WorldWideScience

Sample records for linguistic tree structure

  1. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  2. Saussurean structuralism and cognitive linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive linguistics (CL) is often regarded as a continuation of Saussurean structuralism. This paper explores the relationship between the two paradigms, focussing on the connection between semantics and views on the language-thought relationship. As it turns out, the similarity in this respect

  3. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  4. A Short History of Structural Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Peter

    This book is a concise history of structural linguistics, charting its development from the 1870s to the present day. It explains what structuralism was and why its ideas are still central today. For structuralists, a language is a self-contained and tightly organized system whose history is of changes from one state of the system to another. This…

  5. Historical linguistics in Australia: trees, networks and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2010-12-12

    This paper presents an overview of the current state of historical linguistics in Australian languages. Australian languages have been important in theoretical debates about the nature of language change and the possibilities for reconstruction and classification in areas of intensive diffusion. Here are summarized the most important outstanding questions for Australian linguistic prehistory; I also present a case study of the Karnic subgroup of Pama-Nyungan, which illustrates the problems for classification in Australian languages and potential approaches using phylogenetic methods.

  6. Personification in discourse: linguistic forms, conceptual structures and communicative functions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on examples from a corpus of 14 excerpts from novels, this article aims to present a systematic investigation of the different linguistic forms, conceptual structures and communicative functions of personification in discourse. The Metaphor Identification Procedure (Pragglejaz Group, 2007)

  7. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  8. On Functional Potential of Interrogative Structures in Academic Linguistic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Trofimovich Nefedov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the language of scientific communication in the field of linguistics, namely, with the functional potential of the interrogative structures in the form of direct and embedded questions. From a pragmatic perspective the interrogative structures does not seem to be compatible with the contexts of scientific interaction: scientists do not ask for information, but they offer their own solutions for the problem situations. This is reflected in the extremely low frequency of questions in academic research articles and monographs. Their text frequency works out a little over 2 % of the total number of the text predications and that of direct questions is about 1 %. Therefore, their place in verbalization of scientific knowledge in linguistics is metaphorically characterized in this article as «interrogative prohibition» by analogy with the «prohibitions» of Harald Weinrich who introduced several notions point to rarely used linguistic units: «prohibition of authorization» – das «Ich-Verbot», «narrative prohibition» – das «Erzähl-Verbot»; «prohibition of metaphors»– das «MetaphernVerbot». In its turn, low frequency makes the analyzed structures an effective tool to formulate the discussed problems, enables further argumentation, integrate the current text into overall linguistic discourse, control the development of the argumentation in scientific text and finally to draw the recipient's attention to a crucial or unexpected argument.

  9. Neural systems supporting linguistic structure, linguistic experience, and symbolic communication in sign language and gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Aaron J; Supalla, Ted; Fernandez, Nina; Newport, Elissa L; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-09-15

    Sign languages used by deaf communities around the world possess the same structural and organizational properties as spoken languages: In particular, they are richly expressive and also tightly grammatically constrained. They therefore offer the opportunity to investigate the extent to which the neural organization for language is modality independent, as well as to identify ways in which modality influences this organization. The fact that sign languages share the visual-manual modality with a nonlinguistic symbolic communicative system-gesture-further allows us to investigate where the boundaries lie between language and symbolic communication more generally. In the present study, we had three goals: to investigate the neural processing of linguistic structure in American Sign Language (using verbs of motion classifier constructions, which may lie at the boundary between language and gesture); to determine whether we could dissociate the brain systems involved in deriving meaning from symbolic communication (including both language and gesture) from those specifically engaged by linguistically structured content (sign language); and to assess whether sign language experience influences the neural systems used for understanding nonlinguistic gesture. The results demonstrated that even sign language constructions that appear on the surface to be similar to gesture are processed within the left-lateralized frontal-temporal network used for spoken languages-supporting claims that these constructions are linguistically structured. Moreover, although nonsigners engage regions involved in human action perception to process communicative, symbolic gestures, signers instead engage parts of the language-processing network-demonstrating an influence of experience on the perception of nonlinguistic stimuli.

  10. Being Moved: Linguistic Representation and Conceptual Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena eKuehnast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the organisation of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterised by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved.

  11. Being moved: linguistic representation and conceptual structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnast, Milena; Wagner, Valentin; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the organization of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and co...

  12. In Few Words: Linguistic Gap but Adequate Narrative Structure in Preschool Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Barbieri, Margherita; Tomassini, Marta; Roch, Maja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare linguistic and narrative skills of monolingual and bilingual preschoolers and to estimate linguistic predictors of the macro-structural level of narratives. A battery of linguistic measures in Italian was administered to sixty-four Monolinguals and sixty-four Early Bilinguals; it included Vocabulary,…

  13. Design of data structures for mergeable trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Loukas; Tarjan, Robert Endre; Werneck, Renato Fonseca F.

    2006-01-01

    merge operation can change many arcs. In spite of this, we develop a data structure that supports merges and all other standard tree operations in O(log2 n) amortized time on an n-node forest. For the special case that occurs in the motivating application, in which arbitrary arc deletions...... are not allowed, we give a data structure with an O(log n) amortized time bound per operation, which is asymptotically optimal. The analysis of both algorithms is not straightforward and requires ideas not previously used in the study of dynamic trees. We explore the design space of algorithms for the problem......Motivated by an application in computational topology, we consider a novel variant of the problem of efficiently maintaining dynamic rooted trees. This variant allows an operation that merges two tree paths. In contrast to the standard problem, in which only one tree arc at a time changes, a single...

  14. Innovations in structuring article introductions: The case of Applied Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Lin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the rhetorical structure of introductions that are followed by an independent Literature Review (L section. It is motivated by an increasing use or even the prevalent use of both the introduction and L sections in the opening phase of empirical research articles in many disciplines and the lack of systematic genre-based investigation of introductions with a following L section. Based on a detailed examination of 30 introductions with a subsequent L section in Applied Linguistics, this study found that they generally can be classified into two categories according to their communicative functions and structures. They are the traditional CARS type that largely follows the classic “Create a Research Space” (CARS model and the innovative Two-move Orientation type. Some featured elements used in the introductions with a subsequent L are identified and the “Two-move Orientation” approach is formulated for the rhetorical structure of this new type of introductions. The interesting links between introduction and L are also suggested. The study contributes to our understanding of the structure and function of this important part-genre in a new generic context (that is, introductions being followed by an independent L section and illuminates the current genre-based teaching of introduction writing.

  15. Structure theorems for game trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Srihari; Wilson, Robert

    2002-06-25

    Kohlberg and Mertens [Kohlberg, E. & Mertens, J. (1986) Econometrica 54, 1003-1039] proved that the graph of the Nash equilibrium correspondence is homeomorphic to its domain when the domain is the space of payoffs in normal-form games. A counterexample disproves the analog for the equilibrium outcome correspondence over the space of payoffs in extensive-form games, but we prove an analog when the space of behavior strategies is perturbed so that every path in the game tree has nonzero probability. Without such perturbations, the graph is the closure of the union of a finite collection of its subsets, each diffeomorphic to a corresponding path-connected open subset of the space of payoffs. As an application, we construct an algorithm for computing equilibria of an extensive-form game with a perturbed strategy space, and thus approximate equilibria of the unperturbed game.

  16. On the structure of path-like trees

    OpenAIRE

    Muntaner Batle, Francesc Antoni; Rius Font, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    We study the structure of path-like trees. In order to do this, we introduce a set of trees that we call expandable trees. In this paper we also generalize the concept of path-like trees and we call such generalization generalized path-like trees. As in the case of path-like trees, generalized path-like trees, have very nice labeling properties.

  17. Inferring epidemic contact structure from phylogenetic trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel E Leventhal

    Full Text Available Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network leaves a detectable genetic fingerprint in the pathogen population. To this end we compare phylogenies generated by disease outbreaks in simulated populations with different types of contact networks. We find that the shape of these phylogenies strongly depends on contact structure. In particular, measures of tree imbalance allow us to quantify to what extent the contact structure underlying an epidemic deviates from a null model contact network and illustrate this in the case of random mixing. Using a phylogeny from the Swiss HIV epidemic, we show that this epidemic has a significantly more unbalanced tree than would be expected from random mixing.

  18. Linguistics, Structuralism, and Semiology Approaches to the Cinema With a Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpole, Charles H.; Hanhardt, John G.

    1973-01-01

    An introduction to linguistics, structuralism, and semiology, with special emphasis on how these fields affect and can be applied in the study of cinema. The extensive bibliography includes books and articles in five languages. (CH)

  19. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment betw...

  20. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment...

  1. Pragmatic Strategies and Linguistic Structures in Making ‘Suggestions’: Towards Comprehensive Taxonomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abolfathiasl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses and upgrades taxonomies of strategies and structures for the speech act of suggesting based on existing taxonomies and classifications in the pragmatics research literature. Previous studies have focused mainly on linguistic structures used to perform the speech act of suggesting. Thus, there seems to be a need to provide a more comprehensive set of taxonomies for structures as well as strategies that can be used in EFL/ESL classrooms and for research on the speech act of suggesting. To this end, the speech act of suggesting is defined first and the features of this speech act are discussed. Second, the most recent classifications proposed for structures and linguistic realization strategies for suggestions were analysed and contrasted and a more comprehensive taxonomy of structures and linguistic realization strategies is provided, based on previous taxonomies. Finally, taxonomy of politeness strategies in making suggestions are provided, based on recent studies in cross-cultural pragmatics research.

  2. TreeNetViz: revealing patterns of networks over tree structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Liang; Zhang, Xiaolong Luke

    2011-12-01

    Network data often contain important attributes from various dimensions such as social affiliations and areas of expertise in a social network. If such attributes exhibit a tree structure, visualizing a compound graph consisting of tree and network structures becomes complicated. How to visually reveal patterns of a network over a tree has not been fully studied. In this paper, we propose a compound graph model, TreeNet, to support visualization and analysis of a network at multiple levels of aggregation over a tree. We also present a visualization design, TreeNetViz, to offer the multiscale and cross-scale exploration and interaction of a TreeNet graph. TreeNetViz uses a Radial, Space-Filling (RSF) visualization to represent the tree structure, a circle layout with novel optimization to show aggregated networks derived from TreeNet, and an edge bundling technique to reduce visual complexity. Our circular layout algorithm reduces both total edge-crossings and edge length and also considers hierarchical structure constraints and edge weight in a TreeNet graph. These experiments illustrate that the algorithm can reduce visual cluttering in TreeNet graphs. Our case study also shows that TreeNetViz has the potential to support the analysis of a compound graph by revealing multiscale and cross-scale network patterns. © 2011 IEEE

  3. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  4. Whole-tree distribution and temporal variation of non-structural carbohydrates in broadleaf evergreen trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Merryn G; Miller, Rebecca E; Arndt, Stefan K; Kasel, Sabine; Bennett, Lauren T

    2018-04-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) form a fundamental yet poorly quantified carbon pool in trees. Studies of NSC seasonality in forest trees have seldom measured whole-tree NSC stocks and allocation among organs, and are not representative of all tree functional types. Non-structural carbohydrate research has primarily focussed on broadleaf deciduous and coniferous evergreen trees with distinct growing seasons, while broadleaf evergreen trees remain under-studied despite their different growth phenology. We measured whole-tree NSC allocation and temporal variation in Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér., a broadleaf evergreen tree species typically occurring in mixed-age temperate forests, which has year-round growth and the capacity to resprout after fire. Our overarching objective was to improve the empirical basis for understanding the functional importance of NSC allocation and stock changes at the tree- and organ-level in this tree functional type. Starch was the principal storage carbohydrate and was primarily stored in the stem and roots of young (14-year-old) trees rather than the lignotuber, which did not appear to be a specialized starch storage organ. Whole-tree NSC stocks were depleted during spring and summer due to significant decreases in starch mass in the roots and stem, seemingly to support root and crown growth but potentially exacerbated by water stress in summer. Seasonality of stem NSCs differed between young and mature trees, and was not synchronized with stem basal area increments in mature trees. Our results suggest that the relative magnitude of seasonal NSC stock changes could vary with tree growth stage, and that the main drivers of NSC fluctuations in broadleaf evergreen trees in temperate biomes could be periodic disturbances such as summer drought and fire, rather than growth phenology. These results have implications for understanding post-fire tree recovery via resprouting, and for incorporating NSC pools into carbon models of mixed

  5. Structures, Not Strings: Linguistics as Part of the Cognitive Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Martin B H; Huybregts, Marinus A C; Chomsky, Noam; Berwick, Robert C; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2015-12-01

    There are many questions one can ask about human language: its distinctive properties, neural representation, characteristic uses including use in communicative contexts, variation, growth in the individual, and origin. Every such inquiry is guided by some concept of what 'language' is. Sharpening the core question--what is language?--and paying close attention to the basic property of the language faculty and its biological foundations makes it clear how linguistics is firmly positioned within the cognitive sciences. Here we will show how recent developments in generative grammar, taking language as a computational cognitive mechanism seriously, allow us to address issues left unexplained in the increasingly popular surface-oriented approaches to language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New perspectives on the ecology of tree structure and tree communities through terrestrial laser scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Jackson, Tobias; Patrick Bentley, Lisa; Lau, Alvaro; Shenkin, Alexander; Herold, Martin; Calders, Kim; Bartholomeus, Harm; Disney, Mathias I

    2018-04-06

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) opens up the possibility of describing the three-dimensional structures of trees in natural environments with unprecedented detail and accuracy. It is already being extensively applied to describe how ecosystem biomass and structure vary between sites, but can also facilitate major advances in developing and testing mechanistic theories of tree form and forest structure, thereby enabling us to understand why trees and forests have the biomass and three-dimensional structure they do. Here we focus on the ecological challenges and benefits of understanding tree form, and highlight some advances related to capturing and describing tree shape that are becoming possible with the advent of TLS. We present examples of ongoing work that applies, or could potentially apply, new TLS measurements to better understand the constraints on optimization of tree form. Theories of resource distribution networks, such as metabolic scaling theory, can be tested and further refined. TLS can also provide new approaches to the scaling of woody surface area and crown area, and thereby better quantify the metabolism of trees. Finally, we demonstrate how we can develop a more mechanistic understanding of the effects of avoidance of wind risk on tree form and maximum size. Over the next few years, TLS promises to deliver both major empirical and conceptual advances in the quantitative understanding of trees and tree-dominated ecosystems, leading to advances in understanding the ecology of why trees and ecosystems look and grow the way they do.

  7. Organic chemistry as a language and the implications of chemical linguistics for structural and retrosynthetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Andrea; Wylie, Elizabeth K; Jurczak, Janusz; Wampler-Doty, Matthew; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2014-07-28

    Methods of computational linguistics are used to demonstrate that a natural language such as English and organic chemistry have the same structure in terms of the frequency of, respectively, text fragments and molecular fragments. This quantitative correspondence suggests that it is possible to extend the methods of computational corpus linguistics to the analysis of organic molecules. It is shown that within organic molecules bonds that have highest information content are the ones that 1) define repeat/symmetry subunits and 2) in asymmetric molecules, define the loci of potential retrosynthetic disconnections. Linguistics-based analysis appears well-suited to the analysis of complex structural and reactivity patterns within organic molecules. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Tree-Structured Digital Organisms Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Teruhiko; Nobesawa, Shiho; Tahara, Ikuo

    Tierra and Avida are well-known models of digital organisms. They describe a life process as a sequence of computation codes. A linear sequence model may not be the only way to describe a digital organism, though it is very simple for a computer-based model. Thus we propose a new digital organism model based on a tree structure, which is rather similar to the generic programming. With our model, a life process is a combination of various functions, as if life in the real world is. This implies that our model can easily describe the hierarchical structure of life, and it can simulate evolutionary computation through mutual interaction of functions. We verified our model by simulations that our model can be regarded as a digital organism model according to its definitions. Our model even succeeded in creating species such as viruses and parasites.

  9. Ideology and Linguistic Theory: Noam Chomsky and the Deep Structure Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Geoffrey J.; Goldsmith, John A.

    A revisionist account of the development of ideas about semantics in modern theories of language is presented, focusing on the rift between Noam Chomsky and Generative Semanticists about the concept of deep structure, or the role of meaning in grammar. The discussion re-appraises the paradigm that has dominated American linguistics since the…

  10. Investigating Move Structure of English Applied Linguistics Research Article Discussions Published in International and Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…

  11. The Structure and Functioning of a Low-Budget Center for Applied Linguistics: The Brazilian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes de Matos, Francisco

    1980-01-01

    Describes the structure and functioning of the "Centro de Linguistica Aplicada do Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi" of Sao Paulo and comments on its role in promoting applied linguistics studies in Latin America. Also outlines the Center's historical background and its educational services, particularly those related to the teaching of…

  12. The Discourse Structure and Linguistic Features of Research Article Abstracts in English by Indonesian Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, Safnil

    2014-01-01

    To effectively teach university lecturers or students to write a good research article (RA) abstract for publication in international journals, instructors need to know the present characteristics of abstracts written published in such journals. This study examines the discourse structure and linguistic features of RA abstracts written in English…

  13. A Study of Cognitive Linguistic Structure Based on the Four Conditions of the Mulamadhyamakakarika

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hee Jong

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to depict Nagarjuna's implication on how he redefined the Four Conditions ("atvarah pratyaya") as the cognitive linguistic structure by allocating 32 functional metadata throughout the texts of Mulamadhyamakakarika (MMK). Following subtle traces of "okasamvrtisatya" (the conventional truth) in…

  14. The Structure of Meaning--A Linguistic Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Catheryn T.

    Just as a reader must bring an experiential conceptual background to the printed page, so must he bring an ability to recognize the graphic cues that signal meaning. The graphic cues or structural meaning works as a system the description of which can be outlined in three parts as the vocabulary, the structure, and the sound. What has been…

  15. Linguistic Features and Schematic Textual Structure in Look-Good Advertisements in the Indian Print Media in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhdev; Bedi, Navkiran Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Every text has a communicative purpose that it performs by dividing itself into generic stages. These stages are assigned specific goals and have differing linguistic structures. This paper makes an attempt to investigate whether there is a definable co-relation between linguistic features and stages in the genre of look-good advertisements. It…

  16. Structure of an urban Christmas tree market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendleton; Lawrence D. Garrett; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1973-01-01

    The retail Christmas tree market in Winston-Salem, N.C., was studied 3 years. Types of retailers and their sales are described. Best sales were made by dealers who had lots on heavily traveled streets in business districts, had ample parking facilities, advertised, and displayed their trees well.

  17. Compression and communication in the cultural evolution of linguistic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Simon; Tamariz, Monica; Cornish, Hannah; Smith, Kenny

    2015-08-01

    Language exhibits striking systematic structure. Words are composed of combinations of reusable sounds, and those words in turn are combined to form complex sentences. These properties make language unique among natural communication systems and enable our species to convey an open-ended set of messages. We provide a cultural evolutionary account of the origins of this structure. We show, using simulations of rational learners and laboratory experiments, that structure arises from a trade-off between pressures for compressibility (imposed during learning) and expressivity (imposed during communication). We further demonstrate that the relative strength of these two pressures can be varied in different social contexts, leading to novel predictions about the emergence of structured behaviour in the wild. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural similarities between brain and linguistic data provide evidence of semantic relations in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen E Crangle

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method of analysis by which structural similarities between brain data and linguistic data can be assessed at the semantic level. It shows how to measure the strength of these structural similarities and so determine the relatively better fit of the brain data with one semantic model over another. The first model is derived from WordNet, a lexical database of English compiled by language experts. The second is given by the corpus-based statistical technique of latent semantic analysis (LSA, which detects relations between words that are latent or hidden in text. The brain data are drawn from experiments in which statements about the geography of Europe were presented auditorily to participants who were asked to determine their truth or falsity while electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were made. The theoretical framework for the analysis of the brain and semantic data derives from axiomatizations of theories such as the theory of differences in utility preference. Using brain-data samples from individual trials time-locked to the presentation of each word, ordinal relations of similarity differences are computed for the brain data and for the linguistic data. In each case those relations that are invariant with respect to the brain and linguistic data, and are correlated with sufficient statistical strength, amount to structural similarities between the brain and linguistic data. Results show that many more statistically significant structural similarities can be found between the brain data and the WordNet-derived data than the LSA-derived data. The work reported here is placed within the context of other recent studies of semantics and the brain. The main contribution of this paper is the new method it presents for the study of semantics and the brain and the focus it permits on networks of relations detected in brain data and represented by a semantic model.

  19. Infinite queueing system with tree structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajfrová, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2006), s. 585-604 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0478 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : invariant measures * zero range process * binary tree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.293, year: 2006

  20. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B J; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  1. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Coia

    Full Text Available Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet

  2. Constructal tree-shaped flow structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejan, A.; Lorente, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to a new trend in the conceptual design of energy systems: the generation of flow configuration based on the 'constructal' principle that the global performance is maximized by balancing and arranging the various flow resistances (the irreversibilities) in a flow system that is free to morph. The paper focuses on distribution and collection, which are flows that connect one point (source, or sink) with an infinity of points (volume, area, curve). The flow configurations that emerge from this principle are tree-shaped, and the systems that employ them are 'vascularized'. The paper traces the most recent progress made on constructal vascularization. The direction is from large-scale applications toward microscales. The large-scale tree-shaped designs of electric power distribution systems and networks for natural gas and water are now invading small-scale designs such as fuel cells, heat exchangers and cooled packages of electronics. These flow configurations have several properties in common: freedom to morph, multiple scales, hierarchy, nonuniform (optimal) distribution of scales through the available volume, compactness and finite complexity

  3. Kinetics of tracheid development explain conifer tree-ring structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick; Fournier, Meriem

    2014-09-01

    Conifer tree rings are generally composed of large, thin-walled cells of light earlywood followed by narrow, thick-walled cells of dense latewood. Yet, how wood formation processes and the associated kinetics create this typical pattern remains poorly understood. We monitored tree-ring formation weekly over 3 yr in 45 trees of three conifer species in France. Data were used to model cell development kinetics, and to attribute the relative importance of the duration and rate of cell enlargement and cell wall deposition on tree-ring structure. Cell enlargement duration contributed to 75% of changes in cell diameter along the tree rings. Remarkably, the amount of wall material per cell was quite constant along the rings. Consequently, and in contrast with widespread belief, changes in cell wall thickness were not principally attributed to the duration and rate of wall deposition (33%), but rather to the changes in cell size (67%). Cell enlargement duration, as the main driver of cell size and wall thickness, contributed to 56% of wood density variation along the rings. This mechanistic framework now forms the basis for unraveling how environmental stresses trigger deviations (e.g. false rings) from the normal tree-ring structure. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Application of terrestrial laser scanning for measuring tree crown structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, H.; Seifert, S.; Huang, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for describing and modelling of tree crown structure and dynamics. We first present a general approach for the metabolic and structural scaling of tree crowns. Out of this approach we emphasize those normalization and scaling parameters which become accessible by TLS. For example we show how the individual tree leaf area index, convex hull, and its space-filling by leaves can be extracted out of laser scan data. This contributes to a theoretical and empirical substantiation of crown structure models which were missing so far for e.g. quantification of structural and species diversity in forest stands, inventory of crown biomass, species detection by remote sensing, and understanding of self- and alien-thinning in pure and mixed stands. Up to now works on this topic delivered a rather scattered empirical knowledge mainly by single inventories of trees and stands. In contrast, we recommend to start with a model approach, and to complete existing data with repeated TLS inventories in order to come to a consistent and theoretically based model of tree crowns. (author) [de

  5. Discrete Discriminant analysis based on tree-structured graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez de la Cruz, Gonzalo; Eslava, Guillermina

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential use of discriminant analysis based on tree{structured graphical models for discrete variables. This is done by comparing its empirical performance using estimated error rates for real and simulated data. The results show that discriminant a...... analysis based on tree{structured graphical models is a simple nonlinear method competitive with, and sometimes superior to, other well{known linear methods like those assuming mutual independence between variables and linear logistic regression.......The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential use of discriminant analysis based on tree{structured graphical models for discrete variables. This is done by comparing its empirical performance using estimated error rates for real and simulated data. The results show that discriminant...

  6. Structural priming is a useful but imperfect technique for studying all linguistic representations, including those of pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Alice; Bott, Lewis

    2017-01-01

    Structural priming is a useful tool for investigating linguistics representations. We argue that structural priming can be extended to the investigation of pragmatic representations such as Gricean enrichments. That is not to say priming is without its limitations, however. Interpreting a failure to observe priming may not be as simple as Branigan & Pickering (B&P) imply.

  7. Proposing a clinical quantification framework of macro-linguistic structures in aphasic narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pak Hin Kong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Analysis of aphasic narratives can be a challenge for clinicians. Previous studies have mainly employed measures that categorized speech samples at the word level. They included quantification of the use and misuse of different word classes, presence and absence of narrative contents and errors, paraphasias, and perseverations, as well as morphological structures and errors within a narrative. In other words, a great amount of research has been conducted in the aphasiology literature focusing on micro-linguistic structures of oral narratives. Aspects of macro- linguistic structures, such as the analysis of content information by a speaker, consistency of using cohesive devices to present information within a narrative, and order of presenting information necessary to form a coherent discourse, have not been extensively investigated. The current investigation proposes a clinical analytic system to target three aspects of macro-linguistic structures in narratives among speakers with aphasia. Specifically, (1 the presence of search events (i.e., the mentioning of key events that allow the listener to understand; Capilouto, Wright, &Wagovich, 2006 within a narrative, (2 the sequence of the mentioned events, and (3 the informativeness (i.e., the fulfillment of lexical items that allow the user to understand what the event is detailing of the event contents, were focused in the proposed framework. Method Ten controls transcripts from were selected from the AphasiaBank (MacWhinney, Fromm, Forbes, & Holland, 2011. Three narrative tasks, including sequential picture description of ‘Refused Umbrella’, procedural narrative of making a ‘Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich’, and telling of ‘Cinderella’ story, were used to establish normative data for the basis of analysis. Specifically, the Search Events (e and Informative Words (i used by at least 70% of the speakers were listed for each genre. The sequential order of mentioning the

  8. ARBUS: A FORTRAN tool for generating tree structure diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, C.; Zanger, M.

    1992-02-01

    The FORTRAN77 stand-alone code ARBUS has been designed to aid the user by providing a tree structure diagram generating utility for computer programs written in FORTRAN language. This report is intended to describe the main purpose and features of ARBUS and to highlight some additional applications of the code by means of practical test cases. (orig.) [de

  9. How mammalian predation contributes to tropical tree community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, C E Timothy; Beck, Harald; Terborgh, John

    2016-12-01

    The recruitment of seedlings from seeds is the key demographic transition for rain forest trees. Though tropical forest mammals are known to consume many seeds, their effects on tree community structure remain little known. To evaluate their effects, we monitored 8,000 seeds of 24 tree species using exclosure cages that were selectively permeable to three size classes of mammals for up to 4.4 years. Small and medium-bodied mammals removed many more seeds than did large mammals, and they alone generated beta diversity and negative density dependence, whereas all mammals reduced diversity and shaped local species composition. Thus, small and medium-bodied mammals more strongly contributed to community structure and promoted species coexistence than did large mammals. Given that seedling recruitment is seed limited for most species, alterations to the composition of the community of mammalian seed predators is expected to have long-term consequences for tree community structure in tropical forests. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Quantifying the information in the long-range order of words: semantic structures and universal linguistic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemurro, Marcelo A

    2014-06-01

    We review some recent progress on the characterisation of long-range patterns of word use in language using methods from information theory. In particular, two levels of structure in language are considered. The first level corresponds to the patterns of words usage over different contextual domains. A direct application of information theory to quantify the specificity of words across different sections of a linguistic sequence leads to a measure of semantic information. Moreover, a natural scale emerges that characterises the typical size of semantic structures. Since the information measure is made up of additive contributions from individual words, it is possible to rank the words according to their overall weight in the total information. This allows the extraction of keywords most relevant to the semantic content of the sequence without any prior knowledge of the language. The second level considered is the complex structure of correlations among words in linguistic sequences. The degree of order in language can be quantified by means of the entropy. Reliable estimates of the entropy were obtained from corpora of texts from several linguistic families by means of lossless compression algorithms. The value of the entropy fluctuates across different languages since it depends on linguistic organisation at various levels. However, when a measure of relative entropy that specifically quantifies the degree of word ordering in language is estimated, it presents an almost constant value over all the linguistic families studied. This suggests that the entropy of word ordering is a novel quantitative linguistic universal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunley, Keith; Dunn, Michael; Lindström, Eva; Reesink, Ger; Terrill, Angela; Healy, Meghan E; Koki, George; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Friedlaender, Jonathan S

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain). There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast, global patterns may

  12. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Hunley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain. There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast

  13. Tree Diversity and Structure of Andaman Giant Evergreen Forests, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajkumar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated tree diversity in ‘giant evergreen forest’ of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which falls within the Indo-Burma hot spot of biodiversity in the world. A one hectare square plot was established in sites Kalapahad (KP and Macarthy Valley (MV of Middle Andamans, in which all trees ≥ 30 cm girth at breast height (gbh were enumerated. Tree diversity totaled 105 species that belonged to 63 genera and 49 families. Site MV harboured ~10% greater species richness than KP. Species diversity indices did not vary much between the two sites. In the two sites, there were 1311 individuals of trees (579 ha-1 in KP and 732 in MV. The stand basal area was nearly equal in both the sites (KP- 45.59 m2 ha-1; MV- 47.93 m2 ha-1. Thirteen tree species (12.38% were strict endemics to Andamans. Ten species recorded are rare to the flora of these islands. The two sites are distinctly dominated by two different plant families; Dipterocarpaceae in KP and Myristicaceae in MV. Most of the species were common to central and lower region of Myanmar and Indian mainland. The forest stand structure exhibited a typical reverse-J shape, but site MV had double the density of stems in the lower tree size class than that of KP. The voluminous dipterocarps contributed more to the total above-ground live biomass. The need to preserve these species- and endemics- rich, fragile island forests, prioritized for biodiversity conservation, is emphasized.

  14. The individual and interactive effects of tree-tree establishment competition and fire on savanna structure and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Justin; Vázquez, Federico; López, Cristóbal; San Miguel, Maxi; Grimm, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating savanna tree populations are still not well understood. Recent empirical work suggests that both tree-tree competition and fire are key factors in semi-arid to mesic savannas. However, the potential for competition to structure savannas, particularly in interaction with fire, has received little theoretical attention. We develop a minimalistic and analytically tractable stochastic cellular automaton to study the individual and combined effects of competition and fire...

  15. [Effects of crop tree release on stand growth and stand structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan

    2015-02-01

    Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.

  16. Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  17. A deterministic model for the growth of non-conducting electrical tree structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, S J

    2003-01-01

    Electrical treeing is of interest to the electrical generation, transmission and distribution industries as it is one of the causes of insulation failure in electrical machines, switchgear and transformer bushings. In this paper a deterministic electrical tree growth model is described. The model is based on electrostatics and local electron avalanches to model partial discharge activity within the growing tree structure. Damage to the resin surrounding the tree structure is dependent on the local electrostatic energy dissipation by partial discharges within the tree structure and weighted by the magnitudes of the local electric fields in the resin surrounding the tree structure. The model is successful in simulating the formation of branched structures without the need of a random variable, a requirement of previous stochastic models. Instability in the spatial development of partial discharges within the tree structure takes the role of the stochastic element as used in previous models to produce branched tree structures. The simulated electrical trees conform to the experimentally observed behaviour; tree length versus time and electrical tree growth rate as a function of applied voltage for non-conducting electrical trees. The phase synchronous partial discharge activity and the spatial distribution of emitted light from the tree structure are also in agreement with experimental data for non-conducting trees as grown in a flexible epoxy resin and in polyethylene. The fact that similar tree growth behaviour is found using pure amorphous (epoxy resin) and semicrystalline (polyethylene) materials demonstrate that neither annealed or quenched noise, representing material inhomogeneity, is required for the formation of irregular branched structures (electrical trees). Instead, as shown in this paper, branched growth can occur due to the instability of individual discharges within the tree structure

  18. Linguistic Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    on the Scandinavian variant of polyphony, ScaPoLine. ScaPoLine is a formal linguistic theory whose main purpose is to specify the instructions conveyed through linguistic form for the creation of polyphonic meaning. The theoretical introduction is followed by polyphonic analyses of linguistic phenomena...

  19. Variability of the tree-rings structure of Gmelin’s larch at northern tree line (peninsula of Taymyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Fakhrutdinova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of tree-ring cell structure changes as the result of tree adaptation to varying environmental conditions becomes increasingly important to predict future vegetation shifts under projected climate changes. The estimate of intrapopulation annual variability of wood anatomy characteristics is particularly informative. It helps to divide the contribution of different ecological factors to total features dispersion. In this work, a comparative analysis of individual and climatic variability of tree ring structure characteristics of Gmelin’s larch Larix gmelinii (Rupr. growth within northernmost forest was carried out. The trees from forest-tundra boundary has greater radial growth intensity, forms the bigger conductive zone in rings with wider mean lumen area in comparison with trees from closed forest. This result can be explained by adaptive features and height ecological xylem plasticity of larch. The tree rings structure of larch from boundary with tundra is determined by largely current weather conditions. Is because these ones evince high adaptive plasticity on the level of xylem structure. The xylem reflects joint changes of climate factors and local ecological conditions. The trees from closed forest are characterized by larger individual variability. The local conditions in oldest forest (for example, bad hydrothermal soil conditions inhibit the radial growth and sensitivity to environmental factors. In this case, the trees on individual level are tended to save the normal functioning of water-transport system. The significant differences in ratio individual to climate variability of tree ring structure characteristics can be caused by the different in the level of ecological habitat heterogeneity or the different in the level genetic within-population heterogeneity.

  20. Using Multi-Spectral UAV Imagery to Extract Tree Crop Structural Properties and Assess Pruning Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Johansen, Kasper; Raharjo, Tri; McCabe, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an unprecedented capacity to monitor the development and dynamics of tree growth and structure through time. It is generally thought that the pruning of tree crops encourages new growth, has a positive effect

  1. Tree structural and species diversities in Okwangwo Forest, Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tree species were grouped into abundance classes. A total of 125 tree species belonging to 36 families and 96 genera were recorded in the area with Margaleffs index of species richness of 2.2754. Most (99) of the tree species encountered were threatened/endangered, 23 species were rare with only 3 tree species ...

  2. Using Multi-Spectral UAV Imagery to Extract Tree Crop Structural Properties and Assess Pruning Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Johansen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV provide an unprecedented capacity to monitor the development and dynamics of tree growth and structure through time. It is generally thought that the pruning of tree crops encourages new growth, has a positive effect on fruiting, makes fruit-picking easier, and may increase yield, as it increases light interception and tree crown surface area. To establish the response of pruning in an orchard of lychee trees, an assessment of changes in tree structure, i.e., tree crown perimeter, width, height, area and Plant Projective Cover (PPC, was undertaken using multi-spectral UAV imagery collected before and after a pruning event. While tree crown perimeter, width and area could be derived directly from the delineated tree crowns, height was estimated from a produced canopy height model and PPC was most accurately predicted based on the NIR band. Pre- and post-pruning results showed significant differences in all measured tree structural parameters, including an average decrease in tree crown perimeter of 1.94 m, tree crown width of 0.57 m, tree crown height of 0.62 m, tree crown area of 3.5 m2, and PPC of 14.8%. In order to provide guidance on data collection protocols for orchard management, the impact of flying height variations was also examined, offering some insight into the influence of scale and the scalability of this UAV-based approach for larger orchards. The different flying heights (i.e., 30, 50 and 70 m produced similar measurements of tree crown width and PPC, while tree crown perimeter, area and height measurements decreased with increasing flying height. Overall, these results illustrate that routine collection of multi-spectral UAV imagery can provide a means of assessing pruning effects on changes in tree structure in commercial orchards, and highlight the importance of collecting imagery with consistent flight configurations, as varying flying heights may cause changes to tree structural measurements.

  3. Using Multi-Spectral UAV Imagery to Extract Tree Crop Structural Properties and Assess Pruning Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Johansen, Kasper

    2018-04-18

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an unprecedented capacity to monitor the development and dynamics of tree growth and structure through time. It is generally thought that the pruning of tree crops encourages new growth, has a positive effect on fruiting, makes fruit-picking easier, and may increase yield, as it increases light interception and tree crown surface area. To establish the response of pruning in an orchard of lychee trees, an assessment of changes in tree structure, i.e. tree crown perimeter, width, height, area and Plant Projective Cover (PPC), was undertaken using multi-spectral UAV imagery collected before and after a pruning event. While tree crown perimeter, width and area could be derived directly from the delineated tree crowns, height was estimated from a produced canopy height model and PPC was most accurately predicted based on the NIR band. Pre- and post-pruning results showed significant differences in all measured tree structural parameters, including an average decrease in tree crown perimeter of 1.94 m, tree crown width of 0.57 m, tree crown height of 0.62 m, tree crown area of 3.5 m2, and PPC of 14.8%. In order to provide guidance on data collection protocols for orchard management, the impact of flying height variations was also examined, offering some insight into the influence of scale and the scalability of this UAV based approach for larger orchards. The different flying heights (i.e. 30, 50 and 70 m) produced similar measurements of tree crown width and PPC, while tree crown perimeter, area and height measurements decreased with increasing flying height. Overall, these results illustrate that routine collection of multi-spectral UAV imagery can provide a means of assessing pruning effects on changes in tree structure in commercial orchards, and highlight the importance of collecting imagery with consistent flight configurations, as varying flying heights may cause changes to tree structural measurements.

  4. Linguistic and Structural Analyses of Stand-Alone Literature Reviews: Seventy-Five Years of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heidi Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to offer a multifaceted overview of stand-alone literature reviews. These texts, literature reviews published unattached to research articles, have existed for centuries but remained largely unstudied by linguists. Thus, the goal of this project is to present these reviews' situational, grammatical, and…

  5. Tree crown structure indicators in a natural uneven-aged mixed coniferous forest in northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier Jimenez-Perez; Oscar Aguirre-Calderon; Horst Kramer

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of tree crown structure provides critical information to assess a variety of ecological conditions for multiple purposes and applications. For biomass growth, for example, tree crowns have basic physiological functions: assimilation, respiration, and transpiration. How tree crowns spatially interact and grow can bring about a seamless landscape of...

  6. Floristic Composition, Tree Canopy Structure and Regeneration in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trees were the predominant plant form with 46 species (172 trees ha-1) while 7 shrubs, 15 lianas, 13 herbs, 1 grass and 1 fern species were recorded. Tree basal area and total volume were 10.29±0.88 m2 ha-1 and 22.43±1.85 m3 ha-1 respectively. The tallest tree height (35m) was recorded for Terminalia superba while ...

  7. LANGUE AND PAROLE IN AMERICAN LINGUISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE PROBLEM OF THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED AND THE FORM WHICH ANY LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION SHOULD TAKE. THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE INFLUENCE OF THE SWISS LINGUIST, FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE, ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN LINGUISTICS. THE QUESTION OF "MENTALISM" IN LINGUISTICS IS REDUCED TO THE PROBLEM OF WHETHER LINGUISTIC…

  8. Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Baker, T. R.; Paiva, R.; Quesada, C. A.; Santos, A. J. B.; Schwarz, M.; Ter Steege, H.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2012-02-01

    Many plant traits covary in a non-random manner reflecting interdependencies associated with "ecological strategy" dimensions. To understand how plants integrate their structural and physiological investments, data on leaf and leaflet size and the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (ΦLS) obtained for 1020 individual trees (encompassing 661 species) located in 52 tropical forest plots across the Amazon Basin were incorporated into an analysis utilising existing data on species maximum height (Hmax), seed size, leaf mass per unit area (MA), foliar nutrients and δ13C, and branch xylem density (ρx). Utilising a common principal components approach allowing eigenvalues to vary between two soil fertility dependent species groups, five taxonomically controlled trait dimensions were identified. The first involves primarily cations, foliar carbon and MA and is associated with differences in foliar construction costs. The second relates to some components of the classic "leaf economic spectrum", but with increased individual leaf areas and a higher ΦLS newly identified components for tropical tree species. The third relates primarily to increasing Hmax and hence variations in light acquisition strategy involving greater MA, reductions in ΦLS and less negative δ13C. Although these first three dimensions were more important for species from high fertility sites the final two dimensions were more important for low fertility species and were associated with variations linked to reproductive and shade tolerance strategies. Environmental conditions influenced structural traits with ρx of individual species decreasing with increased soil fertility and higher temperatures. This soil fertility response appears to be synchronised with increases in foliar nutrient concentrations and reductions in foliar [C]. Leaf and leaflet area and ΦLS were less responsive to the environment than ρx. Thus, although genetically determined foliar traits such as those associated with leaf

  9. The Structure and Contents of the English Written Entry Examination as a Major Subject at the Department of Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Евгеньевна Боброва

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article has been writing English entry examinations for PFUR for over a decade. In this article she analyses the structure and contents of the English language entry examination for prospective students of Linguistics at the Faculty of Philology. The requirements for the entry written test are set by the State standards of complete secondary education for foreign languages at the level of a major subject. The PFUR entry examination has always been written in accordance with recommendations of the Education and Science Ministry and the Federal Institute of Pedagogical Assessment.

  10. Probabilistic linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic linguistics takes all linguistic evidence as positive evidence and lets statistics decide. It allows for accurate modelling of gradient phenomena in production and perception, and suggests that rule-like behaviour is no more than a side effect of maximizing probability. This chapter

  11. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  12. Analysis of a Model for the Morphological Structure of Renal Arterial Tree: Fractal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Espinoza-Valdez

    2013-01-01

    experimental data measurements of the rat kidneys. The fractal dimension depends on the probability of sprouting angiogenesis in the development of the arterial vascular tree of the kidney, that is, of the distribution of blood vessels in the morphology generated by the analytical model. The fractal dimension might determine whether a suitable renal vascular structure is capable of performing physiological functions under appropriate conditions. The analysis can describe the complex structures of the development vasculature in kidney.

  13. Structure, function and value of street trees in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Natalie van Doorn; John de Goede

    2016-01-01

    This study compiled recent inventory data from 929,823 street trees in 50 cities to determine trends in tree number and density, identify priority investments and create baseline data against which the efficacy of future practices can be evaluated. The number of street trees increased from 5.9 million in 1988 to 9.1 million in 2014, about one for every four residents....

  14. The temporal structure of the autistic voice: A cross-linguistic investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Grossman, Ruth; Cantio, Cathriona

    , even across linguistic and cultural boundaries. [1] R.B. Grossman, L. Edelson, H. Tager-Flusberg, Production of emotional facial and vocal expressions during story retelling by children and adolescents with high-functioning autism, Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 56 (2013) 1035...... and communication and socialization ratings in high functioning speakers with autism spectrum disorders, Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 35 (2005) 861–869. [5] R.B. Grossman, H. Tager-Flusberg, Quality matters! Differences between expressive and receptive non-verbal communication skills in children...

  15. A structurally based analytic model for estimation of biomass and fuel loads of woodland trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin J. Tausch

    2009-01-01

    Allometric/structural relationships in tree crowns are a consequence of the physical, physiological, and fluid conduction processes of trees, which control the distribution, efficient support, and growth of foliage in the crown. The structural consequences of these processes are used to develop an analytic model based on the concept of branch orders. A set of...

  16. Seeing the forest for the homogeneous trees: stand-scale resource distributions emerge from tree-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Boyden; Rebecca Montgomery; Peter B. Reich; Brian J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystem processes depend on local interactions that are modified by the spatial pattern of trees and resources. Effects of resource supplies on processes such as regeneration are increasingly well understood, yet we have few tools to compare resource heterogeneity among forests that differ in structural complexity. We used a neighborhood approach to examine...

  17. On the concept of a linguistic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of a linguistic variable plays a crucial role in the representation of imprecise knowledge in information sciences. A variable is called linguistic as soon as its values are linguistic terms rather than numerical ones. The power of daily communication and common sense reasoning lies in the use of such linguistic values. Even when exact numerical values are available, experts tend to transform these values into linguistic ones. A physician will usually translate a numerical measurement of a blood pressure into linguistic specifications such as normal, very high, too low... Zadeh has argued that the set of values for a linguistic variable assumes a more-or-less fixed structure. Starting from an atomic value and its antonym all remaining values are constructed using logical connectives on the one hand and linguistic hedges on the other hand. In this paper we will describe how to represent the value set of a linguistic variable in general and of linguistic hedges in particular

  18. Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patiño

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many plant traits covary in a non-random manner reflecting interdependencies associated with "ecological strategy" dimensions. To understand how plants integrate their structural and physiological investments, data on leaf and leaflet size and the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (ΦLS obtained for 1020 individual trees (encompassing 661 species located in 52 tropical forest plots across the Amazon Basin were incorporated into an analysis utilising existing data on species maximum height (Hmax, seed size, leaf mass per unit area (MA, foliar nutrients and δ13C, and branch xylem density (ρx.

    Utilising a common principal components approach allowing eigenvalues to vary between two soil fertility dependent species groups, five taxonomically controlled trait dimensions were identified. The first involves primarily cations, foliar carbon and MA and is associated with differences in foliar construction costs. The second relates to some components of the classic "leaf economic spectrum", but with increased individual leaf areas and a higher ΦLS newly identified components for tropical tree species. The third relates primarily to increasing Hmax and hence variations in light acquisition strategy involving greater MA, reductions in ΦLS and less negative δ13C. Although these first three dimensions were more important for species from high fertility sites the final two dimensions were more important for low fertility species and were associated with variations linked to reproductive and shade tolerance strategies.

    Environmental conditions influenced structural traits with ρx of individual species decreasing with increased soil fertility and higher temperatures. This soil fertility response appears to be synchronised with increases in foliar nutrient

  19. MULTI-TEMPORAL ASSESSMENT OF LYCHEE TREE CROP STRUCTURE USING MULTI-SPECTRAL RPAS IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Johansen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The lychee tree is native to China and produce small fleshy fruit up to 5 cm in diameter. Lychee production in Australia is worth > $20 million annually. Pruning of trees encourages new growth, has a positive effect on fruiting of lychee, makes fruit-picking easier, and may increase yield, as it increases light interception and tree crown surface area. The objective of this research was to assess changes in tree structure, i.e. tree crown circumference, width, height and Plant Projective Cover (PPC using multi-spectral Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS imagery collected before and after pruning of a lychee plantation. A secondary objective was to assess any variations in the results as a function of various flying heights (30, 50 and 70 m. Pre- and post-pruning results showed significant differences in all measured tree structural parameters, including an average decrease in: tree crown circumference of 1.94 m; tree crown width of 0.57 m; tree crown height of 0.62 m; and PPC of 14.8 %. The different flying heights produced similar measurements of tree crown width and PPC, whereas tree crown circumference and height measurements decreased with increasing flying height. These results show that multi-spectral RPAS imagery can provide a suitable means of assessing pruning efforts undertaken by contractors based on changes in tree structure of lychee plantations and that it is important to collect imagery in a consistent manner, as varying flying heights may cause changes to tree structural measurements.

  20. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-08-01

    Among other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses) and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word). A significant number of names (61.3%) failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words) and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words) contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  1. Wind loads and competition for light sculpt trees into self-similar structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Christophe; Fournier, Meriem; Lacointe, André; Moulia, Bruno

    2017-10-18

    Trees are self-similar structures: their branch lengths and diameters vary allometrically within the tree architecture, with longer and thicker branches near the ground. These tree allometries are often attributed to optimisation of hydraulic sap transport and safety against elastic buckling. Here, we show that these allometries also emerge from a model that includes competition for light, wind biomechanics and no hydraulics. We have developed MECHATREE, a numerical model of trees growing and evolving on a virtual island. With this model, we identify the fittest growth strategy when trees compete for light and allocate their photosynthates to grow seeds, create new branches or reinforce existing ones in response to wind-induced loads. Strikingly, we find that selected trees species are self-similar and follow allometric scalings similar to those observed on dicots and conifers. This result suggests that resistance to wind and competition for light play an essential role in determining tree allometries.

  2. Recruiting Conventional Tree Architecture Models into State-of-the-Art LiDAR Mapping for Investigating Tree Growth Habits in Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mensuration of tree growth habits is of considerable importance for understanding forest ecosystem processes and forest biophysical responses to climate changes. However, the complexity of tree crown morphology that is typically formed after many years of growth tends to render it a non-trivial task, even for the state-of-the-art 3D forest mapping technology—light detection and ranging (LiDAR. Fortunately, botanists have deduced the large structural diversity of tree forms into only a limited number of tree architecture models, which can present a-priori knowledge about tree structure, growth, and other attributes for different species. This study attempted to recruit Hallé architecture models (HAMs into LiDAR mapping to investigate tree growth habits in structure. First, following the HAM-characterized tree structure organization rules, we run the kernel procedure of tree species classification based on the LiDAR-collected point clouds using a support vector machine classifier in the leave-one-out-for-cross-validation mode. Then, the HAM corresponding to each of the classified tree species was identified based on expert knowledge, assisted by the comparison of the LiDAR-derived feature parameters. Next, the tree growth habits in structure for each of the tree species were derived from the determined HAM. In the case of four tree species growing in the boreal environment, the tests indicated that the classification accuracy reached 85.0%, and their growth habits could be derived by qualitative and quantitative means. Overall, the strategy of recruiting conventional HAMs into LiDAR mapping for investigating tree growth habits in structure was validated, thereby paving a new way for efficiently reflecting tree growth habits and projecting forest structure dynamics.

  3. Recruiting Conventional Tree Architecture Models into State-of-the-Art LiDAR Mapping for Investigating Tree Growth Habits in Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Jiang, Miao; Pellikka, Petri; Heiskanen, Janne

    2018-01-01

    Mensuration of tree growth habits is of considerable importance for understanding forest ecosystem processes and forest biophysical responses to climate changes. However, the complexity of tree crown morphology that is typically formed after many years of growth tends to render it a non-trivial task, even for the state-of-the-art 3D forest mapping technology-light detection and ranging (LiDAR). Fortunately, botanists have deduced the large structural diversity of tree forms into only a limited number of tree architecture models, which can present a-priori knowledge about tree structure, growth, and other attributes for different species. This study attempted to recruit Hallé architecture models (HAMs) into LiDAR mapping to investigate tree growth habits in structure. First, following the HAM-characterized tree structure organization rules, we run the kernel procedure of tree species classification based on the LiDAR-collected point clouds using a support vector machine classifier in the leave-one-out-for-cross-validation mode. Then, the HAM corresponding to each of the classified tree species was identified based on expert knowledge, assisted by the comparison of the LiDAR-derived feature parameters. Next, the tree growth habits in structure for each of the tree species were derived from the determined HAM. In the case of four tree species growing in the boreal environment, the tests indicated that the classification accuracy reached 85.0%, and their growth habits could be derived by qualitative and quantitative means. Overall, the strategy of recruiting conventional HAMs into LiDAR mapping for investigating tree growth habits in structure was validated, thereby paving a new way for efficiently reflecting tree growth habits and projecting forest structure dynamics.

  4. A holistic approach to determine tree structural complexity based on laser scanning data and fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Dominik

    2018-01-01

    The three-dimensional forest structure affects many ecosystem functions and services provided by forests. As forests are made of trees it seems reasonable to approach their structure by investigating individual tree structure. Based on three-dimensional point clouds from laser scanning, a newly developed holistic approach is presented that enables to calculate the box dimension as a measure of structural complexity of individual trees using fractal analysis. It was found that the box dimension of trees was significantly different among the tested species, among trees belonging to the same species but exposed to different growing conditions (at gap vs. forest interior) or to different kinds of competition (intraspecific vs. interspecific). Furthermore, it was shown that the box dimension is positively related to the trees' growth rate. The box dimension was identified as an easy to calculate measure that integrates the effect of several external drivers of tree structure, such as competition strength and type, while simultaneously providing information on structure-related properties, like tree growth.

  5. D Nearest Neighbour Search Using a Clustered Hierarchical Tree Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaibah, A.; Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Mioc, D.; Rahman, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Locating and analysing the location of new stores or outlets is one of the common issues facing retailers and franchisers. This is due to assure that new opening stores are at their strategic location to attract the highest possible number of customers. Spatial information is used to manage, maintain and analyse these store locations. However, since the business of franchising and chain stores in urban areas runs within high rise multi-level buildings, a three-dimensional (3D) method is prominently required in order to locate and identify the surrounding information such as at which level of the franchise unit will be located or is the franchise unit located is at the best level for visibility purposes. One of the common used analyses used for retrieving the surrounding information is Nearest Neighbour (NN) analysis. It uses a point location and identifies the surrounding neighbours. However, with the immense number of urban datasets, the retrieval and analysis of nearest neighbour information and their efficiency will become more complex and crucial. In this paper, we present a technique to retrieve nearest neighbour information in 3D space using a clustered hierarchical tree structure. Based on our findings, the proposed approach substantially showed an improvement of response time analysis compared to existing approaches of spatial access methods in databases. The query performance was tested using a dataset consisting of 500,000 point locations building and franchising unit. The results are presented in this paper. Another advantage of this structure is that it also offers a minimal overlap and coverage among nodes which can reduce repetitive data entry.

  6. i-Tree: Tools to assess and manage structure, function, and value of community forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, S.; Nowak, D.; Endreny, T. A.; Kroll, C.; Maco, S.

    2011-12-01

    Trees in urban communities can mitigate many adverse effects associated with anthropogenic activities and climate change (e.g. urban heat island, greenhouse gas, air pollution, and floods). To protect environmental and human health, managers need to make informed decisions regarding urban forest management practices. Here we present the i-Tree suite of software tools (www.itreetools.org) developed by the USDA Forest Service and their cooperators. This software suite can help urban forest managers assess and manage the structure, function, and value of urban tree populations regardless of community size or technical capacity. i-Tree is a state-of-the-art, peer-reviewed Windows GUI- or Web-based software that is freely available, supported, and continuously refined by the USDA Forest Service and their cooperators. Two major features of i-Tree are 1) to analyze current canopy structures and identify potential planting spots, and 2) to estimate the environmental benefits provided by the trees, such as carbon storage and sequestration, energy conservation, air pollution removal, and storm water reduction. To cover diverse forest topologies, various tools were developed within the i-Tree suite: i-Tree Design for points (individual trees), i-Tree Streets for lines (street trees), and i-Tree Eco, Vue, and Canopy (in the order of complexity) for areas (community trees). Once the forest structure is identified with these tools, ecosystem services provided by trees can be estimated with common models and protocols, and reports in the form of texts, charts, and figures are then created for users. Since i-Tree was developed with a client/server architecture, nationwide data in the US such as location-related parameters, weather, streamflow, and air pollution data are stored in the server and retrieved to a user's computer at run-time. Freely available remote-sensed images (e.g. NLCD and Google maps) are also employed to estimate tree canopy characteristics. As the demand for i-Tree

  7. Remnant trees affect species composition but not structure of tropical second-growth forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Manette E; Chazdon, Robin L

    2014-01-01

    Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2-3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests ("control plots"). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields.

  8. Study of Hip Fracture Risk using Tree Structured Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Y

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In dieser Studie wird das Hüftfraktur-Risiko bei postmenopausalen Frauen untersucht, indem die Frauen in verschiedene Subgruppen hinsichtlich dieses Risikos klassifiziert werden. Frauen in einer gemeinsamen Subgruppe haben ein ähnliches Risiko, hingegen in verschiedenen Subgruppen ein unterschiedliches Hüftfraktur-Risiko. Die Subgruppen wurden mittels der Tree Structured Survival Analysis (TSSA aus den Daten von 7.665 Frauen der SOF (Study of Osteoporosis Fracture ermittelt. Bei allen Studienteilnehmerinnen wurde die Knochenmineraldichte (BMD von Unterarm, Oberschenkelhals, Hüfte und Wirbelsäule gemessen. Die Zeit von der BMD-Messung bis zur Hüftfraktur wurde als Endpunkt notiert. Eine Stichprobe von 75% der Teilnehmerinnen wurde verwendet, um die prognostischen Subgruppen zu bilden (Trainings-Datensatz, während die anderen 25% als Bestätigung der Ergebnisse diente (Validierungs-Datensatz. Aufgrund des Trainings-Datensatzes konnten mittels TSSA 4 Subgruppen identifiziert werden, deren Hüftfraktur-Risiko bei einem Follow-up von im Mittel 6,5 Jahren bei 19%, 9%, 4% und 1% lag. Die Einteilung in die Subgruppen erfolgte aufgrund der Bewertung der BMD des Ward'schen Dreiecks sowie des Oberschenkelhalses und nach dem Alter. Diese Ergebnisse konnten mittels des Validierungs-Datensatzes reproduziert werden, was die Sinnhaftigkeit der Klassifizierungregeln in einem klinischen Setting bestätigte. Mittels TSSA war eine sinnvolle, aussagekräftige und reproduzierbare Identifikation von prognostischen Subgruppen, die auf dem Alter und den BMD-Werten beruhen, möglich. In this paper we studied the risk of hip fracture for post-menopausal women by classifying women into different subgroups based on their risk of hip fracture. The subgroups were generated such that all the women in a particular subgroup had relatively similar risk while women belonging to two different subgroups had rather different risks of hip fracture. We used the Tree Structured

  9. The Linguistic Core Approach to StructuredTranslation and Analysis of Low Resource Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-02

    uninterpretable, the latter largely based on familiar, discrete classes (e.g., supersenses) and relations (e.g., synonymy and hypernymy). We have developed...which still rely predominantly on discrete , sparse features whose interpretability enables error analysis and continued development. 19 Figure 7...with hyperedge replacement grammars. In COLING, pages 1359–1376, 2012. [43] T. Kamimura and G. Slutzki. Transductions of DAGs and trees. Math . Syst

  10. THE FOCAL STRUCTURE IN MANDARIN VP-ELLIPSIS: A CROSS-LINGUISTIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chi Wei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Soh’s (2007 ΣP analysis only partially explains polarity operation in Mandarin VP-ellipsis. With new examples of the use of the particle que ‘however’, a polarity contrast of ye ‘also’, we propose that there are two focus projections in VP-ellipsis. One is the contrastive FocP headed by ye or que higher than TP and the other is the polarity PolP headed by an affirmative polarity focus shi ‘be’ or a covert negative polarity focus lower than TP. Foc interacts with Pol by a way of polarity concord, which is responsible for the polarity symmetry or asymmetry across two conjuncts. We suggest that the polarity concord is achieved via the Agree operation (Chomsky 2000, 2001 in line with Watanabe’s (2004 feature copying analysis of the negative concord. A cross-linguistic investigation of languages of various word orders, including English (SVO, Japanese (SOV, Atayal (VOS, and Bunun (VSO lends support to this focus account.

  11. Phylogenetic Structure of Tree Species across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in a Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Qian, Hong; Yu, Mingjian

    2015-01-01

    Investigating patterns of phylogenetic structure across different life stages of tree species in forests is crucial to understanding forest community assembly, and investigating forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration is necessary for understanding forest community assembly. Here, we examine the phylogenetic structure of tree species across life stages from seedlings to canopy trees, as well as forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration in a forest of the subtropical region in China. We investigate changes in phylogenetic relatedness (measured as NRI) of tree species from seedlings, saplings, treelets to canopy trees; we compare the phylogenetic turnover (measured as βNRI) between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory with that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We found that phylogenetic relatedness generally increases from seedlings through saplings and treelets up to canopy trees, and that phylogenetic relatedness does not differ between seedlings in forest understory and those in forest gaps, but phylogenetic turnover between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory is lower than that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We conclude that tree species tend to be more closely related from seedling to canopy layers, and that forest gaps alter the seedling phylogenetic turnover of the studied forest. It is likely that the increasing trend of phylogenetic clustering as tree stem size increases observed in this subtropical forest is primarily driven by abiotic filtering processes, which select a set of closely related evergreen broad-leaved tree species whose regeneration has adapted to the closed canopy environments of the subtropical forest developed under the regional monsoon climate.

  12. composition and size class structure of tree species in ihang'ana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    Previous plant biodiversity studies in this ecosystem concentrated on large-sized Forest ... assess tree species composition, structure and diversity in Ihang'ana FR (2982 ha), one of the ..... Dombeya rotundifolia. (Hochst) ... Ficus lutea. Vahl.

  13. Inference of Transmission Network Structure from HIV Phylogenetic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, Federica; Romero-Severson, Ethan Obie; Albert, Jan; Britton, Tom; Leitner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is an attractive means to reconstruct transmission histories and epidemics. However, there is not a perfect correspondence between transmission history and virus phylogeny. Both node height and topological differences may occur, depending on the interaction between within-host evolutionary dynamics and between-host transmission patterns. To investigate these interactions, we added a within-host evolutionary model in epidemiological simulations and examined if the resulting phylogeny could recover different types of contact networks. To further improve realism, we also introduced patient-specific differences in infectivity across disease stages, and on the epidemic level we considered incomplete sampling and the age of the epidemic. Second, we implemented an inference method based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to discriminate among three well-studied network models and jointly estimate both network parameters and key epidemiological quantities such as the infection rate. Our ABC framework used both topological and distance-based tree statistics for comparison between simulated and observed trees. Overall, our simulations showed that a virus time-scaled phylogeny (genealogy) may be substantially different from the between-host transmission tree. This has important implications for the interpretation of what a phylogeny reveals about the underlying epidemic contact network. In particular, we found that while the within-host evolutionary process obscures the transmission tree, the diversification process and infectivity dynamics also add discriminatory power to differentiate between different types of contact networks. We also found that the possibility to differentiate contact networks depends on how far an epidemic has progressed, where distance-based tree statistics have more power early in an epidemic. Finally, we applied our ABC inference on two different outbreaks from the Swedish HIV-1 epidemic.

  14. Physical Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Physical linguistics is defined as the use of treatments from the field of speech pathology to enhance first and second language production in healthy individuals, resulting in increased quality and strength of phonation and articulation. A series of exercises for treating dysarthria (weakness, paralysis, discoordination, primary and secondary…

  15. [The relationship between the structuralism of Levi-Strauss and linguistic methods. An attempt at applying structuralist phonologic models to the study of pathologic language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhote, E

    1975-01-01

    The structuralism which is generally accepted as a 'good French' school of thinking, presents in some of its applications the short-time character of fashion in such a way that one often forgets what this philosophy implicates. In this essay, the author intends to show that even though a structural method really exists, one cannot say who exactly is 'the father' of structuralism. But during the long maturity period of thought that resulted in structuralism, one important step has been made in France by Lévi-Strauss who has been using a great number of linguistic concepts, and at the same time has contributed to the consequent progress realized in that discipline. In the light of linguistics and of the works made by Lévi-Strauss some notions are redefined: those of structure, those of oppositions in the systems, those of relations inside one system, and the interactions between 'significant' and 'signifié'. Born from recent research in mathematics and cybernetics, the notion of Model, very fertile in linguistics, is an important element in the Lévi-Strauss structural methodology. With the help of examples taken from phonetics and phonology, the author intends to show how to elaborate a model, of what nature are the links between the observed object and the model, and what can be the applications of that method in the study of pathological languages; the author also intends to show that the main interest in a model of structural type is its explicative and previsional quality. A critical study of the structural analysis makes it possible to show the real contribution of structuralism: the author presents new ways that have been revealed by structuralism and some developments later on favorized by this discipline, mainly in linguistics. Remark. In this study of structuralism, the author places herself on the level with 'method' and not with 'philosophy'.

  16. De-icing salt contamination reduces urban tree performance in structural soil cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Barona, Camilo; Sabetski, Vadim; Millward, Andrew A; Steenberg, James

    2018-03-01

    Salts used for de-icing roads and sidewalks in northern climates can have a significant impact on water quality and vegetation. Sub-surface engineering systems, such as structural soil cells, can regulate water runoff and pollutants, and provide the necessary soil volume and irrigation to grow trees. However, the ability of such systems to manage de-icing salt contamination, and the impact of this contamination on the trees growing in them, have not been evaluated. We report on an field investigation of de-icing salt contamination in structural cells in two street-revitalization projects in Toronto, Canada, and the impact of this contamination on tree performance. We analyzed soil chemistry and collected tree attributes; these data were examined together to understand the effect of salinity on tree mortality rates and foliar condition. Data collected from continuous soil salinity loggers from April to June for one of the two sites were used to determine whether there was a long-term accumulation of salts in the soils. Results for both sites indicate that both sites displayed high salinity and alkalinity, with levels elevated beyond those suggested before those reported to cause negative tree effects. For one site, trees that were alive and trees that had a better foliar condition had significantly lower levels of soil salinity and alkalinity than other trees. High salinity and alkalinity in the soil were also associated with lower nutrient levels for both sites. Although tests for salinity accumulation in the soils of one site were negative, a longer monitoring of the soil conditions within the soil cells is warranted. Despite structural cells being increasingly utilized for their dual role in storm-water management and tree establishment, there may be a considerable trade-off between storm-water management and urban-forest function in northern climates where de-icing salt application continues to be commonplace. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  18. Perspectives in Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, John T.

    Intended for the student of linguistics or the structural grammarian, who must develop an awareness of their intellectual heritage, the present work surveys the study of language in ancient times, the medieval and early modern periods, the nineteenth century, and the twentieth century to 1950. (This second edition includes additional material on…

  19. Recruiting Conventional Tree Architecture Models into State-of-the-Art LiDAR Mapping for Investigating Tree Growth Habits in Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yi; Jiang, Miao; Pellikka, Petri; Heiskanen, Janne

    2018-01-01

    Mensuration of tree growth habits is of considerable importance for understanding forest ecosystem processes and forest biophysical responses to climate changes. However, the complexity of tree crown morphology that is typically formed after many years of growth tends to render it a non-trivial task, even for the state-of-the-art 3D forest mapping technology—light detection and ranging (LiDAR). Fortunately, botanists have deduced the large structural diversity of tree forms into only a limite...

  20. Structural adjustments in resprouting trees drive differences in post-fire transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Rachael H; Mitchell, Patrick J; Bradstock, Ross A; Lane, Patrick N J

    2014-02-01

    Following disturbance many woody species are capable of resprouting new foliage, resulting in a reduced leaf-to-sapwood area ratio and altered canopy structure. We hypothesized that such changes would promote adjustments in leaf physiology, resulting in higher rates of transpiration per unit leaf area, consistent with the mechanistic framework proposed by Whitehead et al. (Whitehead D, Jarvis PG, Waring RH (1984) Stomatal conductance, transpiration and resistance to water uptake in a Pinus sylvestris spacing experiment. Can J For Res 14:692-700). We tested this in Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér following a wildfire by comparing trees with unburnt canopies with trees that had been subject to 100% canopy scorch and were recovering their leaf area via resprouting. In resprouting trees, foliage was distributed along the trunk and on lateral branches, resulting in shorter hydraulic path lengths. We evaluated measurements of whole-tree transpiration and structural and physiological traits expected to drive any changes in transpiration. We used these structural and physiological measurements to parameterize the Whitehead et al. equation, and found that the expected ratio of transpiration per unit leaf area between resprouting and unburnt trees was 3.41. This is similar to the observed ratio of transpiration per unit leaf area, measured from sapflow observations, which was 2.89 (i.e., resprouting trees had 188% higher transpiration per unit leaf area). Foliage at low heights (tree crown (14-18 m) in a number of traits, including higher specific leaf area, midday leaf water potential and higher rates of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. We conclude that these post-fire adjustments in resprouting trees help to drive increased stomatal conductance and hydraulic efficiency, promoting the rapid return of tree-scale transpiration towards pre-disturbance levels. These transient patterns in canopy transpiration have important implications for modelling stand-level water fluxes

  1. Three-dimensional segmentation and skeletonization to build an airway tree data structure for small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Lee, Zhenghong

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of intrathoracic airway tree geometry is important for objective evaluation of bronchial tree structure and function. Currently, there is more human data than small animal data on airway morphometry. In this study, we implemented a semi-automatic approach to quantitatively describe airway tree geometry by using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) images to build a tree data structure for small animals such as rats and mice. Silicon lung casts of the excised lungs from a canine and a mouse were used for micro-CT imaging of the airway trees. The programming language IDL was used to implement a 3D region-growing threshold algorithm for segmenting out the airway lung volume from the CT data. Subsequently, a fully-parallel 3D thinning algorithm was implemented in order to complete the skeletonization of the segmented airways. A tree data structure was then created and saved by parsing through the skeletonized volume using the Python programming language. Pertinent information such as the length of all airway segments was stored in the data structure. This approach was shown to be accurate and efficient for up to six generations for the canine lung cast and ten generations for the mouse lung cast

  2. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Is Rorty a linguistic idealist?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marvan, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2011), s. 272-279 ISSN 1210-3055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Rorty * linguistic idealism * internal realism * intrinsic structure of reality * representation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  4. Classification and Compression of Multi-Resolution Vectors: A Tree Structured Vector Quantizer Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    their expression profile and for classification of cells into tumerous and non- tumerous classes. Then we will present a parallel tree method for... cancerous cells. We will use the same dataset and use tree structured classifiers with multi-resolution analysis for classifying cancerous from non- cancerous ...cells. We have the expressions of 4096 genes from 98 different cell types. Of these 98, 72 are cancerous while 26 are non- cancerous . We are interested

  5. Wavelet tree structure based speckle noise removal for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Liu, Xuan; Liu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    We report a new speckle noise removal algorithm in optical coherence tomography (OCT). Though wavelet domain thresholding algorithms have demonstrated superior advantages in suppressing noise magnitude and preserving image sharpness in OCT, the wavelet tree structure has not been investigated in previous applications. In this work, we propose an adaptive wavelet thresholding algorithm via exploiting the tree structure in wavelet coefficients to remove the speckle noise in OCT images. The threshold for each wavelet band is adaptively selected following a special rule to retain the structure of the image across different wavelet layers. Our results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms conventional wavelet thresholding, with significant advantages in preserving image features.

  6. Structural system reliability calculation using a probabilistic fault tree analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torng, T. Y.; Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, H. R.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a new probabilistic fault tree analysis (PFTA) method for calculating structural system reliability is summarized. The proposed PFTA procedure includes: developing a fault tree to represent the complex structural system, constructing an approximation function for each bottom event, determining a dominant sampling sequence for all bottom events, and calculating the system reliability using an adaptive importance sampling method. PFTA is suitable for complicated structural problems that require computer-intensive computer calculations. A computer program has been developed to implement the PFTA.

  7. Syntactic Processing in Korean-English Bilingual Production: Evidence from Cross-Linguistic Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2009-01-01

    A structural priming experiment investigated whether grammatical encoding in production consists of one or two stages and whether oral bilingual language production is shared at the functional or positional level [Bock, J. K., Levelt, W. (1994). Language production. Grammatical encoding. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.), "Handbook of psycholinguistics"…

  8. Electronic Nose Odor Classification with Advanced Decision Tree Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guney

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose (e-nose is an electronic device which can measure chemical compounds in air and consequently classify different odors. In this paper, an e-nose device consisting of 8 different gas sensors was designed and constructed. Using this device, 104 different experiments involving 11 different odor classes (moth, angelica root, rose, mint, polis, lemon, rotten egg, egg, garlic, grass, and acetone were performed. The main contribution of this paper is the finding that using the chemical domain knowledge it is possible to train an accurate odor classification system. The domain knowledge about chemical compounds is represented by a decision tree whose nodes are composed of classifiers such as Support Vector Machines and k-Nearest Neighbor. The overall accuracy achieved with the proposed algorithm and the constructed e-nose device was 97.18 %. Training and testing data sets used in this paper are published online.

  9. An idealized model for tree-grass coexistence in savannas : The role of life stage structure and fire disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudena, Mara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340303867; D'Andrea, Fabio; Provenzale, A.

    2010-01-01

    1. We discuss a simple implicit-space model for the competition of trees and grasses in an idealized savanna environment. The model represents patch occupancy dynamics within the habitat and introduces life stage structure in the tree population, namely adults and seedlings. A tree can be

  10. Dynamic asset trees in the US stock market: Structure variation and market phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei-Qiang; Yao, Shuang; Zhuang, Xin-Tian; Yuan, Ying

    2017-01-01

    In this work, employing a moving window to scan through every stock price time series over a period from 2 January 1986 to 20 October 2015, we use cross-correlations to measure the interdependence between stock prices, and we construct a corresponding minimal spanning tree for 170 U.S. stocks in every given window. We show how the asset tree evolves over time and describe the dynamics of its normalized length, centrality measures, vertex degree and vertex strength distributions, and single- and multiple-step edge survival ratios. We find that the normalized tree length shows a tendency to decrease over the 30 years. The power-law of vertex degree or vertex strength distribution does not hold for all trees. The survival ratio analysis reveals an increased stability of the dependence structure of the stock market as time elapses. We then examine the relationship between tree structure variation and market phenomena, such as average, volatility and tail risk of stock (market) return. Our main observation is that the normalized tree length has a positive relationship with the level of stock market average return, and it responds negatively to the market return volatility and tail risk. Furthermore, the majority of stocks have their vertex degrees significantly positively correlated to their average return, and significantly negatively correlated to their return volatility and tail risk.

  11. MODELING BILL-OF-MATERIAL WITH TREE DATA STRUCTURE: CASE STUDY IN FURNITURE MANUFACTURER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Prahasto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modeling of Bill-of-Material with tree data structure. The BOM represents wooden furniture products. The management of BOM is incorporated into an MRP software which is specially built for a furniture manufacturer. The tree data structure is approached with an object oriented programming to provide the creation and modification of the data. The tree object is designed so that a downstream programmer can create an application with high productivity, using the BOM object of course. Legality of the development is ensured by adapting open source resources, i.e. MySQL database engine, PHP server script, and client-side Javascript. The BOM object is used extensively in the MRP software that is being developed. A couple of screenshots are presented to demonstrate the ease of creation and manipulation of Bill-of-Material. The proper approach of modeling BOM with tree structure allows the programmer to reach high productivity during the development of the aforementioned MRP customized software. Keyword : Modeling, Bill of Material, Tree Data Structure

  12. Goal-oriented functional tree structure for nuclear power plant emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, R.V.; Roush, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines for development and implementation of emergency response plans do not provide the planner/implementer with an adequate overview of the functions to be achieved or a measure of their relative importance. To provide a framework in which this importance can be recognized, understood and quantified, a logical goal oriented tree structure has been developed which integrates and gives a clear visual representation of the functions required to meet the emergency preparedness objective. The tree considers a spectrum of both high and low probability events which may require mitigation both onsite and offsite. The ultimate objective: to Minimize the Ill Effects of a Nuclear Power Plant Incident is satisfied by functions concerned with prevention and mitigation of human injury and property damage. A complete and detailed structure which specifies the subfunctions and success paths which satisfy these functions has been developed. Institutional activities such as planning, training, procedure development, monitoring and decision making do not enter the tree directly. Instead, the logic structure defines the extent to which these activities must be considered and the information systems and decision models required for successful implementation of the plan. The top structure of the tree is presented and a few branches are considered in detail. The impact of institutional activities, information systems, etc. is discussed. Tree quantification is considered

  13. Deciphering structural and temporal interplays during the architectural development of mango trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Trottier, Catherine; Guédon, Yann; Normand, Frédéric

    2013-05-01

    Plant architecture is commonly defined by the adjacency of organs within the structure and their properties. Few studies consider the effect of endogenous temporal factors, namely phenological factors, on the establishment of plant architecture. This study hypothesized that, in addition to the effect of environmental factors, the observed plant architecture results from both endogenous structural and temporal components, and their interplays. Mango tree, which is characterized by strong phenological asynchronisms within and between trees and by repeated vegetative and reproductive flushes during a growing cycle, was chosen as a plant model. During two consecutive growing cycles, this study described vegetative and reproductive development of 20 trees submitted to the same environmental conditions. Four mango cultivars were considered to assess possible cultivar-specific patterns. Integrative vegetative and reproductive development models incorporating generalized linear models as components were built. These models described the occurrence, intensity, and timing of vegetative and reproductive development at the growth unit scale. This study showed significant interplays between structural and temporal components of plant architectural development at two temporal scales. Within a growing cycle, earliness of bud burst was highly and positively related to earliness of vegetative development and flowering. Between growing cycles, flowering growth units delayed vegetative development compared to growth units that did not flower. These interplays explained how vegetative and reproductive phenological asynchronisms within and between trees were generated and maintained. It is suggested that causation networks involving structural and temporal components may give rise to contrasted tree architectures.

  14. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Environmental filtering structures tree functional traits combination and lineages across space in tropical tree assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefa, Mengesha; Cao, Min; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Li, Jie; Yang, Jie

    2017-03-09

    Environmental filtering consistently shapes the functional and phylogenetic structure of species across space within diverse forests. However, poor descriptions of community functional and lineage distributions across space hamper the accurate understanding of coexistence mechanisms. We combined environmental variables and geographic space to explore how traits and lineages are filtered by environmental factors using extended RLQ and fourth-corner analyses across different spatial scales. The dispersion patterns of traits and lineages were also examined in a 20-ha tropical rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. We found that environmental filtering was detected across all spatial scales except the largest scale (100 × 100 m). Generally, the associations between functional traits and environmental variables were more or less consistent across spatial scales. Species with high resource acquisition-related traits were associated with the resource-rich part of the plot across the different spatial scales, whereas resource-conserving functional traits were distributed in limited-resource environments. Furthermore, we found phylogenetic and functional clustering at all spatial scales. Similar functional strategies were also detected among distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic distance is not necessarily a proxy for functional distance. In summary, environmental filtering considerably structured the trait and lineage assemblages in this species-rich tropical rainforest.

  16. An introduction to tree-structured modeling with application to quality of life data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaogang; Azuero, Andres; Cho, June; Kvale, Elizabeth; Meneses, Karen M; McNees, M Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Investigators addressing nursing research are faced increasingly with the need to analyze data that involve variables of mixed types and are characterized by complex nonlinearity and interactions. Tree-based methods, also called recursive partitioning, are gaining popularity in various fields. In addition to efficiency and flexibility in handling multifaceted data, tree-based methods offer ease of interpretation. The aims of this study were to introduce tree-based methods, discuss their advantages and pitfalls in application, and describe their potential use in nursing research. In this article, (a) an introduction to tree-structured methods is presented, (b) the technique is illustrated via quality of life (QOL) data collected in the Breast Cancer Education Intervention study, and (c) implications for their potential use in nursing research are discussed. As illustrated by the QOL analysis example, tree methods generate interesting and easily understood findings that cannot be uncovered via traditional linear regression analysis. The expanding breadth and complexity of nursing research may entail the use of new tools to improve efficiency and gain new insights. In certain situations, tree-based methods offer an attractive approach that help address such needs.

  17. Could Values and Social Structures in Singapore Facilitate Attainment of Patient-Focused, Cultural, and Linguistic Competency Standards in a Patient-Centered Medical Home Pilot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jenny A; Shiow, Sue-Anne Toh Ee; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Primary care practices in the United States are transforming into patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) at a rapid pace. Newer PCMH standards have emphasized culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS), but at this time, only some states in the United States have proposed or passed cultural competency training for health care professionals. Other countries are moving to PCMH models. Singapore, a small, ethnically diverse island nation, has national values and social structures that emphasize cultural and linguistic cohesion. In this piece, we examine Singapore’s first PCMH pilot with a national academic center and primary care practice group. Features such as common shared values, self-reliance, racial and religious harmony, patient experience surveillance, and incorporation of CLAS standards in routine health care transactions may predict success for the PCMH in Singapore, with some implications for the United States. PMID:28725822

  18. A mechanical design principle for tissue structure and function in the airway tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrad, Adam S; Lutchen, Kenneth R; Suki, Béla

    2013-01-01

    With every breath, the dynamically changing mechanical pressures must work in unison with the cells and soft tissue structures of the lung to permit air to efficiently traverse the airway tree and undergo gas exchange in the alveoli. The influence of mechanics on cell and tissue function is becoming apparent, raising the question: how does the airway tree co-exist within its mechanical environment to maintain normal cell function throughout its branching structure of diminishing dimensions? We introduce a new mechanical design principle for the conducting airway tree in which mechanotransduction at the level of cells is driven to orchestrate airway wall structural changes that can best maintain a preferred mechanical microenvironment. To support this principle, we report in vitro radius-transmural pressure relations for a range of airway radii obtained from healthy bovine lungs and model the data using a strain energy function together with a thick-walled cylinder description. From this framework, we estimate circumferential stresses and incremental Young's moduli throughout the airway tree. Our results indicate that the conducting airways consistently operate within a preferred mechanical homeostatic state, termed mechanical homeostasis, that is characterized by a narrow range of circumferential stresses and Young's moduli. This mechanical homeostatic state is maintained for all airways throughout the tree via airway wall dimensional and mechanical relationships. As a consequence, cells within the airway walls throughout the airway tree experience similar oscillatory strains during breathing that are much smaller than previously thought. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of how the maintenance of mechanical homeostasis, while facilitating healthy tissue-level alterations necessary for maturation, may lead to airway wall structural changes capable of chronic asthma.

  19. A mechanical design principle for tissue structure and function in the airway tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S LaPrad

    Full Text Available With every breath, the dynamically changing mechanical pressures must work in unison with the cells and soft tissue structures of the lung to permit air to efficiently traverse the airway tree and undergo gas exchange in the alveoli. The influence of mechanics on cell and tissue function is becoming apparent, raising the question: how does the airway tree co-exist within its mechanical environment to maintain normal cell function throughout its branching structure of diminishing dimensions? We introduce a new mechanical design principle for the conducting airway tree in which mechanotransduction at the level of cells is driven to orchestrate airway wall structural changes that can best maintain a preferred mechanical microenvironment. To support this principle, we report in vitro radius-transmural pressure relations for a range of airway radii obtained from healthy bovine lungs and model the data using a strain energy function together with a thick-walled cylinder description. From this framework, we estimate circumferential stresses and incremental Young's moduli throughout the airway tree. Our results indicate that the conducting airways consistently operate within a preferred mechanical homeostatic state, termed mechanical homeostasis, that is characterized by a narrow range of circumferential stresses and Young's moduli. This mechanical homeostatic state is maintained for all airways throughout the tree via airway wall dimensional and mechanical relationships. As a consequence, cells within the airway walls throughout the airway tree experience similar oscillatory strains during breathing that are much smaller than previously thought. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of how the maintenance of mechanical homeostasis, while facilitating healthy tissue-level alterations necessary for maturation, may lead to airway wall structural changes capable of chronic asthma.

  20. Mapping topographic structure in white matter pathways with level set trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Kent

    Full Text Available Fiber tractography on diffusion imaging data offers rich potential for describing white matter pathways in the human brain, but characterizing the spatial organization in these large and complex data sets remains a challenge. We show that level set trees--which provide a concise representation of the hierarchical mode structure of probability density functions--offer a statistically-principled framework for visualizing and analyzing topography in fiber streamlines. Using diffusion spectrum imaging data collected on neurologically healthy controls (N = 30, we mapped white matter pathways from the cortex into the striatum using a deterministic tractography algorithm that estimates fiber bundles as dimensionless streamlines. Level set trees were used for interactive exploration of patterns in the endpoint distributions of the mapped fiber pathways and an efficient segmentation of the pathways that had empirical accuracy comparable to standard nonparametric clustering techniques. We show that level set trees can also be generalized to model pseudo-density functions in order to analyze a broader array of data types, including entire fiber streamlines. Finally, resampling methods show the reliability of the level set tree as a descriptive measure of topographic structure, illustrating its potential as a statistical descriptor in brain imaging analysis. These results highlight the broad applicability of level set trees for visualizing and analyzing high-dimensional data like fiber tractography output.

  1. Quantifying Standing Dead Tree Volume and Structural Loss with Voxelized Terrestrial Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, S. C.; Putman, E.

    2017-12-01

    Standing dead trees (SDTs) are an important forest component and impact a variety of ecosystem processes, yet the carbon pool dynamics of SDTs are poorly constrained in terrestrial carbon cycling models. The ability to model wood decay and carbon cycling in relation to detectable changes in tree structure and volume over time would greatly improve such models. The overall objective of this study was to provide automated aboveground volume estimates of SDTs and automated procedures to detect, quantify, and characterize structural losses over time with terrestrial lidar data. The specific objectives of this study were: 1) develop an automated SDT volume estimation algorithm providing accurate volume estimates for trees scanned in dense forests; 2) develop an automated change detection methodology to accurately detect and quantify SDT structural loss between subsequent terrestrial lidar observations; and 3) characterize the structural loss rates of pine and oak SDTs in southeastern Texas. A voxel-based volume estimation algorithm, "TreeVolX", was developed and incorporates several methods designed to robustly process point clouds of varying quality levels. The algorithm operates on horizontal voxel slices by segmenting the slice into distinct branch or stem sections then applying an adaptive contour interpolation and interior filling process to create solid reconstructed tree models (RTMs). TreeVolX estimated large and small branch volume with an RMSE of 7.3% and 13.8%, respectively. A voxel-based change detection methodology was developed to accurately detect and quantify structural losses and incorporated several methods to mitigate the challenges presented by shifting tree and branch positions as SDT decay progresses. The volume and structural loss of 29 SDTs, composed of Pinus taeda and Quercus stellata, were successfully estimated using multitemporal terrestrial lidar observations over elapsed times ranging from 71 - 753 days. Pine and oak structural loss rates

  2. Generalized belief propagation on tree robust structured region graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelfand, A.E.; Welling, M.; Murphy, K.; de Freitas, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides some new guidance in the construction of region graphs for Generalized Belief Propagation (GBP). We connect the problem of choosing the outer regions of a LoopStructured Region Graph (SRG) to that of finding a fundamental cycle basis of the corresponding Markov network. We also

  3. Genetic structure of populations and differentiation in forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond P. Guries; F. Thomas Ledig

    1981-01-01

    Electrophoretic techniques permit population biologists to analyze genetic structure of natural populations by using large numbers of allozyme loci. Several methods of analysis have been applied to allozyme data, including chi-square contingency tests, F-statistics, and genetic distance. This paper compares such statistics for pitch pine (Pinus rigida...

  4. Population structure of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on pear trees in China identified using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinjun; Li, Jie; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-04-01

    The spiraea aphid (Aphis spiraecola Patch) is a primary pest of fruit trees, particularly pear trees in China. Despite the economic importance of this pest, little is known about its genetic structure or its patterns of dispersal at local and regional scales; however, knowledge of these characteristics is important for establishing effective control strategies for this pest. The genetic variability of 431 individuals from 21 populations on pear trees in China was investigated using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. The high polymorphism of these markers was evident from the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.824) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.805), indicating that the spiraea aphid maintains a high level of genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed a middle level of population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.1478) among A. spiraecola populations. This result is consistent with the results of the STRUCTURE analysis (K = 3), the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average tree and the Mantel test (r = 0.6392; P < 0.05). Our results indicate high levels of genetic exchange in the spiraea aphid, possibly facilitated by geography and climate. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering regional differences in studies of population structure, even when strong isolation-by-distance influences the genetic population structure of species.

  5. Structural lumber from dense stands of small-diameter Douglas-fir trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Eini C. Lowell; Roland Hernandez

    2005-01-01

    Small-diameter trees growing in overstocked dense stands are often targeted for thinning to reduce fire hazard and improve forest health and ecosystem diversity. In the Pacific Northwest and Intermountain regions, Douglas-fir can be a predominant species in such stands. In this study, mechanical properties and grade yield of structural products were estimated for 2 by...

  6. Effect of Parkinson's Disease on the Production of Structured and Unstructured Speaking Tasks: Respiratory Physiologic and Linguistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of cognitive-linguistic deficits and respiratory physiologic changes on respiratory support for speech in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) using two speech tasks: reading and extemporaneous speech. Method: Five women with PD, 9 men with PD, and 14 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage and…

  7. A Comparison of Rhetorical Move Structure of Applied Linguistics Research Articles Published in International and National Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannaruk, Anchalee; Amnuai, Wirada

    2016-01-01

    The rhetorical organization of research articles has attracted extensive attention in genre study, and the focus of move-based analysis is on the textual function. The primary aim of the present study was the comparison of the rhetorical moves of English research articles in the field of Applied Linguistics written by Thai first authors and…

  8. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  9. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.

  10. FTAP, Minimal Cut Sets of Arbitrary Fault Trees. FRTPLT, Fault Tree Structure and Logical Gates Plot for Program FTAP. FRTGEN, Fault Trees by Sub-tree Generator from Parent Tree for Program FTAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willie, Randall R.; Rabien, U.

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FTAP is a general-purpose program for deriving minimal reliability cut and path set families from the fault tree for a complex system. The program has a number of useful features that make it well-suited to nearly all fault tree applications. An input fault tree may specify the system state as any logical function of subsystem or component state variables or complements of these variables; thus, for instance, 'exclusive-or' type relations may be formed. When fault tree logical relations involve complements of state variables, the analyst may instruct FTAP to produce a family of prime implicants, a generalization of the minimal cut set concept. The program offers the flexibility of several distinct methods of generating cut set families. FTAP can also identify certain subsystems as system modules and provide a collection of minimal cut set families that essentially expresses the system state as a function of these module state variables. Another feature allows a useful subfamily to be obtained when the family of minimal cut sets or prime implicants is too large to be found in its entirety; this subfamily may consist of only those sets not containing more than some fixed number of elements or only those sets 'interesting' to the analyst in some special sense. Finally, the analyst can modify the input fault tree in various ways by declaring state variables identically true or false. 2 - Method of solution: Fault tree methods are based on the observation that the system state, either working or failed, can usually be expressed as a Boolean relation between states of several large, readily identifiable subsystems. The state of each subsystem in turn depends on states of simpler subsystems and components which compose it, so that the state of the system itself is determined by a hierarchy of logical relationships between states of subsystems. A fault tree is a graphical representation of these relationships. 3 - Restrictions on the

  11. Genetic structure of two pseudoscorpion species living in tree hollows in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranius, T.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Two saproxylic pseudoscorpions, Larca lata and Allochernes wideri, were compared in an analysis of genetic structure in southern Sweden. Allochernes wideri is a relatively widely distributed species that occurs in single-standing trees and in small tree hollows, while L. lata is on the Swedish red list and confined to larger assemblages of very old trees with hollows containing large amounts of wood mould. In A. wideri, the polymorphism of PGM was used, whereas in L. lata the variation for PGI was studied. The genetic differentiation between trees within a site was low for both species, indicating that the migration between nearby trees is considerable despite the fact that phoretic dispersal has only been occasionally observed in these species. Between sites, situated four to 900 km from each other, the genetic differentiation was small both in A. wideri and L. lata with no difference between the species, when considered on the mainland only. The small differentiation suggests the habitat was fragmented recently (100-170 years ago. The relation between the rate of migration and long-term population survival and the risk of mis-interpretation due to selection for alleles is discussed

  12. Tree decomposition based fast search of RNA structures including pseudoknots in genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinglei; Liu, Chunmei; Malmberg, Russell; Pan, Fangfang; Cai, Liming

    2005-01-01

    Searching genomes for RNA secondary structure with computational methods has become an important approach to the annotation of non-coding RNAs. However, due to the lack of efficient algorithms for accurate RNA structure-sequence alignment, computer programs capable of fast and effectively searching genomes for RNA secondary structures have not been available. In this paper, a novel RNA structure profiling model is introduced based on the notion of a conformational graph to specify the consensus structure of an RNA family. Tree decomposition yields a small tree width t for such conformation graphs (e.g., t = 2 for stem loops and only a slight increase for pseudo-knots). Within this modelling framework, the optimal alignment of a sequence to the structure model corresponds to finding a maximum valued isomorphic subgraph and consequently can be accomplished through dynamic programming on the tree decomposition of the conformational graph in time O(k(t)N(2)), where k is a small parameter; and N is the size of the projiled RNA structure. Experiments show that the application of the alignment algorithm to search in genomes yields the same search accuracy as methods based on a Covariance model with a significant reduction in computation time. In particular; very accurate searches of tmRNAs in bacteria genomes and of telomerase RNAs in yeast genomes can be accomplished in days, as opposed to months required by other methods. The tree decomposition based searching tool is free upon request and can be downloaded at our site h t t p ://w.uga.edu/RNA-informatics/software/index.php.

  13. A quantitative analysis of secondary RNA structure using domination based parameters on trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Yue

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has become increasingly apparent that a comprehensive database of RNA motifs is essential in order to achieve new goals in genomic and proteomic research. Secondary RNA structures have frequently been represented by various modeling methods as graph-theoretic trees. Using graph theory as a modeling tool allows the vast resources of graphical invariants to be utilized to numerically identify secondary RNA motifs. The domination number of a graph is a graphical invariant that is sensitive to even a slight change in the structure of a tree. The invariants selected in this study are variations of the domination number of a graph. These graphical invariants are partitioned into two classes, and we define two parameters based on each of these classes. These parameters are calculated for all small order trees and a statistical analysis of the resulting data is conducted to determine if the values of these parameters can be utilized to identify which trees of orders seven and eight are RNA-like in structure. Results The statistical analysis shows that the domination based parameters correctly distinguish between the trees that represent native structures and those that are not likely candidates to represent RNA. Some of the trees previously identified as candidate structures are found to be "very" RNA like, while others are not, thereby refining the space of structures likely to be found as representing secondary RNA structure. Conclusion Search algorithms are available that mine nucleotide sequence databases. However, the number of motifs identified can be quite large, making a further search for similar motif computationally difficult. Much of the work in the bioinformatics arena is toward the development of better algorithms to address the computational problem. This work, on the other hand, uses mathematical descriptors to more clearly characterize the RNA motifs and thereby reduce the corresponding search space. These

  14. Multiple Browsers Structure Tree Recruitment in Logged Temperate Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K Faison

    Full Text Available Historical extirpations have resulted in depauperate large herbivore assemblages in many northern forests. In eastern North America, most forests are inhabited by a single wild ungulate species, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, and relationships between deer densities and impacts on forest regeneration are correspondingly well documented. Recent recolonizations by moose (Alces americanus in northeastern regions complicate established deer density thresholds and predictions of browsing impacts on forest dynamics because size and foraging differences between the two animals suggest a lack of functional redundancy. We asked to what extent low densities of deer + moose would structure forest communities differently from that of low densities of deer in recently logged patch cuts of Massachusetts, USA. In each site, a randomized block with three treatment levels of large herbivores-no-ungulates (full exclosure, deer (partial exclosure, and deer + moose (control was established. After 6-7 years, deer + moose reduced stem densities and basal area by 2-3-fold, Prunus pensylvanica and Quercus spp. recruitment by 3-6 fold, and species richness by 1.7 species (19%. In contrast, in the partial exclosures, deer had non-significant effects on stem density, basal area, and species composition, but significantly reduced species richness by 2.5 species on average (28%. Deer browsing in the partial exclosure was more selective than deer + moose browsing together, perhaps contributing to the decline in species richness in the former treatment and the lack of additional decline in the latter. Moose used the control plots at roughly the same frequency as deer (as determined by remote camera traps, suggesting that the much larger moose was the dominant browser species in terms of animal biomass in these cuts. A lack of functional redundancy with respect to foraging behavior between sympatric large herbivores may explain combined browsing effects that were

  15. Multiple browsers structure tree recruitment in logged temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faison, Edward K.; DeStefano, Stephen; Foster, David R.; Rapp, Joshua M.; Compton, Justin A.

    2016-01-01

    Historical extirpations have resulted in depauperate large herbivore assemblages in many northern forests. In eastern North America, most forests are inhabited by a single wild ungulate species, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and relationships between deer densities and impacts on forest regeneration are correspondingly well documented. Recent recolonizations by moose (Alces americanus) in northeastern regions complicate established deer density thresholds and predictions of browsing impacts on forest dynamics because size and foraging differences between the two animals suggest a lack of functional redundancy. We asked to what extent low densities of deer + moose would structure forest communities differently from that of low densities of deer in recently logged patch cuts of Massachusetts, USA. In each site, a randomized block with three treatment levels of large herbivores–no-ungulates (full exclosure), deer (partial exclosure), and deer + moose (control) was established. After 6–7 years, deer + moose reduced stem densities and basal area by 2-3-fold, Prunus pensylvanica and Quercus spp. recruitment by 3–6 fold, and species richness by 1.7 species (19%). In contrast, in the partial exclosures, deer had non-significant effects on stem density, basal area, and species composition, but significantly reduced species richness by 2.5 species on average (28%). Deer browsing in the partial exclosure was more selective than deer + moose browsing together, perhaps contributing to the decline in species richness in the former treatment and the lack of additional decline in the latter. Moose used the control plots at roughly the same frequency as deer (as determined by remote camera traps), suggesting that the much larger moose was the dominant browser species in terms of animal biomass in these cuts. A lack of functional redundancy with respect to foraging behavior between sympatric large herbivores may explain combined browsing effects that were

  16. Disentangling environmental and spatial effects on phylogenetic structure of angiosperm tree communities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin; Zhang, Jin-Long

    2017-07-17

    Niche-based and neutrality-based theories are two major classes of theories explaining the assembly mechanisms of local communities. Both theories have been frequently used to explain species diversity and composition in local communities but their relative importance remains unclear. Here, we analyzed 57 assemblages of angiosperm trees in 0.1-ha forest plots across China to examine the effects of environmental heterogeneity (relevant to niche-based processes) and spatial contingency (relevant to neutrality-based processes) on phylogenetic structure of angiosperm tree assemblages distributed across a wide range of environment and space. Phylogenetic structure was quantified with six phylogenetic metrics (i.e., phylogenetic diversity, mean pairwise distance, mean nearest taxon distance, and the standardized effect sizes of these three metrics), which emphasize on different depths of evolutionary histories and account for different degrees of species richness effects. Our results showed that the variation in phylogenetic metrics explained independently by environmental variables was on average much greater than that explained independently by spatial structure, and the vast majority of the variation in phylogenetic metrics was explained by spatially structured environmental variables. We conclude that niche-based processes have played a more important role than neutrality-based processes in driving phylogenetic structure of angiosperm tree species in forest communities in China.

  17. [Population structure and regeneration strategy of relict deciduous broadleaved trees on Mount Tianmu, Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Kan Kan; Chen, Bo; Da, Liang Jun

    2018-02-01

    The population structure, regeneration ways and spatial relationships of six relict deci-duous broadleaved trees were examined based on community investigation on Mount Tianmu, East China. The results showed that relict deciduous broadleaved trees had a strong ability of vegetative reproduction and their population structure was generally belonged to intermittent type. Some relict species such as Cyclocarya paliurus and Liquidamb aracalycina regenerated discontinuously at appropriate sites via long-distance diffusion. Some species such as Emmenoptery henryi and Euptelea pleiospermum regenerated discontinuously around mature trees due to habitat limitation and frequent disturbance. After occupying forest gaps by seedling regeneration, C. paliurus, L. acalycina, Nyssasinensis and Liquidambar formosana could recruit and form multi-stemmed individuals by their inherent sprouting ability at relatively stable sites such as crest slope and side slope. At riverbed, valley slope and head hollow, recognized as unstable habitats, Emmenopterys henryi, E. pleiospermum, and L. formosana could also recruit by strong sprouting ability due to sparse seedlings and individual loss incurred by disturbance. Therefore, the relict deciduous broadleaved trees could be classified into two ecological species groups (repairment species for forest gap and supplement species for special habitat) based on spatial distribution and strategy of regeneration and competition. We suggested that the protection of special habitats of their communities should be strengthened.

  18. Effects of acid rain and surfactant pollution on the foliar structure of some tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddi, P.; Moricca, S.; Paoletti, E.

    1994-01-01

    For 10 years we have been studying the effects of acid rain and ABS (a surfactant always found in sea aerosols) on several tree species. Alterations of the leaf structure were considered as damage index. We tried to quantify the damage to the wax structure by scoring in accordance with a damage scale given by SEM observations and by computing a damage index that allowed for a comparison among tree provenances and within individuals of the same provenance or clone. We tested the response of several species: Norway spruce, silver fir, cypress, London plane, chestnut, walnut, Italian alder, tree of heaven, common maple, European white elm, manna ash, holm oak, European beech. The different species exhibited different levels of damage in relation to the type of treatment: when ABS was present, the damage was always more severe. In the broadleaved trees, the most frequent disturbances noted were: erosion of the epicuticular wax, alterations in the stomata, lesions, abscission and/or alternation of hairs. Damage from ABS treatments was compared to damge observed in coastal vegetation after strong sea winds. By comparing natural and induced damage, we were able to demonstrate that ABS is one of the possible causes of coastal vegetation decline and that ABS may also impact significantly on vegetation growing far away from the sea. (orig.)

  19. A simplified description of the three-dimensional structure of agroforestry trees for use with a radiative transfer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, S.

    1998-01-01

    To simulate transmitted radiation in agroforestry systems, radiative transfer models usually require a detailed three-dimensional description of the tree canopy. We propose here a simplification of the description of the three-dimensional structure of wild cherry trees (Prunus avium). The simplified tree description was tested against the detailed one for five-year-old wild cherry. It allowed accurate simulation of transmitted radiation and avoided tedious measurements of tree structure. The simplified description was then applied to older trees. Allometric relationships were used to compute the parameters not available on free-grown trees. The transmitted radiation in an agroforestry system was simulated at four different ages: 5, 10, 15 and 20 years. The trees were planted on a 5 m square grid. Two row orientations, chosen to provide different transmitted radiation patterns, were tested: north/south and north- east/south-west. The simulations showed that the daily mean transmitted radiation was reduced from 92% of incident radiation under five-year-old trees to 37% under 20-year-old trees. The variability of transmitted radiation increased with tree growth. The row orientation had only small effects on the shaded area at the beginning and end of the day when solar elevation was low. (author)

  20. Protein linguistics - a grammar for modular protein assembly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimona, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The correspondence between biology and linguistics at the level of sequence and lexical inventories, and of structure and syntax, has fuelled attempts to describe genome structure by the rules of formal linguistics. But how can we define protein linguistic rules? And how could compositional semantics improve our understanding of protein organization and functional plasticity?

  1. Including RNA secondary structures improves accuracy and robustness in reconstruction of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Alexander; Förster, Frank; Müller, Tobias; Dandekar, Thomas; Schultz, Jörg; Wolf, Matthias

    2010-01-15

    In several studies, secondary structures of ribosomal genes have been used to improve the quality of phylogenetic reconstructions. An extensive evaluation of the benefits of secondary structure, however, is lacking. This is the first study to counter this deficiency. We inspected the accuracy and robustness of phylogenetics with individual secondary structures by simulation experiments for artificial tree topologies with up to 18 taxa and for divergency levels in the range of typical phylogenetic studies. We chose the internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal cistron as an exemplary marker region. Simulation integrated the coevolution process of sequences with secondary structures. Additionally, the phylogenetic power of marker size duplication was investigated and compared with sequence and sequence-structure reconstruction methods. The results clearly show that accuracy and robustness of Neighbor Joining trees are largely improved by structural information in contrast to sequence only data, whereas a doubled marker size only accounts for robustness. Individual secondary structures of ribosomal RNA sequences provide a valuable gain of information content that is useful for phylogenetics. Thus, the usage of ITS2 sequence together with secondary structure for taxonomic inferences is recommended. Other reconstruction methods as maximum likelihood, bayesian inference or maximum parsimony may equally profit from secondary structure inclusion. This article was reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber) and Eugene V. Koonin. Reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber) and Eugene V. Koonin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  2. English linguistic purism: history, development, criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishechko Ovsanna Savvichna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic purism as an area of linguistic analysis describes the practices of identification and acknowledgement of a certain language variety as more structurally advanced as compared to its other varieties. Linguistic protection is associated with preservation of some abstract, classical, conservative linguistic ideal and performs the regulatory function, above all. The puristic approach to the development of the English language has been subjected to heated debate for several centuries and is reflected in both scientific research and literary texts. Supporters of purification of the English language champion the idea of protection of “pure language”. The idea, however, is actively criticized by opponents.

  3. Mathematical Approaches to Cognitive Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuluundorj Begz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive linguistics, neuro-cognitive and psychological analysis of human verbal cognition present important area of multidisciplinary research. Mathematical methods and models have been introduced in number of publications with increasing attention to these theories. In this paper we have described some possible applications of mathematical methods to cognitive linguistics. Human verbal perception and verbal mapping deal with dissipative mental structures and symmetric/asymmetric relationships between objects of perception and deep (also surface structures of language. In that’s way methods of tensor analysis are ambitious candidate to be applied to analysis of human verbal thinking and mental space.

  4. Tree species composition and structure in an old bottomland hardwood forest in south-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; James M. Guldin; Thomas Foti

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition and structure was determined for an old bottomland hardwood forest located in the Moro Creek Bottoms Natural Area in south-central Arkansas. Diversity for this forest was high with species richness ranging from 33 for the overstory and sapling strata to 26 for the seedling stratum and Shannon-Weiner values of 2.54 to 1.02 for the overstory and...

  5. Influence of competition and age on tree growth in structurally complex old-growth forests in northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomas Aakala; Shawn Fraver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing tree growth in structurally complex forests remain poorly understood. Here we assessed the influence of competition on Pinus resinosa (n = 224) and Pinus strobus (n = 90) growth in four old-growth stands in Minnesota, using mixed effects models. A subset of trees, with...

  6. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  7. Residents’ Support Intentions and Behaviors Regarding Urban Trees Programs: A Structural Equation Modeling-Multi Group Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban trees are more about people than trees. Urban trees programs need public support and engagement, from the intentions to support to implement actions in supporting the programs. Built upon the theory of planned behavior and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, this study uses Beijing as a case study to investigate how subjective norm (cognition of urban trees, attitude (benefits residents’ believe urban trees can provide, and perceived behavioral control (the believed ability of what residents can do affect intention and its transformation into implemented of supporting action. A total of 800 residents were interviewed in 2016 and asked about their opinion of neighborhood trees, park trees, and historical trees, and analyzed, respectively. The results show that subjective norm has a significant positive effect on intentions pertaining to historical and neighborhood trees. Attitudes influence intentions, but its overall influence is much lower than that of the subjective norm, indicating that residents are more likely to be influenced by external factors. The perceived behavioral control has the strongest effect among the three, suggesting the importance of public participation in strengthening intention. The transformation from intention to behavior seems relatively small, especially regarding neighborhood trees, suggesting that perceptions and participation need to be strengthened.

  8. Analysis of tree stand horizontal structure using random point field methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sekretenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the model approach to analyze the horizontal structure of forest stands. The main types of models of random point fields and statistical procedures that can be used to analyze spatial patterns of trees of uneven and even-aged stands are described. We show how modern methods of spatial statistics can be used to address one of the objectives of forestry – to clarify the laws of natural thinning of forest stand and the corresponding changes in its spatial structure over time. Studying natural forest thinning, we describe the consecutive stages of modeling: selection of the appropriate parametric model, parameter estimation and generation of point patterns in accordance with the selected model, the selection of statistical functions to describe the horizontal structure of forest stands and testing of statistical hypotheses. We show the possibilities of a specialized software package, spatstat, which is designed to meet the challenges of spatial statistics and provides software support for modern methods of analysis of spatial data. We show that a model of stand thinning that does not consider inter-tree interaction can project the size distribution of the trees properly, but the spatial pattern of the modeled stand is not quite consistent with observed data. Using data of three even-aged pine forest stands of 25, 55, and 90-years old, we demonstrate that the spatial point process models are useful for combining measurements in the forest stands of different ages to study the forest stand natural thinning.

  9. Image reconstruction of fluorescent molecular tomography based on the tree structured Schur complement decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiajun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inverse problem of fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT often involves complex large-scale matrix operations, which may lead to unacceptable computational errors and complexity. In this research, a tree structured Schur complement decomposition strategy is proposed to accelerate the reconstruction process and reduce the computational complexity. Additionally, an adaptive regularization scheme is developed to improve the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. Methods The global system is decomposed level by level with the Schur complement system along two paths in the tree structure. The resultant subsystems are solved in combination with the biconjugate gradient method. The mesh for the inverse problem is generated incorporating the prior information. During the reconstruction, the regularization parameters are adaptive not only to the spatial variations but also to the variations of the objective function to tackle the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem. Results Simulation results demonstrate that the strategy of the tree structured Schur complement decomposition obviously outperforms the previous methods, such as the conventional Conjugate-Gradient (CG and the Schur CG methods, in both reconstruction accuracy and speed. As compared with the Tikhonov regularization method, the adaptive regularization scheme can significantly improve ill-posedness of the inverse problem. Conclusions The methods proposed in this paper can significantly improve the reconstructed image quality of FMT and accelerate the reconstruction process.

  10. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  11. Shade tree spatial structure and pod production explain frosty pod rot intensity in cacao agroforests, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Avelino, Jacques; Deheuvels, Olivier; Cilas, Christian; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-03-01

    Vegetation composition and plant spatial structure affect disease intensity through resource and microclimatic variation effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent effect and relative importance of host composition and plant spatial structure variables in explaining disease intensity at the plot scale. For that purpose, frosty pod rot intensity, a disease caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao pods, was monitored in 36 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica in order to assess the vegetation composition and spatial structure variables conducive to the disease. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the most causal factors. Firstly, pod production, cacao tree density and shade tree spatial structure had significant independent effects on disease intensity. In our case study, the amount of susceptible tissue was the most relevant host composition variable for explaining disease intensity by resource dilution. Indeed, cacao tree density probably affected disease intensity more by the creation of self-shading rather than by host dilution. Lastly, only regularly distributed forest trees, and not aggregated or randomly distributed forest trees, reduced disease intensity in comparison to plots with a low forest tree density. A regular spatial structure is probably crucial to the creation of moderate and uniform shade as recommended for frosty pod rot management. As pod production is an important service expected from these agroforests, shade tree spatial structure may be a lever for integrated management of frosty pod rot in cacao agroforests.

  12. Motion Tree Delineates Hierarchical Structure of Protein Dynamics Observed in Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Moritsugu

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics (MD simulations of proteins provide important information to understand their functional mechanisms, which are, however, likely to be hidden behind their complicated motions with a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. A straightforward and intuitive analysis of protein dynamics observed in MD simulation trajectories is therefore of growing significance with the large increase in both the simulation time and system size. In this study, we propose a novel description of protein motions based on the hierarchical clustering of fluctuations in the inter-atomic distances calculated from an MD trajectory, which constructs a single tree diagram, named a "Motion Tree", to determine a set of rigid-domain pairs hierarchically along with associated inter-domain fluctuations. The method was first applied to the MD trajectory of substrate-free adenylate kinase to clarify the usefulness of the Motion Tree, which illustrated a clear-cut dynamics picture of the inter-domain motions involving the ATP/AMP lid and the core domain together with the associated amplitudes and correlations. The comparison of two Motion Trees calculated from MD simulations of ligand-free and -bound glutamine binding proteins clarified changes in inherent dynamics upon ligand binding appeared in both large domains and a small loop that stabilized ligand molecule. Another application to a huge protein, a multidrug ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter, captured significant increases of fluctuations upon binding a drug molecule observed in both large scale inter-subunit motions and a motion localized at a transmembrane helix, which may be a trigger to the subsequent structural change from inward-open to outward-open states to transport the drug molecule. These applications demonstrated the capabilities of Motion Trees to provide an at-a-glance view of various sizes of functional motions inherent in the complicated MD trajectory.

  13. Spatial Structure of Soil Macrofauna Diversity and Tree Canopy in Riparian Forest of Maroon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sayad

    2017-02-01

    with a mean temperature of 24.5oc. Plant cover, mainly comprises Populus euphratica Olivie and Tamarix arceuthoides Bge and Lycium shawii Roemer & Schultes. Soil macrofauna were sampled using 175 sampling point along parallel transects (perpendicular to the river. The distance between transects was 100m. We considered distance between samples as 50 m. tree canopy were measured in 5* 5 plots. soil macrofauna were extracted from 50 cm×50 cm×10 cm soil monolith by hand-sorting procedure. All soil macrofauna were identified to family level. Evenness (Sheldon index, richness (Menhinich index and diversity (Shannon H’ index by using PAST version 1.39, were determined in each sample. Classical statistical parameters, i.e. mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, minimum and maximum, were calculated using SPSS17 software. For analysis of the relationship between Soil macrofauna diversity indices and tree canopy (Total canopy, Populous canopy, Tamarix canopy and Serim canopy we calculated the correlation among soil properties and macrofauna using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Next, to determining the spatial structure, we calculated the semivariances. Semivariance quantifies the spatial dependence of spatially ordered variable values. In order to gather information about the spatial connection between any two variables, and to compare the similarity of their spatial structure patterns, cross-variograms were constructed. Cross-variograms are plots of cross-semivariance against the lag distance. Results and Discussion: Soil macrofauna communities were dominated by earthworm, diplopods, coleoptera, gastropoda, araneae, and insect larvae. Correlation analysis of soil macrofauna and tree canopy indicated weak relationships between them. Weak, but significant relationships were found between macrofauna diversity, evenness, richness and total canopy, Populous canopy and Tamarix canopy (positive. Macrofauna indices and tree canopy(excepted Tamarix canopy were

  14. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  15. Mapping Urban Tree Canopy Coverage and Structure using Data Fusion of High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Aerial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, A.; Rogan, J.; Williams, C. A.; Martin, D. G.; Ratick, S.; Nowak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urban tree canopy (UTC) coverage is a critical component of sustainable urban areas. Trees provide a number of important ecosystem services, including air pollution mitigation, water runoff control, and aesthetic and cultural values. Critically, urban trees also act to mitigate the urban heat island (UHI) effect by shading impervious surfaces and via evaporative cooling. The cooling effect of urban trees can be seen locally, with individual trees reducing home HVAC costs, and at a citywide scale, reducing the extent and magnitude of an urban areas UHI. In order to accurately model the ecosystem services of a given urban forest, it is essential to map in detail the condition and composition of these trees at a fine scale, capturing individual tree crowns and their vertical structure. This paper presents methods for delineating UTC and measuring canopy structure at fine spatial resolution (body of methods, relying on a data fusion method to combine the information contained in high resolution WorldView-3 satellite imagery and aerial lidar data using an object-based image classification approach. The study area, Worcester, MA, has recently undergone a large-scale tree removal and reforestation program, following a pest eradication effort. Therefore, the urban canopy in this location provides a wide mix of tree age class and functional type, ideal for illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Early results show that the object-based classifier is indeed capable of identifying individual tree crowns, while continued research will focus on extracting crown structural characteristics using lidar-derived metrics. Ultimately, the resulting fine resolution UTC map will be compared with previously created UTC maps of the same area but for earlier dates, producing a canopy change map corresponding to the Worcester area tree removal and replanting effort.

  16. Structural analysis of polarizing indels: an emerging consensus on the root of the tree of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourne Philip E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The root of the tree of life has been a holy grail ever since Darwin first used the tree as a metaphor for evolution. New methods seek to narrow down the location of the root by excluding it from branches of the tree of life. This is done by finding traits that must be derived, and excluding the root from the taxa those traits cover. However the two most comprehensive attempts at this strategy, performed by Cavalier-Smith and Lake et al., have excluded each other's rootings. Results The indel polarizations of Lake et al. rely on high quality alignments between paralogs that diverged before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA. Therefore, sequence alignment artifacts may skew their conclusions. We have reviewed their data using protein structure information where available. Several of the conclusions are quite different when viewed in the light of structure which is conserved over longer evolutionary time scales than sequence. We argue there is no polarization that excludes the root from all Gram-negatives, and that polarizations robustly exclude the root from the Archaea. Conclusion We conclude that there is no contradiction between the polarization datasets. The combination of these datasets excludes the root from every possible position except near the Chloroflexi. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Greg Fournier (nominated by J. Peter Gogarten, Purificación López-García, and Eugene Koonin.

  17. What Is Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Ostensive and expository definitions of applied linguistics are assessed. It is suggested that the key to a meaningful definition lies in the dual articulation of applied linguistics: it is an interface between linguistics and practicality. Its role as an "expert system" is suggested. (45 references) (Author/LB)

  18. Tree Line Structure and Dynamics at the Northern Limit of the Larch Forest: Anabar Plateau, Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergey T.; Oskorbin, Pavel A.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitriy V.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide an analysis of climate impact before, during, and after the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the larch (Larix gmelinii) tree line at the northern extreme of Siberian forests. Recent decadal climate change impacts on the tree line, regeneration abundance, and age structure were analyzed. The location of the study area was within the forest-tundra ecotone (elevation range 170-450 m) in the Anabar Plateau, northern Siberia. Field studies were conducted along elevational transects. Tree natality/mortality and radial increment were determined based on dendrochronology analyses. Tree morphology, number of living and subfossil trees, regeneration abundance, and age structure were studied. Locations of pre-LIA, LIA, and post-LIA tree lines and refugia boundaries were established. Long-term climate variables and drought index were included in the analysis. It was found that tree mortality from the 16th century through the beginning of the 19th century caused a downward tree line recession. Sparse larch stands experienced deforestation, transforming into tundra with isolated relict trees. The maximum tree mortality and radial growth decrease were observed to have occurred at the beginning of 18th century. Now larch, at its northern boundary in Siberia, is migrating into tundra areas. Upward tree migration was induced by warming in the middle of the 19th century. Refugia played an important role in repopulation of the forest-tundra ecotone by providing a seed source and shelter for recruitment of larch regeneration. Currently this ecotone is being repopulated mainly by tree cohorts that were established after the 1930s. The last two decades of warming did not result in an acceleration of regeneration recruitment because of increased drought conditions. The regeneration line reached (but did not exceed) the pre-LIA tree line location, although contemporary tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower than in the pre-LIA period. The mean

  19. Data Acquisition and Linguistic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassel, Stephanie; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John; Staderman, William; Olive, Joseph

    All human language technology demands substantial quantities of data for system training and development, plus stable benchmark data to measure ongoing progress. While creation of high quality linguistic resources is both costly and time consuming, such data has the potential to profoundly impact not just a single evaluation program but language technology research in general. GALE's challenging performance targets demand linguistic data on a scale and complexity never before encountered. Resources cover multiple languages (Arabic, Chinese, and English) and multiple genres -- both structured (newswire and broadcast news) and unstructured (web text, including blogs and newsgroups, and broadcast conversation). These resources include significant volumes of monolingual text and speech, parallel text, and transcribed audio combined with multiple layers of linguistic annotation, ranging from word aligned parallel text and Treebanks to rich semantic annotation.

  20. Multiseasonal Tree Crown Structure Mapping with Point Clouds from OTS Quadrocopter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hese, S.; Behrendt, F.

    2017-08-01

    OTF (Off The Shelf) quadro copter systems provide a cost effective (below 2000 Euro), flexible and mobile platform for high resolution point cloud mapping. Various studies showed the full potential of these small and flexible platforms. Especially in very tight and complex 3D environments the automatic obstacle avoidance, low copter weight, long flight times and precise maneuvering are important advantages of these small OTS systems in comparison with larger octocopter systems. This study examines the potential of the DJI Phantom 4 pro series and the Phantom 3A series for within-stand and forest tree crown 3D point cloud mapping using both within stand oblique imaging in different altitude levels and data captured from a nadir perspective. On a test site in Brandenburg/Germany a beach crown was selected and measured with 3 different altitude levels in Point Of Interest (POI) mode with oblique data capturing and deriving one nadir mosaic created with 85/85 % overlap using Drone Deploy automatic mapping software. Three different flight campaigns were performed, one in September 2016 (leaf-on), one in March 2017 (leaf-off) and one in May 2017 (leaf-on) to derive point clouds from different crown structure and phenological situations - covering the leaf-on and leafoff status of the tree crown. After height correction, the point clouds where used with GPS geo referencing to calculate voxel based densities on 50 × 10 × 10 cm voxel definitions using a topological network of chessboard image objects in 0,5 m height steps in an object based image processing environment. Comparison between leaf-off and leaf-on status was done on volume pixel definitions comparing the attributed point densities per volume and plotting the resulting values as a function of distance to the crown center. In the leaf-off status SFM (structure from motion) algorithms clearly identified the central stem and also secondary branch systems. While the penetration into the crown

  1. MULTISEASONAL TREE CROWN STRUCTURE MAPPING WITH POINT CLOUDS FROM OTS QUADROCOPTER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hese

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available OTF (Off The Shelf quadro copter systems provide a cost effective (below 2000 Euro, flexible and mobile platform for high resolution point cloud mapping. Various studies showed the full potential of these small and flexible platforms. Especially in very tight and complex 3D environments the automatic obstacle avoidance, low copter weight, long flight times and precise maneuvering are important advantages of these small OTS systems in comparison with larger octocopter systems. This study examines the potential of the DJI Phantom 4 pro series and the Phantom 3A series for within-stand and forest tree crown 3D point cloud mapping using both within stand oblique imaging in different altitude levels and data captured from a nadir perspective. On a test site in Brandenburg/Germany a beach crown was selected and measured with 3 different altitude levels in Point Of Interest (POI mode with oblique data capturing and deriving one nadir mosaic created with 85/85 % overlap using Drone Deploy automatic mapping software. Three different flight campaigns were performed, one in September 2016 (leaf-on, one in March 2017 (leaf-off and one in May 2017 (leaf-on to derive point clouds from different crown structure and phenological situations – covering the leaf-on and leafoff status of the tree crown. After height correction, the point clouds where used with GPS geo referencing to calculate voxel based densities on 50 × 10 × 10 cm voxel definitions using a topological network of chessboard image objects in 0,5 m height steps in an object based image processing environment. Comparison between leaf-off and leaf-on status was done on volume pixel definitions comparing the attributed point densities per volume and plotting the resulting values as a function of distance to the crown center. In the leaf-off status SFM (structure from motion algorithms clearly identified the central stem and also secondary branch systems. While the penetration into the

  2. Including RNA secondary structures improves accuracy and robustness in reconstruction of phylogenetic trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandekar Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In several studies, secondary structures of ribosomal genes have been used to improve the quality of phylogenetic reconstructions. An extensive evaluation of the benefits of secondary structure, however, is lacking. Results This is the first study to counter this deficiency. We inspected the accuracy and robustness of phylogenetics with individual secondary structures by simulation experiments for artificial tree topologies with up to 18 taxa and for divergency levels in the range of typical phylogenetic studies. We chose the internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal cistron as an exemplary marker region. Simulation integrated the coevolution process of sequences with secondary structures. Additionally, the phylogenetic power of marker size duplication was investigated and compared with sequence and sequence-structure reconstruction methods. The results clearly show that accuracy and robustness of Neighbor Joining trees are largely improved by structural information in contrast to sequence only data, whereas a doubled marker size only accounts for robustness. Conclusions Individual secondary structures of ribosomal RNA sequences provide a valuable gain of information content that is useful for phylogenetics. Thus, the usage of ITS2 sequence together with secondary structure for taxonomic inferences is recommended. Other reconstruction methods as maximum likelihood, bayesian inference or maximum parsimony may equally profit from secondary structure inclusion. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber and Eugene V. Koonin. Open peer review Reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber and Eugene V. Koonin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  3. Error analysis for creating 3D face templates based on cylindrical quad-tree structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfeter, Weronika

    2015-09-01

    Development of new biometric algorithms is parallel to advances in technology of sensing devices. Some of the limitations of the current face recognition systems may be eliminated by integrating 3D sensors into these systems. Depth sensing devices can capture a spatial structure of the face in addition to the texture and color. This kind of data is yet usually very voluminous and requires large amount of computer resources for being processed (face scans obtained with typical depth cameras contain more than 150 000 points per face). That is why defining efficient data structures for processing spatial images is crucial for further development of 3D face recognition methods. The concept described in this work fulfills the aforementioned demands. Modification of the quad-tree structure was chosen because it can be easily transformed into less dimensional data structures and maintains spatial relations between data points. We are able to interpret data stored in the tree as a pyramid of features which allow us to analyze face images using coarse-to-fine strategy, often exploited in biometric recognition systems.

  4. Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering: Adaptation of Linguistic Paradigm for Circumstance of Engineering Epoch

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Halina

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems of linguistic knowledge in the Engineering Epoch. Engineering Epoch is the time of adaptation to the information flows by knowledge management, The system of adaptation mechanisms is connected with linguistic and linguistic technologies, forming in new linguistic patterns Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering.

  5. A high-performance Riccati based solver for tree-structured quadratic programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frison, Gianluca; Kouzoupis, Dimitris; Diehl, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    the online solution of such problems challenging and the development of tailored solvers crucial. In this paper, an interior point method is presented that can solve Quadratic Programs (QPs) arising in multi-stage MPC efficiently by means of a tree-structured Riccati recursion and a high-performance linear...... algebra library. A performance comparison with code-generated and general purpose sparse QP solvers shows that the computation times can be significantly reduced for all problem sizes that are practically relevant in embedded MPC applications. The presented implementation is freely available as part...

  6. Clinical linguistics: its past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the results of a survey of articles published in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics between 1987 and 2008 which shows, for example, a consistent primary focus on phonetics and phonology at the expense of grammar, semantics and pragmatics. I also trace the gradual broadening of the discipline from its roots in structural linguistics to its current reciprocal relationship with speech and language pathology and a range of other academic disciplines. Finally, I consider the scope of clinical linguistic research in 2011 and assess how the discipline seems likely develop in the future.

  7. On Linguistic Abilities, Multilingualism, and Linguistic Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannàccaro Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of linguistic justice should be related to the concept of linguistic ease, by which we mean the full social and communicative freedom of concern of the speaker in a given social interaction involving the use of language(s present in the society, according to the social norms of use. To acquire an acceptable degree of linguistic ease, the knowledge of at least one L2 is considered important. But the acquisition of a L2 is interfered by the previous linguistic skills of the learner/speaker who, in many cases, does not have a suitable competence even of the languages of the society in which he/she lives.

  8. What controls stemflow? A LiDAR-based investigation of individual tree canopy structure, neighborhood conditions, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankine, S. A.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Mesta, D. C.; Côté, J. F.; Hildebrandt, A.; Friesen, J.; Maldonado, G.

    2017-12-01

    Stemflow is a pointed hydrologic flux at the base of tree stems that has been linked to a host of biogeochemical processes in vegetated landscapes. Much work has been done to examine controls over stemflow water yield, finding three major factors: individual tree canopy structure, meteorological variables, and neighborhood conditions. However, the authors are unaware of any study to directly quantify all factors using a combination of terrestrial LiDAR and micrometeorological monitoring methods. This study directly quantifies individual Pinus palustris tree canopy characteristics (trunk volume and angle, branch volume and angle from 1st-to-3rd order, bark roughness, and height), 10-m radius neighborhood properties (number of trees, mean diameter and height, mean distance from study tree, and canopy overlap), and above-canopy storm conditions (magnitude, intensity, mean/max wind speed, and vapor pressure deficit) directly at the site. Stemflow production was 1% of rainfall, ranging from 0.3-59 L per storm from individual trees. Preliminary findings from storms (5-176 mm in magnitude) indicate that all individual tree characteristics, besides bark roughness, have little influence on stemflow generation. Bark roughness altered stemflow generation by affecting trunk water storage (0.1-0.7 mm) and wet trunk evaporation rates (0.005-0.03 mm/h). The strongest influence over stemflow generation from individual trees was the interaction between neighborhood characteristics and meteorological conditions (primarily rainfall amount and, secondarily, rainfall intensity).

  9. Assessing the Effects of Periodic Flooding on the Population Structure and Recruitment Rates of Riparian Tree Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Berthelot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest stands are subjected to a variety of hydrological stresses as a result of annual fluctuations in water levels during the growing season. Spring floods create additional water-related stress as a result of a major inflow of water that floods riverside land. This exploratory study assesses the impacts of successive floods on tree dynamics and regeneration in an active sedimentation area, while determining the age of the stands using the recruitment rates, tree structure and tree rings based on dendrochronological analysis. Environmental data were also recorded for each vegetation quadrat. In total, 2633 tree stems were tallied throughout the quadrats (200 m2, and tree specimens were analyzed based on the various flood zones. A total of 720 specimens were counted (100 m2 strip to measure natural regeneration. Higher recruitment rates are noted for the no-flood zones and lower rates in active floodplains. During the period of the establishment of tree species, the survival rates are comparable between the flood zones and the no-flood zones. Tree diameter distribution reveals a strong predominance of young trees in flooded areas. Different factors appear to come into play in the dynamics of riparian forest stands, including the disruptions associated with successive flooding.

  10. The relationship between species diversity and genetic structure in the rare Picea chihuahuana tree species community, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Rodríguez, Sergio Leonel; Quiñones-Pérez, Carmen Zulema; Moya, Daniel; Hernández-Tecles, Enrique; López-Sánchez, Carlos Antonio; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Species diversity and genetic diversity, the most basic elements of biodiversity, have long been treated as separate topics, although populations evolve within a community context. Recent studies on community genetics and ecology have suggested that genetic diversity is not completely independent of species diversity. The Mexican Picea chihuahuana Martínez is an endemic species listed as "Endangered" on the Red List. Forty populations of Chihuahua spruce have been identified. This species is often associated with tree species of eight genera in gallery forests. This rare Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area no more than 300 ha and has been subject of several studies involving different topics such as ecology, genetic structure and climate change. The overall aim of these studies was to obtain a dataset for developing management tools to help decision makers implement preservation and conservation strategies. However, this unique forest tree community may also represent an excellent subject for helping us to understand the interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes in determining community structure and dynamics. The AFLP technique and species composition data were used together to test the hypothesis that species diversity is related to the adaptive genetic structure of some dominant tree species (Picea chihuahuana, Pinus strobiformis, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides) of the Picea chihuahuana tree community at fourteen locations. The Hill numbers were used as a diversity measure. The results revealed a significant correlation between tree species diversity and genetic structure in Populus tremuloides. Because the relationship between the two levels of diversity was found to be positive for the putative adaptive AFLP detected, genetic and species structures of the tree community were possibly simultaneously adapted to a combination of ecological or environmental factors. The present findings indicate that interactions between

  11. Effects of contact network structure on epidemic transmission trees: implications for data required to estimate network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Nicole Bohme

    2018-01-30

    Understanding the dynamics of disease spread is key to developing effective interventions to control or prevent an epidemic. The structure of the network of contacts over which the disease spreads has been shown to have a strong influence on the outcome of the epidemic, but an open question remains as to whether it is possible to estimate contact network features from data collected in an epidemic. The approach taken in this paper is to examine the distributions of epidemic outcomes arising from epidemics on networks with particular structural features to assess whether that structure could be measured from epidemic data and what other constraints might be needed to make the problem identifiable. To this end, we vary the network size, mean degree, and transmissibility of the pathogen, as well as the network feature of interest: clustering, degree assortativity, or attribute-based preferential mixing. We record several standard measures of the size and spread of the epidemic, as well as measures that describe the shape of the transmission tree in order to ascertain whether there are detectable signals in the final data from the outbreak. The results suggest that there is potential to estimate contact network features from transmission trees or pure epidemic data, particularly for diseases with high transmissibility or for which the relevant contact network is of low mean degree. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Using Florida Keys Reference Sites As a Standard for Restoration of Forest Structure in Everglades Tree Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.S.; Sah, J.P.; Ruiz, P.L.; Ross, M.S.; Ogurcak, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    In south Florida, tropical hardwood forests (hammocks) occur in Everglades tree islands and as more extensive forests in coastal settings in the nearby Florida Keys. Keys hammocks have been less disturbed by humans, and many qualify as old-growth, while Everglades hammocks have received much heavier use. With improvement of tree island condition an important element in Everglades restoration efforts, we examined stand structure in 23 Keys hammocks and 69 Everglades tree islands. Based on Stand Density Index and tree diameter distributions, many Everglades hammocks were characterized by low stocking and under-representation in the smaller size classes. In contrast, most Keys forests had the dense canopies and open under stories usually associated with old-growth hardwood hammocks. Subject to the same caveats that apply to off-site references elsewhere, structural information from mature Keys hammocks can be helpful in planning and implementing forest restoration in Everglades tree islands. In many of these islands, such restoration might involve supplementing tree stocking by planting native trees to produce more complete site utilization and a more open under story.

  13. Twentieth-century shifts in forest structure in California: Denser forests, smaller trees, and increased dominance of oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Patrick J; Thorne, James H; Dolanc, Christopher R; Flint, Alan L; Flint, Lorraine E; Kelly, Maggi; Ackerly, David D

    2015-02-03

    We document changes in forest structure between historical (1930s) and contemporary (2000s) surveys of California vegetation through comparisons of tree abundance and size across the state and within several ecoregions. Across California, tree density in forested regions increased by 30% between the two time periods, whereas forest biomass in the same regions declined, as indicated by a 19% reduction in basal area. These changes reflect a demographic shift in forest structure: larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height) have declined, whereas smaller trees (Forest composition in California in the last century has also shifted toward increased dominance by oaks relative to pines, a pattern consistent with warming and increased water stress, and also with paleohistoric shifts in vegetation in California over the last 150,000 y.

  14. Presentation of common cause failures in fault tree structure of Krsko PSA : an historical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Kosutic, I.; Vukovic, I.; Simic, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Failure of multiple components due to a common cause represents one of the most important issues in evaluation of system reliability or unavailability. The frequency of such events has relatively low expectancy, when compared to random failures, which affect individual components. However, in many cases the consequence is a direct loss of safety system or mitigative safety function. For this reason, the modeling of a common cause failure (CCF) and its presentation in fault tree structure is of the uttermost importance in probabilistic safety analyses (PSA). During the past decade, PSA model of Krsko NPP has undergone many small changes and a couple of major ones in fulfilling its basic purpose, which was serving as a tool for providing an appropriate information on the risk associated with actual plant design and operation. All changes to Krsko PSA model were undertaken in order to make it a better tool and / or to make it represent the plant in more accurate manner. The paper provides an overview of changes in CCF modeling in the fault tree structure from the initial PSA model development till present. (author)

  15. Detecting Difference between Process Models Based on the Refined Process Structure Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mobile workflow management systems (mWfMS leads to large number of business process models. In the meantime, the location restriction embedded in mWfMS may result in different process models for a single business process. In order to help users quickly locate the difference and rebuild the process model, detecting the difference between different process models is needed. Existing detection methods either provide a dissimilarity value to represent the difference or use predefined difference template to generate the result, which cannot reflect the entire composition of the difference. Hence, in this paper, we present a new approach to solve this problem. Firstly, we parse the process models to their corresponding refined process structure trees (PSTs, that is, decomposing a process model into a hierarchy of subprocess models. Then we design a method to convert the PST to its corresponding task based process structure tree (TPST. As a consequence, the problem of detecting difference between two process models is transformed to detect difference between their corresponding TPSTs. Finally, we obtain the difference between two TPSTs based on the divide and conquer strategy, where the difference is described by an edit script and we make the cost of the edit script close to minimum. The extensive experimental evaluation shows that our method can meet the real requirements in terms of precision and efficiency.

  16. A Hybrid Vector Quantization Combining a Tree Structure and a Voronoi Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-Jiunn Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia data is a popular communication medium, but requires substantial storage space and network bandwidth. Vector quantization (VQ is suitable for multimedia data applications because of its simple architecture, fast decoding ability, and high compression rate. Full-search VQ can typically be used to determine optimal codewords, but requires considerable computational time and resources. In this study, a hybrid VQ combining a tree structure and a Voronoi diagram is proposed to improve VQ efficiency. To efficiently reduce the search space, a tree structure integrated with principal component analysis is proposed, to rapidly determine an initial codeword in low-dimensional space. To increase accuracy, a Voronoi diagram is applied to precisely enlarge the search space by modeling relations between each codeword. This enables an optimal codeword to be efficiently identified by rippling an optimal neighbor from parts of neighboring Voronoi regions. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach improved VQ performance, outperforming other approaches. The proposed approach also satisfies the requirements of handheld device application, namely, the use of limited memory and network bandwidth, when a suitable number of dimensions in principal component analysis is selected.

  17. Cross-Linguistic Transfer among Iranian Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Cross-linguistic transfer studies began from linguistic aspects of language learning and moved to non-linguistic aspects. The intriguing question is whether students are aware of the nature of these cross-linguistic interactions in their minds. For this purpose, a semi-structured interview was conducted with four Iranian university students. It…

  18. Structural qualification of the multifunctional instrument tree for installation in double-shell and 100-series single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohlow, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the technical basis and methodology for qualifying the multifunctional instrument tree (MIT) structure for installation in double-shell and 100-series single-shell tanks. Structural qualification for MIT installations in specific tanks are also contained in this document

  19. Applied linguistics - a science of culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benke, Gertraud

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the status of applied linguistics as discipline is questioned and problems of establishing it - and other newly formed scientific enterprises like cultural science - as disciplines are discussed. This discussion is contextualized using the author's own experience as applied linguist working in (the institutional structure of Austria. Secondly, applied linguistics is presented as complementing cultural science, with both exploring at times the same phenomena albeit under different perspectives and focussing on different levels of experience. Two examples of research involving such a joint interest with different foci are discussed.

  20. Linguistic fire and human cognitive powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To view language as a cultural tool challenges much of what claims to be linguistic science while opening up a new people-centred linguistics. On this view, how we speak, think and act depends on, not just brains (or minds), but also cultural traditions. Yet, Everett is conservative: like others...... theory, bodily dynamics themselves act as cues to meaning. Linguistic exostructures resemble tools that constrain how people concert acting-perceiving bodies. The result is unending renewal of verbal structures: like artefacts and institutions, they function to sustain a species-specific cultural ecology...

  1. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  2. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an e...

  3. Computational principles of syntax in the regions specialized for language: integrating theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2013-01-01

    The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties.

  4. Influences of the trees plantation in structures of Santa Fe of Bogota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna, John Fabio

    1999-01-01

    Through the project - Evaluation of damages caused by forest species planted in Santa Fe of Bogota and of the publication: Lungs for Santa Fe de Bogota; the Agricultural Engineering Department of the National University of Colombia, in collaboration with the Botanical Garden of Bogota Jose Celestino Mutis, offers to the capital a valuable contribution on trees plantation and its influence on the structures. Keeping in mind that trees are vital for any city, because they constitute a relating a fundamental for the appropriate use of the senses because forms behave, scents, colors and natural flavors in a means where the rest of the landscape is artificial. They contribute with the health when purifying the air; with the ecology and environment because they are hosts of many other forms of life, they are source of beauty, recreation and harmony, also giving a stamp of identity to the city; however, their implantation and handle, demands knowledge and cares, to assure a harmonious and lasting integration with the city

  5. STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION AND USE OF TREES OF THE DECIDUOUS FOREST IN APATZINGAN, MICHOACAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Casanova-Lugo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the structure, composition and use of trees and shrubs of tropical deciduous forest in the mountains of Apatzingán, Michoacan. For this, six sampling units were established and each 7 sub-plots (squares of 10 × 10 m were delineated. A floristic inventory was conducted and diameter at breast height (DBH, total height (TH, crown diameter (CD, (BA basal area and the importance value index (IVI was determined. Further, based on local knowledge the use of each species found was determined. The results show that 97.1 % of species having a DAP ≤ 10 cm. Over 90% of the sampled trees had a DC ≤ 4 m. 84.4 % of the sampled individuals had an AT ≤ 6 m, and 85 % of species had an AB ≤ 30 cm2. The species most IVI were Cordia elaeagnoides, Randia watsoni, Apoplanesia paniculate, Caesalpinia platyloba, Capparis asperifolia and Triunfetta sp. 38% of the sampled species belong to the legume family and almost 80% of the sampled species has forage use. We conclude that local knowledge of the species of deciduous forest can help establish the basis for designing new proposals to the use and conservation of local resources and generate resilient livestock production systems. Â

  6. Characterizing the phylogenetic tree community structure of a protected tropical rain forest area in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manel, Stéphanie; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Munoz, François; Couteron, Pierre; Hardy, Olivier J; Sonké, Bonaventure

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests, the richest terrestrial ecosystems in biodiversity on Earth are highly threatened by global changes. This paper aims to infer the mechanisms governing species tree assemblages by characterizing the phylogenetic structure of a tropical rain forest in a protected area of the Congo Basin, the Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon). We re-analyzed a dataset of 11538 individuals belonging to 372 taxa found along nine transects spanning five habitat types. We generated a dated phylogenetic tree including all sampled taxa to partition the phylogenetic diversity of the nine transects into alpha and beta components at the level of the transects and of the habitat types. The variation in phylogenetic composition among transects did not deviate from a random pattern at the scale of the Dja Faunal Reserve, probably due to a common history and weak environmental variation across the park. This lack of phylogenetic structure combined with an isolation-by-distance pattern of taxonomic diversity suggests that neutral dispersal limitation is a major driver of community assembly in the Dja. To assess any lack of sensitivity to the variation in habitat types, we restricted the analyses of transects to the terra firme primary forest and found results consistent with those of the whole dataset at the level of the transects. Additionally to previous analyses, we detected a weak but significant phylogenetic turnover among habitat types, suggesting that species sort in varying environments, even though it is not predominating on the overall phylogenetic structure. Finer analyses of clades indicated a signal of clustering for species from the Annonaceae family, while species from the Apocynaceae family indicated overdispersion. These results can contribute to the conservation of the park by improving our understanding of the processes dictating community assembly in these hyperdiverse but threatened regions of the world.

  7. Characterizing the Phylogenetic Tree Community Structure of a Protected Tropical Rain Forest Area in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, François; Couteron, Pierre; Hardy, Olivier J.; Sonké, Bonaventure

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests, the richest terrestrial ecosystems in biodiversity on Earth are highly threatened by global changes. This paper aims to infer the mechanisms governing species tree assemblages by characterizing the phylogenetic structure of a tropical rain forest in a protected area of the Congo Basin, the Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon). We re-analyzed a dataset of 11538 individuals belonging to 372 taxa found along nine transects spanning five habitat types. We generated a dated phylogenetic tree including all sampled taxa to partition the phylogenetic diversity of the nine transects into alpha and beta components at the level of the transects and of the habitat types. The variation in phylogenetic composition among transects did not deviate from a random pattern at the scale of the Dja Faunal Reserve, probably due to a common history and weak environmental variation across the park. This lack of phylogenetic structure combined with an isolation-by-distance pattern of taxonomic diversity suggests that neutral dispersal limitation is a major driver of community assembly in the Dja. To assess any lack of sensitivity to the variation in habitat types, we restricted the analyses of transects to the terra firme primary forest and found results consistent with those of the whole dataset at the level of the transects. Additionally to previous analyses, we detected a weak but significant phylogenetic turnover among habitat types, suggesting that species sort in varying environments, even though it is not predominating on the overall phylogenetic structure. Finer analyses of clades indicated a signal of clustering for species from the Annonaceae family, while species from the Apocynaceae family indicated overdispersion. These results can contribute to the conservation of the park by improving our understanding of the processes dictating community assembly in these hyperdiverse but threatened regions of the world. PMID:24936786

  8. Selective logging: does the imprint remain on tree structure and composition after 45 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L.; Chapman, Colin A.; Zanne, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging of tropical forests is increasing in extent and intensity. The duration over which impacts of selective logging persist, however, remains an unresolved question, particularly for African forests. Here, we investigate the extent to which a past selective logging event continues to leave its imprint on different components of an East African forest 45 years later. We inventoried 2358 stems ≥10 cm in diameter in 26 plots (200 m × 10 m) within a 5.2 ha area in Kibale National Park, Uganda, in logged and unlogged forest. In these surveys, we characterized the forest light environment, taxonomic composition, functional trait composition using three traits (wood density, maximum height and maximum diameter) and forest structure based on three measures (stem density, total basal area and total above-ground biomass). In comparison to unlogged forests, selectively logged forest plots in Kibale National Park on average had higher light levels, different structure characterized by lower stem density, lower total basal area and lower above-ground biomass, and a distinct taxonomic composition driven primarily by changes in the relative abundance of species. Conversely, selectively logged forest plots were like unlogged plots in functional composition, having similar community-weighted mean values for wood density, maximum height and maximum diameter. This similarity in functional composition irrespective of logging history may be due to functional recovery of logged forest or background changes in functional attributes of unlogged forest. Despite the passage of 45 years, the legacy of selective logging on the tree community in Kibale National Park is still evident, as indicated by distinct taxonomic and structural composition and reduced carbon storage in logged forest compared with unlogged forest. The effects of selective logging are exerted via influences on tree demography rather than functional trait composition. PMID:27293697

  9. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is an annual/biannual open access, peer-reviewed international journal, published by the Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. The papers published in SPiL are ... Poetry in South African Sign Language: What is different? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  10. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...

  11. Linguistic Communications 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia).

    The present compilation of papers on linguistics is the result of joint efforts by the Classical Studies, French, Japanese, Linguistics, and Russian Departments of Monash University. Selections in the Pre-Prints and Articles section include: "For/Arabic Bilingualism in the Zalingei Area," by B. Jernudd; "Prosodic Problems in a Generative Phonology…

  12. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Movie Legally Multiplex Heralded As Linchpin To Growth The Shape of Cinema , Transformed At the Click of a Mouse A Peaceful Crew Puts Muppets...Linguistic Representation of Multiple Languages The formalism of WordNet has been applied to many languages from different language families, e.g. Japanese ...could be also share information gleaned from 100 reviews on Amazon.com’s Japanese and German language sites. 6.2.3 Learning Deeper Structures and Testing

  13. A Mobile Picture Tagging System Using Tree-Structured Layered Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Seol Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in digital media technology have increased in multimedia content. Tagging is one of the most effective methods to manage a great volume of multimedia content. However, manual tagging has limitations such as human fatigue and subjective and ambiguous keywords. In this paper, we present an automatic tagging method to generate semantic annotation on a mobile phone. In order to overcome the constraints of the mobile environment, the method uses two layered Bayesian networks. In contrast to existing techniques, this approach attempts to design probabilistic models with fixed tree structures and intermediate nodes. To evaluate the performance of this method, an experiment is conducted with data collected over a month. The result shows the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed method. Furthermore, a simple graphic user interface is developed to visualize and evaluate recognized activities and probabilities.

  14. THE ARABIC ORIGINS OF ENGLISH AND INDO-EUROPEAN "URBAN TERMS": A RADICAL LINGUISTIC THEORY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidan Ali Jassem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the Arabic origins of English, German, French, Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit "urban terms" from a radical linguistic (or lexical root theory perspective. The data comprises 130 such terms like abide, building, city, construction, courtyard, hotel, house, live, mansion, mason, palace, metropolis, residence, road, rural, sedentary, sojourn, stay, structure, tent, town, urban, villa, village, zoo, and so on. The results clearly show that all such words have true Arabic cognates with the same or similar forms and meanings, whose differences are due to natural and plausible causes and different routes of linguistic change. Moreover, the results support the adequacy of the radical linguistic theory according to which, unlike the Comparative Method and/or Family Tree Model, Arabic, English, German, French, Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit are dialects of the same language or family, renamed Eurabian or Urban family, with Arabic being their origin all for sharing the whole cognates with them and for its huge phonetic, morphological, grammatical, and lexical variety and wealth. Also, they indicate that there is a radical language from which all human languages stemmed and which has been preserved almost intact in Arabic as the most conservative and productive language, without which it is impossible to interpret its linguistic richness and versatility on all levels.

  15. Aspects of conversational style—linguistic versus behavioral analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Genae A.

    1992-01-01

    Skinner's functional analysis of verbal behavior has been contrasted with formal linguistic analysis which studies the grammatical structure and “meaning” of verbal response-products, regardless of the circumstances under which they are produced. Nevertheless, it appears that certain areas of linguistic analysis are not entirely structural. In her recent books That's Not What I Meant (1986) and You Just Don't Understand (1990), the linguist Deborah Tannen purports to explain how people exhibi...

  16. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  17. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc.), but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten , or Turkish korkmak 'fear, be afraid' and korkutmak 'frighten, scare', or Finnish istua 'sit' and istutta 'seat (someone)', or Spanish sentarse 'sit down' and sentar 'seat (someone)' is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where 'seat' is derived from 'sit' by addition of a suffix-is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  18. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc., but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten, or Turkish korkmak ‘fear, be afraid’ and korkutmak ‘frighten, scare’, or Finnish istua ‘sit’ and istutta ‘seat (someone’, or Spanish sentarse ‘sit down’ and sentar ‘seat (someone’ is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where ‘seat’ is derived from ‘sit’ by addition of a suffix—is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  19. [Effects of target tree tending on community structure and diversity in subtropical natural secondary shrubs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Guo Mo; Bai, Shang Bin; Wang, Yi Xiang; You, Yu Jie; Zhu, Ting Ting; Zhang, Hua Feng

    2017-05-18

    The typical natural secondary shrub community was chosen in Lin'an of Zhejiang Pro-vince to discover its possibility of restoration to arbor forest with three kinds of forest management models being taken, i.e., no care as control, closed forest management and target tree tending. Over four years growth, compared with control, closed forest management significantly increased average DBH and height by 130% and 50%, respectively, while 260% and 110% for target tree tending. In target tree tending plots, larger trees had been emerging with 4.5-8.5 cm diameter class and 4.5-8.5 m height class and formed a new storey of 4 m compared with control. The species biodiversity indexes at shrub layer were significantly increased in closed management plots, and did not decrease in target tree tending plots. Closed forest management did not change the tree species composition, following its previous succession direction. However, target tree tending increased the importance value of target species with the high potential succession direction of mixed coniferous-broadleaved forest. The results revealed that the secondary shrub community with target tree tending achieved more desired goals on DBH and height growth of dominant trees and species composition improvement compared with closed management. If the secondary shrub community could be managed when the operational conditions existed, target tree tending model should be selected to accelerate the restoration of shrub toward arbor forest.

  20. Applied Linguistics and the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines the complexities and differences involved in granting disciplinary status to the role of applied linguistics, discusses the role of the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics" as a contributor to the development of applied linguistics, and highlights a set of publications for the future of applied linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  1. A primer in macromolecular linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, David B

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylyuk Illya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  3. Distributed primal–dual interior-point methods for solving tree-structured coupled convex problems using message-passing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshfetrat Pakazad, Sina; Hansson, Anders; Andersen, Martin S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed algorithm for solving coupled problems with chordal sparsity or an inherent tree structure which relies on primal–dual interior-point methods. We achieve this by distributing the computations at each iteration, using message-passing. In comparison to existi...

  4. Water stress, shoot growth and storage of non-structural carbohydrates along a tree height gradient in a tall conifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Woodruff; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed concentrations of starch, sucrose, glucose and fructose in upper branch wood, foliage and trunk sapwood of Douglas-fir trees in height classes ranging from ~2 to ~57 m. Mean concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) for all tissues were highest in the tallest height class and lowest in the lowest height class, and height-related trends in NSC...

  5. Structural Complexity and Ecosystem Functions in a Natural Mixed Forest under a Single-Tree Selection Silviculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Yoshida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of forest management has become broader, and it is essential to harmonize timber production with conservation of the forest ecosystem. Selection cutting is recognized as a major alternative of clear-cutting, because it can maintain the complexity and heterogeneity of a natural forest; however, its long-term evaluations are limited. This study compared various attributes of stand structures, which are indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem carbon stock between managed and unmanaged blocks (12.6 ha area in total in a natural mixed forest in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. We found that 30 years’ implementation of single-tree selection did not affect the volume, size structure, species diversity nor spatial distribution of overstory trees in the managed stands. Also, the total carbon stock in the managed stands was almost equal to that of the unmanaged stands. In contrast, several structural attributes and indicator elements that are significant for biodiversity (such as large-diameter live trees, dead trees, cavities, epiphytic bryophytes, and some avian guilds showed marked decrease in the managed stands. We conclude that it is required to leave these structures and elements to some extent for deriving the merit of the management as an alternative silvicultural regime in the region.

  6. Forest structure and tree recruitment changes on a permanent historical Cinder Hills plot over a 130-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob H. Dyer; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore; Jonathan D. Bakker

    2008-01-01

    We examined forest structure, tree recruitment, and spatial pattern over a 130-year period on cinder soils in northern Arizona. Data were collected from a 3.24 ha permanent, stem-mapped plot established in 1909. This site is unique in that it represents ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws. var. scopulorum Engelm.) growing on black cinder soils, which are of limited...

  7. Selection bias in species distribution models: An econometric approach on forest trees based on structural modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ay, J. S.; Guillemot, J.; Doyen, L.; Leadley, P.

    2014-12-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to study and predict the outcome of global changes on species. In human dominated ecosystems the presence of a given species is the result of both its ecological suitability and human footprint on nature such as land use choices. Land use choices may thus be responsible for a selection bias in the presence/absence data used in SDM calibration. We present a structural modelling approach (i.e. based on structural equation modelling) that accounts for this selection bias. The new structural species distribution model (SSDM) estimates simultaneously land use choices and species responses to bioclimatic variables. A land use equation based on an econometric model of landowner choices was joined to an equation of species response to bioclimatic variables. SSDM allows the residuals of both equations to be dependent, taking into account the possibility of shared omitted variables and measurement errors. We provide a general description of the statistical theory and a set of applications on forest trees over France using databases of climate and forest inventory at different spatial resolution (from 2km to 8km). We also compared the outputs of the SSDM with outputs of a classical SDM (i.e. Biomod ensemble modelling) in terms of bioclimatic response curves and potential distributions under current climate and climate change scenarios. The shapes of the bioclimatic response curves and the modelled species distribution maps differed markedly between SSDM and classical SDMs, with contrasted patterns according to species and spatial resolutions. The magnitude and directions of these differences were dependent on the correlations between the errors from both equations and were highest for higher spatial resolutions. A first conclusion is that the use of classical SDMs can potentially lead to strong miss-estimation of the actual and future probability of presence modelled. Beyond this selection bias, the SSDM we propose represents

  8. Genre Analysis in the Frame of Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najih Imtihani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Functional Linguistics is a linguistics approach which cop-siders not only the structure of the language but also its social context. In the Systemic Functional Linguistics the concept of genre is defined as a step-by-step activity to reach the goal. The concept of genre is used to describe the cultural context in a language. According to this view, text should be seen and observed in its interaction with the context and social background. For that, the genre analysis will constantly involve the linguistic social context in the forms of field, tenor, mode, schematic structure and its realization in the text.

  9. Binding and Unfolding: Towards the Linguistic Construction of Narrative Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberg, Michael; Marchman, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Explores the relationship between linguistic and conceptual structuring of narratives, focusing on linguistic devices used by German and U.S. narrators to identify transitions in text structure. Identifies and outlines two types of narrative orientation: differentiating events and integrating events. (SR)

  10. The changing structure and tree composition in the traditionally grazed forests in the parish of Stenbrohult, southern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Sven

    2006-01-01

    The formerly grazed forest (utmark) was the dominant land use on most farms in southern Sweden until about 100 years ago. Here I describe the changed structure and tree species composition over time of the utmark on three farms owned by the church in the central part of Stenbrohult. In this area Carl Linnaeus spent his first 20 summers until 1728. The study is based on old forest management plans, other old documents, published and unpublished pollen analyses from 3 small bogs, tree ages on a...

  11. Saussure and Linguistic Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Saussures's "Cours de linguistique generale," which was published in 1916, and devotes specific attention to the significance of Part VI, which is devoted to linguistic geography. (16 references) (Author/VWL)

  12. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  13. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  14. Mathematics and linguistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  15. Extraction of Phrase-Structure Fragments with a Linear Average Time Tree-Kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cranenburgh, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We present an algorithm and implementation for extracting recurring fragments from treebanks. Using a tree-kernel method the largest common fragments are extracted from each pair of trees. The algorithm presented achieves a thirty-fold speedup over the previously available method on the Wall Street

  16. Evidence of Ash Tree (Fraxinus spp.) Specific Associations with Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Functional Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Ricketts; Charles E. Flower; Kathleen S. Knight; Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler

    2018-01-01

    The spread of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) across North America has had enormous impacts on temperate forest ecosystems. The selective removal of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) has resulted in abnormally large inputs of coarse woody debris and altered forest tree community composition, ultimately affecting a variety of ecosystem processes. The...

  17. Fire frequency and tree canopy structure influence plant species diversity in a forest-grassland ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Peterson; Peter B. Reich

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances and environmental heterogeneity are two factors thought to influence plant species diversity, but their effects are still poorly understood in many ecosystems. We surveyed understory vegetation and measured tree canopy cover on permanent plots spanning an experimental fire frequency gradient to test fire frequency and tree canopy effects on plant species...

  18. Having Linguistic Rules and Knowing Linguistic Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ludlow

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    'Knowledge' doesn't correctly describe our relation to linguistic rules. It is too thick a notion (for example, we don't believe linguistic rules. On the other hand, 'cognize', without further elaboration, is too thin a notion, which is to say that it is too thin to play a role in a competence theory. One advantage of the term 'knowledge'-and presumably Chomsky's original motivation for using it-is that knowledge would play the right kind of role in a competence theory: Our competence would consist in a body of knowledge which we have and which we may or may not act upon-our performance need not conform to the linguistic rules that we know.

    Is there a way out of the dilemma? I'm going to make the case that the best way to talk about grammatical rules is simply to say that we have them. That doesn't sound very deep, I know, but saying that we have individual rules leaves room for individual norm guidance in a way that 'cognize' does not. Saying we have a rule like subjacency is also thicker than merely saying we cognize it. Saying I have such a rule invites the interpretation that it is a rule for me-that I am normatively guided by it. The competence theory thus becomes a theory of the rules that we have. Whether we follow those rules is another matter entirely.

  19. Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C; Higuchi, P; van den Berg, E

    2010-08-01

    In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh), total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes.

  20. Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC. Silva

    Full Text Available In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh, total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes.

  1. »Kommunikation und Kybernetik in Einzeldarstellungen”. Herausgegeben von H. Wolter und W. D. Keidel. Band 2: Structural Linguistics and Human Communication. An Introduction into the Mechanism of Language and the Methodology of Linguistics By Bertil Malmbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Muljačić

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available Za razliku od priručnika istog pisca New Trends in Linguistics. An Orientation, Stockholm-Lund 1964 (koji predstavlja dotjerani i ažurirani prijevod švedskog originala iz 1959. god. i o kome v. recenziju koju smo objavili u »ZFLMS« X, Novi Sad 1967, str. 181-188, ova je odlična monografija namijenjena uzem krugu čitalaca koji već imaju dovoljnih znanja iz lingvistike i fonetike ili iz društvenih i prirodnih nauka, kojima su od koristi tekovine i metode suvremene lingvistike (psihologija, fonijatrija, logoterapija, metodika učenja stranih jezika, nauka o komunikacijama i sl.. Autor, ugledni romanist i profesor fonetike na sveučilištu u Lundu, a od nedavna i na Sorbonni, svijestan je opasnosti da će lingvistika, prikazana prvenstveno kao znanost koja studira jezično komuniciranje ljudi, nužno morati da se pozabavi i vrlo širokim krugom problema pa će tako neka poglavlja ispasti za jedne čitaoce prekomplicirapa a za druge preelementarna. Drugačije međutim nije moglo biti ako se željelo na relativno malenom prostoru prikazati tako različite pojmove kao sto su fonemi i značenje, decibeli i jezicna promjena, knjizevni stil i govorne smetnje. Metodski pristup gradi i kompozicija sasvim su drugačiji nego u New Trends in Linguistics. Dok su tamo poglavlja posvečena pojedinim lingvističkim školama i pravcima (a samo indirektno i nekim skupinama problema ukoliko se neka škola uglavnom njiina bavila, ova je monografija obrađena problemski.

  2. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  3. Structural overshoot of tree growth with climate variability and the global spectrum of drought-induced forest dieback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Alistair S.; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Greenwood, Sarah; Allen, Craig D.; Kitzberger, Thomas; Fensham, Rod; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing climate change poses significant threats to plant function and distribution. Increased temperatures and altered precipitation regimes amplify drought frequency and intensity, elevating plant stress and mortality. Large-scale forest mortality events will have far-reaching impacts on carbon and hydrological cycling, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. However, biogeographical theory and global vegetation models poorly represent recent forest die-off patterns. Furthermore, as trees are sessile and long-lived, their responses to climate extremes are substantially dependent on historical factors. We show that periods of favourable climatic and management conditions that facilitate abundant tree growth can lead to structural overshoot of aboveground tree biomass due to a subsequent temporal mismatch between water demand and availability. When environmental favourability declines, increases in water and temperature stress that are protracted, rapid, or both, drive a gradient of tree structural responses that can modify forest self-thinning relationships. Responses ranging from premature leaf senescence and partial canopy dieback to whole-tree mortality reduce canopy leaf area during the stress period and for a lagged recovery window thereafter. Such temporal mismatches of water requirements from availability can occur at local to regional scales throughout a species geographical range. As climate change projections predict large future fluctuations in both wet and dry conditions, we expect forests to become increasingly structurally mismatched to water availability and thus overbuilt during more stressful episodes. By accounting for the historical context of biomass development, our approach can explain previously problematic aspects of large-scale forest mortality, such as why it can occur throughout the range of a species and yet still be locally highly variable, and why some events seem readily attributable to an ongoing drought while others do not. This

  4. Structural overshoot of tree growth with climate variability and the global spectrum of drought-induced forest dieback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Alistair S; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Greenwood, Sarah; Allen, Craig D; Kitzberger, Thomas; Fensham, Rod; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Ongoing climate change poses significant threats to plant function and distribution. Increased temperatures and altered precipitation regimes amplify drought frequency and intensity, elevating plant stress and mortality. Large-scale forest mortality events will have far-reaching impacts on carbon and hydrological cycling, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. However, biogeographical theory and global vegetation models poorly represent recent forest die-off patterns. Furthermore, as trees are sessile and long-lived, their responses to climate extremes are substantially dependent on historical factors. We show that periods of favourable climatic and management conditions that facilitate abundant tree growth can lead to structural overshoot of aboveground tree biomass due to a subsequent temporal mismatch between water demand and availability. When environmental favourability declines, increases in water and temperature stress that are protracted, rapid, or both, drive a gradient of tree structural responses that can modify forest self-thinning relationships. Responses ranging from premature leaf senescence and partial canopy dieback to whole-tree mortality reduce canopy leaf area during the stress period and for a lagged recovery window thereafter. Such temporal mismatches of water requirements from availability can occur at local to regional scales throughout a species geographical range. As climate change projections predict large future fluctuations in both wet and dry conditions, we expect forests to become increasingly structurally mismatched to water availability and thus overbuilt during more stressful episodes. By accounting for the historical context of biomass development, our approach can explain previously problematic aspects of large-scale forest mortality, such as why it can occur throughout the range of a species and yet still be locally highly variable, and why some events seem readily attributable to an ongoing drought while others do not. This

  5. Accuracy improvement of CT reconstruction using tree-structured filter bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Morikawa, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Junichi

    2009-01-01

    Accuracy improvement of 'CT reconstruction algorithm using TSFB (Tree-Structured Filter Bank)' that is high-speed CT reconstruction algorithm, was proposed. TSFB method could largely reduce the amount of computation in comparison with the CB (Convolution Backprojection) method, but it was the problem that an artifact occurred in a reconstruction image since reconstruction was performed with disregard to a signal out of the reconstruction domain in stage processing. Also the whole band filter being the component of a two-dimensional synthesis filter was IIR filter and then an artifact occurred at the end of the reconstruction image. In order to suppress these artifacts the proposed method enlarged the processing range by the TSFB method in the domain outside by the width control of the specimen line and line addition to the reconstruction domain outside. And, furthermore, to avoid increase of the amount of computation, the algorithm was proposed such as to decide the needed processing range depending on the number of steps processing with the TSFB and the degree of incline of filter, and then update the position and width of the specimen line to process the needed range. According to the simulation to realize a high-speed and highly accurate CT reconstruction in this way, the quality of the reconstruction image of the proposed method was improved in comparison with the TSFB method and got the same result with the CB method. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Genetic and ontogenetic variation in an endangered tree structures dependent arthropod and fungal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Gosney

    Full Text Available Plant genetic and ontogenetic variation can significantly impact dependent fungal and arthropod communities. However, little is known of the relative importance of these extended genetic and ontogenetic effects within a species. Using a common garden trial, we compared the dependent arthropod and fungal community on 222 progeny from two highly differentiated populations of the endangered heteroblastic tree species, Eucalyptus morrisbyi. We assessed arthropod and fungal communities on both juvenile and adult foliage. The community variation was related to previous levels of marsupial browsing, as well as the variation in the physicochemical properties of leaves using near-infrared spectroscopy. We found highly significant differences in community composition, abundance and diversity parameters between eucalypt source populations in the common garden, and these were comparable to differences between the distinctive juvenile and adult foliage. The physicochemical properties assessed accounted for a significant percentage of the community variation but did not explain fully the community differences between populations and foliage types. Similarly, while differences in population susceptibility to a major marsupial herbivore may result in diffuse genetic effects on the dependent community, this still did not account for the large genetic-based differences in dependent communities between populations. Our results emphasize the importance of maintaining the populations of this rare species as separate management units, as not only are the populations highly genetically structured, this variation may alter the trajectory of biotic colonization of conservation plantings.

  7. Tree-structured vector quantization of CT chest scans: Image quality and diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosman, P.C.; Tseng, C.; Gray, R.M.; Olshen, R.A.; Moses, L.E.; Davidson, H.C.; Bergin, C.J.; Riskin, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The quality of lossy compressed images is often characterized by signal-to-noise ratios, informal tests of subjective quality, or receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves that include subjective appraisals of the value of an image for a particular application. The authors believe that for medical applications, lossy compressed images should be judged by a more natural and fundamental aspect of relative image quality: their use in making accurate diagnoses. They apply a lossy compression algorithm to medical images, and quantify the quality of the images by the diagnostic performance of radiologists, as well as by traditional signal-to-noise ratios and subjective ratings. The study is unlike previous studies of the effects of lossy compression in that they consider non-binary detection tasks, simulate actual diagnostic practice instead of using paired tests or confidence rankings, use statistical methods that are more appropriate for non-binary clinical data than are the popular ROC curves, and use low-complexity predictive tree-structured vector quantization for compression rather than DCT-based transform codes combined with entropy coding. Their diagnostic tasks are the identification of nodules (tumors) in the lungs and lymphadenopathy in the mediastinum from computerized tomography (CT) chest scans. For the image modality, compression algorithm, and diagnostic tasks they consider, the original 12 bit per pixel (bpp) CT image can be compressed to between 1 bpp and 2 bpp with no significant changes in diagnostic accuracy

  8. Linguistic and Cognitive Characteristics of the Composition of the Text of J. K. Rowling's English Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on linguistic and cognitive characteristics inherent in the composition of the English postmodern tales written by J.K. Rowling. The composition of the text is viewed as linguistic and cognitive construal that integrates compositional plot structure, compositional meaning structure, linguistic and stylistic means of their…

  9. The Prague Linguistic Circle and Dialectics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Ondřej

    -, č. 19 (2017), s. 352-357 E-ISSN 2037-2426 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : The Prague Linguistic Circle * Jan Mukařovský * Structuralism * Structural Poetics * Dialectics Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision OBOR OECD: Specific literatures

  10. 3D NEAREST NEIGHBOUR SEARCH USING A CLUSTERED HIERARCHICAL TREE STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suhaibah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Locating and analysing the location of new stores or outlets is one of the common issues facing retailers and franchisers. This is due to assure that new opening stores are at their strategic location to attract the highest possible number of customers. Spatial information is used to manage, maintain and analyse these store locations. However, since the business of franchising and chain stores in urban areas runs within high rise multi-level buildings, a three-dimensional (3D method is prominently required in order to locate and identify the surrounding information such as at which level of the franchise unit will be located or is the franchise unit located is at the best level for visibility purposes. One of the common used analyses used for retrieving the surrounding information is Nearest Neighbour (NN analysis. It uses a point location and identifies the surrounding neighbours. However, with the immense number of urban datasets, the retrieval and analysis of nearest neighbour information and their efficiency will become more complex and crucial. In this paper, we present a technique to retrieve nearest neighbour information in 3D space using a clustered hierarchical tree structure. Based on our findings, the proposed approach substantially showed an improvement of response time analysis compared to existing approaches of spatial access methods in databases. The query performance was tested using a dataset consisting of 500,000 point locations building and franchising unit. The results are presented in this paper. Another advantage of this structure is that it also offers a minimal overlap and coverage among nodes which can reduce repetitive data entry.

  11. Dominant Tree Species and Soil Type Affect the Fungal Community Structure in a Boreal Peatland Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Terhonen, Eeva; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Tuovila, Hanna; Chen, Hongxin; Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kohler, Annegret; Kasanen, Risto; Vasander, Harri; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2016-05-01

    Boreal peatlands play a crucial role in global carbon cycling, acting as an important carbon reservoir. However, little information is available on how peatland microbial communities are influenced by natural variability or human-induced disturbances. In this study, we have investigated the fungal diversity and community structure of both the organic soil layer and buried wood in boreal forest soils using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We have also compared the fungal communities during the primary colonization of wood with those of the surrounding soils. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that the community composition significantly differed between soil types (P< 0.001) and tree species (P< 0.001). The distance-based linear models analysis showed that environmental variables were significantly correlated with community structure (P< 0.04). The availability of soil nutrients (Ca [P= 0.002], Fe [P= 0.003], and P [P= 0.003]) within the site was an important factor in the fungal community composition. The species richness in wood was significantly lower than in the corresponding soil (P< 0.004). The results of the molecular identification were supplemented by fruiting body surveys. Seven of the genera of Agaricomycotina identified in our surveys were among the top 20 genera observed in pyrosequencing data. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, fungal high-throughput next-generation sequencing study performed on peatlands; it further provides a baseline for the investigation of the dynamics of the fungal community in the boreal peatlands. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Diversity and population structure of a dominant deciduous tree based on morphological and genetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin-di; Jia, Rui-Zhi; Meng, Chao; Ti, Chao-Wen; Wang, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic diversity and structure of tree species across their geographic ranges is essential for sustainable use and management of forest ecosystems. Acer grosseri Pax., an economically and ecologically important maple species, is mainly distributed in North China. In this study, the genetic diversity and population differentiation of 24 natural populations of this species were evaluated using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and morphological characters. The results show that highly significant differences occurred in 32 morphological traits. The coefficient of variation of 34 characters was 18.19 %. Principal component analysis indicated that 18 of 34 traits explained 60.20 % of the total variance. The phenotypic differentiation coefficient (VST) was 36.06 % for all morphological traits. The Shannon–Wiener index of 34 morphological characters was 6.09, while at the population level, it was 1.77. The percentage of polymorphic bands of all studied A. grosseri populations was 82.14 %. Nei's gene diversity (He) and Shannon's information index (I) were 0.35 and 0.50, respectively. Less genetic differentiation was detected among the natural populations (GST = 0.20, ΦST = 0.10). Twenty-four populations of A. grosseri formed two main clusters, which is consistent with morphological cluster analysis. Principal coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE analysis supported the UPGMA-cluster dendrogram. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances among populations. Both molecular and morphological data suggested that A. grosseri is rich in genetic diversity. The high level of genetic variation within populations could be affected by the biological characters, mating system and lifespan of A. grosseri, whereas the lower genetic diversity among populations could be caused by effective gene exchange, selective pressure from environmental heterogeneity and the species' geographical range. PMID:26311734

  13. Phylogeography and genetic structure of a Tertiary relict tree species, Tapiscia sinensis (Tapisciaceae): implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinju; Li, Zuozhou; Fritsch, Peter W; Tian, Hua; Yang, Aihong; Yao, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    The phylogeography of plant species in sub-tropical China remains largely unclear. This study used Tapiscia sinensis, an endemic and endangered tree species widely but disjunctly distributed in sub-tropical China, as a model to reveal the patterns of genetic diversity and phylogeographical history of Tertiary relict plant species in this region. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to its conservation management. Samples were taken from 24 populations covering the natural geographical distribution of T. sinensis. Genetic structure was investigated by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes were constructed with maximum parsimony and haplotype network methods. Historical population expansion events were tested with pairwise mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests. Species potential range was deduced by ecological niche modelling (ENM). A low level of genetic diversity was detected at the population level. A high level of genetic differentiation and a significant phylogeographical structure were revealed. The mean divergence time of the haplotypes was approx. 1·33 million years ago. Recent range expansion in this species is suggested by a star-like haplotype network and by the results from the mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests. Climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene have had pronounced effects on the extant distribution of Tapiscia relative to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Spatial patterns of molecular variation and ENM suggest that T. sinensis may have retreated in south-western and central China and colonized eastern China prior to the LGM. Multiple montane refugia for T. sinense existing during the LGM are inferred in central and western China. The populations adjacent to or within these refugia of T. sinense should be given high priority in the development of conservation policies and management strategies for

  14. The Perilous Life of a Linguistic Genre Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchmann, Simon

    2014-01-01

    , the descriptions are more informative than the structures hitherto described by text linguistics. Secondly, as historical norms, they are a testimony to the development and change of language use. Thirdly, the descriptions contribute to language users’ awareness of the origin of standards, their understanding......The primary, theoretical aim of the article is to present a linguistic text analysis that differs from standard text linguistic approaches by being informative with regard to the linguistic choices and textual organisation that characterise a text as a social act. The analysis is exemplified...... by using texts of a relatively new Danish journalistic genre nyhedsanalyse (news analysis). The secondary, empirical aim of the article is to present a corpus-based, linguistic analysis of central elements of the genre nyhedsanalyse within the Danish system of newspaper genres. Text linguistics is based...

  15. Detecting Structural Metadata with Decision Trees and Transformation-Based Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Joungbum; Schwarm, Sarah E; Ostendorf, Mari

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, combinations of decision trees and language models are used to predict sentence ends and interruption points and given these events transformation based learning is used to detect edit...

  16. Certified and uncertified logging concessions compared in Gabon: changes in stand structure, tree species, and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjibe, V P; Putz, Francis E; Romero, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    Forest management certification is assumed to promote sustainable forest management, but there is little field-based evidence to support this claim. To help fill this gap, we compared a Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)-certified with an adjacent uncertified, conventionally logged concession (CL) in Gabon on the basis of logging damage, above-ground biomass (AGB), and tree species diversity and composition. Before logging, we marked, mapped, and measured all trees >10 cm dbh in 20 and twelve 1-ha permanent plots in the FSC and CL areas, respectively. Soil and tree damage due to felling, skidding, and road-related activities was then assessed 2-3 months after the 508 ha FSC study area and the 200 ha CL study area were selectively logged at respective intensities of 5.7 m(3)/ha (0.39 trees/ha) and 11.4 m(3)/ha (0.76 trees/ha). For each tree felled, averages of 9.1 and 20.9 other trees were damaged in the FSC and CL plots, respectively; when expressed as the impacts per timber volume extracted, the values did not differ between the two treatments. Skid trails covered 2.9 % more of the CL surface, but skid trail length per unit timber volume extracted was not greater. Logging roads were wider in the CL than FSC site and disturbed 4.7 % more of the surface. Overall, logging caused declines in AGB of 7.1 and 13.4 % at the FSC and CL sites, respectively. Changes in tree species composition were small but greater for the CL site. Based on these findings and in light of the pseudoreplicated study design with less-than perfect counterfactual, we cautiously conclude that certification yields environmental benefits even after accounting for differences in logging intensities.

  17. Statistical tracking of tree-like tubular structures with efficient branching detection in 3D medical image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X; Heimann, T; Meinzer, H P; Wegner, I; Lo, P; Sumkauskaite, M; Puderbach, M; De Bruijne, M

    2012-01-01

    The segmentation of tree-like tubular structures such as coronary arteries and airways is an essential step for many 3D medical imaging applications. Statistical tracking techniques for the extraction of elongated structures have received considerable attention in recent years due to their robustness against image noise and pathological changes. However, most tracking methods are limited to a specific application and do not support branching structures efficiently. In this work, we present a novel statistical tracking approach for the extraction of different types of tubular structures with ringlike cross-sections. Domain-specific knowledge is learned from training data sets and integrated into the tracking process by simple adaption of parameters. In addition, an efficient branching detection algorithm is presented. This approach was evaluated by extracting coronary arteries from 32 CTA data sets and distal airways from 20 CT scans. These data sets were provided by the organizers of the workshop ‘3D Segmentation in the Clinic: A Grand Challenge II-Coronary Artery Tracking (CAT08)’ and ‘Extraction of Airways from CT 2009 (EXACT’09)’. On average, 81.5% overlap and 0.51 mm accuracy for the tracking of coronary arteries were achieved. For the extraction of airway trees, 51.3% of the total tree length, 53.6% of the total number of branches and a 4.98% false positive rate were attained. In both experiments, our approach is comparable to state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  18. Estimation of structural attributes of walnut trees based on terrestrial laser scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Estornell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Juglans regia L. (walnut is a tree of significant economic importance, usually cultivated for its seed used in the food market, and for its wood used in the furniture industry. The aim of this work was to develop regression models to predict crown parameters for walnut trees using a terrestrial laser scanner. A set of 30 trees was selected and the total height, crown height and crown diameter were measured in the field. The trees were also measured by a laser scanner and algorithms were applied to compute the crown volume, crown diameter, total and crown height. Linear regression models were calculated to estimate walnut tree parameters from TLS data. Good results were obtained with values of R2 between 0.90 and 0.98. In addition, to analyze whether coarser point cloud densities might affect the results, the point clouds for all trees were subsampled using different point densities: points every 0.005 m, 0.01 m, 0.05 m, 0.1 m, 0.25 m, 0.5 m, 1 m, and 2 m. New regression models were calculated to estimate field parameters. For total height and crown volume good estimations were obtained from TLS parameters derived for all subsampled point cloud (0.005 m – 2 m.

  19. Statistical tracking of tree-like tubular structures with efficient branching detection in 3D medical image data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X.; Heimann, T.; Lo, P.

    2012-01-01

    to their robustness against image noise and pathological changes. However, most tracking methods are limited to a specific application and do not support branching structures efficiently. In this work, we present a novel statistical tracking approach for the extraction of different types of tubular structures...... with ringlike cross-sections. Domain-specific knowledge is learned from training data sets and integrated into the tracking process by simple adaption of parameters. In addition, an efficient branching detection algorithm is presented. This approach was evaluated by extracting coronary arteries from 32 CTA data...... for the tracking of coronary arteries were achieved. For the extraction of airway trees, 51.3% of the total tree length, 53.6% of the total number of branches and a 4.98% false positive rate were attained. In both experiments, our approach is comparable to state-of-the-art methods....

  20. Comparative analysis of the anatomical structure of heartwood and sapwood selected Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. trees in Srpska Crnja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilotić Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the macroscopic-microscopic structure (capillary system in the growth stem of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. originating from North America, which grows in “Muzljanski rit” in the area of Srpska Crnja. Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. falls under the ring-porous species according to its porosity, with large tracheas in its early zone. The early zone trachea lumens, contained in the sapwood, reach dimensions of up to 160 μm, while early zone trachea lumens in the growth stem rings of the sapwood reach dimensions of up to 120 μm. Examination of the microscopic structure of this tree show good properties of the tree.

  1. Voicing Solidarity: Linguistic Hospitality and Poststructuralism in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Structuralism has dominated the field of applied linguistics, which has consequences for the positioning of applied linguistics "vis-a-vis" policy makers, educational practice, and also theoretical and methodological innovations. These consequences pertain to how the field advocates, takes sides, balances its descriptive modes with its discursive…

  2. Representation of linguistic form and function in recurrent neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadar, Akos; Chrupala, Grzegorz; Alishahi, Afra

    2017-01-01

    We present novel methods for analyzing the activation patterns of recurrent neural networks from a linguistic point of view and explore the types of linguistic structure they learn. As a case study, we use a standard standalone language model, and a multi-task gated recurrent network architecture

  3. Competition and facilitation structure plant communities under nurse tree canopies in extremely stressful environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Namazi, Ali A; El-Bana, Magdy I; Bonser, Stephen P

    2017-04-01

    Nurse plant facilitation in stressful environments can produce an environment with relatively low stress under its canopy. These nurse plants may produce the conditions promoting intense competition between coexisting species under the canopy, and canopies may establish stress gradients, where stress increases toward the edge of the canopy. Competition and facilitation on these stress gradients may control species distributions in the communities under canopies. We tested the following predictions: (1) interactions between understory species shift from competition to facilitation in habitats experiencing increasing stress from the center to the edge of canopy of a nurse plant, and (2) species distributions in understory communities are controlled by competitive interactions at the center of canopy, and facilitation at the edge of the canopy. We tested these predictions using a neighbor removal experiment under nurse trees growing in arid environments. Established individuals of each of four of the most common herbaceous species in the understory were used in the experiment. Two species were more frequent in the center of the canopy, and two species were more frequent at the edge of the canopy. Established individuals of each species were subjected to neighbor removal or control treatments in both canopy center and edge habitats. We found a shift from competitive to facilitative interactions from the center to the edge of the canopy. The shift in the effect of neighbors on the target species can help to explain species distributions in these canopies. Canopy-dominant species only perform well in the presence of neighbors in the edge microhabitat. Competition from canopy-dominant species can also limit the performance of edge-dominant species in the canopy microhabitat. The shift from competition to facilitation under nurse plant canopies can structure the understory communities in extremely stressful environments.

  4. Population structure of the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa among street trees in Washington D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jordan Lee; Balci, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial leaf scorch, associated with the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, is a widely established and problematic disease of landscape ornamentals in Washington D.C. A multi-locus sequence typing analysis was performed using 10 housekeeping loci for X. fastidiosa strains in order to better understand the epidemiology of leaf scorch disease in this municipal environment. Samples were collected from 7 different tree species located throughout the District of Columbia, consisting of 101 samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic foliage from 84 different trees. Five strains of the bacteria were identified. Consistent with prior data, these strains were host specific, with only one strain associated with members of the red oak family, one strain associated with American elm, one strain associated with American sycamore, and two strains associated with mulberry. Strains found for asymptomatic foliage were the same as strains from the symptomatic foliage on individual trees. Cross transmission of the strains was not observed at sites with multiple species of infected trees within an approx. 25 m radius of one another. X. fastidiosa strain specificity observed for each genus of tree suggests a highly specialized host-pathogen relationship.

  5. Population structure of the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa among street trees in Washington D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Lee Harris

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf scorch, associated with the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, is a widely established and problematic disease of landscape ornamentals in Washington D.C. A multi-locus sequence typing analysis was performed using 10 housekeeping loci for X. fastidiosa strains in order to better understand the epidemiology of leaf scorch disease in this municipal environment. Samples were collected from 7 different tree species located throughout the District of Columbia, consisting of 101 samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic foliage from 84 different trees. Five strains of the bacteria were identified. Consistent with prior data, these strains were host specific, with only one strain associated with members of the red oak family, one strain associated with American elm, one strain associated with American sycamore, and two strains associated with mulberry. Strains found for asymptomatic foliage were the same as strains from the symptomatic foliage on individual trees. Cross transmission of the strains was not observed at sites with multiple species of infected trees within an approx. 25 m radius of one another. X. fastidiosa strain specificity observed for each genus of tree suggests a highly specialized host-pathogen relationship.

  6. A Suffix Tree Or Not a Suffix Tree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree r on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is r a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as r? We place no restrictions on S, in part...

  7. Low genetic diversity and intrapopulation spatial genetic structure of the Atlantic Forest tree, Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on population genetics are the key to designing effective in situ management plans for tree species, in particular, those subjected to pressure from anthropogenic processes, such as forest fragmentation and logging. To investigate genetic diversity, inbreeding and intrapopulation spatial genetic structure (SGS in a fragmented population of the insect-pollinated tropical tree, Esenbeckia leiocarpa, we developed specific microsatellite markers for this species and mapped and sampled 100 individuals in a forest plot. Two issues were addressed in particular: (i the level of genetic diversity, inbreeding and effective population size, (ii whether intrapopulation spatial genetic structure exists. Among the 14 loci developed, we only used the three that presented polymorphism to estimate the genetic parameters. Genetic diversity was low, whereby the average number of alleles per locus (A was 3.3 and observed (H0 and expected heterozygosities (He were 0.336 and 0.298, respectively. The average fixation index was significantly higher than zero (F = 0.112, suggesting inbreeding. Significant SGS was found up to 7 m and between 31 to 38 m, indicating that trees growing within these distances may be related. Estimates of the effective population size indicated that the 100 sampled trees correspond to 14 individuals that are neither related nor inbred. Our results suggest that the microsatellite markers developed in this study are suitable for studies on geneticdiversity and structure, mating systems, gene flow and SGS in this species.

  8. Aboveground Biomass and Carbon in a South African Mistbelt Forest and the Relationships with Tree Species Diversity and Forest Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvanus Mensah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass and carbon stocks are key information criteria to understand the role of forests in regulating global climate. However, for a bio-rich continent like Africa, ground-based measurements for accurate estimation of carbon are scarce, and the variables affecting the forest carbon are not well understood. Here, we present the first biomass study conducted in South Africa Mistbelt forests. Using data from a non-destructive sampling of 59 trees of four species, we (1 evaluated the accuracy of multispecies aboveground biomass (AGB models, using predictors such as diameter at breast height (DBH, total height (H and wood density; (2 estimated the amount of biomass and carbon stored in the aboveground compartment of Mistbelt forests and (3 explored the variation of aboveground carbon (AGC in relation to tree species diversity and structural variables. We found significant effects of species on wood density and AGB. Among the candidate models, the model that incorporated DBH and H as a compound variable (DBH2 × H was the best fitting. AGB and AGC values were highly variable across all plots, with average values of 358.1 Mg·ha−1 and 179.0 Mg·C·ha−1, respectively. Few species contributed 80% of AGC stock, probably as a result of selection effect. Stand basal area, basal area of the ten most important species and basal area of the largest trees were the most influencing variables. Tree species richness was also positively correlated with AGC, but the basal area of smaller trees was not. These results enable insights into the role of biodiversity in maintaining carbon storage and the possibilities for sustainable strategies for timber harvesting without risk of significant biomass decline.

  9. Peace linguistics for language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GOMES DE MATOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at presenting the concept of Peace Linguistics - origins and recent developments -- as being implemented in the author's ongoing work in that emerging branch of Applied Linguistics. Examples of applicational possibilities are given, with a focus on language teaching-learning and a Checklist is provided, of topics for suggested linguistic-educational research, centered on communicative peace.

  10. Linguistic Corpora and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murison-Bowie, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Examines issues raised by corpus linguistics concerning the description of language. The article argues that it is necessary to start from correct descriptions of linguistic units and the contexts in which they occur. Corpus linguistics has joined with language teaching by sharing a recognition of the importance of a larger, schematic view of…

  11. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  12. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    It could be argued that lexicography has little business with linguistic creativ- ...... The forms in which traditional proverbs are found can also vary greatly: many ... BoE has examples of the proverb every cloud has a silver lining but many more ...

  13. Variation and Linguistic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This volume presents principles and models for describing language variation, and introduces a time-based, dynamic framework for linguistic description. The book first summarizes some of the problems of grammatical description encountered from Saussure through the present and then outlines possibilities for new descriptions of language which take…

  14. Untangling Linguistic Salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, Vincent; Coler, Matt; Loerts, Hanneke; Hilton, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    The concept of linguistic salience is broadly used within sociolinguistics to account for processes as diverse as language change (Kerswill & Williams, 2002) and language acquisition (Ellis, 2016) in that salient forms are e.g. more likely to undergo change, or are often acquired earlier than other

  15. Guatemalan Linguistics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguistic Reporter, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The general goals of the Guatemalan technical institution, the Proyecto Linguistico Francisco Marroquin, are to: create a national technical resource institution in linguistics and Mayan languages; enable Indians to influence programs for their communities; and stimulate the study of Mayan languages and their use as communication medium. (SW)

  16. Formal monkey linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions: (i) what morphology and

  17. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  18. Gradual linguistic summaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbik, A.M.; Kaymak, U.; Laurent, A.; Strauss, O.; Bouchon-Meunier, xx

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new type of protoform-based linguistic summary – the gradual summary. This new type of summaries aims in capturing the change over some time span. Such summaries can be useful in many domains, for instance in economics, e.g., "prices of X are getting smaller" in eldercare,

  19. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  20. Linguistics and Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindell, Gloria

    1983-01-01

    Discusses four general areas of linguistics studies that are particularly relevant to literacy issues: (1) discourse analysis, including text analysis, spoken and written language, and home and school discourse; (2) relationships between speech and writing, the distance between dialects and written norms, and developmental writing; (3)…

  1. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of

  2. Differences in proleptic and epicormic shoot structures in relation to water deficit and growth rate in almond trees (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel G; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M

    2014-02-01

    Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on 'Nonpareil' almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate a more rapid progression through ontogenetic states.

  3. Aspects of conversational style-linguistic versus behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G A

    1992-01-01

    Skinner's functional analysis of verbal behavior has been contrasted with formal linguistic analysis which studies the grammatical structure and "meaning" of verbal response-products, regardless of the circumstances under which they are produced. Nevertheless, it appears that certain areas of linguistic analysis are not entirely structural. In her recent books That's Not What I Meant (1986) and You Just Don't Understand (1990), the linguist Deborah Tannen purports to explain how people exhibit different "conversation styles"-that is, how they speak and achieve effects on listeners in different ways. There are indications, however, that the linguistic model may not be the most functional and precise one that could be used in analyzing conversational style. This paper takes concepts presented in Deborah Tannen's book That's Not What I Meant (1986), analyzes them from a linguistic and a behavioral perspective, and compares the relative utility of the two approaches.

  4. Aspects of conversational style—linguistic versus behavioral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Genae A.

    1992-01-01

    Skinner's functional analysis of verbal behavior has been contrasted with formal linguistic analysis which studies the grammatical structure and “meaning” of verbal response-products, regardless of the circumstances under which they are produced. Nevertheless, it appears that certain areas of linguistic analysis are not entirely structural. In her recent books That's Not What I Meant (1986) and You Just Don't Understand (1990), the linguist Deborah Tannen purports to explain how people exhibit different “conversation styles”—that is, how they speak and achieve effects on listeners in different ways. There are indications, however, that the linguistic model may not be the most functional and precise one that could be used in analyzing conversational style. This paper takes concepts presented in Deborah Tannen's book That's Not What I Meant (1986), analyzes them from a linguistic and a behavioral perspective, and compares the relative utility of the two approaches. PMID:22477048

  5. Image schemas and mimetic schemas in cognitive linguistics and gesture studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cienki, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Image schemas have been a fundamental construct in cognitive linguistics, providing grounds for psychological, philosophical, as well as linguistic research. Given the focus in cognitive linguistics on embodied experience as a fundamental basis for language structure and meaning, the employment of

  6. The Foundations of Linguistics: Two Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Edison

    2009-01-01

    Linguists tell us that the sentence "I enjoyed yourself" is ungrammatical because it violates structural constraints on English sentences. Is this a fact about the "psychology" of English speakers, or a fact about some "mind-independent" state of affairs? If it is indeed a fact about the speaker's psychological makeup then is it so in virtue of…

  7. Psycholinguistics in Applied Linguistics: Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between the terms psycholinguistics and applied linguistics, and in the process explores key issues in multilingual processing, such as the structure of the bilingual lexicon, language choice in production and perception, and the language mode. (Author/VWL)

  8. Preprocessing Greek Papyri for Linguistic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierros, Marja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Greek documentary papyri form an important direct source for Ancient Greek. It has been exploited surprisingly little in Greek linguistics due to a lack of good tools for searching linguistic structures. This article presents a new tool and digital platform, “Sematia”, which enables transforming the digital texts available in TEI EpiDoc XML format to a format which can be morphologically and syntactically annotated (treebanked, and where the user can add new metadata concerning the text type, writer and handwriting of each act of writing. An important aspect in this process is to take into account the original surviving writing vs. the standardization of language and supplements made by the editors. This is performed by creating two different layers of the same text. The platform is in its early development phase. Ongoing and future developments, such as tagging linguistic variation phenomena as well as queries performed within Sematia, are discussed at the end of the article.

  9. Are tree ontogenetic structure and allometric relationship independent of vegetation formation type? A case study with Cordia oncocalyx in the Brazilian caatinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Andréa P.; Martins, Fernando R.; Araújo, Francisca S.

    2012-08-01

    In temperate and tropical rainforests, ontogenetic structure and allometry during tree ontogeny are often associated with light gradients. Light is not considered a limiting resource in deciduous thorny woodland (DTW), but establishment and growth occur during a short rainy period, when the canopy is fully leaved and light in the understory may be modified. Our aim was to investigate whether the light gradient in DTW and the biomechanical limitations of tree growth would be enough to produce an ontogenetic structure and allometric growth similar to rainforest canopy trees. We investigated the ontogenetic stages and diameter-height relationship of Cordia oncocalyx (Boraginaceae), a dominant canopy tree of the DTW of semiarid northeastern Brazil. We tagged, measured and classified the ontogenetic stages of 2.895 individuals in a 1 ha area (5°6'58.1″S and 40°52'19.4″W). In the rainy season only 4.7% of the light falling on the canopy reached the ground. Initial ontogenetic stages, mainly infant (50.9%) and seedling (42.1%), were predominant in the population, with the remaining 7% distributed among juvenile, immature, virginile and reproductive. The ontogenetic structure was similar to that of rainforest tree species, but the population formed both permanent seed and infant banks in response to long dry periods and erratic rainy spells. Like many other Boraginaceae tree species in tropical rainforests, C. oncocalyx has a Prévost architectural model, but allometric growth was quite different from rainforest trees. C. oncocalyx invested slightly more in diameter at first, then in height and finally invested greatly in diameter and attained an asymptotic height. The continued high investment in diameter growth at late stages and the asymptotic height point to low tree density and more frequent xylem embolism as the main drivers of tree allometric shape in DTW. This indicates that tree ontogenetic structure and allometric relationships depend on vegetation

  10. FLORISTIC-STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SUCCESSIONAL GROUP OF TREE SPECIES IN THE CERRADO BIOME OF TOCANTINS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDER PEREIRA MIGUEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the floristic composition, vegetation structure and ecological group of tree species in a cerradão forest (Cerrado biome of Palmas, Tocantins State, Brazil. A forest inventory was performed in an area of 10.15 hectares, using systematic sampling with plots of 400 m², in which all standing trees, alive and dead, that had diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5 cm were sampled and identified. A linear plateau regression model (LPR was used for sample sufficiency analysis. The Shannon index (H’ was used for assess the floristic diversity, and the Importance Value Index (IVI for assess the horizontal structure. The forest was classified in three strata according to vertical structure analysis. The LPR showed that the sampling size was adequate. The predominate species in the area were Myrcia splendens, Emmotum nitens and Qualea parviflora, and species from the families Fabaceae and Chrysobalanaceae. The pioneer (613 individuals ha-1 and climax (530 individuals ha-1 species were the predominating groups. Regarding the richness index, the number of climax (57 species and pioneer (25 species species stood out. The alpha floristic diversity was 3.35 nats individuals-1 and the Pielou equability value J = 0.76. The diametric distribution showed a negative and balanced exponential pattern. Regarding the vertical stratification, the smallest amount of individuals was in the upper stratum (13% and the highest in the mid stratum (63% and in the lower stratum (24%. The use of floristic composition tools with horizontal and vertical structure analysis was effective for understand the tree community, which may be considered structured and diverse, thus able to restructure possible disturbances when preserved.

  11. Building a Tree Structure: The Development of Hierarchical Complexity and Interrupted Strategies in Children's Construction Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Patricia Marks; Schneider, Leslie

    1977-01-01

    This study examined the construction of a mobile with plastic construction straws in order to study the development of tree representations in a domain other than language. Subjects were 70 children between the ages of 3 and 11. (Author/JMB)

  12. Structural Relationships Of Selected Tree Species at Several Mid-Latitude Deciduous Forest Sites in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    are included in the deciduous analyses. They are mockernut hickory { Carya tomentosa), American elm {Ulmus americana), pecan { Carya illinoensis ), and...alba, white ash (Fraxinus americana), and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ). A number of these trees have plaques indicating the dates of planting (late 1700s

  13. Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domke Grant M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standing dead trees are one component of forest ecosystem dead wood carbon (C pools, whose national stock is estimated by the U.S. as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, standing dead tree C has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S.'s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Initiated in 1998, the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program (responsible for compiling the Nation's forest C estimates began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees, which may now supplant previous purely model-based approaches to standing dead biomass and C stock estimation. A substantial hurdle to estimating standing dead tree biomass and C attributes is that traditional estimation procedures are based on merchantability paradigms that may not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to decomposition common in standing dead trees. The goal of this study was to incorporate standing dead tree adjustments into the current estimation procedures and assess how biomass and C stocks change at multiple spatial scales. Results Accounting for decay and structural loss in standing dead trees significantly decreased tree- and plot-level C stock estimates (and subsequent C stocks by decay class and tree component. At a regional scale, incorporating adjustment factors decreased standing dead quaking aspen biomass estimates by almost 50 percent in the Lake States and Douglas-fir estimates by more than 36 percent in the Pacific Northwest. Conclusions Substantial overestimates of standing dead tree biomass and C stocks occur when one does not account for density reductions or structural loss. Forest inventory estimation procedures that are descended from merchantability standards may need to be revised toward a more holistic approach to determining standing dead tree biomass and C attributes (i.e., attributes of tree biomass outside of sawlog

  14. Analysis of a planetary gear modelled with a contour graph considering the decision making complexity of game-tree structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deptuła Adam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and synthesis of mechanisms is one of the fundamental tasks of engineering. Mechanisms can suffer from errors due to versatile reasons. Graph-based methods of analysis and synthesis of planetary gears constitute an alternative method for checking their correctness. Previous applications of the graph theory concerned modelling gears for dynamic analysis, kinematic analysis, synthesis, structural analysis, gearshift optimization and automatic design based on so-called graph grammars. Some tasks may be performed only with the methods resulting from the graph theory, e.g. enumeration of structural solutions. The contour plot method consists in distinguishing a series of consecutive rigid units of the analysed mechanism, forming a closed loop (so-called contour. At a later stage, it is possible to analyze the obtained contour graph as a directed graph of dependence. This work presents an example of the application of game-tree structures in describing the contour graph of a planetary gear. In addition, complex parametric tree structures are included.

  15. Intra-annual dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in the cambium of mature conifer trees reflects radial growth demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Sonia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Treydte, Kerstin; Traversi, Maria Laura; King, Gregory M; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    The presence of soluble carbohydrates in the cambial zone, either from sugars recently produced during photosynthesis or from starch remobilized from storage organs, is necessary for radial tree growth. However, considerable uncertainties on carbohydrate dynamics and the consequences on tree productivity exist. This study aims to better understand the variation in different carbon pools at intra-annual resolution by quantifying how cambial zone sugar and starch concentrations fluctuate over the season and in relation to cambial phenology. A comparison between two physiologically different species growing at the same site, i.e., the evergreen Picea abies Karst. and the deciduous Larix decidua Mill., and between L. decidua from two contrasting elevations, is presented to identify mechanisms of growth limitation. Results indicate that the annual cycle of sugar concentration within the cambial zone is coupled to the process of wood formation. The highest sugar concentration is observed when the number of cells in secondary wall formation and lignification stages is at a maximum, subsequent to most radial growth. Starch disappears in winter, while other freeze-resistant non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) increase. Slight differences in NSC concentration between species are consistent with the differing climate sensitivity of the evergreen and deciduous species investigated. The general absence of differences between elevations suggests that the cambial activity of trees growing at the treeline was not limited by the availability of carbohydrates at the cambial zone but instead by environmental controls on the growing season duration.

  16. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  17. Ecological structuring of yeasts associated with trees around Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganti, Harinad; Bartfai, David; Xu, Jianping

    2012-02-01

    This study seeks to determine the distribution and diversity of yeasts in and around the Hamilton area in Canada. In light of the increasing number of fungal infections along with rising morbidity and mortality rates, especially among the immunocompromised, understanding the diversity and distribution of yeasts in natural environments close to human habitations has become an increasingly relevant topic. In this study, we analyzed 1110 samples obtained from the hollows of trees, shrubs and avian droppings at 8 geographical sites in and around Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A total of 88 positive yeast strains were isolated and identified belonging to 20 yeast species. Despite the relative proximity of the sampling sites, our DNA fingerprinting results showed that the yeast populations were highly heterogenous. Among the 14 tree species sampled, cedar, cottonwood and basswood hollows had relatively high yeast colonization rates. Interestingly, Candida parapsilosis was isolated almost exclusively from Pine trees only. Our results are consistent with microgeographic and ecological differentiation of yeast species in and around an urban environment. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence of Ash Tree (Fraxinus spp. Specific Associations with Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Functional Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Ricketts

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB across North America has had enormous impacts on temperate forest ecosystems. The selective removal of ash trees (Fraxinus spp. has resulted in abnormally large inputs of coarse woody debris and altered forest tree community composition, ultimately affecting a variety of ecosystem processes. The goal of this study was to determine if the presence of ash trees influences soil bacterial communities and/or functions to better understand the impacts of EAB on forest successional dynamics and biogeochemical cycling. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of soil DNA collected from ash and non-ash plots in central Ohio during the early stages of EAB infestation, we found that bacterial communities in plots with ash differed from those without ash. These differences were largely driven by Acidobacteria, which had a greater relative abundance in non-ash plots. Functional genes required for sulfur cycling, phosphorus cycling, and carbohydrate metabolism (specifically those which breakdown complex sugars to glucose were estimated to be more abundant in non-ash plots, while nitrogen cycling gene abundance did not differ. This ash-soil microbiome association implies that EAB-induced ash decline may promote belowground successional shifts, altering carbon and nutrient cycling and changing soil properties beyond the effects of litter additions caused by ash mortality.

  19. INTELLIGENT AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF CONTROL OF KNOWLEDGE: LINGUISTIC SUBSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Katerynchuk

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A flowchart linguistic structure (morfological, syntactical, semantic and pragmatic analysis of sentences of the automated system of control of intellectual knowledge. The model of artificial intelligence recognition and evaluation of textual answers.

  20. Differences in the impacts of formal and informal recreational trails on urban forest loss and tree structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-08-15

    Recreational trails are one of the most common types of infrastructure used for nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking worldwide. Depending on their design, location, construction, maintenance and use, these trails differ in their environmental impacts. There are few studies, however, comparing the impacts of different trail types including between formal management-created trails and informal visitor-created trails. Although both types of trails can be found in remote natural areas, dense networks of them often occur in forests close to cities where they experience intense visitor use. To assess the relative impacts of different recreational trails in urban forests, we compared the condition of the trail surface, loss of forest strata and changes in tree structure caused by seven types of trails (total network 46.1 km) traversing 17 remnants of an endangered urban forest in Australia. After mapping and classifying all trails, we assessed their impact on the forest condition at 125 sites (15 sites per trail type, plus 15 control sites within undisturbed forest). On the trail sites, the condition of the trail surface, distance from the trail edge to four forest strata (litter, understory, midstorey and tree cover) and structure of the tree-line were assessed. Informal trails generally had poorer surface conditions and were poorly-designed and located. Per site, formal and informal trails resulted in similar loss of forest strata, with wider trails resulting in greater loss of forest. Because there were more informal trails, however, they accounted for the greatest cumulative forest loss. Structural impacts varied, with the widest informal trails and all formal hardened trails resulting in similar reductions in canopy cover and tree density but an increase in saplings. These structural impacts are likely a function of the unregulated and intense use of large informal trails, and disturbance from the construction and maintenance of formal trails

  1. Structure of the tree stratum of three swamp forest communities in southern Brazil under different soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carla Mancino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga forests are commonly known to be plant communities rather poor in tree species. This study aimed to describe and explain the association between the floristic-structural similarities and the environmental conditions in three Swamp Restinga Forest communities in southern Brazil. In 13 plots of 100 m2 each, we sampled all individual trees (circumference at breast height >12 cm and height ≥3 m. We collected soil samples in each plot for chemical and textural analyses. Phytosociological parameters were calculated and different structural variables were compared between areas. The density of individuals did not differ between areas; however, the maximum height and abundance of species differed between the site with Histosols and the other two sites with Gleysols. Further, a canonical correspondence analysis based on a matrix of vegetation and that of environmental characteristics explained 31.5% of the total variation. The high floristic and environmental heterogeneity indicate that swamp-forests can shelter many species with low frequency. Most species were generalists that were not exclusive to this type of forest. Overall, our study showed that swamp-forests within the same region can show considerable differences in composition and structure and can include species-rich communities, mostly due to the presence of species with a broader distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest domain on sites with less stressful environmental conditions and without waterlogged conditions.

  2. Linguistics and the digital humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software......, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and figures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. This article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data...... and method and also offers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented...

  3. Zinc deficiency in field-grown pecan trees: changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Barrios, Dámaris; Abadía, Javier; Lombardini, Leonardo; Abadía, Anunciación; Vázquez, Saúl

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a typical nutritional disorder in pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] grown under field conditions in calcareous soils in North America, including northern Mexico and south-western United States. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and nutritional changes in pecan leaves affected by Zn deficiency as well as the Zn distribution within leaves. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf chlorophyll concentrations, leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. Zinc deficiency increased significantly the leaf concentrations of K and Ca, and decreased the leaf concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. All nutrient values found in Zn-deficient leaves were within the sufficiency ranges, with the only exception of Zn, which was approximately 44, 11 and 9 µg g(-1) dry weight in Zn-sufficient, moderately and markedly Zn-deficient leaves, respectively. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf thickness, mainly due to a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, as well as to increases in stomatal density and size. The localisation of Zn was determined using the fluorophore Zinpyr-1 and ratio-imaging technique. Zinc was mainly localised in the palisade mesophyll area in Zn-sufficient leaves, whereas no signal could be obtained in Zn-deficient leaves. The effects of Zn deficiency on the leaf characteristics of pecan trees include not only decreases in leaf chlorophyll and Zn concentrations, but also a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, an increase in stomatal density and pore size and the practical disappearance of Zn leaf pools. These characteristics must be taken into account to design strategies to correct Zn deficiency in pecan tree in the field. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. TRAINING TREE ADJOINING GRAMMARS WITH HUGE TEXT CORPUS USING SPARK MAP REDUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Krishna Menon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tree adjoining grammars (TAGs are mildly context sensitive formalisms used mainly in modelling natural languages. Usage and research on these psycho linguistic formalisms have been erratic in the past decade, due to its demanding construction and difficulty to parse. However, they represent promising future for formalism based NLP in multilingual scenarios. In this paper we demonstrate basic synchronous Tree adjoining grammar for English-Tamil language pair that can be used readily for machine translation. We have also developed a multithreaded chart parser that gives ambiguous deep structures and a par dependency structure known as TAG derivation. Furthermore we then focus on a model for training this TAG for each language using a large corpus of text through a map reduce frequency count model in spark and estimation of various probabilistic parameters for the grammar trees thereafter; these parameters can be used to perform statistical parsing on the trained grammar.

  5. Next-generation sequencing reveals phylogeographic structure and a species tree for recent bird divergences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCormack, John E.; Maley, James M.; Hird, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    divergence in four phylogenetically diverse avian systems using a method for quick and cost-effective generation of primary DNA sequence data using pyrosequencing. NGS data were processed using an analytical pipeline that reduces many reads into two called alleles per locus per individual. Using single...... throughout the genome. Using eight loci found in Zonotrichia and Junco lineages, we were also able to generate a species tree of these sparrow sister genera, demonstrating the potential of this method for generating data amenable to coalescent-based analysis. We discuss improvements that should enhance...

  6. Conserving Tropical Tree Diversity and Forest Structure: The Value of Small Rainforest Patches in Moderately-Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ruedas, Manuel A.; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Meave, Jorge A.; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Martínez, Esteban; Jamangapé, Gilberto; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Santos, Bráulio A.

    2014-01-01

    Rainforests are undergoing severe deforestation and fragmentation worldwide. A huge amount of small forest patches are being created, but their value in conserving biodiversity and forest structure is still controversial. Here, we demonstrate that in a species-rich and moderately-managed Mexican tropical landscape small rainforest patches (tree diversity and forest structure. These patches showed diverse communities of native plants, including endangered species, and a new record for the country. Although the number of logged trees increased in smaller patches, patch size was a poor indicator of basal area, stem density, number of species, genera and families, and community evenness. Cumulative species-area curves indicated that all patches had a similar contribution to the regional species diversity. This idea also was supported by the fact that patches strongly differed in floristic composition (high β-diversity), independently of patch size. Thus, in agreement with the land-sharing approach, our findings support that small forest patches in moderately-managed landscapes should be included in conservation initiatives to maintain landscape heterogeneity, species diversity, and ecosystem services. PMID:24901954

  7. Conserving tropical tree diversity and forest structure: the value of small rainforest patches in moderately-managed landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ruedas, Manuel A; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Meave, Jorge A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Martínez, Esteban; Jamangapé, Gilberto; Melo, Felipe P L; Santos, Bráulio A

    2014-01-01

    Rainforests are undergoing severe deforestation and fragmentation worldwide. A huge amount of small forest patches are being created, but their value in conserving biodiversity and forest structure is still controversial. Here, we demonstrate that in a species-rich and moderately-managed Mexican tropical landscape small rainforest patches (<100 ha) can be highly valuable for the conservation of tree diversity and forest structure. These patches showed diverse communities of native plants, including endangered species, and a new record for the country. Although the number of logged trees increased in smaller patches, patch size was a poor indicator of basal area, stem density, number of species, genera and families, and community evenness. Cumulative species-area curves indicated that all patches had a similar contribution to the regional species diversity. This idea also was supported by the fact that patches strongly differed in floristic composition (high β-diversity), independently of patch size. Thus, in agreement with the land-sharing approach, our findings support that small forest patches in moderately-managed landscapes should be included in conservation initiatives to maintain landscape heterogeneity, species diversity, and ecosystem services.

  8. Ecological Importance of Small-Diameter Trees to the Structure, Diversity and Biomass of a Tropical Evergreen Forest at Rabi, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memiaghe, Hervé R; Lutz, James A; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso; Kenfack, David

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests have long been recognized for their biodiversity and ecosystem services. Despite their importance, tropical forests, and particularly those of central Africa, remain understudied. Until recently, most forest inventories in Central Africa have focused on trees ≥10 cm in diameter, even though several studies have shown that small-diameter tree population may be important to demographic rates and nutrient cycling. To determine the ecological importance of small-diameter trees in central African forests, we used data from a 25-ha permanent plot that we established in the rainforest of Gabon to study the diversity and dynamics of these forests. Within the plot, we censused 175,830 trees ≥1 cm dbh from 54 families, 192 genera, and 345 species. Average tree density was 7,026 trees/ha, basal area 31.64 m2/ha, and above-ground biomass 369.40 Mg/ha. Fabaceae, Ebenaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the most important families by basal area, density and above-ground biomass. Small-diameter trees (1 cm ≥ dbh tree population, 16.5% of basal area, and 4.8% of the above-ground biomass. They also had diversity 18% higher at family level, 34% higher at genus level, and 42% higher at species level than trees ≥10 cm dbh. Although the relative contribution of small-diameter trees to biomass was comparable to other forests globally, their contribution to forest density, and diversity was disproportionately higher. The high levels of diversity within small-diameter classes may give these forests high levels of structural resilience to anthropogenic/natural disturbance and a changing climate.

  9. Client perceptions of the Tree Theme Method™: a structured intervention based on storytelling and creative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, A Birgitta; Peterson, Kerstin; Leufstadius, Christel; Jansson, Jan-Ake; Eklund, Mona

    2010-09-01

    The Tree Theme Method (TTM) is an intervention based on sessions involving creative activities and life storytelling/story-making, in which the client paints trees representing various periods of his/her life. The aim of this study was to investigate clients' experiences of participating in a TTM intervention and their perceptions of the therapeutic relationship. Thematic interviews were undertaken. Twenty clients attending general outpatient mental healthcare units were recruited after having participated in the intervention. A qualitative content analysis resulted in six categories: “From feeling a pressure to perform to becoming focused and expressive”, “Expressing oneself and one's life situation led to awakening of memories and feelings”, “New perspectives of self-image, everyday life and relations to others”, “Story-making led to shaping and reconstructing one's life story”, “Interaction was of importance when reconstructing one's life story” and, finally, “The attitude of the occupational therapist was of importance for the development of the therapeutic relationship”. There seemed to be a close association between the intervention and the therapeutic relationship in starting a process of opening up new perspectives on everyday life, but there is a need for further studies including therapists' experience of using the TTM and their perception of the client–therapist relationship.

  10. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Salazar, Juan Carlos; Ngo Bieng, Marie Ange; Melgarejo, Luz Marina; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Casanoves, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use. We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development. We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees. Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of forest-friendly management enhancing sustainable peace building in Colombia.

  11. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Salazar, Juan Carlos; Melgarejo, Luz Marina; Di Rienzo, Julio A.; Casanoves, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Aim and background We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use. Material and methods We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development. Main results We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees. Main conclusions and prospects Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of

  12. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Suárez Salazar

    Full Text Available We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use.We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development.We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees.Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of forest-friendly management enhancing sustainable peace building in

  13. Learnability and linguistic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozd, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    of the human biological endowment for language in the form of a UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (UG) (Chomsky, 1965). With respect to experimental design, C&T have strongly maintained that even young children know UG constraints but perform poorly in some experiments-due to the extralinguistic demands associated...... with experimental tasks, particularly those involved in presupposition accommodation and complex response planning. C&T specifically design their experiments to reduce the impact of extralinguistic demands on children's linguistic performance while at the same time providing felicitous environments for adultlike...... performance....

  14. Formal monkey linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Zuberbühler: The research leading to these results received funding from the European Research Council under ERC grant ‘Prilang 283871’ and also from the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant ‘FN 310030_143359/1’. We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions:...

  15. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  16. Tree crown structural characterization: A study using terrestrial laser scanning and three-dimensional radiative transfer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Inian

    Spectroscopic observational data for vegetated environments, have been coupled with 3D physically-based radiative transfer models for retrievals of biochemical and biophysical indicators of vegetation health and condition. With the recent introduction of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) units, there now exists a means of rapidly measuring intricate structural details of vegetation canopies, which can also serve as input into 3D radiative transfer models. In this investigation, Intelligent Laser Ranging and Imaging System (ILRIS-3D) data was acquired of individual tree crowns in laboratory, and field-based experiments. The ILRIS-3D uses the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) principle to measure the distances of objects based on the time interval between laser pulse exitance and return, upon reflection from an object. At the laboratory-level, this exploratory study demonstrated and validated innovative approaches for retrieving crown-level estimates of Leaf Area Index (LAI) (r2 = 0.98, rmse = 0.26m2/m2), a critical biophysical parameter for vegetation monitoring and modeling. These methods were implemented and expanded in field experiments conducted in olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards in Cordoba, Spain, where ILRIS-3D observations for 24 structurally-variable trees were made. Robust methodologies were developed to characterize diagnostic architectural parameters, such as tree height (r2 = 0.97, rmse = 0.21m), crown width (r 2 = 0.98, rmse = 0.12m), crown height (r2 = 0.81, rmse = 0.11m), crown volume (r2 = 0.99, rmse = 2.6m3), and LAI (r2 = 0.76, rmse = 0.27m2/ m2). These parameters were subsequently used as direct inputs into the Forest LIGHT (FLIGHT) 3D ray tracing model for characterization of the spectral behavior of the olive crowns. Comparisons between FLIGHT-simulated spectra and measured data showed small differences in the visible (measurements were significantly correlated to TLS-derived tree crown complexity metrics. The specific implications of internal crown

  17. Tree growth visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Linsen; B.J. Karis; E.G. McPherson; B. Hamann

    2005-01-01

    In computer graphics, models describing the fractal branching structure of trees typically exploit the modularity of tree structures. The models are based on local production rules, which are applied iteratively and simultaneously to create a complex branching system. The objective is to generate three-dimensional scenes of often many realistic- looking and non-...

  18. The mathematics of xenology: di-cographs, symbolic ultrametrics, 2-structures and tree-representable systems of binary relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Marc; Stadler, Peter F; Wieseke, Nicolas

    2017-07-01

    The concepts of orthology, paralogy, and xenology play a key role in molecular evolution. Orthology and paralogy distinguish whether a pair of genes originated by speciation or duplication. The corresponding binary relations on a set of genes form complementary cographs. Allowing more than two types of ancestral event types leads to symmetric symbolic ultrametrics. Horizontal gene transfer, which leads to xenologous gene pairs, however, is inherent asymmetric since one offspring copy "jumps" into another genome, while the other continues to be inherited vertically. We therefore explore here the mathematical structure of the non-symmetric generalization of symbolic ultrametrics. Our main results tie non-symmetric ultrametrics together with di-cographs (the directed generalization of cographs), so-called uniformly non-prime ([Formula: see text]) 2-structures, and hierarchical structures on the set of strong modules. This yields a characterization of relation structures that can be explained in terms of trees and types of ancestral events. This framework accommodates a horizontal-transfer relation in terms of an ancestral event and thus, is slightly different from the the most commonly used definition of xenology. As a first step towards a practical use, we present a simple polynomial-time recognition algorithm of [Formula: see text] 2-structures and investigate the computational complexity of several types of editing problems for [Formula: see text] 2-structures. We show, finally that these NP-complete problems can be solved exactly as Integer Linear Programs.

  19. Fragmentation reduces regional-scale spatial genetic structure in a wind-pollinated tree because genetic barriers are removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Shi, Yi-Su; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2012-09-01

    Gene flow strongly influences the regional genetic structuring of plant populations. Seed and pollen dispersal patterns can respond differently to the increased isolation resulting from habitat fragmentation, with unpredictable consequences for gene flow and population structuring. In a recently fragmented landscape we compared the pre- and post-fragmentation genetic structure of populations of a tree species where pollen and seed dispersal respond differentially to forest fragmentation generated by flooding. Castanopsis sclerophylla is wind-pollinated, with seeds that are dispersed by gravity and rodents. Using microsatellites, we found no significant difference in genetic diversity between pre- and post-fragmentation cohorts. Significant genetic structure was observed in pre-fragmentation cohorts, due to an unknown genetic barrier that had isolated one small population. Among post-fragmentation cohorts this genetic barrier had disappeared and genetic structure was significantly weakened. The strengths of genetic structuring were at a similar level in both cohorts, suggesting that overall gene flow of C. sclerophylla has been unchanged by fragmentation at the regional scale. Fragmentation has blocked seed dispersal among habitats, but this appears to have been compensated for by enhanced pollen dispersal, as indicated by the disappearance of a genetic barrier, probably as a result of increased wind speeds and easier pollen movement over water. Extensive pollen flow can counteract some negative effects of fragmentation and assist the long-term persistence of small remnant populations.

  20. Trunk structural traits explain habitat use of a tree-dwelling spider (Selenopidae) in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Bonilla, German Antonio; Salomão, Adriana Trevizoli; Vasconcellos-Neto, João

    2017-11-01

    Habitat selection by spiders may be strongly influenced by biotic, climatic, and physical factors. However, it has been shown that the selection of habitats by generalist predators (like spiders) is regulated more by the physical structure of the habitat than by prey availability. Yet, the preferences of spiders in relation to plants or plant traits remain poorly explored. In a remnant of the Atlantic forest in Brazil, the spider Selenops cocheleti is frequently detected on the trunks of plants from the Myrtaceae family. Here, we investigated quantitatively and experimentally whether the colonization of trees by S. cocheleti is related to plant species or the presence of specific structures on trunks. We found that S. cocheleti preferentially occurred on plants of the family Myrtaceae. This spider was also strongly associated with trees that have smooth trunks and/or exfoliating bark. Non-Myrtaceae plants that were occupied by this species have exfoliating bark (e.g., Piptadenia gonoacantha) or deep fissures on the trunk (e.g., the exotic species Pinus elliottii). Our results indicate that the selection of host plants by S. cocheleti is not species-specific, but based on the structural characteristics of plants. Trunks with exfoliating bark may benefit spiders by providing shelter against predators and harsh climatic conditions. Smooth surfaces might allow rapid movements, facilitating both attacks on preys and escape from predators. Our study emphasizes the importance of the physical structure of the habitat on spider's distribution. Future studies investigating how specific plant characteristics influence prey acquisition and predator avoidance would improve our understanding of habitat selection by these animals.

  1. Gauge invariant sub-structures of tree-level double-emission exact QCD spin amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hameren, A

    2009-01-01

    In this note we discuss possible separations of exact, massive, tree-level spin amplitudes into gauge invariant parts. We concentrate our attention on processes involving two quarks entering a color- neutral current and, thanks to the QCD interactions, two extra external gluons. We will search for forms compatible with parton shower languages, without applying approximations or restrictions on phase space regions. Special emphasis will be put on the isolation of parts necessary for the construction of evolution kernels for individual splittings and to some degree for the running coupling constant as well. Our aim is to better understand the environment necessary to optimally match hard matrix elements with partons shower algorithms. To avoid complications and ambiguities related to regularization schemes, we ignore, at this point, virtual corrections. Our representation is quite universal: any color-neutral current can be used, in particular our approach is not restricted to vector currents only.

  2. Climate-driven extinctions shape the phylogenetic structure of temperate tree floras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Borchsenius, Finn; Plum, Christoffer M; Ordonez, Alejandro; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-03-01

    When taxa go extinct, unique evolutionary history is lost. If extinction is selective, and the intrinsic vulnerabilities of taxa show phylogenetic signal, more evolutionary history may be lost than expected under random extinction. Under what conditions this occurs is insufficiently known. We show that late Cenozoic climate change induced phylogenetically selective regional extinction of northern temperate trees because of phylogenetic signal in cold tolerance, leading to significantly and substantially larger than random losses of phylogenetic diversity (PD). The surviving floras in regions that experienced stronger extinction are phylogenetically more clustered, indicating that non-random losses of PD are of increasing concern with increasing extinction severity. Using simulations, we show that a simple threshold model of survival given a physiological trait with phylogenetic signal reproduces our findings. Our results send a strong warning that we may expect future assemblages to be phylogenetically and possibly functionally depauperate if anthropogenic climate change affects taxa similarly. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Songs to syntax: the linguistics of birdsong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Beckers, Gabriel J L; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2011-03-01

    Unlike our primate cousins, many species of bird share with humans a capacity for vocal learning, a crucial factor in speech acquisition. There are striking behavioural, neural and genetic similarities between auditory-vocal learning in birds and human infants. Recently, the linguistic parallels between birdsong and spoken language have begun to be investigated. Although both birdsong and human language are hierarchically organized according to particular syntactic constraints, birdsong structure is best characterized as 'phonological syntax', resembling aspects of human sound structure. Crucially, birdsong lacks semantics and words. Formal language and linguistic analysis remains essential for the proper characterization of birdsong as a model system for human speech and language, and for the study of the brain and cognition evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of remnant trees in carbon sequestration, vegetation structure and tree diversity of early succession regrowing fallows in eastern Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuni Sanchez, Aida; Lindsell, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Remnant tree presence affects forest recovery after slash-and-burn agriculture. However, little is known about its effect on above-ground carbon stocks, especially in Africa. We focused our study on Sierra Leone, part of the Upper Guinean forests, an important centre of endemism threatened...

  5. BEASTling: A software tool for linguistic phylogenetics using BEAST 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Maurits

    Full Text Available We present a new open source software tool called BEASTling, designed to simplify the preparation of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of linguistic data using the BEAST 2 platform. BEASTling transforms comparatively short and human-readable configuration files into the XML files used by BEAST to specify analyses. By taking advantage of Creative Commons-licensed data from the Glottolog language catalog, BEASTling allows the user to conveniently filter datasets using names for recognised language families, to impose monophyly constraints so that inferred language trees are backward compatible with Glottolog classifications, or to assign geographic location data to languages for phylogeographic analyses. Support for the emerging cross-linguistic linked data format (CLDF permits easy incorporation of data published in cross-linguistic linked databases into analyses. BEASTling is intended to make the power of Bayesian analysis more accessible to historical linguists without strong programming backgrounds, in the hopes of encouraging communication and collaboration between those developing computational models of language evolution (who are typically not linguists and relevant domain experts.

  6. BEASTling: A software tool for linguistic phylogenetics using BEAST 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Robert; Kaiping, Gereon A.; Atkinson, Quentin D.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new open source software tool called BEASTling, designed to simplify the preparation of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of linguistic data using the BEAST 2 platform. BEASTling transforms comparatively short and human-readable configuration files into the XML files used by BEAST to specify analyses. By taking advantage of Creative Commons-licensed data from the Glottolog language catalog, BEASTling allows the user to conveniently filter datasets using names for recognised language families, to impose monophyly constraints so that inferred language trees are backward compatible with Glottolog classifications, or to assign geographic location data to languages for phylogeographic analyses. Support for the emerging cross-linguistic linked data format (CLDF) permits easy incorporation of data published in cross-linguistic linked databases into analyses. BEASTling is intended to make the power of Bayesian analysis more accessible to historical linguists without strong programming backgrounds, in the hopes of encouraging communication and collaboration between those developing computational models of language evolution (who are typically not linguists) and relevant domain experts. PMID:28796784

  7. Linguistic aspects of eponymic professional endocrinologic terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Bytsko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special linguistic researches of terminological units of different branches of medicine allow analyzing in details the ways of creating the systems of clinical terminology from different aspects: historical, scientific, cultural, linguistic and semantic. There is a wide area of terminology related to the clinical and experimental endocrino­logy within general medical terminological system. The purpose of the study: to demonstrate the structure of endocrine medical terms — eponyms through the prism of systematization of methodological researches on eponymic vocabulary. Materials and methods. The actual material received as a result of a total choice of eponyms (there were 296 terms from the “Reference dictionary for endocrinologist”, which was composed by the scientists of V. Danilevsky Institute of Endocrine Pathology Problems and Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate education — A.V. Kozakov, N.A. Kravchun, I.M. Ilyina, M.I. Zubko, O.A. Goncharova, I.V. Cherniavska has 10,000 endocrine terms, the authors successfully streamlined medical terms of the clinical and experimental endocrinology into the vocabulary. The method of total choice of terms from professional literature, the descriptive method and distributive method were used in the study that allowed distinguishing lexical and semantic features of eponymic terms in the branch of endocrinology. Results. The obtained results point out to the modernity of studies in the field of clinical and experimental endocrinology, which is due to the fact that this is the oldest terminology, by the example of which it is possible to trace the ways of formation, development and improvement of terms, the realization of semantic processes, certain trends, ways and means of word formation. Conclusions. The results of the research on the above mentioned sublanguage of clinical medicine at the level of linguistic observations of the functio­ning in dictionaries and scientific works will

  8. Linguistics and the Literary Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Madeleine

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the opposing viewpoints of the two most influential linguists of this century--Saussure and Chomsky--suggesting that while both are interested in form as opposed to substance, Saussure sees linguistics as a branch of semiotics and Chomsky sees it as part of cognitive psychology. Evaluates the relevance of these two viewpoints to the…

  9. New Conceptualizations of Linguistic Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    This state-of-the art paper focuses on the issue of linguistic giftedness, somewhat neglected in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature, attempting to reconceptualize, expand and update this concept in response to latest developments in the fields of psychology, linguistics and neurology. It first discusses contemporary perspectives on…

  10. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  11. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  12. Linguistics and the TEFL Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Bruce

    This paper asserts the "unquestionable" relevance of linguistic insights in the training of and subsequent use by teachers of English as a foreign language. Although the author agrees with Chomsky's view that linguistics has nothing to offer the teacher in the form of specific proposals for language teaching methodology, he argues that linguistics…

  13. Machine Learning and Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Vajjala, Sowmya

    2018-01-01

    This entry introduces the topic of machine learning and provides an overview of its relevance for applied linguistics and language learning. The discussion will focus on giving an introduction to the methods and applications of machine learning in applied linguistics, and will provide references for further study.

  14. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  15. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leki, Ilona

    2000-01-01

    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  16. Literacy in Somali: Linguistic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Hared, Mohamed

    1991-01-01

    Linguistic consequences of literacy in Somalia are examined in a review of the literature and through a study of five dimensions of variation among Somali registers and the expansion of linguistic variation in Somali resulting from the introduction of written registers. (36 references) (LB)

  17. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Бондаренко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  18. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  19. Tree Species Composition and Structure near Road Borders in the Laurel Forest of Anaga (Tenerife – Islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Negrín

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the main causes of species extinction. Closely linked to urbanization are road systems, which are a source of biotic and abiotic effects on the surrounding landscape. The continued existence of these corridors results in enormous human activity (Forman & Alexander, 1998. In particular, roads sharply define and fragment forest ecosystems leading to changes in plant species composition and vegetation structure from road border to the surrounding interior. This paper assesses border effects on tree species richness and composition in the laurel forest of Anaga, Tenerife, Spain. Effects of anthropogenic corridors on vegetation differed among the study sites. Multivariate analysis revealed that species composition is more related to the sampling site than to the effect of the corridor, while for density, significant differences were found between the road border and forest interior but not as a regular pattern. This suggests that main corridor disturbances regarding tree basal area is limited to the immediate road edge in the laurel forest, while for species composition, no significant differences were found.

  20. The sweet side of global change-dynamic responses of non-structural carbohydrates to drought, elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization in tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weibin; Hartmann, Henrik; Adams, Henry D; Zhang, Hongxia; Jin, Changjie; Zhao, Chuanyan; Guan, Dexin; Wang, Anzhi; Yuan, Fenghui; Wu, Jiabing

    2018-06-11

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) play a central role in plant functioning as energy carriers and building blocks for primary and secondary metabolism. Many studies have investigated how environmental and anthropogenic changes, like increasingly frequent and severe drought episodes, elevated CO2 and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, influence NSC concentrations in individual trees. However, this wealth of data has not been analyzed yet to identify general trends using a common statistical framework. A thorough understanding of tree responses to global change is required for making realistic predictions of vegetation dynamics. Here we compiled data from 57 experimental studies on 71 tree species and conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate general responses of stored soluble sugars, starch and total NSC (soluble sugars + starch) concentrations in different tree organs (foliage, above-ground wood and roots) to drought, elevated CO2 and N deposition. We found that drought significantly decreased total NSC in roots (-17.3%), but not in foliage and above-ground woody tissues (bole, branch, stem and/or twig). Elevated CO2 significantly increased total NSC in foliage (+26.2%) and roots (+12.8%), but not in above-ground wood. By contrast, total NSC significantly decreased in roots (-17.9%), increased in above-ground wood (+6.1%), but was unaffected in foliage from N fertilization. In addition, the response of NSC to three global change drivers was strongly affected by tree taxonomic type, leaf habit, tree age and treatment intensity. Our results pave the way for a better understanding of general tree function responses to drought, elevated CO2 and N fertilization. The existing data also reveal that more long-term studies on mature trees that allow testing interactions between these factors are urgently needed to provide a basis for forecasting tree responses to environmental change at the global scale.

  1. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  2. The linguistic repudiation of Wundt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, B; Clarke, D D

    1998-08-01

    Wilhelm Wundt's influence on the development of linguistics and psychology was pervasive. The foundations for this web of influence on the sciences of mind and language were laid down in Wundt's own research program, which was quite different from other attempts at founding a new psychology, as it was deeply rooted in German philosophy. This resulted in certain gaps in Wundt's conception of mind and language. These gaps provoked a double repudiation of Wundt's theories, by linguists and psychologists. The psychological repudiation has been studied by historians of psychology, and the linguistic repudiation has been studied by historians of linguistics. The intent of this article is to bring the linguistic repudiation to the attention of historians of psychology, especially the one outlined by two important figures in the history of psychology: Karl Buhler and George Mead.

  3. The linguistically aware teacher and the teacher-aware linguist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue

    2013-07-01

    This review evaluates issues of teacher linguistic knowledge relating to their work with children with speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). Information is from Ellis and McCartney [(2011a). Applied linguistics and primary school teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], a state-of-the-art text deriving from a British Association of Applied Linguistics/Cambridge University Press expert seminar series that details: linguistic research underpinning primary school curricula and pedagogy; the form of linguistic knowledge useful for teachers supporting children with SLCD in partnership with speech and language therapists; and how and when teachers acquire and learn to apply such knowledge. Critical analysis of the options presented for teacher learning indicate that policy enjoinders now include linguistic application as an expected part of teachers' professional knowledge, for all children including those with SLCD, but there is a large unmet learning need. It is concluded that there is a role for clinical linguists to disseminate useable knowledge to teachers in an accessible format. Ways of achieving this are considered.

  4. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language. This article is part of the themed issue ‘New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences’. PMID:27872370

  5. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny; Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-05

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Vegetation Structure, Tree Volume and Biomass Estimation using Terrestrial Laser Scanning Remote Sensing: A Case Study of the Mangrove Forests in the Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forests are being threatened by accelerated climate change, sea level rise and coastal projects. Carbon/above ground biomass (AGB) losses due to natural or human intervention can affect global warming. Thus, it is important to monitor AGB fluctuations in mangrove forests similar to those inhabiting the Everglades National Park (ENP). Tree volume and tree wood specific density are two important measurements for the estimation of AGB (mass = volume * density). Wood specific density is acquired in the laboratory by analyzing stem cores acquired in the field. However, tree volume is a challenging task because trees resemble tapered surfaces. The majority of published studies estimate tree volume and biomass using allometric equations, which describe the size, shape, volume or AGB of a given population of trees. However, these equations can be extremely general and might not give a representative value of volume or AGB for a specific tree species. In order to have precise biomass estimations, other methodologies for tree volume estimation are needed. To overcome this problem, we use a state-of-the-art remote sensing tool known as ground-based LiDAR a.k.a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), which can be used to precisely measure vegetation structure and tree volume from its 3-D point cloud. We surveyed three mangrove communities: (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncuria racemosa and Avicennia germinans) in three different sites along Shark River Slough (SRS), which is the primary source of water to the ENP. Our sites included: small-, intermediate- and tall- size mangroves. Our ground measurements included both: traditional forestry surveys and TLS surveys for tree attributes (tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH)) comparison. These attributes are used as input to allometric equations for the estimation of tree volume and AGB. A total of 25 scans were collected in 2011 with a Leica ScanStation C10 TLS. The 3-D point cloud acquired from the TLS data revealed that

  7. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of a Threatened African Tree Species, Milicia excelsa, Using Nuclear Micro satellites DNA Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouinsavi, Ch.; Sokpon, N.; Ouinsavi, Ch.; Khasa, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    To accurately estimate the genetic diversity and population structure for improved conservation planning of Milicia excelsa tree, 212 individuals from twelve population samples covering the species' range in Benin were surveyed at seven specific micro satellite DNA loci. All loci were variable, with the mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 5.86 to 7.69. Considerable genetic variability was detected for all populations at the seven loci (AR=4.60; HE=0.811). Moderate but statistically significant genetic differentiation was found among populations considering both FST (0.112) and RST (0.342). All of the populations showed heterozygosity deficits in test of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and significantly positive FIS values due to inbreeding occurring in the species. Pairwise FST values were positively and significantly correlated with geographical distances (r=0.432; P=.007, Mantel's test) indicating that populations are differentiated by isolation by distance. Bayesian analysis of population structure showed division of the genetic variation into four clusters revealing the existence of heterogeneity in population genetic structure. Altogether, these results indicate that genetic variation in Milicia excelsa is geographically structured. Information gained from this study also emphasized the need for in situ conservation of the relict populations and establishment of gene flow corridors through agroforestry systems for interconnecting these remnant populations.

  9. Microbial community structure in the gut of the New Zealand insect Auckland tree weta (Hemideina thoracica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, David W; Dsouza, Melissa; Biswas, Kristi; Ward, Darren F; Deines, Peter; Taylor, Michael W

    2015-05-01

    The endemic New Zealand weta is an enigmatic insect. Although the insect is well known by its distinctive name, considerable size, and morphology, many basic aspects of weta biology remain unknown. Here, we employed cultivation-independent enumeration techniques and rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the gut microbiota of the Auckland tree weta (Hemideina thoracica). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation performed on different sections of the gut revealed a bacterial community of fluctuating density, while rRNA gene-targeted amplicon pyrosequencing revealed the presence of a microbial community containing high bacterial diversity, but an apparent absence of archaea. Bacteria were further studied using full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, with statistical testing of bacterial community membership against publicly available termite- and cockroach-derived sequences, revealing that the weta gut microbiota is similar to that of cockroaches. These data represent the first analysis of the weta microbiota and provide initial insights into the potential function of these microorganisms.

  10. Effect of Tree Phenology on LiDAR Measurement of Mediterranean Forest Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Simonson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Retrieval of forest biophysical properties using airborne LiDAR is known to differ between leaf-on and leaf-off states of deciduous trees, but much less is understood about the within-season effects of leafing phenology. Here, we compare two LiDAR surveys separated by just six weeks in spring, in order to assess whether LiDAR variables were influenced by canopy changes in Mediterranean mixed-oak woodlands at this time of year. Maximum and, to a slightly lesser extent, mean heights were consistently measured, whether for the evergreen cork oak (Quercus suber or semi-deciduous Algerian oak (Q. canariensis woodlands. Estimates of the standard deviation and skewness of height differed more strongly, especially for Algerian oaks which experienced considerable leaf expansion in the time period covered. Our demonstration of which variables are more or less affected by spring-time leafing phenology has important implications for analyses of both canopy and sub-canopy vegetation layers from LiDAR surveys.

  11. Extending Correlation Filter-Based Visual Tracking by Tree-Structured Ensemble and Spatial Windowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Erhan; Ozkan, Huseyin; Alatan, A Aydin

    2017-11-01

    Correlation filters have been successfully used in visual tracking due to their modeling power and computational efficiency. However, the state-of-the-art correlation filter-based (CFB) tracking algorithms tend to quickly discard the previous poses of the target, since they consider only a single filter in their models. On the contrary, our approach is to register multiple CFB trackers for previous poses and exploit the registered knowledge when an appearance change occurs. To this end, we propose a novel tracking algorithm [of complexity O(D) ] based on a large ensemble of CFB trackers. The ensemble [of size O(2 D ) ] is organized over a binary tree (depth D ), and learns the target appearance subspaces such that each constituent tracker becomes an expert of a certain appearance. During tracking, the proposed algorithm combines only the appearance-aware relevant experts to produce boosted tracking decisions. Additionally, we propose a versatile spatial windowing technique to enhance the individual expert trackers. For this purpose, spatial windows are learned for target objects as well as the correlation filters and then the windowed regions are processed for more robust correlations. In our extensive experiments on benchmark datasets, we achieve a substantial performance increase by using the proposed tracking algorithm together with the spatial windowing.

  12. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-12-12

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a 'grand synthesis' is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely 'cultural' fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted.

  13. Assessing the Effects of the Urban Forest Restoration Effort of MillionTreesNYC on the Structure and Functioning of New York City Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Timon McPhearson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current forest restoration practices for New York City’s (NYC MillionTreesNYC Initiative on public parkland include site preparation with extensive invasive species removal and tree and shrub planting with the goal of creating new multi-layered forests. We have launched a long-term investigation of these sites in order to understand the primary physical, chemical, and biological responses of urban ecosystems to MillionTreesNYC forest restoration practices. This research will examine high and low diversity tree and understory planting combinations in permanent experimental forest restoration plots across NYC. The study assesses how the interactions between soil heterogeneity, plant population dynamics, and forest restoration management strategies drive urban forest ecosystem structure and functioning. Working in collaboration with the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks and the MillionTreesNYC tree planting campaign, we are examining different restoration strategies to assess how restoration practices affect the ecological development trajectories of newly established forests in NYC.

  14. Genre analysis of linguistics research introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Porras

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of exploring genre analysis has been a trend in Applied Linguistics, not only for its interesting factor, but also because of its pedagogical implications. This study aimed to determine the overall structure, specifically the presence and conformity of moves and steps of the research introductions in the field of Linguistics. Twelve (12 available research introductions were analyzed using Create-A-Research-Space (CARS model. The findings revealed that moves and steps across the research introductions are present. Majority of the research introductions conformed to the CARS model, but did not necessarily follow the suggested sequence. Results imply that teachers of research writing should acknowledge and introduce the CARS model as a basis for teaching the method of writing research introductions effectively.

  15. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  16. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  17. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLintunen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% towards northern Europe and 38% towards southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased towards north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e. glucose and fructose high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased towards the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble

  18. MEDITERRANEAN FOREST TREE DECLINE IN ITALY: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DROUGHT, POLLUTANTS AND THE WAX STRUCTURE OF LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PAOLETTI

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available After presenting the situation of forest decline in Italy and analyzing the factors that play a contributing role, tbis paper studies the response of the epicuticular wax structures and the stomata in ten broadleaf species and one conifer to fog-like treatments with acids andlor surfactants and to severe water stress. The main results are that wax structure alterations vary in intensity in the different species studied and that the microstructural alterations observed in field conditions cannot be attributed only to severe drought. since sample trccs put through water stress simulations do nol differ significantly from controls. In the artificial surfactant treatment, a positive relationship between structural damage to tbe stomata and transpiration suggests possible synergies between the effects of drought and those of pollutants in inducing stress conditions in Mediterranean vegetation.

  19. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  20. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between linguistics and second language teaching has always been a controversial one. Many linguists have argued that linguistics has nothing to say to the teacher. Sampson (1980, p.10), for example, says: ·"1 do not believe that linguistics has any contribution to make to the teaching of English or the.

  1. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. Sources of Support. The Department of General Linguistics acknowledges the financial support provided by the Fonds ...

  2. Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Krek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

  3. Micronesian mangrove forest structure and tree responses to a severe typhoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Boone Kauffman; Thomas G. Cole

    2010-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are common disturbances that have strong effects on mangrove composition and structure. Because there are numerous ecosystem services provided by mangroves, it is important to understand their adaptations and responses to these climatic events. In April 2004, Typhoon Sudal, a category 3-4 cyclone, passed over the state of Yap, Federated States of...

  4. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Gesture Modelling for Linguistic Purposes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of sign languages attempts to create a coherent model that binds the expressive nature of signs conveyed in gestures to a linguistic framework. Gesture modelling offers an alternative that provides device independence, scalability...

  8. Accounting for selection bias in species distribution models: An econometric approach on forested trees based on structural modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Jean-Sauveur; Guillemot, Joannès; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K.; Doyen, Luc; Leadley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to study and predict the outcome of global change on species. In human dominated ecosystems the presence of a given species is the result of both its ecological suitability and human footprint on nature such as land use choices. Land use choices may thus be responsible for a selection bias in the presence/absence data used in SDM calibration. We present a structural modelling approach (i.e. based on structural equation modelling) that accounts for this selection bias. The new structural species distribution model (SSDM) estimates simultaneously land use choices and species responses to bioclimatic variables. A land use equation based on an econometric model of landowner choices was joined to an equation of species response to bioclimatic variables. SSDM allows the residuals of both equations to be dependent, taking into account the possibility of shared omitted variables and measurement errors. We provide a general description of the statistical theory and a set of application on forested trees over France using databases of climate and forest inventory at different spatial resolution (from 2km to 8 km). We also compared the output of the SSDM with outputs of a classical SDM in term of bioclimatic response curves and potential distribution under current climate. According to the species and the spatial resolution of the calibration dataset, shapes of bioclimatic response curves the modelled species distribution maps differed markedly between the SSDM and classical SDMs. The magnitude and directions of these differences were dependent on the correlations between the errors from both equations and were highest for higher spatial resolutions. A first conclusion is that the use of classical SDMs can potentially lead to strong miss-estimation of the actual and future probability of presence modelled. Beyond this selection bias, the SSDM we propose represents a crucial step to account for economic constraints on tree

  9. Linguistic Characteristics of Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2010-01-01

    Advertising language takes form under the influence of linguistics,psychology and sociology,etc,and its way of choosing words and building sentences are quite different from normal English.And as a practical language,advertising English has its specific functions,and it has been distinguished from normal English as an independent language,and it has plentiful values.This paper aims to discuss some linguistic characteristics of advertising English.

  10. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  11. Copyright Essentials for Linguists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Newman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses copyright issues that linguists confront in their capacity as users and creators of scholarly work. It is organized in a simple question-answer format. Questions 1-3 present the basics of U.S. copyright law, including the fundamental nature of copyright as a bundle of intellectual property rights and the role of registration. Questions 4-5 treat issues of copyright notice. Questions 6-8 explain licenses, especially Creative Commons licenses, and the function of an Author's Addendum. Questions 9-10 look at copyright in the context of online open access publishing. Question 11 discusses the concept of Fair Use. Question 12 analyzes the problem of what are called Orphan Works. Questions 13-19 explore issues of copyright ownership, including Work for Hire, joint authorship, and attribution. Questions 20-22 deal with copyright with specific reference to fieldwork situations and indigenous rights. The paper concludes with a brief presentation of key sources for further study and clarification.

  12. The new linguistic order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Fishman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation phenomenon that we are currently seeing has lead to major linguistic changes on a worldwide scale. English has become the leading international language, in economic and political spheres, and is becoming the language of high society and of the young. At the same time, however, regional languages are also making considerable headway, thanks to new social interaction and economic backing from their governments. In turn, and as a result of these two trends, there is impetus for feelings of belonging to local communities which see their language as a sign of their own authenticity, one that has to be defended against the phenomena of globalisation and regionalisation. We are thus heading towards a multilingual society, in which each language has its own, distinct social functions, even though it is inevitable that there will be conflict between the languages that come into contact. In this scenario, the author predicts a loss of hegemony for English, in favour of regional languages, and the future extinction of the least spoken minority languages.

  13. Computational Linguistics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Piasecki, Maciej; Jassem, Krzysztof; Fuglewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Google over the recent decade has required a specific method of man-machine communication: human query should be short, whereas the machine answer may take a form of a wide range of documents. This type of communication has triggered a rapid development in the domain of Information Extraction, aimed at providing the asker with a  more precise information. The recent success of intelligent personal assistants supporting users in searching or even extracting information and answers from large collections of electronic documents signals the onset of a new era in man-machine communication – we shall soon explain to our small devices what we need to know and expect valuable answers quickly and automatically delivered. The progress of man-machine communication is accompanied by growth in the significance of applied Computational Linguistics – we need machines to understand much more from the language we speak naturally than it is the case of up-to-date search systems. Moreover, w...

  14. Structure of a shear-thickening polysaccharide extracted from the New Zealand black tree fern, Cyathea medullaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, May S M; Matia-Merino, Lara; Carnachan, Susan M; Sims, Ian M; Goh, Kelvin K T

    2014-09-01

    A shear-thickening water-soluble polysaccharide was purified from mucilage extracted from the fronds of the New Zealand black tree fern (Cyathea medullaris or 'mamaku' in Māori) and its structure characterised. Constituent sugar analysis by three complementary methods, combined with linkage analysis (of carboxyl reduced samples) and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) revealed a glucuronomannan comprising a backbone of 4-linked methylesterified glucopyranosyl uronic acid and 2-linked mannopyranosyl residues, branched at O-3 of 45% and at both O-3 and O-4 of 53% of the mannopyranosyl residues with side chains likely comprising terminal xylopyranosyl, terminal galactopyranosyl, non-methylesterified terminal glucopyranosyl uronic acid and 3-linked glucopyranosyl uronic acid residues. The weight-average molecular weight of the purified polysaccharide was ∼1.9×10(6) Da as determined by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). The distinctive rheological properties of this polysaccharide are discussed in relation to its structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  16. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  17. Mitered fractal trees: constructions and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, T.; Verhoeff, K.; Bosch, R.; McKenna, D.; Sarhangi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Tree-like structures, that is, branching structures without cycles, are attractive for artful expression. Especially interesting are fractal trees, where each subtree is a scaled and possibly otherwise transformed version of the entire tree. Such trees can be rendered in 3D by using beams with a

  18. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

  19. Structural Analysis Of CD59 Of Chinese Tree Shrew: A New Reference Molecule For Human Immune System Specific CD59 Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Subhamay; Kumari, Leena; Panda, Santamay

    2017-11-17

    Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) bear several characteristics that are considered to be very crucial for utilizing in animal experimental models in biomedical research. Subsequent to the identification of key aspects and signaling pathways in nervous and immune systems, it is revealed that tree shrews acquires shared common as well as unique characteristics, and hence offers a genetic basis for employing this animal as a prospective model for biomedical research. CD59 glycoprotein, commonly referred to as MAC-inhibitory protein (MAC-IP), membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL), or protectin, is encoded by the CD59 gene in human beings. It is the member of the LY6/uPAR/alpha-neurotoxin protein family. With this initial point the objective of this study was to determine a comparative composite based structure of CD59 of Chinese tree shrew. The additional objective of this study was to examine the distribution of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis and electrostatic potential analysis with the assistance of several bioinformatical analytical tools. CD59 Amino acid sequence of Chinese tree shrew collected from the online database system of National Centre for Biotechnology Information. SignalP 4.0 online server was employed for detection of signal peptide instance within the protein sequence of CD59. Molecular model structure of CD59 protein was generated by the Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement (I-TASSER) suite. The confirmation for three-dimensional structural model was evaluated by structure validation tools. Location of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, and hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis was performed with the help of Chimera tool. Electrostatic potential analysis was carried out with the adaptive Poisson

  20. Environmental variables and tree population structures in deciduous forests of central Brazil with different levels of logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Luis Mascia Vieira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Population structures of six tree species in three fragments of intact seasonal deciduous forest and three fragments disturbed by logging were studied in the northeastern Goiás. Forty random 400 m² plots were allocated in each fragment to survey plant population structures, number of stumps, cattle feces, burnt logs, and canopy openness. Soil cover by life forms was estimated in 1m² sub-plots. Lianas were abundant in intermediately logged fragments and invasive herbs in the most disturbed fragment. Cattle avoided dense herbaceous strata, such as liana tangles. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica and Swartzia multijuga trees occurred at very low densities in all the fragments and their seedlings were practically absent, which might endanger their future populations in these fragments. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Astronium fraxinifolium, the most logged species, had high density of seedlings in all the fragments. However, the highest density of saplings and juvenile individuals occurred in the most disturbed fragment.As estruturas populacionais de seis espécies de árvores foram estudadas em três fragmentos de floresta estacional decidual intactos e três fragmentos impactados pela exploração seletiva de madeira no nordeste goiano. Quarenta parcelas de 400m² foram estabelecidas em cada fragmento para a amostragem de populações, número de tocos, fezes de gado, troncos queimados e abertura de dossel. A cobertura do solo por formas de vida foi estimada em sub-parcelas de 1m². Lianas foram mais abundantes em fragmentos com perturbação intermediária, enquanto herbáceas invasoras no fragmento mais perturbado. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica e Swartzia multijuga ocorreram em densidades muito baixas em todos os fragmentos e plântulas foram praticamente ausentes, o que pode ameaçar o futuro de suas populações. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa e Astronium fraxinifolium, as espécies mais

  1. Perturbed gradient flow trees and a∞-algebra structures in morse cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Mescher, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book elaborates on an idea put forward by M. Abouzaid on equipping the Morse cochain complex of a smooth Morse function on a closed oriented manifold with the structure of an A∞-algebra by means of perturbed gradient flow trajectories. This approach is a variation on K. Fukaya’s definition of Morse-A∞-categories for closed oriented manifolds involving families of Morse functions. To make A∞-structures in Morse theory accessible to a broader audience, this book provides a coherent and detailed treatment of Abouzaid’s approach, including a discussion of all relevant analytic notions and results, requiring only a basic grasp of Morse theory. In particular, no advanced algebra skills are required, and the perturbation theory for Morse trajectories is completely self-contained. In addition to its relevance for finite-dimensional Morse homology, this book may be used as a preparation for the study of Fukaya categories in symplectic geometry. It will be of interest to researchers in mathematics (geome...

  2. A Tree-Structured List in a Mathematical Series Text from Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Christine

    The written culture of the Ancient Near East, whose history covers more than three millennia (from the beginning of the third millennium to the end of the first millennium BCE), underwent profound transformations over the centuries and showed many faces according to the region of the vast territory in which it developed. Yet despite the diversity of contexts in which they worked, the scholars of Mesopotamia and neighboring regions maintained and consistently cultivated a true `art of lists', in the fields of mathematics, lexicography, astrology, astronomy, medicine, law and accounting. The study of the writing techniques particular to lists represents therefore an important issue for the understanding of the intellectual history of the Ancient Near East. In this chapter, I consider extreme cases of list structures, and to do this I have chosen very long lists, most items of which are not semantically autonomous. More specifically, I shall study one of the most abstract and concise lists that have come down to us. It belongs to a series, of which one tablet is kept in the Oriental Institute in Chicago (no. A 24194). The study of this case will allow to set forth some of the writing techniques that were particularly developed in the series. Such a study of the structures of the mathematical texts could benefit other areas in Assyriology.

  3. A semi-automatic method for extracting thin line structures in images as rooted tree network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazzini, Jacopo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Soille, Pierre [EC - JRC

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of semi-automatic extraction of line networks in digital images - e.g., road or hydrographic networks in satellite images, blood vessels in medical images, robust. For that purpose, we improve a generic method derived from morphological and hydrological concepts and consisting in minimum cost path estimation and flow simulation. While this approach fully exploits the local contrast and shape of the network, as well as its arborescent nature, we further incorporate local directional information about the structures in the image. Namely, an appropriate anisotropic metric is designed by using both the characteristic features of the target network and the eigen-decomposition of the gradient structure tensor of the image. Following, the geodesic propagation from a given seed with this metric is combined with hydrological operators for overland flow simulation to extract the line network. The algorithm is demonstrated for the extraction of blood vessels in a retina image and of a river network in a satellite image.

  4. Modeling and analysis of horizontal structure of a mixed tree stands (on example of sample plots in the «Bastak» nature reserve in the Middle Amur river area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kolobov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the research model and real data spatial distribution of trees in single-species, ages and mixed stands are studied. Modeling of the horizontal structure of the stand was based on a computer simulation model. Investigation of the horizontal structure of the stand allows drawing of conclusions about the processes of intraspecific and interspecific competition. It is shown that the model used to generate spatial data model reflects the basic mechanisms of stacked-mosaic structure of the stand, which is observed in natural communities. It allows future use of this model to study the characteristics of the formation of the spatial structure of mixed forest communities, developing under the influence of internal (competition and external (logging, windfalls, herbivores, etc. factors. Statistical analysis of the tree spatial distribution for shade-tolerant and light-loving species relative to each other showed that, on average, around an arbitrarily chosen shade-tolerant tree species, there is an area within which the opportunity to meet the tree light-loving species is less than it would be under their random placement. Around an arbitrarily chosen «large» tree of shade-tolerant species there is an area within which the opportunity to meet the «small» or «medium» light-loving tree species is less than would have been at their random placement. It is shown that the mutual arrangement of «large» light-loving trees and «small», «medium» shade-tolerant trees is no different from a random allocation. As a result of competitive processes of spatial arrangement for light-loving tree species is determined by the placement of shade-tolerant trees. Location of light-loving trees does not affect the location of shade-tolerant trees. The relative placement of different types of shade-tolerant trees, especially spruce, fir and pine, are independent of each other.

  5. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva

    2014-04-01

    phenomena and brain lateralization. More precisely, on the basis of substantial neurolinguistic research it is argued that novel speech is represented in the left hemisphere, whereas formulaic speech is modulated by a subcortical right hemisphere circuit. Within the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013 it is argued that there is a similar correlation between two domains of grammar, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar: Aphasic patients and other persons with left hemisphere damage appear to draw mainly on linguistic expressions within the domain of Thetical Grammar; persons with right hemisphere damage, by contrast, use primarily Sentence Grammar as their main domain of structuring speech (Heine et al. 2014. While arriving at similar conclusions, there are a few differences between these two frameworks. In particular, the dual process model relies on the distinction between novel and formulaic speech as its main parameter, while in the framework of Discourse Grammar it is distinctions in the functions and the syntactic and prosodic independence of linguistic units that are most central. The present paper argues that such differences can be accounted for with reference to the differential role played by the situation of discourse in linguistic communication.

  6. Soil microbial community structure and diversity are largely influenced by soil pH and nutrient quality in 78-year-old tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Guo, Zhiying; Chen, Chengrong; Jia, Zhongjun

    2017-04-01

    Forest plantations have been recognised as a key strategy management tool for stocking carbon (C) in soils, thereby contributing to climate warming mitigation. However, long-term ecological consequences of anthropogenic forest plantations on the community structure and diversity of soil microorganisms and the underlying mechanisms in determining these patterns are poorly understood. In this study, we selected 78-year-old tree plantations that included three coniferous tree species (i.e. slash pine, hoop pine and kauri pine) and a eucalypt species in subtropical Australia. We investigated the patterns of community structure, and the diversity of soil bacteria and eukaryotes by using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. We also measured the potential methane oxidation capacity under different tree species. The results showed that slash pine and Eucalyptus significantly increased the dominant taxa of bacterial Acidobacteria and the dominant taxa of eukaryotic Ascomycota, and formed clusters of soil bacterial and eukaryotic communities, which were clearly different from the clusters under hoop pine and kauri pine. Soil pH and nutrient quality indicators such as C : nitrogen (N) and extractable organic C : extractable organic N were key factors in determining the patterns of soil bacterial and eukaryotic communities between the different tree species treatments. Slash pine and Eucalyptus had significantly lower soil bacterial and eukaryotic operational taxonomical unit numbers and lower diversity indices than kauri pine and hoop pine. A key factor limitation hypothesis was introduced, which gives a reasonable explanation for lower diversity indices under slash pine and Eucalyptus. In addition, slash pine and Eucalyptus had a higher soil methane oxidation capacity than the other tree species. These results suggest that significant changes in soil microbial communities may occur in response to chronic disturbance by tree plantations, and highlight

  7. Dominant Tree Species and Soil Type Affect the Fungal Community Structure in a Boreal Peatland Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhonen, Eeva; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Tuovila, Hanna; Chen, Hongxin; Oghenekaro, Abbot O.; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kohler, Annegret; Kasanen, Risto; Vasander, Harri; Asiegbu, Fred O.

    2016-01-01

    Boreal peatlands play a crucial role in global carbon cycling, acting as an important carbon reservoir. However, little information is available on how peatland microbial communities are influenced by natural variability or human-induced disturbances. In this study, we have investigated the fungal diversity and community structure of both the organic soil layer and buried wood in boreal forest soils using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We have also compared the fungal communities during the primary colonization of wood with those of the surrounding soils. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that the community composition significantly differed between soil types (P peatlands; it further provides a baseline for the investigation of the dynamics of the fungal community in the boreal peatlands. PMID:26896139

  8. Bayesian analysis of genetic association across tree-structured routine healthcare data in the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Adrian; Dendrou, Calliope A; Motyer, Allan; Jostins, Luke; Vukcevic, Damjan; Dilthey, Alexander; Donnelly, Peter; Leslie, Stephen; Fugger, Lars; McVean, Gil

    2017-09-01

    Genetic discovery from the multitude of phenotypes extractable from routine healthcare data can transform understanding of the human phenome and accelerate progress toward precision medicine. However, a critical question when analyzing high-dimensional and heterogeneous data is how best to interrogate increasingly specific subphenotypes while retaining statistical power to detect genetic associations. Here we develop and employ a new Bayesian analysis framework that exploits the hierarchical structure of diagnosis classifications to analyze genetic variants against UK Biobank disease phenotypes derived from self-reporting and hospital episode statistics. Our method displays a more than 20% increase in power to detect genetic effects over other approaches and identifies new associations between classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and common immune-mediated diseases (IMDs). By applying the approach to genetic risk scores (GRSs), we show the extent of genetic sharing among IMDs and expose differences in disease perception or diagnosis with potential clinical implications.

  9. Bayesian analysis of genetic association across tree-structured routine healthcare data in the UK Biobank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Adrian; Dendrou, Calliope A; Motyer, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Genetic discovery from the multitude of phenotypes extractable from routine healthcare data can transform understanding of the human phenome and accelerate progress toward precision medicine. However, a critical question when analyzing high-dimensional and heterogeneous data is how best...... to interrogate increasingly specific subphenotypes while retaining statistical power to detect genetic associations. Here we develop and employ a new Bayesian analysis framework that exploits the hierarchical structure of diagnosis classifications to analyze genetic variants against UK Biobank disease phenotypes...... derived from self-reporting and hospital episode statistics. Our method displays a more than 20% increase in power to detect genetic effects over other approaches and identifies new associations between classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and common immune-mediated diseases (IMDs). By applying...

  10. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  15. The development of perceptual grouping biases in infancy: a Japanese-English cross-linguistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Katherine A; Iversen, John R; Patel, Aniruddh D; Mazuka, Reiko; Nito, Hiromi; Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F

    2010-05-01

    Perceptual grouping has traditionally been thought to be governed by innate, universal principles. However, recent work has found differences in Japanese and English speakers' non-linguistic perceptual grouping, implicating language in non-linguistic perceptual processes (Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Two experiments test Japanese- and English-learning infants of 5-6 and 7-8 months of age to explore the development of grouping preferences. At 5-6 months, neither the Japanese nor the English infants revealed any systematic perceptual biases. However, by 7-8 months, the same age as when linguistic phrasal grouping develops, infants developed non-linguistic grouping preferences consistent with their language's structure (and the grouping biases found in adulthood). These results reveal an early difference in non-linguistic perception between infants growing up in different language environments. The possibility that infants' linguistic phrasal grouping is bootstrapped by abstract perceptual principles is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. STRUCTURE OF A SHRUB-TREE IN A FRAGMENT OF CAATINGA IN CEARÁ STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Gomes de Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northeast of Brazil is the largest part of its territory occupied by scrub which is characterized by being a xerophytic vegetation considered by experts the biome most sensitive to human interference and global climate change. This study aimed to characterize the floristic composition and structure in a remnant of savanna located in Reserva de Particular de Patrimonio Natural (RPPN in the Farm Trussú in Iguatu Ceará. 45 plots were established and sampled 10x20 cm all living and dead individuals with a stem diameter at the ground level > 3 cm and total height of > 1 m. The estimated density was 5,602 individuals ha-1 representing 52 species, 41 genera and 23 families. The studied area featuring a variety of woody component similar to that found in other areas of savanna, with Shannon diversity index of 2.19 nats/ind and equitability 0.50. The species Croton sonderianus, Combretum leprosum, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia and Mimosa tenuiflora had greater importance value index. The study area is well preserved and recovery process.

  17. Fully automated reconstruction of three-dimensional vascular tree structures from two orthogonal views using computational algorithms and productionrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Iching; Sun, Ying

    1992-10-01

    A system for reconstructing 3-D vascular structure from two orthogonally projected images is presented. The formidable problem of matching segments between two views is solved using knowledge of the epipolar constraint and the similarity of segment geometry and connectivity. The knowledge is represented in a rule-based system, which also controls the operation of several computational algorithms for tracking segments in each image, representing 2-D segments with directed graphs, and reconstructing 3-D segments from matching 2-D segment pairs. Uncertain reasoning governs the interaction between segmentation and matching; it also provides a framework for resolving the matching ambiguities in an iterative way. The system was implemented in the C language and the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert system shell. Using video images of a tree model, the standard deviation of reconstructed centerlines was estimated to be 0.8 mm (1.7 mm) when the view direction was parallel (perpendicular) to the epipolar plane. Feasibility of clinical use was shown using x-ray angiograms of a human chest phantom. The correspondence of vessel segments between two views was accurate. Computational time for the entire reconstruction process was under 30 s on a workstation. A fully automated system for two-view reconstruction that does not require the a priori knowledge of vascular anatomy is demonstrated.

  18. Flat tree-level inflationary potentials in the light of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, G; Espinosa, J R; de Austri, R Ruiz; Trotta, R

    2008-01-01

    We use cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data to test a broad and physically well-motivated class of inflationary models: those with flat tree-level potentials (typical in supersymmetry). The non-trivial features of the potential arise from radiative corrections which give a simple logarithmic dependence on the inflaton field, making the models very predictive. We also consider a modified scenario with new physics beyond a certain high-energy cut-off showing up as non-renormalizable operators (NRO) in the inflaton field. We find that both kinds of models fit remarkably well CMB and LSS data, with very few free parameters. Besides, a large part of these models naturally predict a reasonable number of e-folds. A robust feature of these scenarios is the smallness of tensor perturbations (r < 10^{-3}). The NRO case can give a sizeable running of the spectral index while achieving a sufficient number of e-folds. We use Bayesian model comparison tools to assess the relative performance of the...

  19. Linguistic and Psycho-Linguistic Principles of Linguadidactics (theoretical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Mauzienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers linguadidactics being closely related to linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics and didactics and applies their theoretical statements and regularities in its scientific studies. Methodology refers to linguistics which investigates the language as a teaching subject. Methodology is linked to psychology in two ways. First of all, it is based on psychology as the teaching process is an intellectual psychical act and its regularities are necessary to know. On the other hand, methodology applies rules of pedagogy that predicts ways of learning and development of language skills. The article emphasizes that sustainable work experience and analysis of scientific research show that teaching process is more effective if consistent patterns of linguistics and psychology are appropriately applied.

  20. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  1. On the Effect of Thinning on Tree Growth and Stand Structure of White Birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev and Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gradel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North Mongolia are largely dominated either by larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. or birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev. The increasing demand for timber and firewood is currently met by removal of wood from these forest stands. Therefore, silvicultural approaches that account for both utilization and protection are needed. Thinning trials were established in the research area Altansumber, in the mountain forest steppe west of the town of Darkhan. We analyzed the response of non-spatial and spatial structure and growth of birch and larch stands on thinning. Before thinning, spatial tree distribution was largely clumped. Thinning promoted regular tree distribution. Ingrowth of new stems after thinning tended to redirect stand structure towards clumping. Both relative and absolute tree growth and competition were evaluated before, directly after, and three years after the thinning. Competition played a significant role in tree growth before thinning. A reduction in competition after thinning triggered significantly increased growth of both birch and larch. The observed positive growth response was valid in absolute and relative terms. A methodically based forest management strategy, including thinning operations and selective cuttings, could be established, even under the harsh Mongolian conditions. Our findings could initiate the development of broader forest management guidelines for the light-taiga dominated stands.

  2. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  3. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  4. An analytical model of stand dynamics as a function of tree growth, mortality and recruitment: the shade tolerance-stand structure hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel A; Angulo, Oscar; Bravo de la Parra, Rafael; López-Marcos, Juan C

    2007-02-07

    Light competition and interspecific differences in shade tolerance are considered key determinants of forest stand structure and dynamics. Specifically two main stand diameter distribution types as a function of shade tolerance have been proposed based on empirical observations. All-aged stands of shade tolerant species tend to have steeply descending, monotonic diameter distributions (inverse J-shaped curves). Shade intolerant species in contrast typically exhibit normal (unimodal) tree diameter distributions due to high mortality rates of smaller suppressed trees. In this study we explore the generality of this hypothesis which implies a causal relationship between light competition or shade tolerance and stand structure. For this purpose we formulate a partial differential equation system of stand dynamics as a function of individual tree growth, recruitment and mortality which allows us to explore possible individual-based mechanisms--e.g. light competition-underlying observed patterns of stand structure--e.g. unimodal or inverse J-shaped equilibrium diameter curves. We find that contrary to expectations interspecific differences in growth patterns can result alone in any of the two diameter distributions types observed in the field. In particular, slow growing species can present unimodal equilibrium curves even in the absence of light competition. Moreover, light competition and shade intolerance evaluated both at the tree growth and mortality stages did not have a significant impact on stand structure that tended to converge systematically towards an inverse J-shaped curves for most tree growth scenarios. Realistic transient stand dynamics for even aged stands of shade intolerant species (unimodal curves) were only obtained when recruitment was completely suppressed, providing further evidence on the critical role played by juvenile stages of tree development (e.g. the sampling stage) on final forest structure and composition. The results also point out the

  5. The computational linguistics of biological sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searls, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. Protein sequences are analogous in many respects, particularly their folding behavior. Proteins have a much richer variety of interactions, but in theory the same linguistic principles could come to bear in describing dependencies between distant residues that arise by virtue of three-dimensional structure. This tutorial will concentrate on nucleic acid sequences.

  6. IMPACT OF POLY-LINGUISTIC LOAD ON AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND MONITORING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  We have defined the structure and basic characteristics of the poly-linguistic audio-acoustic channel within the framework of controller – pilot communication, and set limits of poly-linguistic load impact on air traffic control.

  7. Variation in the wood anatomical structure of Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae) trees at different ecological conditions in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    MOYA, Roger; FO, Mario Tomazello

    2008-01-01

    The tree Gmelina arborea has been widely introduced in Costa Rica for commercial purposes. This new conditions for melina cause variations on anatomy in secondary xylem of the trees growing in plantations. The objective of the present research was to determine the variation in the anatomy of xylem caused by the ecological conduction variation. Dimensions of fiber, axial parenchyma percentage of cross sections, parameters of vessels and the ray were measured. The results showed that some anato...

  8. Tree Transduction Tools for Cdec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Matthews

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a collection of open source tools for learning tree-to-string and tree-to-tree transducers and the extensions to the cdec decoder that enable translation with these. Our modular, easy-to-extend tools extract rules from trees or forests aligned to strings and trees subject to different structural constraints. A fast, multithreaded implementation of the Cohn and Blunsom (2009 model for extracting compact tree-to-string rules is also included. The implementation of the tree composition algorithm used by cdec is described, and translation quality and decoding time results are presented. Our experimental results add to the body of evidence suggesting that tree transducers are a compelling option for translation, particularly when decoding speed and translation model size are important.

  9. Linguistics, human communication and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Fraser, W

    1994-11-01

    Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics have extended our understanding of the abnormal communication seen in psychosis, as well as that of people with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Psycholinguistics has the potential to increase the explanatory power of cognitive and neuropsychological approaches to psychosis and new methods of assessment and therapy are now being developed, based on linguistic theory. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Of 205 relevant articles identified, 65 were selected for review. Greater familiarity with linguistic theory could improve psychiatrists' assessment skills and their understanding of the relevance of human communication to the new cognitive models of psychosis.

  10. On Norms and Linguistic Categories in Linguistic Diversity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Due to globalization there is an increase in the appearances of languages in the multilingual linguistic landscape in urban spaces. Commentators have described this state of affairs as super-, mega- or complex diversity. Mainstream sociolinguists have argued that languages have no fixed boundaries

  11. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  12. Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development. Miami Linguistics Series No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Humboldt, Wilhelm

    Although this edition of Wilhelm von Humboldt's "Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development" is based entirely on the original German edition, the translators (George C. Buck and Frithjof A. Raven) and the publisher have attempted to clarify certain aspects of this work for the modern-day reader. These features include the addition of…

  13. Linguistic Legitimation of Political Events in Newspaper Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Kareem Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discursive structures employed in legitimizing the event of U.S. forces withdrawal from Iraq and identifies them in relation to linguistic features. It attempts to describe the relation between language use and legitimation discursive structures in depicting political events. The paper focuses on the political event of U.S. forces’ withdrawal from Iraq in the English newspaper issued in Iraq. The study shows the way in which journalists express their values and attitudes concerning this critical event. Consequently, this requires a critical discourse analysis (henceforth, CDA to analyse news articles in the Iraqi English newspaper: The Kurdish Globe (henceforth, KG newspaper. Accordingly, the study presents a qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles to identify the legitimation discursive structures and their linguistic features. It is found that the main discursive structures of legitimation employed in the KG newspaper are: authorization, rationalization, and moral evaluation. Besides, there were five verb processes used to represent this legitimation, including material, verbal, relational, mental, and existential. Keywords: Critical discourse analysis, legitimation discursive structures, linguistic features, newspaper discourse, systemic functional linguistics

  14. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt

    1990-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  15. Equilibrium point control of a monkey arm simulator by a fast learning tree structured artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornay, M; Sanger, T D

    1993-01-01

    A planar 17 muscle model of the monkey's arm based on realistic biomechanical measurements was simulated on a Symbolics Lisp Machine. The simulator implements the equilibrium point hypothesis for the control of arm movements. Given initial and final desired positions, it generates a minimum-jerk desired trajectory of the hand and uses the backdriving algorithm to determine an appropriate sequence of motor commands to the muscles (Flash 1987; Mussa-Ivaldi et al. 1991; Dornay 1991b). These motor commands specify a temporal sequence of stable (attractive) equilibrium positions which lead to the desired hand movement. A strong disadvantage of the simulator is that it has no memory of previous computations. Determining the desired trajectory using the minimum-jerk model is instantaneous, but the laborious backdriving algorithm is slow, and can take up to one hour for some trajectories. The complexity of the required computations makes it a poor model for biological motor control. We propose a computationally simpler and more biologically plausible method for control which achieves the benefits of the backdriving algorithm. A fast learning, tree-structured network (Sanger 1991c) was trained to remember the knowledge obtained by the backdriving algorithm. The neural network learned the nonlinear mapping from a 2-dimensional cartesian planar hand position (x,y) to a 17-dimensional motor command space (u1, . . ., u17). Learning 20 training trajectories, each composed of 26 sample points [[x,y], [u1, . . ., u17] took only 20 min on a Sun-4 Sparc workstation. After the learning stage, new, untrained test trajectories as well as the original trajectories of the hand were given to the neural network as input. The network calculated the required motor commands for these movements. The resulting movements were close to the desired ones for both the training and test cases.

  16. Effect of Temperature on the Structural and Physicochemical Properties of Biochar with Apple Tree Branches as Feedstock Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Xiang Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the structure and physicochemical properties of biochar derived from apple tree branches (ATBs, whose valorization is crucial for the sustainable development of the apple industry. ATBs were collected from apple orchards located on the Weibei upland of the Loess Plateau and pyrolyzed at 300, 400, 500 and 600 °C (BC300, BC400, BC500 and BC600, respectively. Different analytical techniques were used for the characterization of the different biochars. In particular, proximate and element analyses were performed. Furthermore, the morphological, and textural properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, Boehm titration and nitrogen manometry. In addition, the thermal stability of biochars was also studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicated that the increasing temperature increased the content of fixed carbon (C, the C content and inorganic minerals (K, P, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, while the yield, the content of volatile matter (VM, O and H, cation exchange capacity, and the ratios of O/C and H/C decreased. Comparison between the different samples show that highest pH and ash content were observed in BC500. The number of acidic functional groups decreased as a function of pyrolysis temperature, especially for the carboxylic functional groups. In contrast, a reverse trend was found for the basic functional groups. At a higher temperature, the brunauer–emmett–teller (BET surface area and pore volume are higher mostly due to the increase of the micropore surface area and micropore volume. In addition, the thermal stability of biochars also increased with the increasing temperature. Hence, pyrolysis temperature has a strong effect on biochar properties, and therefore biochars can be produced by changing pyrolysis temperature in order to better meet their applications.

  17. Comparison of tree size structure and growth for partially harvested and even-aged hemlock-spruce stands in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Troy Heithecker; Eric K. Zenner

    2010-01-01

    The effects of partial cutting on tree size structure and stand growth were evaluated in 52 plots in 13 stands in southeast Alaska that were partially harvested 53 to 96 years ago and compared with 50-year-old even-aged stands that developed after clearcutting. The net basal-area growth was greater in the partially cut plots than in the uncut plots, and basal-area...

  18. Impacts of population structure and analytical models in genome-wide association studies of complex traits in forest trees: a case study in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Cappa

    Full Text Available The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model ( UMM on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303 with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S:G ratio, a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S:G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  19. Impacts of Population Structure and Analytical Models in Genome-Wide Association Studies of Complex Traits in Forest Trees: A Case Study in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Martín N.; Acuña, Cintia; Borralho, Nuno M. G.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Marcucci Poltri, Susana N.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model (UMM) on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303) with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S∶G ratio), a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S∶G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  20. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  1. Field guide to red tree vole nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon B. Lesmeister; James K. Swingle

    2017-01-01

    Surveys for red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) nests require tree climbing because the species is a highly specialized arboreal rodent that live in the tree canopy of coniferous forests in western Oregon and northwestern California. Tree voles are associated with old coniferous forest (≥80 years old) that are structurally complex, but are often...

  2. Somatostatin-immunoreactive senile plaque-like structures in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of aged tree shrews and Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Akiko; Fuchs, Eberhard; Taira, Masato; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Hayashi, Motoharu

    2012-06-01

    Previously, we demonstrated decreased expression of somatostatin mRNA in aged macaque brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. To investigate whether or not this age-dependent decrease in mRNA is related to morphological changes, we analyzed somatostatin cells in the cerebra of aged Japanese macaques and compared them with those in rats and tree shrews, the latter of which are closely related to primates. Brains of aged macaques, tree shrews, and rats were investigated by immunohistochemistry with special emphasis on somatostatin. We observed degenerating somatostatin-immunoreactive cells in the cortices of aged macaques and tree shrews. Somatostatin-immunoreactive senile plaque-like structures were found in areas 6 and 8 and in the nucleus accumbens of macaques, as well as in the nucleus accumbens and the cortex of aged tree shrews, where amyloid accumulations were observed. Somatostatin degenerations may be related to amyloid accumulations and may play roles in impairments of cognitive functions during aging. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Live phylogeny with polytomies: Finding the most compact parsimonious trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamichail, D; Huang, A; Kennedy, E; Ott, J-L; Miller, A; Papamichail, G

    2017-08-01

    Construction of phylogenetic trees has traditionally focused on binary trees where all species appear on leaves, a problem for which numerous efficient solutions have been developed. Certain application domains though, such as viral evolution and transmission, paleontology, linguistics, and phylogenetic stemmatics, often require phylogeny inference that involves placing input species on ancestral tree nodes (live phylogeny), and polytomies. These requirements, despite their prevalence, lead to computationally harder algorithmic solutions and have been sparsely examined in the literature to date. In this article we prove some unique properties of most parsimonious live phylogenetic trees with polytomies, and their mapping to traditional binary phylogenetic trees. We show that our problem reduces to finding the most compact parsimonious tree for n species, and describe a novel efficient algorithm to find such trees without resorting to exhaustive enumeration of all possible tree topologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  5. Clinical Linguistics--Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwell, Pamela

    In the past 20 years, linguistics has gained a prominent position in speech and language pathology in Britain, evolving into a new field, clinical linguistics. It includes three related areas of activity: training of speech pathologists/therapists; professional practice; and research. Linguistics and speech/language pathology have developed as…

  6. Quantitative Research in Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingshun

    2018-01-01

    The research of Systemic Functional Linguistics has been quite in-depth in both theory and practice. However, many linguists hold that Systemic Functional Linguistics has no hypothesis testing or experiments and its research is only qualitative. Analyses of the corpus, intelligent computing and language evolution on the ideological background of…

  7. Evaluating automatically annotated treebanks for linguistic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Bański, P.; Kupietz, M.; Lüngen, H.; Witt, A.; Barbaresi, A.; Biber, H.; Breiteneder, E.; Clematide, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses evaluation methods for linguists to use when employing an automatically annotated treebank as a source of linguistic evidence. While treebanks are usually evaluated with a general measure over all the data, linguistic studies often focus on a particular construction or a group

  8. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  9. Interdisciplinarity in pragmatics and linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mey, Jacob L.

    2017-01-01

    At the Second International Conference ‘Zeichen und System der Sprache’ (Magdeburg, September 1964), a certain East German professor took the floor during a discussion of one of the linguistic presentations. He started his comments by saying: ‘Als Mathematiker weiß ich zwar von der Sache nichts...

  10. Fuzzy linguistic model for interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.; Adabitabar Firozja, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy method for interpolating of smooth curves was represented. We present a novel approach to interpolate real data by applying the universal approximation method. In proposed method, fuzzy linguistic model (FLM) applied as universal approximation for any nonlinear continuous function. Finally, we give some numerical examples and compare the proposed method with spline method

  11. Desiderata for Linguistic Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of guidelines both for researchers in search of software to be used in linguistic analysis and for programmers designing such software. A description of the intended audience and the types of software under consideration and a review of some relevant literature are followed by a discussion of several important…

  12. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333450; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  13. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  14. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  15. 140 CIRCULAR INTERACTION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy. Although a country or administrative district should have one or more official languages for obvious reasons, Nelde (1991) proposes that the ... circular interaction between linguistic departments and language departments. Finding an answer to' Plato's abovementioned problem entails that as many languages as ...

  16. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  17. Applied Linguistics in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    This paper traces the three major developmental strands that converged to contribute to the definition of the applied linguistics field in the Philippines: the institution and capacity-building work supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations; the forging of a vibrant consortium among three Filipino institutions of higher education to offer…

  18. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  19. The Linguistic Memory of Composition and the Rhetoric and Composition PhD: Forgetting (and Remembering) Language and Language Difference in Doctoral Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilfoil, Carrie Byars

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the decline of linguistics in rhetoric and composition PhD programs in terms of the "linguistic memory" (Trimbur) of composition. Since the field of linguistics once offered the primary means for composition to address the structural, psychological, sociohistorical, and cultural dimensions of language in student…

  20. Linguistic Privilege and Justice: What can we learn from STEM?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronskikh, V. [Fermilab

    2018-01-19

    The linguistic privilege of native speakers in scientific communication, both oral and written, has been widely reported to influence researchers’ publications and careers in and beyond academia. I analyze social structure and communication in the STEM field through the example of big science and attempt to answer the question of why language injustice has a less significant effect on nonnative scientists and engineers than on humanity scholars, scrutinizing the role of signs and nonlinguistic boundary objects in STEM practice and written communication and how they mitigate the emphasis on linguistic eloquence. I suggest that although big science is relatively linguistically inclusive, for collaborative publications and presentations the rhetoric component requirements nevertheless remain at a level comparable to that of the humanities. I draw on the theory of justice to argue that to increase L2 speakers’ and writers’ satisfaction, language standards for international communication must be adjusted to a level convenient for an average L2.

  1. A Fuzzy Linguistic Methodology to Deal With Unbalanced Linguistic Term Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, F.; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique; Martinez, L.

    2008-01-01

    Many real problems dealing with qualitative aspects use linguistic approaches to assess such aspects. In most of these problems, a uniform and symmetrical distribution of the linguistic term sets for linguistic modeling is assumed. However, there exist problems whose assessments need to be represented by means of unbalanced linguistic term sets, i.e., using term sets that are not uniformly and symmetrically distributed. The use of linguistic variables implies processes of computing with words...

  2. Recursive Trees for Practical ORAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Tarik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new, general data structure that reduces the communication cost of recent tree-based ORAMs. Contrary to ORAM trees with constant height and path lengths, our new construction r-ORAM allows for trees with varying shorter path length. Accessing an element in the ORAM tree results in different communication costs depending on the location of the element. The main idea behind r-ORAM is a recursive ORAM tree structure, where nodes in the tree are roots of other trees. While this approach results in a worst-case access cost (tree height at most as any recent tree-based ORAM, we show that the average cost saving is around 35% for recent binary tree ORAMs. Besides reducing communication cost, r-ORAM also reduces storage overhead on the server by 4% to 20% depending on the ORAM’s client memory type. To prove r-ORAM’s soundness, we conduct a detailed overflow analysis. r-ORAM’s recursive approach is general in that it can be applied to all recent tree ORAMs, both constant and poly-log client memory ORAMs. Finally, we implement and benchmark r-ORAM in a practical setting to back up our theoretical claims.

  3. Acclimation of tree function and structure to climate change and implications to forest carbon and nutrient balances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari, P.; Nissinen, A.; Berninger, F. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Before large-scale anthropogenetic emissions the environmental factors have been rather stable for thousands of years, varying yearly, seasonally and daily in rather regular manners around some mean values. In this century the emissions of CO{sub 2}, sulphur and nitrogen from society to atmosphere are changing both atmospheric and soil environment at rates not experienced before. The fluxes to soil affect the contents of plant available nutrients and solubility of toxic compounds in the forest soil. Additionally, the chemical state of soil environment is coupled to tree growth, litter production and nutrient uptake as well as to the activity of biological organisms in soil, which decompose litter and release nutrients from it. Trees have developed effective regulation systems to cope with the environment during the evolution. The resulting acclimations improve the functioning of the trees if the environmental factors remain within their range of variation during the evolution. Outside the range the results of the regulation are unpredictable. The acclimative changes caused by the action of the regulation system may considerably change the response of trees to present environmental change. The analysis of the effects of present environmental change on forests requires simultaneous treatment of the atmosphere, forest soils and trees. Each of these components is dominated by its own features. The analyze of material and energy fluxes connect them to each other. The aim of this research is to analyse changes in the forest soils and reactions of trees to changes in the atmosphere and forest soils under a common theoretical framework, enabling combination of the obtained results into a holistic analysis of the response of forests to the present environmental change

  4. Acclimation of tree function and structure to climate change and implications to forest carbon and nutrient balances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari, P; Nissinen, A; Berninger, F [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; and others

    1997-12-31

    Before large-scale anthropogenetic emissions the environmental factors have been rather stable for thousands of years, varying yearly, seasonally and daily in rather regular manners around some mean values. In this century the emissions of CO{sub 2}, sulphur and nitrogen from society to atmosphere are changing both atmospheric and soil environment at rates not experienced before. The fluxes to soil affect the contents of plant available nutrients and solubility of toxic compounds in the forest soil. Additionally, the chemical state of soil environment is coupled to tree growth, litter production and nutrient uptake as well as to the activity of biological organisms in soil, which decompose litter and release nutrients from it. Trees have developed effective regulation systems to cope with the environment during the evolution. The resulting acclimations improve the functioning of the trees if the environmental factors remain within their range of variation during the evolution. Outside the range the results of the regulation are unpredictable. The acclimative changes caused by the action of the regulation system may considerably change the response of trees to present environmental change. The analysis of the effects of present environmental change on forests requires simultaneous treatment of the atmosphere, forest soils and trees. Each of these components is dominated by its own features. The analyze of material and energy fluxes connect them to each other. The aim of this research is to analyse changes in the forest soils and reactions of trees to changes in the atmosphere and forest soils under a common theoretical framework, enabling combination of the obtained results into a holistic analysis of the response of forests to the present environmental change

  5. RAISING ESP STUDENTS’ AWARENESS OF THE GENERIC STRUCTURES AND LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF JOB APPLICATION LETTERS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF GENRE-BASED INSTRUCTION AT THE TERTIARY LEVEL: THE CASE OF 3 rd YEAR MANAGEMENT STUDENTS DJILLALI LIABES UNIVERSITY, SIDI BEL ABBES

    OpenAIRE

    SEKKAL, Faiza

    2012-01-01

    The current study is an attempt to investigate the genre of job application letter using genre-based analysis as a powerful educational tool, in order to improve the teaching of business writing at the tertiary level with reference to third- year management students by raising their awareness of the generic structures and linguistic features of the target genre. In this regard, this research work is based on the theory of genre analysis in ESP; it aims to help future graduates ...

  6. Combining shallow and deep processing for a robust, fast, deep-linguistic dependency parser

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, G

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes Pro3Gres, a fast, robust, broad-coverage parser that delivers deep-linguistic grammatical relation structures as output, which are closer to predicate-argument structures and more informative than pure constituency structures. The parser stays as shallow as is possible for each task, combining shallow and deep-linguistic methods by integrating chunking and by expressing the majority of long-distance dependencies in a context-free way. It combines statistical and rule-base...

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  12. Talking Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  13. Drawing Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær From, Andreas; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    We formally prove in Isabelle/HOL two properties of an algorithm for laying out trees visually. The first property states that removing layout annotations recovers the original tree. The second property states that nodes are placed at least a unit of distance apart. We have yet to formalize three...

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  15. Formal linguistics as a cue to demographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Giuseppe; Ceolin, Andrea; Ecay, Aaron; Ghirotto, Silvia; Guardiano, Cristina; Irimia, Monica-Alexandrina; Michelioudakis, Dimitris; Radkevich, Nina; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Barbujani, Guido

    2016-06-20

    Beyond its theoretical success, the development of molecular genetics has brought about the possibility of extraordinary progress in the study of classification and in the inference of the evolutionary history of many species and populations. A major step forward was represented by the availability of extremely large sets of molecular data suited to quantitative and computational treatments. In this paper, we argue that even in cognitive sciences, purely theoretical progress in a discipline such as linguistics may have analogous impact. Thus, exactly on the model of molecular biology, we propose to unify two traditionally unrelated lines of linguistic investigation: 1) the formal study of syntactic variation (parameter theory) in the biolinguistic program; 2) the reconstruction of relatedness among languages (phylogenetic taxonomy). The results of our linguistic analysis have thus been plotted against data from population genetics and the correlations have turned out to be largely significant: given a non-trivial set of languages/populations, the description of their variation provided by the comparison of systematic parametric analysis and molecular anthropology informatively recapitulates their history and relationships. As a result, we can claim that the reality of some parametric model of the language faculty and language acquisition/transmission (more broadly of generative grammar) receives strong and original support from its historical heuristic power. Then, on these grounds, we can begin testing Darwin's prediction that, when properly generated, the trees of human populations and of their languages should eventually turn out to be significantly parallel.

  16. POPULATION STRUCTURES OF FOUR TREE SPECIES IN LOGGED-OVER TROPICAL FOREST IN SOUTH PAPUA, INDONESIA: AN INTEGRAL PROJECTION MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relawan kuswandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Selective logging has been taking place in Papua for several decades. In contrast, very little is known about the stand structure in post-logged forest. Hence, this paper investigates stand structures in logged-over area of tropical forest in South Papua. Four species were selected in three one-hectare permanent sample plots (PSPs: Vatica rassak, Syzygium sp, Litsea timoriana and Canarium asperum. PSPs were located in the forest concession area of PT. Tunas Sawaerma in Assiki, Boven Digul, in South Papua. Data sets comprised measurements made in 2005 and 2012 consisting of species, diameter at breast height (DBH, mortality and number of tree of each species. Integral Projection Models (IPMs were developed, taking into account mortality, growth, recruitment and fecundity. Results show the pattern of stand structures of the four species were more or less similar, i.e. more individual trees were present in the small diameter classes than in the larger diameter classes. The general pattern of the individual distribution of the four species is the typical reverse-J shape. Syzygium sp. has a greater number of individuals in the small diameter classes than the other three species. Population growth rates (λ are above one, indicating that the stand structures of the population dynamics of the four species are recuperating. Conclusively, these results suggest that species composition and population structure in these logged-over forests are recovering increasingly.

  17. Value tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.; Renn, O.; Winterfeldt, D. von; Kotte, U.

    1985-01-01

    What are the targets and criteria on which national energy policy should be based. What priorities should be set, and how can different social interests be matched. To answer these questions, a new instrument of decision theory is presented which has been applied with good results to controversial political issues in the USA. The new technique is known under the name of value tree analysis. Members of important West German organisations (BDI, VDI, RWE, the Catholic and Protestant Church, Deutscher Naturschutzring, and ecological research institutions) were asked about the goals of their organisations. These goals were then ordered systematically and arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. The value trees of different groups can be combined into a catalogue of social criteria of acceptability and policy assessment. The authors describe the philosophy and methodology of value tree analysis and give an outline of its application in the development of a socially acceptable energy policy. (orig.) [de

  18. Computer Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur AĞAOĞLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial that gifted and talented students should be supported by different educational methods for their interests and skills. The science and arts centres (gifted centres provide the Supportive Education Program for these students with an interdisciplinary perspective. In line with the program, an ICT lesson entitled “Computer Tree” serves for identifying learner readiness levels, and defining the basic conceptual framework. A language teacher also contributes to the process, since it caters for the creative function of the basic linguistic skills. The teaching technique is applied for 9-11 aged student level. The lesson introduces an evaluation process including basic information, skills, and interests of the target group. Furthermore, it includes an observation process by way of peer assessment. The lesson is considered to be a good sample of planning for any subject, for the unpredicted convergence of visual and technical abilities with linguistic abilities.

  19. The structure of spruce-fir tree stands mortality under impact of the Middle Ural copper smelter emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Bergman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of industrial pollution on mortality values (dead fallen wood and dead standing trees and its distribution by degrees of decomposition were investigated in spruce-fir forest stands in the vicinity of the Middle Ural copper smelter (the city of Revda, Sverdlovsk region. The total mortality and mortality in each size category did not depend on the distance to the source of pollution. At the same time, the amount of dead fallen wood was significantly greater (1.9 times in the polluted area (2 and 4 km from the smelter as compared with the background territory (30 km from the smelter. Mortality proportion out of the total number of the trees (both live and dead did not differ significantly between the sites, although this parameter tended to increase nearer the smelter. The distribution of mortality by size categories revealed significant differences between background territory and site with average level of contamination, as well as background territory and highly contaminated site. Observed differences are associated with an increased proportion of lesser mortality near the smelter (by 15 % and 12 % as compared with areas of background and middle levels of contamination, respectively, as well as because of double-declining of medium- and large-sized mortality near the smelter. The distribution of the living tree stands by size categories also has a connection with level of contamination. The average diameters of the living tree stand and the elements of coarse woody debris (dead fallen wood and dead standing trees do not differ significantly between sites with different levels of contamination. For the small-sized dead fallen wood, the proportion of weakly decomposed stems increased with the level of pollution, while proportion of strongly decomposed stems decreased. The distribution of medium- and large-sized dead fallen wood on the stages of decomposition does not vary between sites with different levels of pollution.

  20. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English le...... the economic and geopolitical agenda behind this English teaching business, there is clear evidence of linguistic imperialism in the functions of this global professional service. These activities serve to strengthen Western interests.......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  1. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  2. Lenguaje audiovisual y lenguaje escolar: dos cosmovisiones en la estructuración lingüística del niño Audiovisual language and school language: two cosmo-visions in the structuring of children linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirian Astrid Ciro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente texto se pretende analizar la compleja red relacional existente entre el lenguaje audiovisual (partiendo de la televisión como uno de sus soportes y el lenguaje escolar, para vislumbrar sus efectos en el lenguaje infantil. La idea es mostrar el lenguaje audiovisual como un mecanismo potencialmente educativo, por cuanto es una forma de resignificar el mundo y de socialización lingüística; tal característica hace necesario entablar una relación estratégica entre él y el lenguaje escolar. De este modo, el lenguaje infantil se instaura como un punto intermedio en donde confluyen esos distintos lenguajes, y permite al niño tener cosmovisiones abiertas y flexibles de diversas realidades. Todo esto llevará a la configuración de seres creativos, novedosos y atentos a escuchar opciones... a la estructuración de una nueva sociedad, en donde la multiplicidad de códigos (entendidos como sistemas de simbolización vayan haciendo más fácil la expresión de lo que se es y se quiere ser.This paper analyzes the complex relationship between audiovisual language (TV being one of its main supports and school language in order to observe their effects on child language. In this way, audiovisual language is a potentially educational mechanism because it is both a new way of resignifying the world and a mechanism of linguistic socialization. Hence, it is necessary to establish a strategic relationship between audiovisual language and school language. In this way, child language is an intermediate point between these two languages and it allows the child to have open and flexible views of different realities and to be willing to weigh options. In short, it is the structuring of a new society where multiplicity of codes will contribute to facilitating free expression.

  3. Potential and limitations of using digital repeat photography to track structural and physiological phenology in Mediterranean tree-grass ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunpeng; EI-Madany, Tarek; Filippa, Gianluca; Carrara, Arnaud; Cremonese, Edoardo; Galvagno, Marta; Hammer, Tiana; Pérez-Priego, Oscar; Reichstein, Markus; Martín Isabel, Pilar; González Cascón, Rosario; Migliavacca, Mirco

    2017-04-01

    Tree-Grass ecosystems are global widely distributed (16-35% of the land surface). However, its phenology (especially in water-limited areas) has not yet been well characterized and modeled. By using commercial digital cameras, continuous and relatively vast phenology data becomes available, which provides a good opportunity to monitor and develop a robust method used to extract the important phenological events (phenophases). Here we aimed to assess the usability of digital repeat photography for three Tree-Grass Mediterranean ecosystems over two different growing seasons (Majadas del Tietar, Spain) to extract critical phenophases for grass and evergreen broadleaved trees (autumn regreening of grass- Start of growing season; resprouting of tree leaves; senescence of grass - End of growing season), assess their uncertainty, and to correlate them with physiological phenology (i.e. phenology of ecosystem scale fluxes such as Gross Primary Productivity, GPP). We extracted green chromatic coordinates (GCC) and camera based normalized difference vegetation index (Camera-NDVI) from an infrared enabled digital camera using the "Phenopix" R package. Then we developed a novel method to retrieve important phenophases from GCC and Camera-NDVI from various region of interests (ROIs) of the imagery (tree areas, grass, and both - ecosystem) as well as from GPP, which was derived from Eddy Covariance tower in the same experimental site. The results show that, at ecosystem level, phenophases derived from GCC and Camera-NDVI are strongly correlated (R2 = 0.979). Remarkably, we observed that at the end of growing season phenophases derived from GCC were systematically advanced (ca. 8 days) than phenophase from Camera-NDVI. By using the radiative transfer model Soil Canopy Observation Photochemistry and Energy (SCOPE) we demonstrated that this delay is related to the different sensitivity of GCC and NDVI to the fraction of green/dry grass in the canopy, resulting in a systematic

  4. Phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; Walker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  5. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  6. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  7. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  8. On the Accuracy of Language Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei, Simone; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Historical linguistics aims at inferring the most likely language phylogenetic tree starting from information concerning the evolutionary relatedness of languages. The available information are typically lists of homologous (lexical, phonological, syntactic) features or characters for many different languages: a set of parallel corpora whose compilation represents a paramount achievement in linguistics. From this perspective the reconstruction of language trees is an example of inverse problems: starting from present, incomplete and often noisy, information, one aims at inferring the most likely past evolutionary history. A fundamental issue in inverse problems is the evaluation of the inference made. A standard way of dealing with this question is to generate data with artificial models in order to have full access to the evolutionary process one is going to infer. This procedure presents an intrinsic limitation: when dealing with real data sets, one typically does not know which model of evolution is the most suitable for them. A possible way out is to compare algorithmic inference with expert classifications. This is the point of view we take here by conducting a thorough survey of the accuracy of reconstruction methods as compared with the Ethnologue expert classifications. We focus in particular on state-of-the-art distance-based methods for phylogeny reconstruction using worldwide linguistic databases. In order to assess the accuracy of the inferred trees we introduce and characterize two generalizations of standard definitions of distances between trees. Based on these scores we quantify the relative performances of the distance-based algorithms considered. Further we quantify how the completeness and the coverage of the available databases affect the accuracy of the reconstruction. Finally we draw some conclusions about where the accuracy of the reconstructions in historical linguistics stands and about the leading directions to improve it. PMID:21674034

  9. On the accuracy of language trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pompei

    Full Text Available Historical linguistics aims at inferring the most likely language phylogenetic tree starting from information concerning the evolutionary relatedness of languages. The available information are typically lists of homologous (lexical, phonological, syntactic features or characters for many different languages: a set of parallel corpora whose compilation represents a paramount achievement in linguistics. From this perspective the reconstruction of language trees is an example of inverse problems: starting from present, incomplete and often noisy, information, one aims at inferring the most likely past evolutionary history. A fundamental issue in inverse problems is the evaluation of the inference made. A standard way of dealing with this question is to generate data with artificial models in order to have full access to the evolutionary process one is going to infer. This procedure presents an intrinsic limitation: when dealing with real data sets, one typically does not know which model of evolution is the most suitable for them. A possible way out is to compare algorithmic inference with expert classifications. This is the point of view we take here by conducting a thorough survey of the accuracy of reconstruction methods as compared with the Ethnologue expert classifications. We focus in particular on state-of-the-art distance-based methods for phylogeny reconstruction using worldwide linguistic databases. In order to assess the accuracy of the inferred trees we introduce and characterize two generalizations of standard definitions of distances between trees. Based on these scores we quantify the relative performances of the distance-based algorithms considered. Further we quantify how the completeness and the coverage of the available databases affect the accuracy of the reconstruction. Finally we draw some conclusions about where the accuracy of the reconstructions in historical linguistics stands and about the leading directions to improve

  10. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number of...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  11. Tree-space statistics and approximations for large-scale analysis of anatomical trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Owen, Megan; Petersen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    parametrize the relevant parts of tree-space well. Using the developed approximate statistics, we illustrate how the structure and geometry of airway trees vary across a population and show that airway trees with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease come from a different distribution in tree-space than...

  12. Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial-interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-05-01

    How fast does biodiversity respond to climate change? The relationship of past and current climate with phylogenetic assemblage structure helps us to understand this question. Studies of angiosperm tree diversity in North America have already suggested effects of current water-energy balance and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic endemism, the concentration of unique lineages in restricted ranges, may also be related to glacial-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: (1) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages toward lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. (2) Long-term climate stability is associated with higher angiosperm endemism, while higher postglacial accessibility is linked to to more phylogenetic clustering and endemism in gymnosperms. (3) Factors linked to glacial-interglacial climate change have stronger effects on gymnosperms than on angiosperms. These results suggest that paleoclimate legacies supplement current climate in shaping phylogenetic patterns in North American trees, and especially so for gymnosperms.

  13. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  15. A lattice-valued linguistic decision model for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, D.; Liu, J.; Carchon, R.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we focus our attention on decision making models to process uncertainty-based information directly without transforming them into any particular membership function, i.e., directly using linguistic information (linguistic values) instead of numbers (numerical values). By analyzing the feature of linguistic values ordered by their means of common usage, we argue that the set of linguistic values should be characterized by a lattice structure. We propose the lattice structure based on a logical algebraic structure i.e., lattice implication algebra. Finally, we obtain a multi-objective decision-making model by extending Yager's multi-objective model from the following aspects: (1) extension of linguistic information: from a set of linear ordered linguistic labels (values) to that of lattice-valued linguistic labels; (2) extension of the combination function M, which is used to combine the individual ratings with the weights of criteria. We propose an implication operation form of M. The implication operation can be drawn from lattice implication algebra. As an illustration, we will finally apply this decision model to the evaluation problem in safeguard relevant information. (orig.)

  16. Interactive wood combustion for botanical tree models

    KAUST Repository

    Pirk, Sö ren; Jarząbek, Michał; Hadrich, Torsten; Michels, Dominik L.; Palubicki, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel method for the combustion of botanical tree models. Tree models are represented as connected particles for the branching structure and a polygonal surface mesh for the combustion. Each particle stores biological and physical

  17. Colourings of (k-r,k-trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Borowiecki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trees are generalized to a special kind of higher dimensional complexes known as \\((j,k\\-trees ([L. W. Beineke, R. E. Pippert, On the structure of \\((m,n\\-trees, Proc. 8th S-E Conf. Combinatorics, Graph Theory and Computing, 1977, 75-80], and which are a natural extension of \\(k\\-trees for \\(j=k-1\\. The aim of this paper is to study\\((k-r,k\\-trees ([H. P. Patil, Studies on \\(k\\-trees and some related topics, PhD Thesis, University of Warsaw, Poland, 1984], which are a generalization of \\(k\\-trees (or usual trees when \\(k=1\\. We obtain the chromatic polynomial of \\((k-r,k\\-trees and show that any two \\((k-r,k\\-trees of the same order are chromatically equivalent. However, if \\(r\

  18. The Sabah Biodiversity Experiment: a long-term test of the role of tree diversity in restoring tropical forest structure and functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Andy; Philipson, Christopher; Saner, Philippe; Chamagne, Juliette; Dzulkifli, Dzaeman; O'Brien, Michael; Snaddon, Jake L.; Ulok, Philip; Weilenmann, Maja; Reynolds, Glen; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Relatively, little is known about the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in forests, especially in the tropics. We describe the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment: a large-scale, long-term field study on the island of Borneo. The project aims at understanding the relationship between tree species diversity and the functioning of lowland dipterocarp rainforest during restoration following selective logging. The experiment is planned to run for several decades (from seed to adult tree), so here we focus on introducing the project and its experimental design and on assessing initial conditions and the potential for restoration of the structure and functioning of the study system, the Malua Forest Reserve. We estimate residual impacts 22 years after selective logging by comparison with an appropriate neighbouring area of primary forest in Danum Valley of similar conditions. There was no difference in the alpha or beta species diversity of transect plots in the two forest types, probably owing to the selective nature of the logging and potential effects of competitive release. However, despite equal total stem density, forest structure differed as expected with a deficit of large trees and a surfeit of saplings in selectively logged areas. These impacts on structure have the potential to influence ecosystem functioning. In particular, above-ground biomass and carbon pools in selectively logged areas were only 60 per cent of those in the primary forest even after 22 years of recovery. Our results establish the initial conditions for the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment and confirm the potential to accelerate restoration by using enrichment planting of dipterocarps to overcome recruitment limitation. What role dipterocarp diversity plays in restoration only will become clear with long-term results. PMID:22006970

  19. Combining Genome-Wide Information with a Functional Structural Plant Model to Simulate 1-Year-Old Apple Tree Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migault, Vincent; Pallas, Benoît; Costes, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    In crops, optimizing target traits in breeding programs can be fostered by selecting appropriate combinations of architectural traits which determine light interception and carbon acquisition. In apple tree, architectural traits were observed to be under genetic control. However, architectural traits also result from many organogenetic and morphological processes interacting with the environment. The present study aimed at combining a FSPM built for apple tree, MAppleT, with genetic determinisms of architectural traits, previously described in a bi-parental population. We focused on parameters related to organogenesis (phyllochron and immediate branching) and morphogenesis processes (internode length and leaf area) during the first year of tree growth. Two independent datasets collected in 2004 and 2007 on 116 genotypes, issued from a 'Starkrimson' × 'Granny Smith' cross, were used. The phyllochron was estimated as a function of thermal time and sylleptic branching was modeled subsequently depending on phyllochron. From a genetic map built with SNPs, marker effects were estimated on four MAppleT parameters with rrBLUP, using 2007 data. These effects were then considered in MAppleT to simulate tree development in the two climatic conditions. The genome wide prediction model gave consistent estimations of parameter values with correlation coefficients between observed values and estimated values from SNP markers ranging from 0.79 to 0.96. However, the accuracy of the prediction model following cross validation schemas was lower. Three integrative traits (the number of leaves, trunk length, and number of sylleptic laterals) were considered for validating MAppleT simulations. In 2007 climatic conditions, simulated values were close to observations, highlighting the correct simulation of genetic variability. However, in 2004 conditions which were not used for model calibration, the simulations differed from observations. This study demonstrates the possibility of

  20. Questions of Logic, Philosophy, and Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Chaves-Tannús

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There were in the past, just as there are in the present, several diverse attempts to establish a unique theory capable of identifying in all natural languages a similar, invariable basic structure of a logical nature. If such a theory exists, then there must be principles that rule the functioning of these languages and they must have a logical origin. Based on a work by the French linguist, Oswald Ducrot, entitled D’un mauvais usage de la logique, this paper aims to present in a concise manner two of the above mentioned attempts. They were elaborated in diverse epochs and different arguments were put forward to support them. The first attempt was in XVII century France and its theoretic basis was the renowned ‘Port-Royal Logic’. The second attempt is recent and its theoretic support comes from Contemporary Logic.

  1. Bridging the Linguistic and Affective Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westbrook, Peter Nils; Henriksen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    feedback sessions. The study also includes a structured, in-depth interview with the informant, which yields very specific and rich data about how one lecturer feels about teaching in English, the informant’s own learning focus and the outcomes of a short language course. The aims of the study are fourfold......This paper reports on a small-scale case study which follows an experienced Danish university lecturer during a tailor-made, one-to-one language course to improve her English language skills for lecturing, consisting of a five-week cycle of observed English-medium lectures and subsequent language......, namely: 1) to describe the informant’s motivation for taking an English course; 2) to compare her affective and perceived linguistic needs with her objective needs; 3) to follow her own language focus areas during the course; and 4) to identify any subjective or objective gains she achieved from...

  2. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...

  3. LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY AT PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOK: SOME CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gaida Winch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed how linguistic diversity is dealt with in a Portuguese textbook, where two chapters are designated to it. In these, it is pointed out that speaker ethnic origin can be manifested differently by: morphological changes; use of foreign expressions; accent in oral language. In synthesis, the linguistic diversity is dealt with through activities of identification and reproduction of linguistic varieties to be carried out by the students.

  4. Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A

    2017-01-01

    It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.

  5. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  6. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  7. Mitochondrial DNA variability among six South American Amerindian villages from the Pano linguistic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Simoes, Aguinaldo L

    2014-01-01

    Although scattered throughout a large geographic area, the members of the Pano linguistic group present strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity, a feature that causes them to be considered components of a same "Pano" tribe. Nevertheless, the genetic homogeneity between Pano villages has not yet been examined. To study the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group, four major Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) founder haplogroups were analyzed in 77 Amerindians from six villages of four Pano tribes (Katukina, Kaxináwa, Marúbo, and Yaminawa) located in the Brazilian Amazon. The central position of these tribes in the continent makes them relevant for attempts to reconstruct population movements in South America. Except for a single individual that presented an African haplogroup L, all remaining individuals presented one of the four Native American haplogroups. Significant heterogeneity was observed across the six Pano villages. Although Amerindian populations are usually characterized by considerable interpopulational diversity, the high heterogeneity level observed is unexpected if the strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity of the Pano linguistic group is taken into account. The present findings indicate that the ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity does not imply genetic homogeneity. Even though the genetic heterogeneity uncovered may be a female-specific process, the most probable explanation for that is the joint action of isolation and genetic drift as major factors influencing the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group. Copyright © 2014 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  8. Genetic structure and demographic history of the endangered tree species Dysoxylum malabaricum (Meliaceae) in Western Ghats, India: implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodare, Sofia; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The impact of fragmentation by human activities on genetic diversity of forest trees is an important concern in forest conservation, especially in tropical forests. Dysoxylum malabaricum (white cedar) is an economically important tree species, endemic to the Western Ghats, India, one of the world's eight most important biodiversity hotspots. As D. malabaricum is under pressure of disturbance and fragmentation together with overharvesting, conservation efforts are required in this species. In this study, range-wide genetic structure of twelve D. malabaricum populations was evaluated to assess the impact of human activities on genetic diversity and infer the species' evolutionary history, using both nuclear and chloroplast (cp) DNA simple sequence repeats (SSR). As genetic diversity and population structure did not differ among seedling, juvenile and adult age classes, reproductive success among the old-growth trees and long distance seed dispersal by hornbills were suggested to contribute to maintain genetic diversity. The fixation index (F IS) was significantly correlated with latitude, with a higher level of inbreeding in the northern populations, possibly reflecting a more severe ecosystem disturbance in those populations. Both nuclear and cpSSRs revealed northern and southern genetic groups with some discordance of their distributions; however, they did not correlate with any of the two geographic gaps known as genetic barriers to animals. Approximate Bayesian computation-based inference from nuclear SSRs suggested that population divergence occurred before the last glacial maximum. Finally we discussed the implications of these results, in particular the presence of a clear pattern of historical genetic subdivision, on conservation policies.

  9. Genetic structure and demographic history of the endangered tree species Dysoxylum malabaricum (Meliaceae) in Western Ghats, India: implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodare, Sofia; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The impact of fragmentation by human activities on genetic diversity of forest trees is an important concern in forest conservation, especially in tropical forests. Dysoxylum malabaricum (white cedar) is an economically important tree species, endemic to the Western Ghats, India, one of the world's eight most important biodiversity hotspots. As D. malabaricum is under pressure of disturbance and fragmentation together with overharvesting, conservation efforts are required in this species. In this study, range-wide genetic structure of twelve D. malabaricum populations was evaluated to assess the impact of human activities on genetic diversity and infer the species’ evolutionary history, using both nuclear and chloroplast (cp) DNA simple sequence repeats (SSR). As genetic diversity and population structure did not differ among seedling, juvenile and adult age classes, reproductive success among the old-growth trees and long distance seed dispersal by hornbills were suggested to contribute to maintain genetic diversity. The fixation index (FIS) was significantly correlated with latitude, with a higher level of inbreeding in the northern populations, possibly reflecting a more severe ecosystem disturbance in those populations. Both nuclear and cpSSRs revealed northern and southern genetic groups with some discordance of their distributions; however, they did not correlate with any of the two geographic gaps known as genetic barriers to animals. Approximate Bayesian computation-based inference from nuclear SSRs suggested that population divergence occurred before the last glacial maximum. Finally we discussed the implications of these results, in particular the presence of a clear pattern of historical genetic subdivision, on conservation policies. PMID:24223264

  10. OCCASIONAL ADNOMINAL IDIOM MODIFICATION - A COGNITIVE LINGUISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Langlotz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available occasional Adnominal Idiom Modification - A Cognitive Linguistic Approach From a cognitive-linguistic perspective, this paper explores alternative types of adnoniinal modification in occasional variants of English verbal idioms. Being discussed against data extracted from the British National Corpiis (BNC, the model claims that in idioni-production idiomatic constructions are activated as complex linguistic schemas to code a context-specific target-conceptualisation. Adnominal pre- and postmodifications are one specific form of creative alteration to adapt the idiom for this purpose. Semantically, idiom-interna1 NPextension is not a uniforni process. It is necessary to distinguish two systematic types of adnominal modification: external and internal modification (Ernst 1981. While external NPmodification has adverbial function, ¡.e. it modifies the idiom as a unit, internal modification directly applies to the head-noun and thus depends on the degree of motivation and analysability of a given idiom. Following the cognitive-linguistic framework, these dimensions of idiom-transparency result from the language user's ability to remotivate the bipartite semantic structure by conceptual metaphors and metonymies.

  11. Modeling Forest Structural Parameters in the Mediterranean Pines of Central Spain using QuickBird-2 Imagery and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest structural parameters such as quadratic mean diameter, basal area, and number of trees per unit area are important for the assessment of wood volume and biomass and represent key forest inventory attributes. Forest inventory information is required to support sustainable management, carbon accounting, and policy development activities. Digital image processing of remotely sensed imagery is increasingly utilized to assist traditional, more manual, methods in the estimation of forest structural attributes over extensive areas, also enabling evaluation of change over time. Empirical attribute estimation with remotely sensed data is frequently employed, yet with known limitations, especially over complex environments such as Mediterranean forests. In this study, the capacity of high spatial resolution (HSR imagery and related techniques to model structural parameters at the stand level (n = 490 in Mediterranean pines in Central Spain is tested using data from the commercial satellite QuickBird-2. Spectral and spatial information derived from multispectral and panchromatic imagery (2.4 m and 0.68 m sided pixels, respectively served to model structural parameters. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART was selected for the modeling of attributes. Accurate models were produced of quadratic mean diameter (QMD (R2 = 0.8; RMSE = 0.13 m with an average error of 17% while basal area (BA models produced an average error of 22% (RMSE = 5.79 m2/ha. When the measured number of trees per unit area (N was categorized, as per frequent forest management practices, CART models correctly classified 70% of the stands, with all other stands classified in an adjacent class. The accuracy of the attributes estimated here is expected to be better when canopy cover is more open and attribute values are at the lower end of the range present, as related in the pattern of the residuals found in this study. Our findings indicate that attributes derived from

  12. The Grammar of Linguistic Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new typology of linguistic signs primarily based on Peirce’s sign conception. It is demonstrated that the fundamental simple sign, the symbolic nominal lexeme, has an arbitrary relationship to its object in order to make it omnipotent, that is, open to various possible...... objects (ensured by nouns) and situations (ensured by the verb)--the latter corresponding to Peirce's rhematic sign-- and in addition to the level of assertion--corresponding to Peirce's dicentic sign-- there is a third level at which verbal categories collaborate in order to make a deduction, abduction...... or induction-- corresponding to Peirce's argumentative signs....

  13. Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

    Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

  14. Measuring Linguistic Empathy: An Experimental Approach to Connecting Linguistic and Social Psychological Notions of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…

  15. Right Lateral Cerebellum Represents Linguistic Predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Elise; Hansen, Peter C; Miall, R Chris

    2017-06-28

    Mounting evidence indicates that posterolateral portions of the cerebellum (right Crus I/II) contribute to language processing, but the nature of this role remains unclear. Based on a well-supported theory of cerebellar motor function, which ascribes to the cerebellum a role in short-term prediction through internal modeling, we hypothesize that right cerebellar Crus I/II supports prediction of upcoming sentence content. We tested this hypothesis using event-related fMRI in male and female human subjects by manipulating the predictability of written sentences. Our design controlled for motor planning and execution, as well as for linguistic features and working memory load; it also allowed separation of the prediction interval from the presentation of the final sentence item. In addition, three further fMRI tasks captured semantic, phonological, and orthographic processing to shed light on the nature of the information processed. As hypothesized, activity in right posterolateral cerebellum correlated with the predictability of the upcoming target word. This cerebellar region also responded to prediction error during the outcome of the trial. Further, this region was engaged in phonological, but not semantic or orthographic, processing. This is the first imaging study to demonstrate a right cerebellar contribution in language comprehension independently from motor, cognitive, and linguistic confounds. These results complement our work using other methodologies showing cerebellar engagement in linguistic prediction and suggest that internal modeling of phonological representations aids language production and comprehension. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cerebellum is traditionally seen as a motor structure that allows for smooth movement by predicting upcoming signals. However, the cerebellum is also consistently implicated in nonmotor functions such as language and working memory. Using fMRI, we identify a cerebellar area that is active when words are predicted and

  16. Complex Spatial Structure in a Population of Didymopanax pittieri, A Tree of Wind-Exposed Lower Montane Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Robert M.; Lawton, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Didymopanax pittieri is a common shade-intolerant tree colonizing treefall gaps in the elfin forests on windswept ridgecrests in the lower montane rain forests of the Cordillera de Tilarain, Costa Rica. All D. pittieri taller than > 0.5 m in a 5.2-ha elfin forested portion of a gridded study watershed in the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve were located, mapped, and measured. This local population of D. pittieri is spatially inhomogeneous, in that density increases with increasing wind exposure; D. pittieri are more abundant near ridge crests than lower on windward slopes. The important and ubiquitous phenomenon of spatial inhomogeneity in population density is addressed and corrected for in spatial analyses by the application of the inhomogeneous version of Ripley's K. The spatial patterns of four size classes of D. pittieri ( 20 cm dbh) were investigated. Within the large-scale trend in density driven by wind exposure, D. pittieri saplings are clumped at the scale of treefall gaps and at the scale of patches of aggregated gaps. D. pittieri 5-10 cm dbh are randomly distributed, apparently due to competitive thinning of sapling clumps during the early stages of gap-phase regeneration. D. pittieri larger than 10 cm dbh are overdispersed at a scale larger than that of patches of gaps. Natural disturbance can influence the distribution of shade intolerant tree populations at several different spatial scales, and can have discordant effects at different life history stages.

  17. Tree manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  18. General linguistics and the study of Dutch. The case of C.F.P. Stutterheim (1903-1991)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, J.

    The mingling of linguistics and philosophy of language is characteristic of structuralism in the Netherlands. In this paper the case of the Dutch linguist C.F.P. Stutterheim (1903-1991), professor of Dutch language in the University of Leiden, is used to examine the extent to which this alliance

  19. From Tree Structure to Interactive Network:A Preliminary Study on Transit-Oriented Spatial Development Patterns of Village-Town Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyan; WANG; Shuhua; HE; Fang; QIAN

    2014-01-01

    Based on the relatively developed highway and road network in China’s eastern coastal provinces, the public transit-oriented development model(TOD) for village-town communities aims to create a network connecting the urban and rural public transportation system and the public service system, by selectively constructing 'urban-type' communities with bus stops, thus promoting the mobility of urban and rural factors and to optimize the public service system, so as to change the traditional top-down development mode with tree structure. Through the planning practice in Linyi County, Dezhou City, it is found that a TOD-based spatial development mode in village-town communities can provide references for new countryside planning and construction in China in terms of upgrading the urban-rural functional structure, satisfying local demands, optimizing local government decisions, improving the planning mode, etc.

  20. Edge-Disjoint Fibonacci Trees in Hypercube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhumathi Raman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fibonacci tree is a rooted binary tree whose number of vertices admit a recursive definition similar to the Fibonacci numbers. In this paper, we prove that a hypercube of dimension h admits two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-2, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-4 and so on, as subgraphs. The result shows that an algorithm with Fibonacci trees as underlying data structure can be implemented concurrently on a hypercube network with no communication latency.

  1. The linguistic roots of natural pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Otávio; Hinzen, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Natural pedagogy is a human-specific capacity that allows us to acquire cultural information from communication even before the emergence of the first words, encompassing three core elements: (i) a sensitivity to ostensive signals like eye contact that indicate to infants that they are being addressed through communication, (ii) a subsequent referential expectation (satisfied by the use of declarative gestures) and (iii) a biased interpretation of ostensive-referential communication as conveying relevant information about the referent's kind (Csibra and Gergely, 2006, 2009, 2011). Remarkably, the link between natural pedagogy and another human-specific capacity, namely language, has rarely been investigated in detail. We here argue that children's production and comprehension of declarative gestures around 10 months of age are in fact expressions of an evolving faculty of language. Through both declarative gestures and ostensive signals, infants can assign the roles of third, second, and first person, building the 'deictic space' that grounds both natural pedagogy and language use. Secondly, we argue that the emergence of two kinds of linguistic structures (i.e., proto-determiner phrases and proto-sentences) in the one-word period sheds light on the different kinds of information that children can acquire or convey at different stages of development (namely, generic knowledge about kinds and knowledge about particular events/actions/state of affairs, respectively). Furthermore, the development of nominal and temporal reference in speech allows children to cognize information in terms of spatial and temporal relations. In this way, natural pedagogy transpires as an inherent aspect of our faculty of language, rather than as an independent adaptation that pre-dates language in evolution or development (Csibra and Gergely, 2006). This hypothesis is further testable through predictions it makes on the different linguistic profiles of toddlers with developmental

  2. The linguistic roots of Natural Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio eMattos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural pedagogy is a human-specific capacity that allows us to acquire cultural information from communication even before the emergence of the first words, encompassing three core elements: (i a sensitivity to ostensive signals like eye contact that indicate to infants that they are being addressed through communication, (ii a subsequent referential expectation (satisfied by the use of declarative gestures and (iii a biased interpretation of ostensive-referential communication as conveying relevant information about the referent's kind (Csibra & Gergely, 2011, 2009, 2006. Remarkably, the link between natural pedagogy and another human-specific capacity, namely language, has rarely been investigated in detail. We here argue that children’s production and comprehension of declarative gestures around 10 months of age are in fact expressions of an evolving faculty of language. Through both declarative gestures and ostensive signals, infants can assign the roles of 3rd , 2nd and 1st person, building the ‘deictic space’ that grounds both natural pedagogy and language use. Secondly, we argue that the emergence of two kinds of linguistic structures (i.e. proto-determiner phrases and proto-sentences in the one-word period sheds light on the different kinds of information that children can acquire or convey at different stages of development (namely, generic knowledge about kinds and knowledge about particular events/actions/state of affairs, respectively. Furthermore, the development of nominal and temporal reference in speech allows children to cognize information in terms of spatial and temporal relations. In this way, natural pedagogy transpires as an inherent aspect of our faculty of language, rather than as an independent adaptation that pre-dates language in evolution or development (Csibra & Gergely, 2006. This hypothesis is further testable through predictions it makes on the different linguistic profiles of toddlers with developmental

  3. Linguistic spatial classifications of event domains in narratives of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Stephen Howald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Structurally, formal definitions of the linguistic narrative minimally require two temporally linked past-time events. The role of space in this definition, based on spatial language indicating where events occur, is considered optional and non-structural. However, based on narratives with a high frequency of spatial language, recent research has questioned this perspective, suggesting that space is more critical than may be readily apparent. Through an analysis of spatially rich serial criminal narratives, it will be demonstrated that spatial information qualitatively varies relative to narrative events. In particular, statistical classifiers in a supervised machine learning task achieve a 90% accuracy in predicting Pre-Crime, Crime, and Post-Crime events based on spatial (and temporal information. Overall, these results suggest a deeper spatial organization of discourse, which not only provides practical event resolution possibilities, but also challenges traditional formal linguistic definitions of narrative.

  4. "Growing trees backwards": Description of a stand reconstruction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Bakker; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Peter Z. Fule; David W. Huffman; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    We describe an individual-tree model that uses contemporary measurements to "grow trees backward" and reconstruct past tree diameters and stand structure in ponderosa pine dominated stands of the Southwest. Model inputs are contemporary structural measurements of all snags, logs, stumps, and living trees, and radial growth measurements, if available. Key...

  5. Drawing Contour Trees in the Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, C; Schneider, D; Carr, Hamish; Scheuermann, G

    2011-11-01

    The contour tree compactly describes scalar field topology. From the viewpoint of graph drawing, it is a tree with attributes at vertices and optionally on edges. Standard tree drawing algorithms emphasize structural properties of the tree and neglect the attributes. Applying known techniques to convey this information proves hard and sometimes even impossible. We present several adaptions of popular graph drawing approaches to the problem of contour tree drawing and evaluate them. We identify five esthetic criteria for drawing contour trees and present a novel algorithm for drawing contour trees in the plane that satisfies four of these criteria. Our implementation is fast and effective for contour tree sizes usually used in interactive systems (around 100 branches) and also produces readable pictures for larger trees, as is shown for an 800 branch example.

  6. Determination of the genetic structure of remnant Morus boninensis Koidz. trees to establish a conservation program on the Bonin Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobushima Fuyuo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morus boninensis, is an endemic plant of the Bonin (Ogasawara Islands of Japan and is categorized as "critically endangered" in the Japanese red data book. However, little information is available about its ecological, evolutionary and genetic status, despite the urgent need for guidelines for the conservation of the species. Therefore, we adopted Moritz's MU concept, based on the species' current genetic structure, to define management units and to select mother tree candidates for seed orchards. Results Nearly all individuals of the species were genotyped on the basis of seven microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity levels in putative natural populations were higher than in putative man-made populations with the exception of those on Otouto-jima Island. This is because a limited number of maternal trees are likely to have been used for seed collection to establish the man-made populations. A model-based clustering analysis clearly distinguished individuals into nine clusters, with a large difference in genetic composition between the population on Otouto-jima Island, the putative natural populations and the putative man-made populations. The Otouto-jima population appeared to be genetically differentiated from the others; a finding that was also supported by pairwise FST and RST analysis. Although multiple clusters were detected in the putative man-made populations, the pattern of genetic diversity was monotonous in comparison to the natural populations. Conclusion The genotyping by microsatellite markers revealed strong genetic structures. Typically, artificial propagation of this species has ignored the genetic structure, relying only on seeds from Otouto-jima for replanting on other islands, because of a problem with inter-specific hybridization on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands. However, this study demonstrates that we should be taking into consideration the genetic structure of the species when designing a

  7. Determination of the genetic structure of remnant Morus boninensis Koidz. trees to establish a conservation program on the Bonin Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Naoki; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Takayuki; Hoshi, Yoshio; Nobushima, Fuyuo; Yasui, Takaya

    2006-10-11

    Morus boninensis, is an endemic plant of the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands of Japan and is categorized as "critically endangered" in the Japanese red data book. However, little information is available about its ecological, evolutionary and genetic status, despite the urgent need for guidelines for the conservation of the species. Therefore, we adopted Moritz's MU concept, based on the species' current genetic structure, to define management units and to select mother tree candidates for seed orchards. Nearly all individuals of the species were genotyped on the basis of seven microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity levels in putative natural populations were higher than in putative man-made populations with the exception of those on Otouto-jima Island. This is because a limited number of maternal trees are likely to have been used for seed collection to establish the man-made populations. A model-based clustering analysis clearly distinguished individuals into nine clusters, with a large difference in genetic composition between the population on Otouto-jima Island, the putative natural populations and the putative man-made populations. The Otouto-jima population appeared to be genetically differentiated from the others; a finding that was also supported by pairwise FST and RST analysis. Although multiple clusters were detected in the putative man-made populations, the pattern of genetic diversity was monotonous in comparison to the natural populations. The genotyping by microsatellite markers revealed strong genetic structures. Typically, artificial propagation of this species has ignored the genetic structure, relying only on seeds from Otouto-jima for replanting on other islands, because of a problem with inter-specific hybridization on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands. However, this study demonstrates that we should be taking into consideration the genetic structure of the species when designing a propagation program for the conservation of this species.

  8. Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Leisy

    2012-01-01

    Detailing a decade of life and language use in a remote Alaskan Yup'ik community, Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance provides rare insight into young people's language brokering and Indigenous people's contemporary linguistic ecologies. This book examines how two consecutive groups of youth in a Yup'ik village…

  9. MODERN LINGUISTICS, ITS DEVELOPMENT AND SCOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN LINGUISTICS STARTED WITH JONES' DISCOVERY IN 1786 THAT SANSKRIT IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE CLASSICAL, GERMANIC, AND CELTIC LANGUAGES, AND HAS ADVANCED TO INCLUDE THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS IN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS. THE HIGHLIGHTS OF LINGUISTIC RESEARCH HAVE BEEN DE SAUSSURE'S DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE DIACHRONIC AND THE…

  10. What can literature do for linguistics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2007-01-01

      Through analyses of selected passages from James Joyce's Ulysses, this article demonstrates how the challenging of the boundaries between linguistics and literary studies can be more than a one-way process aimed at uncovering linguistic patterns of literary texts. The theoretical basis...

  11. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  12. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  13. Political Liberalism, Linguistic Diversity and Equal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of John Rawls' political liberalism for linguistic diversity and language policy, by focusing on the following question: what kind(s) of equality between speakers of different languages and with different linguistic identities should the state guarantee under political liberalism? The article makes three…

  14. Using the Linguistic Landscape to Bridge Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Vanessa

    2018-01-01

    In this article Vanessa Mari describes how she uses the linguistic landscape to bridge two or more languages with students learning English. The linguistic landscape is defined by Landry and Bourhis (1997, 25) as "the language of public road signs, advertising billboards, street names, place names, commercial shop signs, and public signs on…

  15. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  16. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Publisher contact person: Mrs Christine Smit. Email: linguis@sun.ac.za. Phone: 021 808 2052. Fax: 021 808 2009. Mailing address: Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602. Department of General ...

  17. Are Prospective English Teachers Linguistically Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Kadir Vefa

    2017-01-01

    Language is normally associated with linguistic capabilities of individuals. In the theory of multiple intelligences, language is considered to be related primarily to linguistic intelligence. Using the theory of Multiple Intelligences as its starting point, this descriptive survey study investigated to what extent prospective English teachers'…

  18. A General Overview of Motivation in Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王航

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the term of motivation in linguistics study has aroused the interests of scholars. Different studies of mo -tivation have been produced by different scholars. In this paper, the writer organizes the recent studies on motivation in linguistics. the paper is divided into three parts, the introduction of the term motivation, different types of motivation, and theories of moti -vation.

  19. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at www.ajol.info. However print-on-demand copies can be made ...

  20. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…