WorldWideScience

Sample records for link previously observed

  1. Clinical observation of phacoemulsification in patients with previous trabeculectomy

    Li Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of transparent corneal incision phacoemulsification in cataract patients who had undergone different kinds of glaucoma filtration surgeries.METHODS: Totally 43 cases(50 eyes, in which 23 patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma(group A, 26 eyesand 20 patients with primary open angle glaucoma(group B, 24 eyes, all had undergone glaucoma filtration surgery for more than 6 months. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, slit lamp, gonioscope, corneal endothelial cell counts, etc., were done before surgery.And transparent corneal incision phacoemulsification combined with artificial lens implantation operation were preformed, postoperative follow-up of 3 to 12 months, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, corneal endothelial cell counts and vision field, etc. were observed and recorded.RESULTS: The visual acuity of 50 eyes(100%increased with different degree postoperatively, 41 eyes(82%with postoperative visual acuity ≥0.3; average preoperative intraocular pressure: group A 18.08±5.08mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kpa, group B 14.48±3.52mmHg; Postoperative follow-up average intraocular pressure: group A 13.65±3.51mmHg, group B 14.28±3.41 mmHg, intraocular pressure changed significantly pre and post-operation in group A(PP>0.05; Postoperative intraocular pressure of 1 eye in group A and 3 eyes in group B rose within three days post-operation, the intraocular pressure fluctuated between 21-33mmHg, with drug therapy and drug withdral when intraocular pressure epistrophy; Intraocular pressure was stable in the follow-up process.Corneal endothelial cell density: pre-operation group A was 2 293.57±352.24(cells/mm2, group B 2 658.14±458.69(cells/mm2, post- operation group A 2 175.95±379.16(cells/mm2, group B 2 442.97±477.30(cells/mm2, cell loss rate: 5.13% in group A, and 8.10% in group B. Postoperative visual acuity was related to vision field damage in patients, the more visual field damage, the longer the duration

  2. Emergency diagnosis of cancer and previous general practice consultations: insights from linked patient survey data.

    Abel, Gary A; Mendonca, Silvia C; McPhail, Sean; Zhou, Yin; Elliss-Brookes, Lucy; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2017-06-01

    Emergency diagnosis of cancer is common and aetiologically complex. The proportion of emergency presenters who have consulted previously with relevant symptoms is uncertain. To examine how many patients with cancer, who were diagnosed as emergencies, have had previous primary care consultations with relevant symptoms; and among those, to examine how many had multiple consultations. Secondary analysis of patient survey data from the 2010 English Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES), previously linked to population-based data on diagnostic route. For emergency presenters with 18 different cancers, associations were examined for two outcomes (prior GP consultation status; and 'three or more consultations' among prior consultees) using logistic regression. Among 4647 emergency presenters, 1349 (29%) reported no prior consultations, being more common in males (32% versus 25% in females, P <0.001), older (44% in ≥85 versus 30% in 65-74-year-olds, P <0.001), and the most deprived (35% versus 25% least deprived, P = 0.001) patients; and highest/lowest for patients with brain cancer (46%) and mesothelioma (13%), respectively ( P <0.001 for overall variation by cancer site). Among 3298 emergency presenters with prior consultations, 1356 (41%) had three or more consultations, which were more likely in females ( P <0.001), younger ( P <0.001), and non-white patients ( P = 0.017) and those with multiple myeloma, and least likely for patients with leukaemia ( P <0.001). Contrary to suggestions that emergency presentations represent missed diagnoses, about one-third of emergency presenters (particularly those in older and more deprived groups) have no prior GP consultations. Furthermore, only about one-third report multiple (three or more) consultations, which are more likely in 'harder-to-suspect' groups. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  3. Fish quality – linking previous infections to the quality of consumers’ fillet

    The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon a wide range of biological and non-biological factors. In the present study it has been established that previous infections by Vibrio anguillarum in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) influence the quality of the fish meat (fillet) at slaughter more...... than after the fish have recovered from the infection. The texture of the fillet analysed by sensory analysis showed changes, which could be explained by previous tissue damage caused by the infection. These changes indicated formation of scars in affected tissue during the processes of tissue repair......, which gave rise to a more fibrous, tougher and flaky texture of the fillets....

  4. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  5. Low temperature magneto-morphological characterisation of coronene and the resolution of previously observed unexplained phenomena

    Potticary, Jason; Boston, Rebecca; Vella-Zarb, Liana; Few, Alex; Bell, Christopher; Hall, Simon R.

    2016-12-01

    The polyaromatic hydrocarbon coronene has been the molecule of choice for understanding the physical properties of graphene for over a decade. The modelling of the latter by the former was considered to be valid, as since it was first synthesised in 1932, the physical behaviour of coronene has been determined extremely accurately. We recently discovered however, an unforeseen polymorph of coronene, which exists as an enantiotrope with the previously observed crystal structure. Using low-temperature magnetisation and crystallographic measurements, we show here for the first time that the electronic and magnetic properties of coronene depend directly on the temperature at which it is observed, with hysteretic behaviour exhibited between 300 K and 100 K. Furthermore we determine that this behaviour is a direct result of the appearance and disappearance of the newly-discovered polymorph during thermal cycling. Our results not only highlight the need for theoretical models of graphene to take into account this anomalous behaviour at low temperatures, but also explain puzzling experimental observations of coronene dating back over 40 years.

  6. A cosmic ray-climate link and cloud observations

    Dunne Eimear M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite over 35 years of constant satellite-based measurements of cloud, reliable evidence of a long-hypothesized link between changes in solar activity and Earth’s cloud cover remains elusive. This work examines evidence of a cosmic ray cloud link from a range of sources, including satellite-based cloud measurements and long-term ground-based climatological measurements. The satellite-based studies can be divided into two categories: (1 monthly to decadal timescale analysis and (2 daily timescale epoch-superpositional (composite analysis. The latter analyses frequently focus on sudden high-magnitude reductions in the cosmic ray flux known as Forbush decrease events. At present, two long-term independent global satellite cloud datasets are available (ISCCP and MODIS. Although the differences between them are considerable, neither shows evidence of a solar-cloud link at either long or short timescales. Furthermore, reports of observed correlations between solar activity and cloud over the 1983–1995 period are attributed to the chance agreement between solar changes and artificially induced cloud trends. It is possible that the satellite cloud datasets and analysis methods may simply be too insensitive to detect a small solar signal. Evidence from ground-based studies suggests that some weak but statistically significant cosmic ray-cloud relationships may exist at regional scales, involving mechanisms related to the global electric circuit. However, a poor understanding of these mechanisms and their effects on cloud makes the net impacts of such links uncertain. Regardless of this, it is clear that there is no robust evidence of a widespread link between the cosmic ray flux and clouds.

  7. Link between laboratory/field observations and models

    Cole, C.R.; Foley, M.G.

    1985-10-01

    The various linkages in system performance assessments that integrate disposal program elements must be understood. The linkage between model development and field/laboratory observations is described as the iterative program of site and system characterization for development of an observational-confirmatory data base to develop, improve, and support conceptual models for site and system behavior. The program consists of data gathering and experiments to demonstrate understanding at various spatial and time scales and degrees of complexity. Understanding and accounting for the decreasing characterization certainty that arises with increasing space and time scales is an important aspect of the link between models and observations. The performance allocation process for setting performance goals and confidence levels coupled with a performance assessment approach that provides these performance and confidence estimates will resolve when sufficient characterization has been achieved. At each iteration performance allocation goals are reviewed and revised as necessary. The updated data base and appropriate performance assessment tools and approaches are utilized to identify and design additional tests and data needs necessary to meet current performance allocation goals. 9 refs

  8. The link between laboratory/field observations and models

    Cole, C.R.; Foley, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The various linkages in system performance assessments that integrate disposal program elements must be understood. The linkage between model development and field/laboratory observations is described as the iterative program of site and system characterization for development of an observational-confirmatory data base. This data base is designed to develop, improve, and support conceptual models for site and system behavior. The program consists of data gathering and experiments to demonstrate understanding at various spatial and time scales and degrees of complexity. Understanding and accounting for the decreasing characterization certainty that arises with increasing space and time scales is an important aspect of the link between models and observations. The performance allocation process for setting performance goals and confidence levels, coupled with a performance assessment approach that provides these performance and confidence estimates, will determine when sufficient characterization has been achieved. At each iteration, performance allocation goals are reviewed and revised as necessary. The updated data base and appropriate performance assessment tools and approaches are utilized to identify and design additional tests and data needs necessary to meet current performance allocation goals

  9. Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to PAH Molecules

    Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B. [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel); Brosch, Noah [The Wise Observatory and School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University (Israel); Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University (Netherlands)

    2017-02-20

    The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μ m IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR PAH emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorption and IR PAH emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR PAH emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μ m IR PAH bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ∼15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in PAH molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ∼15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.

  10. Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to PAH Molecules

    Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.; Brosch, Noah; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μ m IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR PAH emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorption and IR PAH emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR PAH emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μ m IR PAH bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ∼15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in PAH molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ∼15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.

  11. Linking water and carbon cycles through salinity observed from space

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2017-12-01

    The association of ocean surface salinity in global hydrological cycle and climate change has been traditionally studied through the examination of its tendency and advection as manifestation of ocean's heat and water fluxes with the atmosphere. The variability of surface heat and water fluxes are linked to top of atmosphere radiation, whose imbalance is the main cause of global warming. Besides the link of salinity to greenhouse warming through water balance, this study will focus on the effect of changing salinity on carbon dioxide flux between the ocean and the atmosphere. We have built statistical models to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and ocean acidification (in terms of total alkalinity and pH) using spacebased data. PCO2 is a critical parameter governing ocean as source and sink of the accumulated greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The exchange also causes ocean acidification, which is detrimental to marine lives and ecology. Before we had sufficient spacebased salinity measurements coincident with in situ pCO2 measurement, we trained our statistical models to use satellite sea surface temperature and chlorophyll, with one model using salinity climatology and the other without. We found significant differences between the two models in regions of strong water input through river discharge and surface water flux. The pCO2 output follows the seasonal salinity advection of the Amazon outflow. The seasonal salinity advection between Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea are followed by change of pCO2 and total alkalinity. At shorter time scales, the signatures of rain associated with intraseasonal organized convection of summer monsoon can be detected. We have observed distribution agreement of among pCO2, surface salinity, and surface water flux for variation from a few days to a few years under the Pacific ITCZ; the agreement varies slightly with season and longitudes and the reason is under study.

  12. Linking Geomechanical Models with Observations of Microseismicity during CCS Operations

    Verdon, J.; Kendall, J.; White, D.

    2012-12-01

    During CO2 injection for the purposes of carbon capture and storage (CCS), injection-induced fracturing of the overburden represents a key risk to storage integrity. Fractures in a caprock provide a pathway along which buoyant CO2 can rise and escape the storage zone. Therefore the ability to link field-scale geomechanical models with field geophysical observations is of paramount importance to guarantee secure CO2 storage. Accurate location of microseismic events identifies where brittle failure has occurred on fracture planes. This is a manifestation of the deformation induced by CO2 injection. As the pore pressure is increased during injection, effective stress is decreased, leading to inflation of the reservoir and deformation of surrounding rocks, which creates microseismicity. The deformation induced by injection can be simulated using finite-element mechanical models. Such a model can be used to predict when and where microseismicity is expected to occur. However, typical elements in a field scale mechanical models have decameter scales, while the rupture size for microseismic events are typically of the order of 1 square meter. This means that mapping modeled stress changes to predictions of microseismic activity can be challenging. Where larger scale faults have been identified, they can be included explicitly in the geomechanical model. Where movement is simulated along these discrete features, it can be assumed that microseismicity will occur. However, microseismic events typically occur on fracture networks that are too small to be simulated explicitly in a field-scale model. Therefore, the likelihood of microseismicity occurring must be estimated within a finite element that does not contain explicitly modeled discontinuities. This can be done in a number of ways, including the utilization of measures such as closeness on the stress state to predetermined failure criteria, either for planes with a defined orientation (the Mohr-Coulomb criteria) for

  13. Attachment security as a mechanism linking foster care placement to improved mental health outcomes in previously institutionalized children.

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2012-01-01

    Children reared in institutions experience elevated rates of psychiatric disorders. Inability to form a secure attachment relationship to a primary caregiver is posited to be a central mechanism in this association. We determined whether the ameliorative effect of a foster care (FC) intervention on internalizing disorders in previously institutionalized children was explained by the development of secure attachment among children placed in FC. Second we evaluated the role of lack of attachment in an institutionalized sample on the etiology of internalizing disorders within the context of a randomized trial. A sample of 136 children (aged 6-30 months) residing in institutions was recruited in Bucharest, Romania. Children were randomized to FC (n = 68) or to care as usual (CAU; n = 68). Foster parents were recruited, trained, and overseen by the investigative team. Attachment security at 42 months was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure, and internalizing disorders at 54 months were assessed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Girls in FC had fewer internalizing disorders than girls in CAU (OR = 0.17, p = .006). The intervention had no effect on internalizing disorders in boys (OR = 0.47, p = .150). At 42 months, girls in FC were more likely to have secure attachment than girls in CAU (OR = 12.5, p security predicted lower rates of internalizing disorders in both sexes. Development of attachment security fully mediated intervention effects on internalizing disorders in girls. Placement into FC facilitated the development of secure attachment and prevented the onset of internalizing disorders in institutionalized girls. The differential effects of FC on attachment security in boys and girls explained gender differences in the intervention effects on psychopathology. Findings provide evidence for the critical role of disrupted attachment in the etiology of internalizing disorders in children exposed to institutionalization. © 2011 The Authors

  14. Chronic Chagas disease: PCR-xenodiagnosis without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool to detect viable Trypanosoma cruzi

    Miguel Saavedra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the elimination of the microscopic stage of conventional xenodiagnosis (XD to optimize the parasitological diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic Chagas disease. To this purpose we applied under informed consent two XD cages to 150 Chilean chronic chagasic patients. The fecal samples (FS of the triatomines at 30, 60 and 90 days post feeding were divided into two parts: in one a microscopic search for mobile trypomastigote and/or epimastigote forms was performed. In the other part, DNA extraction-purification for PCR directed to the conserved region of kDNA minicircles of trypanosomes (PCR-XD, without previous microscopic observation was done. An XD was considered positive when at least one mobile T. cruzi parasite in any one of three periods of incubation was observed, whereas PCR-XD was considered positive when the 330 bp band specific for T. cruzi was detected. 25 of 26 cases with positive conventional XD were PCR-XD positive (concordance 96.2%, whereas 85 of 124 cases with negative conventional XD were positive by PCR-XD (68.5%. Human chromosome 12 detected by Real-time PCR used as exogenous internal control of PCR-XD reaction allowed to discounting of PCR inhibition and false negative in 40 cases with negative PCR-XD. Conclusion: PCR-XD performed without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool for detection of viable parasites with higher efficiency then conventional XD.

  15. Chronic Chagas disease: PCR-xenodiagnosis without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool to detect viable Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Saavedra, Miguel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Martínez, Gabriela; Rojas, Antonio; Rodríguez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the elimination of the microscopic stage of conventional xenodiagnosis (XD) to optimize the parasitological diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic Chagas disease. To this purpose we applied under informed consent two XD cages to 150 Chilean chronic chagasic patients. The fecal samples (FS) of the triatomines at 30, 60 and 90 days post feeding were divided into two parts: in one a microscopic search for mobile trypomastigote and/or epimastigote forms was performed. In the other part, DNA extraction-purification for PCR directed to the conserved region of kDNA minicircles of trypanosomes (PCR-XD), without previous microscopic observation was done. An XD was considered positive when at least one mobile T. cruzi parasite in any one of three periods of incubation was observed, whereas PCR-XD was considered positive when the 330 bp band specific for T. cruzi was detected. 25 of 26 cases with positive conventional XD were PCR-XD positive (concordance 96.2%), whereas 85 of 124 cases with negative conventional XD were positive by PCR-XD (68.5%). Human chromosome 12 detected by Real-time PCR used as exogenous internal control of PCR-XD reaction allowed to discounting of PCR inhibition and false negative in 40 cases with negative PCR-XD. PCR-XD performed without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool for detection of viable parasites with higher efficiency then conventional XD.

  16. Linking the Observation of Essential Variables to Societal Benefits

    Sylak-Glassman, E.

    2017-12-01

    Different scientific communities have established sets of commonly agreed upon essential variables to help coordinate data collection in a variety of Earth observation areas. As an example, the World Meteorological Organization Global Climate Observing System has identified 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), such as sea-surface temperature and carbon dioxide, which are required to monitoring the climate and detect and attribute climate change. In addition to supporting climate science, measuring these ECVs deliver many types of societal benefits, ranging from disaster mitigation to agricultural productivity to human health. While communicating the value in maintaining and improving observational records for these variables has been a challenge, quantifying how the measurement of these ECVs results in the delivery of many different societal benefits may help support their continued measurement. The 2016 National Earth Observation Assessment (EOA 2016) quantified the impact of individual Earth observation systems, sensors, networks, and surveys (or Earth observation systems, for short) on the achievement of 217 Federal objectives in 13 societal benefit areas (SBAs). This study will demonstrate the use of the EOA 2016 dataset to show the different Federal objectives and SBAs that are impacted by the Earth observation systems used to measure ECVs. Describing how the measurements from these Earth observation systems are used not only to maintain the climate record but also to meet additional Federal objectives may help articulate the continued measurement of the ECVs. This study will act as a pilot for the use of the EOA 2016 dataset to map between the measurements required to observe additional sets of variables, such as the Essential Ocean Variables and Essential Biodiversity Variables, and the ability to achieve a variety of societal benefits.

  17. A previously unidentified deletion in G protein-coupled receptor 143 causing X-linked congenital nystagmus in a Chinese family

    Jing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital nystagmus (CN is characterized by conjugated, spontaneous, and involuntary ocular oscillations. It is an inherited disease and the most common inheritance pattern is X-linked CN. In this study, our aim is to identify the disease-causing mutation in a large sixth-generation Chinese family with X-linked CN. Methods: It has been reported that mutations in four-point-one, ezrin, radixin, moesin domain-containing 7 gene (FRMD7 and G protein-coupled receptor 143 gene (GPR143 account for the majority patients of X-linked nystagmus. We collected 8 ml blood samples from members of a large sixth-generation pedigree with X-linked CN and 100 normal controls. FRMD7 and GPR143 were scanned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based DNA sequencing assays, and multiplex PCR assays were applied to detect deletions. Results: We identified a previously unreported deletion covering 7 exons in GPR143 in a Chinese family. The heterozygous deletion from exon 3 to exon 9 of GPR143 was detected in all affected males in the family, while it was not detected in other unaffected relatives or 100 normal controls. Conclusions: This is the first report of molecular characterization in GPR143 gene in the CN family. Our results expand the spectrum of GPR143 mutations causing CN and further confirm the role of GPR143 in the pathogenesis of CN.

  18. Modeling Prairie Pothole Lakes: Linking Satellite Observation and Calibration (Invited)

    Schwartz, F. W.; Liu, G.; Zhang, B.; Yu, Z.

    2009-12-01

    This paper examines the response of a complex lake wetland system to variations in climate. The focus is on the lakes and wetlands of the Missouri Coteau, which is part of the larger Prairie Pothole Region of the Central Plains of North America. Information on lake size was enumerated from satellite images, and yielded power law relationships for different hydrological conditions. More traditional lake-stage data were made available to us from the USGS Cottonwood Lake Study Site in North Dakota. A Probabilistic Hydrologic Model (PHM) was developed to simulate lake complexes comprised of tens-of-thousands or more individual closed-basin lakes and wetlands. What is new about this model is a calibration scheme that utilizes remotely-sensed data on lake area as well as stage data for individual lakes. Some ¼ million individual data points are used within a Genetic Algorithm to calibrate the model by comparing the simulated results with observed lake area-frequency power law relationships derived from Landsat images and water depths from seven individual lakes and wetlands. The simulated lake behaviors show good agreement with the observations under average, dry, and wet climatic conditions. The calibrated model is used to examine the impact of climate variability on a large lake complex in ND, in particular, the “Dust Bowl Drought” 1930s. This most famous drought of the 20th Century devastated the agricultural economy of the Great Plains with health and social impacts lingering for years afterwards. Interestingly, the drought of 1930s is unremarkable in relation to others of greater intensity and frequency before AD 1200 in the Great Plains. Major droughts and deluges have the ability to create marked variability of the power law function (e.g. up to one and a half orders of magnitude variability from the extreme Dust Bowl Drought to the extreme 1993-2001 deluge). This new probabilistic modeling approach provides a novel tool to examine the response of the

  19. equate: An R Package for Observed-Score Linking and Equating

    Anthony D. Albano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The R package equate contains functions for observed-score linking and equating under single-group, equivalent-groups, and nonequivalent-groups with anchor test(s designs. This paper introduces these designs and provides an overview of observed-score equating with details about each of the supported methods. Examples demonstrate the basic functionality of the equate package.

  20. MultiWaveLink: An interactive data base for the coordination of multiwavelength and multifacility observations

    Cordova, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    MultiWaveLink is an interactive, computerized data base that was developed to facilitate a multi-wavelength approach to studying astrophysical sources. It can be used to access information about multiwavelenth resources (observers, telescopes, data bases and analysis facilities) or to organize observing campaigns that require either many telescopes operating in different spectral regimes or a network of similar telescopes circumspanning the Earth.

  1. Equipment Management for Sensor Networks: Linking Physical Infrastructure and Actions to Observational Data

    Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Matos, M.; Caraballo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Networks conducting long term monitoring using in situ sensors need the functionality to track physical equipment as well as deployments, calibrations, and other actions related to site and equipment maintenance. The observational data being generated by sensors are enhanced if direct linkages to equipment details and actions can be made. This type of information is typically recorded in field notebooks or in static files, which are rarely linked to observations in a way that could be used to interpret results. However, the record of field activities is often relevant to analysis or post-processing of the observational data. We have developed an underlying database schema and deployed a web interface for recording and retrieving information on physical infrastructure and related actions for observational networks. The database schema for equipment was designed as an extension to the Observations Data Model 2 (ODM2), a community-developed information model for spatially discrete, feature based earth observations. The core entities of ODM2 describe location, observed variable, and timing of observations, and the equipment extension contains entities to provide additional metadata specific to the inventory of physical infrastructure and associated actions. The schema is implemented in a relational database system for storage and management with an associated web interface. We designed the web-based tools for technicians to enter and query information on the physical equipment and actions such as site visits, equipment deployments, maintenance, and calibrations. These tools were implemented for the iUTAH (innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydrosustainability) ecohydrologic observatory, and we anticipate that they will be useful for similar large-scale monitoring networks desiring to link observing infrastructure to observational data to increase the quality of sensor-based data products.

  2. Experimental observation of the transition from weak link to tunnel junction

    Muller, C.J.; Ruitenbeek, J.M. van; Jongh, L.J. de

    1992-01-01

    An extension to Morelands break junction technique is developed in order to obtain a clean and stable, mechanically adjustable junction. As a function of an externally applied force the coupling of two electrodes can be varied in vacuum. Experiments are described of a junction with niobium electrodes at 4.2 K which undergo a continuous change in normal resistance R N , from 1 to 10 9 Ω upon applying an increasing force. In this resistance range we discern a transition from a weak link regime to a tunnel regime. The current voltage (I-V) curves are reproducible upon adjustment changes in the whole resistance range. In the weak link regime the two electrodes of the junction are in physical contact with each other. The product of the critical current and normal resistance is compared with predictions of Ambegaokar-Baratoff and Kulik-Omelyanchuk. The product of the excess current and normal resistance shows a logarithmic increase for low R N values and decreases for the highest R N values in the weak link regime. Subharmonic gap structure, originating from multiple Andreev reflections is observed over a wide range of R N . In the transition regime the two electrodes are not in contact but there is still a large overlap of the superconducting and quasiparticle wave functions. In this regime a finite slope in the ''critical current part'' in the current voltage curve is observed. The I-V curves show features characteristic for both a weak link and a tunnel junction. In the tunnel regime there exists a vacuum gap between the electrodes and the Josephson coupling is suppressed. A considerable subgap current is observed, where the product of the subgap current and normal resistance is constant over almost four orders of magnitude of R N . A decreasing conductance near zero bias shows up in this regime. The normal resistance exhibits an exponential behaviour upon variations in the vacuum gap. (orig./WL)

  3. Is Uric Acid a Missing Link between Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes at a Later Time of Life?

    Molęda, Piotr; Fronczyk, Aneta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Majkowska, Lilianna

    2016-01-01

    A high level of uric acid (UA) is a strong, independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The relationship between UA levels and the development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) remains unclear. The aim of study was to evaluate the UA levels in pGDM women in relation to their current nutritional status and carbohydrate metabolism. 199 women with pGDM diagnoses based on oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) 5-12 years previously and a control group of 50 women without pGDM. The assessment included anthropometric parameters, body composition (Tanita SC-330S), current OGTT, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-%B), HbA1c, lipids, and uric acid. No differences between groups were found in terms of age, time from the index pregnancy, anthropometric parameters, lipids or creatinine levels. The incidences of overweight and obesity were similar. Carbohydrate abnormalities were more frequent in the pGDM group than the control group (43.2% vs 12.0% p1). The women with pGDM had significantly higher fasting glucose, HbA1c, glucose and insulin levels in the OGTTs, but similar HOMA-IR values. Their UA levels were significantly higher (258±58 vs 230±50 μmol/L, p1, p1), creatinine level (β = 0.23, 95% CI 0.11-0.35, pdiabetes (β = 0.13, 95% CI 0.01-0.25, pdiabetes) was statistically significant (odds ratio 3.62 [95% CI 1.8-7.3], p1). Higher UA levels may be associated with the development of type 2 diabetes in pGDM women, also in these with normal body weights.

  4. Remembering as an observer: how is autobiographical memory retrieval vantage perspective linked to depression?

    Kuyken, Willem; Moulds, Michelle L

    2009-08-01

    It has long been noted that the emotional impact of an autobiographical memory is associated with the vantage perspective from which it is recalled (Freud, 1950). Memories recalled from a first-person "field" perspective are phenomenologically rich, while third-person "observer" perspective memories contain more descriptive but less affective detail (Nigro & Neisser, 1983). Although there is some evidence that depressed individuals retrieve more observer memories than non-depressed individuals (e.g., Kuyken & Howell, 2006), little is known of the cognitive mechanisms associated with observer memories in depression. At pre- and post-treatment, 123 patients with a history of recurrent depression completed self-report measures and the autobiographical memory task (AMT). Participants also indicated the vantage perspective of the memories recalled on the AMT. Observer memories were less vivid, older, and more frequently rehearsed. The tendency to retrieve observer perspective memories was associated with greater negative self-evaluation, lower dispositional mindfulness, and greater use of avoidance. Furthermore, participants who recalled more field perspective memories at pre-treatment had lower levels of post-treatment depression, controlling for pre-treatment levels of depression and trait rumination. We apply contemporary accounts from social and cognitive psychology, and propose potential mechanisms that link the tendency to retrieve observer perspective memories to depression.

  5. Is Uric Acid a Missing Link between Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes at a Later Time of Life?

    Piotr Molęda

    Full Text Available A high level of uric acid (UA is a strong, independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The relationship between UA levels and the development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM remains unclear. The aim of study was to evaluate the UA levels in pGDM women in relation to their current nutritional status and carbohydrate metabolism.199 women with pGDM diagnoses based on oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs 5-12 years previously and a control group of 50 women without pGDM. The assessment included anthropometric parameters, body composition (Tanita SC-330S, current OGTT, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, β-cell function (HOMA-%B, HbA1c, lipids, and uric acid.No differences between groups were found in terms of age, time from the index pregnancy, anthropometric parameters, lipids or creatinine levels. The incidences of overweight and obesity were similar. Carbohydrate abnormalities were more frequent in the pGDM group than the control group (43.2% vs 12.0% p<0.001. The women with pGDM had significantly higher fasting glucose, HbA1c, glucose and insulin levels in the OGTTs, but similar HOMA-IR values. Their UA levels were significantly higher (258±58 vs 230±50 μmol/L, p<0.005 and correlated with BMI and the severity of carbohydrate disorders. The normal weight and normoglycemic pGDM women also demonstrated higher UA levels than a similar control subgroup (232±48 vs 208±48 μmol/L, p<0.05. Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlations of UA level with BMI (β = 0.38, 95% CI 0.25-0.51, p<0.0001, creatinine level (β = 0.23, 95% CI 0.11-0.35, p<0.0005, triglycerides (β = 0.20, 95% CI 0.07-0.33, p<0.005 and family history of diabetes (β = 0.13, 95% CI 0.01-0.25, p<0.05. In logistic regression analysis, the association between higher UA level (defined as value ≥297 μmol/L and presence of any carbohydrate metabolism disorder (IFG, IGT or diabetes was statistically significant (odds

  6. Is there a link between previous exposure to sport injury psychology education and UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals' attitudes and behaviour towards sport psychology?

    Heaney, Caroline A; Rostron, Claire L; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K

    2017-01-01

    The use of sport psychology strategies during sport injury rehabilitation can lead to several positive outcomes such as improved adherence and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the sport psychology related attitudes and behaviours of UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs) who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury to those who had not. Ninety-four SIRPs (54 physiotherapists and 40 sports therapists with a mean of 9.22 years' experience of working in sport) completed an online survey and were grouped according to their level of previous exposure to sport injury psychology education at an undergraduate/postgraduate level. Analyses were undertaken to establish whether there were any differences in sport psychology related attitude (MANOVA), usage (MANOVA), and referral behaviours (chi square) between the groups. The MANOVA and chi square tests conducted revealed that those who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury reported using significantly more sport psychology in their practice and making more referrals to sport psychologists. It was concluded that sport injury psychology education appears to be effective in increasing the sport psychology related behaviours (use of sport psychology and referral) of SIRPs and should be integrated into professional training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Linking Earth Observations and Models to Societal Information Needs: The Case of Coastal Flooding

    Buzzanga, B. A.; Plag, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal flooding is expected to increase in many areas due to sea level rise (SLR). Many societal applications such as emergency planning and designing public services depend on information on how the flooding spectrum may change as a result of SLR. To identify the societal information needs a conceptual model is needed that identifies the key stakeholders, applications, and information and observation needs. In the context of the development of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), which is implemented by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), the Socio-Economic and Environmental Information Needs Knowledge Base (SEE-IN KB) is developed as part of the GEOSS Knowledge Base. A core function of the SEE-IN KB is to facilitate the linkage of societal information needs to observations, models, information and knowledge. To achieve this, the SEE-IN KB collects information on objects such as user types, observational requirements, societal goals, models, and datasets. Comprehensive information concerning the interconnections between instances of these objects is used to capture the connectivity and to establish a conceptual model as a network of networks. The captured connectivity can be used in searches to allow users to discover products and services for their information needs, and providers to search for users and applications benefiting from their products. It also allows to answer "What if?" questions and supports knowledge creation. We have used the SEE-IN KB to develop a conceptual model capturing the stakeholders in coastal flooding and their information needs, and to link these elements to objects. We show how the knowledge base enables the transition of scientific data to useable information by connecting individuals such as city managers to flood maps. Within the knowledge base, these same users can request information that improves their ability to make specific planning decisions. These needs are linked to entities within research

  8. Linking atmospheric synoptic transport, cloud phase, surface energy fluxes, and sea-ice growth: observations of midwinter SHEBA conditions

    Persson, P. Ola G.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Perovich, Don; Solomon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project are used to describe a sequence of events linking midwinter long-range advection of atmospheric heat and moisture into the Arctic Basin, formation of supercooled liquid water clouds, enhancement of net surface energy fluxes through increased downwelling longwave radiation, and reduction in near-surface conductive heat flux loss due to a warming of the surface, thereby leading to a reduction in sea-ice bottom growth. The analyses provide details of two events during Jan. 1-12, 1998, one entering the Arctic through Fram Strait and the other from northeast Siberia; winter statistics extend the results. Both deep, precipitating frontal clouds and post-frontal stratocumulus clouds impact the surface radiation and energy budget. Cloud liquid water, occurring preferentially in stratocumulus clouds extending into the base of the inversion, provides the strongest impact on surface radiation and hence modulates the surface forcing, as found previously. The observations suggest a minimum water vapor threshold, likely case dependent, for producing liquid water clouds. Through responses to the radiative forcing and surface warming, this cloud liquid water also modulates the turbulent and conductive heat fluxes, and produces a thermal wave penetrating into the sea ice. About 20-33 % of the observed variations of bottom ice growth can be directly linked to variations in surface conductive heat flux, with retarded ice growth occurring several days after these moisture plumes reduce the surface conductive heat flux. This sequence of events modulate pack-ice wintertime environmental conditions and total ice growth, and has implications for the annual sea-ice evolution, especially for the current conditions of extensive thinner ice.

  9. Observed variations in U.S. frost timing linked to atmospheric circulation patterns.

    Strong, Courtenay; McCabe, Gregory J

    2017-05-23

    Several studies document lengthening of the frost-free season within the conterminous United States (U.S.) over the past century, and report trends in spring and fall frost timing that could stem from hemispheric warming. In the absence of warming, theory and case studies link anomalous frost timing to atmospheric circulation anomalies. However, recent efforts to relate a century of observed changes in U.S. frost timing to various atmospheric circulations yielded only modest correlations, leaving the relative importance of circulation and warming unclear. Here, we objectively partition the U.S. into four regions and uncover atmospheric circulations that account for 25-48% of spring and fall-frost timing. These circulations appear responsive to historical warming, and they consistently account for more frost timing variability than hemispheric or regional temperature indices. Reliable projections of future variations in growing season length depend on the fidelity of these circulation patterns in global climate models.

  10. Using Aoristic Analysis to Link Remote and Ground-Level Phenological Observations

    Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology is about observing events in time and space. With the advent of publically accessible geospatial datastreams and easy to use mapping software, specifying where an event occurs is much less of a challenge than it was just two decades ago. In contrast, specifying when an event occurs remains a nontrivial function of a population of organismal responses, sampling interval, compositing period, and reporting precision. I explore how aoristic analysis can be used to analyzing spatiotemporal events for which the location is known to acceptable levels of precision but for which temporal coordinates are poorly specified or only partially bounded. Aoristic analysis was developed in the late 1990s in the field of quantitative criminology to leverage temporally imprecise geospatial data of crime reports. Here I demonstrate how aoristic analysis can be used to link remotely sensed observations of land surface phenology to ground-level observations of organismal phenophase transitions. Explicit representation of the windows of temporal uncertainty with aoristic weights enables cross-validation exercises and forecasting efforts to avoid false precision.

  11. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  12. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, pdiabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy without a history of ulceration. More homogenous data is needed to confirm these findings.

  13. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Healthcare benefits linked with Below Poverty Line registration in India: Observations from Maharashtra Anaemia Study (MAS).

    Ahankari, Anand; Fogarty, Andrew; Tata, Laila; Myles, Puja

    2017-01-01

    A 2015 Lancet paper by Patel et al. on healthcare access in India comprehensively discussed national health programmes where some benefits are linked with the country's Below Poverty Line (BPL) registration scheme. BPL registration aims to support poor families by providing free/subsidised healthcare. Technical issues in obtaining BPL registration by poor families have been previously reported in the Indian literature; however there are no data on family assets of BPL registrants. Here, we provide evidence of family-level assets among BPL registration holders (and non-BPL households) using original research data from the Maharashtra Anaemia Study (MAS). Social and health data from 287 pregnant women and 891 adolescent girls (representing 1178 family households) across 34 villages in Maharashtra state, India, were analysed. Several assets were shown to be similarly distributed between BPL and non-BPL households; a large proportion of families who would probably be eligible were not registered, whereas BPL-registered families often had significant assets that should not make them eligible. This is likely to be the first published evidence where asset distribution such as agricultural land, housing structures and livestock are compared between BPL and non-BPL households in a rural population. These findings may help planning BPL administration to allocate health benefits equitably, which is an integral part of national health programmes.

  15. Investigating links between emotional intelligence and observer performance by radiologists in mammography

    Lewis, Sarah J.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Cumming, Steven; MacKay, Stuart J.; McEntee, Mark F.; Keane, Kevin; Mello-Thoms, Claudia R.

    2014-03-01

    A novel direction of radiology research is better understanding the links between cognitive and personality factors and radiologists' accuracy and performance. This study examines relationships between Emotional Intelligence (EI) scores and observer performance by radiologists in breast cancer detection. Three separate samples were collected with Australian and US breast imaging radiologists. The radiologists were asked to undertake a mammographic interpretation task to identify malignant breast lesions and localise them, in addition to use a confidence rating scale to report confidence in the decision. Following this activity, the radiologists were administered the EI Trait (TEIQue-SF) questionnaire. The Trait EI test gives a Global EI score and 4 sub-scores in Well-being, Self-Control, Emotionality and Sociability. Sample 1 (Sydney 2012) radiologists were divided into 2 experience bands; radiologists practicing emotionality" and "sociability" to Location Sensitivity and JAFROC. Our preliminary results indicate EI is correlated to observer performance in lesser experienced radiologists. It is suggested that tasks perceived as more difficult by less experienced radiologists may evoke more emotion (uncertainty, frustration, pressure). As experience increases, radiologists may develop an ability to control their emotions or emotional intelligence becomes less important in decision making.

  16. Linking Fine-Scale Observations and Model Output with Imagery at Multiple Scales

    Sadler, J.; Walthall, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The development and implementation of a system for seasonal worldwide agricultural yield estimates is underway with the international Group on Earth Observations GeoGLAM project. GeoGLAM includes a research component to continually improve and validate its algorithms. There is a history of field measurement campaigns going back decades to draw upon for ways of linking surface measurements and model results with satellite observations. Ground-based, in-situ measurements collected by interdisciplinary teams include yields, model inputs and factors affecting scene radiation. Data that is comparable across space and time with careful attention to calibration is essential for the development and validation of agricultural applications of remote sensing. Data management to ensure stewardship, availability and accessibility of the data are best accomplished when considered an integral part of the research. The expense and logistical challenges of field measurement campaigns can be cost-prohibitive and because of short funding cycles for research, access to consistent, stable study sites can be lost. The use of a dedicated staff for baseline data needed by multiple investigators, and conducting measurement campaigns using existing measurement networks such as the USDA Long Term Agroecosystem Research network can fulfill these needs and ensure long-term access to study sites.

  17. Observing and modeling links between soil moisture, microbes and CH4 fluxes from forest soils

    Christiansen, Jesper; Levy-Booth, David; Barker, Jason; Prescott, Cindy; Grayston, Sue

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key driver of methane (CH4) fluxes in forest soils, both of the net uptake of atmospheric CH4 and emission from the soil. Climate and land use change will alter spatial patterns of soil moisture as well as temporal variability impacting the net CH4 exchange. The impact on the resultant net CH4 exchange however is linked to the underlying spatial and temporal distribution of the soil microbial communities involved in CH4 cycling as well as the response of the soil microbial community to environmental changes. Significant progress has been made to target specific CH4 consuming and producing soil organisms, which is invaluable in order to understand the microbial regulation of the CH4 cycle in forest soils. However, it is not clear as to which extent soil moisture shapes the structure, function and abundance of CH4 specific microorganisms and how this is linked to observed net CH4 exchange under contrasting soil moisture regimes. Here we report on the results from a research project aiming to understand how the CH4 net exchange is shaped by the interactive effects soil moisture and the spatial distribution CH4 consuming (methanotrophs) and producing (methanogens). We studied the growing season variations of in situ CH4 fluxes, microbial gene abundances of methanotrophs and methanogens, soil hydrology, and nutrient availability in three typical forest types across a soil moisture gradient in a temperate rainforest on the Canadian Pacific coast. Furthermore, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine whether the net CH4 exchange from hydrologically contrasting forest soils responded differently to changes in soil moisture. Lastly, we modelled the microbial mediation of net CH4 exchange along the soil moisture gradient using structural equation modeling. Our study shows that it is possible to link spatial patterns of in situ net exchange of CH4 to microbial abundance of CH4 consuming and producing organisms. We also show that the microbial

  18. The missing link: Predicting connectomes from noisy and partially observed tract tracing data

    Hinne, Max; Meijers, Annet; Bakker, Rembrandt

    2017-01-01

    a high chance of being connected, while regions far apart are most likely disconnected in the connectome. After learning the latent embedding from the connections that we did observe, the latent space allows us to predict connections that have not been probed previously. We apply the methodology to two....... In this paper, we suggest that instead of probing all possible connections, hitherto unknown connections may be predicted from the data that is already available. Our approach uses a 'latent space model' that embeds the connectivity in an abstract physical space. Regions that are close in the latent space have...... connectivity data sets of the macaque, where we demonstrate that the latent space model is successful in predicting unobserved connectivity, outperforming two baselines and an alternative model in nearly all cases. Furthermore, we show how the latent spatial embedding may be used to integrate multimodal...

  19. ON THE TRANSITIONAL DISK CLASS: LINKING OBSERVATIONS OF T TAURI STARS AND PHYSICAL DISK MODELS

    Espaillat, C.; Andrews, S.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D.; Ingleby, L.; Calvet, N.; Hernández, J.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Muzerolle, J.

    2012-01-01

    Two decades ago 'transitional disks' (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a 'dip' in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects 'transitional disks' and 'pre-transitional disks' (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term 'transitional' only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

  20. Linking source region and ocean wave parameters with the observed primary microseismic noise

    Juretzek, C.; Hadziioannou, C.

    2017-12-01

    In previous studies, the contribution of Love waves to the primary microseismic noise field was found to be comparable to those of Rayleigh waves. However, so far only few studies analysed both wave types present in this microseismic noise band, which is known to be generated in shallow water and the theoretical understanding has mainly evolved for Rayleigh waves only. Here, we study the relevance of different source region parameters on the observed primary microseismic noise levels of Love and Rayleigh waves simultaneously. By means of beamforming and correlation of seismic noise amplitudes with ocean wave heights in the period band between 12 and 15 s, we analysed how source areas of both wave types compare with each other around Europe. The generation effectivity in different source regions was compared to ocean wave heights, peak ocean gravity wave propagation direction and bathymetry. Observed Love wave noise amplitudes correlate comparably well with near coastal ocean wave parameters as Rayleigh waves. Some coastal regions serve as especially effective sources for one or the other wave type. These coincide not only with locations of high wave heights but also with complex bathymetry. Further, Rayleigh and Love wave noise amplitudes seem to depend equally on the local ocean wave heights, which is an indication for a coupled variation with swell height during the generation of both wave types. However, the wave-type ratio varies directionally. This observation likely hints towards a spatially varying importance of different source mechanisms or structural influences. Further, the wave-type ratio is modulated depending on peak ocean wave propagation directions which could indicate a variation of different source mechanism strengths but also hints towards an imprint of an effective source radiation pattern. This emphasizes that the inclusion of both wave types may provide more constraints for the understanding of acting generation mechanisms.

  1. Dental Calculus Links Statistically to Angina Pectoris: 26-Year Observational Study.

    Söder, Birgitta; Meurman, Jukka H; Söder, Per-Östen

    2016-01-01

    Dental infections, such as periodontitis, associate with atherosclerosis and its complications. We studied a cohort followed-up since 1985 for incidence of angina pectoris with the hypothesis that calculus accumulation, proxy for poor oral hygiene, links to this symptom. In our Swedish prospective cohort study of 1676 randomly selected subjects followed-up for 26 years. In 1985 all subjects underwent clinical oral examination and answered a questionnaire assessing background variables such as socio-economic status and pack-years of smoking. By using data from the Center of Epidemiology, Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden we analyzed the association of oral health parameters with the prevalence of in-hospital verified angina pectoris classified according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases, using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Of the 1676 subjects, 51 (28 women/23 men) had been diagnosed with angina pectoris at a mean age of 59.8 ± 2.9 years. No difference was observed in age and gender between patients with angina pectoris and subjects without. Neither was there any difference in education level and smoking habits (in pack years), Gingival index and Plaque index between the groups. Angina pectoris patients had significantly more often their first maxillary molar tooth extracted (d. 16) than the other subjects (p = 0.02). Patients also showed significantly higher dental calculus index values than the subjects without angina pectoris (p = 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed odds ratio 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.17-4.17) in the association between high calculus index and angina pectoris (p = 0.015). Our study hypothesis was confirmed by showing for the first time that high dental calculus score indeed associated with the incidence of angina pectoris in this cohort study.

  2. Demonstration of Linked UAV Observations and Atmospheric Model Predictions in Chem/Bio Attack Response

    Davidson, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    ... meteorological data, and the means for linking the UAV data to real-time dispersion prediction. The primary modeling effort focused on an adaptation of the 'Wind On Constant Streamline Surfaces...

  3. Linking field observations, Landsat and MODIS data to estimate agricultural change in European Russia.

    de Beurs, K. M.; Ioffe, G.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural reform has been one of the most important anthropogenic change processes in European Russia that has been unfolding since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most vivid side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. Currently, Russia is transitioning into a country with an internal "archipelago" of islands of productive agriculture around cities embedded in a matrix of unproductive, abandoned lands. This heterogeneous spatial pattern is mainly driven by depopulation of the least favorable parts of the countryside, where "least favorable" is a function of fertility, remoteness, and their interaction. In this work we provide a satellite, GIS and field based overview of the current agricultural developments in Russia and look beyond the unstable period immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We apply Landsat images in one of Russia's oblasts to create a detailed land cover map. We then use a logistic model to link the Landsat land cover map with the inter-annual variability in key phenological parameters calculated from MODIS to derive the percent of cropland per 500m MODIS pixel. By evaluating the phenological characteristics of the MODIS curves for each year we determine whether a pixel was actually cropped or left fallow. A comparison of satellite-estimated cropped areas with regional statistics (by rayon) revealed that the satellite estimates are highly correlated with the regional statistics for both arable lands and successfully cropped areas. We use the crop maps to determine the number of times a particular area was cropped between 2002 and 2009 by summing all the years with crops per pixel. This variable provides a good indication about the intensification and de-intensification of the Russian croplands over the last decade. We have visited several rural areas in Russia and we link the satellite data with information acquired through field interviews

  4. Human-Induced Climate Variations Linked to Urbanization: From Observations to Modeling

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this session is to bring together scientists from interdisciplinary backgrounds to discuss the data, scientific approaches and recent results focusing on the impact of urbanization on the climate. The discussion will highlight current observational and modeling capabilities being employed for investigating the urban environment and its linkage to the change in the Earth's climate system. The goal of the session is to identify our current stand and the future direction on the topic. Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of population of the world has moved to urban areas. By 1995, more than 70% of population of North America and Europe were living in cities. By 2025, the United Nations estimates that 60% of the worlds population will live in cities. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is urban, better understanding of how the atmosphere-ocean-land-biosphere components interact as a coupled system and the influence of human activities on this system is critical. Our understanding of urbanization effect is incomplete, partly because human activities induce new changes on climate in addition to the original natural variations, and partly because previously few data available for study urban effect globally. Urban construction changes surface roughness, albedo, heat capacity and vegetation coverage. Traffic and industry increase atmospheric aerosol. It is suggested that urbanization may modify rainfall processes through aerosol-cloud interactions or dynamic feedbacks. Because urbanization effect on climate is determined by many factors including land cover, the city's microscale features, population density, and human lifestyle patterns, it is necessary to study urban areas over globe.

  5. Low back pain in military recruits in relation to social background and previous low back pain. A cross-sectional and prospective observational survey

    Hestbæk, Lise; Larsen, K.; Weidich, F.

    2005-01-01

    back pain in the development of low back pain in military recruits. METHODS: During a three-month period, Danish military recruits with different social backgrounds live and work under the same conditions. Thus, there is an opportunity to investigate the influence of social background......BACKGROUND: Traditionally, studies on the etiology of low back pain have been carried out in adult populations. However, since low back pain often appears early in life, more research on young populations is needed. This study focuses on the importance of social background factors and previous low...... on the development of low back pain, when persons are removed from their usual environment and submitted to a number of new stressors. In addition, the importance of the recruits' previous low back pain history in relation to low back pain during military service was studied. This was done by means of questionnaires...

  6. Linking theories of change and observed reality: the Shea value chain partnership case in Burkina

    Drost, S.; Wijk, van J.; Vellema, S.

    2012-01-01

    This case study found out how a public-private partnership in Burkina Faso helped female shea nut producers to link up with the cosmetic industry. Empirical data collected from October-December 2011 revealed that the shea value chain partnership between a international shea processing company, a

  7. Ophthalmology on social networking sites: an observational study of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn

    Micieli JA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan A Micieli,1 Edmund Tsui2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA Background: The use of social media in ophthalmology remains largely unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the extent and involvement of ophthalmology journals, professional associations, trade publications, and patient advocacy and fundraising groups on social networking sites. Methods: An archived list of 107 ophthalmology journals from SCImago, trade publications, professional ophthalmology associations, and patient advocacy organizations were searched for their presence on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Activity and popularity of each account was quantified by using the number of “likes” on Facebook, the number of followers on Twitter, and members on LinkedIn. Results: Of the 107 journals ranked by SCImago, 21.5% were present on Facebook and 18.7% were present on Twitter. Journal of Community Eye Health was the most popular on Facebook and JAMA Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter. Among the 133 members of the International Council of Ophthalmology, 17.3% were present on Facebook, 12.8% were present on Twitter, and 7.5% were present on LinkedIn. The most popular on Facebook was the International Council of Ophthalmology, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter and LinkedIn. Patient advocacy organizations were more popular on all sites compared with journals, professional association, and trade publications. Among the top ten most popular pages in each category, patient advocacy groups were most active followed by trade publications, professional associations, and journals. Conclusion: Patient advocacy groups lead the way in social networking followed by professional organizations and journals. Although some journals use social media, most have yet to engage its full potential and maximize the number of

  8. Linking forests, deforestation, and nutritional outcomes: an observational study in nine African countries

    Thomas Pienkowski, MSc

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agricultural expansion is a leading driver of deforestation, yet malnutrition remains a significant cause of morbidity. Understanding trade-offs and synergies between forest protection and agricultural expansion, and how they vary between groups across time, could help guide socially equitable sustainable development. Forests have important roles in supporting dietary diversity and micronutrient intake, but limited empirical evidence links forests and broad nutritional outcomes. Our research explores the associations between key indicators of malnutrition and forest cover and deforestation, the mediating role of socioeconomic factors, and underlying temporal trends. Methods: In this observational study, we explored associations between nutritional outcomes (underweightness, stunting, wasting, and overweightness in children younger than 5 years and forest cover and loss gradients (in 10 km buffers around communities in 61 032 African households. These households were surveyed by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS Program from nine countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, and Liberia between 2003 and 2014. DHS data were combined with spatially explicit data on forest cover and loss, climate, infrastructure, economy, and demography in a series of generalised linear mixed-effects models. Findings: In urban areas, children in communities surrounded by 1 SD higher forest cover had 10·8% (95% CI 3·0–18·0; p=0·0073 lower incidence of underweightness and 11·7% (1·9–20·6; p=0·0212 lower incidence of wasting than did children in areas with the mean amount of forest cover. In rural areas, the relationship was reversed, with 6·0% (1·6–10·6; p=0·0074 higher incidence of underweightness among children in areas of 1 SD higher forest cover than among children in areas with the mean amount of forest cover. These relationships became marginally non

  9. Ophthalmology on social networking sites: an observational study of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Tsui, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media in ophthalmology remains largely unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the extent and involvement of ophthalmology journals, professional associations, trade publications, and patient advocacy and fundraising groups on social networking sites. An archived list of 107 ophthalmology journals from SCImago, trade publications, professional ophthalmology associations, and patient advocacy organizations were searched for their presence on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Activity and popularity of each account was quantified by using the number of "likes" on Facebook, the number of followers on Twitter, and members on LinkedIn. Of the 107 journals ranked by SCImago, 21.5% were present on Facebook and 18.7% were present on Twitter. Journal of Community Eye Health was the most popular on Facebook and JAMA Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter. Among the 133 members of the International Council of Ophthalmology, 17.3% were present on Facebook, 12.8% were present on Twitter, and 7.5% were present on LinkedIn. The most popular on Facebook was the International Council of Ophthalmology, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter and LinkedIn. Patient advocacy organizations were more popular on all sites compared with journals, professional association, and trade publications. Among the top ten most popular pages in each category, patient advocacy groups were most active followed by trade publications, professional associations, and journals. Patient advocacy groups lead the way in social networking followed by professional organizations and journals. Although some journals use social media, most have yet to engage its full potential and maximize the number of potential interested individuals.

  10. Low back pain in military recruits in relation to social background and previous low back pain. A cross-sectional and prospective observational survey

    Weidick Flemming

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally, studies on the etiology of low back pain have been carried out in adult populations. However, since low back pain often appears early in life, more research on young populations is needed. This study focuses on the importance of social background factors and previous low back pain in the development of low back pain in military recruits. Methods During a three-month period, Danish military recruits with different social backgrounds live and work under the same conditions. Thus, there is an opportunity to investigate the influence of social background on the development of low back pain, when persons are removed from their usual environment and submitted to a number of new stressors. In addition, the importance of the recruits' previous low back pain history in relation to low back pain during military service was studied. This was done by means of questionnaires to 1,711 recruits before and after this three-month period. Results Sedentary occupation was negatively associated with long-lasting low back pain (>30 days during the past year at baseline with an odds ratios of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.33–0.90. This effect vanished during service. Having parents with higher education increased the risk of low back pain during service (OR: 1.9;1.2–3.0, for the highest educated group, but not of the consequences (leg pain and exemption from duty, whereas high IQ decreased the risk of these consequences (odds ratios as low as 0.2;0.1–0.8 for exemption from duty in the group with highest IQ. Long-lasting low back pain prior to service increased the risk of long-lasting low back pain (OR: 4.8;2.1–10.8, leg pain (OR: 3.3;1.3–8.3 and exemption from duty during service (OR: 5.9;2.4–14.8. Conclusion Sedentary occupation is negatively associated with low back pain at baseline. This protective effect disappears, when the person becomes physically active. For predicting trouble related to the low back during service, the

  11. The Inverse Contagion Problem (ICP) vs.. Predicting site contagion in real time, when network links are not observable

    Mushkin, I.; Solomon, S.

    2017-10-01

    We study the inverse contagion problem (ICP). As opposed to the direct contagion problem, in which the network structure is known and the question is when each node will be contaminated, in the inverse problem the links of the network are unknown but a sequence of contagion histories (the times when each node was contaminated) is observed. We consider two versions of the ICP: The strong problem (SICP), which is the reconstruction of the network and has been studied before, and the weak problem (WICP), which requires "only" the prediction (at each time step) of the nodes that will be contaminated at the next time step (this is often the real life situation in which a contagion is observed and predictions are made in real time). Moreover, our focus is on analyzing the increasing accuracy of the solution, as a function of the number of contagion histories already observed. For simplicity, we discuss the simplest (deterministic and synchronous) contagion dynamics and the simplest solution algorithm, which we have applied to different network types. The main result of this paper is that the complex problem of the convergence of the ICP for a network can be reduced to an individual property of pairs of nodes: the "false link difficulty". By definition, given a pair of unlinked nodes i and j, the difficulty of the false link (i,j) is the probability that in a random contagion history, the nodes i and j are not contaminated at the same time step (or at consecutive time steps). In other words, the "false link difficulty" of a non-existing network link is the probability that the observations during a random contagion history would not rule out that link. This probability is relatively straightforward to calculate, and in most instances relies only on the relative positions of the two nodes (i,j) and not on the entire network structure. We have observed the distribution of false link difficulty for various network types, estimated it theoretically and confronted it

  12. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study

    O. Hellmuth

    2006-01-01

    according to the parameterisation of the collision-controlled binary nucleation rate proposed by Weber et al. (1996, H2O vapour does not explicitly affect the particle formation. Since the H2SO4 concentration is overpredicted in the simulations presented in Paper III, the nucleation rates are too high compared to previous estimations. Therefore, the results are not directly comparable to measurements. Especially NPF events, where organics are suspected to play a key role, such as those observed at the boreal forest station in Hyytiälä (Southern Finland or at Hohenpeissenberg (mountain site in Southern Germany, can not be explained by employing simple sulphur/ammonia chemistry. However, some valuable hints regarding the role of CBL turbulence in NPF can be obtained. In the literature a number of observations on the link between turbulence and NPF can be found, whose burst patterns support a strong contribution of CBL turbulence to the NPF burst evolution simulated here. Observations, that do not correspond to the scenarios are discussed with respect to possible reasons for the differences between model and observation. The model simulations support some state-of-the-art hypotheses on the contribution of CBL turbulence to NPF. Considering the application of box models, the present study shows, that CBL turbulence, not explicitly considered in such models, can strongly affect the spatio-temporal NPF burst evolution. The columnar high-order model presented here is a helpful tool to elucidate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions, especially the genesis of NPF bursts in the CBL. An advanced description of the cluster formation and condensation growth is required as well as a comprehensive verification/validation study using observed high-order moments. Further scenario simulations remain to be performed.

  13. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  14. Harmonising and semantically linking key variables from in-situ observing networks of an Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System, AtlantOS

    Darroch, Louise; Buck, Justin

    2017-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements at regional, national and international scales. The EU Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project aims to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that strengthens the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and contributes to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation. One goal is to ensure that data from different and diverse in-situ observing networks are readily accessible and useable to a wider community, including the international ocean science community and other stakeholders in this field. To help achieve this goal, the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) produced a parameter matrix to harmonise data exchange, data flow and data integration for the key variables acquired by multiple in-situ AtlantOS observing networks such as ARGO, Seafloor Mapping and OceanSITES. Our solution used semantic linking of controlled vocabularies and metadata for parameters that were "mappable" to existing EU and international standard vocabularies. An AtlantOS Essential Variables list of terms (aggregated level) based on Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECV), GOOS Essential Ocean Variables (EOV) and other key network variables was defined and published on the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server (version 2.0) as collection A05 (http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/A05/current/). This new vocabulary was semantically linked to standardised metadata for observed properties and units that had been validated by the AtlantOS community: SeaDataNet parameters (P01), Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names (P07) and SeaDataNet units (P06). Observed properties were mapped to biological entities from the internationally assured AphiaID from the WOrld Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), http

  15. The Benefits of Simply Observing: Mindful Attention Modulates the Link between Motivation and Behavior

    Papies, E.K.; Pronk, T.M.; Keesman, M.; Barsalou, L.W.

    2015-01-01

    Mindful attention, a central component of mindfulness meditation, can be conceived as becoming aware of one’s thoughts and experiences, and being able to observe them as transient mental events. Here, we present a series of studies demonstrating the effects of applying this meta-cognitive

  16. The benefits of simply observing : Mindful attention modulates the link between motivation and behavior

    Papies, E.K.; Pronk, T.M.; Keesman, M.; Barsalou, L.

    2015-01-01

    Mindful attention, a central component of mindfulness meditation, can be conceived as becoming aware of one's thoughts and experiences and being able to observe them as transient mental events. Here, we present a series of studies demonstrating the effects of applying this metacognitive perspective

  17. Considerations in relation to some research on the possible neural underpinnings linked to visual artworks observation

    Gabriella Bartoli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the observations conducted by Freedberg & Gallese (2007 on neural processes implication in organizing the empathetic/aesthetic response, some recent research carried out by neuroscientists and art historians are analyzed, as they demonstrated cortical sensorimotor activation during the observation of abstract artworks (2012, 2013. The role of the “embodied simulation” of artist’s gesture in the empathic perception of artworks is hereby confirmed. These results are commented in light of psychological studies about aesthetic experience, with special regard to those based on a phenomenological methodology. The intention is to further explore possible interactions between neurosciences and phenomenological psychology, in accordance with their respective theoretical and methodological differences.

  18. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.

    2015-12-01

    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  19. Linking optical and infrared observations with gravitational wave sources through transient variability

    Stubbs, C W

    2008-01-01

    Optical and infrared observations have thus far detected more celestial cataclysms than have been seen in gravity waves (GW). This argues that we should search for gravity wave signatures that correspond to transient variables seen at optical wavelengths, at precisely known positions. There is an unknown time delay between the optical and gravitational transient, but knowing the source location precisely specifies the corresponding time delays across the gravitational antenna network as a function of the GW-to-optical arrival time difference. Optical searches should detect virtually all supernovae that are plausible gravitational radiation sources. The transient optical signature expected from merging compact objects is not as well understood, but there are good reasons to expect detectable transient optical/IR emission from most of these sources as well. The next generation of deep wide-field surveys (for example PanSTARRS and LSST) will be sensitive to subtle optical variability, but we need to fill the 'blind spots' that exist in the galactic plane, and for optically bright transient sources. In particular, a galactic plane variability survey at λ∼ 2 μm seems worthwhile. Science would benefit from closer coordination between the various optical survey projects and the gravity wave community

  20. Ground Radar Polarimetric Observations of High-Frequency Earth-Space Communication Links

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.; Benjamin, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Strategic roadmaps for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS) enterprise support near-term high-frequency communication systems that provide moderate to high data rates with dependable service. Near-earth and human planetary exploration will baseline Ka-Band, but may ultimately require the use of even higher frequencies. Increased commercial demand on low-frequency earth-space bands has also led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like K u - and K,- band. Data is taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), which operates at 13.8 GHz, and the true radar reflectivity profile is determined along the PR beam via low-frequency ground based polarimetric observations. The specific differential phase (Kdp) is measured along the beam and a theoretical model is used to determine the expected specific attenuation (k). This technique, called the k-Kdp method, uses a Fuzzy-Logic model to determine the hydrometeor type along the PR beam from which the appropriate k-Kdp relationship is used to determine k and, ultimately, the total path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on PR measurements. Measurements from PR and the NCAR S-POL radar were made during the TEFLUN-B experiment that took place near Melbourne, FL in 1998, and the TRMM-LBA campaign near Ji-Parana, Brazil in 1999.

  1. Deformation Partitioning: The Missing Link Between Outcrop-Scale Observations And Orogen-Scale Processes

    Attia, S.; Paterson, S. R.; Jiang, D.; Miller, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    self-consistent Multi-Order Power-Law Approach (MOPLA) to multi-scale field observations, we constrain likely paleo-tectonic controls of orogenic structural evolution rather than predicting a unique, but likely incorrect deformation history.

  2. Nitrogen isotopes in bulk marine sediment: linking seafloor observations with subseafloor records

    J.-E. Tesdal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stable isotopes of nitrogen offer a unique perspective on changes in the nitrogen cycle, past and present. However, the presence of multiple forms of nitrogen in marine sediments can complicate the interpretation of bulk nitrogen isotope measurements. Although the large-scale global patterns of seafloor δ15N have been shown to match process-based expectations, small-scale heterogeneity on the seafloor, or alterations of isotopic signals during translation into the subseafloor record, could obscure the primary signals. Here, a public database of nitrogen isotope measurements is described, including both seafloor and subseafloor sediment samples ranging in age from modern to the Pliocene, and used to assess these uncertainties. In general, good agreement is observed between neighbouring seafloor sites within a 100 km radius, with 85% showing differences of < 1‰. There is also a good correlation between the δ15N of the shallowest (< 5 ka subseafloor sediments and neighbouring seafloor sites within a 100 km radius (R2 = 0.83, which suggests a reliable translation of sediments into the buried sediment record. Meanwhile, gradual δ15N decreases over multiple glacial–interglacial cycles appear to reflect post-depositional alteration in records from the deep sea (below 2000 m. We suggest a simple conceptual model to explain these 100-kyr-timescale changes in well-oxygenated, slowly accumulating sediments, which calls on differential loss rates for pools of organic N with different δ15N. We conclude that bulk sedimentary nitrogen isotope records are reliable monitors of past changes in the marine nitrogen cycle at most locations, and could be further improved with a better understanding of systematic post-depositional alteration. Furthermore, geochemical or environmental criteria should be developed in order to effectively identify problematic locations and to account for

  3. First direct observations linking confined supercritical turbidity currents to their depositional architecture and facies characteristics

    Hage, S.; Cartigny, M.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Clare, M. A.; Sumner, E.; Hubbard, S. M.; Talling, P.; Lintern, G.; Stacey, C.; Vardy, M. E.; Hunt, J.; Vendettuoli, D.; Yokokawa, M.; Hizzett, J. L.; Vellinga, A. J.; Azpiroz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents transfer globally significant amounts of sediment via submarine channels from the continental margin to deep submarine fans. Submarine channel inception is thought to result from erosive, supercritical turbidity currents that are common in proximal settings of the marine realm. Recent monitoring of submarine processes have provided the first measurements of supercritical turbidity currents (Hughes Clarke, 2016), demonstrating that they drive the upstream migration of crescentic bedforms in confined submarine channels. Although upstream-migrating bedforms are common in confined channels across the world's oceans, there is considerable debate over the type of deposits that they produce. It is important to understand what types of deposit record these supercritical bedforms to potentially identify them from geological archives. For the first time, we combine direct measurements from supercritical field-scale turbidity currents with the facies and depositional architecture resulting from such flows. We show how the subsurface architecture evolves in a highly active channel at Squamish submarine delta, British Columbia, Canada. Repeated upstream migration of bedforms is found to create two main deposit geometries. First, regular back-stepping beds result from flow deceleration on the slightly-inclined sides of the bedforms. Second, lens-shaped scour fills composed of massive deposits result from erosion of the back-stepping beds by subsequent turbidity currents. We relate our findings to a range of ancient outcrop studies to demonstrate that supercritical flows are common in proximal settings through the geological record. This study provides the first direct observation-based model to identify confined supercritical turbidity currents and their associated upslope-migrating bedforms in the sedimentary record. This is important for correctly identifying the proximal sites of ancient submarine channels that served as past conduits for globally

  4. Working with previously anonymous gamete donors and donor-conceived adults: recent practice experiences of running the DNA-based voluntary information exchange and contact register, UK DonorLink.

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Gunter, Christine; Tidy, Christine; Atherton, Freda

    2013-03-01

    This article describes recent practice experiences with donor conceived adults, donors, non-donor-conceived adult children of donors using the voluntary DNA-based register, UK DonorLink. It highlights additional complexities faced when using DNA rather than paper records for searching, in particular from the risk of false positives, low chances of success and potential inclusion of biological parents' DNA. Professionals' experiences in supporting those being "linked" suggest challenges as well as rewards. Registration carries the potential to be therapeutic for donor-conceived adults and donors and to enhance their political awareness regardless of links being made. Registrants value both peer and professional support, providing the latter can respond flexibly and be delivered by staff experienced in intermediary work. Given that the majority of those affected by donor conception internationally come from anonymous donation systems, these findings are highly pertinent and argue the need for political and moral debate about such service provision.

  5. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  6. Intraregional links between the trends in air pollutants observed at the EANET network sites for 2000-2014

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2016-04-01

    origins. Our calculations indicate that about half of the median trends at EANET stations are significant, derived either for the entire observational period or for a given season, however not for the same species. The proportions of decreasing and increasing trends are comparable. The latter is the case for SO2, HCl, Cl-, NO3 (except for Russia), while marked decrease in K+ abundances is prevailing at all stations. Most unsystematic trends are seen for nitrogenated compounds, particularly HNO3, which calls for deeper data quality analysis. Interestingly, about the same statistic (half of significant trends) is obtained for the upper (0.9) quantile of the dataset, suggesting that trends pertain to the upper part of the data distribution usually linked to emission dynamics (i.e. bearing winter/spring compositions). We further apply an ad hoc cluster analysis to infer spatial patterns and colocation of the trends across the East Asian region. Finally, we provide a brief comparison of results with an evaluation of changes in major acidic compounds over EMEP region for the 1990-2012 provided by EMEP in its trend assessment for the UN ECE CLRTAP earlier this year [2]. References: 1. EANET: Data Report 2014. Network Center for EANET (ACAP), November 2015, 314 p. (http://www.eanet.asia/product/datarep/datarep14/datarep14.pdf) 2. EMEP: Air Pollution Trends in the EMEP region between 1990 and 2012. WMO/EMEP TFMM Trend Assessment Report. UN ECE Convention on LRTAP, 2016, 54 p.

  7. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year is associated with a significant protective effect for travellers' diarrhoea: a prospective observational cohort study in travellers to South Asia.

    Kuenzli, Esther; Juergensen, David; Kling, Kerstin; Jaeger, Veronika K; DeCrom, Susan; Steffen, Robert; Widmer, Andreas F; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Neumayr, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem in travellers. Depending on the region visited, up to 40% of travellers develop diarrhoea during a 2-week trip. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for TD among travellers to the Indian subcontinent. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and identifying potential risk factors. Covariates were assessed univariately, followed by a multivariate regression. Two-hundred and twenty-six travellers were enrolled into the study, 178 filled in both pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Overall, the attack rate of travellers' diarrhoea was 38.2%. Travel destination is a key risk factor for the occurrence of TD. Travelling to India or Nepal vs Bhutan is associated with an increased risk for TD (OR 6.68 and 6.62, respectively). A length of stay of more than 3 weeks compared to less than 2 weeks is also associated with a significantly increased risk (OR 5.45). Having stayed in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year before the current trip is associated with a significantly decreased risk (OR 0.19). No association was found between consumption of high risk food (i.e. tap water, ice cream, raw meat and hamburgers) and travellers' diarrhoea. Travellers' diarrhoea is a frequent problem in travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year appears to have a significant protective effect. Furthermore, an association between the occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea and travel destination and length of stay, respectively, was observed. Consumption of risk food did not confer a TD risk in our study. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Magnet Cycles and Stability Periods of the CMS Structures from 2008 to 2013 as Observed by the Link Alignment System

    Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document Magnet Cycles and Stability Periods of the CMS Experiment are studied with the recorded Alignment Link System data along the 2008 to 2013 years of operation. The motions of the mechanical structures due to the magnetic field forces are studied including an in-depth analysis of the relative distance between the endcap structures and the central Tracker body during the Stability Periods to verify the mechanical stability of the detector during the physics data taking.

  9. The Coordination Dynamics of Observational Learning: Relative Motion Direction and Relative Phase as Informational Content Linking Action-Perception to Action-Production.

    Buchanan, John J

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this chapter is to merge together the visual perception perspective of observational learning and the coordination dynamics theory of pattern formation in perception and action. Emphasis is placed on identifying movement features that constrain and inform action-perception and action-production processes. Two sources of visual information are examined, relative motion direction and relative phase. The visual perception perspective states that the topological features of relative motion between limbs and joints remains invariant across an actor's motion and therefore are available for pickup by an observer. Relative phase has been put forth as an informational variable that links perception to action within the coordination dynamics theory. A primary assumption of the coordination dynamics approach is that environmental information is meaningful only in terms of the behavior it modifies. Across a series of single limb tasks and bimanual tasks it is shown that the relative motion and relative phase between limbs and joints is picked up through visual processes and supports observational learning of motor skills. Moreover, internal estimations of motor skill proficiency and competency are linked to the informational content found in relative motion and relative phase. Thus, the chapter links action to perception and vice versa and also links cognitive evaluations to the coordination dynamics that support action-perception and action-production processes.

  10. Observed changes in ocean acidity and carbon dioxide exchange in the coastal Bay of Bengal - a link to air pollution

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.; Paul, Y.S.; Murty, V.S.N.

    acidity and carbon dioxide exchange in the coastal Bay of Bengal � a link to air pollution By V. V. S. S. SARMA*, M. S. KRISHNA, Y. S. PAUL and V. S. N. MURTY, CSIR�National Institute of Oceanography, 176 Lawsons Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, India... atmosphere boundary layer over the Bay of Bengal (mean: 5.7 mg m�3) compared to fluxes in the Arabian Sea (mean: 2.9 mg m�3), indicating that the former receives more pollutants than the latter region during January to April when air flow from land to sea...

  11. Continuous country-wide rainfall observation using a large network of commercial microwave links: Challenges, solutions and applications

    Chwala, Christian; Boose, Yvonne; Smiatek, Gerhard; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Commercial microwave link (CML) networks have proven to be a valuable source for rainfall information over the last years. However, up to now, analysis of CML data was always limited to certain snapshots of data for historic periods due to limited data access. With the real-time availability of CML data in Germany (Chwala et al. 2016) this situation has improved significantly. We are continuously acquiring and processing data from 3000 CMLs in Germany in near real-time with one minute temporal resolution. Currently the data acquisition system is extended to 10000 CMLs so that the whole of Germany is covered and a continuous country-wide rainfall product can be provided. In this contribution we will elaborate on the challenges and solutions regarding data acquisition, data management and robust processing. We will present the details of our data acquisition system that we run operationally at the network of the CML operator Ericsson Germany to solve the problem of limited data availability. Furthermore we will explain the implementation of our data base, its web-frontend for easy data access and present our data processing algorithms. Finally we will showcase an application of our data in hydrological modeling and its potential usage to improve radar QPE. Bibliography: Chwala, C., Keis, F., and Kunstmann, H.: Real-time data acquisition of commercial microwave link networks for hydrometeorological applications, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 991-999, doi:10.5194/amt-9-991-2016, 2016

  12. Analyzing the trophic link between the mesopelagic microbial loop and zooplankton from observed depth profiles of bacteria and protozoa

    T. Tanaka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that organic carbon exported to the ocean aphotic layer is significantly consumed by heterotrophic organisms such as bacteria and zooplankton in the mesopelagic layer. However, very little is known for the trophic link between bacteria and zooplankton or the function of the microbial loop in this layer. In the northwestern Mediterranean, recent studies have shown that viruses, bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and ciliates distribute down to 2000 m with group-specific depth-dependent decreases, and that bacterial production decreases with depth down to 1000 m. Here we show that such data can be analyzed using a simple steady-state food chain model to quantify the carbon flow from bacteria to zooplankton over the mesopelagic layer. The model indicates that bacterial mortality by viruses is similar to or 1.5 times greater than that by heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and that heterotrophic nanoflagellates transfer little of bacterial production to higher trophic levels.

  13. Observed Lesson Structure during the First Year of Secondary Education: Exploration of Change and Link with Academic Engagement

    Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Stroet, Kim; Bosker, Roel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether lesson structure (LS) matters and which components are important for academic engagement during the first grade of secondary education. Data from videoed lessons of 10 Dutch and 12 Indonesian teachers analyzed using an observation protocol show that six LS components are found, that between class and over…

  14. Observed lesson structure during the first year of secondary education : Exploration of change and link with academic engagement

    Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Stroet, Kim; Bosker, Roel

    This study investigates whether lesson structure (LS) matters and which components are important for academic engagement during the first grade of secondary education. Data from videoed lessons of 10 Dutch and 12 Indonesian teachers analyzed using an observation protocol show that six LS components

  15. The Kepler Dichotomy in Planetary Disks: Linking Kepler Observables to Simulations of Late-stage Planet Formation

    Moriarty, John; Ballard, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    NASA’s Kepler Mission uncovered a wealth of planetary systems, many with planets on short-period orbits. These short-period systems reside around 50% of Sun-like stars and are similarly prevalent around M dwarfs. Their formation and subsequent evolution is the subject of active debate. In this paper, we simulate late-stage, in situ planet formation across a grid of planetesimal disks with varying surface density profiles and total mass. We compare simulation results with observable characteristics of the Kepler sample. We identify mixture models with different primordial planetesimal disk properties that self-consistently recover the multiplicity, radius, period and period ratio, and duration ratio distributions of the Kepler planets. We draw three main conclusions. (1) We favor a “frozen-in” narrative for systems of short-period planets, in which they are stable over long timescales, as opposed to metastable. (2) The “Kepler dichotomy,” an observed phenomenon of the Kepler sample wherein the architectures of planetary systems appear to either vary significantly or have multiple modes, can naturally be explained by formation within planetesimal disks with varying surface density profiles. Finally, (3) we quantify the nature of the “Kepler dichotomy” for both GK stars and M dwarfs, and find that it varies with stellar type. While the mode of planet formation that accounts for high multiplicity systems occurs in 24% ± 7% of planetary systems orbiting GK stars, it occurs in 63% ± 16% of planetary systems orbiting M dwarfs.

  16. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey - III. An Observed Link Between AGN Eddington Ratio and Narrow-Emission-Line Ratios

    Oh, Kyuseok; Schawinski, Kevin; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lamperti, Isabella; Ricci, Claudio; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Berney, Simon; Crenshaw, D. Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observed relationship between black hole mass (M(sub BH)), bolometric luminosity (L(sub bol)) and Eddington ratio (lambda(sub Edd)) with optical emission-line ratios ([N II] lambda6583/Halpha, [S II]lambda-lamda6716, 6731/Halpha, [O I] lamda6300/Halpha, [O III] lamda5007/Hbeta, [Ne III] lamda3869/Hbeta and He II lamda4686/Hbeta) of hard X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. We show that the [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio exhibits a significant correlation with lamda(sub Edd) (R(sub Pear) = -0.44, p-value 3 x 10(exp. -13) sigma = 0.28 dex), and the correlation is not solely driven by M(sub BH) or L(sub bol). The observed correlation between [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio and M(sub BH) is stronger than the correlation with L(sub bol), but both are weaker than the lamda(sub Edd) correlation. This implies that the large-scale narrow lines of AGN host galaxies carry information about the accretion state of the AGN central engine. We propose that [N II] lamda6583/Halpha is a useful indicator of Eddington ratio with 0.6 dex of rms scatter, and that it can be used to measure lambda(sub Edd) and thus M(sub BH) from the measured L(sub bol), even for high-redshift obscured AGN. We briefly discuss possible physical mechanisms behind this correlation, such as the mass-metallicity relation, X-ray heating, and radiatively driven outflows.

  17. Motions of CMS Detector structures due to the magnetic field forces as observed by the Link Alignment System during the Test of the 4 Tesla Magnet Solenoid

    Calderón, Alicia; González-Sánchez, F J; Martínez-Rivero, C; Matorras, Francisco; Rodrigo, Teresa; Martínez, P; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobrón, M; Vila, Ivan; Virto, A L; Alberdi, Javier; Arce, Pedro; Barcala, Jose Miguel; Calvo, Enrique; Ferrando, Antonio; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Molinero, Antonio; Navarrete, Jose Javier; Oller, Juan Carlos; Yuste, Ceferino

    2008-01-01

    This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micrometres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotations of detector structures (from microradians to milliradians). Observed displacements are studied as functions of the magnetic field intensity. In addition, the reconstructed positions of active element sensors are compared to their positions as measured by photogrammetry and the reconstructed motions due to the magnetic field strength are described.

  18. Motions of CMS Detector Structures as Observed by the Link Alignment System during the Test of the 4 Tesla Magnet Solenoid

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferramdp, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martin-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.

    2008-07-01

    This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micro metres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed displacements are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. In addition, a comparison of the reconstructed position of active element sensors with respect to their position as measured by photogrammetry is made and the reconstructed motions due to the magnetic field strength are described. (Author) 19 refs.

  19. The CMS Experiment: on and under Ground Motions of Structures Due to the Magnetic Field Forces as Observed by the Link Alignment System

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.; Brochero, J.; Calderon, A.; Fernandez, M. G.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Ribero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Rui-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Fernandez, J.

    2010-05-01

    This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test (at SX5 on ground Hall) and the CRAFT08 and 09 periods data taking in the point P5 (UX5), 100 m underground. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micrometres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed motions are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. Comparisons between recorded data on and under ground are made. (Author) 23 refs.

  20. The CMS Experiment: on and under Ground Motions of Structures Due to the Magnetic Field Forces as Observed by the Link Alignment System

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.; Brochero, J.; Calderon, A.; Fernandez, M. G.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Ribero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Rui-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Fernandez, J.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test (at SX5 on ground Hall) and the CRAFT08 and 09 periods data taking in the point P5 (UX5), 100 m underground. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micrometres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed motions are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. Comparisons between recorded data on and under ground are made. (Author) 23 refs.

  1. Motions of CMS Detector Structures as Observed by the Link Alignment System during the Test of the 4 Tesla Magnet Solenoid

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martin-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.

    2008-01-01

    This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micro metres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed displacements are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. In addition, a comparison of the reconstructed position of active element sensors with respect to their position as measured by photogrammetry is made and the reconstructed motions due to the magnetic field strength are described. (Author) 19 refs

  2. Motions of CMS detector structures due to the magnetic field forces as observed by the Link alignment system during the test of the 4 T magnet solenoid

    Garcia-Moral, L.A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Martinez, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (IFCA), CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Sobron, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (IFCA), CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain)], E-mail: sobron@ifca.unican.es; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)] (and others)

    2009-07-21

    This document describes results obtained from the Link alignment system data recorded during the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Magnet Test. A brief description of the system is followed by a discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micrometres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotations of detector structures (from microradians to milliradians). Observed displacements are studied as functions of the magnetic field intensity. In addition, the reconstructed positions of active element sensors are compared to their positions as measured by photogrammetry and the reconstructed motions due to the magnetic field strength are described.

  3. Motions of CMS detector structures due to the magnetic field forces as observed by the Link alignment system during the test of the 4 T magnet solenoid

    Garcia-Moral, L.A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Martinez, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.; Sobron, M.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes results obtained from the Link alignment system data recorded during the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Magnet Test. A brief description of the system is followed by a discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micrometres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotations of detector structures (from microradians to milliradians). Observed displacements are studied as functions of the magnetic field intensity. In addition, the reconstructed positions of active element sensors are compared to their positions as measured by photogrammetry and the reconstructed motions due to the magnetic field strength are described.

  4. Understanding the links among neuromedin U gene, beta2-adrenoceptor gene and bone health: an observational study in European children.

    Francesco Gianfagna

    Full Text Available Neuromedin U, encoded by the NMU gene, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that regulates both energy metabolism and bone mass. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor, encoded by the ADRB2 gene, mediates several effects of catecholamine hormones and neurotransmitters in bone. We investigated whether NMU single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes, as well as functional ADRB2 SNPs, are associated with bone stiffness in children from the IDEFICS cohort, also evaluating whether NMU and ADRB2 interact to affect this trait. A sample of 2,274 subjects (52.5% boys, age 6.2 ± 1.8 years from eight European countries, having data on calcaneus bone stiffness index (SI, mean of both feet and genotyping (NMU gene: rs6827359, rs12500837, rs9999653; ADRB2 gene: rs1042713, rs1042714, was studied. After false discovery rate adjustment, SI was significantly associated with all NMU SNPs. rs6827359 CC homozygotes showed the strongest association (recessive model, Δ= -1.8, p=0.006. Among the five retrieved haplotypes with frequencies higher than 1% (range 2.0-43.9%, the CCT haplotype (frequency=39.7% was associated with lower SI values (dominant model, Δ= -1.0, p=0.04 as compared to the most prevalent haplotype. A non-significant decrease in SI was observed in in ADRB2 rs1042713 GG homozygotes, while subjects carrying SI-lowering genotypes at both SNPs (frequency = 8.4% showed much lower SI than non-carriers (Δ= -3.9, p<0.0001; p for interaction=0.025. The association was more evident in preschool girls, in whom SI showed a curvilinear trend across ages. In subgroup analyses, rs9999653 CC NMU or both GG ADRB2 genotypes were associated with either lower serum calcium or β-CrossLaps levels (p=0.01. This study in European children shows, for the first time in humans, a role for NMU gene through interaction with ADRB2 gene in bone strength regulation, more evident in preschool girls.

  5. Healthcare benefits linked with Below Poverty Line registration in India: Observations from Maharashtra Anaemia Study (MAS [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Anand Ahankari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2015 Lancet paper by Patel et al. on healthcare access in India comprehensively discussed national health programmes where some benefits are linked with the country’s Below Poverty Line (BPL registration scheme. BPL registration aims to support poor families by providing free/subsidised healthcare. Technical issues in obtaining BPL registration by poor families have been previously reported in the Indian literature; however there are no data on family assets of BPL registrants. Here, we provide evidence of family-level assets among BPL registration holders (and non-BPL households using original research data from the Maharashtra Anaemia Study (MAS.   Social and health data from 287 pregnant women and 891 adolescent girls (representing 1178 family households across 34 villages in Maharashtra state, India, were analysed. Several assets were shown to be similarly distributed between BPL and non-BPL households; a large proportion of families who would probably be eligible were not registered, whereas BPL-registered families often had significant assets that should not make them eligible. This is likely to be the first published evidence where asset distribution such as agricultural land, housing structures and livestock are compared between BPL and non-BPL households in a rural population. These findings may help planning BPL administration to allocate health benefits equitably, which is an integral part of national health programmes.

  6. Postpartum depressive symptoms moderate the link between mothers’ neural response to positive faces in reward and social regions and observed caregiving

    Guo, Chaohui; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Phillips, Mary L; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hipwell, Alison E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Postpartum depression may disrupt socio-affective neural circuitry and compromise provision of positive parenting. Although work has evaluated how parental response to negative stimuli is related to caregiving, research is needed to examine how depressive symptoms during the postpartum period may be related to neural response to positive stimuli, especially positive faces, given depression’s association with biased processing of positive faces. The current study examined the association between neural response to adult happy faces and observations of maternal caregiving and the moderating role of postpartum depression, in a sample of 18- to 22-year old mothers (n = 70) assessed at 17 weeks (s.d. = 4.7 weeks) postpartum. Positive caregiving was associated with greater precuneus and occipital response to positive faces among mothers with lower depressive symptoms, but not for those with higher symptoms. For mothers with higher depressive symptoms, greater ventral and dorsal striatal response to positive faces was associated with more positive caregiving, whereas the opposite pattern emerged for mothers with lower symptoms. There was no association between negative caregiving and neural response to positive faces or negative faces. Processing of positive stimuli may be an important prognostic target in mothers with depressive symptoms, given its link with healthy caregiving behaviors. PMID:29048603

  7. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  8. From microbes to water districts: Linking observations across scales to uncover the implications of riparian and channel management on water quality in an irrigated agricultural landscape

    Webster, A.; Cadenasso, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Interactions among runoff, riparian and stream ecosystems, and water quality remain uncertain in many settings, particularly those heavily impacted by human activities. For example, waterways in the irrigated agricultural landscape of California's Central Valley are seasonally disconnected from groundwater tables and are extensively modified by infrastructure and management. These conditions make the impact of riparian and channel management difficult to predict across scales, which hinders efforts to promote best management practices to improve water quality. We seek to link observations across catchment, reach, and patch scales to understand patterns of nitrate and turbidity in waterways draining irrigated cropland. Data was collected on 80 reaches spanning two water management districts. At the catchment scale, water districts implemented waterway and riparian management differently: one water district had a decentralized approach, allowing individual land owners to manage their waterway channels and banks, while the other had a centralized approach, in which land owners defer management to a district-run program. At the reach scale, riparian and waterway vegetation, geomorphic complexity, and flow conditions were quantified. Reach-scale management such as riparian planting projects and channel dredging frequency were also considered. At the patch scale, denitrification potential and organic matter were measured in riparian toe-slope soils and channel sediments, along with associated vegetation and geomorphic features. All factors were tested for their ability to predict water quality using generalized linear mixed effects models and the consistency of predictors within and across scales was evaluated. A hierarchy of predictors emerges: catchment-scale management regimes predict reach-scale geomorphic and vegetation complexity, which in turn predicts sediment denitrification potential - the patch-scale factor most associated with low nitrate. Similarly

  9. Upon Further Review: V. An Examination of Previous Lightcurve Analysis from the Palmer Divide Observatory

    Warner, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Updated results are given for nine asteroids previously reported from the Palmer Divide Observatory (PDO). The original images were re-measured to obtain new data sets using the latest version of MPO Canopus photometry software, analysis tools, and revised techniques for linking multiple observing runs covering several days to several weeks. Results that were previously not reported or were moderately different were found for 1659 Punkajarju, 1719 Jens, 1987 Kaplan, 2105 Gudy, 2961 Katsurahama, 3285 Ruth Wolfe, 3447 Burckhalter, 7816 Hanoi, and (34817) 2000 SE116. This is one in a series of papers that will examine results obtained during the initial years of the asteroid lightcurve program at PDO.

  10. Childhood IQ and all-cause mortality before and after age 65: Prospective observational study linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies

    Hart, C.L.; Taylor, M.D.; Davey Smith, G.; Whalley, L.J.; Starr, J.M.; Hole, D.; Wilson, V.; Deary, I.J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate how childhood IQ related to all-cause mortality before and after age 65. DESIGN: The Midspan prospective cohort studies, followed-up for mortality for 25 years, were linked to individuals' childhood IQ from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932. METHODS: The Midspan studies collected data on risk factors for cardiorespiratory disease from a questionnaire and at a screening examination, and were conducted on adults in Scotland in the 1970s. An age 11 IQ f...

  11. Operative Links

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  12. Link between EMIC waves in a plasmaspheric plume and a detached sub-auroral proton arc with observations of Cluster and IMAGE satellites

    Yuan, Zhigang; Deng, Xiaohua; Lin, Xi; Pang, Ye; Zhou, Meng; Décréau, P. M. E.; Trotignon, J. G.; Lucek, E.; Frey, H. U.; Wang, Jingfang

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we report observations from a Cluster satellite showing that ULF wave occurred in the outer boundary of a plasmaspheric plume on September 4, 2005. The band of observed ULF waves is between the He+ ion gyrofrequency and O+ ion gyrofrequency at the equatorial plane, implying that those ULF waves can be identified as EMIC waves generated by ring current ions in the equatorial plane and strongly affected by rich cold He+ ions in plasmaspheric plumes. During the interval of observed EMIC waves, the footprint of Cluster SC3 lies in a subauroral proton arc observed by the IMAGE FUV instrument, demonstrating that the subauroral proton arc was caused by energetic ring current protons scattered into the loss cone under the Ring Current (RC)-EMIC interaction in the plasmaspheric plume. Therefore, the paper provides a direct proof that EMIC waves can be generated in the plasmaspheric plume and scatter RC ions to cause subauroral proton arcs.

  13. Rapid response tools and datasets for post-fire modeling: Linking Earth Observations and process-based hydrological models to support post-fire remediation

    M. E. Miller; M. Billmire; W. J. Elliot; K. A. Endsley; P. R. Robichaud

    2015-01-01

    Preparation is key to utilizing Earth Observations and process-based models to support post-wildfire mitigation. Post-fire flooding and erosion can pose a serious threat to life, property and municipal water supplies. Increased runoff and sediment delivery due to the loss of surface cover and fire-induced changes in soil properties are of great concern. Remediation...

  14. A comprehensive comparison of network similarities for link prediction and spurious link elimination

    Zhang, Peng; Qiu, Dan; Zeng, An; Xiao, Jinghua

    2018-06-01

    Identifying missing interactions in complex networks, known as link prediction, is realized by estimating the likelihood of the existence of a link between two nodes according to the observed links and nodes' attributes. Similar approaches have also been employed to identify and remove spurious links in networks which is crucial for improving the reliability of network data. In network science, the likelihood for two nodes having a connection strongly depends on their structural similarity. The key to address these two problems thus becomes how to objectively measure the similarity between nodes in networks. In the literature, numerous network similarity metrics have been proposed and their accuracy has been discussed independently in previous works. In this paper, we systematically compare the accuracy of 18 similarity metrics in both link prediction and spurious link elimination when the observed networks are very sparse or consist of inaccurate linking information. Interestingly, some methods have high prediction accuracy, they tend to perform low accuracy in identification spurious interaction. We further find that methods can be classified into several cluster according to their behaviors. This work is useful for guiding future use of these similarity metrics for different purposes.

  15. Linking ground motion measurements and macro-seismic observations in France: A case study based on the RAP (accelerometric) and BCSF (macro-seismic) databases

    Lesueur, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Comparison between accelerometric and macro-seismic observations is made for three mw∼4.5 earthquakes of eastern France between 2003 and 2005. Scalar and spectral instrumental parameters are processed from the accelerometric data recorded by nine accelerometric stations located between 29 km and 180 km from the epicentres. Macro-seismic data are based on the French internet reports. In addition to the individual macro-seismic intensity, analysis of the internal correlation between the encoded answers highlights four predominant fields of questions, bearing different physical meanings: 1) 'vibratory motions of small objects', 2) 'displacement and fall of objects', 3) 'acoustic noise', and 4) 'personal feelings'. Best correlations between macro-seismic and instrumental observations are obtained when the macro-seismic parameters are averaged over 10 km radius circles around each station. macro-seismic intensities predicted by published pgv-intensity relationships quite agree with the observed intensities, contrary to those based on pga. The correlations between the macro-seismic and instrumental data, for intensities between ii and v (ems-98), show that pgv is the instrumental parameter presenting the best correlation with all macro-seismic parameters. The correlation with response spectra, exhibits clear frequency dependence over a limited frequency range [0.5-33 hz]. Horizontal and vertical components are significantly correlated with macro-seismic parameters between 1 and 10 hz, a range corresponding to both natural frequencies of most buildings and high energy content in the seismic ground motion. Between 10 and 25 hz, a clear lack of correlation between macro-seismic and instrumental data is observed, while beyond 25 hz the correlation coefficient increases, approaching that of the PGA correlation level. (author)

  16. Nitric acid particles in cold thick ice clouds observed at global scale: Link with lightning, temperature, and upper tropospheric water vapor

    Chepfer , H.; Minnis , P.; Dubuisson , P.; Chiriaco , Marjolaine; Sun-Mack , S.; Rivière , E.D.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Signatures of nitric acid particles (NAP) in cold thick ice clouds have been derived from satellite observations. Most NAP are detected in the tropics (9 to 20% of clouds with T < 202.5 K). Higher occurrences were found in the rare midlatitudes very cold clouds. NAP occurrence increases as cloud temperature decreases, and NAP are more numerous in January than July. Comparisons of NAP and lightning distributions show that lightning seems to be the main source of the NOx...

  17. People and pixels in the Sahel: a study linking coarse-resolution remote sensing observations to land users' perceptions of their changing environment in Senegal

    Stefanie M. Herrmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence from satellite observations of a re-greening across much of the Sahel and Sudan zones over the past three decades has raised questions about the extent and reversibility of desertification. Historical ground data that could help in interpreting the re-greening are scarce. To fill that void, we tapped into the collective memories of local land users from central and western Senegal in 39 focus groups and assessed the spatial association between their perceptions of vegetation changes over time and remote sensing-derived trends. To provide context to the vegetation changes, we also explored the land users' perspective on the evolution of other environmental and human variables that are potentially related to the greening, using participatory research methods. While increases in vegetation were confirmed by the study participants for certain areas, which spatially corresponded to satellite-observed re-greening, vegetation degradation dominated their perceptions of change. This degradation, although spatially extensive according to land users, flies under the radar of coarse-resolution remote sensing data because it is not necessarily associated with a decrease in biomass but rather with undesired changes in species composition. Few significant differences were found in the perceived trends of population pressure, environmental, and livelihood variables between communities that have greened up according to satellite data and those that have not. Our findings challenge the prevailing chain of assumptions of the satellite-observed greening trend indicating an improvement of environmental conditions in the sense of a rehabilitation of the vegetation cover after the great droughts of the 1970s and 1980s, and the improvement of environmental conditions possibly translating into more stable livelihoods and greater well-being of the populations. For monitoring desertification and rehabilitation, there is a need to develop remote sensing

  18. Links of adolescent- and parent-reported eating in the absence of hunger with observed eating in the absence of hunger.

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mooreville, Mira; Reina, Samantha A; Courville, Amber B; Field, Sara E; Matheson, Brittany E; Brady, Sheila M; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2013-06-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) typically was assessed by measuring snack intake after consumption of a meal. There were no validated self-report measures of EAH. The relationship of adolescent self-report and parent-reported EAH to adolescents' measured intake in the absence of hunger was examined. Ninety adolescents completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EAH-C) to describe eating when not hungry. Parents described children's EAH on a parallel version designed for parents (EAH-P). In a randomized crossover study, adolescent EAH in response to external cues was measured as snack intake after a lunch meal standardized to provide 50% of daily energy requirements and after a large array (>10,000 kcal). Parents' reports of children's EAH in response to external cues were associated with greater EAH after both meals, adjusting for body composition, sex, age, race, puberty, and meal intake. Adolescent-reported EAH was unrelated or showed an inverse association with observed EAH. Parent-reported EAH showed a positive association with adolescents' observed EAH and may be a useful research and clinical tool for assessing EAH in response to external cues in conditions when laboratory assessments are not feasible. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  19. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  20. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  1. Nitric acid particles in cold thick ice clouds observed at global scale: Link with lightning, temperature, and upper tropospheric water vapor

    Chepfer, H.; Minnis, P.; Dubuisson, P.; Chiriaco, M.; Sun-Mack, S.; RivièRe, E. D.

    2007-03-01

    Signatures of nitric acid particles (NAP) in cold thick ice clouds have been derived from satellite observations. Most NAP are detected in the tropics (9 to 20% of clouds with T < 202.5 K). Higher occurrences were found in the rare midlatitudes very cold clouds. NAP occurrence increases as cloud temperature decreases, and NAP are more numerous in January than July. Comparisons of NAP and lightning distributions show that lightning seems to be the main source of the NOx, which forms NAP in cold clouds over continents. Qualitative comparisons of NAP with upper tropospheric humidity distributions suggest that NAP may play a role in the dehydration of the upper troposphere when the tropopause is colder than 195 K.

  2. Linking carbon and hydrologic fluxes in the critical zone: Observations from high-frequency monitoring of a weathered bedrock vadose zone

    Tune, A. K.; Druhan, J. L.; Wang, J.; Cargill, S.; Murphy, C.; Rempe, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    A principle challenge in quantifying feedbacks between continental weathering and atmospheric CO2 is to improve understanding of how biogeochemical processes in the critical zone influence the distribution and mobility of organic and inorganic carbon. In particular, in landscapes characterized by thin soils and heterogeneous weathered and fractured bedrock, little data exist to inform and constrain predictive models for carbon dynamics. Here, we present the results of an intensive water and gas sampling campaign across an 18 m thick, variably saturated argillite weathering profile in the Eel River CZO. We monitor water content in situ and regularly collect samples of freely-draining water, tightly-held water, and gas through wet and dry seasons using a novel Vadose-zone Monitoring System (VMS) consisting of sensors and samplers distributed across a 20 m long inclined borehole. This novel approach facilitates the interception of gas and water during transport across the entire variably saturated weathering profile. The data demonstrate that seasonal changes in saturation control the vertical distribution and mobility of carbon in the fractured critical zone. Concentrations of gaseous CO2, O2, and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon fluctuate significantly and repeatably with seasonal additions of water infiltrating the weathered bedrock. A persistent vertical structure in the concentrations of dissolved phases and gas concentrations broadly corresponds to depths associated with unsaturated, seasonally saturated, and chronically saturated zones. Associated variations in the vertical structure of mineralogy and elemental composition, including solid phase organic carbon content, are observed in core obtained during drilling. Together, our observations indicate significant respiration of organic carbon at depths greater than the base of the soil, and thus motivate further investigation of the role of heterogeneous weathered, bedrock environments, which are needed to

  3. Intergalactic medium emission observations with the cosmic web imager. II. Discovery of extended, kinematically linked emission around SSA22 Lyα BLOB 2

    Christopher Martin, D.; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons, delineates the large-scale structure of the universe at low to moderate overdensities, and provides gas from which galaxies form and evolve. Simulations of a cold-dark-matter- (CDM-) dominated universe predict that the IGM is distributed in a cosmic web of filaments and that galaxies should form along and at the intersections of these filaments. While observations of QSO absorption lines and the large-scale distribution of galaxies have confirmed the CDM paradigm, the cosmic web of IGM has never been confirmed by direct imaging. Here we report our observation of the Lyα blob 2 (LAB2) in SSA22 with the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI). This is an integral field spectrograph optimized for low surface brightness, extended emission. With 22 hr of total on- and off-source exposure, CWI has revealed that LAB2 has extended Lyα emission that is organized into azimuthal zones consistent with filaments. We perform numerous tests with simulations and the data to secure the robustness of this result, which relies on data with modest signal-to-noise ratios. We have developed a smoothing algorithm that permits visualization of data cube slices along image or spectral image planes. With both raw and smoothed data cubes we demonstrate that the filaments are kinematically associated with LAB2 and display double-peaked profiles characteristic of optically thick Lyα emission. The flux is 10-20 times brighter than expected for the average emission from the IGM but is consistent with boosted fluorescence from a buried QSO or gravitation cooling radiation. Using simple emission models, we infer a baryon mass in the filaments of at least 1-4 × 10 11 M ☉ , and the dark halo mass is at least 2 × 10 12 M ☉ . The spatial-kinematic morphology is more consistent with inflow from the cosmic web than outflow from LAB2, although an outflow feature maybe present at one azimuth. LAB2 and the surrounding gas have significant and

  4. Intergalactic medium emission observations with the cosmic web imager. II. Discovery of extended, kinematically linked emission around SSA22 Lyα BLOB 2

    Christopher Martin, D.; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 278-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Moore, Anna [Caltech Optical Observatories, Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 11-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Steidel, Charles C.; Matsuda, Yuichi, E-mail: cmartin@srl.caltech.edu [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons, delineates the large-scale structure of the universe at low to moderate overdensities, and provides gas from which galaxies form and evolve. Simulations of a cold-dark-matter- (CDM-) dominated universe predict that the IGM is distributed in a cosmic web of filaments and that galaxies should form along and at the intersections of these filaments. While observations of QSO absorption lines and the large-scale distribution of galaxies have confirmed the CDM paradigm, the cosmic web of IGM has never been confirmed by direct imaging. Here we report our observation of the Lyα blob 2 (LAB2) in SSA22 with the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI). This is an integral field spectrograph optimized for low surface brightness, extended emission. With 22 hr of total on- and off-source exposure, CWI has revealed that LAB2 has extended Lyα emission that is organized into azimuthal zones consistent with filaments. We perform numerous tests with simulations and the data to secure the robustness of this result, which relies on data with modest signal-to-noise ratios. We have developed a smoothing algorithm that permits visualization of data cube slices along image or spectral image planes. With both raw and smoothed data cubes we demonstrate that the filaments are kinematically associated with LAB2 and display double-peaked profiles characteristic of optically thick Lyα emission. The flux is 10-20 times brighter than expected for the average emission from the IGM but is consistent with boosted fluorescence from a buried QSO or gravitation cooling radiation. Using simple emission models, we infer a baryon mass in the filaments of at least 1-4 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, and the dark halo mass is at least 2 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}. The spatial-kinematic morphology is more consistent with inflow from the cosmic web than outflow from LAB2, although an outflow feature maybe present at one azimuth. LAB2 and the surrounding gas

  5. Comments on "The "Elevated Heat Pump" Hypothesis for the Aerosol-Monsoon Hydroclimate Link: "Grounded" in Observations?" by S. Nigam and M. Bollasina

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In their recent paper Nigam and Bollasina [2010, hereafter NB] claimed to have found observational evidences that are at variance with the Elevated Heat Pump (EHP) hypothesis regarding the possible impacts of absorbing aerosols on the South Asian summer monsoon [Lau et al., 2006; Lau and Km 2006). We found NB's arguments and inferences against the EHP hypothesis flawed, stemming from a lack of understanding and an out-of-context interpretation of the hypothesis. It was argued that the simultaneous negative correlation of aerosol with rainfall, and correlations with other quantities in May as evidences against the EHP hypothesis. They cannot be more wrong in that argument. First, Lau and Kim [2006, hereafter, LKO6] never stated that the main rainfall response to EHP is in May. Second, the EHP is about responses of the entire Indian monsoon system that are non-local in space and time with respect to the aerosol forcing. Third, the correlation maps shown in NB, including the increased convection over the Bay of Bengal is not the response to EHP but rather represents the large-scale circulation that provides the build-up of the aerosols, before the onset of the monsoon rainfall over India. Because aerosol can only accumulate where there is little or no wash-out by rain, the negative correlation is a necessary condition for increased atmospheric loading of aerosols.

  6. Unscheduled-return-visits after an emergency department (ED) attendance and clinical link between both visits in patients aged 75 years and over: a prospective observational study.

    Pereira, Laurent; Choquet, Christophe; Perozziello, Anne; Wargon, Mathias; Juillien, Gaelle; Colosi, Luisa; Hellmann, Romain; Ranaivoson, Michel; Casalino, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Predictors of unscheduled return visits (URV), best time-frame to evaluate URV rate and clinical relationship between both visits have not yet been determined for the elderly following an ED visit. We conducted a prospective-observational study including 11,521 patients aged ≥75-years and discharged from ED (5,368 patients (53.5%)) or hospitalized after ED visit (6,153 patients). Logistic Regression and time-to-failure analyses including Cox proportional model were performed. Mean time to URV was 17 days; 72-hour, 30-day and 90-day URV rates were 1.8%, 6.1% and 10% respectively. Multivariate analysis indicates that care-pathway and final disposition decisions were significantly associated with a 30-day URV. Thus, we evaluated predictors of 30-day URV rates among non-admitted and hospitalized patient groups. By using the Cox model we found that, for non-admitted patients, triage acuity and diagnostic category and, for hospitalized patients, that visit time (day, night) and diagnostic categories were significant predictors (prisk of URV, and that some diagnostic categories are also related for non-admitted and hospitalized subjects alike. Our study also demonstrates that the best time frame to evaluate the URV rate after an ED visit is 30 days, because this is the time period during which most URVs and cases with close clinical relationships between two visits are concentrated. Our results suggest that URV can be used as an indicator or quality.

  7. Operative Links

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  8. Surgeon length of service and risk-adjusted outcomes: linked observational analysis of the UK National Adult Cardiac Surgery Audit Registry and General Medical Council Register.

    Hickey, Graeme L; Grant, Stuart W; Freemantle, Nick; Cunningham, David; Munsch, Christopher M; Livesey, Steven A; Roxburgh, James; Buchan, Iain; Bridgewater, Ben

    2014-09-01

    To explore the relationship between in-hospital mortality following adult cardiac surgery and the time since primary clinical qualification for the responsible consultant cardiac surgeon (a proxy for experience). Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected national registry data over a 10-year period using mixed-effects multiple logistic regression modelling. Surgeon experience was defined as the time between the date of surgery and award of primary clinical qualification. UK National Health Service hospitals performing cardiac surgery between January 2003 and December 2012. All patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafts and/or valve surgery under the care of a consultant cardiac surgeon. All-cause in-hospital mortality. A total of 292,973 operations performed by 273 consultant surgeons (with lengths of service from 11.2 to 42.0 years) were included. Crude mortality increased approximately linearly until 33 years service, before decreasing. After adjusting for case-mix and year of surgery, there remained a statistically significant (p=0.002) association between length of service and in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.013; 95% CI 1.005-1.021 for each year of 'experience'). Consultant cardiac surgeons take on increasingly complex surgery as they gain experience. With this progression, the incidence of adverse outcomes is expected to increase, as is demonstrated in this study. After adjusting for case-mix using the EuroSCORE, we observed an increased risk of mortality in patients operated on by longer serving surgeons. This finding may reflect under-adjustment for risk, unmeasured confounding or a real association. Further research into outcomes over the time course of surgeon's careers is required. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  9. Comment on "'Elevated Heat Pump' Hypothesis for the Aerosol-Monsoon Hydroclimate Link: 'Grounded' in Observations?" by S. Nigam and M. Bollasina

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    In their recent paper, Nigam and Bollasina [2010] (hereinafter NB) claimed to have found observational evidences that are at variance with the elevated heat pump (EHP) hypothesis regarding the possible impacts of absorbing aerosols on the South Asian summer monsoon [Lau et al., 2006; Lau and Kim, 2006]. We found NB's arguments and inferences against the EHP hypothesis flawed, stemming from their own out of context interpretation of the hypothesis. NB argued that the simultaneous negative correlation of aerosol with rainfall, and correlations with other quantities in May, are evidence against the EHP hypothesis. Their argument cannot be justified. First, Lau and Kim [2006] (hereinafter LK06) never stated that the main rainfall response to EHP is in May. Second, the EHP is about responses of the entire Indian monsoon system that are nonlocal in space and time with respect to the aerosol forcing. As shown in Figure 4 of LK06, while the aerosol anomalies are strongest in April-May, the strongest rainfall response is in June-July, with the enhanced rainfall fed by an induced thermally driven circulation which brings additional moisture from the ocean to the Indian subcontinent. Third, the increased rainfall over the Bay of Bengal as shown in Figure 1a of NB and the increased low-level convergence in Figure 1f of NB do not necessarily reflect responses associated with EHP but rather the large ]scale circulation that provides the buildup of the aerosols before the onset of the monsoon rainfall over India. Because aerosol can only accumulate where there is little or no washout by rain, the negative correlation is a necessary condition for increased atmospheric loading of aerosols. For the same reason, the spatial distributions of rainfall and aerosol generally are offset with each other, i.e., high aerosol in regions of low rainfall. This is evident in Figure 1, which shows the climatological mean of the MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD), and TRMM rainfall over India in

  10. Tonle Sap Lake Water Storage Change Over 24 Years From Satellite Observation and Its Link With Mekong River Discharge and Climate Events

    Biancamaria, S.; Frappart, F.; Normandin, C.; Blarel, F.; Bourrel, L.; Aumont, M.; Azema, P.; Vu, P. L.; Lubac, B.; Darrozes, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Tonle Sap lake is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia and is located within the Mekong basin (mainly in Cambodia). It is one of he most productive ecosystem of the world and provide two thirds of Cambodia fish catch. It also plays a unique role on the Mekong basin hydrological cycle: during the monsoon period, the Mekong river partially flows to the lake, whereas during the dry season, the lake flows to the Mekong delta. It is therefore crucial to monitor and take into account this lake to estimate Mekong discharge to the ocean. However, in situ measurements of lake level and river discharge are very sparse (especially during the last decades) and computing lake storage variation from in situ data only is difficult due to the huge annual variation of lake area. That's why, satellite data (nadir radar altimetry and visible imagery) have been used to study its volume variation and its relationship with climate events and Mekong river discharge. Multi-mission altimetry data have been extracted (Topex, ERS-2, ENVISAT, Jason-1, Jason-2, Saral and Jason-3, using CTOH data extraction tools) to derive a lake water level from1993 to 2016, which varies from 3 m to 12 m. Lake area have been computed from MODIS data from 2000 to 2016 and varies from 3,400 km2 to 11,800 km2. These dataset clearly shows a relationship between lake water level and area, which has been used to estimate lake water volume change from 1995 to 2016, with a minimum in 2015 and a maximum in 2011. Lake's droughts and floods can be observed during moderate and strong El Nino/La Nina events, enhanced by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Besides, comparison with in situ discharge at the outlet of the Mekong basin (over 1995/2000 time period) shows that lake water level is 20 days time lagged and increases/decreases after Mekong discharge at its outlet. This time lag results of Mekong river partially flowing to the lake. Finally, high correlation between lake level and outlet discharge allows to

  11. A cross sectional observational study of research activity of allied health teams: is there a link with self-reported success, motivators and barriers to undertaking research?

    Wenke, Rachel J; Mickan, Sharon; Bisset, Leanne

    2017-02-06

    Team-based approaches to research capacity building (RCB) may be an efficient means to promote allied health research participation and activity. In order to tailor such interventions, a clearer understanding of current patterns of research participation within allied health teams is needed. Different self-report measures exist which evaluate a team's research capacity and participation, as well as associated barriers and motivators. However, it remains unclear how such measures are associated with a team's actual research activity (e.g., journal publications, funding received). In response, this observational study aimed to identify the research activity, self-reported success, and motivations and barriers to undertaking research of eight allied health professional (AHP) teams and to explore whether any relationships exist between the self-reported measures and actual research activity within each team. A total of 95 AHPs from eight teams completed the research capacity and culture survey to evaluate team success, barriers and motivators to undertaking research, and an audit of research activity from January 2013 to August 2014 was undertaken within each team. Kendell's correlation coefficients were used to determine the association between research activity (i.e., number of journal publications, ethically approved projects and funding received) and the self-reported measures. Seven out of eight teams rated their teams as having average success in research and demonstrated some form of research activity including at least two ethically approved projects. Research activity varied between teams, with funding received ranging from $0 to over $100,000, and half the teams not producing any journal publications. Team motivators demonstrated a stronger association with research activity compared to barriers, with the motivator "enhancing team credibility" being significantly associated with funding received. No significant association between self-reported research

  12. Scandinavian links

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  13. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  14. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  15. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  16. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  17. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  18. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players.

    Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique

    2018-01-10

    Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

  19. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  20. Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known

    2004-04-01

    Results of 1001 observing nights shed new light on our Galaxy [1] Summary A team of astronomers from Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden [2] has achieved a major breakthrough in our understanding of the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. After more than 1,000 nights of observations spread over 15 years, they have determined the spatial motions of more than 14,000 solar-like stars residing in the neighbourhood of the Sun. For the first time, the changing dynamics of the Milky Way since its birth can now be studied in detail and with a stellar sample sufficiently large to allow a sound analysis. The astronomers find that our home galaxy has led a much more turbulent and chaotic life than previously assumed. PR Photo 10a/04: Distribution on the sky of the observed stars. PR Photo 10b/04: Stars in the solar neigbourhood and the Milky Way galaxy (artist's view). PR Video Clip 04/04: The motions of the observed stars during the past 250 million years. Unknown history Home is the place we know best. But not so in the Milky Way - the galaxy in which we live. Our knowledge of our nearest stellar neighbours has long been seriously incomplete and - worse - skewed by prejudice concerning their behaviour. Stars were generally selected for observation because they were thought to be "interesting" in some sense, not because they were typical. This has resulted in a biased view of the evolution of our Galaxy. The Milky Way started out just after the Big Bang as one or more diffuse blobs of gas of almost pure hydrogen and helium. With time, it assembled into the flattened spiral galaxy which we inhabit today. Meanwhile, generation after generation of stars were formed, including our Sun some 4,700 million years ago. But how did all this really happen? Was it a rapid process? Was it violent or calm? When were all the heavier elements formed? How did the Milky Way change its composition and shape with time? Answers to these and many other questions are 'hot' topics for the

  1. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  2. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  3. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE

    Ormary Barberi Ruiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP of the National University of Education (UNAE of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials, pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subject nature of the pre professional practice and the demand of socio educational contexts where the practices have been emerging to resize them. By relating these elements allowed conceiving the modeling of the processes of the pre-professional practices for the development of professional skills of future teachers through four components: contextual projective, implementation (tutoring, accompaniment (teaching couple and monitoring (meetings at the beginning, during and end of practice. The initial training of teachers is inherent to teaching (academic and professional training, research and links with the community, these are fundamental pillars of Ecuadorian higher education.

  4. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments Previous Highlights

    through his Nobel Lecture in 1961, about unraveling the secrets of photosynthesis -- the process by which . March 10, 2015 Twenty years ago, the top quark was first observed in experiments at the Tevatron proton sophisticated detectors, the top was hard to find. After a top is made from a proton-antiproton collision, a

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Link Videos NIDA and Scholastic - Heads Up NIDA Media Campaign Postcards Public Service Announcements Other Government Observances for Substance Abuse Education Contact the Press Office Meetings & Events Media Guide ...

  6. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  7. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  8. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  9. Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A. D.; Decarlo, P. F.; Jimenez, J. L.; Dunlea, E. J.; Roberts, G. C.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Collins, D. R.; Howell, S. G.; Kapustin, V. N.; McNaughton, C. S.; Zhou, J.

    2009-09-01

    Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. κ for dry 100 nm particles decreased with increasing organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF) as 0.34-0.20×OMF over Central Mexico and 0.47-0.43×OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as κ(-1/3), within measurement uncertainty (~20%). The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0-0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as -0.70×OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust). Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemical composition and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

  10. Does the patients′ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications′ side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.

  11. Sex-linked dominant

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  12. [Prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Zárate-Rojas, Emiliano; Villalpando, Salvador; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 with previous national surveys and to describe treatment and its complications. Mexico's national surveys Ensa 2000, Ensanut 2006, 2012 and 2016 were used. For 2016, logistic regression models and measures of central tendency and dispersion were obtained. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 was 9.4%. The increase of 2.2% relative to 2012 was not significant and only observed in patients older than 60 years. While preventive measures have increased, the access to medical treatment and lifestyle has not changed. The treatment has been modified, with an increase in insulin and decrease in hypoglycaemic agents. Population aging, lack of screening actions and the increase in diabetes complications will lead to an increase on the burden of disease. Policy measures targeting primary and secondary prevention of diabetes are crucial.

  13. Front end data link processor

    Wallace, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    It is possible to expand the data acquisition capabilities of an existing process computer to include other dedicated computer based systems, provided each system has at least minimal data link capabilities. The following paper discusses the addition of three computer based acquisition systems to a Honeywell 4500C (also designated the 45000) running the SEER system. Only one data link port was required to support the link. Each of the three specialized systems implemented data link protocols used by their suppliers in previous projects: none of the three were compatible with Honeywell's protocol. Part one of the following provides a generic overview of the project and would be relevent to the operator of any process system interested in expansion. Part two provides specific details of this project and may serve to provide performance benchmarks to those who wish to consider a similar project

  14. Observing participating observation

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  15. Observing participating observation

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  16. Search for linking transitions in {sup 143}Eu

    Lerma, F.; LaFosse, D.R.; Devlin, M. [Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Six SD bands were populated in {sup 143}Eu and {sup 144}Eu, two of which had not been previously observed. Sum spectra were generated to search for two step links from the yrast SD band in {sup 143}Eu. However, no two step links were found. A single link from the SD band in {sup 143}Eu was found at 3364 keV. The level where it feeds into has not been identified. Alpha-particle energy (E{sub {alpha}}) spectra leading to the SD band and to normal states in {sup 143}Eu were measured and a correlation was found between E{sub {alpha}} and the level spin of the residual nucleus.

  17. Predicting cryptic links in host-parasite networks.

    Tad Dallas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Networks are a way to represent interactions among one (e.g., social networks or more (e.g., plant-pollinator networks classes of nodes. The ability to predict likely, but unobserved, interactions has generated a great deal of interest, and is sometimes referred to as the link prediction problem. However, most studies of link prediction have focused on social networks, and have assumed a completely censused network. In biological networks, it is unlikely that all interactions are censused, and ignoring incomplete detection of interactions may lead to biased or incorrect conclusions. Previous attempts to predict network interactions have relied on known properties of network structure, making the approach sensitive to observation errors. This is an obvious shortcoming, as networks are dynamic, and sometimes not well sampled, leading to incomplete detection of links. Here, we develop an algorithm to predict missing links based on conditional probability estimation and associated, node-level features. We validate this algorithm on simulated data, and then apply it to a desert small mammal host-parasite network. Our approach achieves high accuracy on simulated and observed data, providing a simple method to accurately predict missing links in networks without relying on prior knowledge about network structure.

  18. Rapid mineralisation of the herbicide isoproturon in soil from a previously treated Danish agricultural field.

    Sørensen, Sebastian R; Aamand, Jens

    2003-10-01

    Mineralisation of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon (3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) and two of its known metabolites, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea (monodesmethyl-isoproturon) and 4-isopropylaniline, was studied in Danish agricultural soils with or without previous exposure to isoproturon. A potential for rapid mineralisation of isoproturon and the two metabolites was present in soils sampled from three plots within an agricultural field previously treated regularly with the herbicide, with 34-45%, 51-58% and 33-36% of the added [phenyl-U-14C]isoproturon, [phenyl-U-14C]monodesmethyl-isoproturon and [phenyl-U-14C]4-isopropylaniline metabolised to [14C]carbon dioxide within 30 days at 20 degrees C. In contrast, such extensive mineralisation of these three compounds was not observed within this period in soils sampled from two other agricultural fields without previous treatment with isoproturon. The mineralisation patterns indicated growth-linked metabolism of the three compounds in the previously exposed soils, and doubling times for [14C]carbon dioxide production ranged from 1.6 to 3.2, 1.0 to 2.1 and 1.3 to 1.7 days for isoproturon, monodesmethyl-isoproturon and 4-isopropylaniline, respectively. The ability to mineralise [phenyl-U-14C]isoproturon to [14C]carbon dioxide was successfully sub-cultured to a fresh mineral medium which provided isoproturon as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. One of the soils sampled from an agricultural field not previously treated with isoproturon showed accelerated mineralisation of [phenyl-U-14C]4-isopropylaniline toward the end of the experiment, with a doubling time for [14C]carbon dioxide production of 7.4days. This study indicates that the occurrence of rapid mineralisation of the phenyl ring of isoproturon to carbon dioxide is related to previous exposure to the herbicide, which suggests that microbial adaptation upon repeated isoproturon use may occur within agricultural fields.

  19. Directed Research in Bone Discipline: Refining Previous Research Observations for Space Medicine

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mass density, as a sole index, is an insufficient surrogate for fracture; Clinical Practice Guidelines using bone mass density (both World Health Organization and FRAX) are not specific for complicated subjects such as young, healthy persons following prolonged exposure to skeletal unloading (i.e. an attribute of spaceflight); Research data suggest that spaceflight induces changes to astronaut bones that could be profound, possibly irreversible and unlike age-related bone loss on Earth.; There is a need to objectively assess factors across human physiology that are also influenced by spaceflight (e.g., muscle) that contribute to fracture risk. Some of these objective assessments may require innovative technologies, analyses and modeling.; Astronauts are also exposed to novel situations that may overload their bones highlighting a need integrate biomechanics of physical activities into risk assessments.; As we accumulate data, which reflects the biomechanical competence of bone under specific mechanically-loaded scenarios (even activities of daily living), BONE expects Bone Fracture Module to be more sensitive and/or have less uncertainty in its assessments of fracture probability.; Fracture probability drives the requirement for countermeasures. Level of evidence will unlikely be obtained; hence, the Bone Research and Clinical Advisory Panel (like a Data Safety Monitoring Board) will provide the recommendations.

  20. Neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities in patients with previously diagnosed Cushing's disease: a longitudinal observational study

    Dimopoulou, C; Geraedts, V; Stalla, G K; Sievers, C

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Only few studies have systematically investigated neuropsychiatric aspects in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Pain syndromes have been described in patients with pituitary adenomas, but so far no systematical investigation has been conducted in patients with CD. Additionally, CD has an association with cardiometabolic comorbidities which ultimately leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatment of the hypercortisolic state cannot prevent the persistence of...

  1. Linked data management

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  2. Revisiting telegony : Offspring inherit an acquired characteristic of their mother's previous mate

    Crean, Angela J.; Kopps, Anna M.; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered non-genetic mechanisms break the link between genes and inheritance, thereby also raising the possibility that previous mating partners could influence traits in offspring sired by subsequent males that mate with the same female (‘telegony’). In the fly Telostylinus angusticollis,

  3. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  4. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  5. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  6. Dynamic link: user's manual

    Harada, Hiroo; Asai, Kiyoshi; Kihara, Kazuhisa.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of dynamic link facility is to link a load module dynamically only when it is used in execution time. The facility is very useful for development, execution and maintenance of a large scale computer program which is too big to be saved as one load module in main memory, or it is poor economy to save it due to many unused subroutines depending on an input. It is also useful for standardization and common utilization of programs. Standard usage of dynamic link facility of FACOM M-200 computer system, a software tool which analyzes the effect of dynamic link facility and application of dynamic link to nuclear codes are described. (author)

  7. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  8. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  9. Urethrotomy has a much lower success rate than previously reported.

    Santucci, Richard; Eisenberg, Lauren

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the success rate of direct vision internal urethrotomy as a treatment for simple male urethral strictures. A retrospective chart review was performed on 136 patients who underwent urethrotomy from January 1994 through March 2009. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, third, fourth and fifth urethrotomy. Patients with complex strictures (36) were excluded from the study for reasons including previous urethroplasty, neophallus or previous radiation, and 24 patients were lost to followup. Data were available for 76 patients. The stricture-free rate after the first urethrotomy was 8% with a median time to recurrence of 7 months. For the second urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 6% with a median time to recurrence of 9 months. For the third urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 9% with a median time to recurrence of 3 months. For procedures 4 and 5 stricture-free rate was 0% with a median time to recurrence of 20 and 8 months, respectively. Urethrotomy is a popular treatment for male urethral strictures. However, the performance characteristics are poor. Success rates were no higher than 9% in this series for first or subsequent urethrotomy during the observation period. Most of the patients in this series will be expected to experience failure with longer followup and the expected long-term success rate from any (1 through 5) urethrotomy approach is 0%. Urethrotomy should be considered a temporizing measure until definitive curative reconstruction can be planned. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A new nonsyndromic X-linked sensorineural hearing impairment linked to Xp21.2

    Lalwani, A.K.; Brister, J.R.; Fex, J.; Grundfast, K.M.; Pikus, A.T.; Ploplis, B.; San Agustin, T.; Skarka, H.; Wilcox, E.R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-10-01

    X-linked deafness is a rare cause of hereditary hearing impairment. We have identified a family with X-linked dominant sensorineural hearing impairment, characterized by incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity in carrier females, that is linked to the Xp21.2, which contains the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus. The auditory impairment in affected males was congenital, bilateral, profound, sensorineural, affecting all frequencies, and without evidence of radiographic abnormality of the temporal bone. Adult carrier females manifested bilateral, mild-to-moderate high-frequency sensorineural hearing impairment of delayed onset during adulthood. Eighteen commercially available polymorphic markers from the X chromosome, generating a 10-15-cM map, were initially used for identification of a candidate region. DXS997, located within the DMD gene, generated a two-point LOD score of 2.91 at {theta} = 0, with every carrier mother heterozygous at this locus. Recombination events at DXS992 (located within the DMD locus, 3{prime} to exon 50 of the dystrophin gene) and at DXS1068 (5{prime} to the brain promoter of the dystrophin gene) were observed. No recombination events were noted with the following markers within the DMD locus: 5{prime}DYS II, intron 44, DXS997, and intron 50. There was no clinical evidence of Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy in any family member. It is likely that this family represents a new locus on the X chromosome, which when mutated results in nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss and is distinct from the heterogeneous group of X-linked hearing losses that have been previously described. 57 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...

  12. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  13. High-Accuracy Quartic Force Field Calculations for the Spectroscopic Constants and Vibrational Frequencies of 1(exp 1)A' l-C3H(-): A Possible Link to Lines Observed in the Horsehead Nebula PDR

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Huang, Xinchuan; Crawford, T. Daniel; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that rotational lines observed in the Horsehead nebula photon-dominated-region (PDR) are probably not caused by l-C3H+, as was originally suggested. In the search for viable alternative candidate carriers, quartic force fields are employed here to provide highly accurate rotational constants, as well as fundamental vibrational frequencies, for another candidate carrier: 1 (sup 1)A' C3H(-). The ab initio computed spectroscopic constants provided in this work are, compared to those necessary to define the observed lines, as accurate as the computed spectroscopic constants for many of the known interstellar anions. Additionally, the computed D-eff for C3H(-) is three times closer to the D deduced from the observed Horsehead nebula lines relative to l-C3H(+). As a result, 1 (sup 1)A' C3H(-). is a more viable candidate for these observed rotational transitions and would be the seventh confirmed interstellar anion detected within the past decade and the first C(sub n)H(-) molecular anion with an odd n.

  14. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  15. DUBNA-GRAN SASSO: Satellite computer link

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In April a 64 kbit/s computer communication link was set up between the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russia) and Gran Sasso (Italy) Laboratories via nearby ground satellite stations using the INTELSAT V satellite. Previously the international community of Dubna's experimentalists and theorists (high energy physics, condensed matter physics, low energy nuclear and neutron physics, accelerator and applied nuclear physics) had no effective computer links with scientific centres worldwide

  16. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  17. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  18. Linking open vocabularies

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  19. [Linking learning theory with practice].

    Ávalos-Carranza, María Teresa; Amador-Olvera, Eric; Zerón-Gutiérrez, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that it is easier to learn what is observed and practiced on a daily basis; to the need to effectively link theory with practice considered in the process of teaching and learning, many strategies have been developed to allow this process to be carried out in a more efficiently maner. It is, therefore, very important to recognize that an appropriate teacher/student relationship is essential for students to acquire the skills and abilities required.

  20. Diabetes and dementia links

    Paula Jankowska

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is growing globally. It is expected to observe 253.4 million sufferers in geriatric population in 2045. In this time, also 131.5 million of people is going to have dementia and other cognitive problems. In people aged over 65 these two diseases are concomitant quite often. What are the connections in the area of etiology and treatment? Aim The purpose of this study is to present links between dementia and diabetes are depicted in professional literature. Results Diabetes and dementia are associated on many levels. These conditions have common risk factors. Diabetes may contribute to cognitive impairment in many ways, promoting development of atherosclerosis, brain vessel damage and vascular dementia. Alzheimer disease may be promoted by hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. On contrary also hypoglycaemia, often met in elderly diabetic patients has negative impact on cognitive function. Dementia seriously affects treatment of diabetes. The main problems are not satisfying adherence and diabetes self-management. Conclusions Prevention of diabetes and dementia risk factors can be performed simultaneously as the are common for both diseases. Enhancing physical activity, reducing saturated fats consumption, levels of cholesterol and body mass are considered to be beneficial in the context of described conditions. Furthermore, treatment of diabetes is strongly affected by cognitive dysfunction. Management of dementive diabetics requires individualization and using long-acting drugs. It is crucial to reduce risk of life-threatening hypoglycaemias and to create wide team to take care of these patients.

  1. Detection of deregulated modules using deregulatory linked path.

    Yuxuan Hu

    Full Text Available The identification of deregulated modules (such as induced by oncogenes is a crucial step for exploring the pathogenic process of complex diseases. Most of the existing methods focus on deregulation of genes rather than the links of the path among them. In this study, we emphasize on the detection of deregulated links, and develop a novel and effective regulatory path-based approach in finding deregulated modules. Observing that a regulatory pathway between two genes might involve in multiple rather than a single path, we identify condition-specific core regulatory path (CCRP to detect the significant deregulation of regulatory links. Using time-series gene expression, we define the regulatory strength within each gene pair based on statistical dependence analysis. The CCRPs in regulatory networks can then be identified using the shortest path algorithm. Finally, we derive the deregulated modules by integrating the differential edges (as deregulated links of the CCRPs between the case and the control group. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we apply the method to expression data associated with different states of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2. The experimental results show that the genes as well as the links in the deregulated modules are significantly enriched in multiple KEGG pathways and GO biological processes, most of which can be validated to suffer from impact of this oncogene based on previous studies. Additionally, we find the regulatory mechanism associated with the crucial gene SNAI1 significantly deregulated resulting from the activation of HER2. Hence, our method provides not only a strategy for detecting the deregulated links in regulatory networks, but also a way to identify concerning deregulated modules, thus contributing to the target selection of edgetic drugs.

  2. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    Agnes Gisladottir

    Full Text Available There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence.We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR. Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068. For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126 matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women. Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79, prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88, antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07 and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34. Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21, except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93. Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates.Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.

  3. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    Gisladottir, Agnes; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Harlow, Bernard L; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Jonsdottir, Eyrun; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Hauksdottir, Arna; Aspelund, Thor; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A

    2016-01-01

    There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR). Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later) at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068). For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126) matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI) was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women). Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79), prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88), antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07) and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34). Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21), except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93). Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates. Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.

  4. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    Gueret, C.D.M.; de Boer, V.; Schlobach, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. The linked data community proudly emphasizes the economic and societal impact such technology shows. But a closer look proves that the design and deployment of

  5. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    Gueret, Christophe; de Boer, Victor; Schlobach, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. A closer look at linked data technologies, however, proves that their design and deployment exclude the majority of the world’s population. It will take small

  6. Weierstrass polynomials for links

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1997-01-01

    There is a natural way of identifying links in3-space with polynomial covering spaces over thecircle. Thereby any link in 3-space can be definedby a Weierstrass polynomial over the circle. Theequivalence relation for covering spaces over thecircle is, however, completely different from...

  7. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  8. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  9. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...

  10. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  11. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  12. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  13. Link to paper

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Link to the paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Naile, J., A.W. Garrison, J. Avants, and J. Washington. Isomers/enantiomers of...

  14. The Missing Link

    Schultz, Laura Luise

    2014-01-01

    Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping......Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping...

  15. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  16. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  17. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  18. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study ... Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) > ... Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for ...

  19. Linked Ocean Data

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam

    2014-05-01

    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  20. A previously unreported association between Nance-Horan syndrome and spontaneous dental abscesses.

    Hibbert, Sally

    2005-02-01

    Atypical dentofacial structures may be the first indicator of other anomalies linked to a syndrome. This case describes the management of a 9-year-old girl referred for the routine management of supernumerary teeth. The anomalous form of her teeth, together with multiple supernumerary units and a history of congenital cataracts, were suggestive of a diagnosis of Nance-Horan syndrome. This is an X-linked disorder, in which females usually demonstrate mild expression; this case was unusual in respect to the marked phenotype expressed. Unusually, the girl developed 2 spontaneous abscesses of her noncarious upper incisor teeth; a feature never previously described in this syndrome. This report details the patient's dental management and discusses the possible pathogenesis of the dental abscesses, together with the genetic implications of this syndrome.

  1. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  2. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  3. X-linked Alport syndrome

    Jais, J P; Knebelmann, B; Giatras, I

    2000-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a type IV collagen hereditary disease characterized by the association of progressive hematuric nephritis, hearing loss, and, frequently, ocular changes. Mutations in the COL4A5 collagen gene are responsible for the more common X-linked dominant form of the disease....... Considerable allelic heterogeneity has been observed. A "European Community Alport Syndrome Concerted Action" has been established to delineate accurately the AS phenotype and to determine genotype-phenotype correlations in a large number of families. Data concerning 329 families, 250 of them with an X...

  4. Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin

    Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A.; Koster, Mariska E.Y.; Houwing, Ronald H.

    2011-01-01

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

  5. Reasoning with Previous Decisions: Beyond the Doctrine of Precedent

    Komárek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in different jurisdictions use previous judicial decisions in their argument, we need to move beyond the concept of precedent to a wider notion, which would embrace practices and theories in legal systems outside the Common law tradition. This article presents the concept of ‘reasoning with previous decisions...... law method’, but they are no less rational and intellectually sophisticated. The reason for the rather conceited attitude of some comparatists is in the dominance of the common law paradigm of precedent and the accompanying ‘case law method’. If we want to understand how courts and lawyers......’ as such an alternative and develops its basic models. The article first points out several shortcomings inherent in limiting the inquiry into reasoning with previous decisions by the common law paradigm (1). On the basis of numerous examples provided in section (1), I will present two basic models of reasoning...

  6. Genipin Cross-Linked Polymeric Alginate-Chitosan Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: In-Vitro Analysis

    Hongmei Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported the preparation of the genipin cross-linked alginate-chitosan (GCAC microcapsules composed of an alginate core with a genipin cross-linked chitosan membrane. This paper is the further investigation on their structural and physical characteristics. Results showed that the GCAC microcapsules had a smooth and dense surface and a networked interior. Cross-linking by genipin substantially reduced swelling and physical disintegration of microcapsules induced by nongelling ions and calcium sequestrants. Strong resistance to mechanical shear forces and enzymatic degradation was observed. Furthermore, the GCAC membranes were permeable to bovine serum albumin and maintained a molecular weight cutoff at 70 KD, analogous to the widely studied alginate-chitosan, and alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules. The release features and the tolerance of the GCAC microcapsules in the stimulated gastrointestinal environment were also investigated. This GCAC microcapsule formulation offers significant potential as a delivery vehicle for many biomedical applications.

  7. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  8. Cultivation-based multiplex phenotyping of human gut microbiota allows targeted recovery of previously uncultured bacteria

    Rettedal, Elizabeth; Gumpert, Heidi; Sommer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is linked to a variety of human health issues and implicated in antibiotic resistance gene dissemination. Most of these associations rely on culture-independent methods, since it is commonly believed that gut microbiota cannot be easily or sufficiently cultured. Here, we...... microbiota. Based on the phenotypic mapping, we tailor antibiotic combinations to specifically select for previously uncultivated bacteria. Utilizing this method we cultivate and sequence the genomes of four isolates, one of which apparently belongs to the genus Oscillibacter; uncultivated Oscillibacter...

  9. Behavior Observations for Linking Assessment to Treatment for Selective Mutism

    Shriver, Mark D.; Segool, Natasha; Gortmaker, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Selective mutism is a childhood disorder that most school psychologists and educational providers will come across at least once in their careers. Selective mutism is associated with significant impairment in educational settings where speaking is necessary for academic and social skill development. Effective treatments for selective mutism…

  10. Link til hjemmesider

    Bervild, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Link til læringsobjekter/undervisningsportalhttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/channel/10492641/charlotte-bervilds-undervisninghttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/video/8248508/3d-printer-v-lektor-charlotte-bervildFotoblog:http://charlottebervild.blogspot.dk/2008/10/fotocollager-af-charlotte-bervild.html......Link til læringsobjekter/undervisningsportalhttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/channel/10492641/charlotte-bervilds-undervisninghttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/video/8248508/3d-printer-v-lektor-charlotte-bervildFotoblog:http://charlottebervild.blogspot.dk/2008/10/fotocollager-af-charlotte-bervild.html...

  11. Linking soil biology and chemistry in biological soil crust using isolate exometabolomics.

    Swenson, Tami L; Karaoz, Ulas; Swenson, Joel M; Bowen, Benjamin P; Northen, Trent R

    2018-01-02

    Metagenomic sequencing provides a window into microbial community structure and metabolic potential; however, linking these data to exogenous metabolites that microorganisms process and produce (the exometabolome) remains challenging. Previously, we observed strong exometabolite niche partitioning among bacterial isolates from biological soil crust (biocrust). Here we examine native biocrust to determine if these patterns are reproduced in the environment. Overall, most soil metabolites display the expected relationship (positive or negative correlation) with four dominant bacteria following a wetting event and across biocrust developmental stages. For metabolites that were previously found to be consumed by an isolate, 70% are negatively correlated with the abundance of the isolate's closest matching environmental relative in situ, whereas for released metabolites, 67% were positively correlated. Our results demonstrate that metabolite profiling, shotgun sequencing and exometabolomics may be successfully integrated to functionally link microbial community structure with environmental chemistry in biocrust.

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation

  13. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  14. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  15. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged ..... I am still riding the cloud … I hope it lasts. .... as a way of creating a climate and culture in schools where individuals are willing to explore.

  16. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  17. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  18. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  19. Investigation of previously derived Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings

    Taylor, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    New Hyades polarimetry and field star photometry have been obtained to check the Hyades reddening, which was found to be nonzero in a previous paper. The new Hyades polarimetry implies essentially zero reddening; this is also true of polarimetry published by Behr (which was incorrectly interpreted in the previous paper). Four photometric techniques which are presumed to be insensitive to blanketing are used to compare the Hyades to nearby field stars; these four techniques also yield essentially zero reddening. When all of these results are combined with others which the author has previously published and a simultaneous solution for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings is made, the results are E (B-V) =3 +- 2 (sigma) mmag, -1 +- 3 (sigma) mmag, and 46 +- 6 (sigma) mmag, respectively. No support for a nonzero Hyades reddening is offered by the new results. When the newly obtained reddenings for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 are compared with results from techniques given by Crawford and by users of the David Dunlap Observatory photometric system, no differences between the new and other reddenings are found which are larger than about 2 sigma. The author had previously found that the M67 main-sequence stars have about the same blanketing as that of Coma and less blanketing than the Hyades; this conclusion is essentially unchanged by the revised reddenings

  20. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously submitted material. 154.302 Section 154.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... concurrently with the rate change filing. There must be furnished to the Director, Office of Energy Market...

  1. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  2. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  3. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  4. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    Ryan, Charles J.; Smith, Matthew R.; de Bono, Johann S.; Molina, Arturo; Logothetis, Christopher J.; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mainwaring, Paul; Piulats, Josep M.; Ng, Siobhan; Carles, Joan; Mulders, Peter F. A.; Basch, Ethan; Small, Eric J.; Saad, Fred; Schrijvers, Dirk; van Poppel, Hendrik; Mukherjee, Som D.; Suttmann, Henrik; Gerritsen, Winald R.; Flaig, Thomas W.; George, Daniel J.; Yu, Evan Y.; Efstathiou, Eleni; Pantuck, Allan; Winquist, Eric; Higano, Celestia S.; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Park, Youn; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas; Scher, Howard I.; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Boyce, A.; Costello, A.; Davis, I.; Ganju, V.; Horvath, L.; Lynch, R.; Marx, G.; Parnis, F.; Shapiro, J.; Singhal, N.; Slancar, M.; van Hazel, G.; Wong, S.; Yip, D.; Carpentier, P.; Luyten, D.; de Reijke, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned

  5. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  6. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  7. Helically linked mirror arrangement

    Ranjan, P.

    1986-08-01

    A scheme is described for helical linking of mirror sections, which endeavors to combine the better features of toroidal and mirror devices by eliminating the longitudinal loss of mirror machines, having moderately high average β and steady state operation. This scheme is aimed at a device, with closed magnetic surfaces having rotational transform for equilibrium, one or more axisymmetric straight sections for reduced radial loss, a simple geometrical axis for the links and an overall positive magnetic well depth for stability. We start by describing several other attempts at linking of mirror sections, made both in the past and the present. Then a description of our helically linked mirror scheme is given. This example has three identical straight sections connected by three sections having helical geometric axes. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic field and single-particle orbits in them leads to the conclusion that most of the passing particles would be confined in the device and they would have orbits independent of pitch angle under certain conditions. Numerical results are presented, which agree well with the theoretical results as far as passing particle orbits are concerned

  8. Thermometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay: TELISA.

    Mattiasson, B; Borrebaeck, C; Sanfridson, B; Mosbach, K

    1977-08-11

    A new method, thermometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (TELISA), for the assay of endogenous and exogenous compounds in biological fluids is described. It is based on the previously described enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique, ELISA, but utilizes enzymic heat formation which is measured in an enzyme thermistor unit. In the model system studied determination of human serum albumin down to a concentration of 10(-10) M (5 ng/ml) was achieved, with both normal and catalase labelled human serum albumin competing for the binding sites on the immunosorbent, which was rabbit antihuman serum albumin immobilized onto Sepharose CL-4B.

  9. Improving local clustering based top-L link prediction methods via asymmetric link clustering information

    Wu, Zhihao; Lin, Youfang; Zhao, Yiji; Yan, Hongyan

    2018-02-01

    Networks can represent a wide range of complex systems, such as social, biological and technological systems. Link prediction is one of the most important problems in network analysis, and has attracted much research interest recently. Many link prediction methods have been proposed to solve this problem with various techniques. We can note that clustering information plays an important role in solving the link prediction problem. In previous literatures, we find node clustering coefficient appears frequently in many link prediction methods. However, node clustering coefficient is limited to describe the role of a common-neighbor in different local networks, because it cannot distinguish different clustering abilities of a node to different node pairs. In this paper, we shift our focus from nodes to links, and propose the concept of asymmetric link clustering (ALC) coefficient. Further, we improve three node clustering based link prediction methods via the concept of ALC. The experimental results demonstrate that ALC-based methods outperform node clustering based methods, especially achieving remarkable improvements on food web, hamster friendship and Internet networks. Besides, comparing with other methods, the performance of ALC-based methods are very stable in both globalized and personalized top-L link prediction tasks.

  10. [Fatal amnioinfusion with previous choriocarcinoma in a parturient woman].

    Hrgović, Z; Bukovic, D; Mrcela, M; Hrgović, I; Siebzehnrübl, E; Karelovic, D

    2004-04-01

    The case of 36-year-old tercipare is described who developed choriocharcinoma in a previous pregnancy. During the first term labour the patient developed cardiac arrest, so reanimation and sectio cesarea was performed. A male new-born was delivered in good condition, but even after intensive therapy and reanimation occurred death of parturient woman with picture of disseminate intravascular coagulopathia (DIK). On autopsy and on histology there was no sign of malignant disease, so it was not possible to connect previous choricarcinoma with amniotic fluid embolism. Maybe was place of choriocarcinoma "locus minoris resistentiae" which later resulted with failure in placentation what was hard to prove. On autopsy we found embolia of lung with a microthrombosis of terminal circulation with punctiformis bleeding in mucous, what stands for DIK.

  11. Challenging previous conceptions of vegetarianism and eating disorders.

    Fisak, B; Peterson, R D; Tantleff-Dunn, S; Molnar, J M

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand upon previous research that has examined the potential association between vegetarianism and disordered eating. Limitations of previous research studies are addressed, including possible low reliability of measures of eating pathology within vegetarian samples, use of only a few dietary restraint measures, and a paucity of research examining potential differences in body image and food choice motives of vegetarians versus nonvegetarians. Two hundred and fifty-six college students completed a number of measures of eating pathology and body image, and a food choice motives questionnaire. Interestingly, no significant differences were found between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in measures of eating pathology or body image. However, significant differences in food choice motives were found. Implications for both researchers and clinicians are discussed.

  12. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  13. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  14. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  15. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Young Ho; Hwang, Ki Tae; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kwak, Jin Ho; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  16. Navigation To and From a Page: Which Links Get Clicked From Where

    Use Google Analytics navigation summary data to find out what page users most frequently click your Contact Us link from (Previous Page Path), or which links on your homepage are popular or unpopular (Next Page Path).

  17. Emerging semantics to link phenotype and environment

    Anne E. Thessen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interplay between environmental conditions and phenotypes is a fundamental goal of biology. Unfortunately, data that include observations on phenotype and environment are highly heterogeneous and thus difficult to find and integrate. One approach that is likely to improve the status quo involves the use of ontologies to standardize and link data about phenotypes and environments. Specifying and linking data through ontologies will allow researchers to increase the scope and flexibility of large-scale analyses aided by modern computing methods. Investments in this area would advance diverse fields such as ecology, phylogenetics, and conservation biology. While several biological ontologies are well-developed, using them to link phenotypes and environments is rare because of gaps in ontological coverage and limits to interoperability among ontologies and disciplines. In this manuscript, we present (1 use cases from diverse disciplines to illustrate questions that could be answered more efficiently using a robust linkage between phenotypes and environments, (2 two proof-of-concept analyses that show the value of linking phenotypes to environments in fishes and amphibians, and (3 two proposed example data models for linking phenotypes and environments using the extensible observation ontology (OBOE and the Biological Collections Ontology (BCO; these provide a starting point for the development of a data model linking phenotypes and environments.

  18. Website Policies / Important Links | DOepatents

    Links Website Policies / Important Links Javascript Not Enabled OSTI Security Website Policies and first) Publication Date (oldest first) Close Clear All Find DOepatents Website Policies / Important Important Links Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from

  19. Nonequilibrium Chromosome Looping via Molecular Slip Links

    Brackley, C. A.; Johnson, J.; Michieletto, D.; Morozov, A. N.; Nicodemi, M.; Cook, P. R.; Marenduzzo, D.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a model for the formation of chromatin loops based on the diffusive sliding of molecular slip links. These mimic the behavior of molecules like cohesin, which, along with the CTCF protein, stabilize loops which contribute to organizing the genome. By combining 3D Brownian dynamics simulations and 1D exactly solvable nonequilibrium models, we show that diffusive sliding is sufficient to account for the strong bias in favor of convergent CTCF-mediated chromosome loops observed experimentally. We also find that the diffusive motion of multiple slip links along chromatin is rectified by an intriguing ratchet effect that arises if slip links bind to the chromatin at a preferred "loading site." This emergent collective behavior favors the extrusion of loops which are much larger than the ones formed by single slip links.

  20. Bottom-linked innovation

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    2018-01-01

    hitherto been paid little explicit attention, namely collaboration between middle managers and employees in innovation processes. In contrast to most studies, middle managers and employees are here both subjects of explicit investigation. The collaboration processes explored in this article are termed...... ‘bottom-linked innovation’. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth qualitative study of bottom-linked innovation in a public frontline institution in Denmark. By combining research on employee-driven innovation and middle management, the article offers new insights into such collaborative......Employee-driven innovation is gaining ground as a strategy for developing sustainable organisations in the public and private sector. This type of innovation is characterised by active employee participation, and the bottom-up perspective is often emphasised. This article explores an issue that has...

  1. Linking lab and field

    Cronje, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    The multitude of different supplements recommended for animals grazing natural pastures, which testifies to the need for a metabolic basis for supplementary feeding practices. The first approach to this problem was to simulate different feeding conditions in the laboratory, where the metabolic responses of body tissues to changes in the supply of purified nutrients could be studied using radioisotope techniques. The second step was to link these fundamental studies to field conditions. The results of these studies suggest that the efficiency of feed conversion and growth rates of ruminants grazing winter pastures in the highveld region of South Africa could be substantially improved by strategic supplementation with glucose precursors. Acetate clearance rate represents a valuable link in the process of applying information obtained from controlled laboratory experiments to field conditions. As this technique is inexpensive, quick and simple to carry out, it is ideally suited to application under field conditions where the use of isotopes is impractical. By providing a link with field conditions, it greatly extended the scope and practical application of isotope tracer techniques

  2. Moyamoya disease in a child with previous acute necrotizing encephalopathy

    Kim, Taik-Kun; Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Kim, Baek Hyun; Chung, Hwan Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, 516 Kojan-Dong, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do 425-020 (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin [Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-09-01

    A previously healthy 24-day-old boy presented with a 2-day history of fever and had a convulsion on the day of admission. MRI showed abnormal signal in the thalami, caudate nuclei and central white matter. Acute necrotising encephalopathy was diagnosed, other causes having been excluded after biochemical and haematological analysis of blood, urine and CSF. He recovered, but with spastic quadriparesis. At the age of 28 months, he suffered sudden deterioration of consciousness and motor weakness of his right limbs. MRI was consistent with an acute cerebrovascular accident. Angiography showed bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis or frank occlusion with numerous lenticulostriate collateral vessels consistent with moyamoya disease. (orig.)

  3. MCNP HPGe detector benchmark with previously validated Cyltran model.

    Hau, I D; Russ, W R; Bronson, F

    2009-05-01

    An exact copy of the detector model generated for Cyltran was reproduced as an MCNP input file and the detection efficiency was calculated similarly with the methodology used in previous experimental measurements and simulation of a 280 cm(3) HPGe detector. Below 1000 keV the MCNP data correlated to the Cyltran results within 0.5% while above this energy the difference between MCNP and Cyltran increased to about 6% at 4800 keV, depending on the electron cut-off energy.

  4. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  5. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  6. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  7. [ANTITHROMBOTIC MEDICATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION].

    Neykova, K; Dimitrova, V; Dimitrov, R; Vakrilova, L

    2016-01-01

    To analyze pregnancy outcome in patients who were on antithrombotic medication (AM) because of previous pregnancy with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The studied group (SG) included 21 pregnancies in 15 women with history of previous IUGR. The patients were on low dose aspirin (LDA) and/or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Pregnancy outcome was compared to the one in two more groups: 1) primary group (PG) including the previous 15 pregnancies with IUGR of the same women; 2) control group (CG) including 45 pregnancies of women matched for parity with the ones in the SG, with no history of IUGR and without medication. The SG, PG and CG were compared for the following: mean gestational age (g.a.) at birth, mean birth weight (BW), proportion of cases with early preeclampsia (PE), IUGR (total, moderate, and severe), intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), neonatal death (NND), admission to NICU, cesarean section (CS) because of chronic or acute fetal distress (FD) related to IUGR, PE or placental abruption. Student's t-test was applied to assess differences between the groups. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The differences between the SG and the PG regarding mean g. a. at delivery (33.7 and 29.8 w.g. respectively) and the proportion of babies admitted to NICU (66.7% vs. 71.4%) were not statistically significant. The mean BW in the SG (2114,7 g.) was significantly higher than in the PG (1090.8 g.). In the SG compared with the PG there were significantly less cases of IUFD (14.3% and 53.3% respectively), early PE (9.5% vs. 46.7%) moderate and severe IUGR (10.5% and 36.8% vs. 41.7% and 58.3%). Neonatal mortality in the SG (5.6%) was significantly lower than in the PG (57.1%), The proportion of CS for FD was not significantly different--53.3% in the SG and 57.1% in the PG. On the other hand, comparison between the SG and the CG demonstrated significantly lower g.a. at delivery in the SG (33.7 vs. 38 w.g.) an lower BW (2114 vs. 3094 g

  8. LinkedIn Marketing An Hour a Day

    von Rosen, Viveka

    2012-01-01

    A step-by-step guide for succeeding on the for ''business'' social media network LinkedIn Marketing: An Hour a Day helps you create, customize, and optimize a presence on LinkedIn, the world's largest social network for professionals. In this detailed, step-by-step book, LinkedIn expert Viveka von Rosen reveals how to use this powerful platform to ensure that you or your company get noticed by the right audience. Discover previously undocumented tips and tricks for community growth and management, including how to best use Groups, events, and other LinkedIn features and applications. Offers a

  9. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  10. Corneal perforation after conductive keratoplasty with previous refractive surgery.

    Kymionis, George D; Titze, Patrik; Markomanolakis, Marinos M; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2003-12-01

    A 56-year-old woman had conductive keratoplasty (CK) for residual hyperopia and astigmatism. Three years before the procedure, the patient had arcuate keratotomy, followed by laser in situ keratomileusis 2 years later for high astigmatism correction in both eyes. During CK, a corneal perforation occurred in the right eye; during the postoperative examination, an iris perforation and anterior subcapsule opacification were seen beneath the perforation site. The perforation was managed with a bandage contact lens and an antibiotic-steroid ointment; it had a negative Seidel sign by the third day. The surgery in the left eye was uneventful. Three months after the procedure, the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/32 and the best corrected visual acuity 20/20 in both eyes with a significant improvement in corneal topography. Care must be taken to prevent CK-treated spots from coinciding with areas in the corneal stroma that might have been altered by previous refractive procedures.

  11. Interference from previous distraction disrupts older adults' memory.

    Biss, Renée K; Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn

    2013-07-01

    Previously relevant information can disrupt the ability of older adults to remember new information. Here, the researchers examined whether prior irrelevant information, or distraction, can also interfere with older adults' memory for new information. Younger and older adults first completed a 1-back task on pictures that were superimposed with distracting words. After a delay, participants learned picture-word paired associates and memory was tested using picture-cued recall. In 1 condition (high interference), some pairs included pictures from the 1-back task now paired with new words. In a low-interference condition, the transfer list used all new items. Older adults had substantially lower cued-recall performance in the high- compared with the low-interference condition. In contrast, younger adults' performance did not vary across conditions. These findings suggest that even never-relevant information from the past can disrupt older adults' memory for new associations.

  12. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones affect every cell in the human body, and the cardiovascular changes associated with increased levels of thyroid hormones are especially well described. As an example, short-term hyperthyroidism has positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the heart, leading to a hyperdynamic...... with CVD, LD and DM both before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Although the design used does not allow a stringent distinction between cause and effect, the findings indicate a possible direct association between hyperthyroidism and these morbidities, or vice versa....... vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions...

  13. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  14. Linking consumer experiences

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community......Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...

  15. Knots and links

    Rolfsen, Dale

    2003-01-01

    Rolfsen's beautiful book on knots and links can be read by anyone, from beginner to expert, who wants to learn about knot theory. Beginners with a basic background find an inviting introduction to the elements of topology, emphasizing the tools needed for understanding knots, the fundamental group and van Kampen's theorem, for example, which are then applied to concrete problems, such as computing knot groups. For experts, Rolfsen explains advanced topics, such as the connections between knot theory and surgery and how they are useful to understanding three-manifolds. Besides providing a guide

  16. Lung cancer in Hodgkin's disease: association with previous radiotherapy

    List, A.F.; Doll, D.C.; Greco, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of lung cancer were observed in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) since 1970. The risk ratio for the development of lung cancer among HD patients was 5.6 times that expected in the general population. The pertinent clinical data from these patients are described and compared to 28 additional patients reported from other institutions. Small-cell lung cancer represented the predominant histologic type of lung cancer encountered in both smoking and nonsmoking patients with HD, accounting for 42% of cases overall and greater than 55% of cases reported in reviews of second malignancies. Tobacco use was noted in only 53% of patients. Twenty-eight (94%) of 30 patients developing metachronous lung cancer received supradiaphragmatic irradiation as primary therapy for HD. Nineteen (68%) of these patients received subsequent chemotherapy salvage. The median age at diagnosis of HD and lung cancer was 39 and 45 years, respectively. The interval between diagnosis of HD and metachronous lung cancer averaged seven years but appeared to vary inversely with age. HD patients treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation or combined modality therapy may be at increased risk for developing lung cancer. The high frequency of in-field malignancies that the authors observed and the prevalence of small-cell lung cancer in both smoking and nonsmoking patients suggests that chest irradiation may influence the development of metachronous lung cancer in these patients. The finding of a mean latent interval in excess of seven years emphasizes the need for close long-term observation

  17. Mediastinal involvement in lymphangiomatosis: a previously unreported MRI sign

    Shah, Vikas; Shah, Sachit; Barnacle, Alex; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Brock, Penelope [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Harper, John I. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Dermatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare systemic disorder affecting children. Due to its rarity and wide spectrum of clinical, histological and imaging features, establishing the diagnosis of multifocal lymphangiomatosis can be challenging. The purpose of this study was to describe a new imaging sign in this disorder: paraspinal soft tissue and signal abnormality at MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging, clinical and histopathological findings in a cohort of eight children with thoracic involvement from this condition. Evidence of paraspinal chest disease was identified at MRI and CT in all eight of these children. The changes comprise heterogeneous intermediate-to-high signal parallel to the thoracic vertebrae on T2-weighted sequences at MRI, with abnormal paraspinal soft tissue at CT and plain radiography. Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare disorder with a broad range of clinicopathological and imaging features. MRI allows complete evaluation of disease extent without the use of ionising radiation and has allowed us to describe a previously unreported imaging sign in this disorder, namely, heterogeneous hyperintense signal in abnormal paraspinal tissue on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  18. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  19. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  20. Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins.

    Pingzhao Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans. Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.

  1. Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins.

    Hu, Pingzhao; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Babu, Mohan; Díaz-Mejía, J Javier; Butland, Gareth; Yang, Wenhong; Pogoutse, Oxana; Guo, Xinghua; Phanse, Sadhna; Wong, Peter; Chandran, Shamanta; Christopoulos, Constantine; Nazarians-Armavil, Anaies; Nasseri, Negin Karimi; Musso, Gabriel; Ali, Mehrab; Nazemof, Nazila; Eroukova, Veronika; Golshani, Ashkan; Paccanaro, Alberto; Greenblatt, Jack F; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Emili, Andrew

    2009-04-28

    One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans). Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.

  2. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  3. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment.

    Derman, Richard; Kohles, Joseph D; Babbitt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT) of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV) ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP) use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p 90% at Month 10). In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.

  4. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  5. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... the link between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, ... present time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... teens and young adults have never known a world without it. NIDA’s "Learn the Link" campaign continues ... for HIV infection through risky sexual behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links ...

  9. The HANDSS-55 Linking Equipment

    Crosby, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Bucket Translation Unit (BTU) and the Drum Handler are two of the HANDSS-55 subsystems identified as linking components. Both subsystems link other modules together by moving material to or from another module

  10. Phosphorylation of human link proteins

    Oester, D.A.; Caterson, B.; Schwartz, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Three link proteins of 48, 44 and 40 kDa were purified from human articular cartilage and identified with monoclonal anti-link protein antibody 8-A-4. Two sets of lower molecular weight proteins of 30-31 kDa and 24-26 kDa also contained link protein epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibody and were most likely degradative products of the intact link proteins. The link proteins of 48 and 40 kDa were identified as phosphoproteins while the 44 kDa link protein did not contain 32 P. The phosphorylated 48 and 40 kDa link proteins contained approximately 2 moles PO 4 /mole link protein

  11. Observations on the introduction and dissemination of Salmonella in three previously low prevalence status pig farms in the United Kingdom.

    Martelli, Francesca; Andres, Victor M; Davies, Rob; Smith, Richard P

    2018-05-01

    In the United Kingdom a serological Salmonella surveillance scheme was run in pigs up to 2012. Farms that maintained a low seroprevalence (animals. The results of this study suggest that incursion of mST was likely to be the main cause of the loss of "Platinum" status and confirm that mST can persist in pigs and their environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. SAGE II observations of a previously unreported stratospheric volcanic aerosol cloud in the northern polar summer of 1990

    Yue, Glenn K.; Veiga, Robert E.; Wang, Pi-Huan

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of aerosol extinction profiles obtained by the spaceborne SAGE II sensor reveals that there was an anomalous increase of aerosol extinction below 18.5 km at latitudes poleward of 50 deg N from July 28 to September 9, 1990. This widespread increase of aerosol extinction in the lower stratosphere was apparently due to a remote high-latitude volcanic eruption that has not been reported to date. The increase in stratospheric optical depth in the northern polar region was about 50% in August and had diminished by October 1990. This eruption caused an increase in stratospheric aerosol mass of about 0.33 x 10(exp 5) tons, assuming the aerosol was composed of sulfuric acid and water.

  13. A structural and kinetic study on myofibrils prevented from shortening by chemical cross-linking.

    Herrmann, C; Sleep, J; Chaussepied, P; Travers, F; Barman, T

    1993-07-20

    In previous work, we studied the early steps of the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils [Houadjeto, M., Travers, F., & Barman, T. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1564-1569]. The myofibrils were free to contract, and the results obtained refer to the ATPase cycle of myofibrils contracting with no external load. Here we studied the ATPase of myofibrils contracting isometrically. To prevent shortening, we cross-linked them with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC). SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses showed that the myosin rods were extensively cross-linked and that 8% of the myosin heads were cross-linked to the thin filament. The transient kinetics of the cross-linked myofibrils were studied in 0.1 M potassium acetate, pH 7.4 and 4 degrees C, by the rapid-flow quench method. The ATP binding steps were studied by the cold ATP chase and the cleavage and release of products steps by the Pi burst method. In Pi burst experiments, the sizes of the bursts were equal within experimental error to the ATPase site concentrations (as determined by the cold ATP chase methods) for both cross-linked (isometric) and un-cross-linked (isotonic) myofibrils. This shows that in both cases the rate-limiting step is after the cleavage of ATP. When cross-linked, the kcat of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils was reduced from 1.7 to 0.8 s-1. This is consistent with the observation that fibers shortening at moderate velocity have a higher ATPase activity than isometric fibers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  15. Impact of Students’ Class Attendance on Recalling Previously Acquired Information

    Camellia Hemyari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, availability of class material including typed lectures, the professor’s Power Point slides, sound recordings, and even videos made a group of students feel that it is unnecessary to attend the classes. These students usually read and memorize typed lectures within two or three days prior to the exams and usually pass the tests even with low attendance rate. Thus, the question is how effective is this learning system and how long the one-night memorized lessons may last.Methods: A group of medical students (62 out of 106 students, with their class attendance and educational achievements in the Medical Mycology and Parasitology course being recorded since two years ago, was selected and their knowledge about this course was tested by multiple choice questions (MCQ designed based on the previous lectures.Results: Although the mean re-exam score of the students at the end of the externship was lower than the corresponding final score, a significant association was found between the scores of the students in these two exams (r=0.48, P=0.01. Moreover, a significant negative association was predicted between the number of absences and re-exam scores (r=-0.26, P=0.037.Conclusion: As our findings show, the phenomenon of recalling the acquired lessons is preserved for a long period of time and it is associated with the students’ attendance. Many factors including generation effect (by taking notes and cued-recall (via slide picture might play a significant role in the better recalling of the learned information in students with good class attendance.Keywords: STUDENT, MEMORY, LONG-TERM, RECALL, ABSENTEEISM, LEARNING

  16. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  17. ITK optical links backup document

    Huffman, B T; The ATLAS collaboration; Flick, T; Ye, J

    2013-01-01

    This document describes the proposed optical links to be used for the ITK in the phase II upgrade. The current R&D for optical links pursued in the Versatile Link group is reviewed. In particular the results demonstrating the radiation tolerance of all the on-detector components are documented. The bandwidth requirements and the resulting numerology are given.

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to our latest research findings and news updates. Read on to Learn the Link between ... to this site at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . ... Social Media Send the message to young people and to ...

  19. Seismic link at plate boundary

    time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link ... Triggering causes changes in the Coulomb stress on a specified fault, which is ... work link shows that the alignment of the links is parallel to the Honshu Trench ...

  20. Fermions and link invariants

    Kauffman, L.; Saleur, H.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of knot theory are discussed when fermionic degrees of freedom are taken into account in the braid group representations and in the state models. It is discussed how the R matrix for the Alexander polynomial arises from the Fox differential calculus, and how it is related to the quantum group U q gl(1,1). New families of solutions of the Yang Baxter equation obtained from ''linear'' representations of the braid group and exterior algebra are investigated. State models associated with U q sl(n,m), and in the case n=m=1 a state model for the multivariable Alexander polynomial are studied. Invariants of links in solid handlebodies are considered and it is shown how the non trivial topology lifts the boson fermion degeneracy is present in S 3 . (author) 36 refs

  1. Multilevel DC link inverter

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  2. Linking Wayfinding and Wayfaring

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we propose to expand and enhance the understanding of wayfi nding beyond the strictly “instrumental” (i.e., getting from point A to point B), to include the qualities and multi-sensorial inputs that inform and shape people’s movement through space. We take as a point of departure...... of environmental information , which includes the embodied, multi-sensorial experience of moving through physical space. We base our examination in part on the classic positions of the wayfi nding literature—for example, Lynch’s seminal study, The Image of the City ( 1960 ). However, we also examine the so......-called mobilities turn in which mobility is viewed as a complex, multilayered process that entails much more than simply getting from point A to point B (see Cresswell 2006 ; Jensen 2013 ; Urry 2007 ).The structure of the chapter is simple: We fi rst introduce the concepts that are key to linking wayfi nding...

  3. LinkLights

    Grönvall, Erik; Kramp, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    The project described in this paper aims to provide assistive tools to support elderly people affected by vestibular dysfunction (i.e. a form of balance disorder leading to dizziness and nausea) in their home-based rehabilitation activities. Challenges emerge as the rehabilitation moves from...... a supervised hospital setting to private homes. Our studies have shown that the elderly people are less motivated to perform the training at home. This paper presents a tangible, portable, two dimensional modular platform called LinkLights that has been developed to sustain the home-based rehabilitation......, giving clear guidelines what to do, adding motivational cues and elements of variation and surprise in the activity. Furthermore, a set of challenges for successful translocation of the therapeutic regimen from a supervised, hospital setting to an unsupervised home-based setting together with some early...

  4. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  5. Nocturnal Wakefulness as a Previously Unrecognized Risk Factor for Suicide.

    Perlis, Michael L; Grandner, Michael A; Brown, Gregory K; Basner, Mathias; Chakravorty, Subhajit; Morales, Knashawn H; Gehrman, Philip R; Chaudhary, Ninad S; Thase, Michael E; Dinges, David F

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem and the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. The identification of modifiable risk factors is essential for reducing the prevalence of suicide. Recently, it has been shown that insomnia and nightmares significantly increase the risk for suicidal ideation, attempted suicide, and death by suicide. While both forms of sleep disturbance may independently confer risk, and potentially be modifiable risk factors, it is also possible that simply being awake at night represents a specific vulnerability for suicide. The present analysis evaluates the frequency of completed suicide per hour while taking into account the percentage of individuals awake at each hour. Archival analyses were conducted estimating the time of fatal injury using the National Violent Death Reporting System for 2003-2010 and the proportion of the American population awake per hour across the 24-hour day using the American Time Use Survey. The mean ± SD incident rate from 06:00-23:59 was 2.2% ± 0.7%, while the mean ± SD incident rate from 00:00-05:59 was 10.3% ± 4.9%. The maximum incident rate was from 02:00-02:59 (16.3%). Hour-by-hour observed values differed from those that would be expected by chance (P < .001), and when 6-hour blocks were examined, the observed frequency at night was 3.6 times higher than would be expected by chance (P < .001). Being awake at night confers greater risk for suicide than being awake at other times of the day, suggesting that disturbances of sleep or circadian neurobiology may potentiate suicide risk. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Congenital heart disease linked to maternal autoimmunity against cardiac myosin.

    Cole, Charles R; Yutzey, Katherine E; Brar, Anoop K; Goessling, Lisa S; Van Vickle-Chavez, Sarah J; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2014-05-01

    Structural congenital heart disease (CHD) has not previously been linked to autoimmunity. In our study, we developed an autoimmune model of structural CHD that resembles hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), a life-threatening CHD primarily affecting the left ventricle. Because cardiac myosin (CM) is a dominant autoantigen in autoimmune heart disease, we hypothesized that immunization with CM might lead to transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies and a prenatal HLHS phenotype in exposed fetuses. Elevated anti-CM autoantibodies in maternal and fetal sera, as well as IgG reactivity in fetal myocardium, were correlated with structural CHD that included diminished left ventricular cavity dimensions in the affected progeny. Further, fetuses that developed a marked HLHS phenotype had elevated serum titers of anti-β-adrenergic receptor Abs, as well as increased protein kinase A activity, suggesting a potential mechanism for the observed pathological changes. Our maternal-fetal model presents a new concept linking autoimmunity against CM and cardiomyocyte proliferation with cardinal features of HLHS. To our knowledge, this report shows the first evidence in support of a novel immune-mediated mechanism for pathogenesis of structural CHD that may have implications in its future diagnosis and treatment.

  7. The missing link? Testing a schema account of unitization.

    Tibon, Roni; Greve, Andrea; Henson, Richard

    2018-05-09

    Unitization refers to the creation of a new unit from previously distinct items. The concept of unitization has been used to explain how novel pairings between items can be remembered without requiring recollection, by virtue of new, item-like representations that enable familiarity-based retrieval. We tested an alternative account of unitization - a schema account - which suggests that associations between items can be rapidly assimilated into a schema. We used a common operationalization of "unitization" as the difference between two unrelated words being linked by a definition, relative to two words being linked by a sentence, during an initial study phase. During the following relearning phase, a studied word was re-paired with a new word, either related or unrelated to the original associate from study. In a final test phase, memory for the relearned associations was tested. We hypothesized that, if unitized representations act like schemas, then we would observe some generalization to related words, such that memory would be better in the definition than sentence condition for related words, but not for unrelated words. Contrary to the schema hypothesis, evidence favored the null hypothesis of no difference between definition and sentence conditions for related words (Experiment 1), even when each cue was associated with multiple associates, indicating that the associations can be generalized (Experiment 2), or when the schematic information was explicitly re-activated during Relearning (Experiment 3). These results suggest that unitized associations do not generalize to accommodate new information, and therefore provide evidence against the schema account.

  8. Poly-epiphyseal overgrowth: description of a previously unreported skeletal dysplasia

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Bonaspetti, Giovanni [University of Brescia, Orthopaedic Clinic, Brescia (Italy); Beluffi, Giampiero [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Pavia (Italy); Marchi, Antonietta; Bozzola, Mauro; Savasta, Salvatore [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Paediatric Clinic, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    A skeletal dysplasia with previously unreported features is presented. Its evolution was characterized by growth abnormalities of bones without involvement of other organs. Advanced bone age, increased stature and irregular epiphyseal ossification with stippling of the main long bones were documented. Physeal overgrowth was massive in the left proximal humerus and femur. Furthermore, the hip joint appeared fused with an abundant mass of pathological calcific tissue extending from the femur to the ilium. Pathological epiphyses were characterized by anarchic cartilaginous proliferation with multiple ossification centres, while lamellar bone apposition and remodelling were normal. The observed bone changes were different from those in any previously reported syndrome, metabolic defect or bone dysplasia. However, they clearly indicated a defect of endochondral ossification with some resemblance to phenotypes observed in dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. (orig.)

  9. Poly-epiphyseal overgrowth: description of a previously unreported skeletal dysplasia

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Bonaspetti, Giovanni; Beluffi, Giampiero; Marchi, Antonietta; Bozzola, Mauro; Savasta, Salvatore

    2007-01-01

    A skeletal dysplasia with previously unreported features is presented. Its evolution was characterized by growth abnormalities of bones without involvement of other organs. Advanced bone age, increased stature and irregular epiphyseal ossification with stippling of the main long bones were documented. Physeal overgrowth was massive in the left proximal humerus and femur. Furthermore, the hip joint appeared fused with an abundant mass of pathological calcific tissue extending from the femur to the ilium. Pathological epiphyses were characterized by anarchic cartilaginous proliferation with multiple ossification centres, while lamellar bone apposition and remodelling were normal. The observed bone changes were different from those in any previously reported syndrome, metabolic defect or bone dysplasia. However, they clearly indicated a defect of endochondral ossification with some resemblance to phenotypes observed in dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica. (orig.)

  10. Observing nebulae

    Griffiths, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  11. The phenomenon of claimed memories of previous lives: possible interpretations and importance.

    Stevenson, I

    2000-04-01

    Several disorders or abnormalities observed in medicine and psychology are not explicable (or not fully explicable) by genetics and environmental influences, either alone or together. These include phobias and philias observed in early infancy, unusual play in childhood, homosexuality, gender identity disorder, a child's idea of having parents other than its own, differences in temperament manifested soon after birth, unusual birthmarks and their correspondence with wounds on a deceased person, unusual birth defects, and differences (physical and behavioral) between monozygotic twins. The hypothesis of previous lives can contribute to the further understanding of these phenomena. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  12. Dissociation in decision bias mechanism between probabilistic information and previous decision

    Yoshiyuki eKaneko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target.

  13. A comparison of morbidity associated with placenta previa with and without previous caesarean sections

    Baqai, S.; Siraj, A.; Noor, N.

    2018-01-01

    To compare the morbidity associated with placenta previa with and without previous caesarean sections. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: From March 2014 till March 2016 in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at PNS Shifa hospital Karachi. Material and Methods: After the approval from hospital ethical committee, antenatal patients with singleton pregnancy of gestational age >32 weeks, in the age group of 20-40 years diagnosed to have placenta previa included in the study. All patients with twin pregnancy less than 20 years and more than 40 years of age were excluded. The records of all patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Data had been collected for demographic and maternal variables, placenta previa, history of previous lower segment caesarean section (LSCS), complications associated with placenta previa and techniques used to control blood loss were recorded. Results: During the study period, 6879 patients were delivered in PNS Shifa, out of these, 2060 (29.9%) had caesarean section out of these, 47.3% patients had previous history of LSCS. Thirty three (1.6%) patients were diagnosed to have placenta previa and frequency of placenta previa was significantly higher in patients with previous history of LSCS than previous normal delivery of LSCS i.e. 22 vs. 11 (p=0.023). It was observed that the frequency of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) and Intensive care unit (ICU) stay were significantly higher in patients with previous history of LSCS than previous history of normal delivery. Conclusion: Frequency of placenta previa was significantly higher in patients with history of LSCS. Also placenta previa remains a major risk factor for various maternal complications. (author)

  14. Dissociation in decision bias mechanism between probabilistic information and previous decision

    Kaneko, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target. PMID:25999844

  15. Emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis: computed tomography features and clinical implications

    Jin J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jianmin Jin,1 Shuling Li,2 Wenling Yu,2 Xiaofang Liu,1 Yongchang Sun1,3 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB is a risk factor for COPD, but the clinical characteristics and the chest imaging features (emphysema and bronchiectasis of COPD with previous PTB have not been studied well.Methods: The presence, distribution, and severity of emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with and without previous PTB were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and compared. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sputum culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also compared between patients with and without previous PTB.Results: A total of 231 COPD patients (82.2% ex- or current smokers, 67.5% male were consecutively enrolled. Patients with previous PTB (45.0% had more severe (p=0.045 and longer history (p=0.008 of dyspnea, more exacerbations in the previous year (p=0.011, and more positive culture of P. aeruginosa (p=0.001, compared with those without PTB. Patients with previous PTB showed a higher prevalence of bronchiectasis (p<0.001, which was more significant in lungs with tuberculosis (TB lesions, and a higher percentage of more severe bronchiectasis (Bhalla score ≥2, p=0.031, compared with those without previous PTB. The overall prevalence of emphysema was not different between patients with and without previous PTB, but in those with previous PTB, a higher number of subjects with middle (p=0.001 and lower (p=0.019 lobe emphysema, higher severity score (p=0.028, higher prevalence of panlobular emphysema (p=0.013, and more extensive centrilobular emphysema (p=0.039 were observed. Notably, in patients with

  16. Quantitative linking hypotheses for infant eye movements.

    Daniel Yurovsky

    Full Text Available The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework--applicable to any infant gaze experiment--and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website.

  17. Hepatotoxicity induced by methimazole in a previously healthy patient.

    Gallelli, Luca; Staltari, Orietta; Palleria, Caterina; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Ferraro, Maria

    2009-09-01

    We report a case of hepatotoxicity induced by methimazole treatment in a patient affected by hyperthyroidism. A 54-year-old man, presented to our observation for palpitations, excessive sweating, weakness, heat intolerance and weight loss. On physical examination, his blood pressure was 140/90 mmHg and heart beat was 100/min regular. He had mild tremors and left exophthalmos. Laboratory test revealed a significant increase in serum thyroid hormone levels with a decrease in thyroid stimulating hormone levels. A diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was made and he began treatment with methimazole (30 mg/day). Fourteen days later, he returned for the development of scleral icterus, followed by dark urine, and abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. Laboratory examinations and liver biopsy performed a diagnosis of cholestatic hepatitis, secondary to methimazole usage. Methimazole was promptly withdrawn and cholestyramine, ursodeoxycholic acid, and chlorpheniramine were given. After five days, abdominal pain resolved and laboratory parameters returned to normal. Naranjo probability scale indicated a probable relationship between hepatotoxicity and methimazole therapy. In conclusion physicians should be aware the risk of hepatotoxicity related with methimazole.

  18. Too Many Links in the Horizon; What is Next? Linked Views and Linked History

    E. Liarou (Erietta); S. Idreos (Stratos)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe trend for more online linked data becomes stronger. Foreseeing a future where ``everything" will be online and linked, we ask the critical question; what is next? We envision that managing, querying and storing large amounts of links and data is far from yet another query

  19. Newborn screening for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: further evidence high throughput screening is feasible.

    Theda, Christiane; Gibbons, Katy; Defor, Todd E; Donohue, Pamela K; Golden, W Christopher; Kline, Antonie D; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Panny, Susan R; Hubbard, Walter C; Jones, Richard O; Liu, Anita K; Moser, Ann B; Raymond, Gerald V

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is characterized by adrenal insufficiency and neurologic involvement with onset at variable ages. Plasma very long chain fatty acids are elevated in ALD; even in asymptomatic patients. We demonstrated previously that liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry measuring C26:0 lysophosphatidylcholine reliably identifies affected males. We prospectively applied this method to 4689 newborn blood spot samples; no false positives were observed. We show that high throughput neonatal screening for ALD is methodologically feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Urban rainfall estimation employing commercial microwave links

    Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire

    2015-04-01

    Urban areas often lack rainfall information. To increase the number of rainfall observations in cities, microwave links from operational cellular telecommunication networks may be employed. Although this new potential source of rainfall information has been shown to be promising, its quality needs to be demonstrated more extensively. In the Rain Sense kickstart project of the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS), sensors and citizens are preparing Amsterdam for future weather. Part of this project is rainfall estimation using new measurement techniques. Innovative sensing techniques will be utilized such as rainfall estimation from microwave links, umbrellas for weather sensing, low-cost sensors at lamp posts and in drainage pipes for water level observation. These will be combined with information provided by citizens in an active way through smartphone apps and in a passive way through social media posts (Twitter, Flickr etc.). Sensor information will be integrated, visualized and made accessible to citizens to help raise citizen awareness of urban water management challenges and promote resilience by providing information on how citizens can contribute in addressing these. Moreover, citizens and businesses can benefit from reliable weather information in planning their social and commercial activities. In the end city-wide high-resolution rainfall maps will be derived, blending rainfall information from microwave links and weather radars. This information will be used for urban water management. This presentation focuses on rainfall estimation from commercial microwave links. Received signal levels from tens of microwave links within the Amsterdam region (roughly 1 million inhabitants) in the Netherlands are utilized to estimate rainfall with high spatial and temporal resolution. Rainfall maps will be presented and compared to a gauge-adjusted radar rainfall data set. Rainfall time series from gauge(s), radars and links will be compared.

  1. Does observability affect prosociality?

    Bradley, Alex; Lawrence, Claire; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2018-03-28

    The observation of behaviour is a key theoretical parameter underlying a number of models of prosociality. However, the empirical findings showing the effect of observability on prosociality are mixed. In this meta-analysis, we explore the boundary conditions that may account for this variability, by exploring key theoretical and methodological moderators of this link. We identified 117 papers yielding 134 study level effects (total n = 788 164) and found a small but statistically significant, positive association between observability and prosociality ( r = 0.141, 95% confidence interval = 0.106, 0.175). Moderator analysis showed that observability produced stronger effects on prosociality: (i) in the presence of passive observers (i.e. people whose role was to only observe participants) versus perceptions of being watched, (ii) when participants' decisions were consequential (versus non-consequential), (iii) when the studies were performed in the laboratory (as opposed to in the field/online), (iv) when the studies used repeated measures (instead of single games), and (v) when the studies involved social dilemmas (instead of bargaining games). These effects show the conditions under which observability effects on prosociality will be maximally observed. We describe the theoretical and practical significance of these results. © 2018 The Authors.

  2. Establishing a Statistical Link between Network Oscillations and Neural Synchrony.

    Pengcheng Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pairs of active neurons frequently fire action potentials or "spikes" nearly synchronously (i.e., within 5 ms of each other. This spike synchrony may occur by chance, based solely on the neurons' fluctuating firing patterns, or it may occur too frequently to be explicable by chance alone. When spike synchrony above chances levels is present, it may subserve computation for a specific cognitive process, or it could be an irrelevant byproduct of such computation. Either way, spike synchrony is a feature of neural data that should be explained. A point process regression framework has been developed previously for this purpose, using generalized linear models (GLMs. In this framework, the observed number of synchronous spikes is compared to the number predicted by chance under varying assumptions about the factors that affect each of the individual neuron's firing-rate functions. An important possible source of spike synchrony is network-wide oscillations, which may provide an essential mechanism of network information flow. To establish the statistical link between spike synchrony and network-wide oscillations, we have integrated oscillatory field potentials into our point process regression framework. We first extended a previously-published model of spike-field association and showed that we could recover phase relationships between oscillatory field potentials and firing rates. We then used this new framework to demonstrate the statistical relationship between oscillatory field potentials and spike synchrony in: 1 simulated neurons, 2 in vitro recordings of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and 3 in vivo recordings of neocortical V4 neurons. Our results provide a rigorous method for establishing a statistical link between network oscillations and neural synchrony.

  3. Deploying Linked Open Vocabulary (LOV to Enhance Library Linked Data

    Oh, Sam Gyun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Linked Data (LD as a method for building webs of data, there have been many attempts to apply and implement LD in various settings. Efforts have been made to convert bibliographic data in libraries into Linked Data, thereby generating Library Linked Data (LLD. However, when memory institutions have tried to link their data with external sources based on principles suggested by Tim Berners-Lee, identifying appropriate vocabularies for use in describing their bibliographic data has proved challenging. The objective of this paper is to discuss the potential role of Linked Open Vocabularies (LOV in providing better access to various open datasets and facilitating effective linking. The paper will also examine the ways in which memory institutions can utilize LOV to enhance the quality of LLD and LLD-based ontology design.

  4. Link for Injured Kids

    Ramirez, Marizen; Toussaint, Maisha; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Harland, Karisa; Wetjen, Kristel; Wilgenbusch, Tammy; Pitcher, Graeme; Jennissen, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Objective Injury, the most common type of pediatric trauma, can lead to a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Currently, few evidence-based parent programs exist to support children hospitalized after a traumatic injury. Using methods in evaluation and intervention research, we completed a formative research study to develop a new program of psychological first aid, Link for Injured Kids, aimed to educate parents in supporting their children after a severe traumatic injury. Methods Using qualitative methods, we held focus groups with parents and pediatric trauma providers of children hospitalized at a Level I Children's Hospital because of an injury in 2012. We asked focus group participants to describe reactions to trauma and review drafts of our intervention materials. Results Health professionals and caregivers reported a broad spectrum of emotional responses by their children or patients; however, difficulties were experienced during recovery at home and upon returning to school. All parents and health professionals recommended that interventions be offered to parents either in the emergency department or close to discharge among admissions. Conclusions Results from this study strongly indicate a need for posttrauma interventions, particularly in rural settings, to support families of children to address the psychosocial outcomes in the aftermath of an injury. Findings presented here describe the process of intervention development that responds to the needs of an affected population. PMID:26428077

  5. The CMS link system

    Vila, I.

    1999-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a multi-purpose detector that is going to be installed in the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Muons are one of the main physical signatures of the expected new physics. The muons are going to be detected by the Central Tracker (CT) and the Muon Spectrometer (MS). Both, the CT and MS can provide an independent muon momentum measurement, but for all η and momentum values the highest precision for muon momentum measurement is achieved when the muon tracks are reconstructed using both tracking detectors. The calorimeters and the solenoid volumes separate about three meters the CT and the MS. It has been shown that the alignment of the CT with respect to the MS can not be guaranteed by a software alignment in a reasonable time scale. Therefore, an opto-mechanical system (the multipoint link system) have been designed to monitor, on-line, the relative position of both sub-detectors providing a common reference frame for both of them. The local alignment of the muon barrel spectrometer determines the relative position of the muon chambers with respect to themselves and also with respect to a carbon fiber rigid structure called MAB (Module for the Alignment of the Barrel). There are a total of 36 MABs distributed in the boundary planes of each muon spectrometer sector. This paper describes all the equipment and presents the principle of measurement. (author)

  6. Hierarchical Linked Views

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  7. Linking to the Future

    Moore, John W.

    1999-09-01

    of JCE in the mail each month, and I expect you do too. I can glance at the cover to get an overview of an issue's content, and I usually am enticed inside by intriguing cover art. I can scan the table of contents to find articles I want to read, or I can just browse through the issue to see what looks interesting. Usually the editors have juxtaposed related articles so that I often find a small treasure trove. The printed Journal is quite portable and can be read in a car or airplane. It will last a long time, and until the paper deteriorates, I will never have a problem reading back issues. I have almost every issue from the first day I subscribed and have even added some older ones from collections of retired colleagues who no longer had shelf space for them. I certainly would not want to give up my printed copies, and I want to keep getting them. I find that JCE Online provides a different kind of resource that is equally valuable. It contains more information, and information that is more appropriate in electronic form. It links related ideas into a much more complex web of information than is possible in print. And it opens pathways to lots of information that is not part of JCE but resides elsewhere. Using this issue as an example, let's take a tour of what JCE Online can do. Point your Web browser to http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu Click on Journal and then on Current Issue (unless September 1999 is no longer the current issue, in which case you will find it in Past Issues). In the table of contents, find the article "UV Catalysis, Cyanotype Photography, and Sunscreens". Click on the title. When the abstract appears, click on Full Text (PDF) to see the article, just as it appears on page 1199 in this issue. When you are prompted, enter the name and subscriber number from your address label. At the end of the article you will find that supplementary materials are available (including a procedure for testing sunscreens) and you can click on the link to view them

  8. Object linking in repositories

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  9. Impact of Availability and Use of ART/PMTCT Services on Fertility Desires of Previously Pregnant Women in Rakai, Uganda: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Litwin, Lindsay E; Makumbi, Frederick E; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-07-01

    To assess fertility desires by availability and use of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai, Uganda. Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai was defined in three periods: (1) pre-ART/PMTCT (ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-2006), and (3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by χ. "Modified" Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRRs were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. A total of 4227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout [adjusted (adj.) PRR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13] and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.14) compared with pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and nonusers in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.14) and 1 year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.94). Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women.

  10. Urinary tract infections in hospital pediatrics: many previous antibiotherapy and antibiotics resistance, including fluoroquinolones.

    Garraffo, A; Marguet, C; Checoury, A; Boyer, S; Gardrat, A; Houivet, E; Caron, F

    2014-02-01

    We studied antibiotic resistance in pediatric UTIs and we evaluated the impact of antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months, very little French data being available for this population. We conducted a multicenter prospective study including children consulting for, or admitted in 2 hospitals. Prior antibiotic exposure was documented from their health record. One hundred and ten patients (73 girls), 11 days to 12 years of age, were included in 10 months. Ninety-six percent presented with pyelonephritis, associated to uropathy for 25%. Escherichia coli was predominant (78%), followed by Proteus spp. and Enterococcus spp. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli was high and close to that reported for adults with complicated UTIs: amoxicillin 60%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 35%, cefotaxim 5%, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole 26%, nalidixic acid 9%, ciprofloxacin 7%, gentamycin 1%, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin 0%. The antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months involved 62 children (56%) most frequently with β-lactams (89%) for a respiratory tract infection (56%). A clear relationship between exposure and resistance was observed for amoxicillin (71% vs. 46%), first generation (65% vs. 46%) and third generation (9% vs. 3%) cephalosporins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36% vs. 15%). However, antibiotic exposure could not account alone for the results, as suggested by the 7% of ciprofloxacin resistance, observed without any identified previous treatment. Bacterial species and antibiotic resistance level in children are similar to those reported for adults. Antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months increases the risk of resistance but other factors are involved (previous antibiotic therapies and fecal-oral or mother-to-child transmission). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Fathering and Mothering in the Family System: Linking Marital Hostility and Aggression in Adopted Toddlers

    Stover, Carla Smith; Connell, Christian M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Conger, Rand; Reiss, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have linked marital conflict, parenting, and externalizing problems in early childhood. However, these studies have not examined whether genes account for these links nor have they examined whether contextual factors such as parental personality or financial distress might account for links between marital conflict and…

  12. Aggregating Linked Sensor Data

    Stasch, Christoph; Schade, Sven; Llaves, Alejandro; Janowicz, K.; Bröring, Arne; Taylor, Kerry; Ayyagari, Arun; De Roure, David

    2011-01-01

    Sensor observations are usually oered in relation to a specific purpose, e.g., for reporting fine dust emissions, following strict procedures, and spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, the huge amount of data gathered by today's public and private sensor networks is most often not reused outside of

  13. Link invariants for flows in higher dimensions

    Garcia-Compean, Hugo; Santos-Silva, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Linking numbers in higher dimensions and their generalization including gauge fields are studied in the context of BF theories. The linking numbers associated with n-manifolds with smooth flows generated by divergence-free p-vector fields, endowed with an invariant flow measure, are computed in the context of quantum field theory. They constitute invariants of smooth dynamical systems (for nonsingular flows) and generalize previous proposals of invariants. In particular, they generalize Arnold's asymptotic Hopf invariant from three to higher dimensions. This invariant is generalized by coupling with a non-Abelian gauge flat connection with nontrivial holonomy. The computation of the asymptotic Jones-Witten invariants for flows is naturally extended to dimension n=2p+1. Finally, we give a possible interpretation and implementation of these issues in the context of 11-dimensional supergravity and string theory.

  14. Teleoperation over low bandwidth communication links

    Fryer, R.J.; Mair, G.M.; Clark, N.; Heng, J.

    1996-01-01

    Teleoperation is well established for many areas of hazardous environment working. Where such environments are well structured and contained, such as within a working plant, communications bandwidths need not be a constraining factor. However where the worksite is remote, large, poorly structured or damaged communications rapidly become a critical factor in the efficient deployment and use of teleoperation equipment. The paper justifies and describes means which we are exploring to reduce the required communications bandwidth for teleoperation whist retaining full functionality. Techniques involved include incorporation of local intelligence at the worksite, with bandwidth devoted to high-level up-link control signals and down-link feedback, and the use of highly compressed video feeding 'virtual reality type' HMDs to provide maximum system transparency for the operator. The work is drawing on previous experience with an 'anthropomorphic robot heat' for telepresence work, and proprietary algorithms capable of compressing full colour video to standard telephone modem data rates. (Author)

  15. Observational astrophysics

    Léna, Pierre; Lebrun, François; Mignard, François; Pelat, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This is the updated, widely revised, restructured and expanded third edition of Léna et al.'s successful work Observational Astrophysics. It presents a synthesis on tools and methods of observational astrophysics of the early 21st century. Written specifically for astrophysicists and graduate students, this textbook focuses on fundamental and sometimes practical limitations on the ultimate performance that an astronomical system may reach, rather than presenting particular systems in detail. In little more than a decade there has been extraordinary progress in imaging and detection technologies, in the fields of adaptive optics, optical interferometry, in the sub-millimetre waveband, observation of neutrinos, discovery of exoplanets, to name but a few examples. The work deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. And it also presents the ambitious concepts behind space missions aimed for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spec...

  16. Observable supertranslations

    Bousso, Raphael; Porrati, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We show that large gauge transformations in asymptotically flat spacetime can be implemented by sandwiching a shell containing the ingoing hard particles between two finite-width shells of soft gauge excitations. Integration of the graviton Dirac bracket implies that our observable soft degrees of freedom obey the algebra imposed by Strominger et al. on unobservable boundary degrees of freedom. Thus, we provide both a derivation and an observable realization of this algebra. We recently showed that soft charges fail to constrain the hard scattering problem, and so cannot be relevant to the black hole information paradox. By expressing the Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra in terms of observable quantities, the present work shows that this conclusion was not an artifact of working with strictly zero frequency soft modes. The conservation laws associated with asymptotic symmetries are seen to arise physically from free propagation of infrared modes.

  17. Observational astrophysics

    Smith, Robert C

    1995-01-01

    Combining a critical account of observational methods (telescopes and instrumentation) with a lucid description of the Universe, including stars, galaxies and cosmology, Smith provides a comprehensive introduction to the whole of modern astrophysics beyond the solar system. The first half describes the techniques used by astronomers to observe the Universe: optical telescopes and instruments are discussed in detail, but observations at all wavelengths are covered, from radio to gamma-rays. After a short interlude describing the appearance of the sky at all wavelengths, the role of positional astronomy is highlighted. In the second half, a clear description is given of the contents of the Universe, including accounts of stellar evolution and cosmological models. Fully illustrated throughout, with exercises given in each chapter, this textbook provides a thorough introduction to astrophysics for all physics undergraduates, and a valuable background for physics graduates turning to research in astronomy.

  18. Diversification and the rate of molecular evolution: no evidence of a link in mammals

    Bromham Lindell

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has indicated a positive association between rates of molecular evolution and diversification in a number of taxa. However debate continues concerning the universality and cause of this relationship. Here, we present the first systematic investigation of this relationship within the mammals. We use phylogenetically independent sister-pair comparisons to test for a relationship between substitution rates and clade size at a number of taxonomic levels. Total, non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates were estimated from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Results We found no evidence for an association between clade size and substitution rates in mammals, for either the nuclear or the mitochondrial sequences. We found significant associations between body size and substitution rates, as previously reported. Conclusions Our results present a contrast to previous research, which has reported significant positive associations between substitution rates and diversification for birds, angiosperms and reptiles. There are three possible reasons for the differences between the observed results in mammals versus other clades. First, there may be no link between substitution rates and diversification in mammals. Second, this link may exist, but may be much weaker in mammals than in other clades. Third, the link between substitution rates and diversification may exist in mammals, but may be confounded by other variables.

  19. Diversification and the rate of molecular evolution: no evidence of a link in mammals.

    Goldie, Xavier; Lanfear, Robert; Bromham, Lindell

    2011-10-04

    Recent research has indicated a positive association between rates of molecular evolution and diversification in a number of taxa. However debate continues concerning the universality and cause of this relationship. Here, we present the first systematic investigation of this relationship within the mammals. We use phylogenetically independent sister-pair comparisons to test for a relationship between substitution rates and clade size at a number of taxonomic levels. Total, non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates were estimated from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. We found no evidence for an association between clade size and substitution rates in mammals, for either the nuclear or the mitochondrial sequences. We found significant associations between body size and substitution rates, as previously reported. Our results present a contrast to previous research, which has reported significant positive associations between substitution rates and diversification for birds, angiosperms and reptiles. There are three possible reasons for the differences between the observed results in mammals versus other clades. First, there may be no link between substitution rates and diversification in mammals. Second, this link may exist, but may be much weaker in mammals than in other clades. Third, the link between substitution rates and diversification may exist in mammals, but may be confounded by other variables.

  20. Possible X linked congenital mitochondrial cardiomyopathy in three families.

    Orstavik, K H; Skjörten, F; Hellebostad, M; Hågå, P; Langslet, A

    1993-01-01

    Familial cases of childhood congestive cardiomyopathy with X linked recessive inheritance and abnormalities of heart muscle mitochondria have been previously reported. We report here three families with possible X linked congestive cardiomyopathy and specific mitochondrial abnormalities. The heart disorder presented as endocardial fibroelastosis with neonatal death in two brothers in one family, and as heart failure and death in infancy in two brothers in the other two families. In one family...

  1. Validation of the Online version of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire for schoolchildren

    Raquel ENGEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the validity of the web-based version of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online for schoolchildren from the 2nd to 5th grades of elementary school. Methods Participants were 312 schoolchildren aged 7 to 12 years of a public school from the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Validity was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, as well as by agreement rates (match, omission, and intrusion rates of food items reported by children on the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online, using direct observation of foods/beverages eaten during school meals (mid-morning snack or afternoon snack on the previous day as the reference. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of participants’ characteristics on omission and intrusion rates. Results The results showed adequate sensitivity (67.7% and specificity (95.2%. There were low omission and intrusion rates of 22.8% and 29.5%, respectively when all food items were analyzed. Pizza/hamburger showed the highest omission rate, whereas milk and milk products showed the highest intrusion rate. The participants who attended school in the afternoon shift presented a higher probability of intrusion compared to their peers who attended school in the morning. Conclusion The Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online possessed satisfactory validity for the assessment of food intake at the group level in schoolchildren from the 2nd to 5th grades of public school.

  2. Do attitudes of families concerned influence features of children who claim to remember previous lives?

    Pasricha, Satwant K

    2011-01-01

    Reported cases of nearly 2600 children (subjects) who claim to remember previous lives have been investigated in cultures with and without belief in reincarnation. The authenticity in most cases has been established. To study the influence of attitudes of parents of the subjects, families of the deceased person with whom they are identified and attention paid by others on the features of the cases. The study is based on field investigations. Data is derived from analysis of a larger series of an ongoing project. Information on initial and subsequent attitudes of subjects' mothers was available for 292 and 136 cases, respectively; attitudes of 227 families of deceased person (previous personality) with whom he is identified, and the extent of attention received from outsiders for 252 cases. Observations and interviews with multiple firsthand informants on both sides of the case as well as some neutral informants supplemented by examination of objective data were the chief methods of investigation. The initial attitude of mothers varied from encouragement (21%) to neutral or tolerance (51%) to discouragement (28%). However, it changed significantly from neutrality to taking measures to induce amnesia in their children for previous life memories due to various psychosocial pressures and prevalent beliefs. Families of the previous personalities, once convinced, showed complete acceptance in a majority of cases. Outside attention was received in 58% cases. The positive attitude of parents might facilitate expression of memories but subsequently attitudes of persons concerned do not seem to alter features of the cases.

  3. Iodine-131 induced hepatotoxicity in previously healthy patients with Grave's disease.

    Jhummon, Navina Priya; Tohooloo, Bhavna; Qu, Shen

    2013-01-01

    To describe the association of the rare and serious complication of liver toxicity in previously healthy Grave's disease (GD) patients after the treatment with radioactive iodine (131)I (RAI). We report the clinical, laboratory and pathologic findings of 2 cases of severe liver toxicity associated with the treatment with RAI in previously healthy patients with GD. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations excluded viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, granulomatous disease, primary biliary disease, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and heart failure. Case 1: A previously healthy 52-years old man reportedly having a typical GD but following RAI treatment, concomitantly developed severe liver toxicity that required 1 week of treatment in hospital. Case 2: A previously healthy 34-years old woman is reported as having a typical GD but developed jaundice following RAI treatment that required several weeks of in hospital treatment in the hepato-biliary department. In both cases, the liver dysfunction resolved after intensive treatment with hepato-protective agents. In this report the therapeutic considerations as well as the pathogenetic possibilities are reviewed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the association observed, which is rare but may be severe and should be considered in any case of thyrotoxicosis where a liver dysfunction develops after the treatment with radioactive iodine (131)I.

  4. Iodine-131 induced hepatotoxicity in previously healthy patients with Grave’s disease

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the association of the rare and serious complication of liver toxicity in previously healthy Grave’s disease (GD) patients after the treatment with radioactive iodine 131I (RAI). Case presentation We report the clinical, laboratory and pathologic findings of 2 cases of severe liver toxicity associated with the treatment with RAI in previously healthy patients with GD. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations excluded viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, granulomatous disease, primary biliary disease, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and heart failure. Case 1: A previously healthy 52-years old man reportedly having a typical GD but following RAI treatment, concomitantly developed severe liver toxicity that required 1 week of treatment in hospital. Case 2: A previously healthy 34-years old woman is reported as having a typical GD but developed jaundice following RAI treatment that required several weeks of in hospital treatment in the hepato-biliary department. In both cases, the liver dysfunction resolved after intensive treatment with hepato-protective agents. In this report the therapeutic considerations as well as the pathogenetic possibilities are reviewed. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the association observed, which is rare but may be severe and should be considered in any case of thyrotoxicosis where a liver dysfunction develops after the treatment with radioactive iodine 131I. PMID:23497434

  5. Observational cosmology

    Partridge, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Some sixty years after the development of relativistic cosmology by Einstein and his colleagues, observations are finally beginning to have an important impact on our views of the Universe. The available evidence seems to support one of the simplest cosmological models, the hot Big Bang model. The aim of this paper is to assess the observational support for certain assumptions underlying the hot Big Bang model. These are that the Universe is isobaric and homogeneous on a large scale; that it is expanding from an initial state of high density and temperature; and that the proper theory to describe the dynamics of the Universe is unmodified General Relativity. The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation and recent observations of the abundance of light elements, in particular, support these assumptions. Also examined here are the data bearing on the related questions of the geometry and the future of the Universe (is it ever-expanding, or fated to recollapse). Finally, some difficulties and faults of the standard model are discussed, particularly various aspects of the 'initial condition' problem. It appears that the simplest Big Bang cosmological model calls for a highly specific set of initial conditions to produce the presently observed properties of the Universe. (Auth.)

  6. Flare Observations

    Benz Arnold O.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  7. Flare Observations

    Benz, Arnold O.

    2017-12-01

    Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays beyond 1 GeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, SOHO, and more recently Hinode and SDO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s) of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting magnetic reconnection as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth's ionosphere. Flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, but every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  8. Exploring the Link between Nucleosome Occupancy and DNA Methylation

    Cecilia Lövkvist

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Near promoters, both nucleosomes and CpG sites form characteristic spatial patterns. Previously, nucleosome depleted regions were observed upstream of transcription start sites and nucleosome occupancy was reported to correlate both with CpG density and the level of CpG methylation. Several studies imply a causal link where CpG methylation might induce nucleosome formation, whereas others argue the opposite, i.e., that nucleosome occupancy might influence CpG methylation. Correlations are indeed evident between nucleosomes, CpG density and CpG methylation—at least near promoter sites. It is however less established whether there is an immediate causal relation between nucleosome occupancy and the presence of CpG sites—or if nucleosome occupancy could be influenced by other factors. In this work, we test for such causality in human genomes by analyzing the three quantities both near and away from promoter sites. For data from the human genome we compare promoter regions with given CpG densities with genomic regions without promoters but of similar CpG densities. We find the observed correlation between nucleosome occupancy and CpG density, respectively CpG methylation, to be specific to promoter regions. In other regions along the genome nucleosome occupancy is statistically independent of the positioning of CpGs or their methylation levels. Anti-correlation between CpG density and methylation level is however similarly strong in both regions. On promoters, nucleosome occupancy is more strongly affected by the level of gene expression than CpG density or CpG methylation—calling into question any direct causal relation between nucleosome occupancy and CpG organization. Rather, our results suggest that for organisms with cytosine methylation nucleosome occupancy might be primarily linked to gene expression, with no strong impact on methylation.

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the EDWIN LINK in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1996-04-15 to 1996-05-16 (NODC Accession 0113539)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113539 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from EDWIN LINK in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  10. Link overlap, viability, and mutual percolation in multiplex networks

    Min, Byungjoon; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K.-I.

    2015-01-01

    Many real-world complex systems are best modeled by multiplex networks. The multiplexity has proved to have broad impact on the system’s structure and function. Most theoretical studies on multiplex networks to date, however, have largely ignored the effect of the link overlap across layers despite strong empirical evidences for its significance. In this article, we investigate the effect of the link overlap in the viability of multiplex networks, both analytically and numerically. After a short recap of the original multiplex viability study, the distinctive role of overlapping links in viability and mutual connectivity is emphasized and exploited for setting up a proper analytic framework. A rich phase diagram for viability is obtained and greatly diversified patterns of hysteretic behavior in viability are observed in the presence of link overlap. Mutual percolation with link overlap is revisited as a limit of multiplex viability problem, and the controversy between existing results is clarified. The distinctive role of overlapping links is further demonstrated by the different responses of networks under random removals of overlapping and non-overlapping links, respectively, as well as under several link-removal strategies. Our results show that the link overlap facilitates the viability and mutual percolation; at the same time, the presence of link overlap poses a challenge in analytical approaches to the problem

  11. Essentials of psychoanalytic cure: a symposium. Introduction and survey of some previous views.

    Osman, M P; Tabachnick, N D

    1988-01-01

    Friedman (1978) suggested that implicit in the theories of the psychoanalytic process a classification of three separate trends can be identified. In the first instance, there is what could be called "understanding," whether it be intellectual or emotional. Second, there is "attachment," which refers to curative measures based on some "binding emotional reaction to the analyst." And third, and less explicitly, there is "integration," which refers to the development of a synthesis that has the effect of harmonizing parts of the mind or elevating psychic functioning to a higher level. Freud's writings embodied all three of these trends. The participants of the symposium at Marienbad, being strongly influenced by Strachey's emphasis on superego alteration through introjection, placed the greater stress on attachment. Loewald, emphasizing as he does the importance of the patient's identification with the analyst as a corrective reliving of the origins of identification in childhood, highlights attachment while also relating it to understanding. Stone and Gitelson also focused on the beneficial aspects of the affective link to the analyst and the important function served by this link in facilitating understanding of the analyst's interpretation. At the Edinburgh conference, however, aside from Gitelson and Nacht, who viewed attachment as an integrating or structuring aspect of the analytic process, the participants placed their confidence almost completely on "understanding" strictly through interpretation. In the latest debate between the proponents of self psychology and the object relations approach proposed by Kernberg, many aspects of these previous discussions and controversies have resurfaced (Friedman, 1978). Kohut, utilizing Freud's concept that links gratification and minimal frustration together as the developer of structure, relied on the empathic bond between patient and analyst as a basic component of the process of cure. Kernberg, however, relying

  12. Links between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: serum lipids or atherosclerosis per se?

    Bagger, Y Z; Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Alexandersen, P

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological observations suggest links between osteoporosis and risk of acute cardiovascular events and vice versa. Whether the two clinical conditions are linked by common pathogenic factors or atherosclerosis per se remains incompletely understood. We investigated whether serum lipids...

  13. Patterns of presentation of chronic ischemic heart disease with and without previous myocardial infarction

    Ahmad, R.; Rabbani, A.; Awan, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) is on the rise, from increasing lifespan of population and availability of better medical facilities. We studied chronic IHD cases with and without previous myocardial infarction, in Hazara, NWFP, Pakistan to evaluate left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, wall motion abnormalities and complications of IHD. All patients presenting with history of chest pain in Medical 'C' Unit, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from June 2004 to May 2005 were included in the study. Patients with non-cardiac chest pain were excluded from the study. Cases with congenital and rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, unstable angina and acute MI were excluded. Patients with IHD with or without myocardial infarction (MI) were studied for left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction, left atrial size, E/A ratio), wall motion abnormalities and complications of IHD (Mitral regurgitation, Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), LV aneurysm, LV clot). Clinical and echocardiographic evaluation was done in each case. Out of 183 cases of chronic IHD, 123 patients were without previous MI and 60 had had previous MI. Ejection fraction (EF) was 45%+-15 in the group without MI and 35+-11% in cases with MI. Left Atrium (LA) size was 35+-6 mm and 39+-4 mm in the two groups respectively. LV diastolic dysfunction was seen in 17% in the first and 24% in the second group respectively. Global hypokinesia was seen in 8% and 17% in the 2 groups respectively. Regional Wall Motion Abnormality (RWMA) was observed in 12% in patients without MI and in 58% cases with MI. Mitral regurgitation was seen in 10 and 20% in the 2 groups respectively LV clots, VSD, LV and aneurysm were seen in 8.4, 5, and 6.5% respectively, only in cases with previous MI. LV dysfunction, wall motion abnormalities and mitral regurgitation were more common in IHD cases with previous heart attack. (author)

  14. Initial results of CyberKnife treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer

    Himei, Kengo; Katsui, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CyberKnife for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer. Thirty-one patients with recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer were treated with a CyberKnife from July 1999 to March 2002 at Okayama Kyokuto Hospital were retrospectively studied. The accumulated dose was 28-80 Gy (median 60 Gy). The interval between CyberKnife treatment and previous radiotherapy was 0.4-429.5 months (median 16.3 months). Primary lesions were nasopharynx: 7, maxillary sinus: 6, tongue: 5, ethmoid sinus: 3, and others: 1. The pathology was squamous cell carcinoma: 25, adenoid cystic carcinoma: 4, and others: 2. Symptoms were pain: 8, and nasal bleeding: 2. The prescribed dose was 15.0-40.3 Gy (median 32.3 Gy) as for the marginal dose. The response rate (complete response (CR)+partial response (PR)) and local control rate (CR+PR+no change (NC)) was 74% and 94% respectively. Pain disappeared for 4 cases, relief was obtained for 4 cases and no change for 2 cases and nasal bleeding disappeared for 2 cases for an improvement of symptoms. An adverse effects were observed as mucositis in 5 cases and neck swelling in one case. Prognosis of recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer was estimated as poor. Our early experience shows that CyberKnife is expected to be feasible treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer, and for the reduction adverse effects and maintenance of useful quality of life (QOL) for patients. (author)

  15. Effects of previous ovarian surgery for endometriosis on the outcome of assisted reproduction treatment.

    Geber, Selmo; Ferreira, Daniela Parreiras; Spyer Prates, Luis Felipe Víctor; Sales, Liana; Sampaio, Marcos

    2002-01-01

    Endometriosis affects 2-50% of women at reproductive age. Surgery is an option for treatment, but there is no convincing evidence that it promotes a significant improvement in fertility. Also, the removal of ovarian endometrioma might lead to a reduction in the follicular reserve and response to stimulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of previous ovarian surgery for endometriosis on the ovarian response in assisted reproduction treatment cycles and its pregnancy outcome. A total of 61 women, with primary infertility and previously having undergone ovarian surgery for endometriosis, who had received 74 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles, were studied (study group). A further 74 patients with primary infertility who underwent 77 IVF/ICSI cycles within#10; the same period of time, at the same clinic and without previous ovarian surgery or endometriosis were studied as a control group. Patients were matched for age and treatment performed. Patients 35 years with previous ovarian surgery needed more ampoules for ovulation induction (P = 0.017) and had fewer follicles and oocytes than women in the control group (P = 0.001). Duration of folliculogenesis was similar in both groups, as was fertilization rate. A total of 10 patients achieved pregnancy in the study group (34.5%) and 14 (48.3%) in the control group. Although a lower pregnancy rate was observed in patients who had undergone previous ovarian surgery, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.424). In conclusion, ovarian surgery for the treatment of endometriosis reduces the ovarian outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles in women >35 years old, and might also decrease pregnancy rates. Therefore, for infertile patients, non-surgical treatment might be a better option to avoid reduction of the ovarian response.

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... link between drug misuse and HIV. http://1.usa.gov/1z20ww6 How many of us think about ... can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http://1.usa.gov/1uSUAI3 Think you’re not at risk? ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug misuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your Flickr , ...

  18. Decouplink: Dynamic Links for Java

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    of dimensions of extension that can be exploited without performing modification of existing types. Thus, dynamic links make it possible to enforce the open/closed principle in situations where it would otherwise not be possible. We present Decouplink – a library-based implementation of dynamic links for Java...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as well as posters, e-cards, ... to misuse drugs. The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one ... site. Sincerely, Nora D. Volkow, M.D. Director ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Link Need ideas for posts? We’ve provided sample Facebook status updates that you can easily copy ... LearntheLink. Need ideas for tweets? We’ve provided sample tweets that you can easily copy and paste ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... HIV/AIDS and the discovery of promising treatment interventions for breaking the harmful links between them, we ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse ... Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... HIV. Post on Facebook About Learn the Link Need ideas for posts? We’ve provided sample Facebook ... HIV, be sure to use the hashtag #LearntheLink. Need ideas for tweets? We’ve provided sample tweets ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging ... Badges Other Resources Strategic Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... site. Please link these banners back to this site at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse ...

  8. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    2010-07-08

    ... (previously Precision Helicopters, LLC); Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins... (Previously Hawkins & Powers Aviation); S.M. &T. Aircraft (Previously Us Helicopter Inc., UNC Helicopters, Inc...

  9. 75 FR 66009 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    2010-10-27

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The Lancair...-15895. Applicability (c) This AD applies to the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate...

  10. Effect of previous irradiation of mineral powders on stability of suspensions

    Kazaryan, G.A.; Polushkin, V.A.; Vlasov, A.V.; Tsetlin, B.L.; Chakhoyan, P.A.; TsNII Khlopchatobumazhnoj Promyshlennosti, Moscow)

    1984-01-01

    One has investigated the influence of the previous irradiation (X-rays and gamma rays) in the viscosity and the aggregative stability of the suspensions of mineral powders (e. g. kaolin, MgO, TiO 2 ) in a number of organic liquids. It has been shown that when the powders have been irradiated at a dose of the order of 10 to 100 Gy, a considerable increase in the stability of suspensions in polar organic liquids is observed. The detected phenomenon is attributed to the formation of additional, positively charged centres on the surface of the particles of mineral substances under the effect of irradiation

  11. LinkMind: Link Optimization in Swarming Mobile Sensor Networks

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2012-01-01

    of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link...... optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm...

  12. Observational astrophysics.

    Léna, P.; Lebrun, F.; Mignard, F.

    This book is the 2nd edition of an English translation published in 1988 (45.003.105) of the French original "Astrophysique: Méthodes physiques de l'observation" published in 1986 (42.003.048). Written specifically for physicists and graduate students in astronomy, this textbook focuses on astronomical observation and on the basic physical principles that astronomers use to conceive, build and exploit their instruments at their ultimate limits in sensitivity or resolution. This second edition has been entirely restructured and almost doubled in size, in order to improve its clarity and to account for the great progress achieved in the last 15 years. It deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. It presents the new generation of giant ground-based telescopes, with the new methods of optical interferometry and adaptive optics, and also the ambitious concepts behind planned space missions for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum and touches upon the "new astronomies" becoming possible with gravitational waves and neutrinos.

  13. Eight previously unidentified mutations found in the OA1 ocular albinism gene

    Dufier Jean-Louis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular albinism type 1 (OA1 is an X-linked ocular disorder characterized by a severe reduction in visual acuity, nystagmus, hypopigmentation of the retinal pigmented epithelium, foveal hypoplasia, macromelanosomes in pigmented skin and eye cells, and misrouting of the optical tracts. This disease is primarily caused by mutations in the OA1 gene. Methods The ophthalmologic phenotype of the patients and their family members was characterized. We screened for mutations in the OA1 gene by direct sequencing of the nine PCR-amplified exons, and for genomic deletions by PCR-amplification of large DNA fragments. Results We sequenced the nine exons of the OA1 gene in 72 individuals and found ten different mutations in seven unrelated families and three sporadic cases. The ten mutations include an amino acid substitution and a premature stop codon previously reported by our team, and eight previously unidentified mutations: three amino acid substitutions, a duplication, a deletion, an insertion and two splice-site mutations. The use of a novel Taq polymerase enabled us to amplify large genomic fragments covering the OA1 gene. and to detect very likely six distinct large deletions. Furthermore, we were able to confirm that there was no deletion in twenty one patients where no mutation had been found. Conclusion The identified mutations affect highly conserved amino acids, cause frameshifts or alternative splicing, thus affecting folding of the OA1 G protein coupled receptor, interactions of OA1 with its G protein and/or binding with its ligand.

  14. Is parental competitive ability in winter negatively affected by previous springs' family size?

    Fokkema, Rienk W; Ubels, Richard; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2017-03-01

    Reproductive behavior cannot be understood without taking the local level of competition into account. Experimental work in great tits ( Parus major ) showed that (1) a survival cost of reproduction was paid in environments with high levels of competition during the winter period and (2) experimentally manipulated family size negatively affected the ability of parents to compete for preferred breeding boxes in the next spring. The fact that survival was affected in winter suggests that the competitive ability of parents in winter may also be affected by previous reproductive effort. In this study, we aim to investigate whether (1) such carryover effects of family size on the ability of parents to compete for resources in the winter period occurred and (2) this could explain the occurrence of a survival cost of reproduction under increased competition. During two study years, we manipulated the size of in total 168 great tit broods. Next, in winter, we induced competition among the parents by drastically reducing the availability of roosting boxes in their local environment for one week. Contrary to our expectation, we found no negative effect of family size manipulation on the probability of parents to obtain a roosting box. In line with previous work, we did find that a survival cost of reproduction was paid only in plots in which competition for roosting boxes was shortly increased. Our findings thus add to the scarce experimental evidence that survival cost of reproduction are paid under higher levels of local competition but this could not be linked to a reduced competitive ability of parents in winter.

  15. A unified approach to linking experimental, statistical and computational analysis of spike train data.

    Liang Meng

    Full Text Available A fundamental issue in neuroscience is how to identify the multiple biophysical mechanisms through which neurons generate observed patterns of spiking activity. In previous work, we proposed a method for linking observed patterns of spiking activity to specific biophysical mechanisms based on a state space modeling framework and a sequential Monte Carlo, or particle filter, estimation algorithm. We have shown, in simulation, that this approach is able to identify a space of simple biophysical models that were consistent with observed spiking data (and included the model that generated the data, but have yet to demonstrate the application of the method to identify realistic currents from real spike train data. Here, we apply the particle filter to spiking data recorded from rat layer V cortical neurons, and correctly identify the dynamics of an slow, intrinsic current. The underlying intrinsic current is successfully identified in four distinct neurons, even though the cells exhibit two distinct classes of spiking activity: regular spiking and bursting. This approach--linking statistical, computational, and experimental neuroscience--provides an effective technique to constrain detailed biophysical models to specific mechanisms consistent with observed spike train data.

  16. Linking Diversity and Differentiation

    Hans-Rolf Gregorius

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the term differentiation refers to differences between collections for the distribution of specified traits of their members, while diversity deals with (effective numbers of trait states (types. Counting numbers of types implies discrete traits such as alleles and genotypes in population genetics or species and taxa in ecology. Comparisons between the concepts of differentiation and diversity therefore primarily refer to discrete traits. Diversity is related to differentiation through the idea that the total diversity of a subdivided collection should be composed of the diversity within the subcollections and a complement called “diversity between subcollections”. The idea goes back to the perception that the mixing of differentiated collections increases diversity. Several existing concepts of “diversity between subcollections” are based on this idea. Among them, β-diversity and fixation (inadvertently called differentiation are the most prominent in ecology and in population genetics, respectively. The pertaining measures are shown to quantify the effect of differentiation in terms of diversity components, though from a dual perspective: the classical perspective of differentiation between collections for their type compositions, and the reverse perspective of differentiation between types for their collection affiliations. A series of measures of diversity-oriented differentiation is presented that consider this dual perspective at two levels of diversity partitioning: the overall type or subcollection diversity and the joint type-subcollection diversity. It turns out that, in contrast with common notions, the measures of fixation (such as FST or GST refer to the perspective of type rather than subcollection differentiation. This unexpected observation strongly suggests that the popular interpretations of fixation measures must be reconsidered.

  17. Previous PICC Placement May Be Associated With Catheter-Related Infections in Hemodialysis Patients

    Butler, Philip J.; Sood, Shreya; Mojibian, Hamid; Tal, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The identification of novel, modifiable risk factors for CRIs may lead to improved outcomes in this population. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been hypothesized to compromise vascular access due to vascular damage and venous thrombosis, whereas venous thrombosis has been linked to the development of CRIs. Here we examine the association between PICC placement and CRIs. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all chronic hemodialysis catheter placements and exchanges performed at a large university hospital from September 2003 to September 2008. History of PICC line use was determined by examining hospital radiologic records from December 1993 to September 2008. Catheter-related complications were assessed and correlated with PICC line history. Results: One hundred eighty-five patients with 713 chronic tunneled hemodialysis catheter placements were identified. Thirty-eight of those patients (20.5%) had a history of PICC placement; these patients were more likely to have CRIs (odds ratio = 2.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.71–3.53, p < .001) compared with patients without a history of PICC placement. There was no difference between the two groups in age or number of catheters placed. Conclusion: Previous PICC placement may be associated with catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients.

  18. A previously undescribed organic residue sheds light on heat treatment in the Middle Stone Age.

    Schmidt, Patrick; Porraz, Guillaume; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; February, Edmund; Ligouis, Bertrand; Paris, Céline; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Parkington, John E; Miller, Christopher E; Nickel, Klaus G; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has in recent years gained increasing importance for our understanding of the evolution of 'modern human behaviour' during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). A key element in the suite of behaviours linked with modern humans is heat treatment of materials such as ochre for ritual purposes and stone prior to tool production. Until now, there has been no direct archaeological evidence for the exact procedure used in the heat treatment of silcrete. Through the analysis of heat-treated artefacts from the Howiesons Poort of Diepkloof Rock Shelter, we identified a hitherto unknown type of organic residue - a tempering-residue - that sheds light on the processes used for heat treatment in the MSA. This black film on the silcrete surface is an organic tar that contains microscopic fragments of charcoal and formed as a residue during the direct contact of the artefacts with hot embers of green wood. Our results suggest that heat treatment of silcrete was conducted directly using an open fire, similar to those likely used for cooking. These findings add to the discussion about the complexity of MSA behaviour and appear to contradict previous studies that had suggested that heat treatment of silcrete was a complex (i.e., requiring a large number of steps for its realization) and resource-consuming procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Men's health promotion interventions: what have we learned from previous programmes.

    Robertson, Steve; Witty, Karl; Zwolinsky, Steve; Day, Rhiannon

    2013-11-01

    Concern persists in health-related literature about men's reduced life expectancy and higher premature death rates; this is often linked to difficulties in engaging with men as a client group. However, some innovative projects and programmes, often led by health visitors or other community based nurses, have developed successful health promotion work with men. This article collates existing tacit knowledge (previous learning) about men's health interventions by integrating interview data from nine practitioners who have established such initiatives with data from 35 men's health project reports to consider 'what works'. Five themes stood out as being significant across the data reviewed: using the right setting (often outside statutory services); ensuring the right approach (drawing on male-specific interests and language); actively listening to what local men say; appropriate training (initial and ongoing) for those involved in such work; and partnership working with local community groups, businesses and statutory service providers. While not a panacea for working with any and all men, these themes form a good basis for successful engagement with men and align well with what a recent review of health visitor interventions suggest works in helping bridge service provision-uptake gaps.

  20. Economic impact of feeding a phenylalanine-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria.

    Brown, M C; Guest, J F

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the direct healthcare cost of managing adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) for one year before any dietary restrictions and for the first year after a phenylalanine- (PHE-) restricted diet was introduced. The resource use and corresponding costs were estimated from medical records and interviews with health care professionals experienced in caring for adults with previously untreated PKU. The mean annual cost of caring for a client being fed an unrestricted diet was estimated to be 83 996 pound silver. In the first year after introducing a PHE-restricted diet, the mean annual cost was reduced by 20 647 pound silver to 63 348 pound silver as a result of a reduction in nursing time, hospitalizations, outpatient clinic visits and medications. However, the economic benefit of the diet depended on whether the clients were previously high or low users of nursing care. Nursing time was the key cost-driver, accounting for 79% of the cost of managing high users and 31% of the management cost for low users. In contrast, the acquisition cost of a PHE-restricted diet accounted for up to 6% of the cost for managing high users and 15% of the management cost for low users. Sensitivity analyses showed that introducing a PHE-restricted diet reduces the annual cost of care, provided that annual nursing time was reduced by more than 8% or more than 5% of clients respond to the diet. The clients showed fewer negative behaviours when being fed a PHE-restricted diet, which may account for the observed reduction in nursing time needed to care for these clients. In conclusion, feeding a PHE-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated PKU leads to economic benefits to the UK's National Health Service and society in general.

  1. Does previous abdominal surgery affect the course and outcomes of laparoscopic bariatric surgery?

    Major, Piotr; Droś, Jakub; Kacprzyk, Artur; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Małczak, Piotr; Wysocki, Michał; Janik, Michał; Walędziak, Maciej; Paśnik, Krzysztof; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek; Proczko-Stepaniak, Monika; Kaska, Łukasz; Lech, Paweł; Michalik, Maciej; Duchnik, Michał; Kaseja, Krzysztof; Pastuszka, Maciej; Stepuch, Paweł; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2018-03-26

    Global experiences in general surgery suggest that previous abdominal surgery may negatively influence different aspects of perioperative care. As the incidence of bariatric procedures has recently increased, it is essential to assess such correlations in bariatric surgery. To assess whether previous abdominal surgery influences the course and outcomes of laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Seven referral bariatric centers in Poland. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2413 patients; 1706 patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) matched the inclusion criteria. Patients with no history of abdominal surgery were included as group 1, while those who had undergone at least 1 abdominal surgery were included as group 2. Group 2 had a significantly prolonged median operation time for RYGB (P = .012), and the longest operation time was observed in patients who had previously undergone surgeries in both the upper and lower abdomen (P = .002). Such a correlation was not found in SG cases (P = .396). Groups 1 and 2 had similar rates of intraoperative adverse events and postoperative complications (P = .562 and P = .466, respectively). Group 2 had a longer median duration of hospitalization than group 1 (P = .034), while the readmission rate was similar between groups (P = .079). There was no significant difference between groups regarding the influence of the long-term effects of bariatric treatment on weight loss (percentage of follow-up was 55%). Previous abdominal surgery prolongs the operative time of RYGB and the duration of postoperative hospitalization, but does not affect the long-term outcomes of bariatric treatment. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Is the Universe More Transparent to Gamma Rays than Previously Thought?

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Scully, Sean T.

    2009-01-01

    The MAGIC collaboration has recently reported the detection of the strong gamma-ray blazar 3C279 during a 1-2 day flare. They have used their spectral observations to draw conclusions regarding upper limits on the opacity of the Universe to high energy gamma-rays and, by implication, upper limits on the extragalactic mid-infrared background radiation. In this paper we examine the effect of gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic infrared radiation on intrinsic spectra for this blazar and compare our results with the observational data on 3C279. We find agreement with our previous results, contrary to the recent assertion of the MAGIC group that the Universe is more transparent to gamma-rays than our calculations indicate. Our analysis indicates that in the energy range between approx. 80 and approx. 500 GeV, 3C279 has a best-fit intrinsic spectrum with a spectral index approx. 1.78 using our fast evolution model and approx. 2.19 using our baseline model. However, we also find that spectral indices in the range of 1.0 to 3.0 are almost as equally acceptable as the best fit spectral indices. Assuming the same intrinsic spectral index for this flare as for the 1991 flare from 3C279 observed by EGRET, viz., 2.02, which lies between our best fit indeces, we estimate that the MAGIC flare was approx.3 times brighter than the EGRET flare observed 15 years earlier.

  3. Application of a fast sorting algorithm to the assignment of mass spectrometric cross-linking data.

    Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Borchers, Christoph H

    2014-09-01

    Cross-linking combined with MS involves enzymatic digestion of cross-linked proteins and identifying cross-linked peptides. Assignment of cross-linked peptide masses requires a search of all possible binary combinations of peptides from the cross-linked proteins' sequences, which becomes impractical with increasing complexity of the protein system and/or if digestion enzyme specificity is relaxed. Here, we describe the application of a fast sorting algorithm to search large sequence databases for cross-linked peptide assignments based on mass. This same algorithm has been used previously for assigning disulfide-bridged peptides (Choi et al., ), but has not previously been applied to cross-linking studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Quantum and classical optics–emerging links

    Eberly, J H; Qian, Xiao-Feng; Qasimi, Asma Al; Ali, Hazrat; Alonso, M A; Gutiérrez-Cuevas, R; Little, Bethany J; Howell, John C; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A N

    2016-01-01

    Quantum optics and classical optics are linked in ways that are becoming apparent as a result of numerous recent detailed examinations of the relationships that elementary notions of optics have with each other. These elementary notions include interference, polarization, coherence, complementarity and entanglement. All of them are present in both quantum and classical optics. They have historic origins, and at least partly for this reason not all of them have quantitative definitions that are universally accepted. This makes further investigation into their engagement in optics very desirable. We pay particular attention to effects that arise from the mere co-existence of separately identifiable and readily available vector spaces. Exploitation of these vector-space relationships are shown to have unfamiliar theoretical implications and new options for observation. It is our goal to bring emerging quantum–classical links into wider view and to indicate directions in which forthcoming and future work will promote discussion and lead to unified understanding. (invited comment)

  5. Dissecting the links between cerebellum and dystonia.

    Malone, Ailish; Manto, Mario; Hass, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Dystonia is a common movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions. These contractions generate twisting and repetitive movements or typical abnormal postures, often exacerbated by voluntary movement. Dystonia can affect almost all the voluntary muscles. For several decades, the discussion on the pathogenesis has been focused on basal ganglia circuits, especially striatal networks. So far, although dystonia has been observed in some forms of ataxia such as dominant ataxias, the link between the cerebellum and dystonia has remained unclear. Recent human studies and experimental data mainly in rodents show that the cerebellum circuitry could also be a key player in the pathogenesis of some forms of dystonia. In particular, studies based on behavioral adaptation paradigm shed light on the links between dystonia and cerebellum. The spectrum of movement disorders in which the cerebellum is implicated is continuously expanding, and manipulation of cerebellar circuits might even emerge as a candidate therapy in the coming years.

  6. Rocket observations

    1984-05-01

    The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) sounding rocket experiments were carried out during the periods of August to September, 1982, January to February and August to September, 1983 and January to February, 1984 with sounding rockets. Among 9 rockets, 3 were K-9M, 1 was S-210, 3 were S-310 and 2 were S-520. Two scientific satellites were launched on February 20, 1983 for solar physics and on February 14, 1984 for X-ray astronomy. These satellites were named as TENMA and OHZORA and designated as 1983-011A and 1984-015A, respectively. Their initial orbital elements are also described. A payload recovery was successfully carried out by S-520-6 rocket as a part of MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Non-linear Interaction Experiment) which is a scientific study of nonlinear plasma phenomena in conjunction with the environmental assessment study for the future SPS project. Near IR observation of the background sky shows a more intense flux than expected possibly coming from some extragalactic origin and this may be related to the evolution of the universe. US-Japan cooperative program of Tether Experiment was done on board US rocket.

  7. Links and opportunities

    1999-09-01

    , Anglo-Saxons and Vikings in Britain; and the Football museum in Preston plans to help local pupils with their literacy and numeracy skills by preparing newspaper reports and football results tables. In this role of supporting education the various bodies will be both helping teachers to deliver the curriculum and also bringing their own cultural resources to life for the students. On a related theme, the Royal Observatory at Greenwich has just introduced its own Open Museum course to prepare adults with an interest in astronomy to study for a GCSE in the subject. The course begins in October and lasts for nine months, covering topics such as the Earth and Moon, solar system, stars, galaxies and observing techniques. Those undertaking the course will be able to use the Observatory's 28 inch refractor and a Meade LX10 Schmidt Cassegrain telescope. Further information on the course and the Open Museum is available from Joy Affection (tel: 0181 312 6747) or from the NMM website at www.nmm.ac.uk.

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog ... Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... she went to a party and under the influence of drugs and alcohol engaged in risky sexual ... the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  11. Medicare and Medicaid Linked Files

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare-Medicaid Linked Enrollee Analytic Data Source (MMLEADS) has been developed to allow for the examination of all Medicare and Medicaid enrollment and...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Link between drug use and HIV and to help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What ... and the public. Send the Message Overview Please help us send the message to young people and ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... people on HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), for example, who continue to misuse drugs. The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one example of how NIDA continues to respond to the ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV ... Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a ... time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to as " ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to our latest ... greater injury to cells in the brain and cognitive impairment among people who use methamphetamine than among ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... of many drugs, which can alter judgment and inhibition and lead people to engage in impulsive and ... easily copy and paste to help show your support for Learn the Link . Be sure to check ...

  19. EPA Linked Open Data (Collection)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a collection item referencing the following EPA Linked Data resources: - EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS) - EPA Substance Registry Service (SRS) -...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... NIDA Donating to NIDA Frequently Asked Questions Contact Us Sharing Tools and Badges Other Resources Strategic Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  2. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters January 14, 2013 Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis Normal skin from a ... in mice suggests that lack of a certain protein may trigger atopic dermatitis, the most common type ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Process Funding Priorities Research Training News & Events News Nora's Blog NIDA in the News NIDA Notes Podcasts ... of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director The Link ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... their lives , but now their night out always will be associated with HIV/AIDS. The “d’cisions” ... for breaking the harmful links between them, we will continue to update this Web site. Sincerely, Nora ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Link" campaign continues to raise awareness among this generation of the real risks of drug use for ... Resource Center (NWHRC) Mujeres Unidas Contra el SIDA New Mexico AIDS Services African Advocates Against AIDS The ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... link between non-injection drug use and HIV. Television Networks: MunDos Azteca America ... and Families The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) The United Negro College Fund, ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... of people infected with HIV, drug misuse can interfere with an individual's likelihood of adhering to the ... HIV/AIDS and the discovery of promising treatment interventions for breaking the harmful links between them, we ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even further. Tweet About Learn the Link To ... other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even further. Share with Flickr, Pinterest or Instagram ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... can affect anyone. Watch the “d’cisions” Videos Campaign Materials After the Party Posters: We have developed ... share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the Link campaign uses TV, ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the ... about the link between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook ... HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to ...

  13. Analytic invariants of boundary links

    Garoufalidis, Stavros; Levine, Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Using basic topology and linear algebra, we define a plethora of invariants of boundary links whose values are power series with noncommuting variables. These turn out to be useful and elementary reformulations of an invariant originally defined by M. Farber.

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... that use text messaging as a means of communication. The "Text Message" PSA features two young girls ... about the link between drug misuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... NIDA’s "Learn the Link" campaign continues to raise awareness among this generation of the real risks of ... Collaborators Thanks to Those Who Have Helped Raise Awareness of Our Campaign! NIDA acknowledges the following television ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... educational institutions, magazines, newspapers, companies, events, and radio stations for helping to raise awareness of the link ... Poets Sistahs Getting Real About HIV Conference Radio Stations: WTOP Radio WPFW Radio WOL Radio News & Events ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making ... and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people ... years, HIV is no longer a death sentence, as it was when the epidemic began. This is ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Campaign Overview The Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as ... CW BET NBC ABC FOX LATV My Network TV Organizations: AIDS.gov AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... risky behavior. Drug misuse by any route (not just injection) can put a person at risk for ... The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one example of how NIDA continues to respond ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... your Flickr, Pinterest, Instagram or other visually interesting page using pictures from NIDA ... Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as well as posters, ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the ... linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people if an infected person's ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter ... Network TV Organizations: AIDS.gov AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth and Families The American Academy of Child & ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction have been linked with ... Campaign messages and materials were tested among various groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol ... After the Party Posters: We have developed posters with our campaign ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as well as posters, e-cards, and other tools to send the message to America's youth that ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... the Learn the Link message. Campaign messages and materials were tested among various groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, the discussion between friends, and the importance of family. For ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Learn the Link with Videos We have numerous videos on our website that are available for your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... increases brain viral load and activates natural killer cells in simian immunodeficiency ... out with friends? It’s a topic you can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http://1.usa.gov/ ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... pictures from NIDA images. Visit the NIDA Flickr account for images. Share your favorite image! Check out ... your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the Link ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search ... the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  13. Linked data and user interaction

    Cervone, H Frank

    2015-01-01

    This collection of research papers provides extensive information on deploying services, concepts, and approaches for using open linked data from libraries and other cultural heritage institutions. With a special emphasis on how libraries and other cultural heritage institutions can create effective end user interfaces using open, linked data or other datasets. These papers are essential reading for any one interesting in user interface design or the semantic web.

  14. Wireless data link for FBTR

    Sundararajan, M.K.; Prabhakara Rao, G.; Ilango Sambasivan, S.; Swaminathan, P.; Ramakrishna, P.V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of a wireless data link for transmission of block pile signals at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) of Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR). This link is to establish wireless connectivity, typically at RS232C rates, over distances of the order of 50 m, and is expected to operate under electrically hostile conditions. (author)

  15. Linking Ethics and Economic Growth

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    Hunt (2012) builds on his work concerning ethics and resource-advantage theory to link personal ethical standards, societal norms, and economic growth but offers few details concerning the precise mechanisms that link ethics and growth. This comment suggests a number of such mechanisms – for exam...... – for example, the influence of prevailing ethical norms on the aggregate elasticity of substitution and, therefore, total factor productivity and growth....

  16. Manual de LinkedIn

    Blázquez Sevilla, Alegría; Borrás Gené, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    Manual básico sobre la red profesional LinkedIn, donde se analiza la red y se explica a fondo cómo crear un perfil y gestionarlo. Incluye información sobre las diferentes secciones características de la red LinkedIn y ofrece consejos para la correcta gestión de un perfil, buscando su mejor rendimiento.

  17. Completion pancreatectomy and islet cell autotransplantation as salvage therapy for patients failing previous operative interventions for chronic pancreatitis.

    Wilson, Gregory C; Sutton, Jeffrey M; Smith, Milton T; Schmulewitz, Nathan; Salehi, Marzieh; Choe, Kyuran A; Levinsky, Nick C; Brunner, John E; Abbott, Daniel E; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Edwards, Michael J; Ahmad, Syed A

    2015-10-01

    Traditional decompressive and/or pancreatic resection procedures have been the cornerstone of operative therapy for refractory abdominal pain secondary to chronic pancreatitis. Management of patients that fail these traditional interventions represents a clinical dilemma. Salvage therapy with completion pancreatectomy and islet cell autotransplantation (CPIAT) is an emerging treatment option for this patient population; however, outcomes after this procedure have not been well-studied. All patients undergoing CPIAT after previous decompressive and/or pancreatic resection for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis at our institution were identified for inclusion in this single-center observational study. Study end points included islet yield, narcotic requirements, glycemic control, and quality of life (QOL). QOL was assessed using the Short Form (SF)-36 health questionnaire. Sixty-four patients underwent CPIAT as salvage therapy. The median age at time of CPIAT was 38 years (interquartile range [IQR], 14.7-65.4). The most common etiology of chronic pancreatitis was idiopathic pancreatitis (66%; n = 42) followed by genetically linked pancreatitis (9%; n = 6) and alcoholic pancreatitis (8%; n = 5). All of these patients had previously undergone prior limited pancreatic resection or decompressive procedure. The majority of patients (50%; n = 32) underwent prior pancreaticoduodenectomy, whereas the remainder had undergone distal pancreatectomy (17%; n = 11), Frey (13%; n = 8), Puestow (13%; n = 8), or Berne (8%; n = 5) procedures. Median time from initial surgical intervention to CPIAT was 28.1 months (IQR, 13.6-43.0). All of these patients underwent a successful CPIAT. Mean operative time was 502.2 minutes with average hospital duration of stay of 13 days. Islet cell isolation was feasible despite previous procedures with a mean islet yield of 331,304 islet cell equivalents, which totaled an islet cell autotransplantation of 4,737 ± 492 IEQ/kg body weight. Median

  18. Khovanov homology of graph-links

    Nikonov, Igor M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-31

    Graph-links arise as the intersection graphs of turning chord diagrams of links. Speaking informally, graph-links provide a combinatorial description of links up to mutations. Many link invariants can be reformulated in the language of graph-links. Khovanov homology, a well-known and useful knot invariant, is defined for graph-links in this paper (in the case of the ground field of characteristic two). Bibliography: 14 titles.

  19. Gains following perceptual learning are closely linked to the initial visual acuity.

    Yehezkel, Oren; Sterkin, Anna; Lev, Maria; Levi, Dennis M; Polat, Uri

    2016-04-28

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the dependence of perceptual learning gains on initial visual acuity (VA), in a large sample of subjects with a wide range of VAs. A large sample of normally sighted and presbyopic subjects (N = 119; aged 40 to 63) with a wide range of uncorrected near visual acuities (VA, -0.12 to 0.8 LogMAR), underwent perceptual learning. Training consisted of detecting briefly presented Gabor stimuli under spatial and temporal masking conditions. Consistent with previous findings, perceptual learning induced a significant improvement in near VA and reading speed under conditions of limited exposure duration. Our results show that the improvements in VA and reading speed observed following perceptual learning are closely linked to the initial VA, with only a minor fraction of the observed improvement that may be attributed to the additional sessions performed by those with the worse VA.

  20. LinkMind: link optimization in swarming mobile sensor networks.

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2011-01-01

    A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation.

  1. LinkMind: Link Optimization in Swarming Mobile Sensor Networks

    Trung Dung Ngo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation.

  2. Clinical outcomes of Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy at patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery

    Ali Riza Odabasi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical outcomes of Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy (LAVH at patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery.\tDesign: A clinical observational, prospective, non randomised trial comparing outcomes of 13 patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery with outcomes of 19 patients who had not surgery.\tSetting: Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.\tPatients: Thirty-two subjects [average age 51,1±6,9 (37-66] who had indication of total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral\tsalpingooferectomy due to benign pathologies.\tInterventions: According to ACOG, LAVH was performed by using the Garry technique at the trocar insertions, the Reich technique\tat the laparoscopic phase and the Heaney technique at the vaginal phase by the same operator. After adhesiolysis and diagnostic procedures, ureters were dissected medially. By coagulating, bilateral round and infundibulopelvic ligaments were cut after the\tmobilisation of bladder. The operation was completed by the same operation team by vaginal approach consequently. At all operations, 80 W unipolar or 150 W bipolar diathermic dissection and 25-35 W unipolar diathermic cutting were performed.\tMain outcome measures: Age, parity, menopausal status, preoperative indications, type of previous abdominopelvic surgey and incision, intraoperative indications, adhesion scores, rate of unintended laparotomy, operative time, uterus weight, loss of blood,\tcomplications, postoperative pain scores and analgesic requirements, time necessary for returning to normal intestinal function, length of hospitalisation and rate of readmission to hospital.\tRESULTS: When compared with the patients who had not previous abdominopelvic surgery, all adhesion scores, uterus weight, operative time and the number of total postoperative complications were found significantly high at patients who had previous\tsurgery. Loss of blood, the rate

  3. 75 FR 20933 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University...

    2010-04-22

    ... Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US Helicopters, Inc., UNC Helicopter, Inc... Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US...

  4. Facial Identification in Observers with Colour-Grapheme Synaesthesia

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2013-01-01

    Synaesthesia between colours and graphemes is often reported as one of the most common forms cross modal perception [Colizolo et al, 2012, PLoS ONE, 7(6), e39799]. In this particular synesthetic sub-type the perception of a letterform is followed by an additional experience of a colour quality....... Both colour [McKeefry and Zeki, 1997, Brain, 120(12), 2229–2242] and visual word forms [McCandliss et al, 2003, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(7), 293–299] have previously been linked to the fusiform gyrus. By being neighbouring functions speculations of cross wiring between the areas have been...... of Neuroscience, 17(11), 4302–4311], increased colour-word form representations in observers with colour-grapheme synaesthesia may affect facial identification in people with synaesthesia. This study investigates the ability to process facial features for identification in observers with colour...

  5. GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    Briggs, M. S.; Fishman, G. J.; Connaughton, V.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Chaplin, V. L.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The TGF detection rate of Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has been increased twice since launch. The most recent improvement is from a new operating mode in which data for individual photons are down-linked for selected portions of the orbit, enabling a more sensitive ground-based search for TGFs. The new search has increased the TGF detection rate and is finding TGFs more than five times fainter than the TGFs of the previous GBM sample. We summarize the properties of the original GBM TGF sample and compare to the less intense TGFs now being detected. In addition to gamma-ray TGFs, GBM is observing distant TGFs from the propagation of charged particles along geomagnetic field lines. Strong 511 keV annihilation lines have been observed, demonstrating that both electrons and positrons are present in the particle beams. Spectral fits to these electron/positron TGFs will be shown.

  6. The influence of current mood state, number of previous affective episodes and predominant polarity on insight in bipolar disorder.

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Camelo, Evelyn Vieira Miranda; Peixoto, Ursula; Santana, Cristina Maria Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Morris, Robin G; Cheniaux, Elie

    2017-11-01

    Although many studies have explored the effect of current affective episodes on insight into bipolar disorder, the potential interaction between current mood state and previous affective episodes has not been consistently investigated. To explore the influence of dominant polarity, number of previous affective episodes and current affective state on insight in bipolar disorder patients in euthymia or mania. A total of 101 patients with bipolar disorder were recruited for the study, including 58 patients in euthymia (30 with no defined predominant polarity and 28 with manic predominant polarity) and 43 in mania (26 with no defined predominant polarity and 17 with manic predominant polarity). Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. Bipolar disorder patients in mania had worse insight than those in euthymia, with no effect of dominant polarity. In addition, positive psychotic symptoms showed a significant effect on insight and its inclusion as a covariate eliminated differences related to mood state. Finally, the number of previous manic or depressive episodes did not correlate with insight level. Mania is a predictor of loss of insight into bipolar disorder. However, it is possible that its contribution is linked to the more frequent presence of psychotic symptoms in this state. Dominant polarity and number/type of previous affective episodes have a limited impact on insight.

  7. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  8. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  9. Links

    Alessandra Russo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available La lista de enlaces ofrecida a continuación tiene como objetivo la creación de una base de datos sobre los principales sitios de interés para el estudio de la imagen (en America Latina y más allá. Se ha tratado de incluir una vasta gama de instituciones (museos, colecciones, institutos, representando sin embargo también a revistas, proyectos de investigación, y catálogos en línea. Sin tener la pretensión de ser exhaustiva, esta selección es evolutiva y se pone al día continuamente. MuseosI...

  10. Links

    Alessandra Russo

    2006-01-01

    La lista de enlaces ofrecida a continuación tiene como objetivo la creación de una base de datos sobre los principales sitios de interés para el estudio de la imagen (en America Latina y más allá). Se ha tratado de incluir una vasta gama de instituciones (museos, colecciones, institutos), representando sin embargo también a revistas, proyectos de investigación, y catálogos en línea. Sin tener la pretensión de ser exhaustiva, esta selección es evolutiva y se pone al día continuamente. MuseosI...

  11. Chronic impairments in spatial learning and memory in rats previously exposed to chlorpyrfos or diisopropylfluorophosphate.

    Terry, A V; Beck, W D; Warner, S; Vandenhuerk, L; Callahan, P M

    2012-01-01

    The acute toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) has been studied extensively; however, much less attention has been given to the subject of repeated exposures that are not associated with overt signs of toxicity (i.e., subthreshold exposures). The objective of this study was to determine if the protracted spatial learning impairments we have observed previously after repeated subthreshold exposures to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) or the alkylphosphate OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) persisted for longer periods after exposure. Male Wistar rats (beginning at two months of age) were initially injected subcutaneously with CPF (10.0 or 18.0mg/kg) or DFP (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg) every other day for 30 days. After an extended OP-free washout period (behavioral testing begun 50 days after the last OP exposure), rats previously exposed to CPF, but not DFP, were impaired in a radial arm maze (RAM) win-shift task as well as a delayed non-match to position procedure. Later experiments (i.e., beginning 140 days after the last OP exposure) revealed impairments in the acquisition of a water maze hidden platform task associated with both OPs. However, only rats previously exposed to DFP were impaired in a second phase of testing when the platform location was changed (indicative of deficits of cognitive flexibility). These results indicate, therefore, that repeated, subthreshold exposures to CPF and DFP may lead to chronic deficits in spatial learning and memory (i.e., long after cholinesterase inhibition has abated) and that insecticide and alkylphosphate-based OPs may have differential effects depending on the cognitive domain evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Female Sexual Dysfunction in the Late Postpartum Period Among Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Sargin, M. A.; Yassa, M.; Taymur, B. D.; Akca, G.; Tug, N.; Taymur, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the status of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) between women with a history of previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those with follow-up of a healthy pregnancy, using the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from September to December 2015. Methodology: Healthy sexually active adult parous females were included. Participants were asked to complete the validated Turkish versions of the FSFI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires. Student's t-test was used for two-group comparisons of normally distributed variables and quantitative data. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for two-group comparisons of non-normally distributed variables. Pearson's chi-squared test, the Fisher-Freeman-Halton test, Fisher's exact test, and Yates' continuity correction test were used for comparison of qualitative data. Results: The mean FSFI scores of the 179 participants was 23.50 +- 3.94. FSFI scores and scores of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were not statistically significantly different (p>0.05), according to a history of GDM and types of FSD (none, mild, severe). HADS scores and anxiety and depression types did not statistically significantly differ according to the history of GDM (p>0.05). Conclusion: An association could not be found in FSFI scores between participants with both the history of previous GDM and with healthy pregnancy; subclinical sexual dysfunction may be observed in the late postpartum period among women with a history of previous GDM. This may adversely affect their sexual health. (author)

  13. Female Sexual Dysfunction in the Late Postpartum Period Among Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Yassa, Murat; Taymur, Bilge Dogan; Taymur, Bulent; Akca, Gizem; Tug, Niyazi

    2017-04-01

    To compare the status of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) between women with a history of previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those with follow-up of a healthy pregnancy, using the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Cross-sectional study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from September to December 2015. Healthy sexually active adult parous females were included. Participants were asked to complete the validated Turkish versions of the FSFI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires. Student's t-test was used for two-group comparisons of normally distributed variables and quantitative data. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for two-group comparisons of non-normally distributed variables. Pearson's chi-squared test, the Fisher-FreemanHalton test, Fisher's exact test, and Yates' continuity correction test were used for comparison of qualitative data. The mean FSFI scores of the 179 participants was 23.50 ±3.94. FSFI scores and scores of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were not statistically significantly different (p>0.05), according to a history of GDM and types of FSD (none, mild, severe). HADS scores and anxiety and depression types did not statistically significantly differ according to the history of GDM (p>0.05). An association could not be found in FSFI scores between participants with both the history of previous GDM and with healthy pregnancy; subclinical sexual dysfunction may be observed in the late postpartum period among women with a history of previous GDM. This may adversely affect their sexual health.

  14. The link between morphotype transition and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Linqi Wang

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen. This pathogen can undergo morphotype transition between the yeast and the filamentous form and such morphological transition has been implicated in virulence for decades. Morphotype transition is typically observed during mating, which is governed by pheromone signaling. Paradoxically, components specific to the pheromone signaling pathways play no or minimal direct roles in virulence. Thus, the link between morphotype transition and virulence and the underlying molecular mechanism remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that filamentation can occur independent of pheromone signaling and mating, and both mating-dependent and mating-independent morphotype transition require the transcription factor Znf2. High expression of Znf2 is necessary and sufficient to initiate and maintain sex-independent filamentous growth under host-relevant conditions in vitro and during infection. Importantly, ZNF2 overexpression abolishes fungal virulence in murine models of cryptococcosis. Thus, Znf2 bridges the sex-independent morphotype transition and fungal pathogenicity. The impacts of Znf2 on morphological switch and pathogenicity are at least partly mediated through its effects on cell adhesion property. Cfl1, a Znf2 downstream factor, regulates morphogenesis, cell adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Cfl1 is the first adhesin discovered in the phylum Basidiomycota of the Kingdom Fungi. Together with previous findings in other eukaryotic pathogens, our findings support a convergent evolution of plasticity in morphology and its impact on cell adhesion as a critical adaptive trait for pathogenesis.

  15. Cheilitis in acne vulgaris patients with no previous use of systemic retinoid products.

    Balighi, Kamran; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Lajevardi, Vahideh; Talebi, Shahin; Azizpour, Arghavan

    2017-08-01

    Isotretinoin is commonly used in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While one of the more common side-effects is cheilitis, we have observed an increased incidence of cheilitis prior to the commencement of systemic isotretinoin. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cheilitis among acne vulgaris patients. A non-interventional cross-sectional study of patients with acne vulgaris. Patients with previous use of systemic retinoids were excluded. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of cheilitis. Of a total of 400 patients, 134 (34%) had evidence of cheilitis at initial presentation. Two-thirds (63%) were female (P acne excorie, compared with only 8% of patients with no signs of cheilitis. Our findings suggest that cheilitis is quite common among acne vulgaris patients even before treatment with isotretinoin. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  16. Total brain, cortical and white matter volumes in children previously treated with glucocorticoids

    Holm, Sara K; Madsen, Kathrine S; Vestergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal exposure to glucocorticoids and elevated endogenous glucocorticoid-levels during childhood can have detrimental effects on the developing brain. Here, we examined the impact of glucocorticoid-treatment during childhood on brain volumes. METHODS: Thirty children and adolescents...... with rheumatic or nephrotic disease previously treated with glucocorticoids and 30 controls matched on age, sex, and parent education underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Total cortical grey and white matter, brain, and intracranial volume, and total cortical thickness and surface area were...... were mainly driven by the children with rheumatic disease. Total cortical thickness and cortical surface area did not significantly differ between groups. We found no significant associations between glucocorticoid-treatment variables and volumetric measures. CONCLUSION: Observed smaller total brain...

  17. Previously Unrecognized Ornithuromorph Bird Diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, Northwestern China

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K.; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history. PMID:24147058

  18. Jumping performance differences among elite professional handball players with or without previous ACL reconstruction.

    Setuain, I; Millor, N; Alfaro, J; Gorostiaga, E; Izquierdo, M

    2015-10-01

    Handball is one of the most challenging sports for the knee joint. Persistent strength and jumping capacity alterations may be observed among athletes who have suffered anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The aim of this study was to examine unilateral and bilateral jumping ability differences between previously ACL-reconstructed rehabilitated elite handball athletes and sex, age and uninjured sport activity level-pairs of control players. It was a Cross-sectional study with one factor: previous ACL injury. We recruited 22 male (6 ACL-reconstructed and 16 uninjured control players) and 21 female (6 ACL-reconstructed and 15 uninjured control players) elite handball players who were evaluated 6.2±3.4 years after surgical ACL reconstruction. A battery of jump tests, including both bilateral and unilateral maneuvers, was performed. Two-tailed unpaired (intergroup comparison) and paired (intragroup comparison) t-tests were performed for mean comparisons. The P-value cut-off for significance was set at handball athletes demonstrated both lower vertical bilateral drop jump (VBDJ) contact times and lower UTHD scores for the injured leg several years after injury. These deficits could contribute to an increase in ACL re-injury risk.

  19. Prevalence and titers of yellow fever virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated adults.

    Miyaji, Karina Takesaki; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Simões, Marisol; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Medeiros, Carlos Roberto de; Braga, Patrícia Emilia; Neves, Maria Angélica Acalá; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; Kallas, Esper Georges; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam

    2017-04-03

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends one single dose of the Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine based on studies of antibody persistency in healthy adults. We assessed the prevalence and titers of YF virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated persons aged  60 years, in comparison to younger adults. We also evaluated the correlation between antibody titers and the time since vaccination among participants who received one vaccine dose, and the seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. previously vaccinated healthy persons aged  18 years were included. YF virus neutralizing antibody titers were determined by means of the 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. 46 persons aged  60 years and 48 persons aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of YF virus neutralizing antibodies between the two groups (p = 0.263). However, titers were significantly lower in the elderly (p = 0.022). There was no correlation between YF virus neutralizing antibody titers and the time since vaccination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. the clinical relevance of the observed difference in YF virus neutralizing antibody titers between the two groups is not clear.

  20. The OceanLink Project

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Krisnadhi, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve the dissemination of scientific research. Creating semantic integration requires input from both domain and cyberinfrastructure scientists. OceanLink, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is demonstrating semantic technologies through the integration of geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Meeting project objectives involves applying semantic technologies to support data representation, discovery, sharing and integration. Our semantic cyberinfrastructure components include ontology design patterns, Linked Data collections, semantic provenance, and associated services to enhance data and knowledge discovery, interoperation, and integration. We discuss how these components are integrated, the continued automated and semi-automated creation of semantic metadata, and techniques we have developed to integrate ontologies, link resources, and preserve provenance and attribution.

  1. The ALICE detector data link

    Rubin, G; Csató, P; Dénes, E; Kiss, T; Meggyesi, Z; Sulyán, J; Vesztergombi, G; Eged, B; Gerencsér, I; Novák, I; Soós, C; Tarján, D; Telegdy, A; Tóth, N

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE detector data link has been designed to cover all the needs for data transfer between the detector and the data-acquisition system. It is a 1 Gbit/s, full-duplex, multi-purpose fibre optic link that can be used as a medium for the bi-directional transmission of data blocks between the front-end electronics and the data- acquisition system and also for the remote control and test of the front-end electronics, In this paper the concept, the protocol, the specific test tools, the prototypes of the detector data link and the read-out receiver card, their application in the ALICE-TPC test system and the integration with the DATE software are presented. The test results on the performance are also shown. (14 refs).

  2. When He Said Linking, He Really Meant Linking

    Chudnov, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    There are many reasons to improve web links, starting with their design. The author tends to think about "design" on the web in terms of two things: (1) graphic/industrial design; and (2) human usability. A nice, clean URI (uniform resource identifier) that does not change, is readable to humans, is amenable to common web behaviors such as…

  3. Effects of hyperthermia applied to previously irradiated cervical spinal cord in the rat

    Sminia, P.; Haveman, J.; Koedoder, C.

    1991-01-01

    Rat cervical spinal cord was X-ray irradiated at doses of 15, 18, 20 and 26 Gy. Approximately the same part of the spinal cord was heated by means of a 434 MHz microwave applicator 90 days later. After treatment, animals were observed for 18 months, for expression of neurological complications. These could either be result of the heat or of the radiation treatment. The time course showed 3 distinct peaks in the incidence of neurological symptoms. The 1st peak was due to the acute response to hyperthermia. The ED 50 value for neurological complications one day after treatment at 42.3±0.4 o C was 74 ±2 min. Previous X-ray irradiation of spinal cord with 18, 20 and 26 Gy reduced ED 50 to 57±7,65±4 and 55±5 min (12-26% of control), resp. Recovery from heat-induced neurological complications was diminished in previously irradiated animals. The 2nd peak (150-300 days after X-rays) concerned expression of 'early-delayed' radiation damage. Hyperthermia given in 90 days after irradiation did not influence either the percentage of animals with paralysis or the latent period. Neurological symptoms developing after day 300 were due to the late delayed radiation response. Significant difference was not observed in data on paralysis induced by radiation alone or radiation followed by heat. The late radiation-induced minor neurological symptoms, were however, influenced by retreatment with heat. (author). 30 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3)--current concepts and the detection of a previously unknown branch of the Danish FTD-3 family

    Lindquist, S.G.; Braedgaard, H.; Svenstrup, K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among patients with onset of dementia below the age of 65 years, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most prevalent cause, secondary only to Alzheimer's disease. Recent advances in understanding the heterogeneous genetic background for different clinical and neuropathological ...

  5. Versatile Link PLUS transceiver development

    Soós, C.; Détraz, S.; Olanterä, L.; Sigaud, C.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.; Zeiler, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Versatile Link PLUS project targets the phase II upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS experiments. It will develop a radiation resistant optical link, operating at up to 10 Gb/s in the upstream and up to 5 Gb/s in the downstream directions with a smaller footprint and higher channel count than its predecessor. A low-profile package is being developed that allows volume production at reduced costs, but which nevertheless can be configured to suit the individual channel count needs of different detectors. This paper describes the development strategies and summarizes the status of the feasibility demonstration phase of the project.

  6. Linking quality goals and product development competences

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Quality is a main determinant of consumer food choice. Product development is accordingly a key activity for companies, because it generates the products on the quality of which consumer choices are based. In this respect, product development managers have a focal role, as their personal quality......, including reversed laddering sessions with 18 product development managers. Discrepancies between managerial and consumer quality goals are uncovered. Furthermore, the results point to two general dilemmas faced by product development managers in relation to quality; an external stakeholder dilemma...... orientation influence the way product development is performed. The aim of this paper is to investigate managerial quality goals and how these may be linked to product development competences, which has not previously been studied. The study draws on an empirical, qualitative study in the Danish food industry...

  7. Radiation cross-linked collagen/dextran dermal scaffolds: effects of dextran on cross-linking and degradation.

    Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xiangmei; Xu, Ling; Wei, Shicheng; Zhai, Maolin

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation effectively cross-links collagen into network with enhanced anti-degradability and biocompatibility, while radiation-cross-linked collagen scaffold lacks flexibility, satisfactory surface appearance, and performs poor in cell penetration and ingrowth. To make the radiation-cross-linked collagen scaffold to serve as an ideal artificial dermis, dextran was incorporated into collagen. Scaffolds with the collagen/dextran (Col/Dex) ratios of 10/0, 7/3, and 5/5 were fabricated via (60)Co γ-irradiation cross-linking, followed by lyophilization. The morphology, microstructure, physicochemical, and biological properties were investigated. Compared with pure collagen, scaffolds with dextran demonstrated more porous appearance, enhanced hydrophilicity while the cross-linking density was lower with the consequence of larger pore size, higher water uptake, as well as reduced stiffness. Accelerated degradation was observed when dextran was incorporated in both the in vitro and in vivo assays, which led to earlier integration with cell and host tissue. The effect of dextran on degradation was ascribed to the decreased cross-linking density, looser microstructure, more porous and hydrophilic surface. Considering the better appearance, softness, moderate degradation rate due to controllable cross-linking degree and good biocompatibility as well, radiation-cross-linked collagen/dextran scaffolds are expected to serve as promising artificial dermal substitutes.

  8. 76 FR 1349 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously...

    2011-01-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously Held by... Company (Type Certificate A00003SE previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously The... Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  9. Expert communication link management: overview and progress

    Dunkelberger, Kirk A.

    1998-08-01

    Consider the downsizing of our forces, the increasing complexity of our tactical platforms, and the ever widening array of communication options and the conclusion is inevitable. The need for automated support to reduce communication-related workload is critical to continued task force effectiveness. In a previous era, communication management expertise resided solely in the form of human experts. These experts flew with the pilots, providing the most effective means of communication in real time; they have since been removed from a great number of platforms due to force downsizing and real estate value in the cockpit. This burden has typically been shifted to the pilot, providing another set of tasks in an environment which is already far too taxing. An Expert Communication Link Manger (ECLM) is required -- a trusted, reliable assistant which can determine optimal link, channel, and waveform data for the communication requirements at hand and translate those requirements transparently into communication device control. Technologies are at hand which make ECLM possible; the mixture of these elements in the correct proportions can provide a capable, deployable, and cost effective ECLM in the near term. This paper describes specific applied ECLM research work in progress funded by the USAF under a four year effort. Operational objectives, technical objectives, a reference design, and technical excursions within the broad ECLM scope will be discussed in detail. Results of prototypes built to date in the area of communication inference from speech understanding, dynamic adaptive routing, and packet switching networks in the tactical environment will be presented.

  10. Communication links for fusion reactor maintenance operations

    Van Uffelen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Different architectures are envisaged for data transmission with fibre optic links in a radiation environment, as proposed in literature for both space and high energy physics applications. Their needs and constraints differ from those encountered for maintenance tasks in the future ITER environment, not only in terms of temperature and radiation levels, but also with respect to transmission speed requirements. Our approach attempts to limit the use of radiation-sensitive electronics for transmission of both digital and/or analogue data to the control room, using glass fibres as transport medium. We therefore assessed the radiation behaviour of a cost-effective fibre optic transmitter at 850 nm, consisting of a PWM (pulse width modulator), a radiation tolerant current driver (previously developed at SCK-CEN) and a VCSEL (Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser assembly, up to 10 MGy at 60 degrees Celsius. The PWM enables to transform an analogue sensor signal into a pseudo numerical signal, with a pulse width proportional to the incoming signal. The main objective of this task is to contribute to the major design of the maintenance equipment and strategy needed for the remote replacement of the divertor system in the future ITER fusion reactor, with particular attention to the implications of radiation hardening rules and recommendations. Next to the radiation assessment studies of remote handling tools, including actuators and sensors, we also develop radiation tolerant communication links with multiplexing capabilities

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... and what to do to counter these trends. Online Resources NIDA for Teens Web site : This Web ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... following television networks, organizations, educational institutions, magazines, newspapers, companies, events, and radio stations for helping to raise ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... AIDS : This site provides information both for health care providers and for Veterans and the public. Send the Message Overview Please help us send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  16. Linking Customer Interaction and Innovation

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Laursen, Keld; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    employees for sharing and acquiring knowledge, and high levels of delegation of decision rights. In this paper, six hypotheses were developed and tested on a data set of 169 Danish firms drawn from a 2001 survey of the 1,000 largest firms in Denmark. A key result is that the link from customer knowledge...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects Contact the Press Office Meetings & Events Media Guide ... Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... once can have serious health consequences. We also work to reach parents and teachers—influential figures in the lives of young people—with the Learn the Link message. Campaign messages and materials were tested among various groups of young people, guiding the use of technology, ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... gov/1kSfBiz ​ Mention your friends, colleagues, or other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... available for your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn ...

  2. Linking to MedlinePlus

    ... want to link patients or healthcare providers from electronic health record (EHR) systems to relevant MedlinePlus information, use MedlinePlus ... updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr ... Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter ...

  4. What Is Linked Historical Data?

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Hoekstra, Rinke; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Schlobach, Stefan; Lambrix, Patrick; Hyvönen, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative new- comers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of ... Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director The ...

  7. Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneid.: jojoba

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The Simmondsiaceae (jojoba family), has only 1 genus, Simmondsia, which consists of only 1 species, jojoba - S. chinensis (Link) Schneid. Once considered an isolated member of the box family (Buxaceae), jojoba is now regarded as sufficiently distinct to be placed in its own family. Jojoba is found from coastal and cis-montane southern California east to central Arizona...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug misuse and HIV. We have produced a set of multicultural public service announcements (PSAs) that use text messaging as a means of communication. The "Text Message" PSA features two young girls ...

  9. Is Wikipedia link structure different?

    Kamps, J.; Koolen, M.; Baeza-Yates, R.; Boldi, P.; Ribeiro-Neto, B.; Cambazoglu, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the difference between Wikipedia and Web link structure with respect to their value as indicators of the relevance of a page for a given topic of request. Our experimental evidence is from two IR test-collections: the .GOV collection used at the TREC Web tracks and the

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... gov/1kSfBiz ​ Mention your friends, colleagues, or other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even ... 1kSfBiz #LearntheLink Mention your friends, colleagues, or other organizations in your tweets to spread the word even ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... the News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects Contact the Press Office Meetings & Events Media ... Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn ...

  12. Current Leads, Links and Buses

    Ballarino, A

    2014-01-01

    Electrical transfer from a room temperature power source to a superconducting system is done via conventional or superconducting current leads and superconducting buses or links. The principles of optimization of these devices are presented, with emphasis on the cryogenic, electrical, and superconductor related aspects that drive choices for a system.

  13. New links in the family

    Marion Duimel; Jos de Haan

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Nieuwe links in het gezin. Virtually all families with teenagers have at least one computer with an Internet connection, often more. Teenagers spend much of their daily lives on the Internet. They use it to communicate with each other, to do their schoolwork, to meet new

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... the Party" "Text Message" NIDA Home Site Map Accessibility Privacy FOIA(NIH) Working at NIDA FAQs Contact ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of ... In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount of HIV in brain cells 1 . ...

  16. Linking numbers and variational method

    Oda, I.; Yahikozawa, S.

    1989-09-01

    The ordinary and generalized linking numbers for two surfaces of dimension p and n-p-1 in an n dimensional manifold are derived. We use a variational method based on the properties of topological quantum field theory in order to derive them. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding ... transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind of white blood ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... she went to a party and under the influence of drugs and alcohol engaged in risky sexual ... learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ... available for your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that ... AIDS) are often linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people if an ...

  2. Current Leads, Links and Buses

    Ballarino, A [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Electrical transfer from a room temperature power source to a superconducting system is done via conventional or superconducting current leads and superconducting buses or links. The principles of optimization of these devices are presented, with emphasis on the cryogenic, electrical, and superconductor related aspects that drive choices for a system.

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... HIV > Learn the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use can lead to poor decision making, which can result in risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection. Although the characters are fictional, ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. This page connects you to information about the link between drug misuse and HIV ...

  6. X-linked congenital panhypopituitarism.

    Schimke, R N; Spaulding, J J; Hollowell, J G

    1971-05-01

    Two half brothers with panhypopituitary dwarfism are reported who have the same mother and different, unrelated fathers. The subject of hereditary panhypopituitarism is reviewed briefly. It is concluded that there are at least two forms of hereditary panhypopituitary dwarfism, one of which may be X-linked.

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... and what to do to counter these trends. Online Resources NIDA for Teens Web site : This Web ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Tobacco/Nicotine and E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young ... parties or hanging out with friends? It’s a topic you can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http:// ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine and E-Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ... 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction have been linked with HIV/AIDS since the ...

  11. Cross-modal links among vision, audition, and touch in complex environments.

    Ferris, Thomas K; Sarter, Nadine B

    2008-02-01

    This study sought to determine whether performance effects of cross-modal spatial links that were observed in earlier laboratory studies scale to more complex environments and need to be considered in multimodal interface design. It also revisits the unresolved issue of cross-modal cuing asymmetries. Previous laboratory studies employing simple cues, tasks, and/or targets have demonstrated that the efficiency of processing visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli is affected by the modality, lateralization, and timing of surrounding cues. Very few studies have investigated these cross-modal constraints in the context of more complex environments to determine whether they scale and how complexity affects the nature of cross-modal cuing asymmetries. Amicroworld simulation of battlefield operations with a complex task set and meaningful visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli was used to investigate cuing effects for all cross-modal pairings. Significant asymmetric performance effects of cross-modal spatial links were observed. Auditory cues shortened response latencies for collocated visual targets but visual cues did not do the same for collocated auditory targets. Responses to contralateral (rather than ipsilateral) targets were faster for tactually cued auditory targets and each visual-tactile cue-target combination, suggesting an inhibition-of-return effect. The spatial relationships between multimodal cues and targets significantly affect target response times in complex environments. The performance effects of cross-modal links and the observed cross-modal cuing asymmetries need to be examined in more detail and considered in future interface design. The findings from this study have implications for the design of multimodal and adaptive interfaces and for supporting attention management in complex, data-rich domains.

  12. Abnormal flow behavior and necklace microstructure of powder metallurgy superalloys with previous particle boundaries (PPBs)

    Ning, Yongquan, E-mail: luckyning@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Zhou, Cong; Liang, Houquan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, M.W., E-mail: mmmwfu@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-01-15

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) has been introduced as an innovative process to manufacture high performance components with fine, homogenous and segregation-free microstructure. Unfortunately, previous particle boundary (PPB) precipitated during the powder metallurgy process. Since undesirable PPB is detrimental to mechanical properties, hot extrusion or/and isothermal forging are needed. In present research, isothermal compression tests were conducted on P/M FGH4096 superalloys with typical PPBs. Abnormal flow behavior during high-speed deformation has been quantitatively investigated. Caused by the competition mechanism between work-hardening and dynamic-softening, abnormal flow behaves typical four stages (viz., work-hardening, stable, softening and steady). Microstructure observation for hardening or/and softening mechanism has been investigated. Meanwhile, necklace microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope, and the grain fraction analysis was performed by using electron backscatter diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy was used for characterizing the boundary structure. Necklace microstructural mechanism for processing P/M superalloys has been developed, and the dynamic recrystallization model has also been conducted. Bulge–corrugation model is the primary nucleation mechanism for P/M superalloys with PPBs. When PPB is entirely covered with new grains, necklace microstructure has formed. Bulge–corrugation mechanism can repeatedly take place in the following necklace DRX.

  13. Visual working memory supports the inhibition of previously processed information: evidence from preview search.

    Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

    2012-06-01

    In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search. We evaluated this proposal by testing three predictions. First, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that preview inhibition is more effective when the number of previewed distractors is below VWM capacity than above; an effect that can only be observed at small preview set sizes (Experiment 2A) and when observers are allowed to move their eyes freely (Experiment 2B). Second, Experiment 3 shows that, when quantified as the number of inhibited distractors, the magnitude of the preview effect is stable across different search difficulties. Third, Experiment 4 demonstrates that individual differences in preview inhibition are correlated with individual differences in VWM capacity. These findings provide converging evidence that VWM supports the inhibition of previewed distractors. More generally, these findings demonstrate how VWM contributes to the efficiency of human visual information processing--VWM prioritizes new information by inhibiting old information from being reselected for attention.

  14. The effectiveness of external beam radiotherapy for acromegaly is not affected by previous pituitary ablative treatments

    Reed, P.I.; Joplin, G.F.; Speirs, C.J.; Morrison, R.; Aber, V.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-three acromegalic patients were treated with radiotherapy and followed up for at least 3 years (mean 6 years, range 3 to 12). Seventeen had not had previous pituitary ablative therapy and 16 had. The mean GH level for these two groups before radiotherapy was comparable at 98 and 119 mlU/l. The observed frequency of reaching <10 mlU/L was 53% and 75% of patients in the two groups, respectively, the mean observed falls in growth hormone level were 81 and 85% of the initial level, and the calculated exponential decline rate of GH level was 72 and 52% per fyear. Considering all 35 patients, requirement for pituitary hormone replacement therapy increased from 15 patients before radiotherapy to 20 after radiotherapy, being mostly those who had had prior ablative therapies. There were no complications attributable to the radiotherapy treatment. It appears that radiotherapy is equally efficacious whether a prior unsuccessful ablative procedure had been used or not. (author)

  15. The effectiveness of external beam radiotherapy for acromegaly is not affected by previous pituitary ablative treatments

    Reed, P.I.; Joplin, G.F. (Department of Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Speirs, C.J. (Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Morrison, R. (Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Aber, V. (Department of Medical Physics, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-three acromegalic patients were treated with radiotherapy and followed up for at least 3 years (mean 6 years, range 3 to 12). Seventeen had not had previous pituitary ablative therapy and 16 had. The mean GH level for these two groups before radiotherapy was comparable at 98 and 119 mlU/l. The observed frequency of reaching <10 mlU/L was 53% and 75% of patients in the two groups, respectively, the mean observed falls in growth hormone level were 81 and 85% of the initial level, and the calculated exponential decline rate of GH level was 72 and 52% per fyear. Considering all 35 patients, requirement for pituitary hormone replacement therapy increased from 15 patients before radiotherapy to 20 after radiotherapy, being mostly those who had had prior ablative therapies. There were no complications attributable to the radiotherapy treatment. It appears that radiotherapy is equally efficacious whether a prior unsuccessful ablative procedure had been used or not. (author).

  16. Guillain Barré Syndrome in a Child With X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Ron Jacob MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the most common peroxisomal disorder with different phenotypes among patients carrying the same ABCD1 mutation. There were previously reported associations of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with autoimmune disorders. The authors describe Guillain Barré syndrome in a child with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. The available evidence does not permit conclusion concerning etiological linkage between the 2 diseases, but it warrants further study.

  17. Deployment of a multi-link flexible structure

    Na, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2006-06-01

    Deployment of a multi-link beam structure undergoing locking is analyzed in the Timoshenko beam theory. In the modeling of the system, dynamic forces are assumed to be torques and restoring forces due to the torsion spring at each joint. Hamilton's principle is used to determine the equations of motion and the finite element method is adopted to analyze the system. Newmark time integration and Newton-Raphson iteration methods are used to solve for the non-linear equations of motion at each time step. The locking at the joints of the multi-link flexible structure is analyzed by the momentum balance method. Numerical results are compared with the previous experimental data. The angles and angular velocities of each joint, tip displacement, and velocity of each link are investigated to study the motions of the links at each time step. To analyze the effect of thickness on the motion of the link, the angle and the tip displacement of each link are compared according to the various slenderness ratios. Additionally, in order to investigate the effect of shear, the tip displacements of a Timoshenko beam are compared with those of an Euler-Bernoulli beam.

  18. Circulating angiopoietin-like 4 links proteinuria with hypertriglyceridemia in nephrotic syndrome

    Clement, L.C.; Mace, C.; Avila-Casado, C.; Joles, J.A.; Kersten, A.H.; Chugh, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular link between proteinuria and hyperlipidemia in nephrotic syndrome is not known. We show in the present study that plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) links proteinuria with hypertriglyceridemia through two negative feedback loops. In previous studies in a rat model that mimics human

  19. SECONDARY CYTOTOXICITY OF CROSS-LINKED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGENS DURING REPEATED EXPOSURE TO HUMAN FIBROBLASTS

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; DAMINK, LHHO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; FEIJEN, J; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    1992-01-01

    We investigated commercially available dermal sheep collagen either cross-linked with hexamethylenedlisocyanate, or cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In previous in vitro studies we could discriminate primary, i.e. extractable, and secondary cytotoxicity, due to cell-biomaterial interactions, i.e.

  20. Salvage brachytherapy for local recurrences of prostate cancer treated previously with radiotherapy.

    Gawkowska-Suwinska, Marzena; Fijałkowski, Marek; Białas, Brygida; Szlag, Marta; Kellas-Ślęczka, Sylwia; Nowicka, Elżbieta; Behrendt, Katarzyna; Plewicki, Grzegorz; Smolska-Ciszewska, Beata; Giglok, Monika; Zajusz, Aleksander; Owczarek, Grzegorz

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze early effects and toxicity of salvage high dose rate brachytherapy for local recurrences of adenocarcinoma of the prostate after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). In MCS Memorial Institute of Oncology in Gliwice a research programme on salvage HDR brachytherapy for local recurrences of prostate cancer treated previously with EBRT has been ongoing since February 2008. The treatment consisted of 3 fractions of 10 Gy each given every 14 days. Maximal urethral doses were constrained to be ≤ 120% of the prescribed dose. Maximal bladder and rectum doses were constrained to be ≤ 70% of the prescribed dose. Fifteen eligible patients were treated and analyzed from February 2008. All patients completed the treatment without major complications. The most common early complications were: macroscopic haematuria, pain in lower part of the abdomen, and transient dysuria. During the first week after the procedure a transient increase in IPSS score was noticed. The Foley catheter was removed on day 2 to 5. No complications after spinal anaesthesia were observed. Acute toxicity according to EORTC/RTOG was low. For bladder EORTC/RTOG score ranged from 0 to 2. Only in two patients grade 1 toxicity for rectum was observed. The follow-up ranged from 3 to 9 months. In one patient grade 2 rectal toxicity was observed, and one had urethral stricture. Other patients did not have any other significant late toxicity of the treatment. Two patients developed bone metastases. Salvage brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer (3 × 10 Gy every 14 days) seems to be a safe and well tolerated procedure. A significant decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is seen in patients with hormone-responsive cancer. Long-term efficiency and toxicity of the procedure are yet to be established.

  1. LinkED: A Novel Methodology for Publishing Linked Enterprise Data

    Shreyas Suresh Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web technologies have redefined and strengthened the Enterprise-Web interoperability over the last decade. Linked Open Data (LOD refers to a set of best practices that empower enterprises to publish and interlink their data using existing ontologies on the World Wide Web. Current research in LOD focuses on expert search, the creation of unified information space and augmentation of core data from an enterprise context. However, existing approaches for publication of enterprise data as LOD are domain-specific, ad-hoc and suffer from lack of uniform representation across domains. The paper proposes a novel methodology called LinkED that contributes towards LOD literature in two ways: (a streamlines the publishing process through five stages of cleaning, triplification, interlinking, storage and visualization; (b addresses the latest challenges in LOD publication, namely: inadequate links, inconsistencies in the quality of the dataset and replicability of the LOD publication process. Further, the methodology is demonstrated via the publication of digital repository data as LOD in a university setting, which is evaluated based on two semantic standards: Five-Star model and data quality metrics. Overall, the paper provides a generic LOD publication process that is applicable across various domains such as healthcare, e-governance, banking, and tourism, to name a few.

  2. Meta-path based heterogeneous combat network link prediction

    Li, Jichao; Ge, Bingfeng; Yang, Kewei; Chen, Yingwu; Tan, Yuejin

    2017-09-01

    The combat system-of-systems in high-tech informative warfare, composed of many interconnected combat systems of different types, can be regarded as a type of complex heterogeneous network. Link prediction for heterogeneous combat networks (HCNs) is of significant military value, as it facilitates reconfiguring combat networks to represent the complex real-world network topology as appropriate with observed information. This paper proposes a novel integrated methodology framework called HCNMP (HCN link prediction based on meta-path) to predict multiple types of links simultaneously for an HCN. More specifically, the concept of HCN meta-paths is introduced, through which the HCNMP can accumulate information by extracting different features of HCN links for all the six defined types. Next, an HCN link prediction model, based on meta-path features, is built to predict all types of links of the HCN simultaneously. Then, the solution algorithm for the HCN link prediction model is proposed, in which the prediction results are obtained by iteratively updating with the newly predicted results until the results in the HCN converge or reach a certain maximum iteration number. Finally, numerical experiments on the dataset of a real HCN are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed HCNMP, in comparison with 30 baseline methods. The results show that the performance of the HCNMP is superior to those of the baseline methods.

  3. Linking Abdominal Obesity and Dyslipidemia

    Pedro Enrique Miguel Soca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering as a start point the discussion of an article published by this same journal (Finlay in its previous issue, this letter deals with some alterations associating abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia.

  4. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries.

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    2018-01-01

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders

  5. Maternal psychological distress and placental circulation in pregnancies after a previous offspring with congenital malformation.

    Anne Helbig

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antenatal maternal psychological distress may be associated with reduced placental circulation, which could lead to lower birthweight. Studies investigating this in humans show mixed results, which may be partially due to type, strength and timing of distress. In addition, the arterial vascular resistance measures often used as outcome measures do not detect smaller changes in placental volume blood flow. We aimed to investigate the effect of a specific stressor, with increased levels of stress early in pregnancy, on the fetoplacental volume blood flow in third trimester. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 74 pregnant women with a congenital malformation in a previous fetus or child. Psychological distress was assessed twice, around 16 and 30 weeks' gestation. Psychometric measures were the General Health Questionnaire-28 (subscales anxiety and depression, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and Impact of Event Scale-22 (subscales intrusion, avoidance, and arousal. Placental circulation was examined at 30 weeks, using Doppler ultrasonography, primarily as fetoplacental volume blood flow in the umbilical vein, normalized for abdominal circumference; secondarily as vascular resistance measures, obtained from the umbilical and the uterine arteries. RESULTS: Maternal distress in second but not third trimester was associated with increased normalized fetoplacental blood flow (P-values 0.006 and 0.013 for score > mean for depression and intrusion, respectively. Post-hoc explorations suggested that a reduced birthweight/placental weight ratio may mediate this association. Psychological distress did not affect vascular resistance measures in the umbilical and uterine arteries, regardless of adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women with a previous fetus or child with a congenital malformation, higher distress levels in second trimester were associated with third trimester fetoplacental blood flow that

  6. The importance of link evidence in Wikipedia

    Kamps, J.; Koolen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia is one of the most popular information sources on the Web. The free encyclopedia is densely linked. The link structure in Wikipedia differs from the Web at large: internal links in Wikipedia are typically based on words naturally occurring in a page, and link to another semantically

  7. Photoreactivities and thermal properties of psoralen cross-links

    Yeung, A.T.; Jones, B.K.; Chu, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have studied the photoreaction of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP), and 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) with a pair of 18-base-long oligonucleotides in which a 14-base region is complementary. Only one 5'TpA site, favored for both monoadduct and cross-link formation with psoralen, is present in this oligonucleotide pair. They have used this model system to demonstrate, for the first time, strand specificity in the photoreaction of psoralen with DNA. They found that the two types of cross-links which form at this site have large differences in thermal stabilities. In addition, the denaturation of each cross-links isomer duplex occurred in at least three stages, which can be visualized as three bands in thermal equilibrium under the conditions of a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. This novel observation suggests that there are several domains differing in thermal stability in a psoralen cross-link

  8. Determining the Effect of Natural Selection on Linked Neutral Divergence across Species.

    Phung, Tanya N; Huber, Christian D; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-08-01

    A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across genomes. Studies in a variety of species have shown that neutral genetic diversity (intra-species differences) has been reduced at sites linked to those under direct selection. However, the effect of linked selection on neutral sequence divergence (inter-species differences) remains ambiguous. While empirical studies have reported correlations between divergence and recombination, which is interpreted as evidence for natural selection reducing linked neutral divergence, theory argues otherwise, especially for species that have diverged long ago. Here we address these outstanding issues by examining whether natural selection can affect divergence between both closely and distantly related species. We show that neutral divergence between closely related species (e.g. human-primate) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with human recombination rate. We also find that neutral divergence between distantly related species (e.g. human-rodent) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with estimates of background selection from primates. These patterns persist after accounting for the confounding factors of hypermutable CpG sites, GC content, and biased gene conversion. Coalescent models indicate that even when the contribution of ancestral polymorphism to divergence is small, background selection in the ancestral population can still explain a large proportion of the variance in divergence across the genome, generating the observed correlations. Our findings reveal that, contrary to previous intuition, natural selection can indirectly affect linked neutral divergence between both closely and distantly related species. Though we cannot formally exclude the possibility that the direct effects of purifying selection drive some of these patterns, such a scenario would be possible only

  9. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo.

    Minyan Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2 is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo.

  10. Collagen cross linking: Current perspectives

    Srinivas K Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is a common ectatic disorder occurring in more than 1 in 1,000 individuals. The condition typically starts in adolescence and early adulthood. It is a disease with an uncertain cause and its progression is unpredictable, but in extreme cases, vision deteriorates and can require corneal transplant surgery. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CCL with riboflavin (C3R is a recent treatment option that can enhance the rigidity of the cornea and prevent disease progression. Since its inception, the procedure has evolved with newer instrumentation, surgical techniques, and is also now performed for expanded indications other than keratoconus. With increasing experience, newer guidelines regarding optimization of patient selection, the spectrum of complications and their management, and combination procedures are being described. This article in conjunction with the others in this issue, will try and explore the uses of collagen cross-linking (CXL in its current form.

  11. X-linked Alport syndrome

    Jais, Jean Philippe; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Giatras, Iannis

    2003-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a type IV collagen hereditary disease characterized by progressive hematuric nephritis, hearing loss, and ocular changes. Mutations in the COL4A5 collagen gene are responsible for the more common X-linked dominant form of the disease characterized by much less severe disease...... in girls and women. A "European Community Alport Syndrome Concerted Action" (ECASCA) group was established to delineate the Alport syndrome phenotype in each gender and to determine genotype-phenotype correlations in a large number of families. Data concerning 329 families, 250 of them with an X...... to increase after the age of 60 yr in women. Because of the absence of genotype-phenotype correlation and the large intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity, early prognosis of the disease in X-linked Alport syndrome carriers remains moot. Risk factors for developing renal failure have been identified...

  12. Using turbocodes on optical links

    Glenn Claes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast evolving telecommunication world is permanently in search for faster and better communication links. On one hand, turbo codes are like a dream come true. Due to their amazing performance, they have become the reference in the word of error detecting and correcting codes. On the other hand, broadband transmission channels like optical fibres can meet the need for higher transmission velocity. In this paper therefore we will bring these two elements together and thus the performance of turbocodes on optical links will be studied. First the turbocode will be optimised throughout an individual analysis of each of its design parameters. Moreover it wil be shown that turbocodes have much better performance than the well known Reed-Solomon codes. Finally we will show that the 8Bit/10Bit code, which is required to comply with the Gigabit Ethernet standard, becomes superfluous when working with turbocodes. All tests were carried out on multimode graded-index glass fibres.

  13. The Øresund Link

    Møller, Jacob Steen

    "Øresundsbron" is the combined bridge and tunnel connecting Denmark and Sweden adjacent to Copenhagen. Øresundsbron was built and is operated by a consortium owned jointly by the Danish and Swedish states. The Link was inaugurated 1 July 2000 by the Queen of Denmark and the King of Sweden. The 16......-km link across the Sound could potentially impact the water exchange between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, and the dredging activities during construction were a threat to the local marine environment. The public interest in the environmental issues together with a pro-active environmental policy...... of hydrodynamic modelling, on line monitoring and access to all environmental information through a GIS based information system. The public attitude towards the project in general and the environmental impact in particular shifted from a very sceptical one at the beginning of the project to a very positive one...

  14. New, previously unreported correlations between latent Toxoplasma gondii infection and excessive ethanol consumption.

    Samojłowicz, Dorota; Borowska-Solonynko, Aleksandra; Kruczyk, Marcin

    2017-11-01

    A number of world literature reports indicate that a latent Toxoplasma gondii infection leads to development of central nervous system disorders, which in turn may lead to altered behavior in the affected individuals. T. gondii infection has been observed to play the greatest role in drivers, suicides, and psychiatric patients. Studies conducted for this manuscript involve a different, never before really reported correlation between latent T. gondii infection and ethanol abuse. A total of 538 decedents with a known cause of death were included in the study. These individuals were divided into three groups: the risky behavior group, inconclusively risky behavior group, and control group. The criterion for this division was the likely effect of the individual's behavior on the mechanism and cause of his/her death. The material used for analyses were blood samples collected during routine medico-legal examinations in these cases. The blood samples were used to measure anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, the following data were recorded for each decedent: sex, age, circumstances of death, cause of death, time from death to autopsy, and (if provided) substance abuse status (alcohol, illicit drugs). In those cases where blood alcohol level or toxicology tests were requested by the Prosecutor's Office, their results were also included in our analysis. Test results demonstrated a strong correlation between latent T. gondii infection and engaging in risky behaviors leading to death. Moreover, analyses demonstrated a positive correlation between the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and psychoactive substance (especially ethanol) abuse, however, the causal relationship remains unclear. Due to the fact that alcohol abuse constitutes a significant social problem, searching for eliminable risk factors for addiction is extremely important. Our analyses provided new important information on the possible effects of

  15. Imbalance of positive and negative links induces regularity

    Kamal, Neeraj Kumar; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We consider the behaviour of a random weighted network with chaotic neuronal dynamics at the nodes. → We investigate the effect of the balance of positive and negative links on dynamical regularity. → We find that when the connections are predominantly excitatory or inhibitory, one obtains a spatiotemporal fixed point. → However, when the links are balanced, the chaotic nature of the nodal dynamics of the uncoupled case is preserved. → Further we observe that larger network size leads to greater spatiotemporal regularity. - Abstract: We investigate the effect of the interplay of positive and negative links, on the dynamical regularity of a random weighted network, with neuronal dynamics at the nodes. We investigate how the mean J-bar and the variance of the weights of links, influence the spatiotemporal regularity of this dynamical network. We find that when the connections are predominantly positive (i.e. the links are mostly excitatory, with J-bar>0) the spatiotemporal fixed point is stable. A similar trend is observed when the connections are predominantly negative (i.e. the links are mostly inhibitory, with J-bar<0). However, when the positive and negative feedback is quite balanced (namely, when the mean of the connection weights is close to zero) one observes spatiotemporal chaos. That is, the balance of excitatory and inhibitory connections preserves the chaotic nature of the uncoupled case. To be brought to an inactive state one needs one type of connection (either excitatory or inhibitory) to dominate. Further we observe that larger network size leads to greater spatiotemporal regularity. We rationalize our observations through mean field analysis of the network dynamics.

  16. Managing Your Team's Weakest Link.

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you have a poor-performing employee on your medical practice team? If so, you're not alone. Unfortunately, this is a problem that many medical practice managers face. This article describes the best strategies for managing your team's weakest link. It explores common yet very difficult circumstances that cause low employee performance and that test the patience, heart, and skills of a practice manager. It guides readers through a process of self-discovery to determine whether their negative biases or grudges may be causing employees to perform poorly. It suggests several possible other reasons for weak employee performance, including problems with the job, practice, leadership, communication, and fit between the employee and the job. This article also suggests the best strategy for communicating concerns about performance to the weakest-link employee. It offers guidance to practice managers about protecting their time and energy when handling a poor performer. It provides a simple formula for calculating the cost of a low-performing employee, 10 possible personal reasons for the employee's poor work performance, specific questions to ask to uncover the reasons for poor performance, and an eight-rule strategy for confronting poor performance effectively. Finally, this article offers practice managers a practical strategy for handling resistance from their weakest link, illustrated with a sample dialogue.

  17. Linking DC together with TRSL

    Haxthausen, Anne; Yong, Xia

    1999-01-01

    In this talk we present a method for linking the Duration Calculus together with the Timed RAISE Specification Language. Duration Calculus (DC) [ZHR91] is an interval-based real time logic, which can be used naturally in capturing and eliciting users' real time requirements in the form of constra......In this talk we present a method for linking the Duration Calculus together with the Timed RAISE Specification Language. Duration Calculus (DC) [ZHR91] is an interval-based real time logic, which can be used naturally in capturing and eliciting users' real time requirements in the form.......TRSL is a real-time extension of the RAISE Specification Language (RSL) [Rlg92] which together with its associated method [Rmg95]and tools has shown to be very useful in the industrial development of software systems. Therefore, a promising approach for the development of real-time systemscould be to use DC...... for high-level specifications of real-time requirementsand TRSL for specifying real-time implementations in the form of timed communicating concurrent processes.In order to link DC and TRSL together in a well-founded way, we formally define what it means for a TRSL process to satisfy a DC requirement...

  18. Impaired insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism in glucose-tolerant women with previous gestational diabetes

    Damm, P; Vestergaard, H; Kühl, Carl Erik

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes.......Our purpose was to investigate insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes....

  19. 78 FR 47546 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    2013-08-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model... Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has issued Israeli...

  20. Lightweight link dimensioning using sFlow sampling

    de Oliviera Schmidt, Ricardo; Sadre, Ramin; Sperotto, Anna

    2013-01-01

    not be trivial in high-speed links. Aiming scalability, operators often deploy packet sampling on monitoring, but little is known how it affects link dimensioning. In this paper we assess the feasibility of lightweight link dimensioning using sFlow, which is a widely-deployed traffic monitoring tool. We...... implement sFlow sampling algorithm and use a previously proposed and validated dimensioning formula that needs traffic variance. We validate our approach using packet captures from real networks. Results show that the proposed procedure is successful for a range of sampling rates and that, due to randomness...... of sampling algorithm, the error introduced by scaling the traffic variance yields more conservative results that cope with short-term traffic fluctuations....