel, G.; Didierjean, O. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Spinal cerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3) is a genetic subtype of the type I autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA type I), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurological disorders. SCA3 was mapped in French families to chromosome 14q24.3-qter in the same region as the gene for Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), which was classified as a form of ADCA type I on the basis of similarities in the clinical presentation of individual patients. The MJD gene was recently identified in Japanese kindreds, and the mutation was characterized as an unstable CAG repeat that is expanded in affected individuals. The same mutation is observed in families of Portuguese-Azorean ancestry, as well as in French SCA3 kindreds. In other disorders caused by unstable and expanded triplet repeats, such as fragile X syndrome (FRA-X), myotonic dystrophy (MD), Huntington disease (HD), and SCA1, linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the mutation and closely linked polymorphic markers was detected, suggesting that there were only one or a few founders or predisposing haplotypes. In the present study, 29 families of different geographical origins were tested for LD between the MJD/SCA3 mutation and four flanking microsatellite markers. 27 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Olive Oil and its Potential Effects on Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Shan; Zhang, G. P.

    Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative brain disease that is responsible for affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people every year. There has been no evidence to suggest a cure for the disease and the only existing treatments have very low rates of success in trial patients. This is largely due to the fact that the brain is one of the most undiscovered parts of the human body. Brain chemistry is highly complex and responds to its environment in random and radical ways. My research includes testing the reactionary outcomes of combining compounds of olive oil with the 20 basic amino acids. Regions around the world with olive oil based diets show a direct correlation to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Testing few compounds of olive oil with chemicals already found in the brain may yield to a better understanding as to why that is. I took the compounds tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleocanthal, and combined them with the 20 basic amino acids and calculated the total energy of the new molecule. The molecules produced with acceptably low energy values will be the center of further research. These molecules could lead to truly understanding olive oil's effect on the brain, and ultimately, the cure or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Linkages of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes populations to methanogenic process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Cheng, Huicai; Wyckoff, Kristen N; He, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    To identify potential linkages between specific bacterial populations and process performance in anaerobic digestion, the dynamics of bacterial community structure was monitored with high-throughput sequencing in triplicate anaerobic digesters treating animal waste. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were found as the two most abundant populations, however, with contrasting population dynamics in response to organic overloading. Firmicutes dominated the bacterial community during stable process performance at low organic loading rate, representing over 50 % of the bacterial abundance. In contrast, the onset of organic overloading raised the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes from 20 ± 2.6 to 44 ± 3.1 %. In addition to the significant negative correlation between the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, populations of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were found to be linked to process parameters including organic loading rate, volatile fatty acids concentration, and methane production. Therefore, the population abundance ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B ratio) was suggested as a potential indicator for process performance. The interactions between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes populations could be exploited to develop strategies for the prevention of performance perturbation in anaerobic digestion processes.

  16. The insulin gene variable number tandem repeat class I/III polymorphism is in linkage disequilibrium with birth weight but not Type 2 diabetes in the Pima population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Robert S; Hanson, Robert L; Wiedrich, Chris; Knowler, William C; Bennett, Peter H; Baier, Leslie J

    2003-01-01

    The insulin gene variable number tandem repeat (INS-VNTR) is proposed to exert pleiotropic genetic effects on birth weight and diabetes susceptibility. In our study, we examined the influence of a polymorphism in tight linkage disequilibrium with INS-VNTR (-23Hph1) on birth weight and type 2 diabetes in the Pima population. A parent-offspring "trio" design was used to assess parent-of-origin effects and population stratification. The presence of the -23Hph1 T-allele was associated with lower birth weight (n = 192; -140 g per copy of the T-allele; P = 0.04), even after adjustment for effects of population stratification (P = 0.03). The effects of paternally transmitted T-alleles were greater than those of maternally transmitted alleles (paternally transmitted: -250 g, P = 0.05; maternally transmitted: -111 g, P = 0.43), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.50). The -23Hph1 T-allele was associated with an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P = 0.009), which family-based association analysis suggested was attributable to population structure (P = 0.04) without significant evidence of linkage disequilibrium between diabetes prevalence and genotype (P = 0.86). Thus allelic variation of the INS gene is associated with lower birth weight and increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Significant linkage disequilibrium was found between -23Hph1 and birth weight but not type 2 diabetes, an observation that supports a potential functional role of INS polymorphisms in the regulation of birth weight.

  17. QTL linkage analysis of connected populations using ancestral marker and pedigree information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bink, Marco C A M; Totir, L Radu; ter Braak, Cajo J F; Winkler, Christopher R; Boer, Martin P; Smith, Oscar S

    2012-04-01

    The common assumption in quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage mapping studies that parents of multiple connected populations are unrelated is unrealistic for many plant breeding programs. We remove this assumption and propose a Bayesian approach that clusters the alleles of the parents of the current mapping populations from locus-specific identity by descent (IBD) matrices that capture ancestral marker and pedigree information. Moreover, we demonstrate how the parental IBD data can be incorporated into a QTL linkage analysis framework by using two approaches: a Threshold IBD model (TIBD) and a Latent Ancestral Allele Model (LAAM). The TIBD and LAAM models are empirically tested via numerical simulation based on the structure of a commercial maize breeding program. The simulations included a pilot dataset with closely linked QTL on a single linkage group and 100 replicated datasets with five linkage groups harboring four unlinked QTL. The simulation results show that including parental IBD data (similarly for TIBD and LAAM) significantly improves the power and particularly accuracy of QTL mapping, e.g., position, effect size and individuals' genotype probability without significantly increasing computational demand.

  18. An instrumented spacial linkage for monitoring relative three-dimensional motion between fracture fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, T N; Evans, M; Kyberd, P J

    1996-11-01

    A mechanical linkage with electro-magnetic sensors (a displacement transducer) is described, which may be used to measure accurately the relative motion at a bony junction such as a fracture. The linkage may be fixed to bone screws of externally-fixated fractures during routine patient activity, to measure three-dimensional inter fragmentary displacements arising from dynamic loading. Movements of the linkage are monitored by six Hall Effect devices for the six degrees of freedom (three orthogonal translations and three rotations about the translating axes). Measurements are made within error bounds of +/- 0.025 mm and +/- 0.025 deg over a range of 5 mm for the two orthogonal transverse translations, 8 mm for axial translation and 8 deg for the three rotations. Movements at the linkage, remote from the fracture, are then translated mathematically to the fracture site, assuming rigid screw contact with the bone. Displacements of the distal fragment in relation to the proximal, at the fracture center, can then be expressed anatomically through anterior, medial, and distal translations, and rotations in the sagittal, coronal, or transverse planes.

  19. High-frequency stock linkage and multi-dimensional stationary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Bao, Si; Chen, Jingchao

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, China's stock market has experienced dramatic fluctuations; in particular, in the second half of 2014 and 2015, the market rose sharply and fell quickly. Many classical financial phenomena, such as stock plate linkage, appeared repeatedly during this period. In general, these phenomena have usually been studied using daily-level data or minute-level data. Our paper focuses on the linkage phenomenon in Chinese stock 5-second-level data during this extremely volatile period. The method used to select the linkage points and the arbitrage strategy are both based on multi-dimensional stationary processes. A new program method for testing the multi-dimensional stationary process is proposed in our paper, and the detailed program is presented in the paper's appendix. Because of the existence of the stationary process, the strategy's logarithmic cumulative average return will converge under the condition of the strong ergodic theorem, and this ensures the effectiveness of the stocks' linkage points and the more stable statistical arbitrage strategy.

  20. An effective pair potential for liquid semiconductor, Se: Structure and related dynamical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P P Nath; S Sarkar; R N Joarder

    2005-07-01

    The effective pair potential of liquid semiconductor Se is extracted from its experimental structure factor data using an accurate liquid state theory and this shows important basic features. A model potential incorporating the basic features of the structure factor extracted potential is suggested. This model potential is then used to describe through low-order perturbation theory, the structure and related dynamical properties like self-diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity of this complex liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  1. High tides and rising seas: potential effects on estuarine waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Sanders, G.M.; Prosser, D.J.; Cahoon, D.R.; Greenberg, Russell; Maldonado, Jesus; Droege, Sam; McDonald, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    Coastal waterbirds are vulnerable to water-level changes especially under predictions of accelerating sea-level rise and increased storm frequency in the next century. Tidal and wind-driven fluctuations in water levels affecting marshes, their invertebrate communities, and their dependent waterbirds are manifested in daily, monthly, seasonal, annual, and supra-annual (e.g., decadal or 18.6-yr) periodicities. Superimposed on these cyclic patterns is a long-term (50?80 yr) increase in relative sea-level rise that varies from about 2?4 + mm/yr along the Atlantic coastline. At five study sites selected on marsh islands from Cape Cod, Massachusetts to coastal Virginia, we monitored marsh elevation changes and flooding, tide variations over time, and waterbird use. We found from longterm marsh core data that marsh elevations at three of five sites may not be sufficient to maintain pace with current sea-level rise. Results of the short-term (3?4 yr) measures using surface elevation tables suggest a more dramatic difference, with marsh elevation change at four of five sites falling below relative sea-level rise. In addition, we have found a significant increase (in three of four cases) in the rate of surface marsh flooding in New Jersey and Virginia over the past 70?80 yr during May?July when waterbirds are nesting on or near the marsh surface. Short-term, immediate effects of flooding will jeopardize annual fecundity of many species of concern to federal and state agencies, most notably American Black Duck (Anas rubripes), Nelson?s Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni), Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow (A. caudacutus), Seaside Sparrow (A. maritima), Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens), Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis), Forster?s Tern (Sterna forsteri), Gull-billed Tern (S. nilotica), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and American Oystercatcher (Haemotopus palliatus). Forster?s Terns are probably most at risk given the large proportion of their

  2. On the potential cost effectiveness of scientific audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, J L

    1989-09-01

    inefficient process for uncovering scientific fraud (5, 6, 9). Data from a survey of university scientists was also presented, indicating ". . . a reluctance to take prompt, corrective action not only when an investigator suspects another of misconduct but also should the investigator discover flaws in his or her own published reports-whether the flaws were the result of honest error or fraud"; (10). The uncritical acceptance by established scientists that the self-correcting process works compounds the problem. The Editor of Science has written that";. . . 99.9999 percent of reports are accurate and truthful. . ."; (8). If indeed only 0.0001% of published reports were inaccurate or untruthful, there would be little justification for scientific audits. However, congressional testimony from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) revealed that";. . . the NIH Director's office has handled an average of 15-20 allegations and reports of misconduct annually in its extramural programs, which supports the work of approximately 50,000 scientists"; (11). As I shall attempt to demonstrate, since NIH alone receives fraud-related complaints concerning the work of at least 0.03% of scientists it supports in other institutions, and since evidence indicates that the incidence of fraud is considerably greater than 0.03% (10, 12), the need to audit data is justifiable on the basis of being cost effective.

  3. Exploiting Linkage Information and Problem-Specific Knowledge in Evolutionary Distribution Network Expansion Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Ngoc Hoang; Poutré, Han La; Bosman, Peter A N

    2017-04-07

    This article tackles the Distribution Network Expansion Planning (DNEP) problemthat has to be solved by distribution network operators to decide which, where, and/or when enhancements to electricity networks should be introduced to satisfy the future power demands. Because of many real-world details involved, the structure of the problem is not exploited easily using mathematical programming techniques, for which reason we consider solving this problem with evolutionary algorithms (EAs). We compare three types of EAs for optimizing expansion plans: the classic genetic algorithm (GA), the estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA), and the Gene-pool Optimal Mixing Evolutionary Algorithm (GOMEA). Not fully knowing the structure of the problem, we study the effect of linkage learning through the use of three linkage models: univariate, marginal product, and linkage tree. We furthermore experiment with the impact of incorporating different levels of problem-specific knowledge in the variation operators. Experiments show that the use of problem-specific variation operators is far more important for the classic GA to find high-quality solutions. In all EAs, the marginal product model and its linkage learning procedure have difficulty in capturing and exploiting the DNEP problemstructure. GOMEA, especiallywhen combined with the linkage tree structure, is found to have the most robust performance by far, even when an out-of-the-box variant is used that does not exploit problem-specific knowledge. Based on experiments, we suggest that when selecting optimization algorithms for power system expansion planning problems, EAs that have the ability to effectively model and efficiently exploit problem structures, such as GOMEA, should be given priority, especially in the case of black-box or grey-box optimization.

  4. Bivariate linkage analysis of the insulin resistance syndrome phenotypes on chromosome 7q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Donna M; Arya, Rector; Blangero, John; Almasy, Laura; Puppala, Sobha; Dyer, Thomas D; Leach, Robin J; O'Connell, Peter; Stern, Michael P; Duggirala, Ravindranath

    2005-04-01

    Metabolic abnormalities of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) have been shown to aggregate in families and to exhibit trait-pair correlations, suggesting a common genetic component. A broad region on chromosome 7q has been implicated in several studies to contain loci that cosegregate with IRS-related traits. However, it is not clear whether such loci have any common genetic (pleiotropic) influences on the correlated traits. Also, it is not clear whether the chromosomal regions contain more than one locus influencing the IRS-related phenotypes. In this study we present evidence for linkage of five IRS-related traits [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), In split proinsulin (LSPI), In triglycerides (LTG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC)] to a region at 7q11.23. Subsequently, to gain further insight into the genetic component(s) mapping to this region, we explored whether linkage of these traits is due to pleiotropic effects using a bivariate linkage analytical technique, which has been shown to localize susceptibility regions with precision. Four hundred forty individuals from 27 Mexican American families living in Texas were genotyped for 19 highly polymorphic markers on chromosome 7. Multipoint variance component linkage analysis was used to identify genetic location(s) influencing IRS-related traits of obesity (BMI and WC), dyslipidemia (LTG and HDLC), and insulin levels (LSPI); the analysis identified a broad chromosomal region spanning approximately 24 cM. To gain more precision in localization, we used a bivariate linkage approach for each trait pair. These analyses suggest localization of most of these bivariate traits to an approximately 6-cM region near marker D7S653 [7q11.23, 103-109 cM; a maximum bivariate LOD of 4.51 was found for the trait pair HDLC and LSPI (the LODeq score is 3.94)]. We observed evidence of pleiotropic effects in this region on obesity and insulin-related trait pairs.

  5. Holographic Schwinger Effect in a Confining D3-Brane Background with Chemical Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-qiang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we investigate the Schwinger effect in a confining D3-brane background with chemical potential. The potential between a test particle pair on the D3-brane in an external electric field is obtained. The critical field Ec in this case is calculated. Also, we apply numerical method to evaluate the production rate for various cases. The results imply that the presence of chemical potential tends to suppress the pair production effect.

  6. Identifying marker typing incompatibilities in linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringham, H.M.; Boehnke, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A common problem encountered in linkage analyses is that execution of the computer program is halted because of genotypes in the data that are inconsistent with Mendelian inheritance. Such inconsistencies may arise because of pedigree errors or errors in typing. In some cases, the source of the inconsistencies is easily identified by examining the pedigree. In others, the error is not obvious, and substantial time and effort are required to identify the responsible genotypes. We have developed two methods for automatically identifying those individuals whose genotypes are most likely the cause of the inconsistencies. First, we calculate the posterior probability of genotyping error for each member of the pedigree, given the marker data on all pedigree members and allowing anyone in the pedigree to have an error. Second, we identify those individuals whose genotypes could be solely responsible for the inconsistency in the pedigree. We illustrate these methods with two examples: one a pedigree error, the second a genotyping error. These methods have been implemented as a module of the pedigree analysis program package MENDEL. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Effective attractive potential between identical dielectric molecules via Lifshitz theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Laiwen

    2001-01-01

    . Phys. Lett., 99, 84: 4.[26]Cársky, P., Selzle, H. L., Schlag, E. W., Ab initio calculations on the structure of the benzene dimer, Chem. Phys., 988, 25: 65.[27]Aggarwal, S. L., Physical constants of poly (ethylen), in Polymer Handbook (eds. Brandrup, J., Lmmergut, E. H.), 2nd., New York: John Wiley & Sons. 97V3—V22.[28]Suhai Sánder, Calculation of the mechanical and optical properties of polyethylene including electron correlation effects, in Quantum Chemistry of Polymers-Solid State Aspects (ed. Ladik, J.), Dordrechit: D. Redel Publishing Company, 984, 0—0.[29]Maitland, G. C., Rigby, M., Smith, E. B. Et al., Intermolecular Forces: Their Origin and Determination, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 98, 437—484.[30]Sumpter, B. G., Noid, D. W., Wunderlich, B., Computer experiments on the internal dynamics of crystalline polyethylene: mechanistic details of conformational disorder, J. Chem. Phys., 990, 93: 6875.[31]Martoňák, R., Paul, W., Binder, K., Orthorhombic phase of crystalline polyethylene: a constant pressure path-integral Monte Carlo study, Phys. Rev., 998, 57: 2425.

  8. Multipoint linkage detection in the presence of heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yen-Feng; Liang, Kung-Yee; Beaty, Terri H

    2002-06-01

    Linkage heterogeneity is common for complex diseases. It is well known that loss of statistical power for detecting linkage will result if one assumes complete homogeneity in the presence of linkage heterogeneity. To this end, Smith (1963, Annals of Human Genetics 27, 175-182) proposed an admixture model to account for linkage heterogeneity. It is well known that for this model, the conventional chi-squared approximation to the likelihood ratio test for no linkage does not apply even when the sample size is large. By dealing with nuclear families and one marker at a time for genetic diseases with simple modes of inheritance, score-based test statistics (Liang and Rathouz, 1999, Biometrics 55, 65-74) and likelihood-ratio-based test statistics (Lemdani and Pons, 1995, Biometrics 51, 1033-1041) have been proposed which have a simple large-sample distribution under the null hypothesis of linkage. In this paper, we extend their work to more practical situations that include information from multiple markers and multi-generational pedigrees while allowing for a class of general genetic models. Three different approaches are proposed to eliminate the nuisance parameters in these test statistics. We show that all three approaches lead to the same asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis of no linkage. Simulation results show that the proposed test statistics have adequate power to detect linkage and that the performances of these two classes of test statistics are quite comparable. We have applied the proposed method to a family study of asthma (Barnes et al., 1996), in which the score-based test shows evidence of linkage with p-value <0.0001 in the region of interest on chromosome 12. Additionally, we have implemented this score-based test within the frequently used computer package GENEHUNTER.

  9. Si{endash}N linkage in ultrabright, ultrasmall Si nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozhina, E.; Belomoin, G.; Smith, A.; Abuhassan, L.; Barry, N.; Akcakir, O.; Braun, P. V.; Nayfeh, M. H.

    2001-06-04

    Ultrabright ultrasmall ({similar_to}1 nm) blue luminescent Si{sub 29} nanoparticles are chlorinated by reaction with Cl{sub 2} gas. A Si{endash}N linkage is formed by the reaction of the chlorinated particles with the functional amine group in butylamine. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photospectroscopy measurements confirm the N linkage and the presence of the butyl group, while emission, excitation, and autocorrelation femtosecond optical spectroscopy show that, after the linkage formation, the particles with the ultrabright blue luminescent remain, but with a redshift of 40 nm. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Recombination patterns reveal information about centromere location on linkage maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten T.; McKinney, Garrett J.; Seeb, Lisa W.

    2016-01-01

    , approximate centromere placement is possible by phasing the same data used to generate linkage maps. Assuming one obligate crossover per chromosome arm, information about centromere location can be revealed by tracking the accumulated recombination frequency along linkage groups, similar to half....... mykiss) characterized by low and unevenly distributed recombination – a general feature of male meiosis in many species. Further, a high frequency of double crossovers along chromosome arms in barley reduced resolution for locating centromeric regions on most linkage groups. Despite these limitations......, our method should work well for high‐density maps in species with strong recombination interference and will enrich many existing and future mapping resources....

  11. Definition of arthritis candidate risk genes by combining rat linkage-mapping results with human case-control association data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckdahl, L; Guo, J P; Jagodic, M; Becanovic, K; Ding, B; Olsson, T; Lorentzen, J C

    2009-12-01

    To define genomic regions that link to rat arthritis and to determine the potential association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the corresponding human genomic regions. Advanced intercross lines (AIL) between arthritis susceptible DA rats and arthritis resistant PVG.1AV1 rats were injected with differently arthritogenic oils to achieve an experimental situation with substantial phenotypic variation in the rat study population. Genotyping of microsatellite markers was performed over genomic regions with documented impact on arthritis, located on rat chromosomes 4, 10 and 12. Linkage between genotypes and phenotypes were determined by R/quantitative trait loci (QTL). Potential association with RA of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in homologous human chromosome regions was evaluated from public Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) data derived from 2000 cases and 3000 controls. A high frequency of arthritis (57%) was recorded in 422 rats injected with pristane. Maximum linkage to pristane-induced arthritis occurred less than 130 kb from the known genetic arthritis determinants Ncf1 and APLEC, demonstrating remarkable mapping precision. Five novel quantitative trait loci were mapped on rat chromosomes 4 and 10, with narrow confidence intervals. Some exerted sex-biased effects and some were linked to chronic arthritis. Human homologous genomic regions contain loci where multiple nearby SNPs associate nominally with RA (eg, at the genes encoding protein kinase Calpha and interleukin 17 receptor alpha). High-resolution mapping in AIL populations defines limited sets of candidate risk genes, some of which appear also to associate with RA and thus may give clues to evolutionarily conserved pathways that lead to arthritis.

  12. Effect of a prenylamine analog (MG8926) on spontaneous action potentials in isolated rabbit sinoatrial node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, H; Matsuoka, I; Ono, T; Yoshida, H; Uchibori, T; Kogi, K

    1996-12-01

    Effects of verapamil, prenylamine and a prenylamine analog, MG8926 on the intracellular spontaneous action potentials recorded from the isolated rabbit sinoatrial (SA) node were studied. Verapamil (1 microM), a selective inhibitor for slow Ca2+ channels, prolonged the cycle length, decreased the rate of diastolic depolarization, the rate of rise of action potential, the amplitude of action potential and the maximal diastolic potential, and usually arrested showing subthreshold fluctuation of the membrane potential within several ten min. Prenylamine (10 microM), a nonselective inhibitor for slow Ca2+ channels, tended to prolong the cycle length to decrease the diastolic depolarization, the rate of rise of action potential, the amplitude of action potential. However, these changes were statistically insignificant. Prenylamine at the concentration of 10 microM had no effect on the maximal diastolic potential. MG8926 (10 microM) prolonged the cycle length, decreased the rate of diastolic depolarization, the rate of rise of action potential and tended to decrease the amplitude of action potential. MG8926 at the concentration of 10 microM had almost no effect on the maximal diastolic potential. The present findings may indicate that replacement of phenyl residue of prenylamine by cyclohexyl residue increases the inhibitory action on the slow Ca2+ channels in rabbit SA node.

  13. Potential pulmonary effects of engineered carbon nanotubes: in vitro genotoxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Linda M; Reynolds, Steven H; Castranova, Vincent

    2010-12-01

    The development of novel engineered nano-sized materials is a rapidly emerging technology with many applications in medicine and industry. In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested many deleterious effects of carbon nanotube exposure including granulomatous inflammation, release of cytosolic enzymes, pulmonary fibrosis, reactive oxygen damage, cellular atypia, DNA fragmentation, mutation and errors in chromosome number as well as mitotic spindle disruption. The physical properties of the carbon nanotubes make respiratory exposure to workers likely during the production or use of commercial products. Many of the investigations of the genotoxicity of carbon nanotubes have focused on reactive oxygen mediated DNA damage; however, the long thin tubular-shaped carbon nanotubes have a striking similarity to cellular microtubules. The similarity of carbon nanotubes to microtubules suggests a potential to interact with cellular biomolecules, such as the mitotic spindle, as well as the motor proteins that separate the chromosomes during cell division. Disruption of centrosomes and mitotic spindles would result in monopolar, tripolar, and quadrapolar divisions of chromosomes. The resulting aneuploidy is a key mechanism in the potential carcinogenicity of carbon nanotubes.

  14. Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico-US cross-border migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuaizhang; Krueger, Alan B; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2010-08-10

    Climate change is expected to cause mass human migration, including immigration across international borders. This study quantitatively examines the linkages among variations in climate, agricultural yields, and people's migration responses by using an instrumental variables approach. Our method allows us to identify the relationship between crop yields and migration without explicitly controlling for all other confounding factors. Using state-level data from Mexico, we find a significant effect of climate-driven changes in crop yields on the rate of emigration to the United States. The estimated semielasticity of emigration with respect to crop yields is approximately -0.2, i.e., a 10% reduction in crop yields would lead an additional 2% of the population to emigrate. We then use the estimated semielasticity to explore the potential magnitude of future emigration. Depending on the warming scenarios used and adaptation levels assumed, with other factors held constant, by approximately the year 2080, climate change is estimated to induce 1.4 to 6.7 million adult Mexicans (or 2% to 10% of the current population aged 15-65 y) to emigrate as a result of declines in agricultural productivity alone. Although the results cannot be mechanically extrapolated to other areas and time periods, our findings are significant from a global perspective given that many regions, especially developing countries, are expected to experience significant declines in agricultural yields as a result of projected warming.

  15. Biases and Projected Uncertainty of Ural Blocking: Linkage to the East Asian Winter Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, H. N.; Zhou, W.

    2016-12-01

    Winter Ural blocking (UB) is a potential trigger of cold extremes in the East Asia. In the past decade, its increasing frequency was a possible cause of some unprecedented cold events in the region, such as the persistent snowstorm and icy rains in southern China in early 2008 and the extreme cold spell in South China in early 2016. To better predict their occurrence under a changing climate, we need to better understand the underlying mechanisms of UB in observations and the causes of biases of UB in general circulation models (GCMs). In this presentation, we will briefly review the dynamic mechanism of UB in the reanalysis datasets. Then, we will look into the performance of 25 CMIP5 GCMs in simulating the blocking frequency, as well as the dynamic linkage between UB and the East Asian winter circulation. We will show that poor simulation of the basic state over the North Atlantic results in the biases of wave activities and blocking distribution over Eurasia. Afterward, we will discuss the effect of biases of UB on East Asia winter circulation. Finally, we will briefly present how the uncertainty of UB projections in RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios might cause an uncertainty of the East Asian winter circulation.

  16. Towards the prevention of potential aluminum toxic effects and an effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Maire E; Kruck, Theo P A; Pogue, Aileen I; Lukiw, Walter J

    2011-11-01

    In 1991, treatment with low dose intramuscular desferrioxamine (DFO), a trivalent chelator that can remove excessive iron and/or aluminum from the body, was reported to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by a factor of two. Twenty years later this promising trial has not been followed up and why this treatment worked still is not clear. In this critical interdisciplinary review, we provide an overview of the complexities of AD and involvement of metal ions, and revisit the neglected DFO trial. We discuss research done by us and others that is helping to explain involvement of metal ion catalyzed production of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of AD, and emerging strategies for inhibition of metal-ion toxicity. Highlighted are insights to be considered in the quests to prevent potentially toxic effects of aluminum toxicity and prevention and intervention in AD.

  17. Photoactive Zn(II)Porphyrin–multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanohybrids through covalent β-linkages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipińska, Monika E., E-mail: m.e.lipinska@gmail.com [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rebelo, Susana L.H., E-mail: susana.rebelo@fc.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Pereira, M. Fernando R., E-mail: fpereira@fe.up.pt [Laboratório de Catálise e Materiais (LCM), Laboratório Associado LSRE/LCM, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Figueiredo, José L., E-mail: jlfig@fe.up.pt [Laboratório de Catálise e Materiais (LCM), Laboratório Associado LSRE/LCM, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Freire, Cristina, E-mail: acfreire@fc.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2013-12-16

    Donor–acceptor nanohybrids by a covalent linkage between the β-position of a Zn(II)Porphyrin and multi-walled carbon nanotubes are reported for the first time, in a closer analogy to the natural light harvesting systems, which are based on β-substituted porphyrinoid structures, the chlorophylls. An unique and direct connection was established through the immobilization of the Zn(II)(β-NH{sub 2}-tetraphenylporphyrin), using diazonium chemistry, in order to afford i) a short and conjugated linkage between the two aromatic systems and ii) an amide bond resulting from a three-step functionalization synthesis. Electronic and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopies confirmed high photoinduced electron communication through the β-linkage when compared to analogous meso-phenyl linkers, stating its positive effect. The procedure involving the amide linkage allowed higher chromophore loadings; however, the direct conjugated bond showed improved photoinduced activity and a different emission pattern that can be associated with intense communication within the expanded π-system MWCNT–metalloporphyrin. - Graphical abstract: Preparation and photo-induced activity of two donor–acceptor nanohybrids is reported based on different linkages through β-position of porphyrin core to MWCNT, direct conjugation and amide bond. - Highlights: • β-linked Zn(II)Porphyrin–MWCNT nanohybrids were prepared through direct or amide bond. • Efficient and mild functionalizations were achieved using diazonium chemistry. • Good nanohybrid dispersibility was obtained in low boiling point solvent. • Nanohybrids showed strong photoinduced electronic transfer. • The emission quenching was higher for the π-expanded system.

  18. Common evolutionary trends underlie the four-bar linkage systems of sunfish and mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinan; Nelson-Maney, Nathan; Anderson, Philip S L

    2017-05-01

    Comparative biomechanics offers an opportunity to explore the evolution of disparate biological systems that share common underlying mechanics. Four-bar linkage modeling has been applied to various biological systems such as fish jaws and crustacean appendages to explore the relationship between biomechanics and evolutionary diversification. Mechanical sensitivity states that the functional output of a mechanical system will show differential sensitivity to changes in specific morphological components. We document similar patterns of mechanical sensitivity in two disparate four-bar systems from different phyla: the opercular four-bar system in centrarchid fishes and the raptorial appendage of stomatopods. We built dynamic linkage models of 19 centrarchid and 36 stomatopod species and used phylogenetic generalized least squares regression (PGLS) to compare evolutionary shifts in linkage morphology and mechanical outputs derived from the models. In both systems, the kinematics of the four-bar mechanism show significant evolutionary correlation with the output link, while travel distance of the output arm is correlated with the coupler link. This common evolutionary pattern seen in both fish and crustacean taxa is a potential consequence of the mechanical principles underlying four-bar systems. Our results illustrate the potential influence of physical principles on morphological evolution across biological systems with different structures, behaviors, and ecologies. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Effective Potential of a Two-State Model for Molecular Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ying-Rong; ZHAO Tong-Jun; ZHAN-Yong; YAN Wei-Li

    2005-01-01

    We study force generation and motion of molecular motors using a simple two-state model in the paper.Asymmetric and periodic potential is adopted to describe the interaction between motor proteins and filaments that are periodic and polar. The current and the slope of the effective potential as functions of the temperature and transition rates are calculated in the two-state model. The ratio of the slope of the effective potential to the current is also calculated. It is shown that the directed motion of motor proteins is relevant to the effective potential. The slope of the effective potential corresponds to an average force. The non-vanishing force therefore implies that detailed balance is broken in the process of transition between different states.

  20. Localizing genes using linkage disequilibrium in plants: integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... in humans in the presence of population structure. For outbred species, the ..... plants are immotile, distant gene dispersal is largely uniparental (through .... Linkage disequilibrium among modern sugarcane cultivars. Theor.

  1. Predicting sales performance: Strengthening the personality – job performance linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Sitser (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many organizations worldwide use personality measures to select applicants for sales jobs or to assess incumbent sales employees. In the present dissertation, consisting of four independent studies, five approaches to strengthen the personality-sales performance linkage

  2. A difficult Arctic science issue: Midlatitude weather linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.

    2016-09-01

    There is at present unresolved uncertainty whether Arctic amplification (increased air temperatures and loss of sea ice) impacts the location and intensities of recent major weather events in midlatitudes. There are three major impediments. The first is the null hypothesis where the shortness of time series since major amplification (∼15 years) is dominated by the variance of the physical process in the attribution calculation. This makes it impossible to robustly distinguish the influence of Arctic forcing of regional circulation from random events. The second is the large chaotic jet stream variability at midlatitudes producing a small Arctic forcing signal-to-noise ratio. Third, there are other potential external forcings of hemispheric circulation, such as teleconnections driven by tropical and midlatitude sea surface temperature anomalies. It is, however, important to note and understand recent emerging case studies. There is evidence for a causal connection of Barents-Kara sea ice loss, a stronger Siberian High, and cold air outbreaks into eastern Asia. Recent cold air penetrating into the southeastern United States was related to a shift in the long-wave atmospheric wind pattern and reinforced by warmer temperatures west of Greenland. Arctic Linkages is a major research challenge that benefits from an international focus on the topic.

  3. A systematic review of intervention effects on potential mediators of children’s physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Helen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many interventions aiming to increase children’s physical activity have been developed and implemented in a variety of settings, and these interventions have previously been reviewed; however the focus of these reviews tends to be on the intervention effects on physical activity outcomes without consideration of the reasons and pathways leading to intervention success or otherwise. To systematically review the efficacy of physical activity interventions targeting 5-12 year old children on potential mediators and, where possible, to calculate the size of the intervention effect on the potential mediator. Methods A systematic search identified intervention studies that reported outcomes on potential mediators of physical activity among 5-12 year old children. Original research articles published between 1985 and April 2012 were reviewed. Results Eighteen potential mediators were identified from 31 studies. Positive effects on cognitive/psychological potential mediators were reported in 15 out of 31 studies. Positive effects on social environmental potential mediators were reported in three out of seven studies, and no effects on the physical environment were reported. Although no studies were identified that performed a mediating analysis, 33 positive intervention effects were found on targeted potential mediators (with effect sizes ranging from small to large and 73% of the time a positive effect on the physical activity outcome was reported. Conclusions Many studies have reported null intervention effects on potential mediators of children’s physical activity; however, it is important that intervention studies statistically examine the mediating effects of interventions so the most effective strategies can be implemented in future programs.

  4. The effect of pre-existing health conditions on the cost of recovery from road traffic injury: insights from data linkage of medicare and compensable injury claims in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Hahn, Youjin; McClure, Roderick J

    2016-04-29

    Comorbidity is known to affect length of hospital stay and mortality after trauma but less is known about its impact on recovery beyond the immediate post-accident care period. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of pre-existing health conditions in the cost of recovery from road traffic injury using health service use records for 1 year before and after the injury. Individuals who claimed Transport Accident Commission (TAC) compensation for a non-catastrophic injury that occurred between 2010 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia and who provided consent for Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) linkage were included (n = 738) in the analysis. PBS and MBS records dating from 12 months prior to injury were provided by the Department of Human Services (Canberra, Australia). Pre-injury use of health service items and pharmaceuticals were considered to indicate pre-existing health condition. Bayesian Model Averaging techniques were used to identify the items that were most strongly correlated with recovery cost. Multivariate regression models were used to determine the impact of these items on the cost of injury recovery in terms of compensated ambulance, hospital, medical, and overall claim cost. Out of the 738 study participants, 688 used at least one medical item (total of 15,625 items) and 427 used at least one pharmaceutical item (total of 9846). The total health service cost of recovery was $10,115,714. The results show that while pre-existing conditions did not have any significant impact on the total cost of recovery, categorical costs were affected: e.g. on average, for every anaesthetic in the year before the accident, hospital cost of recovery increased by 24 % [95 % CI: 13, 36 %] and for each pathological test related to established diabetes, hospital cost increased by $10,407 [5466.78, 15346.28]. For medical costs, each anaesthetic led to $258 higher cost [174.16, 341.16] and every prescription of drugs

  5. International Environmental Problems, Issue Linkage and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kroeze-Gil, J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the circumstances under which issue linkage can be applied to achieve cooperation on international environmental problems in general and on environmental problems in the European Union in particular. A major topic in this thesis is the development and analysis of cooperative and non-cooperative game theoretical methods of issue linkage that include imperfectly reversed interests. The relevance of the models is shown in the context of EU environmental decision making.

  6. Vortex lattice mobility and effective pinning potentials in the peak effect region in YBCO crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Pasquini; V Bekeris

    2006-01-01

    The peak effect (PE) in the critical current density in both low and high temperature superconductors has been the subject of a large amount of experimental and theoretical work in the last few/several years. In the case of YBCO, crucial discussions describing a dynamic or a static picture are not settled. In that region of field and temperature the mobility of the vortex lattice (VL) is found to be dependent on the dynamical history. Recently we reported evidence that the VL reorganizes and accesses to robust VL configurations (VLCs) with different effective pinning potential wells arising in response to different system histories. One of the keys to understand the nature of the PE is to investigate the VL behavior in the vicinity of the various VLCs in the region of the PE. The stability of these VLCs was investigated and it was found that they have distinct characteristic relaxation times, which may be related to elastic or plastic creep processes. In this paper we review some of these results and propose a scenario to describe the PE in YBCO crystals.

  7. A high-density screen for linkage in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawcer, Stephen; Ban, Maria; Maranian, Mel; Yeo, Tai Wai; Compston, Alastair; Kirby, Andrew; Daly, Mark J; De Jager, Philip L; Walsh, Emily; Lander, Eric S; Rioux, John D; Hafler, David A; Ivinson, Adrian; Rimmler, Jacqueline; Gregory, Simon G; Schmidt, Silke; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Akesson, Eva; Hillert, Jan; Datta, Pameli; Oturai, Annette; Ryder, Lars P; Harbo, Hanne F; Spurkland, Anne; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Laaksonen, Mikko; Booth, David; Heard, Robert; Stewart, Graeme; Lincoln, Robin; Barcellos, Lisa F; Hauser, Stephen L; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Kenealy, Shannon J; Haines, Jonathan L

    2005-09-01

    To provide a definitive linkage map for multiple sclerosis, we have genotyped the Illumina BeadArray linkage mapping panel (version 4) in a data set of 730 multiplex families of Northern European descent. After the application of stringent quality thresholds, data from 4,506 markers in 2,692 individuals were included in the analysis. Multipoint nonparametric linkage analysis revealed highly significant linkage in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p21 (maximum LOD score [MLS] 11.66) and suggestive linkage on chromosomes 17q23 (MLS 2.45) and 5q33 (MLS 2.18). This set of markers achieved a mean information extraction of 79.3% across the genome, with a Mendelian inconsistency rate of only 0.002%. Stratification based on carriage of the multiple sclerosis-associated DRB1*1501 allele failed to identify any other region of linkage with genomewide significance. However, ordered-subset analysis suggested that there may be an additional locus on chromosome 19p13 that acts independent of the main MHC locus. These data illustrate the substantial increase in power that can be achieved with use of the latest tools emerging from the Human Genome Project and indicate that future attempts to systematically identify susceptibility genes for multiple sclerosis will have to involve large sample sizes and an association-based methodology.

  8. The ion potential in warm dense matter: wake effects due to streaming degenerate electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Moldabekov, Zhandos; Bonitz, Michael; Ramazano, Tlekkabul

    2014-01-01

    The effective dynamically screened potential of a classical ion in a stationary flowing quantum plasma at finite temperature is investigated. This is a key quantity for thermodynamics and transport of dense plasmas in the warm dense matter regime. To compute this potential a linear response description of the electrons via the Mermin dielectric function is utilized with electron-electron collisions taken into account via a relaxation time approximation. The ion potential strongly deviates from the static Yukawa potential exhibiting the familiar oscillatory structure with attractive minima (wake potential). This potential is analyzed in detail for high-density plasmas with values of the Brueckner parameter in the range $0.1 \\le r_s \\le 1$, for a broad range of plasma temperature and electron streaming velocity. It is shown that wake effects become weaker with increasing temperature of the electrons. Finally, we obtain the minimal electron streaming velocity for which attraction between ions occurs. This veloci...

  9. Pseudovitamin D deficient rickets (PDDR). Linkage disequilibrium mapping in young populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuda, M.; Korab-Laskowska, M.; Labuda, D. [McGill Univ. (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    PDDR is an autosomal recessive disorder with elevated prevalence in French Canadians. The condition is believed to be due to a deficient renal 25(OH)-vitamin D 1-alpha hydroxylase, but its underlying molecular defect is unknown. By linkage analysis we have earlier mapped PDDR to human chromosome 12q14. Using recently developed microsatellite markers we narrowed down the disease locus to a 5.6 cM interval between two clusters of loci: 234tf12, 207yh10, 249vf9, 329zh9, on proximal, and 259zc9 and 184yf2 on the distal side. Further refinement of the PDDR locus was obtained from analysis of those markers on 85 French Canadian PDDR chromosomes by linkage disequilibrium (LD). Ten-marker haplotype analysis for all chromosomes allowed to divide this sample into two groups, one of Saguenay-Lac St. Jean-Charlevoix (SLSJ-Ch), the other from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (NS, NB). All SLSJ-Ch PDDR chromosomes shared an identical haplotype for markers 172x38, 184yf2, 259zc9, pointing to a single founder in this population. In the NS, NB group, the founder effect was also pronounced; however, the link of 2 PDDR chromosomes to either of these groups remains to be elucidated. In the absence of recombination in 12 generations of the SLSJ-Ch population, the genetic distance between PDDR and markers 172xd8, 184yf2, 259zc9 was estimated to be less than 0.4 cM. Finally the marker 207va9 was found to be the closest proximal one based on one recombination in a Polish PDDR family, its CEPH map position as well as its localization on the same YAC together with the distal markers 184yf2, 309xh1 and the marker 172xd8, probably the closest to the PDDR gene. Our study clearly shows the potential of LD for mapping human disorders in populations as young as 10-12 generations. Here it allowed narrowing PDDR position down to a single YAC.

  10. Performance of random forest when SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupples L Adrienne

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may be correlated due to linkage disequilibrium (LD. Association studies look for both direct and indirect associations with disease loci. In a Random Forest (RF analysis, correlation between a true risk SNP and SNPs in LD may lead to diminished variable importance for the true risk SNP. One approach to address this problem is to select SNPs in linkage equilibrium (LE for analysis. Here, we explore alternative methods for dealing with SNPs in LD: change the tree-building algorithm by building each tree in an RF only with SNPs in LE, modify the importance measure (IM, and use haplotypes instead of SNPs to build a RF. Results We evaluated the performance of our alternative methods by simulation of a spectrum of complex genetics models. When a haplotype rather than an individual SNP is the risk factor, we find that the original Random Forest method performed on SNPs provides good performance. When individual, genotyped SNPs are the risk factors, we find that the stronger the genetic effect, the stronger the effect LD has on the performance of the original RF. A revised importance measure used with the original RF is relatively robust to LD among SNPs; this revised importance measure used with the revised RF is sometimes inflated. Overall, we find that the revised importance measure used with the original RF is the best choice when the genetic model and the number of SNPs in LD with risk SNPs are unknown. For the haplotype-based method, under a multiplicative heterogeneity model, we observed a decrease in the performance of RF with increasing LD among the SNPs in the haplotype. Conclusion Our results suggest that by strategically revising the Random Forest method tree-building or importance measure calculation, power can increase when LD exists between SNPs. We conclude that the revised Random Forest method performed on SNPs offers an advantage of not requiring genotype phase, making it a

  11. Effects of nitrogen ion implantation on Ca2+ concentration and membrane potential of pollen cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Ca2+ concentration and membrane potential of lily (lilium davidii Duch) pollen cell have been studied. The results showed that the Ca2+ concentration was increased when pollen grain was implanted by nitrogen ion with energy 100keV and dose 1013 ions/cra2. However, the increase of Ca2+ concentration was partly inhibited by the addition of Ca2+channel inhibitor depending on dose. And nitrogen ion implantation caused depolarization of pollen cell membrane potential. In other words, membrane potential was increased,but the effect decreased by adding Ca2+ channel inhibitor.However, it was still significantly higher than the membrane potential of control cells. It was indicated that the depolarization of cell membrane potential opened the calcium channel on the membrane that caused the increasing of intraceilular calcium concentration. This might be an earlier step of the effect of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on pollen germination.

  12. The Effectiveness of Positive Coping Program on Reduction of Addiction Potential in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Nematollahi; Mahmoud Golzari; Jamal Shams

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to study the effectiveness of positive coping program on reduction of addiction potential in dormitory girl students. Method: The research method was semi experimental method namely: pre test-post test with witness group. In selection of sample, first addiction potential scale administered among 160 dormitory girl students, and 20 of them who were scored higher than cutoff score on addiction potential scale selected and divided to two experimental and witness group...

  13. Modeling Linkage Disequilibrium Increases Accuracy of Polygenic Risk Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Yang, Jian; Finucane, Hilary K; Gusev, Alexander; Lindström, Sara; Ripke, Stephan; Genovese, Giulio; Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Do, Ron; Hayeck, Tristan; Won, Hong-Hee; Kathiresan, Sekar; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos; Tamimi, Rulla; Stahl, Eli; Zaitlen, Noah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Belbin, Gillian; Kenny, Eimear E; Schierup, Mikkel H; De Jager, Philip; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; McCarroll, Steve; Daly, Mark; Purcell, Shaun; Chasman, Daniel; Neale, Benjamin; Goddard, Michael; Visscher, Peter M; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2015-10-01

    Polygenic risk scores have shown great promise in predicting complex disease risk and will become more accurate as training sample sizes increase. The standard approach for calculating risk scores involves linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based marker pruning and applying a p value threshold to association statistics, but this discards information and can reduce predictive accuracy. We introduce LDpred, a method that infers the posterior mean effect size of each marker by using a prior on effect sizes and LD information from an external reference panel. Theory and simulations show that LDpred outperforms the approach of pruning followed by thresholding, particularly at large sample sizes. Accordingly, predicted R(2) increased from 20.1% to 25.3% in a large schizophrenia dataset and from 9.8% to 12.0% in a large multiple sclerosis dataset. A similar relative improvement in accuracy was observed for three additional large disease datasets and for non-European schizophrenia samples. The advantage of LDpred over existing methods will grow as sample sizes increase. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling Linkage Disequilibrium Increases Accuracy of Polygenic Risk Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J.; Yang, Jian; Finucane, Hilary K.; Gusev, Alexander; Lindström, Sara; Ripke, Stephan; Genovese, Giulio; Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Do, Ron; Hayeck, Tristan; Won, Hong-Hee; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T.R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C.K.; Chen, Ronald Y.L.; Chen, Eric Y.H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodrguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; Grove, Jakob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julia, Antonio; Kahn, Rene S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kahler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lnnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Mller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O’Callaghan, Eadbhard; O’Dushlaine, Colm; O’Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietilinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Sderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H.M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H.R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tonu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jonsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St. Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Adank, Muriel; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Berndt, Sonja; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crisponi, Laura; Czene, Kamila; Dahmen, Norbert; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Easton, Douglas; Eliassen, A. Heather; Figueroa, Jonine; Fletcher, Olivia; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gibson, Lorna; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hall, Per; Hazra, Aditi; Hein, Rebecca; Henderson, Brian E.; Hofman, Albert; Hopper, John L.; Irwanto, Astrid; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Lichtner, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Meindl, Alfons; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peeters, Petra H.; Peto, Julian; Prentice, Ross L.; Rahman, Nazneen; Sánchez, María José; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tamimi, Rulla; Travis, Ruth; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang, Zhaoming; Whittemore, Alice S.; Yang, Rose; Zheng, Wei; Kathiresan, Sekar; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos; Tamimi, Rulla; Stahl, Eli; Zaitlen, Noah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Belbin, Gillian; Kenny, Eimear E.; Schierup, Mikkel H.; De Jager, Philip; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; McCarroll, Steve; Daly, Mark; Purcell, Shaun; Chasman, Daniel; Neale, Benjamin; Goddard, Michael; Visscher, Peter M.; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2015-01-01

    Polygenic risk scores have shown great promise in predicting complex disease risk and will become more accurate as training sample sizes increase. The standard approach for calculating risk scores involves linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based marker pruning and applying a p value threshold to association statistics, but this discards information and can reduce predictive accuracy. We introduce LDpred, a method that infers the posterior mean effect size of each marker by using a prior on effect sizes and LD information from an external reference panel. Theory and simulations show that LDpred outperforms the approach of pruning followed by thresholding, particularly at large sample sizes. Accordingly, predicted R2 increased from 20.1% to 25.3% in a large schizophrenia dataset and from 9.8% to 12.0% in a large multiple sclerosis dataset. A similar relative improvement in accuracy was observed for three additional large disease datasets and for non-European schizophrenia samples. The advantage of LDpred over existing methods will grow as sample sizes increase. PMID:26430803

  15. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  16. Chemical Potential Dependence of the Dressed-Quark Propagator from an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; PING Jia-Lun; SUN Wei-Min; CHANG Chao-Hsi; WANG Fan

    2002-01-01

    We exhibit a method for obtaining the low chemical potential dependence of the dressed quark propagatorfrom an effective quark-quark interaction model. Within this approach we explore the chemical potential dependenceof the dressed-quark propagator, which provides a means of determining the behavior of the chiral and deconfinementorder parameters. A comparison with the results of previous researches is given.

  17. The role of orbital products in the optimized effective potential method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollmar, Christian; Filatov, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The orbital products of occupied and virtual orbitals are employed as an expansion basis for the charge density generating the local potential in the optimized effective potential method thus avoiding the use of auxiliary basis sets. The high computational cost arising from the quadratic increase of

  18. The effects of saliva on the erosive potential of three different wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Tjoe Fat, G.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Background:  The erosive potential of wine on teeth may be modified by the buffering capacity of saliva. This potential effect was studied for three different wines in vitro and in vivo. Methods:  The buffering capacity was studied in vitro by stepwise addition of small volumes of a dry white wine,

  19. Dynamical properties of non-ideal plasma on the basis of effective potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Kodanova, S. K.; Moldabekov, Zh. A.; Issanova, M. K. [IETP, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi str., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)

    2013-11-15

    In this work, stopping power has been calculated on the basis of the Coulomb logarithm using the effective potentials. Calculations of the Coulomb logarithm and stopping power for different interaction potentials and degrees of ionization are compared. The comparison with the data of other theoretical and experimental works was carried out.

  20. Superfield Effective Potential for the Supersymmetric Topologically Massive Gauge theory in Four Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, F S; Nascimento, J R; Petrov, A Yu; da Silva, A J

    2015-01-01

    We explicitly calculate the one-loop effective potential for the supersymmetric topologically massive gauge theory in four dimensions, where the chiral scalar superfield is directly coupled to the field strength for the gauge spinor superfield.