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Sample records for linguistically isolated populations

  1. Linguistic, geographic and genetic isolation: a collaborative study of Italian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Bachis, Valeria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Bertoncini, Stefania; Biondi, Gianfranco; Boattini, Alessio; Boschi, Ilaria; Brisighelli, Francesca; Caló, Carla Maria; Carta, Marilisa; Coia, Valentina; Corrias, Laura; Crivellaro, Federica; De Fanti, Sara; Dominici, Valentina; Ferri, Gianmarco; Francalacci, Paolo; Franceschi, Zelda Alice; Luiselli, Donata; Morelli, Laura; Paoli, Giorgio; Rickards, Olga; Robledo, Renato; Sanna, Daria; Sanna, Emanuele; Sarno, Stefania; Sineo, Luca; Taglioli, Luca; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Tofanelli, Sergio; Vona, Giuseppe; Pettener, Davide; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The animal and plant biodiversity of the Italian territory is known to be one of the richest in the Mediterranean basin and Europe as a whole, but does the genetic diversity of extant human populations show a comparable pattern? According to a number of studies, the genetic structure of Italian populations retains the signatures of complex peopling processes which took place from the Paleolithic to modern era. Although the observed patterns highlight a remarkable degree of genetic heterogeneity, they do not, however, take into account an important source of variation. In fact, Italy is home to numerous ethnolinguistic minorities which have yet to be studied systematically. Due to their difference in geographical origin and demographic history, such groups not only signal the cultural and social diversity of our country, but they are also potential contributors to its bio-anthropological heterogeneity. To fill this gap, research groups from four Italian Universities (Bologna, Cagliari, Pisa and Roma Sapienza) started a collaborative study in 2007, which was funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research and received partial support by the Istituto Italiano di Antropologia. In this paper, we present an account of the results obtained in the course of this initiative. Four case-studies relative to linguistic minorities from the Eastern Alps, Sardinia, Apennines and Southern Italy are first described and discussed, focusing on their micro-evolutionary and anthropological implications. Thereafter, we present the results of a systematic analysis of the relations between linguistic, geographic and genetic isolation. Integrating the data obtained in the course of the long-term study with literature and unpublished results on Italian populations, we show that a combination of linguistic and geographic factors is probably responsible for the presence of the most robust signatures of genetic isolation. Finally, we evaluate the magnitude of the diversity

  2. Diabetes in population isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify...... on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value...

  3. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B J; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  4. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Coia

    Full Text Available Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet

  5. Explaining the Linguistic Diversity of Sahul Using Population Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesink, Ger; Singer, Ruth; Dunn, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The region of the ancient Sahul continent (present day Australia and New Guinea, and surrounding islands) is home to extreme linguistic diversity. Even apart from the huge Austronesian language family, which spread into the area after the breakup of the Sahul continent in the Holocene, there are hundreds of languages from many apparently unrelated families. On each of the subcontinents, the generally accepted classification recognizes one large, widespread family and a number of unrelatable smaller families. If these language families are related to each other, it is at a depth which is inaccessible to standard linguistic methods. We have inferred the history of structural characteristics of these languages under an admixture model, using a Bayesian algorithm originally developed to discover populations on the basis of recombining genetic markers. This analysis identifies 10 ancestral language populations, some of which can be identified with clearly defined phylogenetic groups. The results also show traces of early dispersals, including hints at ancient connections between Australian languages and some Papuan groups (long hypothesized, never before demonstrated). Systematic language contact effects between members of big phylogenetic groups are also detected, which can in some cases be identified with a diffusional or substrate signal. Most interestingly, however, there remains striking evidence of a phylogenetic signal, with many languages showing negligible amounts of admixture. PMID:19918360

  6. Linguistic Diversity in a Deaf Prison Population: Implications for Due Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2004-01-01

    The entire deaf prison population in the state of Texas formed the basis for this research. The linguistic skills of prison inmates were assessed using the following measures: (1) Kannapell's categories of bilingualism, (2) adaptation of the diagnostic criteria for Primitive Personality Disorder, (3) reading scores on the Test of Adult Basic…

  7. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Walker

    Full Text Available At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people, whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  8. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C; Hill, Kim R

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  9. Reproductive isolation among allopatric Drosophila montana populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jackson H; Snook, Rhonda R; Hoikkala, Anneli

    2014-11-01

    An outstanding goal in speciation research is to trace the mode and tempo of the evolution of barriers to gene flow. Such research benefits from studying incipient speciation, in which speciation between populations has not yet occurred, but where multiple potential mechanisms of reproductive isolation (RI: i.e., premating, postmating-prezygotic (PMPZ), and postzygotic barriers) may act. We used such a system to investigate these barriers among allopatric populations of Drosophila montana. In all heteropopulation crosses we found premating (sexual) isolation, which was either symmetric or asymmetric depending on the population pair compared. Postmating isolation was particularly strong in crosses involving males from one of the study populations, and while sperm were successfully transferred, stored, and motile, we experimentally demonstrated that the majority of eggs produced were unfertilized. Thus, we identified the nature of a PMPZ incompatibility. There was no evidence of intrinsic postzygotic effects. Measures of absolute and relative strengths of pre- and postmating barriers showed that populations differed in the mode and magnitude of RI barriers. Our results indicate that incipient RI among populations can be driven by different contributions of both premating and PMPZ barriers occurring between different population pairs and without the evolution of postzygotic barriers. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Role of mobile health in the care of culturally and linguistically diverse US populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Emerging trends in the health-related use of cell phones include the proliferation of mobile health applications for the care and monitoring of patients with chronic diseases and the rise in cell phone usage by Latinos and African Americans in the United States. This article reviews public policy in four areas with the goal of improving the care of patients belonging to culturally and linguistically diverse populations: 1) mobile health service access and the physician's duty of care, 2) affordability of and reimbursement for health related services via mobile phone, 3) protocols for mobile health enabled patient health data collection and distribution, and 4) cultural and linguistic appropriateness of health related messages delivered via cell phone. The review demonstrates the need for policy changes that would allow for reimbursement of both synchronous and asynchronous patient-provider communication, subsidize broadband access for lower-income patients, introduce standards for confidentiality of health data transmitted via cell phone as well as amplify existing cultural and linguistic standards to encompass mobile communication, and consider widespread public accessibility when certifying new technologies as "medical devices." Federal and state governments must take prompt action to ensure that the benefits of mobile health are accessible to all Americans.

  11. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunley, Keith; Dunn, Michael; Lindström, Eva; Reesink, Ger; Terrill, Angela; Healy, Meghan E; Koki, George; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Friedlaender, Jonathan S

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain). There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast, global patterns may

  12. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Hunley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain. There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast

  13. Dual mode linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller for an isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system with superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thameem Ansari, M.Md.; Velusami, S.

    2010-01-01

    A design of dual mode linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller for an isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system with superconducting magnetic energy storage unit is proposed in this paper. The design methodology of dual mode linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller is a hybrid model based on the concepts of linguistic hedges and hybrid genetic algorithm-simulated annealing algorithms. The linguistic hedge operators are used to adjust the shape of the system membership functions dynamically and can speed up the control result to fit the system demand. The hybrid genetic algorithm-simulated annealing algorithm is adopted to search the optimal linguistic hedge combination in the linguistic hedge module. Dual mode concept is also incorporated in the proposed controller because it can improve the system performance. The system with the proposed controller was simulated and the frequency deviation resulting from a step load disturbance is presented. The comparison of the proportional plus integral controller, fuzzy logic controller and the proposed dual mode linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller shows that, with the application of the proposed controller, the system performance is improved significantly. The proposed controller is also found to be less sensitive to the changes in the parameters of the system and also robust under different operating modes of the hybrid power system.

  14. Impact of the linguistic environment on speech perception : comparing bilingual and monolingual populations

    OpenAIRE

    Roessler, Abeba, 1981-

    2012-01-01

    The present dissertation set out to investigate how the linguistic environment affects speech perception. Three sets of studies have explored effects of bilingualism on word recognition in adults and infants and the impact of first language linguistic knowledge on rule learning in adults. In the present work, we have found evidence in three auditory priming studies that bilingual adults, in contrast to monolinguals have developed mechanisms to effectively overcome interference from irrelevant...

  15. Historical review: Does falciparum malaria destroy isolated tribal populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis

    Many isolated populations of tribal peoples were nearly destroyed when they first contacted infectious diseases particularly respiratory pathogens such as measles and smallpox. Surviving groups have often been found to have declining populations in the face of multiple social and infectious threats. Malaria, especially Plasmodium falciparum, was thought to be a major cause of depopulation in some tribal peoples isolated in tropical jungles. The dynamics of such host parasite interactions is unclear especially since most such populations would have had long histories of exposure to malaria. Three groups are individually reviewed: Meruts of Borneo, Yanomami of Amazonia, Jarawas of the Andaman Islands. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of falciparum malaria in the depopulation of some isolated tribal groups in order to understand what measures, if any, would be likely to prevent such losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Life history, population viability, and the potential for local adaptation in isolated trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Carim; Y. Vindenes; L. A. Eby; C. Barfoot; L. A. Vollestad

    2017-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation have caused population decline across taxa through impacts on life history diversity, dispersal patterns, and gene flow. Yet, intentional isolation of native fish populations is a frequently used management strategy to protect against negative interactions with invasive fish species. We evaluated the population viability and genetic...

  17. Regionally isolated populations of an imperiled Caribbean coral, Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Iliana B; Miller, Margaret W; Hellberg, Michael E

    2005-04-01

    The movements of larvae between marine populations are difficult to follow directly and have been the subject of much controversy, especially in the Caribbean. The debate centres on the degree to which populations are demographically open, such that depleted populations can be replenished by recruitment from distant healthy populations, or demographically closed and thus in need of local management. Given the depressed state of many tropical reef populations, the understanding of these movements now bears critically on the number, placement, and size of marine reserves. Most genetic analyses assume that dispersal patterns have been stable for thousands of generations, thus they commonly reflect past colonization histories more than ongoing dispersal. Recently developed multilocus genotyping approaches, however, have the demonstrated ability to detect both migration and population isolation over far shorter timescales. Previously, we developed five microsatellite markers and demonstrated them to be both Mendelian and coral-specific. Using these markers and Bayesian analyses, we show here that populations of the imperiled reef-building coral, Acropora palmata, have experienced little or no recent genetic exchange between the western and the eastern Caribbean. Puerto Rico is identified as an area of mixing between the two subregions. As a consequence of this regional isolation, populations in the western and eastern Caribbean should have the potential to adapt to local conditions and will require population-specific management strategies.

  18. Linguistic Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    on the Scandinavian variant of polyphony, ScaPoLine. ScaPoLine is a formal linguistic theory whose main purpose is to specify the instructions conveyed through linguistic form for the creation of polyphonic meaning. The theoretical introduction is followed by polyphonic analyses of linguistic phenomena...

  19. Life history, population viability, and the potential for local adaptation in isolated trout populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Carim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation have caused population decline across taxa through impacts on life history diversity, dispersal patterns, and gene flow. Yet, intentional isolation of native fish populations is a frequently used management strategy to protect against negative interactions with invasive fish species. We evaluated the population viability and genetic diversity of 12 isolated populations of Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi located on the Flathead Indian Reservation in Montana, USA. Length-structured integral projection models (IPMs were used to project population growth rate (lambda and its sensitivity to underlying vital rates and parameters. We examined relationships between lambda, genetic diversity, and habitat size and quality. Lambda ranged from 0.68 to 1.1 with 10 of 12 populations projected to be in decline. A sensitivity analysis of lambda with respect to projection matrix elements indicated that lambda was generally sensitive to changes in early life history stages (survival/growth, but patterns differed among populations. Another sensitivity analysis with respect to underlying model parameters showed highly consistent pattern across populations, with lambda being most sensitive to the slope of probability of maturity (estimated from published literature, generally followed by adult survival, and the slope of somatic growth rate (directly measured from each population. Lambda was not correlated with genetic diversity. For populations residing in small isolated streams (≤5 km of occupied habitat, lambda significantly increased with base flow discharge (r2=0.50, p<0.02. Our results highlight the potential importance of local adaptation for persistence of small, isolated populations. Specifically we saw evidence for higher probability of maturity at smaller sizes in the smallest, coldest isolated systems, increasing probability of persistence for these populations. Climate change threatens to further fragment populations of

  20. Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes: the Power of Isolated Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Korre; Pedersen, Casper-Emil Tingskov; Moltke, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects millions of people worldwide. Improving the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and ultimately improving the treatment strategies are, thus, of great interest. To achieve this, identification of genetic variation predisposing to T2D is important. A large number...... of complex disease variants and describe their contributions to the understanding of the genetics of T2D. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York....... disease-associated variants due to genetic drift. Collectively, this increases the statistical power to detect association signals in isolated populations compared to large outbred populations. In this review, we elaborate on why isolated populations are a powerful resource for the identification...

  1. Culturally and linguistically diverse population health social marketing campaigns in Australia: a consideration of evidence and related evaluation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milat, Andrew J; Carroll, Tom E; Taylor, Jennifer J

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a review of population health social marketing campaigns targeting culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) communities in Australia in order to identify characteristics of effective CLD campaigns. Literature on CLD population health social marketing was identified from electronic searches of databases in August 2004. At the same time, the grey literature was examined by searching the Internet and talking to Australian experts in the fields of CLD social marketing and CLD research. Eight studies met the search criteria, four from the published literature. Two studies that employed prepost evaluation designs provided tentative support for the potential efficacy of CLD social marketing strategies. The remaining studies did not allow for causal attribution as they used post-campaign only or process evaluations. Studies did, however, show that CLD communities access campaign-related information from both mainstream and ethnic media channels. In addition, Vietnamese respondents were more likely to access campaign messages through ethnic radio and Chinese respondents through ethnic press. There is insufficient evidence to clearly identify the characteristics of effective CLD campaigns. Campaign evaluation designs used to evaluate social marketing strategies targeting CLD communities in Australia are generally weak, but there is tentative evidence supporting the potential efficacy of these strategies in some Australian settings.

  2. Using occupancy and population models to assess habitat conservation opportunities for an isolated carnivore population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Spencer; Heather Rustigian-Romsos; James Strittholt; Robert Scheller; William Zielinski; Richard Truex

    2011-01-01

    An isolated population of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in the southern Sierra Nevada, California, is threatened by small size and habitat alteration from wildfires, fuels management, and other factors. We assessed the population’s status and conservation options for its habitat using a spatially explicit population model coupled with a...

  3. Random inbreeding, isonymy, and population isolates in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipierri, José; Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Barrai, Italo; Camelo, Jorge López; Redomero, Esperanza Gutiérrez; Rodríguez, Concepción Alonso; Ramallo, Virginia; Bronberg, Rubén; Alfaro, Emma

    2014-07-01

    Population isolates are an important tool in identifying and mapping genes of Mendelian diseases and complex traits. The geographical identification of isolates represents a priority from a genetic and health care standpoint. The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution of consanguinity by random isonymy (F ST) in Argentina and its relationship with the isolates previously identified in the country. F ST was estimated from the surname distribution of 22.6 million electors registered for the year 2001 in the 24 provinces, 5 geographical regions, and 510 departments of the country. Statistically significant spatial clustering of F ST was determined using the SaTScan V5.1 software. F ST exhibited a marked regional and departamental variation, showing the highest values towards the North and West of Argentina. The clusters of high consanguinity by random isonymy followed the same distribution. Recognized Argentinean genetic isolates are mainly localized at the north of the country, in clusters of high inbreeding. Given the availability of listings of surnames in high-capacity storage devices for different countries, estimating F ST from them can provide information on inbreeding for all levels of administrative subdivisions, to be used as a demographic variable for the identification of isolates within the country for public health purposes.

  4. Probabilistic linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic linguistics takes all linguistic evidence as positive evidence and lets statistics decide. It allows for accurate modelling of gradient phenomena in production and perception, and suggests that rule-like behaviour is no more than a side effect of maximizing probability. This chapter

  5. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  6. Introduction of HIV type 1 into an isolated population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tina V; Leitner, Thomas; Lohse, Nicolai

    2007-01-01

    Introduction of HIV-1 into a population may not always give rise to a subsequent epidemic. Greenland is an isolated and sparsely populated island in The Danish Kingdom. We aimed to estimate the number of introductions of HIV-1 into Greenland, the number of subsequent epidemics, and the countries...... from which the virus was introduced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three regions of HIV-1 (gag, pol, and env) in samples from 70 Greenlandic patients. Furthermore, we included gene sequences from contemporary Danish HIV-1-infected patients and sequences from the Los Alamos HIV Sequence...... Database. All Greenlandic sequences were subtype B except one sequence found to be a recombinant (probably CRF13). Sequence clusters in the phylogenetic trees indicated that there had been at least nine introductions of HIV-1 into Greenland. One cluster, supported by bootstrap values of 81, 76, and 96...

  7. Periodontal Disease Status in an Isolated Greek Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Chrysanthakopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the periodontal condition of an adult population in three isolated regions in Greece and to determine the association of periodontal disease with several demographic, behavioral and environmental factors.Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 640 individuals, aged 20to69 years from three isolated regions. The following indices were assessed: Pocket Depth (PD, Clinical Attachment Level (CAL, Dental Plaque, Calculus and Bleeding on Probing (BOP. Statistical analysis was accomplished by multiple linear regression model which was used to assess the association between the mean clinical attachment loss and clinical, demographic and behavioral parameters.Results: The samples of the study showed high levels of dental plaque, dental calculus and BOP. The final multivariate model showed that age (p=0.000, gender (p=0.016 and presence of calculus (p=0.000 were associated with the mean clinical attachment loss. Age (p=0.000, gender (p=0.000 and dental plaque (p=0.027 were associated with gingival recession, while age (p=0.018 and gender (p=0.000 were associated with probing depth. Bleeding on probing, dental plaque, toothbrush frequency, level of education, tobacco consumption and reasons for dental visits were not associated with the mean clinical attachment loss.Conclusion: Periodontal disease consists of a complicated destructive condition of the Periodontal tissue with a.multi-factorial etiology. Oral hygiene instructions and a regular dental follow-up could play a significant role in the prevention of periodontal disease.Key Words: Periodontal Disease; Epidemiology; Risk Factors

  8. Consistent loss of genetic diversity in isolated cutthroat trout populations independent of habitat size and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie J. Carim; Lisa A. Eby; Craig A. Barfoot; Matthew C. Boyer

    2016-01-01

    Fragmentation and isolation of wildlife populations has reduced genetic diversity worldwide, leaving many populations vulnerable to inbreeding depression and local extinction. Nonetheless, isolation is protecting many native aquatic species from interactions with invasive species, often making reconnection an unrealistic conservation strategy. Isolation management is...

  9. Mitochondrial DNA structure of an isolated Tunisian Berber population and its relationship with Mediterranean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halim, Nizar; Hsouna, Sana; Lasram, Khaled; Chargui, Mariem; Khemira, Laaroussi; Saidane, Rachid; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2018-02-01

    Douiret is an isolated Berber population from South-Eastern Tunisia. The strong geographic and cultural isolation characterising this population might have contributed to remarkable endogamy and consanguinity, which were practiced for several centuries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic structure of Douiret and to compare it to other Mediterranean populations with a special focus on major haplogroup T. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 58 unrelated individuals collected from the different patrilineal lineages of the population. The hypervariable region 1 of the mtDNA was amplified and sequenced. For comparative analyses, additional HVS1 sequences (n = 4857) were compiled from previous studies. The maternal background of the studied sample from Douiret was mainly of Eurasian origin (74%) followed by Sub-Saharan (17%) and North African (3%) lineages. Douiret harbours the highest frequency of haplogroup T in the Mediterranean region, assigned to the unique subclade T1a (38%). Phylogenetic analysis showed an outlier position of Douiret at the Mediterranean level. The genetic structure of Douiret highlights the presence of founders, most likely of Near/Middle Eastern origin, who conquered this area during the Middle/Late Upper Palaeolithic and Neolithic dispersals.

  10. Physical Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Physical linguistics is defined as the use of treatments from the field of speech pathology to enhance first and second language production in healthy individuals, resulting in increased quality and strength of phonation and articulation. A series of exercises for treating dysarthria (weakness, paralysis, discoordination, primary and secondary…

  11. Testing the Role of Habitat Isolation among Ecologically Divergent Gall Wasp Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Egan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitat isolation occurs when habitat preferences lower the probability of mating between individuals associated with differing habitats. While a potential barrier to gene flow during ecological speciation, the effect of habitat isolation on reproductive isolation has rarely been directly tested. Herein, we first estimated habitat preference for each of six populations of the gall wasp Belonocnema treatae inhabiting either Quercus virginiana or Q. geminata. We then estimated the importance of habitat isolation in generating reproductive isolation between B. treatae populations that were host specific to either Q. virginiana or Q. geminata by measuring mate preference in the presence and absence of the respective host plants. All populations exhibited host preference for their native plant, and assortative mating increased significantly in the presence of the respective host plants. This host-plant-mediated assortative mating demonstrates that habitat isolation likely plays an important role in promoting reproductive isolation among populations of this host-specific gall former.

  12. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA variability among six South American Amerindian villages from the Pano linguistic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Simoes, Aguinaldo L

    2014-01-01

    Although scattered throughout a large geographic area, the members of the Pano linguistic group present strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity, a feature that causes them to be considered components of a same "Pano" tribe. Nevertheless, the genetic homogeneity between Pano villages has not yet been examined. To study the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group, four major Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) founder haplogroups were analyzed in 77 Amerindians from six villages of four Pano tribes (Katukina, Kaxináwa, Marúbo, and Yaminawa) located in the Brazilian Amazon. The central position of these tribes in the continent makes them relevant for attempts to reconstruct population movements in South America. Except for a single individual that presented an African haplogroup L, all remaining individuals presented one of the four Native American haplogroups. Significant heterogeneity was observed across the six Pano villages. Although Amerindian populations are usually characterized by considerable interpopulational diversity, the high heterogeneity level observed is unexpected if the strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity of the Pano linguistic group is taken into account. The present findings indicate that the ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity does not imply genetic homogeneity. Even though the genetic heterogeneity uncovered may be a female-specific process, the most probable explanation for that is the joint action of isolation and genetic drift as major factors influencing the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group. Copyright © 2014 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  14. Linkage disequilibrium and demographic history of the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Tove H; Degn, Birte; Wang, August G

    2002-01-01

    The isolated population of the Faroe Islands has a history of recent expansion after being limited to a small size for centuries. Such an isolated population may be ideal for linkage disequilibrium mapping of disease genes if linkage disequilibrium (LD) extends over large regions. Analyses of 18 ...

  15. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  17. Familial clustering and genetic risk for dementia in a genetically isolated Dutch population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sleegers (Kristel); F. Forey; J. Theuns (Jessie); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); S. Rademakers (Suzanne); M. Cruts (Marc); W.A. van Gool (Willem); P. Heutink (Peter); B.A. Oostra (Ben); J.C. van Swieten (John); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDespite advances in elucidating the genetic epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia, the aetiology for most patients with dementia remains unclear. We examined the genetic epidemiology of dementia in a recent genetically isolated Dutch population founded around

  18. Familial clustering and genetic risk for dementia in a genetically isolated Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleegers, K.; Roks, G.; Theuns, J.; Aulchenko, Y. S.; Rademakers, R.; Cruts, M.; van Gool, W. A.; van Broeckhoven, C.; Heutink, P.; Oostra, B. A.; van Swieten, J. C.; van Duijn, C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in elucidating the genetic epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia, the aetiology for most patients with dementia remains unclear. We examined the genetic epidemiology of dementia in a recent genetically isolated Dutch population founded around 1750. The

  19. Genetic variability and structure of an isolated population of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rosa-Laura Heredia-Bobadilla

    2017-11-15

    Nov 15, 2017 ... Journal of Genetics, Vol. 96, No. 6, December 2017 ... or international status of protection. The mole ... populations by a matrix of agriculture and urbanization, can be considered ...... BioScience 38, 471–479. Lemos-Espinal ...

  20. Experimental evidence of 'floaters' in two isolated populations of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a combination of radio telemetry, dawn calls, visual observations and targetted playbacks in one 16ha plot per fragment, 52 individuals of different territorial status were identified. Ngangao hosted 14 resident and 13 floating males, while Chawia hosted eight residents and two floaters. Population Chawia (but not ...

  1. Isolation and characterization of multidrug-resistant side population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: SP cells in the prostate cancer samples constituted 2.8 %, but fell to 0.6 % after treatment with ... tumor. Keywords: Side population cells, ABC transporters, Cancer stem cells, Chemotherapy, Prostate treatment failure, Tumor recurrence, Drug resistance ..... Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells.

  2. Portability of tag SNPs across isolated population groups: an example from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar Roy, N; Farheen, S; Roy, N; Sengupta, S; Majumder, P P

    2008-01-01

    Isolated population groups are useful in conducting association studies of complex diseases to avoid various pitfalls, including those arising from population stratification. Since DNA resequencing is expensive, it is recommended that genotyping be carried out at tagSNP (tSNP) loci. For this, tSNPs identified in one isolated population need to be used in another. Unless tSNPs are highly portable across populations this strategy may result in loss of information in association studies. We examined the issue of tSNP portability by sampling individuals from 10 isolated ethnic groups from India. We generated DNA resequencing data pertaining to 3 genomic regions and identified tSNPs in each population. We defined an index of tSNP portability and showed that portability is low across isolated Indian ethnic groups. The extent of portability did not significantly correlate with genetic similarity among the populations studied here. We also analyzed our data with sequence data from individuals of African and European descent. Our results indicated that it may be necessary to carry out resequencing in a small number of individuals to discover SNPs and identify tSNPs in the specific isolated population in which a disease association study is to be conducted.

  3. The Genomic Signature of Population Reconnection Following Isolation: From Theory to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Alcala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ease of worldwide travel provides increased opportunities for organisms not only to colonize new environments but also to encounter related but diverged populations. Such events of reconnection and secondary contact of previously isolated populations are widely observed at different time scales. For example, during the quaternary glaciation, sea water level fluctuations caused temporal isolation of populations, often to be followed by secondary contact. At shorter time scales, population isolation and reconnection of viruses are commonly observed, and such events are often associated with epidemics and pandemics. Here, using coalescent theory and simulations, we describe the temporal impact of population reconnection after isolation on nucleotide differences and the site frequency spectrum, as well as common summary statistics of DNA variation. We identify robust genomic signatures of population reconnection after isolation. We utilize our development to infer the recent evolutionary history of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 in Asia and South America, successfully retrieving the successive HIV subtype colonization events in these regions. Our analysis reveals that divergent HIV-1 subtype populations are currently admixing in these regions, suggesting that HIV-1 may be undergoing a process of homogenization, contrary to popular belief.

  4. Emergence of a New Population of Rathayibacter toxicus: An Ecologically Complex, Geographically Isolated Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Mohammad; Busot, Grethel Y; Mann, Rachel; Rodoni, Brendan; Liu, Sanzhen; Stack, James P

    2016-01-01

    Rathayibacter toxicus is a gram-positive bacterium that infects the floral parts of several Poaceae species in Australia. Bacterial ooze is often produced on the surface of infected plants and bacterial galls are produced in place of seed. R. toxicus is a regulated plant pathogen in the U.S. yet reliable detection and diagnostic tools are lacking. To better understand this geographically-isolated plant pathogen, genetic variation as a function of geographic location, host species, and date of isolation was determined for isolates collected over a forty-year period. Discriminant analyses of recently collected and archived isolates using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) identified three populations of R. toxicus; RT-I and RT-II from South Australia and RT-III from Western Australia. Population RT-I, detected in 2013 and 2014 from the Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, is a newly emerged population of R. toxicus not previously reported. Commonly used housekeeping genes failed to discriminate among the R. toxicus isolates. However, strategically selected and genome-dispersed MLST genes representing an array of cellular functions from chromosome replication, antibiotic resistance and biosynthetic pathways to bacterial acquired immunity were discriminative. Genetic variation among isolates within the RT-I population was less than the within-population variation for the previously reported RT-II and RT-III populations. The lower relative genetic variation within the RT-I population and its absence from sampling over the past 40 years suggest its recent emergence. RT-I was the dominant population on the Yorke Peninsula during the 2013-2014 sampling period perhaps indicating a competitive advantage over the previously detected RT-II population. The potential for introduction of this bacterial plant pathogen into new geographic areas provide a rationale for understanding the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of R. toxicus.

  5. Emergence of a New Population of Rathayibacter toxicus: An Ecologically Complex, Geographically Isolated Bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arif

    Full Text Available Rathayibacter toxicus is a gram-positive bacterium that infects the floral parts of several Poaceae species in Australia. Bacterial ooze is often produced on the surface of infected plants and bacterial galls are produced in place of seed. R. toxicus is a regulated plant pathogen in the U.S. yet reliable detection and diagnostic tools are lacking. To better understand this geographically-isolated plant pathogen, genetic variation as a function of geographic location, host species, and date of isolation was determined for isolates collected over a forty-year period. Discriminant analyses of recently collected and archived isolates using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR identified three populations of R. toxicus; RT-I and RT-II from South Australia and RT-III from Western Australia. Population RT-I, detected in 2013 and 2014 from the Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, is a newly emerged population of R. toxicus not previously reported. Commonly used housekeeping genes failed to discriminate among the R. toxicus isolates. However, strategically selected and genome-dispersed MLST genes representing an array of cellular functions from chromosome replication, antibiotic resistance and biosynthetic pathways to bacterial acquired immunity were discriminative. Genetic variation among isolates within the RT-I population was less than the within-population variation for the previously reported RT-II and RT-III populations. The lower relative genetic variation within the RT-I population and its absence from sampling over the past 40 years suggest its recent emergence. RT-I was the dominant population on the Yorke Peninsula during the 2013-2014 sampling period perhaps indicating a competitive advantage over the previously detected RT-II population. The potential for introduction of this bacterial plant pathogen into new geographic areas provide a rationale for understanding the ecological and evolutionary

  6. Should I stay or should I go? Dispersal and population structure in small, isolated desert populations of West African crocodiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Velo-Antón

    Full Text Available The maintenance of both spatial and genetic connectivity is paramount to the long-term persistence of small, isolated populations living in environments with extreme climates. We aim to identify the distribution of genetic diversity and assess population sub-structuring and dispersal across dwarfed desert populations of Crocodylus suchus, which occur in isolated groups, usually less than five individuals, along the mountains of Mauritania (West Africa. We used both invasive and non-invasive sampling methods and a combination of mitochondrial DNA (12 S and ND4 and microsatellite markers (32 loci and a subset of 12 loci. Our results showed high genetic differentiation and geographic structure in Mauritanian populations of C. suchus. We identified a metapopulation system acting within four river sub-basins (high gene flow and absence of genetic structure and considerable genetic differentiation between sub-basins (FST range: 0.12-0.24 with rare dispersal events. Effective population sizes tend to be low within sub-basins while genetic diversity is maintained. Our study suggests that hydrographic networks (temporal connections along seasonal rivers during rainy periods allow C. suchus to disperse and maintain metapopulation dynamics within sub-basins, which attenuate the loss of genetic diversity and the risk of extinction. We highlight the need of hydrographic conservation to protect vulnerable crocodiles isolated in small water bodies. We propose C. suchus as an umbrella species in Mauritania based on ecological affinities shared with other water-dependent species in desert environments.

  7. The population genetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from different patient populations exhibits high-level host specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa van Mansfeld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether highly prevalent P. aeruginosa sequence types (ST in Dutch cystic fibrosis (CF patients are specifically linked to CF patients we investigated the population structure of P. aeruginosa from different clinical backgrounds. We first selected the optimal genotyping method by comparing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST and multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. METHODS: Selected P. aeruginosa isolates (n = 60 were genotyped with PFGE, MLST and MLVA to determine the diversity index (DI and congruence (adjusted Rand and Wallace coefficients. Subsequently, isolates from patients admitted to two different ICUs (n = 205, from CF patients (n = 100 and from non-ICU, non-CF patients (n = 58, of which 19 were community acquired were genotyped with MLVA to determine distribution of genotypes and genetic diversity. RESULTS: Congruence between the typing methods was >79% and DIs were similar and all >0.963. Based on costs, ease, speed and possibilities to compare results between labs an adapted MLVA scheme called MLVA9-Utrecht was selected as the preferred typing method. In 363 clinical isolates 252 different MLVA types (MTs were identified, indicating a highly diverse population (DI  = 0.995; CI  = 0.993-0.997. DI levels were similarly high in the diverse clinical sources (all >0.981 and only eight genotypes were shared. MTs were highly specific (>80% for the different patient populations, even for similar patient groups (ICU patients in two distinct geographic regions, with only three of 142 ICU genotypes detected in both ICUs. The two major CF clones were unique to CF patients. CONCLUSION: The population structure of P. aeruginosa isolates is highly diverse and population specific without evidence for a core lineage in which major CF, hospital or community clones co-cluster. The two genotypes highly prevalent among Dutch CF patients appeared unique to CF patients

  8. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  9. Living in isolation - population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Christina M; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus exhibits a highly fragmented distribution range comprising many isolated populations. Based upon this pattern of distribution, we selected a study region in Switzerland with a lower magnitude of isolation (Swiss Jura) and another study region in Germany with a higher degree of isolation (Franconian Jura). In each region, we chose ten populations to analyze population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation in a comparative approach. Therefore, we determined population density, cushion size, and cushion density to analyze population structure, investigated reproductive traits, including number of flowers, capsules, and germination rate, and analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphisms to study genetic variation. Population and cushion density were credibly higher in German than in Swiss populations, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were similar in both study regions. However, genetic variation among populations and isolation by distance were stronger in Germany than in Switzerland. Generally, cushion size and density as well as flower and capsule production increased with population size and density, whereas genetic variation decreased with population density. In contrast to our assumptions, we observed denser populations and cushions in the region with the higher magnitude of isolation, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were comparable in both regions. This corroborates the assumption that stronger isolation must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation. Furthermore, it supports our conclusion that the protection of strongly isolated populations contributes essentially to the conservation of a species' full evolutionary potential.

  10. Population structure, fluctuating asymmetry and genetic variability in an endemic and highly isolated Astyanax fish population (Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Gross

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and chromosomal markers were used to infer the structure and genetic variability of a population of fish of the genus Astyanax, geographically isolated at sinkhole 2 of Vila Velha State Park, Paraná, Brazil. Two morphotypes types were observed, the standard phenotype I and phenotype II which showed an anatomical alteration probably due to an inbreeding process. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA analysis of different characters showed low levels of morphological variation among the population from sinkhole 2 and in another population from the Tibagi river (Paraná, Brazil. The Astyanax karyotype was characterized in terms of chromosomal morphology, constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolar organizer regions. Males and females presented similar karyotypes (2n=48, 6M+18SM+14ST+10A with no evidence of a sex chromosome system. One female from sinkhole 2 was a natural triploid with 2n=3x=72 chromosomes (9M+27SM+21ST+15A. The data are discussed regarding the maintenance of population structure and their evolutionary importance, our data suggesting that Astyanax from the Vila Velha State Park sinkhole 2 is a recently isolated population.

  11. The population structure of Escherichia coli isolated from subtropical and temperate soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Yan, Tao; Hamilton, Matthew J.; Ishii, Satoshi; Fujioka, Roger S.; Whitman, Richard L.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    While genotypically-distinct naturalized Escherichia coli strains have been shown to occur in riparian soils of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior watersheds, comparative analyses of E. coli populations in diverse soils across a range of geographic and climatic conditions have not been investigated. The main objectives of this study were to: (a) examine the population structure and genetic relatedness of E. coli isolates collected from different soil types on a tropical island (Hawaii), and (b) determine if E. coli populations from Hawaii and temperate soils (Indiana, Minnesota) shared similar genotypes that may be reflective of biome-related soil conditions. DNA fingerprint and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine the population structure and genotypic characteristics of the E. coli isolates. About 33% (98 of 293) of the E. coli from different soil types and locations on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, had unique DNA fingerprints, indicating that these bacteria were relatively diverse; the Shannon diversity index for the population was 4.03. Nearly 60% (171 of 293) of the E. coli isolates from Hawaii clustered into two major groups and the rest, with two or more isolates, fell into one of 22 smaller groups, or individual lineages. Multivariate analysis of variance of 89, 21, and 106 unique E. coli DNA fingerprints for Hawaii, Indiana, and Minnesota soils, respectively, showed that isolates formed tight cohesive groups, clustering mainly by location. However, there were several instances of clonal isolates being shared between geographically different locations. Thus, while nearly identical E. coli strains were shared between disparate climatologically- and geographically-distinct locations, a vast majority of the soil E. coli strains were genotypically diverse and were likely derived from separate lineages. This supports the hypothesis that these bacteria are not unique and multiple genotypes can readily adapt to become part of the soil autochthonous

  12. What Is Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Ostensive and expository definitions of applied linguistics are assessed. It is suggested that the key to a meaningful definition lies in the dual articulation of applied linguistics: it is an interface between linguistics and practicality. Its role as an "expert system" is suggested. (45 references) (Author/LB)

  13. Henipavirus neutralising antibodies in an isolated island population of African fruit bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J Peel

    Full Text Available Isolated islands provide valuable opportunities to study the persistence of viruses in wildlife populations, including population size thresholds such as the critical community size. The straw-coloured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, has been identified as a reservoir for henipaviruses (serological evidence and Lagos bat virus (LBV; virus isolation and serological evidence in continental Africa. Here, we sampled from a remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island in the Gulf of Guinea to investigate whether antibodies to these viruses also exist in this isolated subspecies. Henipavirus serological analyses (Luminex multiplexed binding and inhibition assays, virus neutralisation tests and western blots and lyssavirus serological analyses (LBV: modified Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test, LBV and Mokola virus: lentivirus pseudovirus neutralisation assay were undertaken on 73 and 70 samples respectively. Given the isolation of fruit bats on Annobón and their lack of connectivity with other populations, it was expected that the population size on the island would be too small to allow persistence of viruses that are thought to cause acute and immunising infections. However, the presence of antibodies against henipaviruses was detected using the Luminex binding assay and confirmed using alternative assays. Neutralising antibodies to LBV were detected in one bat using both assays. We demonstrate clear evidence for exposure of multiple individuals to henipaviruses in this remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island. The situation is less clear for LBV. Seroprevalences to henipaviruses and LBV in Annobón are notably different to those in E. helvum in continental locations studied using the same sampling techniques and assays. Whilst cross-sectional serological studies in wildlife populations cannot provide details on viral dynamics within populations, valuable information on the

  14. Reproductive isolation between sympatric and allopatric Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Claudia A; Vigoder, Felipe M; Ward, Richard D; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2008-03-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l., the main vector of Leishmania chagasi in Latin America, is a species complex although the exact number of siblings is yet unknown. In Brazil, the siblings differ in male copulatory courtship songs and pheromones that most certainly act as pre-zygotic reproductive barriers. Here we analysed the reproductive isolation between three allopatric and two sympatric populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. from Brazil. The results indicate a strong copulatory and pre-mating isolation between the three allopatric populations. In addition, the results also indicate a stronger pre-mating isolation between the two sympatric siblings than between the three allopatric ones, suggesting a role for reinforcement in the speciation of the Lu. longipalpis s.l. complex.

  15. The Isolation of Pure Populations of Neurons by Laser Capture Microdissection: Methods and Application in Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Renée; Mehta, Prachi

    2018-01-01

    In mammals, the central nervous system (CNS) is constituted of various cellular elements, posing a challenge to isolating specific cell types to investigate their expression profile. As a result, tissue homogenization is not amenable to analyses of motor neurons profiling as these represent less than 10% of the total spinal cord cell population. One way to tackle the problem of tissue heterogeneity and obtain meaningful genomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic profiling is to use laser capture microdissection technology (LCM). In this chapter, we describe protocols for the capture of isolated populations of motor neurons from spinal cord tissue sections and for downstream transcriptomic analysis of motor neurons with RT-PCR. We have also included a protocol for the immunological confirmation that the captured neurons are indeed motor neurons. Although focused on spinal cord motor neurons, these protocols can be easily optimized for the isolation of any CNS neurons.

  16. Population structure of Lactobacillus helveticus isolates from naturally fermented dairy products based on multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihong; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Xu, Haiyan; Yu, Jie; Bilige, Menghe; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Yongfu

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is an economically important lactic acid bacterium used in industrial dairy fermentation. In the present study, the population structure of 245 isolates of L. helveticus from different naturally fermented dairy products in China and Mongolia were investigated using an multilocus sequence typing scheme with 11 housekeeping genes. A total of 108 sequence types were detected, which formed 8 clonal complexes and 27 singletons. Results from Structure, SplitsTree, and ClonalFrame software analyses demonstrated the presence of 3 subpopulations in the L. helveticus isolates used in our study, namely koumiss, kurut-tarag, and panmictic lineages. Most L. helveticus isolates from particular ecological origins had specific population structures. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk indicators for aggressive periodontitis in an untreated isolated young population from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Corraini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis (AgP, and to investigate the association between demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral risk indicators with AgP in an untreated and isolated young population in Southeastern Brazil. For this cross-sectional survey, 134 subjects aged 12-29 years were selected by a census. Of those eligible, 101 subjects received a full-mouth clinical examination, and were interviewed using a structured written questionnaire. Cases were defined as individuals with 4 or more teeth with attachment loss > 4 mm or > 5 mm in the age groups 12-19 and 20-29, respectively. Overall, 9.9% of the subjects presented AgP (10.3% of the 12-19-year-olds and 9.7% of the 20-29-year-olds. The only risk indicator significantly associated with AgP in this isolated population was a high proportion of sites (> 30% presenting supragingival calculus [OR = 23.2]. Having experienced an urgency dental treatment was a protective factor for AgP [OR = 0.1]. The authors concluded that this isolated and untreated population from Brazil presented a high prevalence of AgP. Local plaque-retaining factors played a major role in the prevalence of AgP in this isolated population, and should be included in further studies evaluating this destructive periodontal disease form.

  18. Genome-wide differentiation in closely related populations: the roles of selection and geographic isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Safran, R. J.; Scordato, E. S. C.; Wilkins, M. R.; Hubbard, J. K.; Jenkins, B. R.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Flaxman, S. M.; Karaardic, H.; Vortman, Y.; Lotem, A.; Nosil, P.; Pap, P.; Shen, S.; Chan, S.-F.; Parchman, T. L.; Kane, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 16 (2016), s. 3865-3883 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14045 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : climate variability * climate variability * genotyping by sequencing * population genetics * reproductive isolation * speciation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  19. The world's most isolated and distinct whale population? Humpback whales of the Arabian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pomilla

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of population structure is essential for assessing conservation status and implementing management strategies. A small, non-migratory population of humpback whales in the Arabian Sea is classified as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment constrained by a lack of data, including limited understanding of its relationship to other populations. We analysed 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences extracted from 67 Arabian Sea humpback whale tissue samples and compared them to equivalent datasets from the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific. Results show that the Arabian Sea population is highly distinct; estimates of gene flow and divergence times suggest a Southern Indian Ocean origin but indicate that it has been isolated for approximately 70,000 years, remarkable for a species that is typically highly migratory. Genetic diversity values are significantly lower than those obtained for Southern Hemisphere populations and signatures of ancient and recent genetic bottlenecks were identified. Our findings suggest this is the world's most isolated humpback whale population, which, when combined with low population abundance estimates and anthropogenic threats, raises concern for its survival. We recommend an amendment of the status of the population to "Critically Endangered" on the IUCN Red List.

  20. The world's most isolated and distinct whale population? Humpback whales of the Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilla, Cristina; Amaral, Ana R; Collins, Tim; Minton, Gianna; Findlay, Ken; Leslie, Matthew S; Ponnampalam, Louisa; Baldwin, Robert; Rosenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of population structure is essential for assessing conservation status and implementing management strategies. A small, non-migratory population of humpback whales in the Arabian Sea is classified as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment constrained by a lack of data, including limited understanding of its relationship to other populations. We analysed 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences extracted from 67 Arabian Sea humpback whale tissue samples and compared them to equivalent datasets from the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific. Results show that the Arabian Sea population is highly distinct; estimates of gene flow and divergence times suggest a Southern Indian Ocean origin but indicate that it has been isolated for approximately 70,000 years, remarkable for a species that is typically highly migratory. Genetic diversity values are significantly lower than those obtained for Southern Hemisphere populations and signatures of ancient and recent genetic bottlenecks were identified. Our findings suggest this is the world's most isolated humpback whale population, which, when combined with low population abundance estimates and anthropogenic threats, raises concern for its survival. We recommend an amendment of the status of the population to "Critically Endangered" on the IUCN Red List.

  1. The effect of isolation, fragmentation, and population bottlenecks on song structure of a Hawaiian honeycreeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang-Ching, Joshua M.; Paxton, Kristina L.; Paxton, Eben H.; Pack, Adam A.; Hart, Patrick J.

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about how important social behaviors such as song vary within and among populations for any of the endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers. Habitat loss and non‐native diseases (e.g., avian malaria) have resulted in isolation and fragmentation of Hawaiian honeycreepers within primarily high elevation forests. In this study, we examined how isolation of Hawai'i ‘amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) populations within a fragmented landscape influences acoustic variability in song. In the last decade, small, isolated populations of disease tolerant ‘amakihi have been found within low elevation forests, allowing us to record ‘amakihi songs across a large elevational gradient (10–1800 m) that parallels disease susceptibility on Hawai'i island. To understand underlying differences among populations, we examined the role of geographic distance, elevation, and habitat structure on acoustic characteristics of ‘amakihi songs. We found that the acoustic characteristics of ‘amakihi songs and song‐type repertoires varied most strongly across an elevational gradient. Differences in ‘amakihi song types were primarily driven by less complex songs (e.g., fewer frequency changes, shorter songs) of individuals recorded at low elevation sites compared to mid and high elevation populations. The reduced complexity of ‘amakihi songs at low elevation sites is most likely shaped by the effects of habitat fragmentation and a disease‐driven population bottleneck associated with avian malaria, and maintained through isolation, localized song learning and sharing, and cultural drift. These results highlight how a non‐native disease through its influence on population demographics may have also indirectly played a role in shaping the acoustic characteristics of a species.

  2. Genomic confirmation of hybridisation and recent inbreeding in a vector-isolated Leishmania population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Matthew B; Downing, Tim; Smith, Barbara A; Imamura, Hideo; Sanders, Mandy; Svobodova, Milena; Volf, Petr; Berriman, Matthew; Cotton, James A; Smith, Deborah F

    2014-01-01

    Although asexual reproduction via clonal propagation has been proposed as the principal reproductive mechanism across parasitic protozoa of the Leishmania genus, sexual recombination has long been suspected, based on hybrid marker profiles detected in field isolates from different geographical locations. The recent experimental demonstration of a sexual cycle in Leishmania within sand flies has confirmed the occurrence of hybridisation, but knowledge of the parasite life cycle in the wild still remains limited. Here, we use whole genome sequencing to investigate the frequency of sexual reproduction in Leishmania, by sequencing the genomes of 11 Leishmania infantum isolates from sand flies and 1 patient isolate in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Çukurova province of southeast Turkey. This is the first genome-wide examination of a vector-isolated population of Leishmania parasites. A genome-wide pattern of patchy heterozygosity and SNP density was observed both within individual strains and across the whole group. Comparisons with other Leishmania donovani complex genome sequences suggest that these isolates are derived from a single cross of two diverse strains with subsequent recombination within the population. This interpretation is supported by a statistical model of the genomic variability for each strain compared to the L. infantum reference genome strain as well as genome-wide scans for recombination within the population. Further analysis of these heterozygous blocks indicates that the two parents were phylogenetically distinct. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium indicate that this population reproduced primarily clonally following the original hybridisation event, but that some recombination also occurred. This observation allowed us to estimate the relative rates of sexual and asexual reproduction within this population, to our knowledge the first quantitative estimate of these events during the Leishmania life cycle.

  3. Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering: Adaptation of Linguistic Paradigm for Circumstance of Engineering Epoch

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Halina

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems of linguistic knowledge in the Engineering Epoch. Engineering Epoch is the time of adaptation to the information flows by knowledge management, The system of adaptation mechanisms is connected with linguistic and linguistic technologies, forming in new linguistic patterns Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering.

  4. The waterfall paradox: How knickpoints disconnect hillslope and channel processes, isolating salmonid populations in ideal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Christine; Roering, Joshua J.; Snow, Kyle; Griswold, Kitty; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfalls create barriers to fish migration, yet hundreds of isolated salmonid populations exist above barriers and have persisted for thousands of years in steep mountainous terrain. Ecological theory indicates that small isolated populations in disturbance-prone landscapes are at greatest risk of extirpation because immigration and recolonization are not possible. On the contrary, many above-barrier populations are currently thriving while their downstream counterparts are dwindling. This quandary led us to explore geomorphic knickpoints as a mechanism for disconnecting hillslope and channel processes by limiting channel incision and decreasing the pace of base-level lowering. Using LiDAR from the Oregon Coast Range, we found gentler channel gradients, wider valleys, lower gradient hillslopes, and less shallow landslide potential in an above-barrier catchment compared to a neighboring catchment devoid of persistent knickpoints. Based on this unique geomorphic template, above-barrier channel networks are less prone to debris flows and other episodic sediment fluxes. These above-barrier catchments also have greater resiliency to flooding, owing to wider valleys with greater floodplain connectivity. Habitat preference models further indicate that salmonid habitat is present in greater quantity and quality in these above-barrier networks. Therefore the paradox of the persistence of small isolated fish populations may be facilitated by a geomorphic mechanism that both limits their connectivity to larger fish populations yet dampens the effect of disturbance by decreasing connections between hillslope and channel processes above geomorphic knickpoints.

  5. Genomewide Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Severe Bipolar Disorder in a Population Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophoff, Roel A.; Escamilla, Michael A.; Service, Susan K.; Spesny, Mitzi; Meshi, Dar B.; Poon, Wingman; Molina, Julio; Fournier, Eduardo; Gallegos, Alvaro; Mathews, Carol; Neylan, Thomas; Batki, Steven L.; Roche, Erin; Ramirez, Margarita; Silva, Sandra; De Mille, Melissa C.; Dong, Penny; Leon, Pedro E.; Reus, Victor I.; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk A.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2002-01-01

    Genomewide association studies may offer the best promise for genetic mapping of complex traits. Such studies in outbred populations require very densely spaced single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In recently founded population isolates, however, extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) may make these studies feasible with currently available sets of short tandem repeat markers, spaced at intervals as large as a few centimorgans. We report the results of a genomewide association study of severe bipolar disorder (BP-I), using patients from the isolated population of the central valley of Costa Rica. We observed LD with BP-I on several chromosomes; the most striking results were in proximal 8p, a region that has previously shown linkage to schizophrenia. This region could be important for severe psychiatric disorders, rather than for a specific phenotype. PMID:12119601

  6. On Linguistic Abilities, Multilingualism, and Linguistic Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannàccaro Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of linguistic justice should be related to the concept of linguistic ease, by which we mean the full social and communicative freedom of concern of the speaker in a given social interaction involving the use of language(s present in the society, according to the social norms of use. To acquire an acceptable degree of linguistic ease, the knowledge of at least one L2 is considered important. But the acquisition of a L2 is interfered by the previous linguistic skills of the learner/speaker who, in many cases, does not have a suitable competence even of the languages of the society in which he/she lives.

  7. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas Damm; TH, Jørgensen; Børglum, Anders

    2006-01-01

    The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are inhabited by a small population, whose origin is thought to date back to the Viking Age. Historical, archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the present population of the Faroe Islands may have a mixture of Scandinavian and British...... a frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among...

  8. Population Structure among Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe, Teresa; Correa, Nidia; Rozo, Juan Carlos; Ferro, Beatriz Elena; Gomez, Verónica; Zapata, Elsa; Ribon, Wellman; Puerto, Gloria; Castro, Claudia; Nieto, Luisa María; Diaz, Maria Lilia; Rivera, Oriana; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Arbelaez, Maria Patricia; Robledo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background Phylogeographic composition of M. tuberculosis populations reveals associations between lineages and human populations that might have implications for the development of strategies to control the disease. In Latin America, lineage 4 or the Euro-American, is predominant with considerable variations among and within countries. In Colombia, although few studies from specific localities have revealed differences in M. tuberculosis populations, there are still areas of the country where this information is lacking, as is a comparison of Colombian isolates with those from the rest of the world. Principal Findings A total of 414 M. tuberculosis isolates from adult pulmonary tuberculosis cases from three Colombian states were studied. Isolates were genotyped using IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spoligotyping, and 24-locus Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). SIT42 (LAM9) and SIT62 (H1) represented 53.3% of isolates, followed by 8.21% SIT50 (H3), 5.07% SIT53 (T1), and 3.14% SIT727 (H1). Composite spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU- VNTR minimum spanning tree analysis suggest a recent expansion of SIT42 and SIT62 evolved originally from SIT53 (T1). The proportion of Haarlem sublineage (44.3%) was significantly higher than that in neighboring countries. Associations were found between M. tuberculosis MDR and SIT45 (H1), as well as HIV-positive serology with SIT727 (H1) and SIT53 (T1). Conclusions This study showed the population structure of M. tuberculosis in several regions from Colombia with a dominance of the LAM and Haarlem sublineages, particularly in two major urban settings (Medellín and Cali). Dominant spoligotypes were LAM9 (SIT 42) and Haarlem (SIT62). The proportion of the Haarlem sublineage was higher in Colombia compared to that in neighboring countries, suggesting particular conditions of co-evolution with the corresponding human population that favor the success of this

  9. Artificial barriers prevent genetic recovery of small isolated populations of a low-mobility freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R A; Gauffre, B; Pavlova, A; Beheregaray, L B; Kearns, J; Lyon, J; Sasaki, M; Leblois, R; Sgro, C; Sunnucks, P

    2018-01-12

    Habitat loss and fragmentation often result in small, isolated populations vulnerable to environmental disturbance and loss of genetic diversity. Low genetic diversity can increase extinction risk of small populations by elevating inbreeding and inbreeding depression, and reducing adaptive potential. Due to their linear nature and extensive use by humans, freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Although the effects of fragmentation on genetic structure have been extensively studied in migratory fishes, they are less understood in low-mobility species. We estimated impacts of instream barriers on genetic structure and diversity of the low-mobility river blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) within five streams separated by weirs or dams constructed 45-120 years ago. We found evidence of small-scale (barriers, as expected for a fish with low mobility. Genetic diversity was lower above barriers in small streams only, regardless of barrier age. In particular, one isolated population showed evidence of a recent bottleneck and inbreeding. Differentiation above and below the barrier (F ST  = 0.13) was greatest in this stream, but in other streams did not differ from background levels. Spatially explicit simulations suggest that short-term barrier effects would not be detected with our data set unless effective population sizes were very small (barriers is reduced and requires more genetic markers compared to panmictic populations. We also demonstrate the importance of accounting for natural population genetic structure in fragmentation studies.

  10. Use of Multicolor Flow Cytometry for Isolation of Specific Cell Populations Deriving from Differentiated Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengarelli, Isabella; Fryga, Andrew; Barberi, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Flow Cytometry-Sorting (FCM-Sorting) is a technique commonly used to identify and isolate specific types of cells from a heterogeneous population of live cells. Here we describe a multicolor flow cytometry technique that uses five distinct cell surface antigens to isolate four live populations with

  11. [The gene pool of the Belgorod oblast population: Malecot's isolation-by-distance parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, I N; Balanovskaia, E V; Churnoson, M I

    2009-03-01

    The mean distance between birthplaces of spouses (sigma, sigma'), the proportion of medium migrations (k), and the effective migration pressure (M(e)) have considerably increased, and the linear systematic pressure coefficient (b) has decreased in the human population of the Central Chernozem region during the past 50 years. However, the local inbreeding level (a), which is determined by both an increase in the migration intensity and a decrease in the effective population size (N(e)), has remained practically unchanged. A change in the regional administrative structure has affected the genetic structure of populations. In the 1950s, raions (administrative districts) of Kursk and Voronezh oblasts (regions) were similar with respect differentiation parameters, whereas the oblasts considerably differed from each other. At present, some Malecot's isolation-by-distance parameters for the populations of the districts that were included to Belgorod oblast in 1954 are lower and similar to those for the districts that remain in Kursk and Voronezh oblasts.

  12. Reproductive isolation between sympatric and allopatric Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Claudia A; Vigoder, Felipe M; Ward, Richard D; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2008-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l., the main vector of Leishmania chagasi in Latin America, is a species complex although the exact number of siblings is yet unknown. In Brazil, the siblings differ in male copulatory courtship songs and pheromones that most certainly act as pre-zygotic reproductive barriers. Here we analysed the reproductive isolation between three allopatric and two sympatric populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. from Brazil. The results indicate a strong copulatory and pre-mating iso...

  13. PedMine – A simulated annealing algorithm to identify maximally unrelated individuals in population isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Julie A.; Sandefur, Conner I.

    2008-01-01

    In family-based genetic studies, it is often useful to identify a subset of unrelated individuals. When such studies are conducted in population isolates, however, most if not all individuals are often detectably related to each other. To identify a set of maximally unrelated (or equivalently, minimally related) individuals, we have implemented simulated annealing, a general-purpose algorithm for solving difficult combinatorial optimization problems. We illustrate our method on data from a ge...

  14. Isolation and characterization of repeat elements of the oak genome and their application in population analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluch, S.; Burg, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four minisatellite sequence elements have been identified and isolated from the genome of the oak species Quercus petraea and Quercus robur. Minisatellites 1 and 2 are putative members of repeat families, while minisatellites 3 and 4 show repeat length variation among individuals of test populations. A 590 base pair (bp) long element has also been identified which reveals individual-specific autoradiographic patterns when used as probe in Southern hybridisations of genomic oak DNA. (author)

  15. Mapping Landscape Friction to Locate Isolated Tsetse Populations that are Candidates for Elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Dicko, Ahmadou H.; Cecchi, Giuliano; Ravel, Sophie; Solano, Philippe; Guerrini, Laure; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; De Meeûs, Thierry; Lancelot, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of deadly human and animal trypanosomes in sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse control is a key component for the integrated management of both plagues, but local eradication successes have been limited to less than 2% of the infested area. This is attributed to either resurgence of residual populations that were omitted from the eradication campaign or reinvasion from neighboring infested areas. Here we focused on Glossina palpalis gambiensis, a riverine tsetse species representing the main vector of trypanosomoses in West Africa. We mapped landscape resistance to tsetse genetic flow, hereafter referred to as friction, to identify natural barriers that isolate tsetse populations. For this purpose, we fitted a statistical model of the genetic distance between 37 tsetse populations sampled in the region, using a set of remotely sensed environmental data as predictors. The least-cost path between these populations was then estimated using the predicted friction map. The method enabled us to avoid the subjectivity inherent in the expert-based weighting of environmental parameters. Finally, we identified potentially isolated clusters of G. p. gambiensis habitat based on a species distribution model and ranked them according to their predicted genetic distance to the main tsetse population. The methodology presented here will inform the choice on the most appropriate intervention strategies to be implemented against tsetse flies in different parts of Africa. It can also be used to control other pests and to support conservation of endangered species. (author)

  16. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  17. The effect of the dispersal kernel on isolation-by-distance in a continuous population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara N. Furstenau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Under models of isolation-by-distance, population structure is determined by the probability of identity-by-descent between pairs of genes according to the geographic distance between them. Well established analytical results indicate that the relationship between geographical and genetic distance depends mostly on the neighborhood size of the population which represents a standardized measure of gene flow. To test this prediction, we model local dispersal of haploid individuals on a two-dimensional landscape using seven dispersal kernels: Rayleigh, exponential, half-normal, triangular, gamma, Lomax and Pareto. When neighborhood size is held constant, the distributions produce similar patterns of isolation-by-distance, confirming predictions. Considering this, we propose that the triangular distribution is the appropriate null distribution for isolation-by-distance studies. Under the triangular distribution, dispersal is uniform over the neighborhood area which suggests that the common description of neighborhood size as a measure of an effective, local panmictic population is valid for popular families of dispersal distributions. We further show how to draw random variables from the triangular distribution efficiently and argue that it should be utilized in other studies in which computational efficiency is important.

  18. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  19. Ecological speciation by temporal isolation in a population of the stonefly Leuctra hippopus (Plecoptera, Leuctridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Louis; Hogner, Silje; Brittain, John; Johnsen, Arild

    2017-03-01

    Stream dwelling invertebrates are ideal candidates for the study of ecological speciation as they are often adapted to particular environmental conditions within a stream and inhabit only certain reaches of a drainage basin, separated by unsuitable habitat. We studied an atypical population of the stonefly Leuctra hippopus at a site in central Norway, the Isterfoss rapids, in relation to three nearby and two remote conspecific populations. Adults of this population emerge about a month earlier than those of nearby populations, live on large boulders emerging from the rapids, and are short-lived. This population also has distinct morphological features and was studied earlier during the period 1975-1990. We reassessed morphological distinctness with new measurements and added several analyses of genetic distinctness based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequence markers, as well as AFLP fingerprinting and SNPs mined from RAD sequences. The Isterfoss population is shown to be most closely related to its geographical neighbors, yet clearly morphologically and genetically distinct and homogeneous. We conclude that this population is in the process of sympatric speciation, with temporal isolation being the most important direct barrier to gene flow. The shift in reproductive season results from the particular temperature and water level regime in the Isterfoss rapids. The distinct adult body shape and loss of flight are hypothesized to be an adaptation to the unusual habitat. Ecological diversification on small spatial and temporal scales is one of the likely causes of the high diversity of aquatic insects.

  20. Prevalence of Discoid Meniscus During Arthroscopy for Isolated Lateral Meniscal Pathology in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Henry B; Wise, Kelsey; LaMont, Lauren; Copley, Lawson; Wilson, Philip

    2017-06-01

    Meniscus tears in the young patient are becoming more prevalent. Knowledge of presenting characteristics and morphology can affect treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to review and evaluate all the isolated lateral meniscus pathology that required arthroscopic treatment in a pediatric sports medicine practice and compare presenting characteristics between those with a discoid meniscus and those with normal meniscal morphology. We performed a retrospective review of all isolated lateral meniscus arthroscopic procedures from 2003 to 2012 in a high-volume pediatric sports practice. Presentation, radiographs, and intraoperative findings were reviewed. The prevalence and clinical findings of a discoid meniscus in this population and among all age groups were compared with those with a meniscus tear occurring in a normal meniscus. Two hundred and sixty-one arthroscopies were performed for symptomatic isolated lateral menisci pathology. Of these, 75% were discoid in nature; the remainder was tears occurring in normal menisci. Ninety-six of 99 patients (97%) with lateral meniscus pathology under the age of 13 had a discoid meniscus and 66% presented with no injury. There was a transition within the population at 14 years of age, with a rise in the incidence of normal meniscal body tears. Even after this transition point, meniscal pathology incidence remained notable; 59% of isolated lateral meniscus pathology in patients between the ages of 14 and 16 years old were a discoid meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging criteria for discoid meniscus (3 consecutive sagittal cuts or coronal mid-compartment measure) were unreliable after the age of 13 years old. The ratio of complete to incomplete discoids in all age groups was 4 to 3. In conclusion, discoid menisci have a high prevalence in isolated lateral meniscus pathology requiring knee arthroscopy. Clinical presentation, imaging, characteristics, and treatment may be different among different age groups. In the

  1. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is an annual/biannual open access, peer-reviewed international journal, published by the Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. The papers published in SPiL are ... Poetry in South African Sign Language: What is different? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  2. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...

  3. Linguistic Communications 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia).

    The present compilation of papers on linguistics is the result of joint efforts by the Classical Studies, French, Japanese, Linguistics, and Russian Departments of Monash University. Selections in the Pre-Prints and Articles section include: "For/Arabic Bilingualism in the Zalingei Area," by B. Jernudd; "Prosodic Problems in a Generative Phonology…

  4. Degree of Landscape Fragmentation Influences Genetic Isolation among Populations of a Gliding Mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea C.; Walker, Faith M.; Goldingay, Ross L.; Ball, Tina; van der Ree, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    Forests and woodlands are under continuing pressure from urban and agricultural development. Tree-dependent mammals that rarely venture to the ground are likely to be highly sensitive to forest fragmentation. The Australian squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) provides an excellent case study to examine genetic (functional) connectivity among populations. It has an extensive range that occurs in a wide band along the east coast. However, its forest and woodland habitat has become greatly reduced in area and is severely fragmented within the southern inland part of the species' range, where it is recognised as threatened. Within central and northern coastal regions, habitat is much more intact and we thus hypothesise that genetic connectivity will be greater in this region than in the south. To test this we employed microsatellite analysis in a molecular population biology approach. Most sampling locations in the highly modified south showed signatures of genetic isolation. In contrast, a high level of genetic connectivity was inferred among most sampled populations in the more intact habitat of the coastal region, with samples collected 1400 km apart having similar genetic cluster membership. Nonetheless, some coastal populations associated with urbanisation and agriculture are genetically isolated, suggesting the historic pattern observed in the south is emerging on the coast. Our study demonstrates that massive landscape changes following European settlement have had substantial impacts on levels of connectivity among squirrel glider populations, as predicted on the basis of the species' ecology. This suggests that landscape planning and management in the south should be focused on restoring habitat connectivity where feasible, while along the coast, existing habitat connectivity must be maintained and recent losses restored. Molecular population biology approaches provide a ready means for identifying fragmentation effects on a species at multiple scales

  5. Degree of landscape fragmentation influences genetic isolation among populations of a gliding mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C Taylor

    Full Text Available Forests and woodlands are under continuing pressure from urban and agricultural development. Tree-dependent mammals that rarely venture to the ground are likely to be highly sensitive to forest fragmentation. The Australian squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis provides an excellent case study to examine genetic (functional connectivity among populations. It has an extensive range that occurs in a wide band along the east coast. However, its forest and woodland habitat has become greatly reduced in area and is severely fragmented within the southern inland part of the species' range, where it is recognised as threatened. Within central and northern coastal regions, habitat is much more intact and we thus hypothesise that genetic connectivity will be greater in this region than in the south. To test this we employed microsatellite analysis in a molecular population biology approach. Most sampling locations in the highly modified south showed signatures of genetic isolation. In contrast, a high level of genetic connectivity was inferred among most sampled populations in the more intact habitat of the coastal region, with samples collected 1400 km apart having similar genetic cluster membership. Nonetheless, some coastal populations associated with urbanisation and agriculture are genetically isolated, suggesting the historic pattern observed in the south is emerging on the coast. Our study demonstrates that massive landscape changes following European settlement have had substantial impacts on levels of connectivity among squirrel glider populations, as predicted on the basis of the species' ecology. This suggests that landscape planning and management in the south should be focused on restoring habitat connectivity where feasible, while along the coast, existing habitat connectivity must be maintained and recent losses restored. Molecular population biology approaches provide a ready means for identifying fragmentation effects on a species at

  6. First evidence for postzygotic reproductive isolation between two populations of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L. within Lake Constance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of reproductive traits, such as hybrid incompatibility (postzygotic isolation and species recognition (prezygotic isolation, have shown their key role in speciation. Theoretical modeling has recently predicted that close linkage between genes controlling pre- and postzygotic reproductive isolation could accelerate the conditions for speciation. Postzygotic isolation could develop during the sympatric speciation process contributing to the divergence of populations. Using hybrid fitness as a measure of postzygotic reproductive isolation, we empirically studied population divergence in perch (Perca fluviatilis L. from two genetically divergent populations within a lake. Results During spawning time of perch we artificially created parental offspring and F1 hybrids of the two populations and studied fertilization rate and hatching success under laboratory conditions. The combined fitness measure (product of fertilization rate and hatching success of F1 hybrids was significantly reduced compared to offspring from within population crosses. Conclusion Our results suggest intrinsic genetic incompatibility between the two populations and indicate that population divergence between two populations of perch inhabiting the same lake may indeed be promoted by postzygotic isolation.

  7. Polygyny and strong genetic structuring within an isolated population of the wood ant Formica rufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Dekoninck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social structuring of populations within some Formica species exhibits considerable variation going from monodomous and monogynous populations to polydomous, polygynous populations. The wood ant species Formica rufa appears to be mainly monodomous and monogynous throughout most of its distribution area in central and northern Europe. Only occasionally it was mentioned that F. rufa can have both polygynous and monogynous colonies in the same geographical region. We studied an isolated polydomous F. rufa population in a deciduous mixed forest in the north-west of Belgium. The level of polydomy within the colonies varied from monodomous to 11 nests per colony. Our genetic analysis of eight variable microsatellites suggest an oligo- to polygynous structure for at least the major part of the sampled nests. Relatedness amongst nest mate workers varies considerable within the population and colonies but confirms in general a polygynous structure. Additionally high genetic diversity (e.g. up to 8 out of 11 alleles per nest for the most variable locus and high within nest genetic variance (93% indicate that multiple queens contribute to the gene pool of workers of the same nest. Moreover significant genetic structuring among colonies indicates that gene flow between colonies is restricted and that exchange of workers between colonies is very limited. Finally we explain how possible factors as budding and the absence of Serviformica can explain the differences in genetic structure within this polygynous F. rufa population.

  8. Isolation and characterization of populations of mature and immature rat colonocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnen, D.J.; Reed, T.A.; Bozdech, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A nonenzymatic method is described for the isolation of viable populations of mature and immature rat colonocytes. Histology was used to monitor colonocyte dissociation and to systematically characterize the amount of cross-contamination between populations of mature luminal cells and immature crypt cells. The mature coloncytes were 87 ± 9% pure with respect to contamination from cells from the lower half of the colonic crypt, and the immature populations were 98% pure with respect to contamination with cells from the upper half of the colonic crypt. Neither population contained significant numbers of cells from the lamina propria. Cell viability and synthetic function were maintained from 10-12 h in short-term culture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was 1.59 ± 0.01-fold higher in the mature cells than in the immature cells, and in vivo [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation was 2.9 ± 0.4-fold greater in the immature than the mature populations. These studies demonstrate that highly enriched populations of mature and immature rat colonocytes that maintain viability and synthetic function in short-term culture can be prepared. The intrinsic rate of protein synthesis is higher in immature colonocytes, and a shift to synthesis of a higher percentage of fucoproteins occurs during colonocyte differentiation. In contrast to result in the small intestine, only modest gradients of differentiation markers and cell surface protein expression were observed between mature and immature colonocytes

  9. Genetic diversity of six isolated populations of the leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Dolati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae, is an important pest of a wide range of trees and shrubs including walnut and apple across the world. The natural populations of the leopard moth in different geographical areas of Iran show significant differences in some of their biological characteristics such as time of emergence, generation time and host specificity. So, we hypothesized that these populations may represent different subspecies that move toward a speciation event in their evolutionary route. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity of six different geographically isolated populations of the leopard moth using the sequence alignment of cytochrome oxidase c subunit one (COI. A fragment of 642 base pairs was amplified in all six populations and the phylogenetic tree was created based on sequenced fragments. Our results revealed significant differences in the nucleotide sequence of COI gene in these populations. Differences in climatic conditions of these regions seem to be the most powerful force driving this diversity among the studied populations.

  10. Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon J; Bryant, Kate A; Kraus, Robert H S; Loneragan, Neil R; Kopps, Anna M; Brown, Alexander M; Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture in a trawl fishery. We analysed 71 dolphin samples from three sites beyond the 50 m depth contour (the inshore boundary of the fishery) and up to 170 km offshore, including incidentally caught and free-ranging individuals associating with trawl vessels, and 273 dolphins sampled at 12 coastal sites inshore of the 50 m depth contour and within 10 km of the coast. Results from 19 nuclear microsatellite markers showed significant population structure between dolphins from within the fishery and coastal sites, but also among dolphins from coastal sites, identifying three coastal populations. Moreover, we found no current or historic gene flow into the offshore population in the region of the fishery, indicating a complete lack of recruitment from coastal sites. Mitochondrial DNA corroborated our findings of genetic isolation between dolphins from the offshore population and coastal sites. Most offshore individuals formed a monophyletic clade with common bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus), while all 273 individuals sampled coastally formed a well-supported clade of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). By including a quantitative modelling approach, our study explicitly took evolutionary processes into account for informing the conservation and management of protected species. As such, it may serve as a template for other, similarly inaccessible study populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Co-isolation of Vahlkampfia and acanthamoeba in acanthamoeba-like keratitis in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Irigoyen, Cristina; Morcillo-Laiz, Rafael; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Muñoz-Negrete, Francisco; Piñero, Jose E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-05-01

    To report the co-isolation incidence of Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfia in amoebic keratitis from a tertiary care institution in Madrid, Spain. In this retrospective case series, 7 eyes of 7 consecutive patients with culture-proven or polymerase chain reaction-positive Acanthamoeba keratitis were seen at a tertiary care institution from January 2010 to April 2011, and their charts were reviewed. Two of 7 patients showed mixed Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfia keratitis. Good clinical response to the treatment was strongly correlated with early diagnosis, whereas delayed diagnosis resulted in poor response to the treatment in single or mixed infection. Co-isolation of Vahlkampfia and Acanthamoeba in Acanthamoeba-like keratitis has recently been detected in our population. This finding should raise awareness of the existence of other amoeba different from Acanthamoeba causing keratitis. There are not enough cases yet to determine the impact of mixed amoebic keratitis in the prognosis of this disease.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus isolated from naturally fermented dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Guo, Chenyi; Wu, Yarong; Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Menghe, Bilige; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Heping

    2016-03-04

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the most widely used starter culture strains in industrial fermented dairy manufacture. It is also common in naturally fermented dairy foods made using traditional methods. The subsp. bulgaricus strains found in naturally fermented foods may be useful for improving current industrial starter cultures; however, little is known regarding its genetic diversity and population structure. Here, a collection of 298 L. delbrueckii strains from naturally fermented products in Mongolia, Russia, and West China was analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing based on eight conserved genes. The 251 confirmed subsp. bulgaricus strains produced 106 unique sequence types, the majority of which were assigned to five clonal complexes (CCs). The geographical distribution of CCs was uneven, with CC1 dominated by Mongolian and Russian isolates, and CC2-CC5 isolates exclusively from Xinjiang, China. Population structure analysis suggested six lineages, L1-L6, with various homologous recombination rates. Although L2-L5 were mainly restricted within specific regions, strains belonging to L1 and L6 were observed in diverse regions, suggesting historical transmission events. These results greatly enhance our knowledge of the population diversity of subsp. bulgaricus strains, and suggest that strains from CC1 and L4 may be useful as starter strains in industrial fermentation.

  13. Genetic and demographic recovery of an isolated population of brown bear Ursus arctos L., 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena G. Gonzalez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The brown bear Ursus arctos L., 1758 population of the Cantabrian Mountains (northwestern Spain became isolated from other bear populations in Europe about 500 years ago and has declined due to hunting and habitat degradation. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Cantabrian population split into eastern and western subpopulations, and genetic exchange between them ceased. In the early 1990s, total population size was estimated to be < 100 bears. Subsequently, reduction in human-caused mortality has brought about an increase in numbers, mainly in the western subpopulation, likely promoting male-mediated migration and gene flow from the western nucleus to the eastern. To evaluate the possible genetic recovery of the small and genetically depauperate eastern subpopulation, in 2013 and 2014 we genotyped hair and faeces samples (116 from the eastern subpopulation and 36 from the western for 18 microsatellite markers. Data from the annual count of females with cubs of the year (COY during the past twenty-six years was used to analyze demographic changes. The number of females with COY fell to a minimum of seven in the western and three in eastern subpopulations in the biennium 1993–1994 and reached a respective maximum of 54 and 10 individuals in 2013–2014. We also observed increased bear dispersal and gene flow, mainly from the western to the eastern subpopulation. Of the 26 unique genotypes detected in the eastern subpopulation, 14 (54% presented an admixture composition, and seven (27% were determined to be migrants from the western subpopulation. Hence, the two separated and clearly structured subpopulations identified in the past currently show some degree of genetic admixture. This research shows the partial demographic recovery and a change in genetic composition due to migration process in a population of bears that has been isolated for several centuries.

  14. Morphological variation between isolates of the nematode Haemonchus contortus from sheep and goat populations in Malaysia and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharamah, A A; Rahman, W A; Siti Azizah, M N

    2014-03-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic nematode parasite of sheep and goats. This work was conducted to investigate the population and host variations of the parasitic nematode H. contortus of sheep and goats from Malaysia and Yemen. Eight morphological characters were investigated, namely the total body length, cervical papillae, right spicule, left spicule, right barb, left barb, gubernaculum and cuticular ridge (synlophe) pattern. Statistical analysis showed the presence of morphological variation between populations of H. contortus from Malaysia and Yemen, with minor variation in the synlophe pattern of these isolates. Isolates from each country were grouped together in the scatterplots with no host isolation. Body, cervical papillae and spicule lengths were the most important characters that distinguished between populations of the two countries. This variation between Malaysia and Yemen may be attributed to geographical isolation and the possible presence of a different isolate of this worm in each country.

  15. Genetics of VEGF serum variation in human isolated populations of cilento: importance of VEGF polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ruggiero

    Full Text Available Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF is the main player in angiogenesis. Because of its crucial role in this process, the study of the genetic factors controlling VEGF variability may be of particular interest for many angiogenesis-associated diseases. Although some polymorphisms in the VEGF gene have been associated with a susceptibility to several disorders, no genome-wide search on VEGF serum levels has been reported so far. We carried out a genome-wide linkage analysis in three isolated populations and we detected a strong linkage between VEGF serum levels and the 6p21.1 VEGF region in all samples. A new locus on chromosome 3p26.3 significantly linked to VEGF serum levels was also detected in a combined population sample. A sequencing of the gene followed by an association study identified three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs influencing VEGF serum levels in one population (Campora, two already reported in the literature (rs3025039, rs25648 and one new signal (rs3025020. A fourth SNP (rs41282644 was found to affect VEGF serum levels in another population (Cardile. All the identified SNPs contribute to the related population linkages (35% of the linkage explained in Campora and 15% in Cardile. Interestingly, none of the SNPs influencing VEGF serum levels in one population was found to be associated in the two other populations. These results allow us to exclude the hypothesis that the common variants located in the exons, intron-exon junctions, promoter and regulative regions of the VEGF gene may have a causal effect on the VEGF variation. The data support the alternative hypothesis of a multiple rare variant model, possibly consisting in distinct variants in different populations, influencing VEGF serum levels.

  16. Population Genetic Structure and Isolation by Distance of Helicobacter pylori in Senegal and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Bodo; Vololonantenainab, Clairette Romaine Raharisolo; Seck, Abdoulaye; Carod, Jean-François; Dia, Daouda; Garin, Benoit; Ramanampamonjy, Rado Manitrala; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Raymond, Josette; Breurec, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has probably infected the human stomach since our origins and subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. The genetic population history of H. pylori can therefore be used as a marker for human migration. We analysed seven housekeeping gene sequences of H. pylori strains isolated from 78 Senegalese and 24 Malagasy patients and compared them with the sequences of strains from other geographical locations. H. pylori from Senegal and Madagascar can be placed in the previously described HpAfrica1 genetic population, subpopulations hspWAfrica and hspSAfrica, respectively. These 2 subpopulations correspond to the distribution of Niger-Congo speakers in West and most of subequatorial Africa (due to Bantu migrations), respectively. H. pylori appears as a single population in Senegal, indicating a long common history between ethnicities as well as frequent local admixtures. The lack of differentiation between these isolates and an increasing genetic differentiation with geographical distance between sampling locations in Africa was evidence for genetic isolation by distance. The Austronesian expansion that started from Taiwan 5000 years ago dispersed one of the 10 subgroups of the Austronesian language family via insular Southeast Asia into the Pacific and Madagascar, and hspMaori is a marker for the entire Austronesian expansion. Strain competition and replacement of hspMaori by hpAfrica1 strains from Bantu migrants are the probable reasons for the presence of hspSAfrica strains in Malagasy of Southeast Asian descent. hpAfrica1 strains appear to be generalist strains that have the necessary genetic diversity to efficiently colonise a wide host spectrum. PMID:24498084

  17. Isolation and genetic diversity of endangered grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Adam; Zenger, Kyall; Briscoe, David; Gillings, Michael; Peddemors, Victor; Otway, Nicholas; Harcourt, Robert

    2006-06-22

    Anthropogenic impacts are believed to be the primary threats to the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus), which is listed as critically endangered, and the most threatened population globally. Analyses of 235 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) loci and 700 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region provide the first account of genetic variation and geographical partitioning (east and west coasts of Australia, South Africa) in C. taurus. Assignment tests, analysis of relatedness and Fst values all indicate that the Australian populations are isolated from South Africa, with negligible migration between the east and west Australian coasts. There are significant differences in levels of genetic variation among regions. Australian C. taurus, particularly the eastern population, has significantly less AFLP variation than the other sampling localities. Further, the eastern Australian sharks possess only a single mitochondrial haplotype, also suggesting a small number of founding individuals. Therefore, historical, rather than anthropogenic processes most likely account for their depauperate genetic variation. These findings have implications for the viability of the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks.

  18. Applied Linguistics and the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines the complexities and differences involved in granting disciplinary status to the role of applied linguistics, discusses the role of the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics" as a contributor to the development of applied linguistics, and highlights a set of publications for the future of applied linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  19. The isolation and localization of arbitrary restriction fragment length polymorphisms in Southern African populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, V.

    1987-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to contribute to the mapping of the human genome by searching for and characterizing a number of RFLPs (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) in the human genome. The more specific aims of this study were: 1. To isolate single-copy human DNA sequences from a human genomic library. 2. To use these single-copy sequences as DNA probes to search for polymorphic variation among Caucasoid individuals. 3. To show by means of family studies that the RFLPs were inherited in a co-dominant Mendelian fashion. 4. To determine the population frequencies of these RFLPs in Southern African Populations, namely the Bantu-speaking Negroids and the San. 5. To assign these RFLP-detecting DNA sequences to human chromosomes using somatic cell hybrid lines. In this study DNA was labelled with Phosphorus 32

  20. Genome-wide association studies in an isolated founder population from the Pacific Island of Kosrae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Lowe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that the limited genetic diversity and reduced allelic heterogeneity observed in isolated founder populations facilitates discovery of loci contributing to both Mendelian and complex disease. A strong founder effect, severe isolation, and substantial inbreeding have dramatically reduced genetic diversity in natives from the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, who exhibit a high prevalence of obesity and other metabolic disorders. We hypothesized that genetic drift and possibly natural selection on Kosrae might have increased the frequency of previously rare genetic variants with relatively large effects, making these alleles readily detectable in genome-wide association analysis. However, mapping in large, inbred cohorts introduces analytic challenges, as extensive relatedness between subjects violates the assumptions of independence upon which traditional association test statistics are based. We performed genome-wide association analysis for 15 quantitative traits in 2,906 members of the Kosrae population, using novel approaches to manage the extreme relatedness in the sample. As positive controls, we observe association to known loci for plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein and to a compelling candidate loci for thyroid stimulating hormone and fasting plasma glucose. We show that our study is well powered to detect common alleles explaining >/=5% phenotypic variance. However, no such large effects were observed with genome-wide significance, arguing that even in such a severely inbred population, common alleles typically have modest effects. Finally, we show that a majority of common variants discovered in Caucasians have indistinguishable effect sizes on Kosrae, despite the major differences in population genetics and environment.

  1. Population genetic structure and natural selection of apical membrane antigen-1 in Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jinyoung; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ju, Hye-Lim; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2015-11-16

    Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) is a leading candidate antigen for blood stage malaria vaccine. However, antigenic variation is a major obstacle in the development of an effective vaccine based on this antigen. In this study, the genetic structure and the effect of natural selection of PvAMA-1 among Korean P. vivax isolates were analysed. Blood samples were collected from 66 Korean patients with vivax malaria. The entire PvAMA-1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a TA cloning vector. The PvAMA-1 sequence of each isolate was sequenced and the polymorphic characteristics and effect of natural selection were analysed using the DNASTAR, MEGA4, and DnaSP programs. Thirty haplotypes of PvAMA-1, which were further classified into seven different clusters, were identified in the 66 Korean P. vivax isolates. Domain II was highly conserved among the sequences, but substantial nucleotide diversity was observed in domains I and III. The difference between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggested that the gene has evolved under natural selection. No strong evidence indicating balancing or positive selection on PvAMA-1 was identified. Recombination may also play a role in the resulting genetic diversity of PvAMA-1. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of nucleotide diversity across the entire PvAMA-1 gene using a single population sample from Korea. Korean PvAMA-1 had limited genetic diversity compared to PvAMA-1 in global isolates. The overall pattern of genetic polymorphism of Korean PvAMA-1 differed from other global isolates and novel amino acid changes were also identified in Korean PvAMA-1. Evidences for natural selection and recombination event were observed, which is likely to play an important role in generating genetic diversity across the PvAMA-1. These results provide useful information for the understanding the population structure of P. vivax circulating in Korea and have important

  2. Snapshot Survey of the Globular Cluster Populations of Isolated Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We propose WFC3/UVIS snapshot observations of a sample of 75 isolated early type galaxiesresiding in cosmic voids or extremely low density regions. The primary aim is to usetheir globular cluster populations to reconstruct their evolutionary history, revealingif, how, and why void ellipticals differ from cluster ellipticals. The galaxies span arange of luminosities, providing a varied sample for comparison with the well-documentedglobular cluster populations in denser environments. This proposed WFC3 study of isolatedearly type galaxies breaks new ground by targeting a sample which has thus far receivedlittle attention, and, significantly, this will be the first such study with HST.Characterizing early type galaxies in voids and their GC systems promises to increase ourunderstanding of galaxy formation and evolution of galaxies in general because isolatedobjects are the best approximation to a control sample that we have for understanding theinfluence of environment on formation and evolution. Whether these isolated objects turnout to be identical to or distinct from counterparts in other regions of the Universe,they will supply insight into the formation and evolution of all galaxies. Parallel ACSimaging will help to characterize the near field environments of the sample.

  3. Identifying Rare Variation in Cases of Schizophrenia in the Isolated Population of the Faroe Islands using Whole-genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas Damm; Lescai, Francesco; Dahl, Hans

    to map risk variants involved in complex traits. We aim at utilizing samples of cases and controls of the isolated population of the Faroe Islands to conduct whole-genome-sequence analysis in order to identify rare genetic variants associated with schizophrenia. We will search for rare genetic variants...... of developing SZ. However, these studies are designed to examining only “the common variant” proportion of the genomic landscape of SZ. Due to increased genetic drift during founding and potential bottlenecks, followed by population expansion, isolated populations may be particularly useful in identifying rare...... disease variants, that may appear at higher frequencies and/or within a more clearly distinct haplotype structure compared to outbred populations. Small isolated populations also typically show reduced phenotypic, genetic and environmental heterogeneity, thus making them advantageous in studies aiming...

  4. Saussure and Linguistic Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Saussures's "Cours de linguistique generale," which was published in 1916, and devotes specific attention to the significance of Part VI, which is devoted to linguistic geography. (16 references) (Author/VWL)

  5. Comparison of chickpea rhizobia isolates from diverse Portuguese natural populations based on symbiotic effectiveness and DNA fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, M; Branco, C; Soares, R; Alho, L; Carvalho, M D E; Oliveira, S

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that differences in chickpea yields obtained in four distinct Portuguese regions (Beja, Elvas-Casas Velhas, Elvas-Estação Nacional de Melhoramento de Plantas (ENMP) and Evora) could be due to variation between the natural rhizobia populations. Estimation of the size of the different rhizobial populations showed that Elvas-ENMP population was the largest one. Elvas-ENMP population also revealed a higher proportion of isolates carrying more than one plasmid. Assessment of genetic diversity of the native rhizobia populations by a DNA fingerprinting PCR method, here designated as DAPD (Direct Amplified Polymorphic DNA), showed a higher degree of variation in Elvas-ENMP and Beja populations. The symbiotic effectiveness (SE) of 39 isolates was determined and ranged 13-34%. Statistical analysis showed that SE was negatively correlated with plasmid number of the isolate. The largest indigenous rhizobia population was found in Elvas-ENMP. DAPD pattern and plasmid profile analysis both suggested a higher genetic diversity among the populations of Elvas-ENMP and Beja. No relationship was found between SE of the isolates and their origin site. The large native population, rather than the symbiotic performance of individual rhizobia, could contribute to the higher chickpea yields obtained in Elvas-ENMP.

  6. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  7. Mathematics and linguistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  8. Having Linguistic Rules and Knowing Linguistic Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ludlow

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    'Knowledge' doesn't correctly describe our relation to linguistic rules. It is too thick a notion (for example, we don't believe linguistic rules. On the other hand, 'cognize', without further elaboration, is too thin a notion, which is to say that it is too thin to play a role in a competence theory. One advantage of the term 'knowledge'-and presumably Chomsky's original motivation for using it-is that knowledge would play the right kind of role in a competence theory: Our competence would consist in a body of knowledge which we have and which we may or may not act upon-our performance need not conform to the linguistic rules that we know.

    Is there a way out of the dilemma? I'm going to make the case that the best way to talk about grammatical rules is simply to say that we have them. That doesn't sound very deep, I know, but saying that we have individual rules leaves room for individual norm guidance in a way that 'cognize' does not. Saying we have a rule like subjacency is also thicker than merely saying we cognize it. Saying I have such a rule invites the interpretation that it is a rule for me-that I am normatively guided by it. The competence theory thus becomes a theory of the rules that we have. Whether we follow those rules is another matter entirely.

  9. Whole-exome sequencing of individuals from an isolated population implicates rare risk variants in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lescai, F; Als, T D; Li, Q

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorder affects about 1% of the world's population, and its estimated heritability is about 75%. Only few whole genome or whole-exome sequencing studies in bipolar disorder have been reported, and no rare coding variants have yet been robustly identified. The use of isolated populations...

  10. Increase in nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated in Shanghai, China: results from a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In China, the prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM in isolates from mycobacterial culture-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB is largely unknown. METHODS: We used conventional biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify species of mycobacteria in specimens from patients suspected of having TB. Drug-susceptibility testing was performed on NTM isolates using the proportion method. We also determined the independent risk factors associated with infection with NTM compared with infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. RESULTS: The overall rate of NTM isolated from mycobacterial culture-positive patients was 5.9% in this population, with a significantly increasing trend from 3.0% in 2008 to 8.5% in 2012 (P for trend <0.001. The organism most frequently identified was M. kansasii (45.0%, followed by M. intracellulare (20.8% and M. chelonae/abscessus (14.9%. The overall proportion of isolates resistant to the four first-line anti-TB agents were 64.6% for isoniazid, 77.6% for streptomycin, 63.3% for rifampicin and 75.1% for ethambutol. The risk factors most often associated with NTM infection were older age (P for trend <0.001, being a resident of Shanghai (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-2.00, having been treated for tuberculosis (aOR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.18-2.29, having a cavity on chest X-ray (aOR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.16-1.96, and being sputum smear-negative (aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.16-2.18. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of NTM isolated in Shanghai increased between 2008 and 2012, thus clinicians should consider NTM as a possible cause of TB-like disease. Accurate species identification is imperative so that proper treatment can be administered for diseases caused by the diversity of NTM species.

  11. Population dynamics, antibiotics resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species isolated from aquatic sources in Northern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Olumide A; Ahmad, Asmat

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to compare population dynamics, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species from seawater and sediment collected from Northern Malaysia. Isolates with different colony morphology were characterized using both biochemical and molecular methods before testing for antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Results obtained from this study showed that in Kedah, the population of Aeromonas isolated from sediment was highest in Pantai Merdeka (8.22 log CFU/ml), Pulau Bunting recorded the highest population of Aeromonas from sediment (8.43 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater and sediment were highest in Kuala Sanglang (9.21 log CFU/ml). In Kuala Perlis, the population of Aeromonas isolated from seawater was highest in Jeti (7.94 log CFU/ml). Highest population of Aeromonas from sediment was recorded in Kampong Tanah Baru (7.99 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater was highest in Padang Benta (8.42 log CFU/g) while Jeti Kuala Perlis had highest population of Vibrio isolated from sediment. It was observed that location does not influence population of Aeromonas. The results of the independent t - test revealed that there was no significant relationship between location and population of Vibrio (df = 10, t = 1.144, p > 0.05). The occurrence of biofilm formation and prevalence of antibiotic resistant Aeromonas and Vibrio species in seawater and sediment pose danger to human and aquatic animals' health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics: 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 18 essays focuses on the linguistic problems involved in accommodating and educating displaced and migrant populations throughout the world. The essays are divided into three sections covering (1) language policy at the national level, (2) language in education policy, and (3) educational practice. Among the specific topics…

  13. Transcriptional and functional differences in stem cell populations isolated from Extraocular and Limb muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco-Pinedo, Eugenia Cristina; Budak, Murat T; Zeiger, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    The extraocular muscles (EOMs) are a distinct muscle group that displays an array of unique contractile, structural and regenerative properties. They also have differential sensitivity to certain diseases and are enigmatically spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The EOMs are so distinct...... from other skeletal muscles that the term: allotype has been coined to highlight EOM-group-specific properties. We hypothesized that increased and distinct stem cells may underlie the continual myogenesis noted in EOM. The side population (SP) stem cells were isolated and studied. EOMs had 15x higher...... SP cell content compared to limb muscles. Expression profiling revealed 348 transcripts that define the EOM-SP transcriptome. Over 92% of transcripts were SP-specific, as they were absent in previous whole-muscle microarray studies. Cultured EOM-SP cells revealed superior in vitro proliferative...

  14. Conservation genetics of extremely isolated urban populations of the northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Munshi-South

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a major cause of amphibian decline. Stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders are particularly susceptible to urbanization due to declining water quality and hydrological changes, but few studies have examined these taxa in cities. The northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus was once common in the New York City metropolitan area, but has substantially declined throughout the region in recent decades. We used five tetranucleotide microsatellite loci to examine population differentiation, genetic variation, and bottlenecks among five remnant urban populations of dusky salamanders in NYC. These genetic measures provide information on isolation, prevalence of inbreeding, long-term prospects for population persistence, and potential for evolutionary responses to future environmental change. All populations were genetically differentiated from each other, and the most isolated populations in Manhattan have maintained very little genetic variation (i.e. <20% heterozygosity. A majority of the populations also exhibited evidence of genetic bottlenecks. These findings contrast with published estimates of high genetic variation within and lack of structure between populations of other desmognathine salamanders sampled over similar or larger spatial scales. Declines in genetic variation likely resulted from population extirpations and the degradation of stream and terrestrial paths for dispersal in NYC. Loss of genetic variability in populations isolated by human development may be an underappreciated cause and/or consequence of the decline of this species in urbanized areas of the northeast USA.

  15. Postmating-prezygotic isolation between two allopatric populations of Drosophila montana: fertilisation success differs under sperm competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Honkola, Outi; Ritchie, Michael G; Veltsos, Paris

    2016-03-01

    Postmating but prezygotic (PMPZ) interactions are increasingly recognized as a potentially important early-stage barrier in the evolution of reproductive isolation. A recent study described a potential example between populations of the same species: single matings between Drosophila montana populations resulted in differential fertilisation success because of the inability of sperm from one population (Vancouver) to penetrate the eggs of the other population (Colorado). As the natural mating system of D. montana is polyandrous (females remate rapidly), we set up double matings of all possible crosses between the same populations to test whether competitive effects between ejaculates influence this PMPZ isolation. We measured premating isolation in no-choice tests, female fecundity, fertility and egg-to-adult viability after single and double matings as well as second-male paternity success (P2). Surprisingly, we found no PMPZ reproductive isolation between the two populations under a competitive setting, indicating no difficulty of sperm from Vancouver males to fertilize Colorado eggs after double matings. While there were subtle differences in how P2 changed over time, suggesting that Vancouver males' sperm are somewhat less competitive in a first-male role within Colorado females, these effects did not translate into differences in overall P2. Fertilisation success can thus differ dramatically between competitive and noncompetitive conditions, perhaps because the males that mate second produce higher quality ejaculates in response to sperm competition. We suggest that unlike in more divergent species comparisons, where sperm competition typically increases reproductive isolation, ejaculate tailoring can reduce the potential for PMPZ isolation when recently diverged populations interbreed.

  16. Potential paths for male-mediated gene flow to and from an isolated grizzly bear population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Christopher P.; van Manen, Frank T.; Costello, Cecily M.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Landenburger, Lisa; Roberts, Lori L.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Mace, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    For several decades, grizzly bear populations in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) have increased in numbers and range extent. The GYE population remains isolated and although effective population size has increased since the early 1980s, genetic connectivity between these populations remains a long-term management goal. With only ~110 km distance separating current estimates of occupied range for these populations, the potential for gene flow is likely greater now than it has been for many decades. We sought to delineate potential paths that would provide the opportunity for male-mediated gene flow between the two populations. We first developed step-selection functions to generate conductance layers using ecological, physical, and anthropogenic landscape features associated with non-stationary GPS locations of 124 male grizzly bears (199 bear-years). We then used a randomized shortest path (RSP) algorithm to estimate the average number of net passages for all grid cells in the study region, when moving from an origin to a destination node. Given habitat characteristics that were the basis for the conductance layer, movements follow certain grid cell sequences more than others and the resulting RSP values thus provide a measure of movement potential. Repeating this process for 100 pairs of random origin and destination nodes, we identified paths for three levels of random deviation (θ) from the least-cost path. We observed broad-scale concordance between model predictions for paths originating in the NCDE and those originating in the GYE for all three levels of movement exploration. Model predictions indicated that male grizzly bear movement between the ecosystems could involve a variety of routes, and verified observations of grizzly bears outside occupied range supported this finding. Where landscape features concentrated paths into corridors (e.g., because of anthropogenic influence), they typically

  17. Commonalities in Development of Pure Breeds and Population Isolates Revealed in the Genome of the Sardinian Fonni's Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Dayna L.; Davis, Brian W.; Cocco, Raffaella; Sechi, Sara; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Parker, Heidi G.; Polli, Michele; Marelli, Stefano P.; Crepaldi, Paola; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2016-01-01

    The island inhabitants of Sardinia have long been a focus for studies of complex human traits due to their unique ancestral background and population isolation reflecting geographic and cultural restriction. Population isolates share decreased genomic diversity, increased linkage disequilibrium, and increased inbreeding coefficients. In many regions, dogs and humans have been exposed to the same natural and artificial forces of environment, growth, and migration. Distinct dog breeds have arisen through human-driven selection of characteristics to meet an ideal standard of appearance and function. The Fonni’s Dog, an endemic dog population on Sardinia, has not been subjected to an intensive system of artificial selection, but rather has developed alongside the human population of Sardinia, influenced by geographic isolation and unregulated selection based on its environmental adaptation and aptitude for owner-desired behaviors. Through analysis of 28 dog breeds, represented with whole-genome sequences from 13 dogs and ∼170,000 genome-wide single nucleotide variants from 155 dogs, we have produced a genomic illustration of the Fonni’s Dog. Genomic patterns confirm within-breed similarity, while population and demographic analyses provide spatial identity of Fonni’s Dog to other Mediterranean breeds. Investigation of admixture and fixation indices reveals insights into the involvement of Fonni’s Dogs in breed development throughout the Mediterranean. We describe how characteristics of population isolates are reflected in dog breeds that have undergone artificial selection, and are mirrored in the Fonni’s Dog through traditional isolating factors that affect human populations. Lastly, we show that the genetic history of Fonni’s Dog parallels demographic events in local human populations. PMID:27519604

  18. Biodiversity and ochratoxin A profile of Aspergillus section Nigri populations isolated from wine grapes in Cyprus vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelides, Iakovos S; Aristeidou, Efi; Lazari, Maria; Tsolakidou, Maria-Dimitra; Tsaltas, Dimitris; Christofidou, Maria; Kafouris, Demetris; Christou, Eftychia; Ioannou, Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri populations from Cyprus vineyards by morphological, toxigenic and phylogenetic analysis. Aspergillus section Nigri populations were isolated from grapes of the varieties 'Maratheftiko' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' originating from six growing regions of Cyprus during 2010 and 2011 years. The isolation frequency of Aspergillus section Nigri from grape samples was 43.3% and a total of 284 isolates were selected for further analyses based on the macroscopic characteristics of black aspergilli. The isolates were characterized by sequencing analysis of the calmodulin gene in order to identify species responsible for ochratoxin A (OTA) production. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates were grouped in three major clusters. The A. tubingensis cluster included 262 isolates (92.25%), the A. niger cluster included 15 isolates identified as A. niger (5.3%) and 6 isolates identified as A. welwitschiae (2.1%). One isolate was classified as A. carbonarius (0.35%) and was grouped in a cluster together with the reference isolates of A. carbonarius, A. sclerotioniger, A. sclerotiocarbonarius and A. ibericus. All the isolates were evaluated for their ochratoxigenic ability by HPLC coupled with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) and the positive isolates were re-examined using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The Aspergillus carbonarius isolate produced an average quantity of 1436.1 ng OTA/g Czapek Yeast Agar (CYA); From the A. niger strains three isolates (20%) produced OTA and only one isolate from A. welwitschiae (16.7%) was proved ochratoxigenic with toxin production average at 23.9 ng/g and 9.1 ng/g CYA respectively. Grape must samples derived from the collected berries were also analyzed for OTA and none of the samples were found contaminated with the mycotoxin. The results showed that the geographic area and the

  19. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  20. Population structure and diversity of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates in Hunan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cui; Yao, Run-Xian; Li, Fang; Dai, Su-Ming; Licciardello, Grazia; Catara, Antonino; Gentile, Alessandra; Deng, Zi-Niu

    2017-02-01

    Stem-pitting (SP) is the main type of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) that causes severe damage to citrus trees, especially those of sweet orange, in Hunan province, China. Understanding the local CTV population structure should provide clues for effective mild strain cross-protection (MSCP) of the SP strain of CTV. In this study, markers for the p23 gene, multiple molecular markers (MMMs), and sequence analysis of the three silencing suppressor genes (p20, p23 and p25) were employed to analyze the genetic diversity and genotype composition of the CTV population based on 51 CTV-positive samples collected from 14 citrus orchards scattered around six major citrus-growing areas of Hunan. The results indicated that the CTV population structure was extremely complex and that infection was highly mixed. In total, p23 gene markers resulted in six profiles, and MMMs demonstrated 25 profiles. The severe VT and T3 types appeared to be predominantly associated with SP, while the mild T30 and RB types were related to asymptomatic samples. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of p20, p23 and p25, 19 representative CTV samples were classified into seven recently established CTV groups and a potentially novel one. A high level of genetic diversity, as well as potential recombination, was revealed among different CTV isolates. Five pure SP severe and two pure mild strains were identified by genotype composition analysis. Taken together, the results update the genetic diversity of CTV in Hunan with the detection of one possible novel strain, and this information might be applicable for the selection of appropriate mild CTV strains for controlling citrus SP disease through cross-protection.

  1. Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  2. Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Rudner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  3. Genealogy construction in a historically isolated population: application to genetic studies of rheumatoid arthritis in the Pima Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J P; Hirsch, R; Jacobsson, L T; Scott, W W; Ma, L D; Pillemer, S R; Knowler, W C; Kastner, D L; Bale, S J

    1999-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of complex traits, many traits may not be amenable to traditional epidemiologic methods. We illustrate an approach that defines an isolated population as the "unit" for carrying out studies of complex disease. We provide an example using the Pima Indians, a relatively isolated population, in which the incidence and prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, gallbladder disease, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are significantly increased compared with the general U.S. population. A previous study of RA in the Pima utilizing traditional methods failed to detect a genetic effect on the occurrence of the disease. Our approach involved constructing a genealogy for this population and using a genealogic index to investigate familial aggregation. We developed an algorithm to identify biological relationships among 88 RA cases versus 4,000 subsamples of age-matched individuals from the same population. Kinship coefficients were calculated for all possible pairs of RA cases, and similarly for the subsamples. The sum of the kinship coefficient among all combination of RA pairs, 5.92, was significantly higher than the average of the 4,000 subsamples, 1.99 (p genealogy can be anticipated to provide valuable information for the genetic study of diseases other than RA. Defining an isolated population as the "unit" in which to assess familial aggregation may be advantageous, especially if there are a limited number of cases in the study population.

  4. Combining phylogenetic and demographic inferences to assess the origin of the genetic diversity in an isolated wolf population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Montana

    Full Text Available The survival of isolated small populations is threatened by both demographic and genetic factors. Large carnivores declined for centuries in most of Europe due to habitat changes, overhunting of their natural prey and direct persecution. However, the current rewilding trends are driving many carnivore populations to expand again, possibly reverting the erosion of their genetic diversity. In this study we reassessed the extent and origin of the genetic variation of the Italian wolf population, which is expanding after centuries of decline and isolation. We genotyped wolves from Italy and other nine populations at four mtDNA regions (control-region, ATP6, COIII and ND4 and 39 autosomal microsatellites. Results of phylogenetic analyses and assignment procedures confirmed in the Italian wolves a second private mtDNA haplotype, which belongs to a haplogroup distributed mostly in southern Europe. Coalescent analyses showed that the unique mtDNA haplotypes in the Italian wolves likely originated during the late Pleistocene. ABC simulations concordantly showed that the extant wolf populations in Italy and in south-western Europe started to be isolated and declined right after the last glacial maximum. Thus, the standing genetic variation in the Italian wolves principally results from the historical isolation south of the Alps.

  5. Peace linguistics for language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GOMES DE MATOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at presenting the concept of Peace Linguistics - origins and recent developments -- as being implemented in the author's ongoing work in that emerging branch of Applied Linguistics. Examples of applicational possibilities are given, with a focus on language teaching-learning and a Checklist is provided, of topics for suggested linguistic-educational research, centered on communicative peace.

  6. Linguistic Corpora and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murison-Bowie, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Examines issues raised by corpus linguistics concerning the description of language. The article argues that it is necessary to start from correct descriptions of linguistic units and the contexts in which they occur. Corpus linguistics has joined with language teaching by sharing a recognition of the importance of a larger, schematic view of…

  7. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  8. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    It could be argued that lexicography has little business with linguistic creativ- ...... The forms in which traditional proverbs are found can also vary greatly: many ... BoE has examples of the proverb every cloud has a silver lining but many more ...

  9. Variation and Linguistic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This volume presents principles and models for describing language variation, and introduces a time-based, dynamic framework for linguistic description. The book first summarizes some of the problems of grammatical description encountered from Saussure through the present and then outlines possibilities for new descriptions of language which take…

  10. Untangling Linguistic Salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, Vincent; Coler, Matt; Loerts, Hanneke; Hilton, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    The concept of linguistic salience is broadly used within sociolinguistics to account for processes as diverse as language change (Kerswill & Williams, 2002) and language acquisition (Ellis, 2016) in that salient forms are e.g. more likely to undergo change, or are often acquired earlier than other

  11. Guatemalan Linguistics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguistic Reporter, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The general goals of the Guatemalan technical institution, the Proyecto Linguistico Francisco Marroquin, are to: create a national technical resource institution in linguistics and Mayan languages; enable Indians to influence programs for their communities; and stimulate the study of Mayan languages and their use as communication medium. (SW)

  12. Formal monkey linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions: (i) what morphology and

  13. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  14. Perspectives in Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, John T.

    Intended for the student of linguistics or the structural grammarian, who must develop an awareness of their intellectual heritage, the present work surveys the study of language in ancient times, the medieval and early modern periods, the nineteenth century, and the twentieth century to 1950. (This second edition includes additional material on…

  15. Gradual linguistic summaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbik, A.M.; Kaymak, U.; Laurent, A.; Strauss, O.; Bouchon-Meunier, xx

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new type of protoform-based linguistic summary – the gradual summary. This new type of summaries aims in capturing the change over some time span. Such summaries can be useful in many domains, for instance in economics, e.g., "prices of X are getting smaller" in eldercare,

  16. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  17. Linguistics and Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindell, Gloria

    1983-01-01

    Discusses four general areas of linguistics studies that are particularly relevant to literacy issues: (1) discourse analysis, including text analysis, spoken and written language, and home and school discourse; (2) relationships between speech and writing, the distance between dialects and written norms, and developmental writing; (3)…

  18. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of

  19. Determining causes of genetic isolation in a large carnivore (Ursus americanus population to direct contemporary conservation measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Pelletier

    Full Text Available The processes leading to genetic isolation influence a population's local extinction risk, and should thus be identified before conservation actions are implemented. Natural or human-induced circumstances can result in historical or contemporary barriers to gene flow and/or demographic bottlenecks. Distinguishing between these hypotheses can be achieved by comparing genetic diversity and differentiation in isolated vs. continuous neighboring populations. In Ontario, American black bears (Ursus americanus are continuously distributed, genetically diverse, and exhibit an isolation-by-distance structuring pattern, except on the Bruce Peninsula (BP. To identify the processes that led to the genetic isolation of BP black bears, we modelled various levels of historical and contemporary migration and population size reductions using forward simulations. We compared simulation results with empirical genetic indices from Ontario black bear populations under different levels of geographic isolation, and conducted additional simulations to determine if translocations could help achieve genetic restoration. From a genetic standpoint, conservation concerns for BP black bears are warranted because our results show that: i a recent demographic bottleneck associated with recently reduced migration best explains the low genetic diversity on the BP; and ii under sustained isolation, BP black bears could lose between 70% and 80% of their rare alleles within 100 years. Although restoring migration corridors would be the most effective method to enhance long-term genetic diversity and prevent inbreeding, it is unrealistic to expect connectivity to be re-established. Current levels of genetic diversity could be maintained by successfully translocating 10 bears onto the peninsula every 5 years. Such regular translocations may be more practical than landscape restoration, because areas connecting the peninsula to nearby mainland black bear populations have been

  20. Characterization of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) isolates associated with Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louela A. Castrillo; Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Michael H. Griggs; John D. Vandenberg

    2010-01-01

    Earlier research in Michigan on fungal entomopathogens of the emerald ash borer (EAB), a major invasive pest of ash trees, resulted in the isolation of Beauveria bassiana from late-instar larvae and pre-pupae. In the present study, some of these isolates were characterized and compared to ash bark- and soil-derived isolates to determine their...

  1. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group

    OpenAIRE

    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Mal...

  2. Population isolation results in low genetic variation and high differentiation in Carolina hemlock (tsuga caroliniana), an imperiled southern Appalachian conifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Lia Campbell; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson; Robert M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) is a rare conifer species that grows in small, isolated populations in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia. The species is additionally imperiled by the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an invasive insect that can...

  3. Genotyping single spore isolates of a Pasteuria penetrans population occurring in Florida using SNP-based markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to examine genotypic variation and virulence characteristics of a population of bacterial parasite of root-knot nematode (RKN), Pasteuria penetrans, isolated from Florida. Six single spore lines (ssp), 16ssp, 17ssp, 18ssp, 25ssp, 26ssp, and 30ssp were generated by infecting...

  4. Age at sexual maturity, sex ratio, fecundity, and longevity of isolated headwater populations of westslope cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Downs; Robert G. White; Bradley B. Shepard

    1997-01-01

    We sampled 19 isolated headwater populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in Montana to provide estimates of fecundity, longevity, sex ratio, and age at sexual maturity. Fecundity was estimated for 31 fish collected from two streams in the upper Missouri River drainage. Females smaller than 149 mm fork length (FL) were generally immature and...

  5. Familial Aggregation between the 14th and 21st Century and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in an Isolated Dutch Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, Kees L.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty; de Visser, Wim; te Meerman, Gerard J.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development of type 2 diabetes results from an interaction of hereditary factors and environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of interrelatedness to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in an isolated Dutch population. Materials and Methods A

  6. Y-chromosomal diversity of the Valachs from the Czech Republic: model for isolated population in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehler, Edvard; Vaněk, Daniel; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Vančata, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate Y-chromosomal diversity of the Moravian Valachs of the Czech Republic and compare them with a Czech population sample and other samples from Central and South-Eastern Europe, and to evaluate the effects of genetic isolation and sampling. Methods The first sample set of the Valachs consisted of 94 unrelated male donors from the Valach region in northeastern Czech Republic border-area. The second sample set of the Valachs consisted of 79 men who originated from 7 paternal lineages defined by surname. No close relatives were sampled. The third sample set consisted of 273 unrelated men from the whole of the Czech Republic and was used for comparison, as well as published data for other 27 populations. The total number of samples was 3244. Y-short tandem repeat (STR) markers were typed by standard methods using PowerPlex® Y System (Promega) and Yfiler® Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems) kits. Y-chromosomal haplogroups were estimated from the haplotype information. Haplotype diversity and other intra- and inter-population statistics were computed. Results The Moravian Valachs showed a lower genetic variability of Y-STR markers than other Central European populations, resembling more to the isolated Balkan populations (Aromuns, Csango, Bulgarian, and Macedonian Roma) than the surrounding populations (Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Saxons). We illustrated the effect of sampling on Valach paternal lineages, which includes reduction of discrimination capacity and variability inside Y-chromosomal haplogroups. Valach modal haplotype belongs to R1a haplogroup and it was not detected in the Czech population. Conclusion The Moravian Valachs display strong substructure and isolation in their Y chromosomal markers. They represent a unique Central European population model for population genetics. PMID:21674832

  7. Are habitat fragmentation, local adaptation and isolation-by-distance driving population divergence in wild rice Oryza rufipogon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Vrieling, Klaas; Liao, Hui; Xiao, Manqiu; Zhu, Yongqing; Rong, Jun; Zhang, Wenju; Wang, Yuguo; Yang, Ji; Chen, Jiakuan; Song, Zhiping

    2013-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation weakens the connection between populations and is accompanied with isolation by distance (IBD) and local adaptation (isolation by adaptation, IBA), both leading to genetic divergence between populations. To understand the evolutionary potential of a population and to formulate proper conservation strategies, information on the roles of IBD and IBA in driving population divergence is critical. The putative ancestor of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) is endangered in China due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We investigated the genetic variation in 11 Chinese Oryza rufipogon populations using 79 microsatellite loci to infer the effects of habitat fragmentation, IBD and IBA on genetic structure. Historical and current gene flows were found to be rare (mh  = 0.0002-0.0013, mc  = 0.007-0.029), indicating IBD and resulting in a high level of population divergence (FST  = 0.343). High within-population genetic variation (HE  = 0.377-0.515), relatively large effective population sizes (Ne  = 96-158), absence of bottlenecks and limited gene flow were found, demonstrating little impact of recent habitat fragmentation on these populations. Eleven gene-linked microsatellite loci were identified as outliers, indicating local adaptation. Hierarchical AMOVA and partial Mantel tests indicated that population divergence of Chinese O. rufipogon was significantly correlated with environmental factors, especially habitat temperature. Common garden trials detected a significant adaptive population divergence associated with latitude. Collectively, these findings imply that IBD due to historical rather than recent fragmentation, followed by local adaptation, has driven population divergence in O. rufipogon. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Heritability and demographic analyses in the large isolated population of Val Borbera suggest advantages in mapping complex traits genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Traglia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated populations are a useful resource for mapping complex traits due to shared stable environment, reduced genetic complexity and extended Linkage Disequilibrium (LD compared to the general population. Here we describe a large genetic isolate from the North West Apennines, the mountain range that runs through Italy from the North West Alps to the South.The study involved 1,803 people living in 7 villages of the upper Borbera Valley. For this large population cohort, data from genealogy reconstruction, medical questionnaires, blood, anthropometric and bone status QUS parameters were evaluated. Demographic and epidemiological analyses indicated a substantial genetic component contributing to each trait variation as well as overlapping genetic determinants and family clustering for some traits.The data provide evidence for significant heritability of medical relevant traits that will be important in mapping quantitative traits. We suggest that this population isolate is suitable to identify rare variants associated with complex phenotypes that may be difficult to study in larger but more heterogeneous populations.

  9. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  10. Isolation of novel microsatellites using FIASCO by dual probe enrichment from Jatropha curcas L. and study on genetic equilibrium and diversity of Indian population revealed by isolated microsatellites

    KAUST Repository

    Pamidimarri, D. V N N Sudheer

    2010-03-11

    Jatropha curcas L. belongs to family Euphorbiaceae, native to South America attained significant importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel, a renewable energy source alternative to conventional petrodiesel. Very few attempts were made to isolate novel microsatellite markers and assessment of the extent of genetic equilibrium and diversity that exists in J. curcas. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to isolate the novel microsatellites and access genetic equilibrium, diversity that exists among 44 diverse germplasm collected from distinct geographical areas in India using isolated microsatellites. The overall efficiency of the enrichment of microsatellite by dual probe in the present study found to be 54% and among the sequences obtained the percentage of sequences having suitable flanking regions for the primer designing was found to be 89.58%. The mean co-efficient of genetic similarity (CGS) was found to be 0.97. The overall diversity obtained by microsatellites was found to be low in comparison with the diversity reported by multilocus markers systems observed in earlier studies; however, the good allele polymorphism was observed. The overall dendrogram of microsatellite analysis resulted in random clustering of germplasm and not in accordance to geographical area of collection. The present study, diversity analysis using microsatellite markers concludes the low genetic diversity and genetic disequlibrium of J. curcas in India and will provide pavement for further intra-population studies on narrow geographical areas to understand the population genetic structure, phylogeography and molecular ecological studies. The germplasm characterized, and the microsatellite markers isolated and characterized in the present study can be employed efficiently in breeding programs for genetic improvement of the species through marker assisted selection and QTL analysis, for further genetic resource management and help in making the J

  11. Reproductive isolation between populations from Northern and Central Europe of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Hilker, M.; Gross, J.

    2006-01-01

    Allopatric populations of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica are known to feed upon either willow (Salicaceae) or birch (Betulaceae). This study aimed to elucidate the differentiation process of these allopatric populations. We investigated whether these allopatric populations specialized on

  12. Linguistics and the digital humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software......, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and figures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. This article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data...... and method and also offers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented...

  13. Isolation by distance and isolation by environment contribute to population differentiation in Protea repens (Proteaceae L.), a widespread South African species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, Rachel; Akman, Melis; Kremer, Colin T; Aitken, Nicola; Chuah, Aaron; Borevitz, Justin; Holsinger, Kent E

    2017-05-01

    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa is renowned for its botanical diversity, but the evolutionary origins of this diversity remain controversial. Both neutral and adaptive processes have been implicated in driving diversification, but population-level studies of plants in the CFR are rare. Here, we investigate the limits to gene flow and potential environmental drivers of selection in Protea repens L. (Proteaceae L.), a widespread CFR species. We sampled 19 populations across the range of P. repens and used genotyping by sequencing to identify 2066 polymorphic loci in 663 individuals. We used a Bayesian F ST outlier analysis to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) marking genomic regions that may be under selection; we used those SNPs to identify potential drivers of selection and excluded them from analyses of gene flow and genetic structure. A pattern of isolation by distance suggested limited gene flow between nearby populations. The populations of P. repens fell naturally into two or three groupings, which corresponded to an east-west split. Differences in rainfall seasonality contributed to diversification in highly divergent loci, as do barriers to gene flow that have been identified in other species. The strong pattern of isolation by distance is in contrast to the findings in the only other widespread species in the CFR that has been similarly studied, while the effects of rainfall seasonality are consistent with well-known patterns. Assessing the generality of these results will require investigations of other CFR species. © 2017 Prunier et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  14. Social isolation, loneliness and their relationships with depressive symptoms: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lixia; Yap, Chun Wei; Ong, Reuben; Heng, Bee Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To assess the relationship between various social isolation indicators and loneliness, and to examine the differential associations that social isolation indicators, loneliness have with depressive symptoms. Baseline data for 1,919 adults (aged 21 years and above) from a representative health survey in the Central region of Singapore was used for this study. The association between social isolation indicators (marital status, living arrangement, social connectedness with relatives and friends) and loneliness (the three-item UCLA Loneliness) were assessed, and their differential associations with depressive symptoms (the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) were examined using multiple linear regression, controling for relevant covariates. There was significant overlap between loneliness and social isolation. Social connectedness with relatives and friends were mildly correlated with loneliness score (|r| = 0.14~0.16). Social isolation in terms of weak connectedness with relatives and with friends and loneliness were associated with depressive symptoms even after controling for age, gender, employment status and other covariates. The association of loneliness with depressive symptoms (β = 0.33) was independent of and stronger than that of any social isolation indicators (|β| = 0.00~0.07). The results of the study establishes a significant and unique association of different social isolation indicators and loneliness with depressive symptoms in community-dwelling adults aged 21 and above.

  15. The genetic diversity of metronidazole susceptibility in Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in an Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Magied, Aida A; El-Kholya, El-Said I; Abou El-Khair, Salwa M; Abdelmegeed, Eman S; Hamoudaa, Marwa M; Mohamed, Sara A; El-Tantawy, Nora Labeeb

    2017-11-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Resistance to metronidazole in treating trichomoniasis is a problematic health issue. We aimed to determine the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of metronidazole for Trichomonas vaginalis isolates detected in Mansoura, Egypt and studied the genotypic profile of these isolates. Vaginal swab specimens were obtained from 320 symptomatic and 100 asymptomatic females, for whom clinical examination, vaginal discharge wet mount, Giemsa stain, and culture in modified Diamond's media were performed. Metronidazole susceptibility testing by an aerobic tube assay was performed. Both sensitive and resistant isolates were examined by PCR amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Trichomonas vaginalis was identified in 49/420 (11.7%) using either culture or PCR, while wet mount and Giemsa stain detected the parasite in 8.1 and 7.6% of participants, respectively. After 48 h incubation, most isolates were sensitive to metronidazole with a minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of 1 μg/ml. Mild resistance was observed in two isolates with MLCs of 64 μg\\ml and mild to moderate resistance was observed in an additional two isolates with MLCs of 128 μg/ml. The four isolates that demonstrated low to moderate metronidazole resistance displayed a unique genotype band pattern by RFLP compared to the other 45 samples that were metronidazole sensitive. Our results highlight the presence of in vitro metronidazole tolerance in a few T. vaginalis isolates in Mansoura, Egypt that may lead to the development of drug resistance as well as the possibility of an identifying RFLP pattern in the isolates.

  16. Protocol for Isolation of Primary Human Hepatocytes and Corresponding Major Populations of Non-parenchymal Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Elisa; Zeilinger, Katrin; Seehofer, Daniel; Damm, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Beside parenchymal hepatocytes, the liver consists of non-parenchymal cells (NPC) namely Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC) and hepatic Stellate cells (HSC). Two-dimensional (2D) culture of primary human hepatocyte (PHH) is still considered as the "gold standard" for in vitro testing of drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. It is well-known that the 2D monoculture of PHH suffers from dedifferentiation and loss of function. Recently it was shown that hepatic NPC play a central role in liver (patho-) physiology and the maintenance of PHH functions. Current research focuses on the reconstruction of in vivo tissue architecture by 3D- and co-culture models to overcome the limitations of 2D monocultures. Previously we published a method to isolate human liver cells and investigated the suitability of these cells for their use in cell cultures in Experimental Biology and Medicine1. Based on the broad interest in this technique the aim of this article was to provide a more detailed protocol for the liver cell isolation process including a video, which will allow an easy reproduction of this technique. Human liver cells were isolated from human liver tissue samples of surgical interventions by a two-step EGTA/collagenase P perfusion technique. PHH were separated from the NPC by an initial centrifugation at 50 x g. Density gradient centrifugation steps were used for removal of dead cells. Individual liver cell populations were isolated from the enriched NPC fraction using specific cell properties and cell sorting procedures. Beside the PHH isolation we were able to separate KC, LEC and HSC for further cultivation. Taken together, the presented protocol allows the isolation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from one donor tissue sample. The access to purified liver cell populations could allow the creation of in vivo like human liver models. PMID:27077489

  17. Population genetic analysis of Theileria parva isolated in cattle and buffaloes in Tanzania using minisatellite and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukambile, Elpidius; Machuka, Eunice; Njahira, Moses; Kyalo, Martina; Skilton, Robert; Mwega, Elisa; Chota, Andrew; Mathias, Mkama; Sallu, Raphael; Salih, Diaeldin

    2016-07-15

    A population genetic study of Theileria parva was conducted on 103 cattle and 30 buffalo isolates from Kibaha, Lushoto, Njombe Districts and selected National parks in Tanzania. Bovine blood samples were collected from these study areas and categorized into 5 populations; Buffalo, Cattle which graze close to buffalo, Kibaha, Lushoto and Njombe. Samples were tested by nested PCR for T. parva DNA and positives were compared for genetic diversity to the T. parva Muguga vaccine reference strain, using 3micro and 11 minisatellite markers selected from all 4 chromosomes of the parasite genome. The diversity across populations was determined by the mean number of different alleles, mean number of effective alleles, mean number of private allele and expected heterozygosity. The mean number of allele unique to populations for Cattle close to buffalo, Muguga, Njombe, Kibaha, Lushoto and Buffalo populations were 0.18, 0.24, 0.63, 0.71, 1.63 and 3.37, respectively. The mean number of different alleles ranged from 6.97 (Buffalo) to 0.07 (Muguga). Mean number of effective alleles ranged from 4.49 (Buffalo) to 0.29 (Muguga). The mean expected heterozygosity were 0.07 0.29, 0.45, 0.48, 0.59 and 0.64 for Muguga, cattle close to buffalo, Kibaha, Njombe, Lushoto and Buffalo populations, respectively. The Buffalo and Lushoto isolates possessed a close degree of diversity in terms of mean number of different alleles, effective alleles, private alleles and expected heterozygosity. The study revealed more diversity in buffalo isolates and further studies are recommended to establish if there is sharing of parasites between cattle and buffaloes which may affect the effectiveness of the control methods currently in use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Learnability and linguistic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozd, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    of the human biological endowment for language in the form of a UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (UG) (Chomsky, 1965). With respect to experimental design, C&T have strongly maintained that even young children know UG constraints but perform poorly in some experiments-due to the extralinguistic demands associated...... with experimental tasks, particularly those involved in presupposition accommodation and complex response planning. C&T specifically design their experiments to reduce the impact of extralinguistic demands on children's linguistic performance while at the same time providing felicitous environments for adultlike...... performance....

  19. Formal monkey linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Zuberbühler: The research leading to these results received funding from the European Research Council under ERC grant ‘Prilang 283871’ and also from the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant ‘FN 310030_143359/1’. We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions:...

  20. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  1. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  2. Rise of CC398 Lineage of Staphylococcus aureus among Infective Endocarditis Isolates Revealed by Two Consecutive Population-Based Studies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristan, Anne; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Ruizendaal, Esmée; Laurent, Frédéric; Bes, Michèle; Meugnier, Hélène; Lina, Gérard; Etienne, Jerome; Celard, Marie; Tattevin, Pierre; Monecke, Stefan; Le Moing, Vincent; Vandenesch, François

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus isolates from two prospective studies on infective endocarditis (IE) conducted in 1999 and 2008 and isolated from non-IE bacteremia collected in 2006 were spa-typed and their virulence factors were analyzed with a microarray. Both populations were genetically diverse, with no virulence factors or genotypes significantly more associated with the IE isolates compared with the non-IE isolates. The population structure of the IE isolates did not change much between 1999 and 2008, with the exception of the appearance of CC398 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates responsible for 5.6% of all cases in 2008. In 1999, this lineage was responsible for no cases. The increasing prevalence of S. aureus in IE is apparently not the result of a major change in staphylococcal population structure over time, with the exception of the emerging CC398 MSSA lineage. PMID:23272091

  3. The relationship between intraspecific assortative mating and reproductive isolation between divergent populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. BOLNICK, Mark KIRKPATRICK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The term 'assortative mating' has been applied to describe two very different phenomena: (1 the tendency for individuals to choose phenotypically similar mates from among conspecifics; or (2 the tendency to prefer conspecific over hete- rospecific mates (behavioral reproductive isolation. Both forms of assortative mating are widespread in nature, but the relationship between these behaviors remains unclear. Namely, it is plausible that a preference for phenotypically similar conspecifics incidentally reduces the probability of mating with phenotypically divergent heterospecifics. We present a model to calculate how the level of reproductive isolation depends on intraspecific assortative mating and the phenotypic divergence between species. For empirically reasonable levels of intraspecific assortment on a single trait axis, we show that strong reproductive isolation requires very substantial phenotypic divergence. We illustrate this point by applying our model to empirical data from threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus and Darwin’s Finches (Geospiza spp. We conclude that typical levels of intraspecific assortment cannot generally be extrapolated to explain levels of interspecific reproductive isolation. Instead, reproductive isolation between species likely arises from different mate choice behaviors, or multivariate assortative mating [Current Zoology 58 (3: 481–489, 2012].

  4. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yeon Yoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD and single breakpoint recombination (SBP analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  5. Patrilineal background of the She minority population from Chaoshan Fenghuang Mountain, an isolated mountain region, in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhui; Chen, Guangcan; Huang, Haihua; Lin, Wenting; Guo, Dan; Zhao, Shukun; Tian, Dongping; Su, Min

    2017-07-01

    The She ethnic minority population is distributed in southern China. The origin of the She population has been controversial. The purpose of this work was to investigate the genomic diversity of She. The Chaoshan She population living in the Chaoshan Fenghuang mountain is a relatively isolated population. We detected 14 Y chromosome biallelic markers (Y-SNPs) and 6 Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci in Chaoshan She people. Y-SNP analysis showed the Chaoshan She was closely related to the Chaoshan Hakka, Chaoshanese, Tujia and Gaoshan national minority. Compared with the Fujian She, the Chaoshan She maintained a more southern native genetic structure. Y-STR analysis revealed the Chaoshan She population was more closely related to the Hakka population than the other Hans. We concluded the Chaoshan She population had a closer genetic relationship with the southern national minority and Hakka Han and it may be representative of She ancestors' patrilineal genetic structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

  7. Staphylococcus aureus carriage in older populations in community residential care homes: Prevalence and molecular characterization of MRSA isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; Pérez-Eslava, Maria; Machuca, Jesús; Trujillo-Soto, Teresa; Arca-Suarez, Jorge; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2018-06-20

    The epidemiology of S. aureus depends on conditions in specific populations. Few studies of S. aureus colonization in the older population have been performed in Spain. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization and its molecular epidemiological characteristics in an institutionalized population in community residential care homes in Cadiz, Spain. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in three residential care homes for older people. Axilla and nostril samples were tested. Identification of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were by MALDI-TOF and MicroScan panels. MRSA strains were subjected to SCCmec typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes was determined by PCR in all S. aureus strains. A total of 293 residents were included. Fifty-one residents (17.4%) were colonized with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 11 (3.8%) with MRSA. Resistance to at least two aminoglycosides was observed in 25.4% of MSSA and 90.9% and of MRSA isolates, and resistance to levofloxacin in 80.3% of MSSA and 100% of MRSA isolates. SCCmecIV was detected in all isolates and all except one (ST-125) were ST-8. None of the S. aureus isolates were positive for PVL. A low rate of S. aureus carriage was detected and the prevalence of MRSA was very low. ST8-MRSA-IVc was the dominant clone, and only one strain belonged to ST125-MRSA-IVc. We found MRSA transmission within the residential care homes and a very high rate of quinolone resistance in MSSA and MRSA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Linguistics and the Literary Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Madeleine

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the opposing viewpoints of the two most influential linguists of this century--Saussure and Chomsky--suggesting that while both are interested in form as opposed to substance, Saussure sees linguistics as a branch of semiotics and Chomsky sees it as part of cognitive psychology. Evaluates the relevance of these two viewpoints to the…

  9. New Conceptualizations of Linguistic Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    This state-of-the art paper focuses on the issue of linguistic giftedness, somewhat neglected in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature, attempting to reconceptualize, expand and update this concept in response to latest developments in the fields of psychology, linguistics and neurology. It first discusses contemporary perspectives on…

  10. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  11. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  12. Linguistics and the TEFL Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Bruce

    This paper asserts the "unquestionable" relevance of linguistic insights in the training of and subsequent use by teachers of English as a foreign language. Although the author agrees with Chomsky's view that linguistics has nothing to offer the teacher in the form of specific proposals for language teaching methodology, he argues that linguistics…

  13. Machine Learning and Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Vajjala, Sowmya

    2018-01-01

    This entry introduces the topic of machine learning and provides an overview of its relevance for applied linguistics and language learning. The discussion will focus on giving an introduction to the methods and applications of machine learning in applied linguistics, and will provide references for further study.

  14. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  15. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leki, Ilona

    2000-01-01

    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  16. Literacy in Somali: Linguistic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Hared, Mohamed

    1991-01-01

    Linguistic consequences of literacy in Somalia are examined in a review of the literature and through a study of five dimensions of variation among Somali registers and the expansion of linguistic variation in Somali resulting from the introduction of written registers. (36 references) (LB)

  17. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Бондаренко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  18. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  19. Demography and conservation of an isolated Spur-thighed tortoise Testudo graeca population in Dobrogea (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Buică

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Spur-thighed tortoise is a vulnerable species. The local declines of populations led to an imperative need for conservation. Testudo graeca reaches its northern range limit in Dobrogea region, Romania. We studied a population from this region, which occupies an enclosed area of 32 ha within Histria Archaeological Complex. Based on a capture-mark-recapture study we estimated the population size of 221 ± 12.2 individuals. The observed density was 5.1 individuals/ha. The predicted population size suggests a relatively high density in relation to the area thus raising attention for a future conservation strategy. The population structure shows reduced sexual dimorphism and an unbiased sex ratio, implying a young population structure. We suggest correlating the future archaeological studies with conservation requirements of tortoises.

  20. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  1. The linguistic repudiation of Wundt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, B; Clarke, D D

    1998-08-01

    Wilhelm Wundt's influence on the development of linguistics and psychology was pervasive. The foundations for this web of influence on the sciences of mind and language were laid down in Wundt's own research program, which was quite different from other attempts at founding a new psychology, as it was deeply rooted in German philosophy. This resulted in certain gaps in Wundt's conception of mind and language. These gaps provoked a double repudiation of Wundt's theories, by linguists and psychologists. The psychological repudiation has been studied by historians of psychology, and the linguistic repudiation has been studied by historians of linguistics. The intent of this article is to bring the linguistic repudiation to the attention of historians of psychology, especially the one outlined by two important figures in the history of psychology: Karl Buhler and George Mead.

  2. The Reproduction Trajectories of Institutions of Social Isolation of Individual Population Groups in the Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yuryevich Berzin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the spatial socio-demographic isolation as a factor of the current system of settlement in Russia’s regions. In theory, the phenomena of loneliness and social isolation have their demographic, socio-economic and psychological roots. Conceptually, they are expressed in the theories of nuclearization of family structure of society and the family’s loss of its core functions, deprivation of a person (of friends and relatives, in the paradigm of the second demographic transition. In fact, the trend towards the abandonment of birth, growth of cohabitations and divorces, premature mortality as the cause of widowhood are complemented by the institutional factors strengthening the foundations of a singular way of life, including various forms of isolation of an individual from the social environment in a post-industrial society. The main reasons of the socio-demographic isolation are following: the tendency of increasing a number of private households represented by lonely people, both elderly and young; as well as the prevalence of the institute of widowhood (mortality risks influencing the marriage and the family; the impact of flows of labour, academic, self-preservation, consumer migration (both returned and irretrievable types on the reproduction of the population. Psychologically, the demographic isolation of certain local communities contributes to the feelings of loneliness as a regulator of the communication intensity and interaction between individuals. In the socioeconomic aspects, the isolation of local communities is associated with the factor of remote location of families from the centers of communication and real markets, with the development of new Russian and global logistics systems, with are deprivation of traditional sources of household income as a specific form of survival in the vast expanses of life of the Russian society.

  3. Relationships between social isolation, neighborhood poverty, and cancer mortality in a population-based study of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch Marcus, Andrea; Illescas, Alex H; Hohl, Bernadette C; Llanos, Adana A M

    2017-01-01

    Social isolation is an important determinant of all-cause mortality, with evidence suggesting an association with cancer-specific mortality as well. In this study, we examined the associations between social isolation and neighborhood poverty (independently and jointly) on cancer mortality in a population-based sample of US adults. Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988-1994), NHANES III Linked Mortality File (through 2011) and 1990 Census, we estimated the relationship between social isolation and high neighborhood poverty and time-to-cancer death using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. We examined the associations of each factor independently and explored the multiplicative and additive interaction effects on cancer mortality risk and also analyzed these associations by sex. Among 16 044 US adults with 17-23 years of follow-up, there were 1133 cancer deaths. Social isolation (HR 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.54) and high neighborhood poverty (HR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08-1.60) were associated with increased risk of cancer mortality adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity; in sex-specific estimates this increase in risk was evident among females only (HR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04-1.86). These associations were attenuated upon further adjustment for socioeconomic status. There was no evidence of joint effects of social isolation and high neighborhood poverty on cancer mortality overall or in the sex-stratified models. These findings suggest that social isolation and higher neighborhood poverty are independently associated with increased risk of cancer mortality, although there is no evidence to support our a priori hypothesis of a joint effect.

  4. A forgotten social science? Creating a place for linguistics in the historical dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The post-World War II era was one of great triumph for American linguists-and yet linguistics is all but absent from the historical literature on postwar social science. This paper aims to illuminate this curious situation: to understand its provenance, evaluate its merits, and contextualize it broadly. I argue that the historiographic lacuna results from two factors: (1) the opt-out of linguists from the wider American social science community, and (2) historical-developmental and -orientational factors that stand linguistics apart from the social science mainstream. The resultant isolation of linguistics has led to a parallel isolation in the historical literature. Ultimately, this paper poses a pivotal and timely question: How is the postwar social science space construed within the existing historiographic framework, and how should it be construed in order to maximize understanding? I propose a rethink of the received historiography centered on intellectual transformations and cross-disciplinary integration. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Assessment and characterization of the diet of an isolated population in the Bolivian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berti, P.R.; Jones, A.D.; Cruz Agudo, Y.; Larrea Macias, S.; Borja, R.; Sherwood, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The goal of this research is to characterize the composition and nutrient adequacy of the diets in the northern region of the Department of Potosí, Bolivia. Communities in this semiarid, mountainous region are isolated and impoverished having the highest rates of child malnutrition and

  6. Reproductive isolating barriers between colour-differentiated populations of an African annual killifish, Nothobranchius korthausae (Cyprinodontiformes)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Polačik, Matej

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 1 (2010), s. 62-72 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/06/P152 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : allopatric divergence * assortative mating * colour polymorphism * mating experience * premating barriers * reproductive isolation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.166, year: 2010

  7. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cell population entrapped in bone marrow collection sets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková, J.; Hrubá, A.; Velebný, V.; Kubala, Lukáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 9 (2008), s. 1116-1125 ISSN 1065-6995 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/1704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : bone marrow * cell isolation * differentiation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.619, year: 2008

  8. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal beta III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders.

  9. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J.; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal β III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders

  10. The linguistically aware teacher and the teacher-aware linguist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue

    2013-07-01

    This review evaluates issues of teacher linguistic knowledge relating to their work with children with speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). Information is from Ellis and McCartney [(2011a). Applied linguistics and primary school teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], a state-of-the-art text deriving from a British Association of Applied Linguistics/Cambridge University Press expert seminar series that details: linguistic research underpinning primary school curricula and pedagogy; the form of linguistic knowledge useful for teachers supporting children with SLCD in partnership with speech and language therapists; and how and when teachers acquire and learn to apply such knowledge. Critical analysis of the options presented for teacher learning indicate that policy enjoinders now include linguistic application as an expected part of teachers' professional knowledge, for all children including those with SLCD, but there is a large unmet learning need. It is concluded that there is a role for clinical linguists to disseminate useable knowledge to teachers in an accessible format. Ways of achieving this are considered.

  11. Phylogeographic and population insights of the Asian common toad (Bufo gargarizans in Korea and China: population isolation and expansions as response to the ice ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaël Borzée

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ice ages on speciation have been well documented for many European and North American taxa. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the consequences of such environmental and topographical changes in North East Asian species. More precisely, the Korean Peninsula offers a unique model to assess patterns and processes of speciation as it hosts the northern- and eastern-most distribution limit of some widespread Asian taxa. Despite this, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns and population genetics in the peninsula and surrounding countries are few and studies for most families are lacking. Here we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of the common toad (Bufo gargarizans from South Korea and their North East Asian counterpart populations, based on mitochondrial data. Korean B. gargarizans GenBank BLASTs matched few individuals from nearby China, but the presence of a Korean clade suggests isolation on the Korean Peninsula, previous to the last glacial maximum, linked to sea level resurgence. Molecular clock calibrations within this group were used to date the divergence between clades and their relationship to paleo-climatic events in the area. Lack of genetic structure among South Korean populations and strong homogeneity between the Korean and some Chinese localities suggest weak isolation and recent expansion. Geographical projection of continuous coalescent maximum-clade-credibility trees shows an original Chinese expansion towards the Korean Peninsula through the Yellow Sea circa two million years ago with colonisation events dating circa 800 thousand years ago (K. y. a.. Following this colonisation, the data point to outgoing Korean Peninsula dispersal events throughout different periods, towards the North through land, and West through land bridge formations over the Yellow Sea during sea level falls. In accordance, demographic analyses revealed a population expansion in the Koran Peninsula circa 300 K. y. a

  12. Late post-irradiation phenomena in mammalain cell populations. Pt. 2. Intraclonal recovery in sublines isolated from X-irradiated L5178Y-S cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, J.Z.

    1975-01-01

    Clonal analysis of L5178Y-S cell populations irradiated with 300 rads of X-rays indicates occurence of cell sublines with considerably prolonged mean doubling times up to 22 h as compared to 10-11 h for control. Subsequent observations of growth of the handicapped sublines derived from single cells showed capability of all more than 100 studied sublines to recover normal proliferative activity. This process of intraclonal recovery required in many cases longer periods of time, corresponding to many tens, sometimes more than 200, generations. Late intraclonal recovery was further analysed by subcloning. It was found that although cytochemically assayed viability of the handicapped sublines was normal, cloning efficiency strongly depended on the stage of the recovery process. The recovery processes occuring in clones isolated from irradiated cell populations were compared with analogous processes occuring in slowly growing sublines isolated from non-irradiated cell cultures. Marked differences in kinetics of these processes show that either they are different in sublines derived from irradiated and non-irradiated cell populations or that the mechanisms of the late intraclonal recovery are affected by radiation. The results presented allow to conclude that gradual post-irradiation recovery of growth depends primarily on formation, in the developing populations, of cells with higher proliferative activities. Possible nature of the recovery processes is discussed in the light of available information on mammalian somatic cell variants with altered drug or temperature sensitivity, or with nutritional requirements. A sequence is proposed of changes leading from radiation-induced disturbance of the normably existing equilibrium between three basic cell subpopulations to ultimate restoration of this equilibrium. (author)

  13. Population structure and effective/census population size ratio in threatened three-spined stickleback populations from an isolated river basin in northwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Figueroa, A; Fernández, C; Amaro, R; Hermida, M; San Miguel, E

    2015-08-01

    Variability at 20 microsatellite loci was examined to assess the population genetic structure, gene flow, and effective population size (N(e)) in three populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from the upper basin of the Miño River in Galicia, NW Spain, where this species is threatened. The three populations showed similar levels of genetic diversity. There is a significant genetic differentiation between the three populations, but also significant gene flow. N(e) estimates based on linkage disequilibrium yielded values of 355 for the Miño River population and 241 and 311 for the Rato and Guisande Rivers, respectively, although we expect that these are overestimates. N(e) estimates based on temporal methods, considering gene flow or not, for the tributaries yielded values of 30-56 and 47-56 for the Rato and Guisande Rivers, respectively. Estimated census size (N(c)) for the Rato River was 880 individuals. This yielded a N(e)/N(c) estimate of 3-6 % for temporal estimation of N(e), which is within the empirical range observed in freshwater fishes. We suggest that the three populations analyzed have a sufficient level of genetic diversity with some genetic structure. Additionally, the absence of physical barriers suggests that conservation efforts and monitoring should focus in the whole basin as a unit.

  14. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Malaysia and were confirmed by In-house TTS1-PCR. Isolates were subjected for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to explore their genotypic diversity and to investigate for possible clonal clustering of a certain sequence type. Patient's clinical information was examined to investigate for clinical correlation among the different genotypes. In spite of small sample set, MLST results indicated predictive results; considerable genotypic diversity, predominance and novelty among B. pseudomallei collected over a single geographically-located population in Malaysia. Massive genotypic heterogeneity was observed; 8 different sequence types with predominance of sequence type 54 and discovery of two novel sequence types. However, no clear pathogenomic or organ tropism clonal relationships were predicted.

  15. Emergence of a New Population of Rathayibacter toxicus: An Ecologically Complex, Geographically Isolated Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Mohammad; Busot, Grethel Y.; Mann, Rachel; Rodoni, Brendan; Liu, Sanzhen; Stack, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Rathayibacter toxicus is a gram-positive bacterium that infects the floral parts of several Poaceae species in Australia. Bacterial ooze is often produced on the surface of infected plants and bacterial galls are produced in place of seed. R. toxicus is a regulated plant pathogen in the U.S. yet reliable detection and diagnostic tools are lacking. To better understand this geographically-isolated plant pathogen, genetic variation as a function of geographic location, host species, and date of...

  16. Out of their depth? Isolated deep populations of the cosmopolitan coral Desmophyllum dianthus may be highly vulnerable to environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J Miller

    Full Text Available Deep sea scleractinian corals will be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, facing loss of up to 70% of their habitat as the Aragonite Saturation Horizon (below which corals are unable to form calcium carbonate skeletons rises. Persistence of deep sea scleractinian corals will therefore rely on the ability of larvae to disperse to, and colonise, suitable shallow-water habitat. We used DNA sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS, the mitochondrial ribosomal subunit (16S and mitochondrial control region (MtC to determine levels of gene flow both within and among populations of the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus in SE Australia, New Zealand and Chile to assess the ability of corals to disperse into different regions and habitats. We found significant genetic subdivision among the three widely separated geographic regions consistent with isolation and limited contemporary gene flow. Furthermore, corals from different depth strata (shallow 1500 m even on the same or nearby seamounts were strongly differentiated, indicating limited vertical larval dispersal. Genetic differentiation with depth is consistent with the stratification of the Subantarctic Mode Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water, the Circumpolar Deep and North Pacific Deep Waters in the Southern Ocean, and we propose that coral larvae will be retained within, and rarely migrate among, these water masses. The apparent absence of vertical larval dispersal suggests deep populations of D. dianthus are unlikely to colonise shallow water as the aragonite saturation horizon rises and deep waters become uninhabitable. Similarly, assumptions that deep populations will act as refuges for shallow populations that are impacted by activities such as fishing or mining are also unlikely to hold true. Clearly future environmental management strategies must consider both regional and depth-related isolation of deep-sea coral populations.

  17. Out of their depth? Isolated deep populations of the cosmopolitan coral Desmophyllum dianthus may be highly vulnerable to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karen J; Rowden, Ashley A; Williams, Alan; Häussermann, Vreni

    2011-01-01

    Deep sea scleractinian corals will be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, facing loss of up to 70% of their habitat as the Aragonite Saturation Horizon (below which corals are unable to form calcium carbonate skeletons) rises. Persistence of deep sea scleractinian corals will therefore rely on the ability of larvae to disperse to, and colonise, suitable shallow-water habitat. We used DNA sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the mitochondrial ribosomal subunit (16S) and mitochondrial control region (MtC) to determine levels of gene flow both within and among populations of the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus in SE Australia, New Zealand and Chile to assess the ability of corals to disperse into different regions and habitats. We found significant genetic subdivision among the three widely separated geographic regions consistent with isolation and limited contemporary gene flow. Furthermore, corals from different depth strata (shallow 1500 m) even on the same or nearby seamounts were strongly differentiated, indicating limited vertical larval dispersal. Genetic differentiation with depth is consistent with the stratification of the Subantarctic Mode Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water, the Circumpolar Deep and North Pacific Deep Waters in the Southern Ocean, and we propose that coral larvae will be retained within, and rarely migrate among, these water masses. The apparent absence of vertical larval dispersal suggests deep populations of D. dianthus are unlikely to colonise shallow water as the aragonite saturation horizon rises and deep waters become uninhabitable. Similarly, assumptions that deep populations will act as refuges for shallow populations that are impacted by activities such as fishing or mining are also unlikely to hold true. Clearly future environmental management strategies must consider both regional and depth-related isolation of deep-sea coral populations.

  18. Bactericidal activity of M protein conserved region antibodies against group A streptococcal isolates from the Northern Thai population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruksachatkunakorn Chulabhorn

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most group A streptococcal (GAS vaccine strategies have focused on the surface M protein, a major virulence factor of GAS. The amino-terminus of the M protein elicits antibodies, that are both opsonic and protective, but which are type specific. J14, a chimeric peptide that contains 14 amino acids from the M protein conserved C-region at the carboxy-terminus, offers the possibility of a vaccine which will elicit protective opsonic antibodies against multiple different GAS strains. In this study, we searched for J14 and J14-like sequences and the number of their repeats in the C-region of the M protein from GAS strains isolated from the Northern Thai population. Then, we examined the bactericidal activity of J14, J14.1, J14-R1 and J14-R2 antisera against multiple Thai GAS strains. Results The emm genes of GAS isolates were sequenced and grouped as 14 different J14-types. The most diversity of J14-types was found in the C1-repeat. The J14.1 type was the major sequence in the C2 and C3-repeats. We have shown that antisera raised against the M protein conserved C-repeat region peptides, J14, J14.1, J14-R1 and J14-R2, commonly found in GAS isolates from the Northern Thai population, are able to kill GAS of multiple different emm types derived from an endemic area. The mean percent of bactericidal activities for all J14 and J14-like peptide antisera against GAS isolates were more than 70%. The mean percent of bactericidal activity was highest for J14 antisera followed by J14-R2, J14.1 and J14-R1 antisera. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that antisera raised against the M protein conserved C-repeat region are able to kill multiple different strains of GAS isolated from the Northern Thai population. Therefore, the four conserved "J14" peptides have the potential to be used as GAS vaccine candidates to prevent streptococcal infections in an endemic area.

  19. Decline of heterozygosity in a large but isolated population: a 45-year examination of moose genetic diversity on Isle Royale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renae L. Sattler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife conservation and management approaches typically focus on demographic measurements to assess population viability over both short and long periods. However, genetic diversity is an important predictor of long term population vitality. We investigated the pattern of change in genetic diversity in a large and likely isolated moose (Alces alces population on Isle Royale (Lake Superior from 1960–2005. We characterized samples, partitioned into five different 5-year periods, using nine microsatellite loci and a portion of the mtDNA control region. We also simulated the moose population to generate a theoretical backdrop of genetic diversity change. In the empirical data, we found that the number of alleles was consistently low and that observed heterozygosity notably declined from 1960 to 2005 (p = 0.08, R2 = 0.70. Furthermore, inbreeding coefficients approximately doubled from 0.08 in 1960–65 to 0.16 in 2000–05. Finally, we found that the empirical rate of observed heterozygosity decline was faster than the rate of observed heterozygosity loss in our simulations. Combined, these data suggest that genetic drift and inbreeding occurred in the Isle Royale moose populations over the study period, leading to significant losses in heterozygosity. Although inbreeding can be mitigated by migration, we found no evidence to support the occurrence of recent migrants into the population using analysis of our mtDNA haplotypes nor microsatellite data. Therefore, the Isle Royale moose population illustrates that even large populations are subjected to inbreeding in the absence of migration.

  20. Manipulating spread and predicting dispersal of isolated emerald ash borer populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan W. Siegert; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold; Therese M. Poland; Robert L. Heyd

    2009-01-01

    The ability to manipulate the spread of an invasive species could potentially be integrated into an effective management strategy to delay dispersal to uninfested areas while concentrating the population in an area where suppression...

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance status and prevalence rates of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL producers isolated from a mixed human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Afunwa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the increasing epidemiological and therapeutic challenges associated with infections due to ESBL producers, ESBL prevalence rate among some bacteria isolates from healthy and non-healthy human population in a metropolitan Nigerian setting was evaluated.A total of one hundred and forty-five (145 bacteria strains were isolated from a total of four hundred and sixty (460 samples collected from urine, wound, throat and anal swabs of 220 healthy volunteers in the community and from 240 patients in 2 secondary and 2 tertiary hospitals (altogether, 4 in Enugu metropolis. The presumptive confirmatory test used for ESBL detection was the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST method. Conjugation and plasmid curing studies were also done for resistance factor determination.Of the 145 isolates, 20 were ESBL producers with 35% of these ESBL producers being of community origin and 65% from hospitals. This translates to 4.8% and 9% incidences (comparably higher than established prevalence of 4.4% and 7.5 respectively for community and hospital infections respectively. The ESBL isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline, gentamicin, pefloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and Augmentin® (Amoxicilin and clavulanic acid combination. Conjugation studies for Resistance plasmid transfer showed non-transference of resistance determinants between the ESBL transconjugants and recipient strains. Correspondingly, the plasmid curing studies revealed that the acridine orange could not effect a cure on the isolates as they still retained high resistance to the antibiotics after the treatment.This study confirms the growing incidences/pool of ESBL strains in Nigeria and call for widespread and continuous monitoring towards an effective management of the potential therapeutic hurdle posed by this trend.

  2. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  3. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reveals isolation of imperilled grey nurse shark populations (Carcharias taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, H; Harcourt, R G; Stow, A J

    2009-11-01

    Loss of sharks and other upper-trophic marine predators has sparked worldwide concern for the stability of ocean ecosystems. The grey nurse (ragged-tooth or sand tiger) shark (Carcharias taurus) is Vulnerable on a global scale, Critically Endangered in Australia and presumed extinct in parts of its historical range. We used 193 muscle and fin samples collected from six extant populations to assess global mtDNA and microsatellite diversity and the degree of global population genetic structure. Control region mtDNA diversity was low in every population, and two populations (eastern Australia and Japan) contained only a single mtDNA haplotype. Genetic signatures of recent losses of genetic variation were not yet apparent at microsatellite loci, indicating that this low mtDNA variation is not a result of anthropogenic population declines. Population differentiation was substantial between each population pair except Brazil and South Africa, F(ST) values ranged from 0.050 to 0.699 and 0.100 to 1.00 for microsatellite and mitochondrial data respectively. Bayesian analysis clearly partitioned individuals into five of the populations from which they were sampled. Our data imply a low frequency of immigrant exchange among each of these regions and we suggest that each be recognized as a distinct evolutionary significant unit. In contrast to pelagic species such as whale shark and white shark that may cross ocean basins and where cooperative international efforts are necessary for conservation, grey nurse shark, like many coastal species, need to be managed regionally.

  4. SP18 Diagnostic and Research Uses of SNP Microarrays in Isolated Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Puffenberger, E.

    2007-01-01

    The Clinic for Special Children is a small non-profit pediatric medical facility that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of genetic disorders among the Amish and Mennonite people of Pennsylvania. Our research leads to the discovery of pathogenic sequence variants and permits the rapid and cost-effective use of molecular genetic testing in our patient population. A current focus of our work is identification of all mutations segregating in the Plain populations of southeastern Pennsylv...

  5. Exome sequencing in an admixed isolated population indicates NFXL1 variants confer a risk for specific language impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pía Villanueva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children affected by Specific Language Impairment (SLI fail to acquire age appropriate language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. SLI is highly heritable, but the understanding of underlying genetic mechanisms has proved challenging. In this study, we use molecular genetic techniques to investigate an admixed isolated founder population from the Robinson Crusoe Island (Chile, who are affected by a high incidence of SLI, increasing the power to discover contributory genetic factors. We utilize exome sequencing in selected individuals from this population to identify eight coding variants that are of putative significance. We then apply association analyses across the wider population to highlight a single rare coding variant (rs144169475, Minor Allele Frequency of 4.1% in admixed South American populations in the NFXL1 gene that confers a nonsynonymous change (N150K and is significantly associated with language impairment in the Robinson Crusoe population (p = 2.04 × 10-4, 8 variants tested. Subsequent sequencing of NFXL1 in 117 UK SLI cases identified four individuals with heterozygous variants predicted to be of functional consequence. We conclude that coding variants within NFXL1 confer an increased risk of SLI within a complex genetic model.

  6. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  7. Genetic Diversity and Structure among Isolated Populations of the Endangered Gees Golden Langur in Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Jihosuo; Nag, Sudipta; Shil, Joydeep; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Gee’s golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) is an endangered colobine primate, endemic to the semi-evergreen and mixed-deciduous forests of Indo-Bhutan border. During the last few decades, extensive fragmentation has caused severe population decline and local extinction of golden langur from several fragments. However, no studies are available on the impact of habitat fragmentation and the genetic diversity of golden langur in the fragmented habitats. The present study aimed to estimate the genetic diversity in the Indian population of golden langur. We sequenced and analyzed around 500 bases of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region-I from 59 fecal samples of wild langur collected from nine forest fragments. Overall, genetic diversity was high (h = 0.934, π = 0.0244) and comparable with other colobines. Populations in smaller fragments showed lower nucleotide diversity compared to the larger forest fragments. The median-joining network of haplotypes revealed a genetic structure that corresponded with the geographical distribution. The Aie and Champabati Rivers were found to be a barrier to gene flow between golden langur populations. In addition, it also established that T. geei is monophyletic but revealed possible hybridization with capped langur, T. pileatus, in the wild. It is hoped that these findings would result in a more scientific approach towards managing the fragmented populations of this enigmatic species. PMID:27564405

  8. Drug Resistance and Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains Isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozińska, Monika; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    In total, 1095 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from 282 patients with drug-resistant and 813 with drug-sensitive tuberculosis (TB) in Poland during 2007-2011 were analysed. Seventy-one (6.5%) patients were found to have strains of Beijing genotype as defined by spoligotyping. The majority of patients were Polish-born; among foreign-born a large proportion came from Chechnya and Vietnam. Analysis showed strong associations between Beijing genotype infection and MDR, pre-XDR and XDR resistance, with a considerable relative risk among new patients, suggesting that this is due to increased spread of drug-resistant strains rather than acquisition of resistance during treatment.

  9. Selective isolation and differentiation of a stromal population of human embryonic stem cells with osteogenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda M; Mahmood, Amer; Ditzel, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    cultured in osteogenic differentiation media, up regulation of osteoblastic lineage markers (DLX5, MSX2, RUNX2, SPARC, ALP, COL1a1, BGLAP, IBSP, DCN, LOX-L4) and production of in vitro mineralized matrix was detected. hESC-stromal cells loaded on a carrier and implanted either subcutaneously...... or in a critical size calvarial defect in immune deficient mice for 10weeks, resulted in new bone formation and partial repair of the calvarial defect. In conclusion, hESC-stromal can be isolated from hESC cultures and represent a good source for obtaining cells with osteogenic differentiation potential suitable...

  10. Whole-exome sequencing of individuals from an isolated population implicates rare risk variants in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lescai, F; Als, T D; Li, Q

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorder affects about 1% of the world's population, and its estimated heritability is about 75%. Only few whole genome or whole-exome sequencing studies in bipolar disorder have been reported, and no rare coding variants have yet been robustly identified. The use of isolated populations...... PITPNM2 missense variant, which is located in a highly significant schizophrenia GWAS locus. Likewise, PIK3C2A identified in the gene-based analysis is located in a combined bipolar and schizophrenia GWAS locus. Our results show support both for existing findings in the literature, as well as for new...... risk genes, and identify rare variants that might provide additional information on the underlying biology of bipolar disorder....

  11. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Fadry Abdullah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  12. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas D; Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, Anders D

    2006-01-01

    Isles ancestry. In the present study we used 122 new and 19 previously published hypervariable region I sequences of the mitochondrial control region to analyse the genetic diversity of the Faroese population and compare it with other populations in the North Atlantic region. The analyses suggested...... that the Faroese mtDNA pool has been affected by genetic drift, and is among the most homogenous and isolated in the North Atlantic region. This will have implications for attempts to locate genes for complex disorders. To obtain estimates of Scandinavian vs British Isles ancestry proportions, we applied...... a frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among...

  13. Characterisation of virulence genes in methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a paediatric population in a university hospital of Medellín, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez,Judy Natalia; Ocampo,Ana María; Vanegas,Johanna Marcela; Rodríguez,Erika Andrea; Garcés,Carlos Guillermo; Patiño,Luz Adriana; Ospina,Sigifredo; Correa,Margarita María

    2011-01-01

    Virulence and antibiotic resistance are significant determinants of the types of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and paediatric groups remain among the most commonly affected populations. The goal of this study was to characterise virulence genes of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from a paediatric population of a Colombian University Hospital during 2009. Sixty MSSA and MRSA isolates were obtained from paediatric...

  14. LANGUE AND PAROLE IN AMERICAN LINGUISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE PROBLEM OF THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED AND THE FORM WHICH ANY LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION SHOULD TAKE. THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE INFLUENCE OF THE SWISS LINGUIST, FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE, ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN LINGUISTICS. THE QUESTION OF "MENTALISM" IN LINGUISTICS IS REDUCED TO THE PROBLEM OF WHETHER LINGUISTIC…

  15. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  16. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between linguistics and second language teaching has always been a controversial one. Many linguists have argued that linguistics has nothing to say to the teacher. Sampson (1980, p.10), for example, says: ·"1 do not believe that linguistics has any contribution to make to the teaching of English or the.

  17. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. Sources of Support. The Department of General Linguistics acknowledges the financial support provided by the Fonds ...

  18. Uneven frequency of Vibrio alginolyticus-group isolates among different populations of Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Maria C; Ciambotta, Marco; Sapochetti, Manuela; Migliore, Luciana; Tapia, Whashington; Cedeño, Virna; Gentile, Gabriele

    2010-02-01

    The presence of Vibrio isolates was investigated in cloacal swabs from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhyncus cristatus). Such unique iguana is endemic to the Galápagos Archipelago, it is listed as vulnerable in the IUCN Red List (2009), and is strictly protected by CITES and Ecuador laws. Our results revealed an uneven isolation frequency of vibrios from animals living in different settings: maximal among the Santa Fe population, scarce at Bahía Tortuga but practically absent in the samples from Puerto Ayora and Plaza Sur. A 16S sequencing confirmed that the isolates belonged to the genus Vibrio, placing them within the V. alginolyticus group; the biochemical identification was, indeed, consistent with V. alginolyticus features. The reason of the observed discrepancy is not clear, but could be either linked to a higher pollution in the inhabited or more touristic places or to differential influence of chemical and physical parameters at a local scale. As V. alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen for man and it is known to cause disease in sea-living animals, the ability of these vibrios to enter and persist to a certain extent in the marine iguana gut should be regarded as a risk for health of both the animals and the human personnel involved in monitoring activities. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  1. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Gesture Modelling for Linguistic Purposes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of sign languages attempts to create a coherent model that binds the expressive nature of signs conveyed in gestures to a linguistic framework. Gesture modelling offers an alternative that provides device independence, scalability...

  4. Is Rorty a linguistic idealist?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marvan, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2011), s. 272-279 ISSN 1210-3055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Rorty * linguistic idealism * internal realism * intrinsic structure of reality * representation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. On the concept of a linguistic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of a linguistic variable plays a crucial role in the representation of imprecise knowledge in information sciences. A variable is called linguistic as soon as its values are linguistic terms rather than numerical ones. The power of daily communication and common sense reasoning lies in the use of such linguistic values. Even when exact numerical values are available, experts tend to transform these values into linguistic ones. A physician will usually translate a numerical measurement of a blood pressure into linguistic specifications such as normal, very high, too low... Zadeh has argued that the set of values for a linguistic variable assumes a more-or-less fixed structure. Starting from an atomic value and its antonym all remaining values are constructed using logical connectives on the one hand and linguistic hedges on the other hand. In this paper we will describe how to represent the value set of a linguistic variable in general and of linguistic hedges in particular

  6. Canine Distemper in an isolated population of fishers (Martes pennanti) from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan m. Keller; Mourad Gabriel; Karen A. Terio; Edward J. Dubovi; Elizabeth Van Wormer; Rick Sweitzer; Reginald Barret; Craig Thompson; Kathryn Purcell; Linda Munson

    2012-01-01

    Four fishers (Martes pennanti) from an insular population in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA died as a consequence of an infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2009. Three fishers were found in close temporal and spatial relationship; the fourth fisher died 4 mo later at a 70 km distance from the initial group. Gross...

  7. Eelgrass Zostera marina populations in northern Norwegian fjords are genetically isolated and diverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Jeanine L.; Coyer, James A.; Stam, Wytze T.; Moy, Frithjof E.; Christie, Hartvig; Jorgensen, Nina Mari

    2013-01-01

    Populations along the northern boundary of a marine species' distributional range in the NE Atlantic are expected to harbor lower standing genetic variation as a consequence of post-glacial expansion following the last glacial maximum. Founder events and marginal habitat availability may render the

  8. Population biology of intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n=133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n= 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates

  9. Linguistic Characteristics of Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2010-01-01

    Advertising language takes form under the influence of linguistics,psychology and sociology,etc,and its way of choosing words and building sentences are quite different from normal English.And as a practical language,advertising English has its specific functions,and it has been distinguished from normal English as an independent language,and it has plentiful values.This paper aims to discuss some linguistic characteristics of advertising English.

  10. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  11. Research in the School of Languages and Linguistics at Griffith University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton-Smith, Ben; Walkinshaw, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Griffith University is set across five campuses in south-east Queensland, Australia, and has a student population of 43,000. The School of Languages and Linguistics (LAL) offers programs in linguistics, international English, Chinese, Italian, Japanese and Spanish, as well as English language enhancement courses. Research strands reflect the…

  12. Putative Panmixia in Restricted Populations of Trypanosoma cruzi Isolated from Wild Triatoma infestans in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabe, Christian; Buitrago, Rosio; Bremond, Philippe; Aliaga, Claudia; Salas, Renata; Vidaurre, Pablo; Herrera, Claudia; Cerqueira, Frédérique; Bosseno, Marie-France; Waleckx, Etienne; Breniere, Simone Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is subdivided into six discrete typing units (DTUs; TcI–TcVI) of which TcI is ubiquitous and genetically highly variable. While clonality is the dominant mode of propagation, recombinant events play a significant evolutive role. Recently, foci of wild Triatoma infestans have been described in Bolivia, mainly infected by TcI. Hence, for the first time, we evaluated the level of genetic exchange within TcI natural potentially panmictic populations (single DTU, host, area and sampling time). Seventy-nine TcI stocks from wild T. infestans, belonging to six populations were characterized at eight microsatellite loci. For each population, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), linkage disequilibrium (LD), and presence of repeated multilocus genotypes (MLG) were analyzed by using a total of seven statistics, to test the null hypothesis of panmixia (H0). For three populations, none of the seven statistics allowed to rejecting H0; for another one the low size did not allow us to conclude, and for the two others the tests have given contradictory results. Interestingly, apparent panmixia was only observed in very restricted areas, and was not observed when grouping populations distant of only two kilometers or more. Nevertheless it is worth stressing that for the statistic tests of "HWE", in order to minimize the type I error (i. e. incorrect rejection of a true H0), we used the Bonferroni correction (BC) known to considerably increase the type II error ( i. e. failure to reject a false H0). For the other tests (LD and MLG), we did not use BC and the risk of type II error in these cases was acceptable. Thus, these results should be considered as a good indicator of the existence of panmixia in wild environment but this must be confirmed on larger samples to reduce the risk of type II error. PMID:24312410

  13. Putative panmixia in restricted populations of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from wild Triatoma infestans in Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Barnabe

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is subdivided into six discrete typing units (DTUs; TcI-TcVI of which TcI is ubiquitous and genetically highly variable. While clonality is the dominant mode of propagation, recombinant events play a significant evolutive role. Recently, foci of wild Triatoma infestans have been described in Bolivia, mainly infected by TcI. Hence, for the first time, we evaluated the level of genetic exchange within TcI natural potentially panmictic populations (single DTU, host, area and sampling time. Seventy-nine TcI stocks from wild T. infestans, belonging to six populations were characterized at eight microsatellite loci. For each population, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE, linkage disequilibrium (LD, and presence of repeated multilocus genotypes (MLG were analyzed by using a total of seven statistics, to test the null hypothesis of panmixia (H0. For three populations, none of the seven statistics allowed to rejecting H0; for another one the low size did not allow us to conclude, and for the two others the tests have given contradictory results. Interestingly, apparent panmixia was only observed in very restricted areas, and was not observed when grouping populations distant of only two kilometers or more. Nevertheless it is worth stressing that for the statistic tests of "HWE", in order to minimize the type I error (i. e. incorrect rejection of a true H0, we used the Bonferroni correction (BC known to considerably increase the type II error ( i. e. failure to reject a false H0. For the other tests (LD and MLG, we did not use BC and the risk of type II error in these cases was acceptable. Thus, these results should be considered as a good indicator of the existence of panmixia in wild environment but this must be confirmed on larger samples to reduce the risk of type II error.

  14. Copyright Essentials for Linguists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Newman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses copyright issues that linguists confront in their capacity as users and creators of scholarly work. It is organized in a simple question-answer format. Questions 1-3 present the basics of U.S. copyright law, including the fundamental nature of copyright as a bundle of intellectual property rights and the role of registration. Questions 4-5 treat issues of copyright notice. Questions 6-8 explain licenses, especially Creative Commons licenses, and the function of an Author's Addendum. Questions 9-10 look at copyright in the context of online open access publishing. Question 11 discusses the concept of Fair Use. Question 12 analyzes the problem of what are called Orphan Works. Questions 13-19 explore issues of copyright ownership, including Work for Hire, joint authorship, and attribution. Questions 20-22 deal with copyright with specific reference to fieldwork situations and indigenous rights. The paper concludes with a brief presentation of key sources for further study and clarification.

  15. The new linguistic order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Fishman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation phenomenon that we are currently seeing has lead to major linguistic changes on a worldwide scale. English has become the leading international language, in economic and political spheres, and is becoming the language of high society and of the young. At the same time, however, regional languages are also making considerable headway, thanks to new social interaction and economic backing from their governments. In turn, and as a result of these two trends, there is impetus for feelings of belonging to local communities which see their language as a sign of their own authenticity, one that has to be defended against the phenomena of globalisation and regionalisation. We are thus heading towards a multilingual society, in which each language has its own, distinct social functions, even though it is inevitable that there will be conflict between the languages that come into contact. In this scenario, the author predicts a loss of hegemony for English, in favour of regional languages, and the future extinction of the least spoken minority languages.

  16. Computational Linguistics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Piasecki, Maciej; Jassem, Krzysztof; Fuglewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Google over the recent decade has required a specific method of man-machine communication: human query should be short, whereas the machine answer may take a form of a wide range of documents. This type of communication has triggered a rapid development in the domain of Information Extraction, aimed at providing the asker with a  more precise information. The recent success of intelligent personal assistants supporting users in searching or even extracting information and answers from large collections of electronic documents signals the onset of a new era in man-machine communication – we shall soon explain to our small devices what we need to know and expect valuable answers quickly and automatically delivered. The progress of man-machine communication is accompanied by growth in the significance of applied Computational Linguistics – we need machines to understand much more from the language we speak naturally than it is the case of up-to-date search systems. Moreover, w...

  17. Genotyping of single spore isolates of a Pasteuria penetrans population occurring in Florida using SNP-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S; Schmidt, L M; Danquah, W B; Timper, P; Mekete, T

    2017-02-01

    To generate single spore lines of a population of bacterial parasite of root-knot nematode (RKN), Pasteuria penetrans, isolated from Florida and examine genotypic variation and virulence characteristics exist within the population. Six single spore lines (SSP), 16SSP, 17SSP, 18SSP, 25SSP, 26SSP and 30SSP were generated. Genetic variability was evaluated by comparing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six protein-coding genes and the 16S rRNA gene. An average of one SNP was observed for every 69 bp in the 16S rRNA, whereas no SNPs were observed in the protein-coding sequences. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 16S rRNA sequences placed the clones into three distinct clades. Bio-efficacy analysis revealed significant heterogeneity in the level virulence and host specificity between the individual clones. The SNP markers developed to the 5' hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene may be useful in biotype differentiation within a population of P. penetrans. This study demonstrates an efficient method for generating single spore lines of P. penetrans and gives a deep insight into genetic heterogeneity and varying level of virulence exists within a population parasitizing a specific Meloidogyne sp. host. The results also suggest that the application of generalist spore lines in nematode management may achieve broad RKN control. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Novel Mutations Detected in Avirulence Genes Overcoming Tomato Cf Resistance Genes in Isolates of a Japanese Population of Cladosporium fulvum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Iida

    Full Text Available Leaf mold of tomato is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum which complies with the gene-for-gene system. The disease was first reported in Japan in the 1920s and has since been frequently observed. Initially only race 0 isolates were reported, but since the consecutive introduction of resistance genes Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 new races have evolved. Here we first determined the virulence spectrum of 133 C. fulvum isolates collected from 22 prefectures in Japan, and subsequently sequenced the avirulence (Avr genes Avr2, Avr4, Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9 to determine the molecular basis of overcoming Cf genes. Twelve races of C. fulvum with a different virulence spectrum were identified, of which races 9, 2.9, 4.9, 4.5.9 and 4.9.11 occur only in Japan. The Avr genes in many of these races contain unique mutations not observed in races identified elsewhere in the world including (i frameshift mutations and (ii transposon insertions in Avr2, (iii point mutations in Avr4 and Avr4E, and (iv deletions of Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9. New races have developed by selection pressure imposed by consecutive introductions of Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 genes in commercially grown tomato cultivars. Our study shows that molecular variations to adapt to different Cf genes in an isolated C. fulvum population in Japan are novel but overall follow similar patterns as those observed in populations from other parts of the world. Implications for breeding of more durable C. fulvum resistant varieties are discussed.

  19. Population genetic structure and natural selection of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 in Myanmar isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jinyoung; Moe, Mya; Jun, Hojong; Lê, Hương Giang; Kim, Tae Im; Thái, Thị Lam; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Myint, Moe Kyaw; Lin, Khin; Shin, Ho-Joon; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2018-02-07

    Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (PfAMA-1) is one of leading blood stage malaria vaccine candidates. However, genetic variation and antigenic diversity identified in global PfAMA-1 are major hurdles in the development of an effective vaccine based on this antigen. In this study, genetic structure and the effect of natural selection of PfAMA-1 among Myanmar P. falciparum isolates were analysed. Blood samples were collected from 58 Myanmar patients with falciparum malaria. Full-length PfAMA-1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a TA cloning vector. PfAMA-1 sequence of each isolate was sequenced. Polymorphic characteristics and effect of natural selection were analysed with using DNASTAR, MEGA4, and DnaSP programs. Polymorphic nature and natural selection in 459 global PfAMA-1 were also analysed. Thirty-seven different haplotypes of PfAMA-1 were identified in 58 Myanmar P. falciparum isolates. Most amino acid changes identified in Myanmar PfAMA-1 were found in domains I and III. Overall patterns of amino acid changes in Myanmar PfAMA-1 were similar to those in global PfAMA-1. However, frequencies of amino acid changes differed by country. Novel amino acid changes in Myanmar PfAMA-1 were also identified. Evidences for natural selection and recombination event were observed in global PfAMA-1. Among 51 commonly identified amino acid changes in global PfAMA-1 sequences, 43 were found in predicted RBC-binding sites, B-cell epitopes, or IUR regions. Myanmar PfAMA-1 showed similar patterns of nucleotide diversity and amino acid polymorphisms compared to those of global PfAMA-1. Balancing natural selection and intragenic recombination across PfAMA-1 are likely to play major roles in generating genetic diversity in global PfAMA-1. Most common amino acid changes in global PfAMA-1 were located in predicted B-cell epitopes where high levels of nucleotide diversity and balancing natural selection were found. These results highlight the

  20. Genetic and Toxigenic Variability within Aspergillus flavus Population Isolated from Maize in Two Diverse Environments in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Okoth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus is the main producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities such as maize. This fungus occurs naturally on crops, and produces aflatoxins when environmental conditions are favorable. The aim of this study is to analyse the genetic variability among 109 A. flavus isolates previously recovered from maize sampled from a known aflatoxin-hotspot (Eastern region, Kenya and the major maize-growing area in the Rift Valley (Kenya, and to determine their toxigenic potential. DNA analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions of ribosomal DNA, partial β-tubulin gene (benA and calmodulin gene (CaM sequences were used. The strains were further analyzed for the presence of four aflatoxin-biosynthesis genes in relation to their capability to produce aflatoxins and other metabolites, targeting the regulatory gene aflR and the structural genes aflP, aflD, and aflQ. In addition, the metabolic profile of the fungal strains was unraveled using state-of-the-art LC-MS/MS instrumentation. The three gene-sequence data grouped the isolates into two major clades, A. minisclerotigenes and A. flavus. A. minisclerotigenes was most prevalent in Eastern Kenya, while A. flavus was common in both regions. A. parasiticus was represented by a single isolate collected from Rift Valley. Diversity existed within the A. flavus population, which formed several subclades. An inconsistency in identification of some isolates using the three markers was observed. The calmodulin gene sequences showed wider variation of polymorphisms. The aflatoxin production pattern was not consistent with the presence of aflatoxigenic genes, suggesting an inability of the primers to always detect the genes or presence of genetic mutations. Significant variation was observed in toxin profiles of the isolates. This is the first time that a profound metabolic profiling of A. flavus isolates was done in Kenya. Positive associations were evident for some metabolites

  1. Genetic and Toxigenic Variability within Aspergillus flavus Population Isolated from Maize in Two Diverse Environments in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoth, Sheila; De Boevre, Marthe; Vidal, Arnau; Diana Di Mavungu, José; Landschoot, Sofie; Kyallo, Martina; Njuguna, Joyce; Harvey, Jagger; De Saeger, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is the main producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities such as maize. This fungus occurs naturally on crops, and produces aflatoxins when environmental conditions are favorable. The aim of this study is to analyse the genetic variability among 109 A. flavus isolates previously recovered from maize sampled from a known aflatoxin-hotspot (Eastern region, Kenya) and the major maize-growing area in the Rift Valley (Kenya), and to determine their toxigenic potential. DNA analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA, partial β-tubulin gene (benA) and calmodulin gene (CaM) sequences were used. The strains were further analyzed for the presence of four aflatoxin-biosynthesis genes in relation to their capability to produce aflatoxins and other metabolites, targeting the regulatory gene aflR and the structural genes aflP, aflD, and aflQ. In addition, the metabolic profile of the fungal strains was unraveled using state-of-the-art LC-MS/MS instrumentation. The three gene-sequence data grouped the isolates into two major clades, A. minisclerotigenes and A. flavus . A. minisclerotigenes was most prevalent in Eastern Kenya, while A. flavus was common in both regions. A. parasiticus was represented by a single isolate collected from Rift Valley. Diversity existed within the A. flavus population, which formed several subclades. An inconsistency in identification of some isolates using the three markers was observed. The calmodulin gene sequences showed wider variation of polymorphisms. The aflatoxin production pattern was not consistent with the presence of aflatoxigenic genes, suggesting an inability of the primers to always detect the genes or presence of genetic mutations. Significant variation was observed in toxin profiles of the isolates. This is the first time that a profound metabolic profiling of A. flavus isolates was done in Kenya. Positive associations were evident for some metabolites, while for

  2. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in a targeted population in Xinxiang City, Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenchao; Kang, Lixia; Wang, Weijuan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yuhua; Xie, Qing; Wang, Shuai; He, Tong; Li, Han; Xiao, Tingwei; Chen, Yunchao; Zuo, Suqiong; Kong, Lingmin; Li, Pengju; Li, Xiangrui

    2018-03-02

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease, worldwide. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. vaginalis and contrasted the most prevalent strains of T. vaginalis isolated from Xinxiang City, Henan Province, China. In Xinxiang from September 2015 to September 2017, a total of 267 (1.64%, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.45-1.85) clinical T. vaginalis-positive samples from vaginal secretions were observed by wet mount microscopy from 16,294 women with some clinical symptoms of trichomoniasis. We found that trichomoniasis frequently occurred in the 21- to 40-year-old age group and in winter. After the 267 clinical T. vaginalis positive samples were cultured, 68 isolates of T. vaginalis were harvested and identified as genotype E (58.82%), H (17.65%), mixed 1 (17.65%) and mixed 2 (5.88%) using a sensitive and reliable polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) typing method on the actin gene. The phylogenetic diversity analysis showed that the genotype E samples fell within a separate clade compared to the other T. vaginalis isolates, while the samples of the genotype H separated into two clades. Our results demonstrate a notable gene polymorphism of clinical isolates from the targeted population and provide insight into the performance of these genetic markers in the molecular epidemiology of trichomoniasis. However, further studies are needed to clarify the association between a certain genotype and the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis.

  3. Model animal experiments on UV-c irradiation of blood and isolated cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, H.; Scherf, H.P.; Wiesner, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cellular and molecular basis of the therapeutically used effect of reinjected ultraviolet (UVC) irradiated blood is unknown. First approaches to that problem were made in this study by aid of model experiments. Neither the spontaneous degranulation nor the antigen-induced histamine release from rat connective tissue mast cells (in vivo) was influenced by the injection (i.v.) of UV-irradiated blood or blood lymphocytes. By comparison of the effect of UV light on blood lymphocytes (number of dead cells, strength of chemoluminescence) after irradiation of the isolated cells and the unfractionated blood, respectively, it was shown that the strong light absorption within the blood sample prevents damage or functional alterations of the blood lymphocytes. The compound 48/80 - induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells can be completely inhibited by UV irradiation (0.6 mJ/cm 2 ) without increasing the spontaneous histamine release. (author)

  4. A model for studying isolation mechanisms in parasite populations: the genus Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda, Caligidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meeus, T; Renaud, F; Gabrion, C

    1990-05-01

    In the Mediterranean, the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus thompsoni Baird, 1850 specifically infests turbot (Psetta maxima L., 1758), whereas L. europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut, and Gabrion, 1988 infests brill (Scophthalmus rhombus L., 1758) and flounder (Platichthys flesus L., 1758). Experimental infestation of turbot by copepods from each of the three fish species showed an absence of any physiological incompatibility preventing natural development of the two parasite species, at least on one host species, i.e., the turbot. Moreover, interspecific hybrids were obtained experimentally, which implies that 1) there is no strict genetic barrier between the two species and 2) the natural prezygotic isolation results from a choice of the most favorable habitat. We discuss the origin and possible consequences of the presence, in the Mediterranean, of L. europaensis on brill and flounder, two hosts separated by their taxonomic status and ecobiology.

  5. Drug resistance pattern of mycobacterial isolates in HIV and non-HIV population in South India

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    Umamaheshwari Shivaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence of drug resistance has complicated the treatment of tuberculosis (TB. WHO reports India to be one among 27 “high burden” multidrug-resistant (MDR TB countries. Objective: To diagnose TB and detect drug resistance of mycobacterial isolates in acid-fast bacilli (AFB smear negative HIV reactive patients (Group A and compare them with HIV seropositive AFB smear positive (Group B and HIV-seronegative AFB positive cases (Group C. Materials and Methods: Clinical specimens collected in all groups were processed as per the standard protocol except blood, which was processed by lysis centrifugation technique. They were then inoculated with Lowenstein-Jensen media and the isolates obtained were subjected to drug susceptibility test (DST by proportion method and genotype MTBDR plus assay. Results: In Group A, 162 patients were included. Of the 443 clinical samples collected, 76 mycobacterial strains were obtained from 67 (41% patients. Of these, 50 (65.8% were sensitive to all drugs and 26 (34.2% resistant to one or more anti-tubercular drugs. Antibiogram of Group A when compared with Group B and C showed that the MDR rate 6.6%, 6.7% and 8% respectively did not differ much; but resistance to at least single drug was (26 [34.2%], 3 [10%], and 8 [16%], respectively. Conclusion: Our study suggests that HIV has no influence on the anti-tubercular resistance pattern, but increased MDR rate along with HIV in high TB burden setting stresses the need for early diagnosis and DST in providing proper regimens and improve prognosis.

  6. [Prevalence of human papilloma virus isolated from cervix lesions in a female population from Transilvania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feticu, Lucia; Bocşan, I S; Bondor, Cosmina loana; Boboş, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Between the years 2008-2011 reverse hibridisation (INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra test) and genotyping 1a Roche (the kit: Linear array HPV genotyping test) were used for detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in the cervix secretions of 182 female patients aged 16-63 years, predominantly of urban origin. 99 patients (54.4%) were identified as being infected with various types of HPV, prevalent in urban (53 single infections and 46 multiple infections). HPV infection was not detected in 83 (45.6%) patients. Only 7 females from rural areas were tested (5 females had single or multiple HPV infections). 32 types of HPV were identificated: 15 HPV types with high risk (51, 82, 56, 18, 39, 45, 59, 68, 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, 58, 73), 14 types with low risk (42, 61, 62, 72, 81, 83, 84, CP6108, 70, 6, 11, 55, 74, 54), and 3 types with possible high risk (26, 53, 66). The type of HPV could not be identified in other two cases. The most frecvent types of HPV with high risk isolated were: the type 16. The types 51 and 58 of HPV with high risk and the type 84 with low risk are detected in single infections in urban and in rural. HPV clades involved in single infections are: 1 (1 case), 3 (5 cases), 5 (4 cases), 6 (5 cases), 7 (5 cases), 9 (21 cases), 10 (7 cases). The clades 11 (7 cases) and 13 (6 cases) were involved only in multiple infections detected in urban. The types 35, 39, 59, 68 of HPV with high risk were isolated from multple infections. In rural, multiple infections with two HPV were detected. The citological screening by Babe-Papanicolaou examination was made only in 9 cases: HPV was not detected in 4 cases (one female had ASC-US: atypical squamous cells of "undetermined significance"); in 5 positive cases were detected HPV 16, 31, 58, 6.

  7. Genetic diversity and structure related to expansion history and habitat isolation: stone marten populating rural-urban habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Leblois, Raphaël; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2017-12-22

    Population genetic diversity and structure are determined by past and current evolutionary processes, among which spatially limited dispersal, genetic drift, and shifts in species distribution boundaries have major effects. In most wildlife species, environmental modifications by humans often lead to contraction of species' ranges and/or limit their dispersal by acting as environmental barriers. However, in species well adapted to anthropogenic habitat or open landscapes, human induced environmental changes may facilitate dispersal and range expansions. In this study, we analysed whether isolation by distance and deforestation, among other environmental features, promotes or restricts dispersal and expansion in stone marten (Martes foina) populations. We genotyped 298 martens from eight sites at twenty-two microsatellite loci to characterize the genetic variability, population structure and demographic history of stone martens in Poland. At the landscape scale, limited genetic differentiation between sites in a mosaic of urban, rural and forest habitats was mostly influenced by isolation by distance. Statistical clustering and multivariate analyses showed weak genetic structuring with two to four clusters and a high rate of gene flow between them. Stronger genetic differentiation was detected for one stone marten population (NE1) located inside a large forest complex. Genetic differentiation between this site and all others was 20% higher than between other sites separated by similar distances. The genetic uniqueness index of NE1 was also twofold higher than in other sites. Past demographic history analyses showed recent expansion of this species in north-eastern Poland. A decrease in genetic diversity from south to north, and MIGRAINE analyses indicated the direction of expansion of stone marten. Our results showed that two processes, changes in species distribution boundaries and limited dispersal associated with landscape barriers, affect genetic diversity and

  8. Population genetic analysis of Colombian Trypanosoma cruzi isolates revealed by enzyme electrophoretic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz-Garcia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Colombia presents an enormous biological diversity, few studies have been conducted on the population genetics of Trypanosoma cruzi. This study was carried out with 23 Colombian stocks of this protozoa analyzed for 13 isoenzymatic loci. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the genetic diversity and heterogeneity, the genetic relationships and the possible spatial structure of these 23 Colombian stocks of T. cruzi were estimated. The majority of results obtained are in agreement with a clonal population structure. Nevertheless, two aspects expected in a clonal structure were not discovered in the Colombian T. cruzi stocks. There was an absence of given zymodemes over-represented from a geographical point of view and the presumed temporal stabilizing selective phenomena was not observed either in the Colombian stocks sampled several times through the years of the study. Some hypotheses are discussed in order to explain the results found.

  9. Population genetic analysis of Colombian Trypanosoma cruzi isolates revealed by enzyme electrophoretic profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Montilla, Marleny; Nicholls, Sebastian; Alvarez, Diana

    2001-01-01

    Although Colombia presents an enormous biological diversity, few studies have been conducted on the population genetics of Trypanosoma cruzi. This study was carried out with 23 Colombian stocks of this protozoa analyzed for 13 isoenzymatic loci. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the genetic diversity and heterogeneity, the genetic relationships and the possible spatial structure of these 23 Colombian stocks of T. cruzi were estimated. The majority of results obtained are in agreement with a clo...

  10. Rapid growth and genetic diversity retention in an isolated reintroduced black bear population in the central appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean M.; Cox, John J.; Clark, Joseph D.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Hast, John T.; Gibbs, Dan; Strunk, Michael; Dobey, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Animal reintroductions are important tools of wildlife management to restore species to their historical range, and they can also create unique opportunities to study population dynamics and genetics from founder events. We used non-invasive hair sampling in a systematic, closed-population capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study design at the Big South Fork (BSF) area in Kentucky during 2010 and Tennessee during 2012 to estimate the demographic and genetic characteristics of the black bear (Ursus americanus) population that resulted from a reintroduced founding population of 18 bears in 1998. We estimated 38 (95% CI: 31–66) and 190 (95% CI: 170–219) bears on the Kentucky and Tennessee study areas, respectively. Based on the Tennessee abundance estimate alone, the mean annual growth rate was 18.3% (95% CI: 17.4–19.5%) from 1998 to 2012. We also compared the genetic characteristics of bears sampled during 2010–2012 to bears in the population during 2000–2002, 2–4 years following reintroduction, and to the source population. We found that the level of genetic diversity since reintroduction as indicated by expected heterozygosity (HE) remained relatively constant (HE(source, 2004) = 0.763, HE(BSF, 2000–2002) = 0.729, HE(BSF, 2010–2012) = 0.712) and the effective number of breeders (NB) remained low but had increased since reintroduction in the absence of sufficient immigration (NB(BSF, 2000–2002) = 12, NB(BSF, 2010–2012)  = 35). This bear population appears to be genetically isolated, but contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence of genetic diversity loss or other deleterious genetic effects typically observed from small founder groups. We attribute that to high initial genetic diversity in the founder group combined with overlapping generations and rapid population growth. Although the population remains relatively small, the reintroduction using a small founder group appears to be demographically and genetically

  11. PARTIAL REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION OF A RECENTLY DERIVED RESIDENT-FRESHWATER POPULATION OF THREESPINE STICKLEBACK (GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS) FROM ITS PUTATIVE ANADROMOUS ANCESTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furin, Christoff G.; Von Hippel, Frank A.; Bell, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We used no-choice mating trials to test for assortative mating between a newly derived resident-freshwater population (8 – 22 generations since founding) of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Loberg Lake, Alaska and its putative anadromous ancestor as well as a morphologically convergent but distantly related resident-freshwater population. Partial reproductive isolation has evolved between the Loberg Lake population and its ancestor within a remarkably short time period. However, Loberg stickleback readily mate with morphologically similar, but distantly related resident-freshwater stickleback. Partial pre-mating isolation is asymmetrical; anadromous females and smaller, resident-freshwater males from Loberg Lake readily mate, but the anadromous males and smaller Loberg females do not. Our results indicate that pre-mating isolation can begin to evolve in allopatry within a few generations after isolation as a correlated effect of evolution of reduced body size. PMID:23025615

  12. Applying systemic functional linguistics to conversations with dementia: the linguistic construction of relationships between participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nicole; Mok, Zaneta

    2012-02-01

    Social isolation in dementia is a growing concern as the incidence and prevalence of dementing conditions is on the rise in many societies. Positive social interactions, which foster the construction and enactment of positive interpersonal relationships and therefore positive discursive identities, make an important contribution to emotional well-being. In this article, we investigate how two women diagnosed with dementia of the Alzheimer's type use language to relate to each other and two visiting graduate students. We use Systemic Functional Linguistics as an analytical framework, specifically investigating the use of vocatives and naming, and conversational moves and exchanges. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Geographic distribution of methyltransferases of Helicobacter pylori: evidence of human host population isolation and migration

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    Vítor Jorge MB

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. This ubiquitous association between H. pylori and humans is thought to be present since the origin of modern humans. The H. pylori genome encodes for an exceptional number of restriction and modifications (R-M systems. To evaluate if R-M systems are an adequate tool to determine the geographic distribution of H. pylori strains, we typed 221 strains from Africa, America, Asia, and Europe, and evaluated the expression of different 29 methyltransferases. Results Independence tests and logistic regression models revealed that ten R-M systems correlate with geographical localization. The distribution pattern of these methyltransferases may have been originated by co-divergence of regional H. pylori after its human host migrated out of Africa. The expression of specific methyltransferases in the H. pylori population may also reflect the genetic and cultural background of its human host. Methyltransferases common to all strains, M. HhaI and M. NaeI, are likely conserved in H. pylori, and may have been present in the bacteria genome since the human diaspora out of Africa. Conclusion This study indicates that some methyltransferases are useful geomarkers, which allow discrimination of bacterial populations, and that can be added to our tools to investigate human migrations.

  14. Female Choice Undermines the Emergence of Strong Sexual Isolation between Locally Adapted Populations of Atlantic Mollies (Poecilia mexicana

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    Claudia Zimmer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Divergent selection between ecologically dissimilar habitats promotes local adaptation, which can lead to reproductive isolation (RI. Populations in the Poecilia mexicana species complex have independently adapted to toxic hydrogen sulfide and show varying degrees of RI. Here, we examined the variation in the mate choice component of prezygotic RI. Mate choice tests across drainages (with stimulus males from another drainage suggest that specific features of the males coupled with a general female preference for yellow color patterns explain the observed variation. Analyses of male body coloration identified the intensity of yellow fin coloration as a strong candidate to explain this pattern, and common-garden rearing suggested heritable population differences. Male sexual ornamentation apparently evolved differently across sulfide-adapted populations, for example because of differences in natural counterselection via predation. The ubiquitous preference for yellow color ornaments in poeciliid females likely undermines the emergence of strong RI, as female discrimination in favor of own males becomes weaker when yellow fin coloration in the respective sulfide ecotype increases. Our study illustrates the complexity of the (partly non-parallel pathways to divergence among replicated ecological gradients. We suggest that future work should identify the genomic loci involved in the pattern reported here, making use of the increasing genomic and transcriptomic datasets available for our study system.

  15. Heterosis and combining ability: a diallel cross of three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuewen; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan; Wu, Fucun

    2010-11-01

    We conducted a complete diallel cross among three geographically isolated populations of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino to determine the heterosis and the combining ability of growth traits at the spat stage. The three populations were collected from Qingdao (Q) and Dalian (D) in China, and Miyagi (M) in Japan. We measured the shell length, shell width, and total weight. The magnitude of the general combining ability (GCA) variance was more pronounced than the specific combining ability (SCA) variance, which is evidenced by both the ratio of the genetic component in total variation and the GCA/SCA values. The component variances of GCA and SCA were significant for all three traits ( P<0.05), indicating the importance of additive and non-additive genetic effects in determining the expression of these traits. The reciprocal maternal effects (RE) were also significant for these traits ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that population D was the best general combiner in breeding programs to improve growth traits. The DM cross had the highest heterosis values for all three traits.

  16. Interaction as 'involvement' in writing for students: a corpus linguistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interaction as 'involvement' in writing for students: a corpus linguistic analysis of a key readability feature. E Hilton Hubbard. Abstract. The rapid change in the demographics of South Africa's tertiary level student population over the last decade — and most specifically the huge increase in those who have to study at a ...

  17. "Knowing Your Students" in the Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn; Saltmarsh, David

    2016-01-01

    The population movement of globalization brings greater cultural and linguistic diversity (CALD) to communities and education systems. To address the growing diversity in school classrooms, beginning teachers need an expanded set of skills and attitudes to support effective learning. It is an expectation today that teachers know their students and…

  18. Linguistic and Psycho-Linguistic Principles of Linguadidactics (theoretical interpretation

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    Liudmila Mauzienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers linguadidactics being closely related to linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics and didactics and applies their theoretical statements and regularities in its scientific studies. Methodology refers to linguistics which investigates the language as a teaching subject. Methodology is linked to psychology in two ways. First of all, it is based on psychology as the teaching process is an intellectual psychical act and its regularities are necessary to know. On the other hand, methodology applies rules of pedagogy that predicts ways of learning and development of language skills. The article emphasizes that sustainable work experience and analysis of scientific research show that teaching process is more effective if consistent patterns of linguistics and psychology are appropriately applied.

  19. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in a pediatric population with isolated left ventricular non-compaction

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    Uribe Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated Left Ventricular Non-compaction (LVNC is an uncommon disorder characterized by the presence of increased trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses. In adults, it has been found that Ejection Fraction (EF decreases significantly as non-compaction severity increases. In children however, there are a few data describing the relation between anatomical characteristics of LVNC and ventricular function. We aimed to find correlations between morphological features and ventricular performance in children and young adolescents with LVNC using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR. Methods 15 children with LVNC (10 males, mean age 9.7 y.o., range 0.6 - 17 y.o., underwent a CMR scan. Different morphological measures such as the Compacted Myocardial Mass (CMM, Non-Compaction (NC to the Compaction (C distance ratio, Compacted Myocardial Area (CMA and Non-Compacted Myocardial Area (NCMA, distribution of NC, and the assessment of ventricular wall motion abnormalities were performed to investigate correlations with ventricular performance. EF was considered normal over 53%. Results The distribution of non-compaction in children was similar to published adult data with a predilection for apical, mid-inferior and mid-lateral segments. Five patients had systolic dysfunction with decreased EF. The number of affected segments was the strongest predictor of systolic dysfunction, all five patients had greater than 9 affected segments. Basal segments were less commonly affected but they were affected only in these five severe cases. Conclusion The segmental pattern of involvement of non-compaction in children is similar to that seen in adults. Systolic dysfunction in children is closely related to the number of affected segments.

  20. Unexpected absence of genetic separation of a highly diverse population of hookworms from geographically isolated hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Benjamin T; Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gongora, Jaime; Gray, Rachael; Šlapeta, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The high natal site fidelity of endangered Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) along the southern Australian coast suggests that their maternally transmitted parasitic species, such as hookworms, will have restricted potential for dispersal. If this is the case, we would expect to find a hookworm haplotype structure corresponding to that of the host mtDNA haplotype structure; that is, restricted among geographically separated colonies. In this study, we used a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene to investigate the diversity of hookworms (Uncinaria sanguinis) in N. cinerea to assess the importance of host distribution and ecology on the evolutionary history of the parasite. High haplotype (h=0.986) and nucleotide diversity (π=0.013) were seen, with 45 unique hookworm mtDNA haplotypes across N. cinerea colonies; with most of the variation (78%) arising from variability within hookworms from individual colonies. This is supported by the low genetic differentiation co-efficient (GST=0.007) and a high gene flow (Nm=35.25) indicating a high migration rate between the populations of hookworms. The haplotype network demonstrated no clear distribution and delineation of haplotypes according to geographical location. Our data rejects the vicariance hypothesis; that female host natal site fidelity and the transmammary route of infection restrict hookworm gene flow between N. cinerea populations and highlights the value of studies of parasite diversity and dispersal to challenge our understanding of parasite and host ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

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    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  2. Isolation and identification of the native population bacteria for bioremediation of high levels of arsenic from water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebelli, Mohammad Ahmadi; Maleki, Afshin; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Kalantar, Enayatollah; Gharibi, Fardin; Darvish, Neda; Tashayoe, Hamidreza

    2018-04-15

    Health of millions of people is threatened by the risk of drinking arsenic-contaminated water worldwide. Arsenic naturally conflicts with the concept of life, but recent studies showed that some microorganisms use toxic minerals as the source of energy. Hence, the researchers should consider the development of cost-effective and highly productive procedures to remove arsenic. The current study was conducted on a native bacterial population of Seyed-Jalaleddin Spring Kurdistan, Iran. Accordingly, the arsenic amount in water samples was measured >500 μg/L by the two field and in vitro methods. Water samples were transferred to laboratory and cultured on chemically defined medium (CDM) with arsenic salts. A total of 14 native arsenic-resistant bacterial strains were isolated and after providing pure culture and performing biochemical tests, the isolates were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16s rRNA genomic sequencing. The potential of bacterial strains for the biotransformation of arsenic was assessed by the qualitative assessment of AgNO 3 method and efficiency of arsenic speciation was determined for the first time by silver diethyldithiocarbamate (SDDC) method with an error of less than 5%. Among the isolated strains, only strain As-11 and strain As-12 showed arsenic transformation characteristics and were registered in NCBI database by the access numbers KY119262 and KY119261, respectively. Results of the current study indicated that strain As-11 had the potential of biotransformation of As(V) to As(III) and vice versa with the efficiency of 78% and 48%, respectively. On the other hand, strain As-12 had the potential for biotransformation of As(V) to As(III) and vice versa with the efficiency of 28% and 45%, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Evidence of Tiger Population Structure and Migration within an Isolated and Fragmented Landscape in Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavanishankar, Maradani; Jaggi, Kanika; Hussain, Shaik Mohammed; Harika, Katakam; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2012-01-01

    Background Majority of the tiger habitat in Indian subcontinent lies within high human density landscapes and is highly sensitive to surrounding pressures. These forests are unable to sustain healthy tiger populations within a tiger-hostile matrix, despite considerable conservation efforts. Ranthambore Tiger Reserve (RTR) in Northwest India is one such isolated forest which is rapidly losing its links with other tiger territories in the Central Indian landscape. Non-invasive genetic sampling for individual identification is a potent technique to understand the relationships between threatened tiger populations in degraded habitats. This study is an attempt to establish tiger movement across a fragmented landscape between RTR and its neighboring forests, Kuno-Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary (KPWLS) and Madhav National Park (MNP) based on non-invasively obtained genetic data. Methods Data from twelve microsatellite loci was used to define population structure and also to identify first generation migrants and admixed individuals in the above forests. Results Population structure was consistent with the Central Indian landscape and we could determine significant gene flow between RTR and MNP. We could identify individuals of admixed ancestry in both these forests, as well as first generation migrants from RTR to KPWLS and MNP. Conclusions Our results indicate reproductive mixing between animals of RTR and MNP in the recent past and migration of animals even today, despite fragmentation and poaching risk, from RTR towards MNP. Substantial conservation efforts should be made to maintain connectivity between these two subpopulations and also higher protection status should be conferred on Madhav National Park. PMID:22253791

  4. Genetic evidence of tiger population structure and migration within an isolated and fragmented landscape in Northwest India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patlolla Anuradha Reddy

    Full Text Available Majority of the tiger habitat in Indian subcontinent lies within high human density landscapes and is highly sensitive to surrounding pressures. These forests are unable to sustain healthy tiger populations within a tiger-hostile matrix, despite considerable conservation efforts. Ranthambore Tiger Reserve (RTR in Northwest India is one such isolated forest which is rapidly losing its links with other tiger territories in the Central Indian landscape. Non-invasive genetic sampling for individual identification is a potent technique to understand the relationships between threatened tiger populations in degraded habitats. This study is an attempt to establish tiger movement across a fragmented landscape between RTR and its neighboring forests, Kuno-Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary (KPWLS and Madhav National Park (MNP based on non-invasively obtained genetic data.Data from twelve microsatellite loci was used to define population structure and also to identify first generation migrants and admixed individuals in the above forests.Population structure was consistent with the Central Indian landscape and we could determine significant gene flow between RTR and MNP. We could identify individuals of admixed ancestry in both these forests, as well as first generation migrants from RTR to KPWLS and MNP.Our results indicate reproductive mixing between animals of RTR and MNP in the recent past and migration of animals even today, despite fragmentation and poaching risk, from RTR towards MNP. Substantial conservation efforts should be made to maintain connectivity between these two subpopulations and also higher protection status should be conferred on Madhav National Park.

  5. Protracted outbreak of severe delta hepatitis: experience in an isolated Amerindian population of the Upper Orinoco basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J R; Mondolfi, A

    1991-01-01

    In an investigation of a 21-year-old epidemic of severe hepatitis, 80 serum samples were studied from two isolated Yanomami Amerindian populations of the Upper Orinoco basin in Venezuela. Of the assayed samples, 30.6% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 53.7% were considered to reflect immunity to infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and only 16.2% were believed to reflect susceptibility to HBV infection; 82.5% of the samples tested positive for any marker of HBV infection. Thirty-one (39.7%) of 78 samples were also positive for antibody to delta antigen, including 91.6% of those positive for HBsAg and 20.9% of those immune to HBV. Our findings provide evidence of a high prevalence of HBV infection in this population. Furthermore, the high prevalence of antibody to delta antigen strongly suggests that coinfections with HBV or superinfections with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) in HBV carriers may be an important factor in the occurrence of an unusually high number of cases of fulminant hepatitis and of chronic liver disease. Serum samples obtained at the beginning of the outbreak 13 years earlier from 36 selected cases in the same population revealed a high rate of HBV infection (96.5%). All six HBsAg carriers from whom enough serum remained to be assayed were positive for antibody to delta antigen. Our findings indicate that the outbreak coincided with the introduction of HDV into a population with an already-high prevalence of HBV infection.

  6. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  7. Data Acquisition and Linguistic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassel, Stephanie; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John; Staderman, William; Olive, Joseph

    All human language technology demands substantial quantities of data for system training and development, plus stable benchmark data to measure ongoing progress. While creation of high quality linguistic resources is both costly and time consuming, such data has the potential to profoundly impact not just a single evaluation program but language technology research in general. GALE's challenging performance targets demand linguistic data on a scale and complexity never before encountered. Resources cover multiple languages (Arabic, Chinese, and English) and multiple genres -- both structured (newswire and broadcast news) and unstructured (web text, including blogs and newsgroups, and broadcast conversation). These resources include significant volumes of monolingual text and speech, parallel text, and transcribed audio combined with multiple layers of linguistic annotation, ranging from word aligned parallel text and Treebanks to rich semantic annotation.

  8. Persian Linguistic and Rhetorical Pathology in The Telegram Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hedayat Mofidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the mobile phone, with its wide range of features, is an inexpensive, easy to use, and most modern communication tool. One of the special applications of smart phones is providing spaces and facilities such as SMS services, virtual networks, and interactive groups that link people and groups from different linguistic and cultural background. In this paper, we tried to study the messages of the Farsi-speaking users of the Telegram communication network from the linguistics perspective. In this regard, the linguistics and rhetorical correspondence of short messages in Persian language was studied by the content-analysis method. The statistical population consisted of 150 messages which contained 327 sentences. These messages were randomly selected from 5 different groups. Persian language used in cyberspace differs from standard Persian language. The first step in correcting communication language errors in cyberspace is to inform the users about the type of errors.

  9. Awakened by cellular stress: isolation and characterization of a novel population of pluripotent stem cells derived from human adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Heneidi

    Full Text Available Advances in stem cell therapy face major clinical limitations, particularly challenged by low rates of post-transplant cell survival. Hostile host factors of the engraftment microenvironment such as hypoxia, nutrition deprivation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species can each contribute to unwanted differentiation or apoptosis. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of a new population of adipose tissue (AT derived pluripotent stem cells, termed Multilineage Differentiating Stress-Enduring (Muse Cells, which are isolated using severe cellular stress conditions, including long-term exposure to the proteolytic enzyme collagenase, serum deprivation, low temperatures and hypoxia. Under these conditions, a highly purified population of Muse-AT cells is isolated without the utilization of cell sorting methods. Muse-AT cells grow in suspension as cell spheres reminiscent of embryonic stem cell clusters. Muse-AT cells are positive for the pluripotency markers SSEA3, TR-1-60, Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox2, and can spontaneously differentiate into mesenchymal, endodermal and ectodermal cell lineages with an efficiency of 23%, 20% and 22%, respectively. When using specific differentiation media, differentiation efficiency is greatly enhanced in Muse-AT cells (82% for mesenchymal, 75% for endodermal and 78% for ectodermal. When compared to adipose stem cells (ASCs, microarray data indicate a substantial up-regulation of Sox2, Oct3/4, and Rex1. Muse-ATs also exhibit gene expression patterns associated with the down-regulation of genes involved in cell death and survival, embryonic development, DNA replication and repair, cell cycle and potential factors related to oncogenecity. Gene expression analysis indicates that Muse-ATs and ASCs are mesenchymal in origin; however, Muse-ATs also express numerous lymphocytic and hematopoietic genes, such as CCR1 and CXCL2, encoding chemokine receptors and ligands involved in stem cell

  10. Population Synthesis of Radio and Y-ray Normal, Isolated Pulsars Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, Caleb; Gonthier, P. L.; Harding, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    We present preliminary results of a population statistics study of normal pulsars (NP) from the Galactic disk using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques optimized according to two different methods. The first method compares the detected and simulated cumulative distributions of series of pulsar characteristics, varying the model parameters to maximize the overall agreement. The advantage of this method is that the distributions do not have to be binned. The other method varies the model parameters to maximize the log of the maximum likelihood obtained from the comparisons of four-two dimensional distributions of radio and γ-ray pulsar characteristics. The advantage of this method is that it provides a confidence region of the model parameter space. The computer code simulates neutron stars at birth using Monte Carlo procedures and evolves them to the present assuming initial spatial, kick velocity, magnetic field, and period distributions. Pulsars are spun down to the present and given radio and γ-ray emission characteristics, implementing an empirical γ-ray luminosity model. A comparison group of radio NPs detected in ten-radio surveys is used to normalize the simulation, adjusting the model radio luminosity to match a birth rate. We include the Fermi pulsars in the forthcoming second pulsar catalog. We present preliminary results comparing the simulated and detected distributions of radio and γ-ray NPs along with a confidence region in the parameter space of the assumed models. We express our gratitude for the generous support of the National Science Foundation (REU and RUI), Fermi Guest Investigator Program and the NASA Astrophysics Theory and Fundamental Program.

  11. Mathematical Approaches to Cognitive Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuluundorj Begz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive linguistics, neuro-cognitive and psychological analysis of human verbal cognition present important area of multidisciplinary research. Mathematical methods and models have been introduced in number of publications with increasing attention to these theories. In this paper we have described some possible applications of mathematical methods to cognitive linguistics. Human verbal perception and verbal mapping deal with dissipative mental structures and symmetric/asymmetric relationships between objects of perception and deep (also surface structures of language. In that’s way methods of tensor analysis are ambitious candidate to be applied to analysis of human verbal thinking and mental space.

  12. Linguistics, human communication and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Fraser, W

    1994-11-01

    Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics have extended our understanding of the abnormal communication seen in psychosis, as well as that of people with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Psycholinguistics has the potential to increase the explanatory power of cognitive and neuropsychological approaches to psychosis and new methods of assessment and therapy are now being developed, based on linguistic theory. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Of 205 relevant articles identified, 65 were selected for review. Greater familiarity with linguistic theory could improve psychiatrists' assessment skills and their understanding of the relevance of human communication to the new cognitive models of psychosis.

  13. On Norms and Linguistic Categories in Linguistic Diversity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Due to globalization there is an increase in the appearances of languages in the multilingual linguistic landscape in urban spaces. Commentators have described this state of affairs as super-, mega- or complex diversity. Mainstream sociolinguists have argued that languages have no fixed boundaries

  14. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  15. Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development. Miami Linguistics Series No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Humboldt, Wilhelm

    Although this edition of Wilhelm von Humboldt's "Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development" is based entirely on the original German edition, the translators (George C. Buck and Frithjof A. Raven) and the publisher have attempted to clarify certain aspects of this work for the modern-day reader. These features include the addition of…

  16. [Predominant polarity in type-I bipolar patients: Study in an isolated population with a high prevalence of mood disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obando, Antonio Carlos Toro; García, Ángela María Agudelo; Rodríguez, María Aurora Gallo; Palacio, Tomás Felipe Restrepo; Ontoso, Miguel Soto; Tamayo, Alejandra; Jaramillo, Carlos Alberto López

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the predominant description of polarity has effects upon early detection and the timely beginning of treatment in patients with bipolar affective disorder (BAD). Cross sectional cut and descriptive study in 101 BAD patients coming from a genetically isolated population from the Colombian Region of Antioquia. The study covered a population of 101 patients with type-I BAD diagnosis, out of which 57,4% met the criteria for maniac polarity (MP), 10,1% exhibited depressive polarity (DP) and 25,7% were classified with Indefinite Polarity (IP). In comparison, MP patients have a lower education level and less starting age, including a greater number of single people. The MP group showed the greatest prevalence of suicide and greater use of cannabinoids and cocaine. Within the DP group there was a strong tendency to cigarette and alcohol consumption. With respect to pharmaceutical drugs consumed by the study patients during their lives, antipsychotics were the most widely used group, followed by lithium and anti-convulsivants. There is high percentage of MP patients who have used antidepressants during their lives. The polarity of the first episode of the disease seems to be a valid predictive parameter concerning the polarity of subsequent episodes; therefore, it works indirectly as a valid predictor of the disease's course. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Social network size can influence linguistic malleability and the propagation of linguistic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri

    2018-07-01

    We learn language from our social environment, but the more sources we have, the less informative each source is, and therefore, the less weight we ascribe its input. According to this principle, people with larger social networks should give less weight to new incoming information, and should therefore be less susceptible to the influence of new speakers. This paper tests this prediction, and shows that speakers with smaller social networks indeed have more malleable linguistic representations. In particular, they are more likely to adjust their lexical boundary following exposure to a new speaker. Experiment 2 uses computational simulations to test whether this greater malleability could lead people with smaller social networks to be important for the propagation of linguistic change despite the fact that they interact with fewer people. The results indicate that when innovators were connected with people with smaller rather than larger social networks, the population exhibited greater and faster diffusion. Together these experiments show that the properties of people's social networks can influence individuals' learning and use as well as linguistic phenomena at the community level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative virulotyping of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolated from broilers, humans on broiler farms and in the general population and UTI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, Angela H A M; Stalenhoef, Janneke E; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Franz, Eelco

    2016-10-15

    During the last decade extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli from food-producing animals, especially from broilers, have become a major public health concern because of the potential transmission of these resistant bacteria or their plasmid-encoded resistance genes to humans. The objective of this study was to compare ESC-resistant E. coli isolates from broilers (n=149), humans in contact with these broilers (n=44), humans in the general population (n=63), and patients with a urinary tract infection (UTI) (n=10) with respect to virulence determinants, phylogenetic groups and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)/plasmidic-AmpC (pAmpC) genes. The most prevalent ESBL/pAmpC genes among isolates from broilers and individuals on broiler farms were bla CTX-M-1 , bla CMY-2 and bla SHV-12 . In isolates from humans in the general population bla CTX-M-1 , bla CTX-M-14 and bla CTX-M-15 were found most frequently, whereas in UTI isolates bla CTX-M-15 predominated. The marker for enteroaggregative E. coli, aggR, was only identified in a broiler and human isolates from the general population. The extraintestinal virulence genes afa and hlyD were exclusively present in human isolates in the general population and UTI isolates. Multivariate analysis, based on ESBL/pAmpC resistance genes, virulence profiles and phylogenetic groups, revealed that most UTI isolates formed a clearly distinct group. Isolates from broilers and humans associated with broiler farms clustered together. In contrast, isolates from the general population showed some overlap with the former two groups but primarily formed a separate group. These results indicate than transmission occurs between broilers and humans on broiler farms, but also indicate that the role of broilers as a source of foodborne transmission of ESC-resistant E. coli to the general population and subsequently causative agents of human urinary tract infections is likely relatively small. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  19. Plant recolonization in the Himalaya from the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Geographical isolation contributed to high population differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2010-09-01

    The Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region (HHM) in the southern and southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is considered an important reservoir and a differentiation center for temperate and alpine plants in the Cenozoic. To reveal how plants responded to the Quaternary climatic oscillations in the QTP, the phylogeographical histories of a few subalpine and alpine plants have been investigated, but nearly all studies used only uniparentally inherited cytoplasmic DNA markers, and only a couple of them included sampling from the Himalaya. In this study, range-wide genetic variation of the Himalayan hemlock (Tsuga dumosa), an important forest species in the HHM, was surveyed using DNA markers from three genomes. All markers revealed genetic depauperation in the Himalaya and richness in the Hengduan Mountains populations. Surprisingly, population differentiation of this wind-pollinated conifer is very high in all three genomes, with few common and many private nuclear gene alleles. These results, together with fossil evidence, clearly indicate that T. dumosa recolonized the Himalaya from the Hengduan Mountains before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), accompanied with strong founder effects, and the influence of the earlier glaciations on demographic histories of the QTP plants could be much stronger than that of the LGM. The strong population differentiation in T. dumosa could be attributed to restricted gene flow caused by the complicated topography in the HHM that formed during the uplift of the QTP, and thus sheds lights on the importance of geographical isolation in the development of high plant species diversity in this biodiversity hotspot. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical Linguistics--Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwell, Pamela

    In the past 20 years, linguistics has gained a prominent position in speech and language pathology in Britain, evolving into a new field, clinical linguistics. It includes three related areas of activity: training of speech pathologists/therapists; professional practice; and research. Linguistics and speech/language pathology have developed as…

  1. Quantitative Research in Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingshun

    2018-01-01

    The research of Systemic Functional Linguistics has been quite in-depth in both theory and practice. However, many linguists hold that Systemic Functional Linguistics has no hypothesis testing or experiments and its research is only qualitative. Analyses of the corpus, intelligent computing and language evolution on the ideological background of…

  2. Evaluating automatically annotated treebanks for linguistic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Bański, P.; Kupietz, M.; Lüngen, H.; Witt, A.; Barbaresi, A.; Biber, H.; Breiteneder, E.; Clematide, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses evaluation methods for linguists to use when employing an automatically annotated treebank as a source of linguistic evidence. While treebanks are usually evaluated with a general measure over all the data, linguistic studies often focus on a particular construction or a group

  3. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  4. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  5. Interdisciplinarity in pragmatics and linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mey, Jacob L.

    2017-01-01

    At the Second International Conference ‘Zeichen und System der Sprache’ (Magdeburg, September 1964), a certain East German professor took the floor during a discussion of one of the linguistic presentations. He started his comments by saying: ‘Als Mathematiker weiß ich zwar von der Sache nichts...

  6. Fuzzy linguistic model for interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.; Adabitabar Firozja, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy method for interpolating of smooth curves was represented. We present a novel approach to interpolate real data by applying the universal approximation method. In proposed method, fuzzy linguistic model (FLM) applied as universal approximation for any nonlinear continuous function. Finally, we give some numerical examples and compare the proposed method with spline method

  7. Desiderata for Linguistic Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of guidelines both for researchers in search of software to be used in linguistic analysis and for programmers designing such software. A description of the intended audience and the types of software under consideration and a review of some relevant literature are followed by a discussion of several important…

  8. Saussurean structuralism and cognitive linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive linguistics (CL) is often regarded as a continuation of Saussurean structuralism. This paper explores the relationship between the two paradigms, focussing on the connection between semantics and views on the language-thought relationship. As it turns out, the similarity in this respect

  9. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333450; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  10. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  11. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  12. 140 CIRCULAR INTERACTION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy. Although a country or administrative district should have one or more official languages for obvious reasons, Nelde (1991) proposes that the ... circular interaction between linguistic departments and language departments. Finding an answer to' Plato's abovementioned problem entails that as many languages as ...

  13. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  14. Applied Linguistics in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    This paper traces the three major developmental strands that converged to contribute to the definition of the applied linguistics field in the Philippines: the institution and capacity-building work supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations; the forging of a vibrant consortium among three Filipino institutions of higher education to offer…

  15. Evolution of premating reproductive isolation among conspecific populations of the sea rock-pool beetle Ochthebius urbanelliae driven by reinforcing natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porretta, Daniele; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2012-04-01

    How natural selection might be involved in speciation remains a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. When two or more species co-occur in the same areas, natural selection may favor divergence in mating traits. By acting in sympatric but not allopatric populations, natural selection can also affect mate choice within species and ultimately initiate speciation among conspecific populations. Here, we address this potential effect in the sea rock-pool beetles Ochthebius quadricollis and O. urbanelliae. The two species, which inhabit the Mediterranean coasts, co-occurr syntopically in an area along the Italian Tyrrhenian coast and completed reproductive isolation by reinforcement. In this article, through mating trials under laboratory conditions between conspecific populations, we found in O. quadricollis no deviations from random mating. Conversely, in O. urbanelliae, we found a clear pattern of premating isolation between the reinforced populations sympatric with O. quadricollis and those nonreinforced allopatric. This pattern is consistent with the view that natural selection, which completed the reproductive isolation between the two species in sympatry, led incidentally also to partial premating reproductive isolation (I(PSI) estimator from 0.683 to 0.792) between conspecific populations of O. urbanelliae. This case study supports an until recently underappreciated role of natural selection resulting from species interactions in initiating speciation. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Population Genetic Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated From the Pig and Pork Production Chain in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Félix

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous pathogenic bacterium, transmissible to humans through the consumption of contaminated food. The pork production sector has been hit hard by a series of L. monocytogenes-related food poisoning outbreaks in France. An overview of the diversity of strains circulating at all levels of the pork production chain, from pig farming (PF to finished food products (FFP, is needed to identify the contamination routes and improve food safety. Until now, no typing data has been available on strains isolated across the entire pig and pork production chain. Here, we analyzed the population genetic structure of 687 L. monocytogenes strains isolated over the last 20 years in virtually all the French départements from three compartments of this production sector: PF, the food processing environment (FPE, and FFP. The genetic structure was described based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST clonal complexes (CCs. The CCs were obtained by mapping the PFGE profiles of the strains. The distribution of CCs was compared firstly between the three compartments and then with CCs obtained from 1106 strains isolated from other food production sectors in France. The predominant CCs of pig and pork strains were not equally distributed among the three compartments: the CC37, CC59, and CC77 strains, rarely found in FPE and FFP, were prevalent in PF. The two most prevalent CCs in the FPE and FFP compartments, CC9 and CC121, were rarely or never detected in PF. No CC was exclusively associated with the pork sector. Three CCs (CC5, CC6, and CC2 were considered ubiquitous, because they were observed in comparable proportions in all food production sectors. The two most prevalent CCs in all sectors were CC9 and CC121, but their distribution was disparate. CC9 was associated with meat products and food products combining several food categories, whereas CC121 was not associated with any given sector. Based on these results, CC121 is likely able

  17. Population Genetic Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated From the Pig and Pork Production Chain in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Benjamin; Feurer, Carole; Maillet, Aurelien; Guillier, Laurent; Boscher, Evelyne; Kerouanton, Annaëlle; Denis, Martine; Roussel, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous pathogenic bacterium, transmissible to humans through the consumption of contaminated food. The pork production sector has been hit hard by a series of L. monocytogenes-related food poisoning outbreaks in France. An overview of the diversity of strains circulating at all levels of the pork production chain, from pig farming (PF) to finished food products (FFP), is needed to identify the contamination routes and improve food safety. Until now, no typing data has been available on strains isolated across the entire pig and pork production chain. Here, we analyzed the population genetic structure of 687 L. monocytogenes strains isolated over the last 20 years in virtually all the French départements from three compartments of this production sector: PF, the food processing environment (FPE), and FFP. The genetic structure was described based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) clonal complexes (CCs). The CCs were obtained by mapping the PFGE profiles of the strains. The distribution of CCs was compared firstly between the three compartments and then with CCs obtained from 1106 strains isolated from other food production sectors in France. The predominant CCs of pig and pork strains were not equally distributed among the three compartments: the CC37, CC59, and CC77 strains, rarely found in FPE and FFP, were prevalent in PF. The two most prevalent CCs in the FPE and FFP compartments, CC9 and CC121, were rarely or never detected in PF. No CC was exclusively associated with the pork sector. Three CCs (CC5, CC6, and CC2) were considered ubiquitous, because they were observed in comparable proportions in all food production sectors. The two most prevalent CCs in all sectors were CC9 and CC121, but their distribution was disparate. CC9 was associated with meat products and food products combining several food categories, whereas CC121 was not associated with any given sector. Based on these results, CC121 is likely able to colonize a

  18. “Hindi Bayani/Not a Hero”: The Linguistic Landscape of Protest in Manila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Monje

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the linguistic landscape of Manila during a protest march in November 2016 in response to the burial of deposed president Ferdinand Marcos at the Libingan ng mga Bayani (Heroes’ Cemetery. This article is situated among linguistic landscape of protest research (Kasanga, 2014; Seals, 2011; Shiri, 2015 where data is composed of mobile posters, placards, banners, and other ‘unfixed’ signs, including texts on bodies, t-shirts, umbrellas, and rocks. Following Sebba (2010, this article argues that both ‘fixed’ linguistic landscape and ‘mobile’ public texts are indices of the linguistic composition of cities, linguistic diversity, and ethnolinguistic vitality (Landry & Bourhis, 1997. Through a qualitative analysis of selected pictures produced during the protest march and uploaded onto social media, the multilingual nature of Manila is rendered salient and visible, albeit temporarily, and strategies of dissent are reflective of the language of the millennials who populated the protests.

  19. A Fuzzy Linguistic Methodology to Deal With Unbalanced Linguistic Term Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, F.; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique; Martinez, L.

    2008-01-01

    Many real problems dealing with qualitative aspects use linguistic approaches to assess such aspects. In most of these problems, a uniform and symmetrical distribution of the linguistic term sets for linguistic modeling is assumed. However, there exist problems whose assessments need to be represented by means of unbalanced linguistic term sets, i.e., using term sets that are not uniformly and symmetrically distributed. The use of linguistic variables implies processes of computing with words...

  20. Genetic differentiation among geographically isolated populations of Criollo cattle and their divergence from other Bos taurus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, N D; Rios, J; Erosa, G; Remmenga, M D; Hawkins, D E

    2000-09-01

    The microsatellites HEL5, HEL9, INRA063, and BM2113 were used to analyze genetic similarities and differences of geographically isolated Criollo cattle herds in Mexico. Criollo cattle from five counties within the state of Chihuahua and one county from the state of Tamaulipas (n = 60) were sampled. The five counties in Chihuahua included Cerocahui (n = 14), Chinipas (n = 10), Guachochi (n = 15), Morelos (n = 30), and Temoris (n = 9). Samples of DNA were amplified by PCR and separated on a 7% polyacrylamide gel. Microsatellite size was established by comparison to M13mp18 DNA ladder and a documented set of four bovine controls. Allele frequencies and genotypic deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested using the GENEPOP program. Eleven alleles were generated at HEL5 for the populations sampled (149 to 169 bp). Allele frequencies were greatest for the 163-bp allele in Criollo cattle from Cerocahui, Chinipas, Moralos, and Tamaulipas (0.23 to 0.5). Cattle from Guachochi had an allele frequency of 0.38 for the 151-bp allele, and cattle from Temoris had an allele frequency of 0.25 for the 149- and 167-bp alleles, with no 163-bp allele. Amplification with HEL9 produced 12 alleles (145, 149 to 169 bp) and showed common high-frequency alleles at 149, 157, and 159 bp for animals from all regions. The Chinipas population showed a moderate allele frequency at 145 bp; no other regions contained this allele. For INRA063 there were five alleles with 182 and 184 bp in low frequency. For BM2113 there were 10 alleles in the Criollo cattle (125 to 143 bp), with an equal distribution of frequencies for all alleles. In two regions, Guachochi and Morelos, genotypic frequencies deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cattle from the Temoris region were genetically most distant from Criollo cattle of the other five regions.

  1. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc.), but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten , or Turkish korkmak 'fear, be afraid' and korkutmak 'frighten, scare', or Finnish istua 'sit' and istutta 'seat (someone)', or Spanish sentarse 'sit down' and sentar 'seat (someone)' is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where 'seat' is derived from 'sit' by addition of a suffix-is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  2. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an e...

  3. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc., but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten, or Turkish korkmak ‘fear, be afraid’ and korkutmak ‘frighten, scare’, or Finnish istua ‘sit’ and istutta ‘seat (someone’, or Spanish sentarse ‘sit down’ and sentar ‘seat (someone’ is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where ‘seat’ is derived from ‘sit’ by addition of a suffix—is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  4. Common variant in myocilin gene is associated with high myopia in isolated population of Korcula Island, Croatia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vatavuk, Zoran

    2012-01-31

    AIM: To study the association between genetic variants in myocilin and collagen type I alpha 1 genes and high myopia in an isolated island population. METHODS: A total of 944 examinees from the genetic epidemiology study conducted on the island of Korcula, Croatia, were included in the study. We selected 2 short nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) available in our genome-wide scan set of SNPs that were previously associated with high myopia and used them to replicate previous claims of possible association. RESULTS: Nineteen cases of high myopia, defined as the refraction of <\\/=-6.00 diopters, were identified and included in the analysis. We showed that rs2075555 in the COL1A1 gene was not associated with high myopia. In contrast, rs2421853 in the myocilin gene was significantly associated in both bivariate (P=0.006) and age- and sex-adjusted analysis (P=0.049). CONCLUSION: Myocilin seems to be a very strong candidate for explaining some of the pathophysiological pathways leading to the development of both glaucoma and high myopia. As our finding was obtained in a relatively under-powered sample, further research and replication of these results is needed.

  5. Clonality Analysis of Helicobacter pylori in Patients Isolated from Several Biopsy Specimens and Gastric Juice in a Japanese Urban Population by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariaki Toita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The number of Helicobacter pylori clones infecting a single host has been discussed in numerous reports. The number has been suggested to vary depending on the regions in the world. Aim. The purpose of this study was to examine the number of clones infecting a single host in a Japanese urban population. Materials and Methods. Thirty-one Japanese patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in this study. H. pylori isolates (total 104 strains were obtained from biopsy specimens (antrum, corpus, and duodenum and gastric juice. Clonal diversity was examined by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting method. Results. The RAPD fingerprinting patterns of isolates from each patient were identical or very similar. And the isolates obtained from several patients with 5- to 9-year intervals showed identical or very similar RAPD patterns. Conclusion. Each Japanese individual of an urban population is predominantly infected with a single H. pylori clone.

  6. Isolated transverse process fractures of the subaxial cervical spine: a clinically insignificant injury or not?: a prospective, longitudinal analysis in a consecutive high-energy blunt trauma population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, M.; Middendorp, J.J. van; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective single cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence, associated injuries, treatment outcomes and associated adverse events of isolated transverse process fractures (TPFs) of the subaxial cervical spine in a high-energy blunt trauma population. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND

  7. A genome-wide search for genes involved in type 2 diabetes in a recently genetically isolated population from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); N. Vaessen (Norbert); P. Heutink (Peter); J. Pullen (Jan); P.J.L.M. Snijders (Pieter); A. Hofman (Albert); L.A. Sandkuijl (Lodewijk); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); S. Bennett (Simon); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M. Edwards (Mark)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractMultiple genes, interacting with the environment, contribute to the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. We performed a genome-wide search to localize type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in a recently genetically isolated population in the Netherlands. We identified 79 nuclear families

  8. High-resolution mitochondrial DNA analysis sheds light on human diversity, cultural interactions, and population mobility in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Leonardo; Barbieri, Chiara; Barreto, Guillermo; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2018-02-01

    Northwestern Amazonia (NWA) is a center of high linguistic and cultural diversity. Several language families and linguistic isolates occur in this region, as well as different subsistence patterns, with some groups being foragers and others agriculturalists. In addition, speakers of Eastern Tukanoan languages are known for practicing linguistic exogamy, a marriage system in which partners are taken from different language groups. In this study, we use high-resolution mitochondrial DNA sequencing to investigate the impact of this linguistic and cultural diversity on the genetic relationships and population structure of NWA groups. We collected saliva samples from individuals representing 40 different NWA ethnolinguistic groups and sequenced 439 complete mitochondrial genomes to an average coverage of 1,030×. The mtDNA data revealed that NWA populations have high genetic diversity with extensive sharing of haplotypes among groups. Moreover, groups who practice linguistic exogamy have higher genetic diversity, while the foraging Nukak have lower genetic diversity. We also find that rivers play a more important role than either geography or language affiliation in structuring the genetic relationships of populations. Contrary to the view of NWA as a pristine area inhabited by small human populations living in isolation, our data support a view of high diversity and contact among different ethnolinguistic groups, with movement along rivers probably facilitating this contact. Additionally, we provide evidence for the impact of cultural practices, such as linguistic exogamy, on patterns of genetic variation. Overall, this study provides new data and insights into a remote and little-studied region of the world. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Adaptive Genetic Divergence Despite Significant Isolation-by-Distance in Populations of Taiwan Cow-Tail Fir (Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kai-Ming; Chang, Chung-Te; Chung, Jeng-Der; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hwang, Shih-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) is a tool for delivering genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for non-model organisms useful in resolving fine-scale population structure and detecting signatures of selection. This study performs population genetic analysis, based on ddRADseq data, of a coniferous species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana , disjunctly distributed in northern and southern Taiwan, for investigation of population adaptive divergence in response to environmental heterogeneity. A total of 13,914 SNPs were detected and used to assess genetic diversity, F ST outlier detection, population genetic structure, and individual assignments of five populations (62 individuals) of K. davidiana var. formosana . Principal component analysis (PCA), individual assignments, and the neighbor-joining tree were successful in differentiating individuals between northern and southern populations of K. davidiana var. formosana , but apparent gene flow between the southern DW30 population and northern populations was also revealed. Fifteen of 23 highly differentiated SNPs identified were found to be strongly associated with environmental variables, suggesting isolation-by-environment (IBE). However, multiple matrix regression with randomization analysis revealed strong IBE as well as significant isolation-by-distance. Environmental impacts on divergence were found between populations of the North and South regions and also between the two southern neighboring populations. BLASTN annotation of the sequences flanking outlier SNPs gave significant hits for three of 23 markers that might have biological relevance to mitochondrial homeostasis involved in the survival of locally adapted lineages. Species delimitation between K. davidiana var. formosana and its ancestor, K. davidiana , was also examined (72 individuals). This study has produced highly informative population genomic data for the understanding of population

  10. Adaptive Genetic Divergence Despite Significant Isolation-by-Distance in Populations of Taiwan Cow-Tail Fir (Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Ming Shih

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq is a tool for delivering genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for non-model organisms useful in resolving fine-scale population structure and detecting signatures of selection. This study performs population genetic analysis, based on ddRADseq data, of a coniferous species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana, disjunctly distributed in northern and southern Taiwan, for investigation of population adaptive divergence in response to environmental heterogeneity. A total of 13,914 SNPs were detected and used to assess genetic diversity, FST outlier detection, population genetic structure, and individual assignments of five populations (62 individuals of K. davidiana var. formosana. Principal component analysis (PCA, individual assignments, and the neighbor-joining tree were successful in differentiating individuals between northern and southern populations of K. davidiana var. formosana, but apparent gene flow between the southern DW30 population and northern populations was also revealed. Fifteen of 23 highly differentiated SNPs identified were found to be strongly associated with environmental variables, suggesting isolation-by-environment (IBE. However, multiple matrix regression with randomization analysis revealed strong IBE as well as significant isolation-by-distance. Environmental impacts on divergence were found between populations of the North and South regions and also between the two southern neighboring populations. BLASTN annotation of the sequences flanking outlier SNPs gave significant hits for three of 23 markers that might have biological relevance to mitochondrial homeostasis involved in the survival of locally adapted lineages. Species delimitation between K. davidiana var. formosana and its ancestor, K. davidiana, was also examined (72 individuals. This study has produced highly informative population genomic data for the understanding of

  11. A primer in macromolecular linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, David B

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English le...... the economic and geopolitical agenda behind this English teaching business, there is clear evidence of linguistic imperialism in the functions of this global professional service. These activities serve to strengthen Western interests.......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  13. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  14. Unravelling the influence of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on cognitive-linguistic processing: a comparative group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Caroline H S; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive-linguistic deficits often accompany traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can negatively impact communicative competency. The linguistic sequelae underpinning mild TBI (MTBI) remain largely unexplored in contemporary literature. The present research methods aim to provide group evidence pertaining to the influence of MTBI on linguistic and higher-level language processing. Extrapolating on the findings of recent case reports, it is hypothesized that performance of the MTBI patients will be significantly reduced compared to normal controls performance on the employed high-level linguistic tasks. Sixteen patients with MTBI and 16 age- and education-matched normal control participants were assessed using a comprehensive battery of cognitive-linguistic assessments. The results demonstrated statistically significant differences between MTBI and normal control group performance across a number of higher-level linguistic, general cognitive and general language tasks. MTBI group performance was significantly lower than the normal control group on tasks requiring complex lexical semantic operations and memory demands, including: Recall, organization, making inferences, naming and perception/discrimination. These outcomes confer that post-MTBI, cognitive, high-level language and isolated general language performance (e.g. naming) is significantly reduced in MTBI patients, compared to normal controls. Furthermore, the detailed cognitive-linguistic profile offered provides a necessary direction for the identification of areas of linguistic decline in MTBI and targets for therapeutic intervention of impaired cognitive-linguistic processes to ultimately improve communicative outcomes in MTBI.

  15. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Movie Legally Multiplex Heralded As Linchpin To Growth The Shape of Cinema , Transformed At the Click of a Mouse A Peaceful Crew Puts Muppets...Linguistic Representation of Multiple Languages The formalism of WordNet has been applied to many languages from different language families, e.g. Japanese ...could be also share information gleaned from 100 reviews on Amazon.com’s Japanese and German language sites. 6.2.3 Learning Deeper Structures and Testing

  16. Formal linguistics as a cue to demographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Giuseppe; Ceolin, Andrea; Ecay, Aaron; Ghirotto, Silvia; Guardiano, Cristina; Irimia, Monica-Alexandrina; Michelioudakis, Dimitris; Radkevich, Nina; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Barbujani, Guido

    2016-06-20

    Beyond its theoretical success, the development of molecular genetics has brought about the possibility of extraordinary progress in the study of classification and in the inference of the evolutionary history of many species and populations. A major step forward was represented by the availability of extremely large sets of molecular data suited to quantitative and computational treatments. In this paper, we argue that even in cognitive sciences, purely theoretical progress in a discipline such as linguistics may have analogous impact. Thus, exactly on the model of molecular biology, we propose to unify two traditionally unrelated lines of linguistic investigation: 1) the formal study of syntactic variation (parameter theory) in the biolinguistic program; 2) the reconstruction of relatedness among languages (phylogenetic taxonomy). The results of our linguistic analysis have thus been plotted against data from population genetics and the correlations have turned out to be largely significant: given a non-trivial set of languages/populations, the description of their variation provided by the comparison of systematic parametric analysis and molecular anthropology informatively recapitulates their history and relationships. As a result, we can claim that the reality of some parametric model of the language faculty and language acquisition/transmission (more broadly of generative grammar) receives strong and original support from its historical heuristic power. Then, on these grounds, we can begin testing Darwin's prediction that, when properly generated, the trees of human populations and of their languages should eventually turn out to be significantly parallel.

  17. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  18. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  19. Characterisation of virulence genes in methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a paediatric population in a university hospital of Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Natalia Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Virulence and antibiotic resistance are significant determinants of the types of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and paediatric groups remain among the most commonly affected populations. The goal of this study was to characterise virulence genes of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains isolated from a paediatric population of a Colombian University Hospital during 2009. Sixty MSSA and MRSA isolates were obtained from paediatric patients between zero-14 years. We identified the genes encoding virulence factors, which included Panton-Valentine leucocidine (PVL, staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, exfoliative toxins A and B and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Typing of the staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec was performed in MRSA strains. The virulence genes were more diverse and frequent in MSSA than in MRSA isolates (83% vs. 73%. MRSA strains harboured SCCmec types IVc (60%, I (30%, IVa (7% and V (3%. SCCmec type IVc isolates frequently carried the PVL encoding genes and harboured virulence determinants resembling susceptible strains while SCCmec type I isolates were often negative. PVL was not exclusive to skin and soft tissue infections. As previously suggested, these differences in the distribution of virulence factor genes may be due to the fitness cost associated with methicillin resistance.

  20. Characterisation of virulence genes in methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a paediatric population in a university hospital of Medellín, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Judy Natalia; Ocampo, Ana María; Vanegas, Johanna Marcela; Rodríguez, Erika Andrea; Garcés, Carlos Guillermo; Patiño, Luz Adriana; Ospina, Sigifredo; Correa, Margarita María

    2011-12-01

    Virulence and antibiotic resistance are significant determinants of the types of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and paediatric groups remain among the most commonly affected populations. The goal of this study was to characterise virulence genes of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from a paediatric population of a Colombian University Hospital during 2009. Sixty MSSA and MRSA isolates were obtained from paediatric patients between zero-14 years. We identified the genes encoding virulence factors, which included Panton-Valentine leucocidine (PVL), staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, exfoliative toxins A and B and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Typing of the staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) was performed in MRSA strains. The virulence genes were more diverse and frequent in MSSA than in MRSA isolates (83% vs. 73%). MRSA strains harboured SCCmec types IVc (60%), I (30%), IVa (7%) and V (3%). SCCmec type IVc isolates frequently carried the PVL encoding genes and harboured virulence determinants resembling susceptible strains while SCCmec type I isolates were often negative. PVL was not exclusive to skin and soft tissue infections. As previously suggested, these differences in the distribution of virulence factor genes may be due to the fitness cost associated with methicillin resistance.

  1. Isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis: Prevalence, symptomatology and associated scapholunate ligament disruption in a population presenting to an accident and emergency department with acute wrist injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginson, Antony P.; Braybrook, Jason; Williams, Stephen; Finlay, David

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis in a population presenting to an Accident and Emergency Department of Leicester Royal Infirmary with acute wrist injuries. Also to identify the presence of scapholunate ligament disruption in this patient group and quantify symptoms and loss of function in terms of the modified system of Green and O'Brien, a recognized clinical scoring system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1711 radiographs of patients attending the Accident and Emergency Department were prospectively reviewed over a 5-month period. Those patients with isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis were invited for clinical review. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were identified with isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis. Two had a poor Green and O'Brien score and evidence of scapholunate ligament disruption (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis has a prevalence of 1% in a population presenting to an Accident and Emergency Department with acute wrist injuries over the age of 30 years. Isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis may be asymptomatic even though the changes in the joint are severe. Scapholunate ligament disruption is associated with a poor Green and O'Brien score, but is not present in the majority of cases. Higginson, A.P. et al. (2001)

  2. Isolation and Identification of the Indigenous Yeast Population during Spontaneous Fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) Grape Must

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Eder, María L.; Reynoso, Cristina; Lauret, Santiago C.; Rosa, Alberto L.

    2017-01-01

    Grape must harbors a complex community of yeast species responsible for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Although there are detailed studies on the microbiota of Vitis vinifera L. grapes, less is known about the diversity and behavior of yeast communities present on fermenting grape must from other species of Vitis. In this work, we used a culture-dependent method to study the identity and dynamics of the indigenous yeast population present during the spontaneous fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) grape must. Alcoholic fermentation was conducted using standard enological practices, and the associated non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae yeast community was analyzed using selective growth media and 5.8-ITS DNA sequencing. Candida californica, Candida hellenica, Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Hanseniaspora vineae were the main non-Saccharomyces species identified on Isabella fermenting must. Issatchenkia hanoiensis, a yeast species rarely found on Vitis vinifera L. grapes, was also recognized on Isabella grape must. Candida azymoides, Candida californica and Pichia cecembensis, identified in this work on Isabella fermenting must, have not previously been found on Vitis vinifera L. grape must. Interestingly, C. azymoides, I. hanoiensis and P. cecembensis have recently been isolated from the surface of Vitis labrusca L. grapes from vineyards in the Azores archipelago, suggesting that specific Vitis-yeast species associations are formed independently of geographic origin. We suggest that C. azymoides, C. californica, and P. cecembensis are yeast species preferentially associated with Vitis labrusca L. grapes. Specific biological interactions between grapevines and yeast species may underlie the assembly of differential Vitis-microbial communities. PMID:28424672

  3. Birth outcomes of cases with isolated atrial septal defect type II--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2013-07-01

    In general, epidemiological studies have evaluated cases with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities together. The aim of this study is to describe the birth outcomes of cases with isolated/single atrial septal defect type II (ASD-II, i.e. only a fossa ovalis defect) after surgical correction or lethal outcome in the light of maternal sociodemographic data. Comparison of birth outcomes and maternal characteristics of cases with ASD-II and controls without defect. The population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. Hungarian newborn infants with or without ASD-II. Medically recorded birth outcomes, maternal age and birth order were evaluated. Marital and employment status was based on maternal information. The lifestyle factors were analyzed in a subsample of mothers visited at home based on a personal interview with mothers and their close relatives, and the family consensus was accepted. Mean gestational age at delivery and birthweight, rate of preterm birth and low birthweight, maternal age, birth order, marital and employment status. The evaluation of 471 cases with ASD-II and 38,151 controls without any defects showed a female excess in cases with ASD-II, having shorter gestational age and lower mean birthweight, and thus a higher rate of preterm births and low birthweight. Intrauterine growth restriction and shorter gestational age were found in cases with ASD-II, particularly in female children. These factors may have a general developmental process in which there was not closure of the foramen ovale, thus echocardiographic screening of these babies might be of value. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Familial Aggregation between the 14th and 21st Century and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in an Isolated Dutch Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees L de Visser

    Full Text Available The development of type 2 diabetes results from an interaction of hereditary factors and environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of interrelatedness to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in an isolated Dutch population.A genealogical database from inhabitants living on the former island Urk between the 14th and 21st century was constructed. In a case-control study, effects of interrelatedness and the risk of type 2 diabetes were estimated with Kinship Coefficients (KCs. Relative risks in first, second, and third degree relatives and spouses of inhabitants with type 2 diabetes were compared to matched controls.Patients with type 2 diabetes were more interrelated, expressed by a higher KC compared to controls (7.2 vs. 5.2, p=0.001. First, second and third degree relatives had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Second degree relatives had a similar risk,1.7 (1.5-2.0 as third degree relatives,1.8 (1.5-2.2. Spouses of patients with diabetes had a 3.4 (2.7-4.4 higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.Interrelatedness was higher among inhabitants with type 2 diabetes compared to controls. This differences extended beyond the nuclear family, thereby supporting the hypothesis that interrelatedness contributed to the development of type 2 diabetes on Urk. However, the size of this effect was small and the patterns of risk in first, second and third degree relatives suggested that factors other than interrelatedness were the main contributors to the development of type 2 diabetes on Urk.

  5. Could High Mental Demands at Work Offset the Adverse Association Between Social Isolation and Cognitive Functioning? Results of the Population-Based LIFE-Adult-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Francisca S; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, A Veronica; Engel, Christoph; Löffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2017-11-01

    The study investigated whether high mental demands at work, which have shown to promote a good cognitive functioning in old age, could offset the adverse association between social isolation and cognitive functioning. Based on data from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study, the association between cognitive functioning (Verbal Fluency Test, Trail Making Test B) and social isolation (Lubben Social Network Scale) as well as mental demands at work (O*NET database) was analyzed via linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, and sampling weights. Cognitive functioning was significantly lower in socially isolated individuals and in individuals working in low mental demands jobs-even in old age after retirement and even after taking into account the educational level. An interaction effect suggested stronger effects of mental demands at work in socially isolated than nonisolated individuals. The findings suggest that working in high mental-demand jobs could offset the adverse association between social isolation and cognitive functioning. Further research should evaluate how interventions that target social isolation and enhance mentally demanding activities promote a good cognitive functioning in old age. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chasing sympatric speciation: The relative importance and genetic basis of prezygotic isolation barriers in diverging populations of Spodoptera frugiperda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hänniger, S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mechanisms underlying three prezygotic isolation barriers between the corn- and the rice-strain of the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda to determine possible interactions between these isolation barriers and their relative importance for sympatric speciation. First, we

  7. Causal correlations between genes and linguistic features: The mechanism of gradual language evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Dediu, D.

    2008-01-01

    The causal correlations between human genetic variants and linguistic (typological) features could represent the mechanism required for gradual, accretionary models of language evolution. The causal link is mediated by the process of cultural transmission of language across generations in a population of genetically biased individuals. The particular case of Tone, ASPM and Microcephalin is discussed as an illustration. It is proposed that this type of genetically-influenced linguistic bias, c...

  8. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...

  9. LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY AT PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOK: SOME CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gaida Winch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed how linguistic diversity is dealt with in a Portuguese textbook, where two chapters are designated to it. In these, it is pointed out that speaker ethnic origin can be manifested differently by: morphological changes; use of foreign expressions; accent in oral language. In synthesis, the linguistic diversity is dealt with through activities of identification and reproduction of linguistic varieties to be carried out by the students.

  10. Genetic structure in contemporary south Tyrolean isolated populations revealed by analysis of Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Irene; Mueller, Jakob C; Stefanov, Stefan A; De Grandi, Alessandro; Volpato, Claudia Beu; Pinggera, Gerd K; Mayr, Agnes; Ogriseg, Martin; Ploner, Franz; Meitinger, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2006-08-01

    Most of the inhabitants of South Tyrol in the eastern Italian Alps can be considered isolated populations because of their physical separation by mountain barriers and their sociocultural heritage. We analyzed the genetic structure of South Tyrolean populations using three types of genetic markers: Y-chromosome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and autosomal Alu markers. Using random samples taken from the populations of Val Venosta, Val Pusteria, Val Isarco, Val Badia, and Val Gardena, we calculated genetic diversity within and among the populations. Microsatellite diversity and unique event polymorphism diversity (on the Y chromosome) were substantially lower in the Ladin-speaking population of Val Badia compared to the neighboring German-speaking populations. In contrast, the genetic diversity of mtDNA haplotypes was lowest for the upper Val Venosta and Val Pusteria. These data suggest a low effective population size, or little admixture, for the gene pool of the Ladin-speaking population from Val Badia. Interestingly, this is more pronounced for Ladin males than for Ladin females. For the pattern of genetic Alu variation, both Ladin samples (Val Gardena and Val Badia) are among the samples with the lowest diversity. An admixture analysis of one German-speaking valley (Val Venosta) indicates a relatively high genetic contribution of Ladin origin. The reduced genetic diversity and a high genetic differentiation in the Rhaetoroman- and German-speaking South Tyrolean populations may constitute an important basis for future medical genetic research and gene mapping studies in South Tyrol.

  11. Childhood physical maltreatment, perceived social isolation, and internalizing symptoms: a longitudinal, three-wave, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    A number of cross-sectional studies have consistently shown a correlation between childhood physical maltreatment, perceived social isolation and internalizing symptoms. Using a longitudinal, three-wave design, this study sought to assess the mediating role of perceived social isolation in adulthood in the association between childhood physical maltreatment and internalizing symptoms in adulthood. The study has a three-wave design. We used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4530), a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Perceived social isolation was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years, and internalizing symptoms were measured at a mean age of 61.7 years. The difference-in-coefficients method was used to assess the indirect effects and the proportion (%) of mediated effects. Childhood physical maltreatment was associated with an up to 68% [relative risk (RR) = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-2.13] higher risk of perceived social isolation in adulthood. Childhood physical maltreatment and perceived social isolation in adulthood were associated with greater levels of internalizing symptoms in adulthood (p social isolation in adulthood mediated up to 14.89% (p social isolation into account when considering the impact of childhood physical maltreatment on internalizing symptoms.

  12. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  13. English linguistic purism: history, development, criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishechko Ovsanna Savvichna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic purism as an area of linguistic analysis describes the practices of identification and acknowledgement of a certain language variety as more structurally advanced as compared to its other varieties. Linguistic protection is associated with preservation of some abstract, classical, conservative linguistic ideal and performs the regulatory function, above all. The puristic approach to the development of the English language has been subjected to heated debate for several centuries and is reflected in both scientific research and literary texts. Supporters of purification of the English language champion the idea of protection of “pure language”. The idea, however, is actively criticized by opponents.

  14. The Grammar of Linguistic Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new typology of linguistic signs primarily based on Peirce’s sign conception. It is demonstrated that the fundamental simple sign, the symbolic nominal lexeme, has an arbitrary relationship to its object in order to make it omnipotent, that is, open to various possible...... objects (ensured by nouns) and situations (ensured by the verb)--the latter corresponding to Peirce's rhematic sign-- and in addition to the level of assertion--corresponding to Peirce's dicentic sign-- there is a third level at which verbal categories collaborate in order to make a deduction, abduction...... or induction-- corresponding to Peirce's argumentative signs....

  15. Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

    Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

  16. Measuring Linguistic Empathy: An Experimental Approach to Connecting Linguistic and Social Psychological Notions of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…

  17. Epidemiological trends and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of Shigella spp. isolated from stool cultures in two different populations in Southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Itai; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Leibovitz, Eugene; Broides, Arnon

    2014-03-01

    Southern Israel is inhabited by Bedouins, living in conditions similar to developing countries and Jews, living in conditions similar to developed countries. We determined the epidemiology of Shigella spp. in these populations. We retrospectively reviewed Shigella spp. stool isolations between 2005-2009. Overall, 3295 isolates were analyzed. S. sonnei was isolated in 2057/3295 (62.4%) and S. flexneri in 1058 (32.1%). S. sonnei was isolated in 1567/1707 (91.8%) from Jewish patients and S. flexneri in 931/1542 (60.4%) from Bedouin patients. Ampicillin resistance increased linearly from 217/373 (58.2%) in 2005 to 186/256 (72.7%) in 2009, (P Shigella spp. to ampicilin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were found in Jewish patients: 1527/1706 (89.5%) versus 977/1542 (63.4%) (P Shigella spp. infections can differ in populations residing in the same geographical area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multilocus sequence typing of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale isolated from pigeons and birds of prey revealed new insights into its population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Thieme

    2016-12-01

    The MLST results of ORT isolated from pigeons and birds of prey likely reflect evolutionary bacterial host adaptations but might also indicate a potential for interspecies transmission. Definite conclusions should be drawn carefully as so far a few strains from non-galliform birds were analyzed by MLST. By extending the number of ORT isolates and the range of potential avian hosts, the MLST database can provide a valuable resource in understanding transmission dynamics.

  19. Heterozygosity in an isolated population of a large mammal founded by four individuals is predicted by an individual-based genetic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Kekkonen

    Full Text Available Within-population genetic diversity is expected to be dramatically reduced if a population is founded by a low number of individuals. Three females and one male white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, a North American species, were successfully introduced in Finland in 1934 and the population has since been growing rapidly, but remained in complete isolation from other populations.Based on 14 microsatellite loci, the expected heterozygosity H was 0.692 with a mean allelic richness (AR of 5.36, which was significantly lower than what was found in Oklahoma, U.S.A. (H = 0.742; AR = 9.07, demonstrating that a bottleneck occurred. Observed H was in line with predictions from an individual-based model where the genealogy of the males and females in the population were tracked and the population's demography was included.Our findings provide a rare within-population empirical test of the founder effect and suggest that founding a population by a small number of individuals need not have a dramatic impact on heterozygosity in an iteroparous species.

  20. Sequence variation of functional HTLV-II tax alleles among isolates from an endemic population: lack of evidence for oncogenic determinant in tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, B; Chaney, R

    1992-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus type II (HTLV-II) has been isolated from patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL). We previously described a population with longstanding endemic HTLV-II infection, and showed that there is no increased risk for HCL in the affected groups. We thus have direct evidence that the endemic form(s) of HTLV-II cause HCL infrequently, if at all. By comparison, there is reason to suspect that the viruses isolated from patients with HCL had an etiologic role in the disease in those patients. One way to reconcile these conflicting observations is to consider that isolates of HTLV-II might differ in oncogenic potential. To determine whether the structure of the putative oncogenic determinant of HTLV-II, tax2, might differ in the new isolates compared to the tax of the prototype HCL isolate, MO, four new functional tax cDNAs were cloned from new isolates. Sequence analysis showed only minor (0.9-2.0%) amino acid variation compared to the published sequence of MO tax2. Some codons were consistently different from published sequences of the MO virus, but in most cases, such variations were also found in each of two tax2 clones we isolated from the MO T-cell line. These variations rendered the new clones more similar to the tax1 of the pathogenic virus HTLV-I. Thus we find no evidence that pathologic determinants of HTLV-II can be assigned to the tax gene.

  1. Secular trends of blood isolates in patients from a rural area population hospitalized in a tertiary center in a small city in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holevas Pierros V

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the studies evaluating the secular trends of blood isolates come from tertiary hospitals in urban areas. We sought to study the trends of the antimicrobial resistance of blood isolates in patients from a rural population hospitalized in a tertiary hospital in a small city in Greece. Methods We retrospectively collected and analysed data for the first positive blood culture obtained for each admission for each patient hospitalized in General Hospital of Tripolis, Tripolis, Peloponnesus, Greece during a 5 year period (16/05/2000 – 15/05/2005. Results Sixty-seven thousand and seventy patients were hospitalized during the study period from whom 3,206 blood cultures were obtained. A higher increase of the number of obtained blood cultures than the number of admissions was noted during the study period (p Escherichia coli (29%, and Staphylococcus aureus (18.2% were the most commonly isolated pathogens. Among the Staphylococcus aureus isolates, the proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was 17.2% (5/29. The proportion of Escherichia coli resistant to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and cefuroxime was 29.6% (32/108, 25.0% (27/108, and 8.3% (9/108 respectively. Imipenem-resistance was noted in 3.4% (1/29 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. There were only 6 (1.6% Acinetobacter baummanii blood isolates during the study period. Conclusion The antimicrobial resistance of isolates from patients receiving care at the studied tertiary hospital in a small city in Greece is considerably less compared to that noted in tertiary hospitals in larger cities of the country.

  2. DEVELOPING LINGUISTIC SKILLS AND ABILITIES IN EMP STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Milosavljević

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available English for medical purposes falls within the category of discipline-specific language learning. It is characterized by specific linguistic features and requires specific study that is possible to carry out using specially designed programmes. Reading skill is one way of learning strategy of English for medical purposes. Most often, students use this skill in order to obtain information for some particular topic from the area of medical science, or because they need some sort of instruction in order to carry out certain task. Vocabulary acquisition plays a very important role in EMP teaching. It is achieved best through learning vocabulary in context, rather than in isolation. One of the most important questions in EMP teaching is related to what grammatical constructions should be analysed and emphasised. Some types of these activities would include, for example, asking students to find examples of one particular structure in the text or fill in the blanks with the missing forms such as tenses, passive forms, prepositions, etc. Speaking skill represents productive skill the aim of which is communication. In order for foreign language communication to be suucessful, a student should know linguistic and cultural features of native speakers and follow certain rules and conventions that are not easy to define. It is of crucial importance that during teaching process students develop strategies and techniques that will help them use linguistic structures fluently, apply language in different situations, take part in discussions, and use acquired vocabulary in accurate and precise way.

  3. Design Features for Linguistically-Mediated Meaning Construction: The Relative Roles of the Linguistic and Conceptual Systems in Subserving the Ideational Function of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in language and cognitive science proposes that the linguistic system evolved to provide an "executive" control system on the evolutionarily more ancient conceptual system (e.g., Barsalou et al., 2008; Evans, 2009, 2015a,b; Bergen, 2012). In short, the claim is that embodied representations in the linguistic system interface with non-linguistic representations in the conceptual system, facilitating rich meanings, or simulations, enabling linguistically mediated communication. In this paper I build on these proposals by examining the nature of what I identify as design features for this control system. In particular, I address how the ideational function of language-our ability to deploy linguistic symbols to convey meanings of great complexity-is facilitated. The central proposal of this paper is as follows. The linguistic system of any given language user, of any given linguistic system-spoken or signed-facilitates access to knowledge representation-concepts-in the conceptual system, which subserves this ideational function. In the most general terms, the human meaning-making capacity is underpinned by two distinct, although tightly coupled representational systems: the conceptual system and the linguistic system. Each system contributes to meaning construction in qualitatively distinct ways. This leads to the first design feature: given that the two systems are representational-they are populated by semantic representations-the nature and function of the representations are qualitatively different. This proposed design feature I term the bifurcation in semantic representation. After all, it stands to reason that if a linguistic system has a different function, vis-à-vis the conceptual system, which is of far greater evolutionary antiquity, then the semantic representations will be complementary, and as such, qualitatively different, reflecting the functional distinctions of the two systems, in collectively giving rise to meaning. I consider the

  4. Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Leisy

    2012-01-01

    Detailing a decade of life and language use in a remote Alaskan Yup'ik community, Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance provides rare insight into young people's language brokering and Indigenous people's contemporary linguistic ecologies. This book examines how two consecutive groups of youth in a Yup'ik village…

  5. MODERN LINGUISTICS, ITS DEVELOPMENT AND SCOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN LINGUISTICS STARTED WITH JONES' DISCOVERY IN 1786 THAT SANSKRIT IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE CLASSICAL, GERMANIC, AND CELTIC LANGUAGES, AND HAS ADVANCED TO INCLUDE THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS IN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS. THE HIGHLIGHTS OF LINGUISTIC RESEARCH HAVE BEEN DE SAUSSURE'S DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE DIACHRONIC AND THE…

  6. What can literature do for linguistics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2007-01-01

      Through analyses of selected passages from James Joyce's Ulysses, this article demonstrates how the challenging of the boundaries between linguistics and literary studies can be more than a one-way process aimed at uncovering linguistic patterns of literary texts. The theoretical basis...

  7. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  8. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  9. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  10. Political Liberalism, Linguistic Diversity and Equal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of John Rawls' political liberalism for linguistic diversity and language policy, by focusing on the following question: what kind(s) of equality between speakers of different languages and with different linguistic identities should the state guarantee under political liberalism? The article makes three…

  11. Using the Linguistic Landscape to Bridge Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Vanessa

    2018-01-01

    In this article Vanessa Mari describes how she uses the linguistic landscape to bridge two or more languages with students learning English. The linguistic landscape is defined by Landry and Bourhis (1997, 25) as "the language of public road signs, advertising billboards, street names, place names, commercial shop signs, and public signs on…

  12. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  13. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Publisher contact person: Mrs Christine Smit. Email: linguis@sun.ac.za. Phone: 021 808 2052. Fax: 021 808 2009. Mailing address: Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602. Department of General ...

  14. Are Prospective English Teachers Linguistically Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Kadir Vefa

    2017-01-01

    Language is normally associated with linguistic capabilities of individuals. In the theory of multiple intelligences, language is considered to be related primarily to linguistic intelligence. Using the theory of Multiple Intelligences as its starting point, this descriptive survey study investigated to what extent prospective English teachers'…

  15. A General Overview of Motivation in Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王航

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the term of motivation in linguistics study has aroused the interests of scholars. Different studies of mo -tivation have been produced by different scholars. In this paper, the writer organizes the recent studies on motivation in linguistics. the paper is divided into three parts, the introduction of the term motivation, different types of motivation, and theories of moti -vation.

  16. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at www.ajol.info. However print-on-demand copies can be made ...

  17. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  18. Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for pursuing their work. The theme of this year’s TKE is ‘Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data’. Mono- and multi-lingual term bases, which contain information about concepts (terms, definitions, examples of use, references, comments on equivalence etc.), have always made up valuable linguistic resources...

  19. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  20. Applied Linguistics in Its Disciplinary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's current attempt to develop a process to evaluate the quality of research (Excellence in Research for Australia--ERA) places a central emphasis on the disciplinary organisation of academic work. This disciplinary focus poses particular problems for Applied Linguistics in Australia. This paper will examine Applied Linguistics in relation…

  1. Plenary Speeches: Applied Linguists without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Until 1989, the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) could have been viewed as an interest group of the Linguistics Society of America (LSA); AAAL met in two designated meeting rooms as a subsection of the LSA conference. In 1991, I was asked to organize the first independent meeting of AAAL in New York City, with the help of…

  2. Linguistic Phylogenies Support Back-Migration from Beringia to Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicoli, Mark A.; Holton, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Recent arguments connecting Na-Dene languages of North America with Yeniseian languages of Siberia have been used to assert proof for the origin of Native Americans in central or western Asia. We apply phylogenetic methods to test support for this hypothesis against an alternative hypothesis that Yeniseian represents a back-migration to Asia from a Beringian ancestral population. We coded a linguistic dataset of typological features and used neighbor-joining network algorithms and Bayesian model comparison based on Bayes factors to test the fit between the data and the linguistic phylogenies modeling two dispersal hypotheses. Our results support that a Dene-Yeniseian connection more likely represents radiation out of Beringia with back-migration into central Asia than a migration from central or western Asia to North America. PMID:24621925

  3. Clinical linguistics: its past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the results of a survey of articles published in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics between 1987 and 2008 which shows, for example, a consistent primary focus on phonetics and phonology at the expense of grammar, semantics and pragmatics. I also trace the gradual broadening of the discipline from its roots in structural linguistics to its current reciprocal relationship with speech and language pathology and a range of other academic disciplines. Finally, I consider the scope of clinical linguistic research in 2011 and assess how the discipline seems likely develop in the future.

  4. Lancaster Summer School in Corpus Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Čibej

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Med 12. in 15. julijem je na Univerzi v Lancastru potekala poletna šola korpusnega jezikoslovja Lancaster Summer Schools in Corpus Linguistics and Other Digital Methods. Poletno šolo so organizirali UCREL (University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, ERC (Evropski svet za raziskave – European Research Council, CASS (ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science in ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council, razdeljena pa je bila na šest programov, prilagojenih različnim področjem: Korpusno jezikoslovje za proučevanje jezikov (Corpus Linguistics for Language Studies, Korpusno jezikoslovje za družbene vede (Corpus Linguistics for Social Science, Korpusno jezikoslovje za humanistiko (Corpus Linguistics for Humanities, Statistika za korpusno jezikoslovje (Statistics for Corpus Linguistics, Geografski informacijski sistemi za digitalno humanistiko (Geographical Information Systems for the Digital Humanities in Korpusno podprta obdelava naravnih jezikov (Corpus-based Natural Language Processing.

  5. Evaluating Autism Diagnostic and Screening Tools for Cultural and Linguistic Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bryn; Barton, Erin E.; Albert, Chantel

    2014-01-01

    While clear guidelines and best practices exist for the assessment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little information is available about assessing for ASD in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) populations. CLD populations might be misidentified and under-identified with ASD due to the assessment practices that we employ. Four autism…

  6. Reconstructing eight decades of genetic variation in an isolated Danish population of the large blue butterfly Maculinea arion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Line V; Nielsen, Per S; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-01-01

    structure over the last 77 years from museum specimens. We also tested amplification efficiency in such historical samples as a function of repeat length and sample age. Low population numbers in the 1980s did not affect genetic diversity, but considerable turnover of alleles has characterized...... between dispersal, effective population size, and long-term genetic erosion of these endangered butterflies remains unknown. Using non-destructive sampling, we investigated the genetic diversity of the last extant population of M. arion in Denmark, which experienced critically low numbers in the 1980s....... Results: Using nine microsatellite markers, we show that the population is genetically impoverished compared to nearby populations in Sweden, but less so than monitoring programs suggested. Ten additional short repeat microsatellites were used to reconstruct changes in genetic diversity and population...

  7. How Linguistic Metaphor Scaffolds Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Hendricks, Rose K; Boroditsky, Lera

    2017-11-01

    Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are 'light bulbs', crime is a 'virus', and cancer is an 'enemy' in a 'war'. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior. Then we explore the conditions under which metaphors are most influential. Throughout, we highlight theoretical and practical implications, as well as key challenges and opportunities for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  9. Novel mutations detected in avirulence genes overcoming tomato Cf resistance genes in isolates of a Japanese population of Cladosporium fulvum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iida, Y.; Hof, van 't P.M.J.; Beenen, H.G.; Mesarich, C.H.; Kubota, M.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Mehrabi, A.; Notsu, A.; Fujiwara, K.; Bahkali, A.; Abd-Elsalam, K.; Collemare, J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf mold of tomato is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum which complies with the gene-for-gene system. The disease was first reported in Japan in the 1920s and has since been frequently observed. Initially only race 0 isolates were reported, but since the consecutive introduction

  10. Changes in Sensitivity Levels of Botrytis spp. Population Isolated from Lily to Fungicides and Control under Field Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soosang Hahm

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty eight isolates of Botrytis elliptica and 23 isolates of B. cinerea from several locations in Korea were tested for resistance to fungicides used in the farmer's fields. Isolation frequency of B. elliptica having EC50 (effective concentration of 50% value 500−1000 μg/ml to benomyl and mancozeb appeared highly, suggesting that the two fungicides are not effective in controlling leaf blight of lily in the field. The isolates were tested for resistance to fungicides procymidone and iprodione which were most commonly used in the farmer's fields. The rates of EC50 value 5−50 μg/ml to procymidome and iprodione were 93.7% and 100%, respectively, and those of 0−0.1 μg/ml to diethofencarb+carbendazim and fludioxonil were 98.0% and 93.8%, respectively. In the rain-protected cultivation, control of leaf blight of lily was the most effective when iprodine, diethofencarb+ carbendazim, and fludioxonil were sprayed alternately four times during the growing season.

  11. Extensive Genome Rearrangements and Multiple Horizontal Gene Transfers in a Population of Pyrococcus Isolates from Vulcano Island, Italy▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James R.; Escobar-Paramo, Patricia; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Nelson, Karen E.; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    The extent of chromosome rearrangements in Pyrococcus isolates from marine hydrothermal vents in Vulcano Island, Italy, was evaluated by high-throughput genomic methods. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of the genomes of the genus Pyrococcus and raise the possibility of a connection between rapidly changing environmental conditions and adaptive genomic properties. PMID:18723649

  12. Extensive genome rearrangements and multiple horizontal gene transfers in a population of pyrococcus isolates from Vulcano Island, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James R; Escobar-Paramo, Patricia; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Nelson, Karen E; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2008-10-01

    The extent of chromosome rearrangements in Pyrococcus isolates from marine hydrothermal vents in Vulcano Island, Italy, was evaluated by high-throughput genomic methods. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of the genomes of the genus Pyrococcus and raise the possibility of a connection between rapidly changing environmental conditions and adaptive genomic properties.

  13. Isolation and identification of bacterial populations of zoonotic importance from captive non-venomous snakes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Yusuf; Ilyasu, Yusuf Maina; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Captivity of non-venomous snakes such as python and boa are common in zoos, aquariums and as pets in households. Poor captivity conditions expose these reptiles to numerous pathogens which may result in disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the common bacteria isolated from necropsied captive snakes in Malaysia over a five year period. A total of 27 snake carcasses presented for necropsy at the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) were used in this survey. Samples were aseptically obtained at necropsy from different organs/tissues (lung, liver, heart, kindey, oesophagus, lymph node, stomach, spinal cord, spleen, intestine) and cultured onto 5% blood and McConkey agar, respectively. Gram staining, morphological evaluation and biochemical test such as oxidase, catalase and coagulase were used to tentatively identify the presumptive bacterial isolates. Pythons had the highest number of cases (81.3%) followed by anaconda (14.8%) and boa (3.7%). Mixed infection accounted for 81.5% in all snakes and was highest in pythons (63%). However, single infection was only observed in pythons (18.5%). A total of 82.7%, 95.4% and 100% of the bacterial isolates from python, anaconda and boa, respectively were gram negative. Aeromonas spp was the most frequently isolated bacteria in pythons and anaconda with incidences of 25 (18%) and 8 (36.6%) with no difference (p > 0.05) in incidence, respectively, while Salmonella spp was the most frequently isolated in boa and significantly higher (p snakes have public health importance and have been incriminated in human infections worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reconstructing eight decades of genetic variation in an isolated Danish population of the large blue butterfly Maculinea arion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomsma Jacobus J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragmentation of terrestrial ecosystems has had detrimental effects on metapopulations of habitat specialists. Maculinea butterflies have been particularly affected because of their specialized lifecycles, requiring both specific food-plants and host-ants. However, the interaction between dispersal, effective population size, and long-term genetic erosion of these endangered butterflies remains unknown. Using non-destructive sampling, we investigated the genetic diversity of the last extant population of M. arion in Denmark, which experienced critically low numbers in the 1980s. Results Using nine microsatellite markers, we show that the population is genetically impoverished compared to nearby populations in Sweden, but less so than monitoring programs suggested. Ten additional short repeat microsatellites were used to reconstruct changes in genetic diversity and population structure over the last 77 years from museum specimens. We also tested amplification efficiency in such historical samples as a function of repeat length and sample age. Low population numbers in the 1980s did not affect genetic diversity, but considerable turnover of alleles has characterized this population throughout the time-span of our analysis. Conclusions Our results suggest that M. arion is less sensitive to genetic erosion via population bottlenecks than previously thought, and that managing clusters of high quality habitat may be key for long-term conservation.

  15. Evolution and ecology meet molecular genetics: adaptive phenotypic plasticity in two isolated Negev desert populations of Acacia raddiana at either end of a rainfall gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David; Shrestha, Madan K.; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The ecological, evolutionary and genetic bases of population differentiation in a variable environment are often related to the selection pressures that plants experience. We compared differences in several growth- and defence-related traits in two isolated populations of Acacia raddiana trees from sites at either end of an extreme environmental gradient in the Negev desert. Methods We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to determine the molecular differences between populations. We grew plants under two levels of water, three levels of nutrients and three levels of herbivory to test for phenotypic plasticity and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Key Results The RAPD analyses showed that these populations are highly genetically differentiated. Phenotypic plasticity in various morphological traits in A. raddiana was related to patterns of population genetic differentiation between the two study sites. Although we did not test for maternal effects in these long-lived trees, significant genotype × environment (G × E) interactions in some of these traits indicated that such plasticity may be adaptive. Conclusions The main selection pressure in this desert environment, perhaps unsurprisingly, is water. Increased water availability resulted in greater growth in the southern population, which normally receives far less rain than the northern population. Even under the conditions that we defined as low water and/or nutrients, the performance of the seedlings from the southern population was significantly better, perhaps reflecting selection for these traits. Consistent with previous studies of this genus, there was no evidence of trade-offs between physical and chemical defences and plant growth parameters in this study. Rather, there appeared to be positive correlations between plant size and defence parameters. The great variation in several traits in both populations may result in a diverse potential for responding to selection pressures in

  16. Measuring the diffusion of linguistic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerbonne, John

    2010-12-12

    We examine situations in which linguistic changes have probably been propagated via normal contact as opposed to via conquest, recent settlement and large-scale migration. We proceed then from two simplifying assumptions: first, that all linguistic variation is the result of either diffusion or independent innovation, and, second, that we may operationalize social contact as geographical distance. It is clear that both of these assumptions are imperfect, but they allow us to examine diffusion via the distribution of linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. Several studies in quantitative linguistics have examined this relation, starting with Séguy (Séguy 1971 Rev. Linguist. Romane 35, 335-357), and virtually all report a sublinear growth in aggregate linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. The literature from dialectology and historical linguistics has mostly traced the diffusion of individual features, however, so that it is sensible to ask what sort of dynamic in the diffusion of individual features is compatible with Séguy's curve. We examine some simulations of diffusion in an effort to shed light on this question.

  17. Babesia behnkei sp. nov., a novel Babesia species infecting isolated populations of Wagner's gerbil, Dipodillus dasyurus, from the Sinai Mountains, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Mohallal, Eman M E; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Zalat, Sammy; Gilbert, Francis; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2014-12-09

    Although a number of new species of Babesia/Theileria have been described recently, there are still relatively few reports of species from Africa. In this study based on the evaluation of morphology and phylogenetic relationships, we describe a novel species from Wagner's gerbil, Babesia behnkei n. sp. Rodents (n = 1021) were sampled in four montane valleys (wadies) in 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012 in the Sinai Mountains, Egypt. The overall prevalence of Babesia spp. was highest in the Wagner's gerbil (Dipodillus dasyurus; 38.7%) in comparison to the prevalence in the spiny mice species, Acomys dimidiatus and A. russatus. Morphological investigations were conducted for the comparison of trophozoites of the novel species of Babesia with the B. microti King's 67 reference strain. Thirty-two isolates derived from D. dasyurus over a 9 year period (2004-2012) from two wadies (29 isolates from Wadi Gebel and 3 from Wadi El-Arbaein) were investigated by microscopic, molecular and phylogenetic analysis. A near-full-length sequence of the 18S rRNA gene and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region were amplified, sequenced and used for the construction of phylogenetic trees. A novel species of Babesia was identified in two isolated populations of D. dasyurus. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences revealed that B. behnkei n. sp. is most closely related to B. lengau from cheetahs from South Africa and to Nearctic species found only in North America (the pathogenic B. duncani and B. conradae) and that it is more distant to the cosmopolitan rodent parasite B. microti. Trophozoites of B. behnkei were smaller and less polymorphic than trophozoites of B. microti. Babesia behnkei n. sp. is a novel species of the 'Duncani group' maintained in isolated populations of Dipodillus dasyurus occurring in the Sinai Mountains of Egypt.

  18. Genotyping and drug susceptibility testing of mycobacterial isolates from population-based tuberculosis prevalence survey in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Addo, Samuel Ofori; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Mosi, Lydia; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2017-12-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM) infections differ clinically, making rapid identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) very critical for infection control and drug therapy. This study aims to use World Health Organization (WHO) approved line probe assay (LPA) to differentiate mycobacterial isolates obtained from tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey in Ghana and to determine their drug resistance patterns. A retrospective study was conducted whereby a total of 361 mycobacterial isolates were differentiated and their drug resistance patterns determined using GenoType Mycobacterium Assays: MTBC and CM/AS for differentiating MTBC and NTM as well MTBDRplus and NTM-DR for DST of MTBC and NTM respectively. Out of 361 isolates, 165 (45.7%) MTBC and 120 (33.2%) NTM (made up of 14 different species) were identified to the species levels whiles 76 (21.1%) could not be completely identified. The MTBC comprised 161 (97.6%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 4 (2.4%) Mycobacterium africanum. Isoniazid and rifampicin monoresistant MTBC isolates were 18/165 (10.9%) and 2/165(1.2%) respectively whiles 11/165 (6.7%) were resistant to both drugs. Majority 42/120 (35%) of NTM were M. fortuitum. DST of 28 M. avium complex and 8 M. abscessus complex species revealed that all were susceptible to macrolides (clarithromycin, azithromycin) and aminoglycosides (kanamycin, amikacin, and gentamicin). Our research signifies an important contribution to TB control in terms of knowledge of the types of mycobacterium species circulating and their drug resistance patterns in Ghana.

  19. Applied linguistics - a science of culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benke, Gertraud

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the status of applied linguistics as discipline is questioned and problems of establishing it - and other newly formed scientific enterprises like cultural science - as disciplines are discussed. This discussion is contextualized using the author's own experience as applied linguist working in (the institutional structure of Austria. Secondly, applied linguistics is presented as complementing cultural science, with both exploring at times the same phenomena albeit under different perspectives and focussing on different levels of experience. Two examples of research involving such a joint interest with different foci are discussed.

  20. Educational Linguistics and College English Syllabus Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ji-xin

    2016-01-01

    The direct application of linguistic theories to syllabus design gives rise to frequent change of syllabus type in the histo-ry of syllabus development, which makes language teachers feel difficult to adapt to, to adopt and to implement. The recognition and popularization of the new-born discipline educational linguistics servers as a method to ease the situation, especially in the college English syllabus design in China. The development and application of the fruitful achievements in educational linguis-tics is bound to provide us with a more scientific approach to syllabus design in the future.

  1. Linguistic fire and human cognitive powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To view language as a cultural tool challenges much of what claims to be linguistic science while opening up a new people-centred linguistics. On this view, how we speak, think and act depends on, not just brains (or minds), but also cultural traditions. Yet, Everett is conservative: like others...... theory, bodily dynamics themselves act as cues to meaning. Linguistic exostructures resemble tools that constrain how people concert acting-perceiving bodies. The result is unending renewal of verbal structures: like artefacts and institutions, they function to sustain a species-specific cultural ecology...

  2. Collective Variables in Apphed Linguistics Research

    OpenAIRE

    ヘンスリー, ジョール; HENSLEY, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the key dynamic(al)systems theory concept of collective variables as it relates to developmental research in applied linguistics. Dynamic(al) systems theory is becoming prevalent in linguistic research and in the past two decades has jumped to the forefront of cutting edge in the field. One key concept in dynamic(al) systems theory is that of collective variables. In order to help properly orient this concept in the field of applied linguistics, this paper discusses the ...

  3. Circular Interaction Between Linguistic Departments And Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Linguistik und Didaktik (Linguistics and Didactics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollay, Karl

    1974-01-01

    Briefly summarizes the papers presented at the 10th annual convention of the German Language Institute in Mannheim. The relationship between linguistic research and its applicability in the area of language instruction is discussed. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  5. Glossematik und Linguistik (Glossematics and Linguistics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoger, Alfons

    1974-01-01

    Provides a short summary on the background, current development and future perspectives of the glossematic theory of language and linguistics, as developed by Hjelmslev and those associated with him (Loosely called "the Danish school"). (Text is in German.) (DS)

  6. Zweiter Linguistischer Orientierungskurs (Second Linguistic Orientation Course)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosewitz, Uta; Wiegand, Herbert Ernst

    1973-01-01

    Report on the Second Linguistic Orientation Course sponsored by the Institut fur deutsche Sprache (Institute for the German Language) and funded by the Volkswagen Foundation; held at Mannheim, West Germany, February 21-March 3, 1972. (RS)

  7. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methods, the cognitive code method and the cognitive anti-method, emerged, both drawing on .... sciences; he must have some knowledge of linguistics. ... much as the nature of the organising power that is capable of handling such data.

  8. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2013-01-01

    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  9. Design and Practice: Enacting Functional Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Draws on experience with a transdisciplinary literacy project in writing development at the secondary level to address the sub-field of "writing-literacy," writing as a linguist working across an applied versus theoretical frontier. (Author/VWL)

  10. A New Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic TOPSIS Method for Group Multi-Criteria Linguistic Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangling Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision making is a focus point in linguistic decision making, in which the main method is based on preference ordering. This paper develops a new hesitant fuzzy linguistic TOPSIS method for group multi-criteria linguistic decision making; the method is inspired by the TOPSIS method and the preference degree between two hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTSs. To this end, we first use the preference degree to define a pseudo-distance between two HFLTSs and analyze its properties. Then we present the positive (optimistic and negative (pessimistic information of each criterion provided by each decision maker and aggregate these by using weights of decision makers to obtain the hesitant fuzzy linguistic positive and negative ideal solutions. On the basis of the proposed pseudo-distance, we finally obtain the positive (negative ideal separation matrix and a new relative closeness degree to rank alternatives. We also design an algorithm based on the provided method to carry out hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision making. An illustrative example shows the elaboration of the proposed method and comparison with the symbolic aggregation-based method, the hesitant fuzzy linguistic TOPSIS method and the hesitant fuzzy linguistic VIKOR method; it seems that the proposed method is a useful and alternative decision-making method.

  11. Isolate PM1 populations are dominant and novel methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading bacterial in compost biofilter enrichments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, M A; Hanson, J R; Mefford, J; Scow, K M

    2001-03-01

    The gasoline additive MTBE, methyl tert-butyl ether, is a widespread and persistent groundwater contaminant. MTBE undergoes rapid mineralization as the sole carbon and energy source of bacterial strain PM1, isolated from an enrichment culture of compost biofilter material. In this report, we describe the results of microbial community DNA profiling to assess the relative dominance of isolate PM1 and other bacterial strains cultured from the compost enrichment. Three polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based profiling approaches were evaluated: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 230 bp 16S rDNA fragments; thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis of 575 bp 16S rDNA fragments; and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 300-1,500 bp fragments containing 16S/23S ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Whereas all three DNA profiling approaches indicated that PM1-like bands predominated in mixtures from MTBE-grown enrichments, ITS profiling provided the most abundant and specific sequence data to confirm strain PM1's presence in the enrichment. Moreover, ITS profiling did not produce non-specific PCR products that were observed with T/DGGE. A further advantage of ITS community profiling over other methods requiring restriction digestion (e.g. terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms) was that it did not require an additional digestion step or the use of automated sequencing equipment. ITS bands, excised from similar locations in profiles of the enrichment and PM1 pure culture, were 99.9% identical across 750 16S rDNA positions and 100% identical across 691 spacer positions. BLAST comparisons of nearly full-length 16S rDNA sequences showed 96% similarity between isolate PM1 and representatives of at least four different genera in the Leptothrix subgroup of the beta-Proteobacteria (Aquabacterium, Leptothrix, Rubrivivax and Ideonella). Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of 1,249 nucleotide

  12. Cell cycle disturbances in slowly growing sublines isolated from X-irradiated L5178Y-S cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, J.Z.; Bocian, E.; Budzicka, E.; Szumiel, I.; Ziemba-Zak, B.; Kopec, M.

    1974-01-01

    Cell cycle was analyzed autoradiographically in a test line of murine leukaemic lymphoblasts L5178Y-S and in two slowly growing sublines isolated from cell cultures irradiated with 300 rad of X-rays. It was found that prolongation of the cell cycle in the slowly growing sublines is connected primarily with delayed progression through G2 phase. This conclusion was further supported by results of determination of DNA content per cell in 13 slowly growing cell sublines and karyotype analysis of 18 sublines. No correlation was found between a sublines' mean doubling time and its chromosome number whereas DNA content per cell was clearly dependent on the growth rate. (author)

  13. The Unbalanced Linguistic Aggregation Operator in Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many linguistic aggregation methods have been proposed and applied in the linguistic decision-making problems. In practice, experts need to assess a number of values in a side of reference domain higher than in the other one; that is, experts use unbalanced linguistic values to express their evaluation for problems. In this paper, we propose a new linguistic aggregation operator to deal with unbalanced linguistic values in group decision making, we adopt 2-tuple representation model of linguistic values and linguistic hierarchies to express unbalanced linguistic values, and moreover, we present the unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted geometric operator to aggregate unbalanced linguistic evaluation values; a comparison example is given to show the advantage of our method.

  14. Combination Across Domains: An MEG Investigation into the Relationship between Mathematical, Pictorial, and Linguistic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Douglas K.; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2013-01-01

    Debates surrounding the evolution of language often hinge upon its relationship to cognition more generally and many investigations have attempted to demark the boundary between the two. Though results from these studies suggest that language may recruit domain-general mechanisms during certain types of complex processing, the domain-generality of basic combinatorial mechanisms that lie at the core of linguistic processing is still unknown. Our previous work (Bemis and Pylkkänen, 2011, 2012) used magnetoencephalography to isolate neural activity associated with the simple composition of an adjective and a noun (“red boat”) and found increased activity during this processing localized to the left anterior temporal lobe (lATL), ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and left angular gyrus (lAG). The present study explores the domain-generality of these effects and their associated combinatorial mechanisms through two parallel non-linguistic combinatorial tasks designed to be as minimal and natural as the linguistic paradigm. In the first task, we used pictures of colored shapes to elicit combinatorial conceptual processing similar to that evoked by the linguistic expressions and find increased activity again localized to the vmPFC during combinatorial processing. This result suggests that a domain-general semantic combinatorial mechanism operates during basic linguistic composition, and that activity generated by its processing localizes to the vmPFC. In the second task, we recorded neural activity as subjects performed simple addition between two small numerals. Consistent with a wide array of recent results, we find no effects related to basic addition that coincide with our linguistic effects and instead find increased activity localized to the intraparietal sulcus. This result suggests that the scope of the previously identified linguistic effects is restricted to compositional operations and does not extend generally to all tasks that are merely similar

  15. Ling An: Linguistic analysis of NPP instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L. (Helsingfors Univ., Institutionen foer allmaen spraakvetenskap (Finland)); Wahlstroem, B. (VTT (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  16. A Python Library for Historical Comparative Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Moran , Steven; List , Johann-Mattis

    2012-01-01

    Awarded best paper award; International audience; In this talk we will discuss a European Research Council funded collaborative effort to build a Python library for undertaking academic research in historical-comparative linguistics. Our aim of implementing quantitative methods, specifically in Python, is to transform historical-comparative linguistics from a primarily handcrafted scientific scholarly endeavor, performed by individual researchers, into a quantitative and collaborative field o...

  17. Ling An: LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF NPP INSTRUCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L.; Wahlstroem, B.

    2008-07-01

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  18. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylyuk Illya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  19. Legal Linguistics as a Mutual Arena for Cooperation: Recent Developments in the Field of Applied Linguistics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on some of the recent projects and individual works in the field of Legal Linguistics as examples of cooperation between Applied Linguistics and law. The article starts by discussing relevant prototypical concepts of Legal Linguistics. Legal Linguistics scrutinizes interactions between human beings in the framework of legal…

  20. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of bacterial populations isolated from diesel-contaminated soil and treated by two bioremediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta R, Olga M; Rivera R, Angela P; Rojano, Benjamin; Ruiz, Orlando; Correa, Margarita M; Cienfuegos Gallet, Astrid V; Arias, Lida; Cardona G, Santiago A

    2012-01-01

    In this study bioremediation is presented as an alternative for the recovery of contaminated ecosystems. In this work an experimental diesel spill on pasture land was remediated using two bioremediation technologies: natural attenuation, which is the natural capability of indigenous microorganisms to degrade a xenobiotic component in a determined time, and biostimulation, which consist in the acceleration of the degradation process through the stimulation of the metabolism of indigenous microorganisms by the addition of nutrients (P and N) to the media. Results of respirometry assays indicated that both treatments produced significant levels of hydrocarbon removal but the biostimulation treatment stranded out with 98.17% degradation. Seven bacterial isolates were obtained from these treatments which according to their molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis belong to the genus: Enterobacter, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Sanguibacter, Staphylococcus and Flavobacterium. All isolates were able to metabolize diesel as a carbon and energy source; for this reason and taking into account that for some of these microorganisms their role in bioremediation have not been extensively studied, it is recommended to continue with their evaluation to know their real potential for the solution of environmental problems.

  1. Serotyping and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli Isolates from Urinary Tract Infections in Pediatric Population in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in pediatric population are associated with high morbidity and long term complications. In recent years, there is increased prevalence of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains producing extended spectrum β-lactamase, Amp C, and Metallo β-lactamase, making the clinical management even more difficult. This study was aimed to detect the serotypes and to determine antimicrobial susceptibility profile of E. coli isolates from urine samples of children <10 yrs old. A total of 75 pure E. coli strains isolated from patients with symptoms of UTI and colony count ≥105 organisms/mL were included in the study. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern showed maximum resistance to nalidixic acid (98.7%, followed by ampicillin (97.3%, amoxi-clavulanate (96%, and fluoroquinolones (92% while most of the isolates were found sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam (13.3%, nitrofurantoin (5.3%, and meropenem (1.3%. 48% of the strains were ESBL producer (extended spectrum beta lactamase. 44% strains were typable withantisera used in our study and the most common serogroup was O6 (33.3% followed by O1 (15.1% and O15 (15.1%. To conclude, judicious use of antibiotics according to hospital antibiotic policy and infection control measures should be implemented to prevent spread of multidrug resistant organisms.

  2. Ethno linguistic material regarding Christmas rituals among the Serbs in Bela Krajina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the current ethno linguistic situation in four Orthodox Serbian villages in the Bela Krajina region of Slovenia. Ethno linguistic material collected in these villages enables the synchronic state of traditional culture to be established. Special attention is payed to the way the interviewees describe Christmas rituals and interpret and evaluate then-present state; apart from description of Christmas interviewees' statements (here named ethno linguistic texts also carry precious information about attitudes of carriers of a certain culture towards its values, and indicate in- and out-group relations, establishing oppositions such as then vs. now, me vs. them, us vs. them. These subjective comments provided by the interviewees help obtain a complete, multilevel picture of a traditional culture, with all interactions that characterize it, both within the ethno linguistic community and in relation to other communities. It is especially important that these interactions be taken into account for isolated ethnic and linguistic groups such as the Orthodox Serbs in Bela Krajina.

  3. Habitat differentiation vs. isolation-by-distance : the genetic population structure of Elymus athericus in European salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bockelmann, AC; Reusch, TBH; Bijlsma, R; Bakker, JP

    We investigated genetic differentiation among populations of the clonal grass Elymus athericus, a common salt-marsh species occurring along the Wadden Sea coast of Europe. While E. athericus traditionally occurs in the high salt marsh, it recently also invaded lower parts of the marsh. In one of the

  4. POPULATION SYNTHESIS OF YOUNG ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: THE EFFECT OF FALLBACK DISK ACCRETION AND MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Lei; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2013-01-01

    The spin evolution of isolated neutron stars (NSs) is dominated by their magnetic fields. The measured braking indices of young NSs show that the spin-down mechanism due to magnetic dipole radiation with constant magnetic fields is inadequate. Assuming that the NS magnetic field is buried by supernova fallback matter and re-emerges after accretion stops, we carry out a Monte Carlo simulation of the evolution of young NSs, and show that most of the pulsars have braking indices ranging from –1 to 3. The results are compatible with the observational data of NSs associated with supernova remnants. They also suggest that the initial spin periods of NSs might occupy a relatively wide range

  5. Population-Genomic Insights into Variation in Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens Isolates and Its Association with Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing has helped to reveal the close relationship between Prevotella and periodontal disease, but the roles of subspecies diversity and genomic variation within this genus in periodontal diseases still need to be investigated. We performed a comparative genome analysis of 48 Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolates that from the same cohort of subjects to identify the main drivers of their pathogenicity and adaptation to different environments. The comparisons were done between two species and between disease and health based on pooled sequences. The results showed that both P. intermedia and P. nigrescens have highly dynamic genomes and can take up various exogenous factors through horizontal gene transfer. The major differences between disease-derived and health-derived samples of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens were factors related to genome modification and recombination, indicating that the Prevotella isolates from disease sites may be more capable of genomic reconstruction. We also identified genetic elements specific to each sample, and found that disease groups had more unique virulence factors related to capsule and lipopolysaccharide synthesis, secretion systems, proteinases, and toxins, suggesting that strains from disease sites may have more specific virulence, particularly for P. intermedia. The differentially represented pathways between samples from disease and health were related to energy metabolism, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, consistent with data from the whole subgingival microbiome in periodontal disease and health. Disease-derived samples had gained or lost several metabolic genes compared to healthy-derived samples, which could be linked with the difference in virulence performance between diseased and healthy sample groups. Our findings suggest that P. intermedia and P. nigrescens may serve as “crucial substances” in subgingival plaque, which may

  6. Population-Genomic Insights into Variation in Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens Isolates and Its Association with Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Zhen, Min; Zhan, Yalin; Song, Yeqing; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jinfeng

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has helped to reveal the close relationship between Prevotella and periodontal disease, but the roles of subspecies diversity and genomic variation within this genus in periodontal diseases still need to be investigated. We performed a comparative genome analysis of 48 Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolates that from the same cohort of subjects to identify the main drivers of their pathogenicity and adaptation to different environments. The comparisons were done between two species and between disease and health based on pooled sequences. The results showed that both P. intermedia and P. nigrescens have highly dynamic genomes and can take up various exogenous factors through horizontal gene transfer. The major differences between disease-derived and health-derived samples of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens were factors related to genome modification and recombination, indicating that the Prevotella isolates from disease sites may be more capable of genomic reconstruction. We also identified genetic elements specific to each sample, and found that disease groups had more unique virulence factors related to capsule and lipopolysaccharide synthesis, secretion systems, proteinases, and toxins, suggesting that strains from disease sites may have more specific virulence, particularly for P. intermedia . The differentially represented pathways between samples from disease and health were related to energy metabolism, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, consistent with data from the whole subgingival microbiome in periodontal disease and health. Disease-derived samples had gained or lost several metabolic genes compared to healthy-derived samples, which could be linked with the difference in virulence performance between diseased and healthy sample groups. Our findings suggest that P. intermedia and P. nigrescens may serve as "crucial substances" in subgingival plaque, which may reflect changes in

  7. Language Modernization vs. Linguistic Protectionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Erida

    2009-01-01

    Since 1991, when the fiercest of all Communist isolations broke and the borders to the world were finally opened, the Albanian language has been undergoing significant changes in its lexicon and, at a certain measure, in its structure. Numerous concepts have found their way into the Albanian knowledge base before an Albanian word was ever found to…

  8. A Survey on the Exchange of Linguistic Resources: Publishing Linguistic Linked Open Data on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Roa-Valverde, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the principal formats and frameworks that have been used in the last 20 years to exchange linguistic resources. It aims to give special attention to the most recent approaches to publishing linguistic linked open data on the Web. Design/methodology/approach: Research papers…

  9. Sample Undergraduate Linguistics Courses. Linguistics in the Undergraduate Curriculum, Appendix 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguistic Society of America, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-six nontraditional undergraduate courses in linguistics are described. Course topics include: animal communication, bilingualism, sociolinguistics, introductory linguistics, language and formal reasoning, language and human conflict, language and power, language and sex, language and the brain, language planning, language typology and…

  10. The CFTR Met 470 allele is associated with lower birth rates in fertile men from a population isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülüm Kosova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Although little is known about the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR gene in reproductive physiology, numerous variants in this gene have been implicated in etiology of male infertility due to congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD. Here, we studied the fertility effects of three CBAVD-associated CFTR polymorphisms, the (TGm and polyT repeat polymorphisms in intron 8 and Met470Val in exon 10, in healthy men of European descent. Homozygosity for the Met470 allele was associated with lower birth rates, defined as the number of births per year of marriage (P = 0.0029. The Met470Val locus explained 4.36% of the phenotypic variance in birth rate, and men homozygous for the Met470 allele had 0.56 fewer children on average compared to Val470 carrier men. The derived Val470 allele occurs at high frequencies in non-African populations (allele frequency = 0.51 in HapMap CEU, whereas it is very rare in African population (Fst = 0.43 between HapMap CEU and YRI. In addition, haplotypes bearing Val470 show a lack of genetic diversity and are thus longer than haplotypes bearing Met470 (measured by an integrated haplotype score [iHS] of -1.93 in HapMap CEU. The fraction of SNPs in the HapMap Phase2 data set with more extreme Fst and iHS measures is 0.003, consistent with a selective sweep outside of Africa. The fertility advantage conferred by Val470 relative to Met470 may provide a selective mechanism for these population genetic observations.

  11. Deaf Students as a Linguistic and Cultural Minority: Shifting Perspectives and Implications for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Michael; Lieberman, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Deaf children have traditionally been perceived and educated as a special needs population. Over the past several decades, many factors have converged to enable a shift in perspective to one in which deaf children are viewed as a cultural and linguistic minority, and the education of deaf children is approached from a bilingual framework. This…

  12. Road Sign Romanization in Oman: The Linguistic Landscape Close-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamoussi, Rafik; Roche, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the Arab Gulf States, bilingual road signs are the norm, employing both Arabic and a romanized counterpart for the large expatriate population. The existing romanization is inconsistent, with potentially misleading variant spellings of place names signposting the region. This study provides a linguistic analysis of signs on the arterial…

  13. Contact in the prehistory of the Sakha (Yakuts) : Linguistic and genetic perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the prehistory of a northeastern Siberian population, the Sakha (Yakuts), from both a linguistic and a molecular-genetic perspective. The Sakha, who are a Turkic-speaking group of cattle- and horse-breeders, migrated to the Lena river from an area further to the south several

  14. Exploring Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students' Identities in an Afterschool Book Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chi

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research aims to investigate identity positions of elementary school students with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) background in an afterschool book club. The increasing population of CLD students and their learning needs have become a national focus in American schools. Scholars have highlighted that understanding…

  15. An Investigation of the Linguistic Construction of Identity in Individuals after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Louise C.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has emphasized the importance of a positive identity in the rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and although identity is constructed and negotiated socially, through the use of language, there is little research available on the linguistic tools used by this population in constructing their identities.…

  16. Migrant Hispanic Students Speak Up: Linguistic and Cultural Perspectives on Low Academic Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieter, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The Hispanic population and their high school dropout rates in the United States have greatly increased over the last several decades. This study investigates linguistic and cultural issues that may have an association with high school abandonment among migrant Hispanic students. Open-ended interview questions were posed to a bilingual education…

  17. Linguistic fuzzy selection of liquid levelmeters in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghyym, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, a selection methodology of liquid levelmeters, especially, level sensors in non-nuclear category, to be installed in nuclear facilities is developed using a linguistic fuzzy approach. Depending on defuzzification techniques, the linguistic fuzzy methodology leads to either linguistic (exactly, fully-linguistic) or cardinal (i.e., semi-linguistic) evaluation. In the case of the linguistic method, for each alternative, fuzzy preference index is converted to linguistic utility value by means of a similarity measure determining the degree of similarity between fuzzy index and linguistic ratings. For the cardinal method, the index is translated to cardinal overall utility value. According to these values, alternatives of interest are linguistically or numerically evaluated and a suitable alternative can be selected. Under given selection criteria, the suitable selections out of some liquid levelmeters for nuclear facilities are dealt with using the linguistic fuzzy methodology proposed. Then, linguistic fuzzy evaluation results are compared with numerical results available in the literature. It is found that as to a suitable option the linguistic fuzzy selection is in agreement with the crisp numerical selection. In addition, this comparison shows that the fully-linguistic method facilitates linguistic interpretation regarding evaluation results

  18. Linguistic fuzzy selection of liquid levelmeters in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghyym, S. H. [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    In this work, a selection methodology of liquid levelmeters, especially, level sensors in non-nuclear category, to be installed in nuclear facilities is developed using a linguistic fuzzy approach. Depending on defuzzification techniques, the linguistic fuzzy methodology leads to either linguistic (exactly, fully-linguistic) or cardinal (i.e., semi-linguistic) evaluation. In the case of the linguistic method, for each alternative, fuzzy preference index is converted to linguistic utility value by means of a similarity measure determining the degree of similarity between fuzzy index and linguistic ratings. For the cardinal method, the index is translated to cardinal overall utility value. According to these values, alternatives of interest are linguistically or numerically evaluated and a suitable alternative can be selected. Under given selection criteria, the suitable selections out of some liquid levelmeters for nuclear facilities are dealt with using the linguistic fuzzy methodology proposed. Then, linguistic fuzzy evaluation results are compared with numerical results available in the literature. It is found that as to a suitable option the linguistic fuzzy selection is in agreement with the crisp numerical selection. In addition, this comparison shows that the fully-linguistic method facilitates linguistic interpretation regarding evaluation results.

  19. Lesions in the wingless gene of the Apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) individuals with deformed or reduced wings, coming from the isolated population in Pieniny (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Sanak, Marek; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-02-01

    Parnassius apollo (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is a butterfly species which was common in Europe in 19th century, but now it is considered as near threatened. Various programs devoted to protect and save P. apollo have been established, between others the one in Pieniny National Park (Poland). An isolated population of this butterfly has been restored there from a small group of 20-30 individuals in early 1990s. However, deformations or reductions of wings occur in this population in a relatively large number of insects, and the cause of this phenomenon is not known. In this report, the occurrence of lesions in the wingless (wg) gene is demonstrated in most of tested butterflies with deformed or reduced wings, but not in normal insects. Although the analyses indicated that wg lesion(s) cannot be the sole cause of the deformed or reduced wings in the population of P. apollo from Pieniny, the discovery that this genetic defect occurs in most of malformed individuals, can be considered as an important step in understanding this phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  1. Phylogeography, genetic structure and population divergence time of cheetahs in Africa and Asia: evidence for long-term geographic isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charruau, P; Fernandes, C; Orozco-terWengel, P; Peters, J; Hunter, L; Ziaie, H; Jourabchian, A; Jowkar, H; Schaller, G; Ostrowski, S; Vercammen, P; Grange, T; Schlötterer, C; Kotze, A; Geigl, E-M; Walzer, C; Burger, P A

    2011-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been described as a species with low levels of genetic variation. This has been suggested to be the consequence of a demographic bottleneck 10 000–12 000 years ago (ya) and also led to the assumption that only small genetic differences exist between the described subspecies. However, analysing mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites in cheetah samples from most of the historic range of the species we found relatively deep phylogeographic breaks between some of the investigated populations, and most of the methods assessed divergence time estimates predating the postulated bottleneck. Mitochondrial DNA monophyly and overall levels of genetic differentiation support the distinctiveness of Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii). Moreover, combining archaeozoological and contemporary samples, we show that Asiatic cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) are unambiguously separated from African subspecies. Divergence time estimates from mitochondrial and nuclear data place the split between Asiatic and Southern African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) at 32 000–67 000 ya using an average mammalian microsatellite mutation rate and at 4700–44 000 ya employing human microsatellite mutation rates. Cheetahs are vulnerable to extinction globally and critically endangered in their Asiatic range, where the last 70–110 individuals survive only in Iran. We demonstrate that these extant Iranian cheetahs are an autochthonous monophyletic population and the last representatives of the Asiatic subspecies A. j. venaticus. We advocate that conservation strategies should consider the uncovered independent evolutionary histories of Asiatic and African cheetahs, as well as among some African subspecies. This would facilitate the dual conservation priorities of maintaining locally adapted ecotypes and genetic diversity. PMID:21214655

  2. [An essay about science and linguistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugini, P

    2011-01-01

    Both the methodology and epistemology of science provided the criteria by which the scientific research can describe and interpret data and results of its observational or experimental studies. When the scientist approaches the conclusive inference, it is mandatory to think that both the knowledge and truth imply the use of words semantically and etymologically (semiologically) appropriate, especially if neologisms are required. Lacking a vocabulary, there will be the need of popularizing the inference to the linguistics of the context to which the message is addressed. This could imply a discrepancy among science, knowledge, truth and linguistics, that can be defined "semiologic bias". To avoid this linguistic error, the scientist must feel the responsibility to provide the scientific community with the new words that are semantically and etymologically coherent with what it has been scientifically discovered.

  3. Linguistic Ethnography, Literacy Teaching and Teacher Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Grete; Nielsen, Henrik Balle

    in current attempts to research-base teacher education. Lefstein, A. & J. Snell. 2014. Better than best practice. Developing teaching and learning through dialogue. London: Routledge. Keywords: literacy teaching classroom dialogue teacher feedback linguistic ethnography research-based teacher education...... material consists of field notes and video observations from the literacy classroom combined with reflective interviews with the literacy teacher and analyses of pupils’ oral and written texts. Taking a linguistic ethnographic approach, the case study investigates the interplay between teacher, pupil...... eclecticism, openness and systematicity characteristic of a linguistic ethnographic analysis (Lefstein & Snell 2014, 185-86). In the poster, we will focus on emergent data analysis. Our main points of interest are 1) the classroom dialogue between teacher and pupils and 2) the literacy teacher’s assessment...

  4. Preprocessing Greek Papyri for Linguistic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierros, Marja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Greek documentary papyri form an important direct source for Ancient Greek. It has been exploited surprisingly little in Greek linguistics due to a lack of good tools for searching linguistic structures. This article presents a new tool and digital platform, “Sematia”, which enables transforming the digital texts available in TEI EpiDoc XML format to a format which can be morphologically and syntactically annotated (treebanked, and where the user can add new metadata concerning the text type, writer and handwriting of each act of writing. An important aspect in this process is to take into account the original surviving writing vs. the standardization of language and supplements made by the editors. This is performed by creating two different layers of the same text. The platform is in its early development phase. Ongoing and future developments, such as tagging linguistic variation phenomena as well as queries performed within Sematia, are discussed at the end of the article.

  5. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It is examined, how Zulu linguistic culture is regarded a resource in the isiZulu-speaking community and as one of the most salient tools of in-group identification in the larger contemporary South African society. Zulu people’s culture is profoundly language-embedded and Zulu linguistic culture often based on essentialism.

  6. The effects of linguistic modification on ESL students' comprehension of nursing course test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosher, Susan; Bowles, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that language may be a source of construct-irrelevant variance for non-native speakers of English, or English as a second language (ESL) students, when they take exams. As a result, exams may not accurately measure knowledge of nursing content. One accommodation often used to level the playing field for ESL students is linguistic modification, a process by which the reading load of test items is reduced while the content and integrity of the item are maintained. Research on the effects of linguistic modification has been conducted on examinees in the K-12 population, but is just beginning in other areas. This study describes the collaborative process by which items from a pathophysiology exam were linguistically modified and subsequently evaluated for comprehensibility by ESL students. Findings indicate that in a majority of cases, modification improved examinees' comprehension of test items. Implications for test item writing and future research are discussed.

  7. Genetic assessment of an isolated endemic Samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) population in the Amathole Mountains, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madisha, M Thabang; Dalton, Desire L; Jansen, Raymond; Kotze, Antoinette

    2018-03-01

    The endemic Samango monkey subspecies (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) inhabits small discontinuous Afromontane forest patches in the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal midlands and southern Mpumalanga Provinces in South Africa. The subspecies is affected by restricted migration between forest patches which may impact on gene flow resulting in inbreeding and possible localized extinction. Current consensus, based on habitat quality, is that C. a. labiatus can be considered as endangered as the small forest patches they inhabit may not be large enough to sustain them. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular genetic investigation to determine if the observed isolation has affected the genetic variability of the subspecies. A total of 65 Samango monkeys (including juveniles, subadults and adults) were sampled from two localities within the Hogsback area in the Amathole Mountains. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation was assessed using 17 microsatellite markers and by sequencing the hypervariable 1 region (HVR1). Microsatellite data generated was used to determine population structure, genetic diversity and the extent of inbreeding. Sequences of the HVR1 were used to infer individual origins, haplotype sharing and haplotype diversity. No negative genetic factors associated with isolation such as inbreeding were detected in the two groups and gene flow between groups can be regarded as fairly high primarily as a result of male migration. This was in contrast to the low nuclear genetic diversity observed (H o  = 0.45). A further reduction in heterozygosity may lead to inbreeding and reduced offspring fitness. Translocations and establishment of habitat corridors between forest patches are some of the recommendations that have emerged from this study which will increase long-term population viability of the subspecies.

  8. Problems of linguistic discrimination in the communicative space of Tajikistan: legal, sociolinguistic and educational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diloro Iskandarova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it is disregarded and banned, a person can be discriminated in the society according to various attributes – due to the person's language, religion, nationality, social background. The problem touches upon not only individuals but minorities as well. Almost all states have one or several groups – minorities – that differ from the main population in ethnic, linguistic or religious lines. Most international treaties on human rights contain anti-discriminatory provisions. In addition to the main rights of the freedom of conscience, thought and associations, the principal legal guarantees for each representative of minorities consist in being treated equally by the law and courts and in equal protection of laws. The paper studies the problems of legal, sociolinguistic and educational basis of linguistic discrimination in the communicative space of Tajikistan. Linguistic discrimination and political correctness are closely connected with the language policy of the state. With exoglossic linguistic situation being characteristic for Tajikistan arises a need to study the questions related to linguistic discrimination. This will allow making certain adjustments to language building and harmonizing the ethnic and interethnic interests on the basis of a balanced and scientifically justified language policy.

  9. The Study of Critical Eco-Linguistic in Green Discourse: Prospective Eco-Linguistic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Yuniawan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eco-linguistic studies are influenced by one of the other interdisciplinary sciences, namely critical discourse analysis. The combination of these two sciences is called critical eco-linguistic studies. Critical eco-linguistic examines the discourse about the environment and various forms of discourse and their ideology which concerns people and the environment. The environmental discourse with all its manifestations (oral text, written text is called green discourse. To that end, critical eco-linguistic dictates the linguistic aspects contained in the green discourse. Utilization of lingual units in green discourse will affect the sense and logic of people involved in the discourse, ie the writers and readers or the speakers and the speakers. What is recorded in their cognition, will affect their attitudes and actions to the environment. If green discourse is constructive, then their attitude and actions to the environment are constructive. Conversely, if green discourse is more destructive and exploitative, then their attitudes and actions towards the environment will also be affected towards destruction and exploitation. For this reason, critical eco-linguistic studies in green discourse deserve to be given space as a form of prospective eco-linguistic analysis.

  10. Drainage isolation and climate change-driven population expansion shape the genetic structures of Tuber indicum complex in the Hengduan Mountains region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bang; Zhao, Qi; Xu, Jianping; Qin, Jiao; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-02-24

    The orogenesis of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the Quaternary climate changes have played key roles in driving the evolution of flora and fauna in Southwest China, but their effects on higher fungi are poorly addressed. In this study, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of the Tuber indicum species complex, an economically important fungal group distributed in the Hengduan Mountains region. Our data confirmed the existence of two distinct lineages, T. indicum and T. himalayense, within this species complex. Three geographic groups (Groups W, N and C) were revealed within T. indicum, with Group W found in the paleo-Lancang River region, while Groups N and C corresponded to the two banks along the contemporary Jinsha River, suggesting that rivers have acted as barriers for gene flow among populations from different drainages. Historical range expansion resulted from climate changes was inferred in Group C, contributing to the observed gene flow among geographic populations within this group. Although no significant geographic structure was identified in T. himalayense, evidence of drainage isolation for this species was also detected. Our findings demonstrate that both topographic changes and Quaternary climate oscillations have played important roles in driving the genetic structures of the T. indicum species complex.

  11. CONSTRAINING THE SPIN-DOWN OF THE NEARBY ISOLATED NEUTRON STAR RX J0806.4-4123, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE POPULATION OF NEARBY NEUTRON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D. L.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.

    2009-01-01

    The nearby isolated neutron stars (INSs) are a group of seven relatively slowly rotating neutron stars that show thermal X-ray spectra, most with broad absorption features. They are interesting both because they may allow one to determine fundamental neutron-star properties by modeling their spectra, and because they appear to be a large fraction of the overall neutron-star population. Here, we describe a series of XMM -Newton observations of the nearby INS RX J0806.4-4123, taken as part of larger program of timing studies. From these, we limit the spin-down rate to ν-dot=(-4.3±2.3)x10 -16 Hz s -1 . This constrains the dipole magnetic field to be 13 G at 2σ, significantly less than the field of ∼10 14 G implied by simple models for the X-ray absorption found at 0.45 keV. We confirm that the spectrum is thermal and stable (to within a few percent), but find that the 0.45 keV absorption feature is broader and more complex than previously thought. Considering the population of INSs, we find that magnetic field decay from an initial field of ∼ 14 G accounts most naturally for their timing and spectral properties, both qualitatively and in the context of the models for field decay of Pons and collaborators.

  12. Protein linguistics - a grammar for modular protein assembly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimona, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The correspondence between biology and linguistics at the level of sequence and lexical inventories, and of structure and syntax, has fuelled attempts to describe genome structure by the rules of formal linguistics. But how can we define protein linguistic rules? And how could compositional semantics improve our understanding of protein organization and functional plasticity?

  13. What Does Corpus Linguistics Have to Offer to Language Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, continuing advances in technology have increased the capacity to automate the extraction of a range of linguistic features of texts and thus have provided the impetus for the substantial growth of corpus linguistics. While corpus linguistic tools and methods have been used extensively in second language learning research, they…

  14. Citation Analysis and Authorship Patterns of Two Linguistics Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, Ifeanyi J.; Asogwa, Brendan E.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sources cited in articles published in two linguistics journals, "Applied Linguistics and Journal of Linguistics," from 2001 to 2010. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using bibliometric indicators, such as types of cited sources, timeliness of cited sources, authorship patterns, rank lists of the…

  15. Ninth international conference on computational linguistics Coling 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the summary reports presented at the concluding session and evaluating the state of the art, trends and perspectives as reflected in the papers presented at Coling 82 in six domains: machine translation, grammatico-semantic analysis, linguistics in its relations to computational linguistics, question answering, artificial intelligence and knowledge representation, and information retrieval and linguistic data bases.

  16. A phylogenetic and cognitive perspective on linguistic complexity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years a growing interest in the nature of linguistic complexity has emerged in linguistic circles. A striking feature of this interest is that linguistic complexity is taken to be a phenomenon in its own right. In fact, an extreme construal of the inherent complexity of language is represented in the notion of universal ...

  17. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  18. Ideologeme "Order" in Modern American Linguistic World Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibatova, Aygul Z.; Vdovichenko, Larisa V.; Ilyashenko, Lubov K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the topic of modern American linguistic world image. It is known that any language is the most important instrument of cognition of the world by a person but there is also no doubt that any language is the way of perception and conceptualization of this knowledge about the world. In modern linguistics linguistic world image is…

  19. Multiple Uses of Applied Linguistics Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanave, Christine Pearson

    2003-01-01

    Discusses ways that applied linguistics literature can be used in a multidisciplinary graduate-level English for academic purposes class. Focuses on three main uses: (1) providing students with information about issues in academic and professional writing; (2) helping them make comparisons of form and style with academic articles in their own…

  20. Educational language planning and linguistic identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Peter

    1991-03-01

    There are cases in which a "high" form of a language is taught and used in formal situations, but linguistic variation is also caused by geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic class. Certain variants are regarded as inferior and restricted in expressive capacity, and are disadvantageous. The paper suggests that it is possible to map each person's linguistic identity in two dimensions: the number of languages spoken, and the situation-specific variants of each language. Further, it is argued that the distance between a "low" variant and a "high" standard form of a language may present to the "low" learner of a standardized mother tongue a barrier just as great as that posed by the learning of a related foreign language to a speaker of the high variant. It is proposed that greater tolerance be exercised in acceptance of variation and in recognition of linguistic identity, so that this can be built on in the necessary and desirable expansion of linguistic competence, rather than being devalued. The relevance of the communicative approach to language teaching is touched on.

  1. Novice Teachers and Linguistics: Foregrounding the Functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Phil; Moore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This forum article describes a postgraduate certificate teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) program with a strong linguistics orientation and argues that such a program provides novice language teachers with knowledge and skills superior to those of programs which focus more on methodology and practicum experience and less on…

  2. Linguistic and Cultural Strategies in ELT Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrius, Montse; Pujol, Didac

    2010-01-01

    There are three main types of ELT dictionaries: monolingual, bilingual, and bilingualized. Each type of dictionary, while having its own advantages, also hinders the learning of English as a foreign language and culture in so far as it is written from a homogenizing (linguistic- and culture-centric) perspective. This paper presents a new type of…

  3. A Short History of Structural Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Peter

    This book is a concise history of structural linguistics, charting its development from the 1870s to the present day. It explains what structuralism was and why its ideas are still central today. For structuralists, a language is a self-contained and tightly organized system whose history is of changes from one state of the system to another. This…

  4. Imitation, Awareness, and Folk Linguistic Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Elizabeth Gentry

    2010-01-01

    Imitations are sophisticated performances displaying regular patterns. The study of imitation allows linguists to understand speakers' perceptions of sociolinguistic variation. In this dissertation, I analyze imitations of non-native accents in order to answer two questions: what can imitation reveal about perception, and how are "folk linguistic…

  5. Indeterminacy, linguistic semantics and fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, V. [Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic semantics.

  6. The Foundations of Linguistics: Two Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Edison

    2009-01-01

    Linguists tell us that the sentence "I enjoyed yourself" is ungrammatical because it violates structural constraints on English sentences. Is this a fact about the "psychology" of English speakers, or a fact about some "mind-independent" state of affairs? If it is indeed a fact about the speaker's psychological makeup then is it so in virtue of…

  7. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  8. The Deaf Child as a Linguistic Minority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    The author offers support for viewing the deaf child as a member of a linguistic minority and considers how this situation affects education of the deaf. Deaf persons are discussed in terms of their intellectual abilities, educational achievement, English competence, and the sociolinguistic factors which point to the existence of a deaf community.…

  9. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  10. Leadership and Languages: Inspiring Young Linguists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Rachel; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Language Leader Award, created by Rachel Hawkes and run by Routes into Languages East "helps pupils learn to lead, using language teaching as the medium. Throughout the year-long programme they develop their leadership and [linguistic] skills, growing in confidence and enhancing their future careers" (Hawkes, n.d. c, p. 1). Some…

  11. The Influence of Bloomfield's Linguistics on Skinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.; Matos, Maria Amelia

    2007-01-01

    Bloomfield's "Linguistics as a Science" (1930/1970), "Language" (1933/1961), and "Language or Ideas?" (1936a/1970), and Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) and "Science and Human Behavior" (1953) were analyzed in regard to their respective perspectives on science and scientific method, the verbal episode, meaning, and subject matter. Similarities…

  12. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity | Moon | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Conventionally, dictionaries present information about institutionalized words, phrases, and senses of words; more creative formations and usages are generally ignored. Yet text and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordinary linguistic behaviour and indeed ...

  13. LINGUISTIC REALITIES IN KENYA: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amitabh@1234

    Kenya is a boon for a field linguist but misinformed politicians and education policy ... to date. Language realities have been observed in this study from a temporal lens of .... The knowledge of a language of international currency is not a curse, and it is ... But the colonial mind-sets of the people worked against the growth.

  14. York Papers in Linguistics, Volume 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local, J. K., Ed.; Warner, A. R., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These 14 articles on aspects of linguistics include the following: "Economy and Optionality: Interpretations of Subjects in Italian" (David Adger); "Collaborative Repair in EFL Classroom Talk" (Zara Iles); "A Timing Model for Fast French" (Eric Keller, Brigitte Zellner); "Another Travesty of Representation:…

  15. The Prague Linguistic Circle and Dialectics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Ondřej

    -, č. 19 (2017), s. 352-357 E-ISSN 2037-2426 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : The Prague Linguistic Circle * Jan Mukařovský * Structuralism * Structural Poetics * Dialectics Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision OBOR OECD: Specific literatures

  16. The Linguistic Functions of Some Nonverbal Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the linguistic concerns of the rhetorical “polylogic” approach to the exploration of the stylistic aspects of language, which include paralinguistic communication devices, such as waving of hands, blinking of eyes, etc. These paralinguistic elements (proxemics for example) usually occur together with ...

  17. Some thoughts on economy within linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URIAGEREKA Juan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the cornerstones of Chomsky's Minimalist Program is the role played by economy. This paper discusses different ways in which Chomsky's notion of economy in linguistics can be understood, given current views on dynamic systems and, in particular, on evolution in biological systems.

  18. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality. Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  19. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  20. Political Economy in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2017-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review is based on the fundamental idea that political economy should be adopted as a frame for research and discussion in applied linguistics as part of a general social turn which has taken hold in the field over the past three decades. It starts with Susan Gal's (1989) early call for such a move in sociolinguistics and…

  1. L2 Literacy and Biliteracy: Linguistic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Stefan M.

    1991-01-01

    In a study of literacy and linguistics that focuses on bilingual and multilingual societies, the following topics are covered: bilingualism and biliteracy; biliteracy in the Soviet Union; case studies in Karelia and Ukraine; and predicting the future of biliteracy. (43 references. (LB)

  2. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of reports on literacy and literacy issues includes a variety of perspectives and descriptions of diverse programs and is divided into three sections. The first examines broad questions of literacy: "On the Study of Literacy" (David Bendor-Samuel); "Linguistics and Literacy" (Gloria Kindell); and "Literacy in…

  3. Second Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the second language acquisition (SLA) process and the differential success of second language learners. Examines the fundamental challenges that this characterization faces, and highlights the contributions SLA is capable of in the coming decade. Offers topics for a training and development of curriculum for future applied linguists from…

  4. Psycholinguistics in Applied Linguistics: Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between the terms psycholinguistics and applied linguistics, and in the process explores key issues in multilingual processing, such as the structure of the bilingual lexicon, language choice in production and perception, and the language mode. (Author/VWL)

  5. Linguistic Prescription: Familiar Practices and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a question by a law student of whether a correction of "sneaked" to "snuck" suggests misinformation and misguided rigidity in the context of better information about current legal usage and a perennial tendency to linguistic prescription. Explores attitudes to current borrowings from English into Japanese and French…

  6. Bridges Over Troubled Waters: Theoretical Linguistics And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical linguistics and those of multilingualism and code-switching (CS) research. It argues that the primary special point of interaction between these fields lies in the question of potential equivalence between elements or categories, bridging across ...

  7. Linguistic resources and strategies used in multilingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infrastructure, larger patients base and more staff than its counterpart, (HC-2), which is smaller and has a smaller patient and ... staff members, particularly doctors, have a variety of linguistic repertoires and cultural .... consultation. Some can use odd words that they have picked up, others felt that they could follow the gist of.

  8. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  9. Ideology in Applied Linguistics for Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alan

    2009-01-01

    It is contended that much of present-day applied linguistics for language teaching (ALLT) fails to mediate effectively, primarily because an ideological construction, emanating from a critical theory perspective, is too often imposed on everyday pedagogical practices. This has resulted in an exaggerated level of concern about the power imbalances…

  10. Applied Linguistics and Primary School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sue, Ed.; McCartney, Elspeth, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Modern primary teachers must adapt literacy programmes and ensure efficient learning for all. They must also support children with language and literacy difficulties, children learning English as an additional language and possibly teach a modern foreign language. To do this effectively, they need to understand the applied linguistics research…

  11. Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington DC, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Julie; Fee, Molly; Donovan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private, nonprofit organization with over 50 years' experience in the application of research on language and culture to educational and societal concerns. CAL carries out its mission to improve communication through better understanding of language and culture by engaging in a variety of projects in…

  12. Linguistics, pedagogy and teaching of the language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro William Santiago Galvis

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article tackles the relationship that exists between linguistics and pedagogy with regards to pedagocical language practices. From this relationship, the approach that has been given to practical native language teaching can be determined as well as characterized. Finally, the paper provides reasons for the communicational approach to teaching spanish.   

  13. Linguistic Imperialism, Cultural Integrity, and EIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, Marko

    2001-01-01

    Argues that while linguistic imperialism is real and needs to be addressed, one way for the language instructor to come to terms with the cultural imposition of English language teaching is to define English as an international language. Suggests promoting "prestige varieties" positions the practitioner as purveyor of Anglo-American hegemony and…

  14. Experiences from Nordic research collaboration in linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Sandøy

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The project “Modern loanwords in the languages of the Nordic countries (MIN – Moderne importord i språka i Norden” was the first large-scale collaborative project between linguists in the Nordic countries. This article presents both the aim of the project and some experiences from the work with respect to project design, financing and networking.

  15. SOCIO CUM LINGUISTIC INTERPLAY IN LANGUAGE CHOICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sir George

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... learn to speak a language by force, or refuse to speak it. This is a ... circumstances such as the effects of linguistic deprivation, how bilingual children can learn ..... the other; the effects of books, movies and so on. Out.

  16. Multiple, Distinct Intercontinental Lineages but Isolation of Australian Populations in a Cosmopolitan Lichen-Forming Fungal Taxon, Psora decipiens (Psoraceae, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Leavitt

    2018-02-01

    P. decipiens were recovered within a single well-supported monophyletic clade consisting solely of Australian samples. Our study supports up to 10 candidate species-level lineages in P. decipiens, based on genealogical concordance and coalescent-based species delimitation analyses. Our results support the general pattern of the biogeographic isolation of lichen-forming fungal populations in Australia, even in cases where closely related congeners have documented intercontinental distributions. Our study has important implications for understanding factors influencing diversification and distributions of lichens associated with BSC.

  17. Social Issues in Applied Linguistics: Linguistic Diversity in the Classroom and Beyond. Is it Wrong or Just Different? Indigenous Spanish in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicer, Dora

    2010-01-01

    Varieties of L2 language use are frequently rejected and criticized in the absence of linguistic criteria to sustain such attitudes. In Mexico, indigenous varieties of Spanish, the second language (L2) of diverse populations, has been stigmatized as uneducated Spanish. A majority of elementary school teachers interviewed, who are Spanish first language (L1) speakers, maintain that particular variations in accent and pronunciation as well as some grammatical variations are characteristic of in...

  18. Historical Trajectory of the Quechuan Linguistic Family and its Relations to the Aimaran Linguistic Family

    OpenAIRE

    Adelaar, Willem

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to present the principal stages of the prehistory and history of the Quechuan language family in its interaction with the Aimaran family. It reconstructs a plausible scenario for a unique, intensive process of linguistic convergence that underlies the protolanguages of both families. From there on, it traces the principal developments that characterize the history of the Quechuan linguistic family, such as the initial split in two main branches, Quechua I and Quechua II (fo...

  19. Linguistic aspects of eponymic professional endocrinologic terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Bytsko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special linguistic researches of terminological units of different branches of medicine allow analyzing in details the ways of creating the systems of clinical terminology from different aspects: historical, scientific, cultural, linguistic and semantic. There is a wide area of terminology related to the clinical and experimental endocrino­logy within general medical terminological system. The purpose of the study: to demonstrate the structure of endocrine medical terms — eponyms through the prism of systematization of methodological researches on eponymic vocabulary. Materials and methods. The actual material received as a result of a total choice of eponyms (there were 296 terms from the “Reference dictionary for endocrinologist”, which was composed by the scientists of V. Danilevsky Institute of Endocrine Pathology Problems and Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate education — A.V. Kozakov, N.A. Kravchun, I.M. Ilyina, M.I. Zubko, O.A. Goncharova, I.V. Cherniavska has 10,000 endocrine terms, the authors successfully streamlined medical terms of the clinical and experimental endocrinology into the vocabulary. The method of total choice of terms from professional literature, the descriptive method and distributive method were used in the study that allowed distinguishing lexical and semantic features of eponymic terms in the branch of endocrinology. Results. The obtained results point out to the modernity of studies in the field of clinical and experimental endocrinology, which is due to the fact that this is the oldest terminology, by the example of which it is possible to trace the ways of formation, development and improvement of terms, the realization of semantic processes, certain trends, ways and means of word formation. Conclusions. The results of the research on the above mentioned sublanguage of clinical medicine at the level of linguistic observations of the functio­ning in dictionaries and scientific works will

  20. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2001. Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah, Ed.; Alatis, James E., Ed.

    This book contains papers from the 2001 Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, "Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond." Papers include: "Introduction" (Deborah Tannen); "A Brief History of the Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics" (James E.…

  1. Demography-based adaptive network model reproduces the spatial organization of human linguistic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán, José A.; Manrubia, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of human linguistic groups presents a number of interesting and nontrivial patterns. The distributions of the number of speakers per language and the area each group covers follow log-normal distributions, while population and area fulfill an allometric relationship. The topology of networks of spatial contacts between different linguistic groups has been recently characterized, showing atypical properties of the degree distribution and clustering, among others. Human demography, spatial conflicts, and the construction of networks of contacts between linguistic groups are mutually dependent processes. Here we introduce an adaptive network model that takes all of them into account and successfully reproduces, using only four model parameters, not only those features of linguistic groups already described in the literature, but also correlations between demographic and topological properties uncovered in this work. Besides their relevance when modeling and understanding processes related to human biogeography, our adaptive network model admits a number of generalizations that broaden its scope and make it suitable to represent interactions between agents based on population dynamics and competition for space.

  2. Online cancer communication: meeting the literacy, cultural and linguistic needs of diverse audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L

    2008-06-01

    This article provides an analysis of issues and empirical evidence related to literacy, cultural, and linguistic factors in online health and cancer communication, and recommendations to improve cancer communication for diverse audiences. We examined English-language online literature and selected books and policy documents related to literacy, cultural, and linguistic factors in health and cancer communication. Studies about literacy, cultural, and linguistic factors in online cancer communication for diverse audiences are limited, but have increased during the past 15 years. Empirical evidence and theoretical guidance describe the critical importance of these factors, significant unmet needs among low-literate, multicultural and non-English-speaking populations, and strategies to improve communication. Overall, online cancer communication has not met the literacy, cultural, and linguistic needs of diverse populations. The literature offers valuable recommendations about enhancing research, practice, and policy for better cancer communication. Practitioners should understand the strengths and weaknesses of online cancer communication for vulnerable groups, guide patients to better Websites, and supplement that information with oral and tailored communication.

  3. Reference values assessment in a Mediterranean population for small dense low-density lipoprotein concentration isolated by an optimized precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Cidón B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bárbara Fernández-Cidón,1–3 Ariadna Padró-Miquel,1 Pedro Alía-Ramos,1 María José Castro-Castro,1 Marta Fanlo-Maresma,4 Dolors Dot-Bach,1 José Valero-Politi,1 Xavier Pintó-Sala,4 Beatriz Candás-Estébanez1 1Clinical Laboratory, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 2Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biomedicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacogenetics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 4Cardiovascular Risk Unit, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain Background: High serum concentrations of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-c particles are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Their clinical application has been hindered as a consequence of the laborious current method used for their quantification. Objective: Optimize a simple and fast precipitation method to isolate sd-LDL particles and establish a reference interval in a Mediterranean population. Materials and methods: Forty-five serum samples were collected, and sd-LDL particles were isolated using a modified heparin-Mg2+ precipitation method. sd-LDL-c concentration was calculated by subtracting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c from the total cholesterol measured in the supernatant. This method was compared with the reference method (ultracentrifugation. Reference values were estimated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine recommendations. sd-LDL-c concentration was measured in serums from 79 subjects with no lipid metabolism abnormalities. Results: The Passing–Bablok regression equation is y = 1.52 (0.72 to 1.73 + 0.07x (−0.1 to 0.13, demonstrating no significant statistical differences

  4. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing complex linguistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lücking, Andy; Banisch, Sven; Blanchard, Philippe; Job, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this book is to advocate and promote network models of linguistic systems that are both based on thorough mathematical models and substantiated in terms of linguistics. In this way, the book contributes first steps towards establishing a statistical network theory as a theoretical basis of linguistic network analysis the boarder of the natural sciences and the humanities.This book addresses researchers who want to get familiar with theoretical developments, computational models and their empirical evaluation in the field of complex linguistic networks. It is intended to all those who are interested in statisticalmodels of linguistic systems from the point of view of network research. This includes all relevant areas of linguistics ranging from phonological, morphological and lexical networks on the one hand and syntactic, semantic and pragmatic networks on the other. In this sense, the volume concerns readers from many disciplines such as physics, linguistics, computer science and information scien...

  5. How fifth grade Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Alma R.

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative, sociolinguistic research study examines how bilingual Latino/a students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States serving an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a fifth grade science class entirely comprised of language minority students transitioning out of bilingual education. Therefore, English was the means of instruction in science, supported by informal peer-to-peer Spanish-language communication. This study is grounded in a social constructivist paradigm. From this standpoint, learning science is a social process where social, cultural, and linguistic factors are all considered crucial to the process of acquiring scientific knowledge. The study was descriptive in nature, examining specific linguistic behaviors with the purpose of identifying and analyzing the linguistic functions of students' utterances while participating in science learning. The results suggest that students purposefully adapt their use of linguistic resources in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. What is underscored in this study is the importance of explicitly acknowledging, supporting, and incorporating bilingual students' linguistic resources both in Spanish and English into the science classroom in order to optimize students' participation and facilitate their understanding.

  6. Chomsky and Wittgenstein on Linguistic Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas McNally

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In his Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language, Saul Kripke presents his influential reading of Wittgenstein’s later writings on language. One of the largely unexplored features of that reading is that Kripke makes a small number of suggestive remarks concerning the possible threat that Wittgenstein’s arguments pose for Chomsky’s linguistic project. In this paper, we attempt to characterise the relevance of Wittgenstein’s later work on meaning and rule-following for transformational linguistics, and in particular to identify the potentially negative impact it has on that project. Although we use Kripke’s remarks to articulate some of the pertinent issues, we return to Wittgenstein’s later writings to address them. We argue that Wittgenstein’s main target in the relevant sections of the Philosophical Investigations is the notion of ‘logical compulsion’, which involves assuming that there is more to applying a word or rule than how we are naturally or “psychologically” compelled to apply. We characterise two of the main lines of argument in the Investigations in terms of the rejection of logical compulsion. We thus propose to address the relevance of Wittgenstein’s writings for Chomsky by considering whether Chomsky’s linguistics presupposes the targeted notion of logical compulsion. We argue that Chomsky’s conception of linguistic competence in terms of successive states of the “language faculty” (containing the principles of universal grammar does presuppose this problematic notion. Chomsky responded to Kripke by devoting a chapter of his Knowledge of Language to defending this conception of linguistic competence against the Wittgensteinian arguments. We evaluate his response and argue that he has misidentified the threat to his linguistic project as consisting in the attack on its ‘individual psychology’ standpoint, rather than its commitment to logical compulsion. We conclude by arguing that Chomsky

  7. It ain't what you say, it's how you say it: linguistic and cultural diversity in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cynthia Cole; Clardy, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The disparity between the cultural and linguistic diversity of the teaching population and the student population continues to grow as teacher education programs enroll and graduate primarily white teacher candidates (83.7%). At the same time, the diversity of the K-12 student body has increased with 65% of public school students being from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (National Center for Education Statistics, 2007). This chasm between the diversity of the teaching force and student population is of concern as many teachers report that they do not have the cultural knowledge and experience of working or living in diverse environments, yet will be faced with teaching a very diverse student population. Hence, the need for teacher candidates and current teachers to be explicitly taught the skills needed to successfully teach diverse student populations is urgent. In this article, we explore the following phenomena: how linguistic and cultural diversity is regarded in teacher education programs, as well as teacher candidates' and current K-12 teachers' dispositions towards students who do not share their cultural backgrounds or language (including those who vary in their dialects). Finally, we will present strategies that teacher educators can use to embrace and empower culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) teacher candidates, as well as prepare teacher candidates to teach diverse student populations.

  8. Functional MR imaging of cerebral auditory cortex with linguistic and non-linguistic stimulation: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Su Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Shin, Tae Min

    1999-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data for understanding the central auditory neural pathway by means of functional MR imaging (fMRI) of the cerebral auditory cortex during linguistic and non-linguistic auditory stimulation. In three right-handed volunteers we conducted fMRI of auditory cortex stimulation at 1.5 T using a conventional gradient-echo technique (TR/TE/flip angle: 80/60/40 deg). Using a pulsed tone of 1000 Hz and speech as non-linguistic and linguistic auditory stimuli, respectively, images-including those of the superior temporal gyrus of both hemispheres-were obtained in sagittal plases. Both stimuli were separately delivered binaurally or monoaurally through a plastic earphone. Images were activated by processing with homemade software. In order to analyze patterns of auditory cortex activation according to type of stimulus and which side of the ear was stimulated, the number and extent of activated pixels were compared between both temporal lobes. Biaural stimulation led to bilateral activation of the superior temporal gyrus, while monoaural stimulation led to more activation in the contralateral temporal lobe than in the ipsilateral. A trend toward slight activation of the left (dominant) temporal lobe in ipsilateral stimulation, particularly with a linguistic stimulus, was observed. During both biaural and monoaural stimulation, a linguistic stimulus produced more widespread activation than did a non-linguistic one. The superior temporal gyri of both temporal lobes are associated with acoustic-phonetic analysis, and the left (dominant) superior temporal gyrus is likely to play a dominant role in this processing. For better understanding of physiological and pathological central auditory pathways, further investigation is needed

  9. NKX6.1 induced pluripotent stem cell reporter lines for isolation and analysis of functionally relevant neuronal and pancreas populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kumar Gupta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported significant advances in the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to clinically relevant cell types such as the insulin producing beta-like cells and motor neurons. However, many of the current differentiation protocols lead to heterogeneous cell cultures containing cell types other than the targeted cell fate. Genetically modified human pluripotent stem cells reporting the expression of specific genes are of great value for differentiation protocol optimization and for the purification of relevant cell populations from heterogeneous cell cultures. Here we present the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines with a GFP reporter inserted in the endogenous NKX6.1 locus. Characterization of the reporter lines demonstrated faithful GFP labelling of NKX6.1 expression during pancreas and motor neuron differentiation. Cell sorting and gene expression profiling by RNA sequencing revealed that NKX6.1-positive cells from pancreatic differentiations closely resemble human beta cells. Furthermore, functional characterization of the isolated cells demonstrated that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is mainly confined to the NKX6.1-positive cells. We expect that the NKX6.1-GFP iPSC lines and the results presented here will contribute to the further refinement of differentiation protocols and characterization of hPSC-derived beta cells and motor neurons for disease modelling and cell replacement therapies. Keywords: Human induced pluripotent stem cells, NKX6.1, Reporter cell line, Directed differentiation, hiPSC-derived beta cells

  10. CLEX: A cross-linguistic lexical norms database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rune Nørgaard; Dale, Philip; Bleses, Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words...... in production and comprehension and also early gestures and symbolic actions. These lexical norms have a wide range of uses in basic research, assessment and intervention. In addition, crosslinguistic comparisons of lexical development are greatly facilitated by the availability of norms from diverse languages....... This report describes the development of CLEX, a new web-based cross-linguistic database for lexical data from adaptations of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. CLEX provides tools for a range of analyses within and across languages. It is designed to incorporate additional language...

  11. Vyatka and Vyatkans in the Russian Linguistic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena D. Kazakova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reconstructs the image of Vyatka Region and its population with reference to the vocabulary (both common and proper of Russian popular subdialects and national language. The analysis is made with reference to the Vyatka toponym derivatives, idiomatic expressions and free phrases with toponymic and the corresponding katoikonymic derivatives. Additionally, the author studies the Khlynov and Kirov toponymic derivatives, the former being the original, and the latter – the modern names of the capital of the region. The nominator’s point of view – i.e. inner (Vyatkans’ attitude, outer (neighbours’ attitude, and supraterritorial (Russian population’s attitude – turns out significant for image reconstruction, Vyatkans’ neighbours’ point of view being most fully and vividly reflected in the image thereof. Vyatka’s linguistic image is dominated by the idea of its inhabitants, Vyatkans, their features, character, and language.

  12. Investigation of genetic diversity and epidemiological characteristics of Pasteurella multocida isolates from poultry in southwest China by population structure, multi-locus sequence typing and virulence-associated gene profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhangcheng; Cheng, Fangjun; Lan, Shimei; Guo, Jianhua; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiaoyan; Luo, Zeli; Zhang, Manli; Wu, Juan; Shi, Yang

    2018-04-25

    Fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida has always been a disease of global importance for poultry production. The aim of this study was to obtain more information about the epidemiology of avian P. multocida infection in southwest China and the genetic characteristics of clinical isolates. P. multocida isolates were characterized by biochemical and molecular-biological methods. The distributions of the capsular serogroups, the phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) genotyping and the presence of 19 virulence genes were investigated in 45 isolates of P. multocida that were associated with clinical disease in poultry. The genetic diversity of P. multocida strains was performed by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analysis as well as multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The results showed that most (80.0%) of the P. multocida isolates in this study represented special P. multocida subspecies, and 71.1% of the isolates showed multiple-drug resistance. 45 isolates belonged to capsular types: A (100%) and two LPS genotypes: L1 (95.6%) and L3 (4.4%). MLST revealed two new alleles (pmi77 and gdh57) and one new sequence type (ST342). ST129 types dominated in 45 P. multocida isolates. Isolates belonging to ST129 were with the genes ompH+plpB+ptfA+tonB, whereas ST342 included isolates with fur+hgbA+tonB genes. Population genetic analysis and the MLST results revealed that at least one new ST genotype was present in the avian P. multocida in China. These findings provide novel insights into the epidemiological characteristics of avian P. multocida isolates in southwest China.

  13. Reconstructing the population history of the largest tribe of India: the Dravidian speaking Gond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Tamang, Rakesh; Pennarun, Erwan; Dubey, Pavan; Rai, Niraj; Upadhyay, Rakesh Kumar; Meena, Rajendra Prasad; Patel, Jayanti R; van Driem, George; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Gond comprise the largest tribal group of India with a population exceeding 12 million. Linguistically, the Gond belong to the Gondi-Manda subgroup of the South Central branch of the Dravidian language family. Ethnographers, anthropologists and linguists entertain mutually incompatible hypotheses on their origin. Genetic studies of these people have thus far suffered from the low resolution of the genetic data or the limited number of samples. Therefore, to gain a more comprehensive view on ancient ancestry and genetic affinities of the Gond with the neighbouring populations speaking Indo-European, Dravidian and Austroasiatic languages, we have studied four geographically distinct groups of Gond using high-resolution data. All the Gond groups share a common ancestry with a certain degree of isolation and differentiation. Our allele frequency and haplotype-based analyses reveal that the Gond share substantial genetic ancestry with the Indian Austroasiatic (ie, Munda) groups, rather than with the other Dravidian groups to whom they are most closely related linguistically.

  14. Songs to syntax: the linguistics of birdsong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Beckers, Gabriel J L; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2011-03-01

    Unlike our primate cousins, many species of bird share with humans a capacity for vocal learning, a crucial factor in speech acquisition. There are striking behavioural, neural and genetic similarities between auditory-vocal learning in birds and human infants. Recently, the linguistic parallels between birdsong and spoken language have begun to be investigated. Although both birdsong and human language are hierarchically organized according to particular syntactic constraints, birdsong structure is best characterized as 'phonological syntax', resembling aspects of human sound structure. Crucially, birdsong lacks semantics and words. Formal language and linguistic analysis remains essential for the proper characterization of birdsong as a model system for human speech and language, and for the study of the brain and cognition evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva

    2014-04-01

    The present paper compares the two modes of processing proposed by Van Lancker Sidtis (2009 in her dual process model and the two domains of discourse organization distinguished in the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013; Kaltenböck et al. 2011. These two frameworks were developed on different kinds of data. In the dual process model it is observations on patients with left or right hemisphere damage that marked the starting point of analysis. Central to the dual process model is the distinction between novel speech (or novel language, or newly created language, or propositional speech and formulaic speech (or formulaic expressions or automatic speech. Easily identified instances of formulaic speech are swear words, interjections, pause fillers, discourse elements, non-literal lexical meanings for idioms, proverbs. Unlike the dual process model, in the Discourse Grammar model it is linguistic discontinuities that provided the basis of analysis. Discourse grammar in this model is understood as all the linguistic resources that are available for constructing spoken and written (and signed texts. We argue that Discourse Grammar can be divided into two distinct domains, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar. Whereas Sentence Grammar has been at the centre of interest in mainstream linguistics, Thetical Grammar encompasses linguistic phenomena – such as formulae of social exchange, imperatives, vocatives, interjections, including hesitation markers and pause fillers and what is traditionally known as “parenthetical” constructions – that pose a problem to orthodox grammatical analysis. We show that the findings made within the two frameworks are largely compatible with one another: both models converge on claiming that there is a significant correlation between linguistic categorization and hemisphere-based brain activity. In the dual process model it is hypothesized that there is a significant correlation between certain kinds of speech

  16. Constructing an XML database of linguistics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J H Kroeze

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A language-oriented, multi-dimensional database of the linguistic characteristics of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament can enable researchers to do ad hoc queries. XML is a suitable technology to transform free text into a database. A clause’s word order can be kept intact while other features such as syntactic and semantic functions can be marked as elements or attributes. The elements or attributes from the XML “database” can be accessed and proces sed by a 4th generation programming language, such as Visual Basic. XML is explored as an option to build an exploitable database of linguistic data by representing inherently multi-dimensional data, including syntactic and semantic analyses of free text.

  17. Genre analysis of linguistics research introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Porras

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of exploring genre analysis has been a trend in Applied Linguistics, not only for its interesting factor, but also because of its pedagogical implications. This study aimed to determine the overall structure, specifically the presence and conformity of moves and steps of the research introductions in the field of Linguistics. Twelve (12 available research introductions were analyzed using Create-A-Research-Space (CARS model. The findings revealed that moves and steps across the research introductions are present. Majority of the research introductions conformed to the CARS model, but did not necessarily follow the suggested sequence. Results imply that teachers of research writing should acknowledge and introduce the CARS model as a basis for teaching the method of writing research introductions effectively.

  18. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    finding from research on sentence processing that sentences are processed incrementally. Empirical methods for establishing grammaticality status are discussed and applied in relation to non-WH extraction phenomena in Danish. In Chapter 2, I discuss the use of the notions of grammaticality......The dissertation presents a functional linguistic model of grammaticality and investigates methods for applying this notion in empirical work. The use of the notion of grammaticality in generative grammar has been criticized by functionalists (Harder, 1996; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999), but attempts...... grammaticality. It is concluded that the intuitions of linguists should in principle be considered hypotheses of grammaticality, and that such hypotheses need to be tested with independent data. Such data can for example take the form of corpus data or acceptability judgment experiments. It is furthermore argued...

  19. M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic/literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by philologist V.V. Vinogrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa N. Kuznetsova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic / literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by Great Russian scientist-philologist and linguist, Academician V.V. Vinogradov.

  20. Population structure and genetic diversity of Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) from three phylo-geographically isolated riverine ecosystems of India as revealed by mtDNA cytochrome b region sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Bijay Kumar; Baisvar, Vishwamitra Singh; Kunal, Swaraj Priyaranjan; Meena, Dharmendra Kumar; Panda, Debarata; Pakrashi, Sudip; Paria, Prasenjit; Das, Pronob; Bhakta, Dibakar; Debnath, Dipesh; Roy, Suvra; Suresh, V R; Jena, J K

    2018-03-01

    The population structure and genetic diversity of Rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton, 1822) was studied by analysis of the partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b region. We examined 133 samples collected from six locations in three geographically isolated rivers of India. Analysis of 11 haplotypes showed low haplotype diversity (0.00150), nucleotide diversity (π) (0.02884) and low heterogeneity value (0.00374). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the genetic diversity of L. rohita within population is very high than between the populations. The Fst scores (-0.07479 to 0.07022) were the indication of low genetic structure of L. rohita populations of three rivers of India. Conspicuously, Farakka-Bharuch population pair Fst score of 0.0000, although the sampling sites are from different rivers. The phylogenetic reconstruction of unique haplotypes revealed sharing of a single central haplotype (Hap_1) by all the six populations with a point mutations ranging from 1-25 nucleotides.