WorldWideScience

Sample records for linguistic information play

  1. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2013-01-01

    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  2. The linguistic realization of information packaging

    Vallduví, Enric; Engdahl, Elisabet

    1996-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of the large degree of crosslinguistic diversity involved in the structural realization of information packaging (or information structure). Whereas English and many Germanic languages primarily exploit intonation for informational purposes, in other languages, like Catalan, syntax plays the primary role in the realization of information packaging and intonation is reduced to a secondary role. In yet another group of languages the primary structural correlate is ...

  3. Describing linguistic information in a behavioural framework: Possible or not?

    De Cooman, G. [Universiteit Gent, Zwijnaarde (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses important aspects of the representation of linguistic information, using imprecise probabilities with a behavioural interpretation. We define linguistic information as the information conveyed by statements in natural language, but restrict ourselves to simple affirmative statements of the type {open_quote}subject-is-predicate{close_quote}. Taking the behavioural stance, as it is described in detail, we investigate whether it is possible to give a mathematical model for this kind of information. In particular, we evaluate Zadeli`s suggestion that we should use possibility measures to this end. We come to tile conclusion that, generally speaking, possibility measures are possibility models for linguistic information, but that more work should be done in order to evaluate the suggestion that they may be the only ones.

  4. The effectiveness of linguistic plays on the grammatical skills of hearing-impaired children with hearing aids

    Sahar Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Grammatical skills development of hearing-impaired children depends on using appropriate educational rehabilitation programs. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of linguistic plays on the grammatical skills in hearing-impaired children with hearing aids.Methods: Ten hearing-impaired children with hearing aids, aged between 5 and 7, were randomly assigned to two groups (5 children in each group. Each treatment group received 12 sessions on linguistic plays. The grammatical skills of these children were evaluated via the TOLD-P: 3 (Persian version; in addition, their level of intelligence was assessed by the Raven test.Results: The difference between the scores of both control and treatment groups revealed a statistically significant difference in grammatical skills (t=7.61, p=0.001 and three subskills of the children who participated in the linguistic plays. These subskills include syntactic understanding (t=3.16, p=0.013, sentence imitation (t=1.71, p=0.006, and morphological completion (t=6.55, p=0.001. In other words, the findings suggest that linguistic plays have a significant impact on the improvement of the aforementioned skills in hearing-impaired children.Conclusion: Results suggest that it would be beneficial to include linguistic plays as part of routine rehabilitation programs as a means of improving the grammatical difficulties of children. After partaking in linguistic plays, children significantly improved their ability to comprehend the meaning of sentences and also to recognize, understand, and use common Persian morphological forms.

  5. A Knowledge Based Recommender System with Multigranular Linguistic Information

    Luis Martinez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems are applications that have emerged in the e-commerce area in order to assist users in their searches in electronic shops. These shops usually offer a wide range of items that cover the necessities of a great variety of users. Nevertheless, searching in such a wide range of items could be a very difficult and time-consuming task. Recommender systems assist users to find out suitable items by means of recommendations based on information provided by different sources such as: other users, experts, item features, etc. Most of the recommender systems force users to provide their preferences or necessities using an unique numerical scale of information fixed in advance. In spite of this information is usually related to opinions, tastes and perceptions, therefore, it seems that is usually better expressed in a qualitative way, with linguistic terms, than in a quantitative way, with precise numbers. We propose a Knowledge Based Recommender System that uses the fuzzy linguistic approach to define a flexible framework to capture the uncertainty of the user's preferences. Thus, this framework will allow users to express their necessities in scales closer to their own knowledge, and different from the scale utilized to describe the items.

  6. Exploring interdisciplinary relationships between linguistics and information retrieval from the 1960s to today

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how linguistics has influenced information retrieval (IR) and attempts to explain the impact of linguistics through an analysis of internal developments in information science generally, and IR in particular. It notes that information science/IR has been evolving from a case...... science into a fully fledged, “disciplined”/disciplinary science. The article establishes correspondences between linguistics and information science/IR using the three established IR paradigms—physical, cognitive, and computational—as a frame of reference. The current relationship between information...... science/IR and linguistics is elucidated through discussion of some recent information science publications dealing with linguistic topics and a novel technique, “keyword collocation analysis,” is introduced. Insights from interdisciplinarity research and case theory are also discussed. It is demonstrated...

  7. Play games to grow up bilingual: The BlaSquare linguistic game

    Andrea Valente

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items, that the player can collect and exchange for other words or for concrete objects. A prototype is currently under development, and it will be tested in cooperation with local schools. By design this linguistic game will also be extensible, so parents and teachers can tailor it with respect to languages and learning contexts.

  8. Checkmate: Linguistic and Literary Play in Salman Rushdie's "Haroun and the Sea of Stories"

    Bongartz, Christiane; Richey, Esther Gilman

    2010-01-01

    The authors use Noam Chomsky's theories about generative grammar to discuss the notion of linguistic creativity they believe lies at the core of storytelling as Salman Rushdie pictures it in his novel, "Haroun and the Sea of Stories." The production of meaning through the use of narrative helps explain the rules of the literary game,…

  9. Does linguistic input play the same role in language learning for children with and without early brain injury?

    Rowe, Meredith L; Levine, Susan C; Fisher, Joan A; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Children with unilateral pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI) show remarkable plasticity for language learning. Previous work highlights the important role that lesion characteristics play in explaining individual variation in plasticity in the language development of children with BI. The current study examines whether the linguistic input that children with BI receive from their caregivers also contributes to this early plasticity, and whether linguistic input plays a similar role in children with BI as it does in typically developing (TD) children. Growth in vocabulary and syntactic production is modeled for 80 children (53 TD, 27 BI) between 14 and 46 months. Findings indicate that caregiver input is an equally potent predictor of vocabulary growth in children with BI and in TD children. In contrast, input is a more potent predictor of syntactic growth for children with BI than for TD children. Controlling for input, lesion characteristics (lesion size, type, seizure history) also affect the language trajectories of children with BI. Thus, findings illustrate how both variability in the environment (linguistic input) and variability in the organism (lesion characteristics) work together to contribute to plasticity in language learning.

  10. On the concept of a linguistic variable

    Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of a linguistic variable plays a crucial role in the representation of imprecise knowledge in information sciences. A variable is called linguistic as soon as its values are linguistic terms rather than numerical ones. The power of daily communication and common sense reasoning lies in the use of such linguistic values. Even when exact numerical values are available, experts tend to transform these values into linguistic ones. A physician will usually translate a numerical measurement of a blood pressure into linguistic specifications such as normal, very high, too low... Zadeh has argued that the set of values for a linguistic variable assumes a more-or-less fixed structure. Starting from an atomic value and its antonym all remaining values are constructed using logical connectives on the one hand and linguistic hedges on the other hand. In this paper we will describe how to represent the value set of a linguistic variable in general and of linguistic hedges in particular

  11. Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design.

    Fukumura, Kumiko

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that speakers can take account of the addressee's needs when referring. However, what representations drive the speaker's audience design has been less clear. This study aims to go beyond previous studies by investigating the interplay between the visual and linguistic context during audience design. Speakers repeated subordinate descriptions (e.g., firefighter) given in the prior linguistic context less and used basic-level descriptions (e.g., man) more when the addressee did not hear the linguistic context than when s/he did. But crucially, this effect happened only when the referent lacked the visual attributes associated with the expressions (e.g., the referent was in plain clothes rather than in a firefighter uniform), so there was no other contextual cue available for the identification of the referent. This suggests that speakers flexibly use different contextual cues to help their addressee map the referring expression onto the intended referent. In addition, speakers used fewer pronouns when the addressee did not hear the linguistic antecedent than when s/he did. This suggests that although speakers may be egocentric during anaphoric reference (Fukumura & Van Gompel, 2012), they can cooperatively avoid pronouns when the linguistic antecedents were not shared with their addressee during initial reference. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Teaching Speaking Skills from Role-play to Communicative Competence via Information-gap and Opinion-gap Activities. One Teacher's Approach.

    Scullard, Sue

    1986-01-01

    The task of the teacher of foreign languages is to enable the students to progress gradually from teacher/coursebook controlled utterances to complete linguistic autonomy. Role play and a progression of information-gap activities are discussed in terms of developing students' personal autonomy at each level of linguistic competence. (Author/LMO)

  13. Information literacy and abstracting: interdisciplinary issues for linguists and information professionals

    Tibor Koltay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Information literacy is a complex phenomenon that requires a multifaceted interdisciplinary approach as it is related to verbal communication, literacy, functional literacy and academic literacy, including issues of plagiarism. It also includes text authoring in a full range of genres, among others abstracts. Abstracting is a well-known act of verbal communication, and abstracts are a genre of written communication. The essence of abstracting is summarizing information making use of critical reading. Abstracting thus can be regarded as one of the instances of exercising information literacy on a higher level. Both information literacy and abstracting are of prime professional interest for linguists (among others in the field of ESP and information professionals.

  14. Prosody and informativity: A cross-linguistic investigation

    Ouyang, Iris Chuoying

    the speaker and the interlocutor: speakers prosodically emphasize contextually probable corrections and the corrections in response to contextually improbable misstatements. Experiment 4 demonstrates the multi-functionality of prosody by investigating its discourse-level functions in Mandarin Chinese, a tone language where a word's prosodic patterns is crucial to its meaning. The results show that, although prosody serves fundamental, lexical-level functions in Mandarin Chinese, it nevertheless provides cues to information structure as well. Similar to what has been found with English, corrective information is prosodically more prominent than non-corrective information, and new information is prosodically more prominent than given information. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate the complex relationship between prosody and the different types of information it encodes in a given language. To better understand prosody, it is important to integrate insights from different traditions of research and to investigate across languages. In addition, the findings of this research suggest that speakers' assumptions about what their interlocutors know -- as well as speakers' ability to update these expectations -- play a key role in shaping the prosody of utterances. I hypothesize that prosodic prominence may reflect the gap between what speakers had expected their interlocutors to say and what their interlocutors have actually said.

  15. Incorporating linguistic, probabilistic, and possibilistic information in a risk-based approach for ranking contaminated sites.

    Zhang, Kejiang; Achari, Gopal; Pei, Yuansheng

    2010-10-01

    Different types of uncertain information-linguistic, probabilistic, and possibilistic-exist in site characterization. Their representation and propagation significantly influence the management of contaminated sites. In the absence of a framework with which to properly represent and integrate these quantitative and qualitative inputs together, decision makers cannot fully take advantage of the available and necessary information to identify all the plausible alternatives. A systematic methodology was developed in the present work to incorporate linguistic, probabilistic, and possibilistic information into the Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE), a subgroup of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methods for ranking contaminated sites. The identification of criteria based on the paradigm of comparative risk assessment provides a rationale for risk-based prioritization. Uncertain linguistic, probabilistic, and possibilistic information identified in characterizing contaminated sites can be properly represented as numerical values, intervals, probability distributions, and fuzzy sets or possibility distributions, and linguistic variables according to their nature. These different kinds of representation are first transformed into a 2-tuple linguistic representation domain. The propagation of hybrid uncertainties is then carried out in the same domain. This methodology can use the original site information directly as much as possible. The case study shows that this systematic methodology provides more reasonable results. © 2010 SETAC.

  16. How age and linguistic competence affect memory for heard information

    Bruce A Schneider

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The short-term memory performance of a group of younger adults, for whom English was a second language (young EL2 listeners, was compared to that of younger and older adults for whom English was their first language (EL1 listeners. To-be-remembered words were presented in noise and in quiet. When presented in noise, the listening situation was adjusted to insure that the likelihood of recognizing the individual words was comparable for all groups. Previous studies which used the same paradigm found memory performance of older EL1 adults on this paired-associate task to be poorer than that of their younger EL1 counterparts both in quiet and in a background of babble. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the less well-established semantic and linguistic skills of EL2 listeners would also lead to memory deficits even after equating for word recognition as was done for the younger and older EL1 listeners. No significant differences in memory performance were found between young EL1 and EL2 listeners after equating for word recognition, indicating that the EL2 listeners’ poorer semantic and linguistic skills had little effect on their ability to memorize and recall paired associates. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that age-related declines in memory are primarily due to age-related declines in the perceptual and attentional processes required for extracting the word pairs from a background babble of voices. Such declines are likely to increase the load on higher-order (possibly limited cognitive processes supporting memory. The problems that these results pose for the comprehension of spoken language in these three groups are discussed.

  17. How Age and Linguistic Competence Affect Memory for Heard Information.

    Schneider, Bruce A; Avivi-Reich, Meital; Leung, Caterina; Heinrich, Antje

    2016-01-01

    The short-term memory performance of a group of younger adults, for whom English was a second language (young EL2 listeners), was compared to that of younger and older adults for whom English was their first language (EL1 listeners). To-be-remembered words were presented in noise and in quiet. When presented in noise, the listening situation was adjusted to ensure that the likelihood of recognizing the individual words was comparable for all groups. Previous studies which used the same paradigm found memory performance of older EL1 adults on this paired-associate task to be poorer than that of their younger EL1 counterparts both in quiet and in a background of babble. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the less well-established semantic and linguistic skills of EL2 listeners would also lead to memory deficits even after equating for word recognition as was done for the younger and older EL1 listeners. No significant differences in memory performance were found between young EL1 and EL2 listeners after equating for word recognition, indicating that the EL2 listeners' poorer semantic and linguistic skills had little effect on their ability to memorize and recall paired associates. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that age-related declines in memory are primarily due to age-related declines in higher-order processes supporting stream segregation and episodic memory. Such declines are likely to increase the load on higher-order (possibly limited) cognitive processes supporting memory. The problems that these results pose for the comprehension of spoken language in these three groups are discussed.

  18. Linguistic Imperialism

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  19. Language Play and Linguistic Hybridity as Current Trends in Hungarian Word-Formation

    Réka Benczes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungarian literature on word-formation typically focuses on rule-governed descriptions of regular and typologically relevant patterns. However, there are plenty of other word-formation trends that usually go unnoticed in mainstream morphological research. The present paper will focus on two such trends: 1 rhyming and alliterating compounds such as pannon puma ‘Pannonian puma’ (a euphemism for Hungary’s economic performance, on the analogy of Asian tiger; and 2 creative prefixations such as meggugliz (‘to google’ and felhájpol (‘to hype’. Although these are seemingly two quite different patterns, in fact they share two significant traits. On the one hand, they are demonstrations of the fact that language users make full use of the creative possibilities in language and routinely play with sounds and meanings. On the other hand, they are also indications of the influential role of English in present-day Hungarian word-formation. It seems that language users are not only aware of the possibilities that this interference can result in but are also able to exploit these consciously. This crossing of language boundaries is becoming increasingly inevitable with the global spread of English.

  20. Listening Better to Look Better: The Manipulation of Linguistic Devices and Listening Skills in the Writing of "Booters," a Play for Young People

    Dickenson, Sarah Jane

    2006-01-01

    As someone who writes plays specifically for young people, this author believes she has a responsibility to create texts which are structured to help young performers extend their performance skills. This can and should include effective use of linguistic devices as well as indicating possibilities for physical gesture. The author contends that,…

  1. Models and Methods of Aggregating Linguistic Information in Multi-criteria Hierarchical Quality Assessment Systems

    Azarnova, T. V.; Titova, I. A.; Barkalov, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents an algorithm for obtaining an integral assessment of the quality of an organization from the perspective of customers, based on the method of aggregating linguistic information on a multilevel hierarchical system of quality assessment. The algorithm is of a constructive nature, it provides not only the possibility of obtaining an integral evaluation, but also the development of a quality improvement strategy based on the method of linguistic decomposition, which forms the minimum set of areas of work with clients whose quality change will allow obtaining the required level of integrated quality assessment.

  2. The effect of linguistic devices in information presentation messages on comprehension and recall

    Tietze, M.I.; Winterboer, A.; Moore, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of linguistic devices on recall and comprehension in information presentation using both recall and eye-tracking data. In addition, the results were validated via an experiment using Amazon's Mechanical Turk micro-task environment.

  3. Cloud decision model for selecting sustainable energy crop based on linguistic intuitionistic information

    Peng, Hong-Gang; Wang, Jian-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, sustainable energy crop has become an important energy development strategy topic in many countries. Selecting the most sustainable energy crop is a significant problem that must be addressed during any biofuel production process. The focus of this study is the development of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method to handle sustainable energy crop selection problems. Given that various uncertain data are encountered in the evaluation of sustainable energy crops, linguistic intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (LIFNs) are introduced to present the information necessary to the evaluation process. Processing qualitative concepts requires the effective support of reliable tools; then, a cloud model can be used to deal with linguistic intuitionistic information. First, LIFNs are converted and a novel concept of linguistic intuitionistic cloud (LIC) is proposed. The operations, score function and similarity measurement of the LICs are defined. Subsequently, the linguistic intuitionistic cloud density-prioritised weighted Heronian mean operator is developed, which served as the basis for the construction of an applicable MCDM model for sustainable energy crop selection. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to demonstrate the proposed method, and its feasibility and validity are further verified by comparing it with other existing methods.

  4. Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering: Adaptation of Linguistic Paradigm for Circumstance of Engineering Epoch

    Natalya Halina

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems of linguistic knowledge in the Engineering Epoch. Engineering Epoch is the time of adaptation to the information flows by knowledge management, The system of adaptation mechanisms is connected with linguistic and linguistic technologies, forming in new linguistic patterns Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering.

  5. The role of linguists in planning and making dictionaries in modern information society

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    , but not necessarily for all, e.g. not for meaning items, collocations or synonym items. This will be discussed outgoing from the description of a database and the concept for one polyfunctional and five monofunctional monolingual general dictionaries. The first monofunctional dictionary is a reception dictionary...... type of expert is best suited to make modern dictionaries in the information age? This question is quite complex. We have different kinds of dictionaries, e.g. general language and special language dictionaries. And we have different kinds of lexicographers, e.g. 1. metalexicographer, 2. practical...... lexicographer making the concept for a planned dictionary, 3. lexicographer making the concrete dictionary articles or parts of them. For (2) a linguist is of course not the natural choice. For (3) we need linguists for certain kind of dictionaries and certain data types in general languages...

  6. Informational and linguistic analysis of large genomic sequence collections via efficient Hadoop cluster algorithms.

    Ferraro Petrillo, Umberto; Roscigno, Gianluca; Cattaneo, Giuseppe; Giancarlo, Raffaele

    2018-06-01

    Information theoretic and compositional/linguistic analysis of genomes have a central role in bioinformatics, even more so since the associated methodologies are becoming very valuable also for epigenomic and meta-genomic studies. The kernel of those methods is based on the collection of k-mer statistics, i.e. how many times each k-mer in {A,C,G,T}k occurs in a DNA sequence. Although this problem is computationally very simple and efficiently solvable on a conventional computer, the sheer amount of data available now in applications demands to resort to parallel and distributed computing. Indeed, those type of algorithms have been developed to collect k-mer statistics in the realm of genome assembly. However, they are so specialized to this domain that they do not extend easily to the computation of informational and linguistic indices, concurrently on sets of genomes. Following the well-established approach in many disciplines, and with a growing success also in bioinformatics, to resort to MapReduce and Hadoop to deal with 'Big Data' problems, we present KCH, the first set of MapReduce algorithms able to perform concurrently informational and linguistic analysis of large collections of genomic sequences on a Hadoop cluster. The benchmarking of KCH that we provide indicates that it is quite effective and versatile. It is also competitive with respect to the parallel and distributed algorithms highly specialized to k-mer statistics collection for genome assembly problems. In conclusion, KCH is a much needed addition to the growing number of algorithms and tools that use MapReduce for bioinformatics core applications. The software, including instructions for running it over Amazon AWS, as well as the datasets are available at http://www.di-srv.unisa.it/KCH. umberto.ferraro@uniroma1.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. The role of linguistic experience in the processing of probabilistic information in production.

    Gustafson, Erin; Goldrick, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Speakers track the probability that a word will occur in a particular context and utilize this information during phonetic processing. For example, content words that have high probability within a discourse tend to be realized with reduced acoustic/articulatory properties. Such probabilistic information may influence L1 and L2 speech processing in distinct ways (reflecting differences in linguistic experience across groups and the overall difficulty of L2 speech processing). To examine this issue, L1 and L2 speakers performed a referential communication task, describing sequences of simple actions. The two groups of speakers showed similar effects of discourse-dependent probabilistic information on production, suggesting that L2 speakers can successfully track discourse-dependent probabilities and use such information to modulate phonetic processing.

  8. A fuzzy MCDM approach for evaluating school performance based on linguistic information

    Musani, Suhaina; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2013-11-01

    Decision making is the process of finding the best option among the feasible alternatives. This process should consider a variety of criteria, but this study only focus on academic achievement. The data used is the percentage of candidates who obtained Malaysian Certificate of Education (SPM) in Melaka based on school academic achievement for each subject. 57 secondary schools in Melaka as listed by the Ministry of Education involved in this study. Therefore the school ranking can be done using MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) methods. The objective of this study is to develop a rational method for evaluating school performance based on linguistic information. Since the information or level of academic achievement provided in linguistic manner, there is a possible chance of getting incomplete or uncertain problems. So in order to overcome the situation, the information could be provided as fuzzy numbers. Since fuzzy set represents the uncertainty in human perceptions. In this research, VIKOR (Multi Criteria Optimization and Compromise Solution) has been used as a MCDM tool for the school ranking process in fuzzy environment. Results showed that fuzzy set theory can solve the limitations of using MCDM when there is uncertainty problems exist in the data.

  9. Siblings as Mediators of Literacy in Linguistic Minority Communities.

    Gregory, Eve

    1998-01-01

    Argues for need to move beyond model of "parental" involvement in reading, which presently informs home/school reading programmes for linguistic-minority children in UK. First examines literature informing current model showing marked absence of studies on role played by siblings as mediators of literacy in new linguistic and cultural…

  10. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  11. Preferences for (In)Formal Language: Correlations with Attitudes toward Linguistic Variation, Multilingualism, Tolerance of Ambiguity, and Residence Abroad

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on data collected via a web-based survey, the study investigates the relationship between preferences for (in)formal language and attitudes toward linguistic variation among a large group of monolingual and multilingual adults (n = 379). Also explored are the links between preferences for (in)formal language and several secondary…

  12. Quantifying the information in the long-range order of words: semantic structures and universal linguistic constraints.

    Montemurro, Marcelo A

    2014-06-01

    We review some recent progress on the characterisation of long-range patterns of word use in language using methods from information theory. In particular, two levels of structure in language are considered. The first level corresponds to the patterns of words usage over different contextual domains. A direct application of information theory to quantify the specificity of words across different sections of a linguistic sequence leads to a measure of semantic information. Moreover, a natural scale emerges that characterises the typical size of semantic structures. Since the information measure is made up of additive contributions from individual words, it is possible to rank the words according to their overall weight in the total information. This allows the extraction of keywords most relevant to the semantic content of the sequence without any prior knowledge of the language. The second level considered is the complex structure of correlations among words in linguistic sequences. The degree of order in language can be quantified by means of the entropy. Reliable estimates of the entropy were obtained from corpora of texts from several linguistic families by means of lossless compression algorithms. The value of the entropy fluctuates across different languages since it depends on linguistic organisation at various levels. However, when a measure of relative entropy that specifically quantifies the degree of word ordering in language is estimated, it presents an almost constant value over all the linguistic families studied. This suggests that the entropy of word ordering is a novel quantitative linguistic universal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social adaptation in multi-agent model of linguistic categorization is affected by network information flow.

    Zubek, Julian; Denkiewicz, Michał; Barański, Juliusz; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how information flow properties of a network affect the formation of categories shared between individuals, who are communicating through that network. Our work is based on the established multi-agent model of the emergence of linguistic categories grounded in external environment. We study how network information propagation efficiency and the direction of information flow affect categorization by performing simulations with idealized network topologies optimizing certain network centrality measures. We measure dynamic social adaptation when either network topology or environment is subject to change during the experiment, and the system has to adapt to new conditions. We find that both decentralized network topology efficient in information propagation and the presence of central authority (information flow from the center to peripheries) are beneficial for the formation of global agreement between agents. Systems with central authority cope well with network topology change, but are less robust in the case of environment change. These findings help to understand which network properties affect processes of social adaptation. They are important to inform the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of centralized systems.

  14. Semio-Linguistic Creative Actualization of the Concept “Information About the Future” in the Science Fiction Discourse

    Andrey Vladimirovich Olyanich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cognitive category of "semio-linguistic creativity", that serves as a tool for implification of the concept "Information about the future" in the science fiction discourse. The correlation between the categories of future and information is studied in semio-linguistic aspect; the conceptual core, internal and external zones of the concept "Information about the future" are explored in connection with the concepts "Future", "Myths" and "Expectations" that are viewed as belonging to the science fiction discourse. The following issues are considered: coordination between axiological and imaginative spheres of the concept "Information about the future"; the mechanism of transforming information from present and past into the future by means of literary imagination, which is aimed at constructing the imaginary hyper-reality with the use of concepts that belong to contemporary reality; it is stated that such activity lays the basis for multiple forecasts. After the analysis of the novels by Vasily Golovachev, a famous Russian science fiction writer, the authors present their interpretation of the process of science-fiction discourse unfolding that involves groups of signs from the following semio-linguistic clusters (The Man as a species; Food; Space, Earth, their semantic content is directly related to the needs of the future. The proposed algorithm of analysis may be applied to studying other semio-linguistic clusters: "Habitat," "Communications", "Social Environment", "Transport", "Technology", that may explicate the concept "Information about the future".

  15. Three Translators in Search of an Author: Linguistic Strategies and Language Models in the (Retranslation of Shakespeare’s Plays into Catalan

    Pujol Dídac

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how the language of Shakespeare’s plays has been rendered into Catalan in three especially significant periods: the late 19th century, the early 20th century, and the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The first section centres on the contrast between natural and unnatural language in Hamlet, and considers how this differentiation is carried out (by linguistic techniques that differ substantially from Shakespeare’s in a late 19th-century Catalan adaptation by Gaietà Soler. The second part of the article investigates the reasons why in an early 20th-century translation of King Lear the translator, Anfòs Par, resorts to medieval instead of present-time language. The last section of the article illustrates how and explores the motivations why Salvador Oliva’s first (1985 version of The Tempest is retranslated in 2006 using a different language model. The ultimate aim of the paper is to put forward the hypothesis that, in the case of Catalan, Shakespearean translations are both a reflection of the current state of the language and a major linguistic experimentation that shapes and creates (sometimes through a via negativa the Catalan literary language.

  16. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  17. From Shared Contexts to Syntactic Categories: The Role of Distributional Information in Learning Linguistic Form-Classes

    Reeder, Patricia A.; Newport, Elissa L.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental component of language acquisition involves organizing words into grammatical categories. Previous literature has suggested a number of ways in which this categorization task might be accomplished. Here we ask whether the patterning of the words in a corpus of linguistic input ("distributional information") is sufficient, along with a…

  18. Developing written information for cancer survivors from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: Lessons learnt

    Georgina Wiley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is a multicultural nation with a large migrant population. Migrants with cancer report inferior quality of life and the need for more information in their own language. This paper describes lessons learnt from developing culturally appropriate written information resources with and for Arabic, Italian, and Vietnamese cancer survivors and carers. The information needs of survivors from these language groups as well as guidelines for the development of written resources for culturally diverse populations were identified through literature review. Community consultation was undertaken with focus groups. The content was developed and tested with health professionals who spoke the appropriate language and focus group participants, ensuring relevance and appropriateness. Resource design and dissemination were informed through community consultation. A number of key tasks for developing resources were identified as follows: (1 community engagement and consultation; (2 culturally sensitive data collection; (3 focus group facilitators (recruitment and training; (4 content development; (5 translation and review process; (6 design; and (7 sustainability. This project reinforced literature review findings on the importance of cultural sensitivity in the development of resources. Engaging with community groups and incorporating culturally appropriate recruitment strategies optimises recruitment to focus groups and facilitates content development. Stakeholders and lay persons from the intended ethnic-minority communities should be involved in the development and formative evaluation of resources to ensure appropriateness and relevance and in the dissemination strategy to optimize penetration. We believe the lessons we have learnt will be relevant to any group intending to develop health information for culturally and linguistic diverse groups.

  19. Exploring culturally and linguistically diverse consumer needs in relation to medicines use and health information within the pharmacy setting.

    Mohammad, Annim; Saini, Bandana; Chaar, Betty Bouad

    2015-01-01

    Low health literacy may result in adverse health outcomes for patients and is a problem faced by countries with multi-ethnic demography. For those of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds, this problem can be compounded by language barriers such as low English proficiency (LEP). The pharmacy is often the last point of health-care provider contact before patients begin taking their medicines and the first point of care for minor ailments. There is a paucity of data exploring or establishing the needs of this population with respect to general medicine use/health information and pharmacist assistance. This study aimed to investigate the needs of CALD Australians with low or negligible English proficiency, specifically in regards to their understanding of health and medicines and the role of pharmacy in achieving best medicine use outcomes for this population. A qualitative method was employed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals of CALD backgrounds with a self-reported low or negligible English proficiency. The interviews explored past experiences with medicines use and interaction with health care professionals. A grounded theory approach with the method of constant comparison was undertaken for analyzing the data. Interviews were conducted until there was a saturation of themes. Thirty-one interviews were conducted, and data analyses identified themes relating to medicine use of CALD community members which were broadly categorized into: (1) health information, (2) interactions with health care professionals, (3) social networks and (4) perceptions and beliefs influencing health-related behavior. In CALD communities there are significant barriers to patient understanding and optimal use of medicines. There is significant potential for pharmacy to facilitate in addressing these issues as currently pharmacy is largely playing the role of dispenser of medicines. Whilst timely access of medicines is being ensured, there seems

  20. Linguistic Polyphony

    Nølke, Henning

    on the Scandinavian variant of polyphony, ScaPoLine. ScaPoLine is a formal linguistic theory whose main purpose is to specify the instructions conveyed through linguistic form for the creation of polyphonic meaning. The theoretical introduction is followed by polyphonic analyses of linguistic phenomena...

  1. Providing health information for culturally and linguistically diverse women: priorities and preferences of new migrants and refugees.

    Lee, Susan K; Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl M R; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-08-01

    Preferences for topics and means of access to health information among newly arrived, culturally and linguistically diverse women in Perth, Western Australia, were explored. A mixed-methods approach was adopted. Qualitative material obtained from focus groups and interviews with 22 service providers and 26 migrant women was used to develop a questionnaire, which was then administered to 268 newly arrived migrant and refugee women from 50 countries. Participants' information and support priorities were ascertained from a ranking exercise conducted in a non-threatening context. Responses of migrant and refugee women were compared quantitatively. Women's top priorities for information and support included employment advice, as well as information regarding mental health issues, women's health, exercise and nutrition, family violence and alcohol and other drug issues. Their preferred methods for receiving information were interactive talks or presentations, with written material support. Audiovisual and Web-based material were also considered useful. There were differences between refugee women's and other migrants' preferences for means of receiving information and topics of most concern. The use of a non-threatening ranking process encouraged women to prioritise sensitive topics, such as family violence, and revealed a need for such topics to be incorporated within general health information presentations. Internet-based technologies are becoming increasingly important methods for disseminating information to migrant women. SO WHAT? Differences between migrant and refugee women's priority health issues and their preferred methods for receiving information highlight the desirability of tailoring information to particular groups. Although advice on employment pathways and mental health concerns were top priorities, the study revealed a need for more discussion on other sensitive topics, such as family violence and alcohol-related issues, and that ideally these should

  2. Probabilistic linguistics

    Bod, R.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic linguistics takes all linguistic evidence as positive evidence and lets statistics decide. It allows for accurate modelling of gradient phenomena in production and perception, and suggests that rule-like behaviour is no more than a side effect of maximizing probability. This chapter

  3. Addressing the Issue of Cultural and Linguistic Diversity and Assessment: Informal Evaluation Measures for English Language Learners

    Spinelli, Cathleen G.

    2008-01-01

    Existing research indicates that there is a disproportionate number of students with cultural and linguistic differences, English Language Learners (ELL), who are misidentified as learning disabled when their problems are due to cultural and/or linguistic differences. As a consequence, these students do not receive appropriate services. With the…

  4. Citizen-Centric Urban Planning through Extracting Emotion Information from Twitter in an Interdisciplinary Space-Time-Linguistics Algorithm

    Bernd Resch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional urban planning processes typically happen in offices and behind desks. Modern types of civic participation can enhance those processes by acquiring citizens’ ideas and feedback in participatory sensing approaches like “People as Sensors”. As such, citizen-centric planning can be achieved by analysing Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI data such as Twitter tweets and posts from other social media channels. These user-generated data comprise several information dimensions, such as spatial and temporal information, and textual content. However, in previous research, these dimensions were generally examined separately in single-disciplinary approaches, which does not allow for holistic conclusions in urban planning. This paper introduces TwEmLab, an interdisciplinary approach towards extracting citizens’ emotions in different locations within a city. More concretely, we analyse tweets in three dimensions (space, time, and linguistics, based on similarities between each pair of tweets as defined by a specific set of functional relationships in each dimension. We use a graph-based semi-supervised learning algorithm to classify the data into discrete emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, anger/disgust, none. Our proposed solution allows tweets to be classified into emotion classes in a multi-parametric approach. Additionally, we created a manually annotated gold standard that can be used to evaluate TwEmLab’s performance. Our experimental results show that we are able to identify tweets carrying emotions and that our approach bears extensive potential to reveal new insights into citizens’ perceptions of the city.

  5. Enhancing Information Systems Auditing Knowledge with Role-Playing Game: An Experimental Investigation

    Wongpinunwatana, Nitaya

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use and effect of a role-playing game on learners' ability in information systems audit. The study is based on experimental research. Information systems control and audit case study and video had been developed. A total of 75 graduate students undertaking a Master's degree in accounting participated in the experiment. The…

  6. Having Linguistic Rules and Knowing Linguistic Facts

    Peter Ludlow

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    'Knowledge' doesn't correctly describe our relation to linguistic rules. It is too thick a notion (for example, we don't believe linguistic rules. On the other hand, 'cognize', without further elaboration, is too thin a notion, which is to say that it is too thin to play a role in a competence theory. One advantage of the term 'knowledge'-and presumably Chomsky's original motivation for using it-is that knowledge would play the right kind of role in a competence theory: Our competence would consist in a body of knowledge which we have and which we may or may not act upon-our performance need not conform to the linguistic rules that we know.

    Is there a way out of the dilemma? I'm going to make the case that the best way to talk about grammatical rules is simply to say that we have them. That doesn't sound very deep, I know, but saying that we have individual rules leaves room for individual norm guidance in a way that 'cognize' does not. Saying we have a rule like subjacency is also thicker than merely saying we cognize it. Saying I have such a rule invites the interpretation that it is a rule for me-that I am normatively guided by it. The competence theory thus becomes a theory of the rules that we have. Whether we follow those rules is another matter entirely.

  7. Designing and Implementing a Cross-Language Information Retrieval System Using Linguistic Corpora

    Amin Nezarat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Information retrieval (IR is a crucial area of natural language processing (NLP and can be defined as finding documents whose content is relevant to the query need of a user. Cross-language information retrieval (CLIR refers to a kind of information retrieval in which the language of the query and that of searched document are different. In fact, it is a retrieval process where the user presents queries in one language to retrieve documents in another language. This paper tried to construct a bilingual lexicon of parallel chunks of English and Persian from two very large monolingual corpora an English-Persian parallel corpus which could be directly applied to cross-language information retrieval tasks. For this purpose, a statistical measure known as Association Score (AS was used to compute the association value between every two corresponding chunks in the corpus using a couple of complicated algorithms. Once the CLIR system was developed using this bilingual lexicon, an experiment was performed on a set of one hundred English and Persian phrases and collocations to see to what extend this system was effective in assisting the users find the most relevant and suitable equivalents of their queries in either language.

  8. Using newspaper collections in information institutions for research purposes: experiences of historians and linguists

    Maja Krtalić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the opinions, experiences and needs of a sample of scientists in the field of the humanities – namely historians and philologists – and their use of newspaper collections in memory institutions during scientific research. A part of the results gathered in the research, which was conducted within the Newspapers as a source of scientific information in social sciences and humanities project, and is presented here. This project examined the extent and practices in the use of newspapers as a resource of information for scientific research in the social sciences and humanities field in Croatia. The quantitative and qualitative data about the methods and level of use of newspaper material as a resource in scientific research were gathered. The results of this project implied that the newspapers are recognised and used as an admissible resource in scientific work, especially in the fields of history and philology. The fact that scientists have specific information needs and search patterns should be considered in creating innovative and effective digital newspaper collections.

  9. Nature Disaster Risk Evaluation with a Group Decision Making Method Based on Incomplete Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relations

    Ming Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the natural disaster system is a very comprehensive and large system, the disaster reduction scheme must rely on risk analysis. Experts’ knowledge and experiences play a critical role in disaster risk assessment. The hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is an effective tool to express experts’ preference information when comparing pairwise alternatives. Owing to the lack of knowledge or a heavy workload, information may be missed in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Thus, an incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is constructed. In this paper, we firstly discuss some properties of the additive consistent hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Next, the incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, the normalized hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, and the acceptable hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation are defined. Afterwards, three procedures to estimate the missing information are proposed. The first one deals with the situation in which there are only n − 1 known judgments involving all the alternatives; the second one is used to estimate the missing information of the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation with more known judgments; while the third procedure is used to deal with ignorance situations in which there is at least one alternative with totally missing information. Furthermore, an algorithm for group decision making with incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relations is given. Finally, we illustrate our model with a case study about flood disaster risk evaluation. A comparative analysis is presented to testify the advantage of our method.

  10. Nature Disaster Risk Evaluation with a Group Decision Making Method Based on Incomplete Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relations.

    Tang, Ming; Liao, Huchang; Li, Zongmin; Xu, Zeshui

    2018-04-13

    Because the natural disaster system is a very comprehensive and large system, the disaster reduction scheme must rely on risk analysis. Experts' knowledge and experiences play a critical role in disaster risk assessment. The hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is an effective tool to express experts' preference information when comparing pairwise alternatives. Owing to the lack of knowledge or a heavy workload, information may be missed in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Thus, an incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is constructed. In this paper, we firstly discuss some properties of the additive consistent hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Next, the incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, the normalized hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, and the acceptable hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation are defined. Afterwards, three procedures to estimate the missing information are proposed. The first one deals with the situation in which there are only n-1 known judgments involving all the alternatives; the second one is used to estimate the missing information of the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation with more known judgments; while the third procedure is used to deal with ignorance situations in which there is at least one alternative with totally missing information. Furthermore, an algorithm for group decision making with incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relations is given. Finally, we illustrate our model with a case study about flood disaster risk evaluation. A comparative analysis is presented to testify the advantage of our method.

  11. Physical Linguistics.

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Physical linguistics is defined as the use of treatments from the field of speech pathology to enhance first and second language production in healthy individuals, resulting in increased quality and strength of phonation and articulation. A series of exercises for treating dysarthria (weakness, paralysis, discoordination, primary and secondary…

  12. A Linguistic Foundation for Communicating Geo-Information in the context of BML and geoBML

    2010-03-23

    section, the C2LG is presented. C2LG is a formal grammar. As such, it follows the definition of formal grammars in general as proposed by Chomsky ...In: Mitkov, R. (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Chomsky , N. (1957). Syntactic

  13. Evidence from Neurolinguistic Methodologies: Can It Actually Inform Linguistic/Language Acquisition Theories and Translate to Evidence-Based Applications?

    Roberts, Leah; González Alonso, Jorge; Pliatsikas, Christos; Rothman, Jason

    2018-01-01

    This special issue is a testament to the recent burgeoning interest by theoretical linguists, language acquisitionists and teaching practitioners in the neuroscience of language. It offers a highly valuable, state-of-the-art overview of the neurophysiological methods that are currently being applied to questions in the field of second language…

  14. A Study of a Collaborative Instructional Project Informed by Systemic Functional Linguistic Theory: Report Writing in Elementary Grades

    Brisk, Maria Estela; Hodgson-Drysdale, Tracy; O'Connor, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the teaching of report writing in PreK-5 through the lens of systemic functional linguistics theory. Teachers were part of a university-public school collaboration that included professional development on teaching genres, text organization, and language features. Grounded in this knowledge, teachers explicitly taught report…

  15. Cognitive linguistics.

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. "Te Enseño a Jugar": Caracterización de Movimientos Interaccionales y Formas Lingüísticas Mediante las Cuales se Regula la Interacción Lúdica "I Teach You How to Play": Description of the Interactional Movements and Linguistics Forms Used to Regulate Play Interactions

    Alejandra Stein

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El lenguaje regula la actividad humana, incluyendo el juego; simultáneamente, el juego constituye un medio para el desarrollo lingüístico (Katherine Nelson, 1996; Vigotsky, 1988. El juego resulta un contexto privilegiado para los usos regulativos del lenguaje y para el desarrollo del discurso instructivo (Graves, 1992. Se analiza una muestra intencional conformada por 31 situaciones de juego en las que participaron en el hogar 10 niños de 4 años de barrios marginados de Argentina. El análisis cualitativo (Strauss & Corbin, 2002 mostró distintos movimientos interaccionales (modelado, preguntas, comparaciones y formas lingüísticas de regulación de la situación (imperativos, frases verbales de obligación usados por los adultos, que pueden contribuir al desarrollo del discurso instructivo de los niños.Language regulates human activity, including play; simultaneously, play is a means for linguistic development (Katherine Nelson, 1996; Vigotsky, 1988. Play situations are a privileged context for the regulative uses of language and for the development of instructional discourse (Graves, 1992. Within this framework, in this paper a purposive sample that includes 31 play situations is analyzed. In these situations participated 10 4-year-old children from marginalized neighbourhoods in Argentina. The qualitative analysis (Strauss & Corbin, 2002 showed that adults used different interactional movements (modelling, questions, comparisons alongside with linguistic forms of regulating the situation (imperatives, verbal phrases of obligation, all of which can contribute to the development of instructional discourse in children.

  17. Innovation Management by Promoting the Informal Artistic, Experience-based, Playful

    Bürgermeister, Markus; Porschen, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This book explores new approaches to successful innovation - with all uncertainty. Its focal points are management of the informal and a new perspective of human work: innovation work is based on artistic, experience-based and playful action. The book helps recognize and utilize new success potentials for innovation in enterprises. It addresses managers and experts who are interested in promoting innovation in practice. Moreover, scientists will gather new interdisciplinary insights into innovation management and work organization from this book.

  18. The linguistically aware teacher and the teacher-aware linguist.

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue

    2013-07-01

    This review evaluates issues of teacher linguistic knowledge relating to their work with children with speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). Information is from Ellis and McCartney [(2011a). Applied linguistics and primary school teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], a state-of-the-art text deriving from a British Association of Applied Linguistics/Cambridge University Press expert seminar series that details: linguistic research underpinning primary school curricula and pedagogy; the form of linguistic knowledge useful for teachers supporting children with SLCD in partnership with speech and language therapists; and how and when teachers acquire and learn to apply such knowledge. Critical analysis of the options presented for teacher learning indicate that policy enjoinders now include linguistic application as an expected part of teachers' professional knowledge, for all children including those with SLCD, but there is a large unmet learning need. It is concluded that there is a role for clinical linguists to disseminate useable knowledge to teachers in an accessible format. Ways of achieving this are considered.

  19. Perceiving patterns of play in dynamic sport tasks: investigating the essential information underlying skilled performance.

    Willams, A Mark; Hodges, Nicola J; North, Jamie S; Barton, Gabor

    2006-01-01

    The perceptual-cognitive information used to support pattern-recognition skill in soccer was examined. In experiment 1, skilled players were quicker and more accurate than less-skilled players at recognising familiar and unfamiliar soccer action sequences presented on film. In experiment 2, these action sequences were converted into point-light displays, with superficial display features removed and the positions of players and the relational information between them made more salient. Skilled players were more accurate than less-skilled players in recognising sequences presented in point-light form, implying that each pattern of play can be defined by the unique relations between players. In experiment 3, various offensive and defensive players were occluded for the duration of each trial in an attempt to identify the most important sources of information underpinning successful performance. A decrease in response accuracy was observed under occluded compared with non-occluded conditions and the expertise effect was no longer observed. The relational information between certain key players, team-mates and their defensive counterparts may provide the essential information for effective pattern-recognition skill in soccer. Structural feature analysis, temporal phase relations, and knowledge-based information are effectively integrated to facilitate pattern recognition in dynamic sport tasks.

  20. Linguistic relativity.

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  2. Integrated model of assisted parking system and performance evaluation with entropy weight extended analytic hierarchy process and two-tuple linguistic information

    Yiding Hua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating comprehensive performance of assisted parking system has been a very important issue for car companies for years, because the overall performance of assisted parking system directly influences car intellectualization and customers’ degree of satisfaction. Therefore, this article proposes two-tuple linguistic analytic hierarchy process to evaluate assisted parking system so as to avoid information loss during the processes of evaluation integration. The performance evaluation attributes for assisted parking system are established initially. Subsequently, the information entropy theory is proposed to improve the evaluation attribute weight determined by analytic hierarchy process for the influencing factors of the randomness in parking test process. Furthermore, the evaluation attribute measure values of comprehensive performance are calculated and the assisted parking system evaluation results are obtained with ordered weighted averaging operator. Finally, numerical examples of vehicle types equipped with eight different assisted parking systems and computational results are presented.

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation on Employee Satisfaction of Mine Occupational Health and Safety Management System Based on Improved AHP and 2-Tuple Linguistic Information

    Jiangdong Bao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively evaluate the employee satisfaction of mine occupational health and safety management system, an analytic method based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and 2-tuple linguistic model was established. Based on the establishment of 5 first-grade indicators and 20 second-grade ones, method of improved AHP and the time-ordered Weighted Averaging Operator (T-OWA model is constructed. The results demonstrate that the employee satisfaction of the mine occupational health and safety management system is of the ‘general’ rank. The method including the evaluation of employee satisfaction and the quantitative analysis of language evaluation information ensures the authenticity of the language evaluation information.

  4. Communication in Symbolic Play.

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Musek, Petra Lesnik; Kranjc, Simona

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed records of Slovene children's speech from a linguistic point of view and established differences in communication patterns with regard to the children's ages and the type of symbolic play. Found a shift in play from make-believe with regard to objects to roleplay related to social context. The older the child, the more language functions…

  5. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  6. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  7. Linguistic bias

    Beukeboom, C.J.; Burgers, C.F.; Giles, H.; Harwood, J.

    2017-01-01

    Social categorization and stereotypes play a pervasive and fundamental role in social perception, judgment, and interaction. Although stereotypes are functional by allowing us to make sense of our complex social environment, their use can promote prejudice and discrimination when individuals are

  8. Speech-language assessment in a linguistically diverse setting: Preliminary exploration of the possible impact of informal ‘solutions’ within the South African context

    Joanne Barratt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech-language therapists (SLTs working in the context of cultural and linguistic diversity face considerable challenges in providing equitable services to all clients. This is complicated by the fact that the majority of SLTs in South Africa are English or Afrikaans speakers, while the majority of the population have a home language other than English/Afrikaans. Consequently, SLTs are often forced to call on untrained personnel to act as interpreters or translators, and to utilise informally translated materials in the assessment and management of clients with communication impairments. However, variations in translation have the potential to considerably alter intervention plans. This study explored whether the linguistic complexity conveyed in translation of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB test changed when translated from English to isiZulu by five different first-language IsiZulu speakers. A qualitative comparative research design was adopted and results were analysed using comparative data analysis. Results revealed notable differences in the translations, with most differences relating to vocabulary and semantics. This finding holds clinical implications for the use of informal translators as well as for the utilisation of translated material in the provision of speech-language therapy services in multilingual contexts. This study highlights the need for cautious use of translators and/or translated materials that are not appropriately and systematically adapted for local usage. Further recommendations include a call for intensified efforts in the transformation of the profession within the country, specifically by attracting greater numbers of students who are fluent in African languages.

  9. Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data

    for pursuing their work. The theme of this year’s TKE is ‘Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data’. Mono- and multi-lingual term bases, which contain information about concepts (terms, definitions, examples of use, references, comments on equivalence etc.), have always made up valuable linguistic resources...

  10. Hypertextuality, Complexity, Creativity: Using Linguistic Software Tools to Uncover New Information about the Food and Drink of Historic Mayans

    Rose Lema

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this essay on natural language I present a computer-supported study of words, sentences and hypertexts concerning bromatology (the study of food and drink in a XVI century Maya-Spanish Calepin—the most complete and extended dictionary ever written on the culture of the constructors of the wonderful and prestigious Mayan cities of Uxmal, Kalakmul, Chichén-Itzá (ARZÁPALO, 1995. For constructing a complex corpus, I apply concepts of the three-body and the fractal dimension theories (POINCARÉ, 1908; MANDELBROT, 1975. First, I register an initial body of text by simply searching via the find key for abbreviations of bromatology and botany already recorded by the citation word in the Calepin. Then, I arbitrarily shorten the Spanish form corresponding to tasty and gather it through the whole dictionary. This way I obtain three bodies of interpretative meaning, lexias (BARTHES, 2002. Second, I establish the second and the third dimensional hypertextual relations between the gleaned words or sentences of text as well as their co-occurrences by using the comprehensive linguistics software, Tropes, a lexical and content analysis mixed tool, which brings up the qualitative and quantitative data pertinent to the research. Third, to bring back the colonial Maya voices of the Calepin, I surf the Internet and add to both written bodies of text a third text composed of beautiful colored images presenting food, drinks and tasty dishes that are still enjoyed by the Maya today and have been appreciated for almost five centuries. Notwithstanding the above, neither one of the three bodies (corpora nested fractally one inside the other is exhaustive. Nonetheless, the study of their interrelations could lead to the deepening of our knowledge on the complex juxtaposition between Siglo de Oro and Maya languages and cultures in the Yucatán Peninsula. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202215

  11. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  12. What Is Applied Linguistics?

    James, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Ostensive and expository definitions of applied linguistics are assessed. It is suggested that the key to a meaningful definition lies in the dual articulation of applied linguistics: it is an interface between linguistics and practicality. Its role as an "expert system" is suggested. (45 references) (Author/LB)

  13. Ninth international conference on computational linguistics Coling 82

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the summary reports presented at the concluding session and evaluating the state of the art, trends and perspectives as reflected in the papers presented at Coling 82 in six domains: machine translation, grammatico-semantic analysis, linguistics in its relations to computational linguistics, question answering, artificial intelligence and knowledge representation, and information retrieval and linguistic data bases.

  14. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333450; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  15. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  16. A Novel Integrated Approach for Green Supplier Selection with Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Uncertain Linguistic Information: A Case Study in the Agri-Food Industry

    Hua Shi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With strengthening global consciousness of environmental protection, green supply chain management plays an increasingly important role in modern enterprise production operation management. A critical means to implement green supply chain management is incorporating environmental requirements into the supplier selection practices. In this paper, we put forward a novel integrated approach by using interval-valued intuitionistic uncertain linguistic sets (IVIULSs and grey relational analysis (GRA-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS method for the evaluation and selection of green suppliers. First, various qualitative assessments of alternatives provided by decision makers are described by the IVIULSs. Then, the GRA-TOPSIS method is extended and employed to prioritize the alternative suppliers. The proposed model can handle the uncertainty and fuzziness of decision makers’ subjective evaluations more easily and get a more realistic and accurate ranking of green suppliers. Finally, an illustrative example in the agri-food industry is presented to verify the proposed green supplier selection model and demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  17. Playful Literacy

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  18. Lancaster Summer School in Corpus Linguistics

    Jaka Čibej

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Med 12. in 15. julijem je na Univerzi v Lancastru potekala poletna šola korpusnega jezikoslovja Lancaster Summer Schools in Corpus Linguistics and Other Digital Methods. Poletno šolo so organizirali UCREL (University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, ERC (Evropski svet za raziskave – European Research Council, CASS (ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science in ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council, razdeljena pa je bila na šest programov, prilagojenih različnim področjem: Korpusno jezikoslovje za proučevanje jezikov (Corpus Linguistics for Language Studies, Korpusno jezikoslovje za družbene vede (Corpus Linguistics for Social Science, Korpusno jezikoslovje za humanistiko (Corpus Linguistics for Humanities, Statistika za korpusno jezikoslovje (Statistics for Corpus Linguistics, Geografski informacijski sistemi za digitalno humanistiko (Geographical Information Systems for the Digital Humanities in Korpusno podprta obdelava naravnih jezikov (Corpus-based Natural Language Processing.

  19. On Linguistic Abilities, Multilingualism, and Linguistic Justice

    Iannàccaro Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of linguistic justice should be related to the concept of linguistic ease, by which we mean the full social and communicative freedom of concern of the speaker in a given social interaction involving the use of language(s present in the society, according to the social norms of use. To acquire an acceptable degree of linguistic ease, the knowledge of at least one L2 is considered important. But the acquisition of a L2 is interfered by the previous linguistic skills of the learner/speaker who, in many cases, does not have a suitable competence even of the languages of the society in which he/she lives.

  20. On play and playing.

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  1. Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language (HINTS-ASL): Protocol for the Cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of a National Survey.

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Harris, Raychelle; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Hoglind, TraciAnn

    2017-09-13

    The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American's public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. We modified the standard procedures developed at the US National Center for Health Statistics Cognitive Survey Laboratory to culturally adapt and translate HINTS items to ASL. Cognitive interviews were conducted to assess clarity and delivery of these HINTS-ASL items. Final ASL video items were uploaded to a protected online survey website. The HINTS-ASL online survey has been administered to over 1350 deaf adults (ages 18 to 90 and up) who use ASL. Data collection is ongoing and includes deaf adult signers across the United States. Some items from HINTS item bank required cultural adaptation for use with deaf people who use accessible services or technology. A separate item bank for deaf-related experiences was created, reflecting deaf-specific technology such as sharing health-related ASL videos through social network sites and using video remote interpreting services in health settings. After data collection is complete, we will conduct a series of analyses on deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. HINTS-ASL is an accessible health information national trends survey, which includes a culturally appropriate set of items that are relevant to the experiences of deaf people who use ASL. The final HINTS

  2. A New Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic TOPSIS Method for Group Multi-Criteria Linguistic Decision Making

    Fangling Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision making is a focus point in linguistic decision making, in which the main method is based on preference ordering. This paper develops a new hesitant fuzzy linguistic TOPSIS method for group multi-criteria linguistic decision making; the method is inspired by the TOPSIS method and the preference degree between two hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTSs. To this end, we first use the preference degree to define a pseudo-distance between two HFLTSs and analyze its properties. Then we present the positive (optimistic and negative (pessimistic information of each criterion provided by each decision maker and aggregate these by using weights of decision makers to obtain the hesitant fuzzy linguistic positive and negative ideal solutions. On the basis of the proposed pseudo-distance, we finally obtain the positive (negative ideal separation matrix and a new relative closeness degree to rank alternatives. We also design an algorithm based on the provided method to carry out hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision making. An illustrative example shows the elaboration of the proposed method and comparison with the symbolic aggregation-based method, the hesitant fuzzy linguistic TOPSIS method and the hesitant fuzzy linguistic VIKOR method; it seems that the proposed method is a useful and alternative decision-making method.

  3. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  4. The Games People Play: Information and Media Literacies in the Hunger Games Trilogy

    Latham, Don; Hollister, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Katniss Everdeen, the narrator and protagonist of Suzanne Collins' Hunger Games Trilogy, survives the grueling ordeal of forced participation in two games to the death through both physical prowess and mental agility. Both within and outside of the Games, she demonstrates information and media literacies. By becoming adept at interpreting and…

  5. Leveling the playing field : The selection and motivation effects of tournament prize spread information

    Cardinaels, Eddy; Chen, C.X.; Yin, Huaxiang

    Many companies administer wage policies based on tournaments or have different salaries attached to various promotion-based ranks within the company. Employees, however, do not always receive information about pay level differences at higher ranks prior to joining the company. While some companies

  6. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    A. Millonig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics on mobility decision processes (e.g. mode and route choice. Based on theoretical findings concerning player types and mobility styles we developed a framework for identifying effective game mechanics motivating users to explore mobility alternatives and take more informed and more sustainable mode or route choice decisions. The results will form the basis for implementing game mechanics in mobility information services motivating users to explore unfamiliar but more sustainable mobility options.

  7. The Linguistic Features of English Advertising and Translation Skills

    Wang Xiuyun

    2017-01-01

    With the development of modern society, advertising can be seen as an indispensable strategy in a heated competition and it plays a more and more significant role for different companies and consumers. Advertisements not only help enterprises establish good images, but also provide consumers with different information. With the economic globalization, many companies launch products on the international market, not only limited on the domestic market alone. Consequently, advertising translation arouses a great attention. This paper states the linguistic features of English advertising and the skills for English Advertising Translation.

  8. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is an annual/biannual open access, peer-reviewed international journal, published by the Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. The papers published in SPiL are ... Poetry in South African Sign Language: What is different? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  9. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...

  10. Linguistic Communications 1.

    Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia).

    The present compilation of papers on linguistics is the result of joint efforts by the Classical Studies, French, Japanese, Linguistics, and Russian Departments of Monash University. Selections in the Pre-Prints and Articles section include: "For/Arabic Bilingualism in the Zalingei Area," by B. Jernudd; "Prosodic Problems in a Generative Phonology…

  11. Effects of video-game play on information processing: a meta-analytic investigation.

    Powers, Kasey L; Brooks, Patricia J; Aldrich, Naomi J; Palladino, Melissa A; Alfieri, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Do video games enhance cognitive functioning? We conducted two meta-analyses based on different research designs to investigate how video games impact information-processing skills (auditory processing, executive functions, motor skills, spatial imagery, and visual processing). Quasi-experimental studies (72 studies, 318 comparisons) compare habitual gamers with controls; true experiments (46 studies, 251 comparisons) use commercial video games in training. Using random-effects models, video games led to improved information processing in both the quasi-experimental studies, d = 0.61, 95% CI [0.50, 0.73], and the true experiments, d = 0.48, 95% CI [0.35, 0.60]. Whereas the quasi-experimental studies yielded small to large effect sizes across domains, the true experiments yielded negligible effects for executive functions, which contrasted with the small to medium effect sizes in other domains. The quasi-experimental studies appeared more susceptible to bias than were the true experiments, with larger effects being reported in higher-tier than in lower-tier journals, and larger effects reported by the most active research groups in comparison with other labs. The results are further discussed with respect to other moderators and limitations in the extant literature.

  12. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    2010-09-01

    Movie Legally Multiplex Heralded As Linchpin To Growth The Shape of Cinema , Transformed At the Click of a Mouse A Peaceful Crew Puts Muppets...Linguistic Representation of Multiple Languages The formalism of WordNet has been applied to many languages from different language families, e.g. Japanese ...could be also share information gleaned from 100 reviews on Amazon.com’s Japanese and German language sites. 6.2.3 Learning Deeper Structures and Testing

  13. When do we communicate stereotypes? Influence of the social context on the linguistic expectancy bias

    Wigboldus, DHJ; Spears, R; Semin, GR

    The linguistic expectancy bias (LEB) refers to the tendency to describe expectancy consistent information at a higher level of linguistic abstraction than expectancy inconsistent information. Two experiments examined the influence of the social communicative context on the production of this

  14. Knowing linguistic conventions | Robinson | South African Journal of ...

    These are three standard accounts of the epistemic status of linguistic conventions, which all play into the first camp: (1) knowledge by intuition, (2) inferential a priori knowledge and (3) a posteriori knowledge. I give reasons why these accounts should be rejected. I then argue that linguistic conventions, if conceived of as ...

  15. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing complex linguistic networks

    Lücking, Andy; Banisch, Sven; Blanchard, Philippe; Job, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this book is to advocate and promote network models of linguistic systems that are both based on thorough mathematical models and substantiated in terms of linguistics. In this way, the book contributes first steps towards establishing a statistical network theory as a theoretical basis of linguistic network analysis the boarder of the natural sciences and the humanities.This book addresses researchers who want to get familiar with theoretical developments, computational models and their empirical evaluation in the field of complex linguistic networks. It is intended to all those who are interested in statisticalmodels of linguistic systems from the point of view of network research. This includes all relevant areas of linguistics ranging from phonological, morphological and lexical networks on the one hand and syntactic, semantic and pragmatic networks on the other. In this sense, the volume concerns readers from many disciplines such as physics, linguistics, computer science and information scien...

  16. Computational Linguistics Applications

    Piasecki, Maciej; Jassem, Krzysztof; Fuglewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Google over the recent decade has required a specific method of man-machine communication: human query should be short, whereas the machine answer may take a form of a wide range of documents. This type of communication has triggered a rapid development in the domain of Information Extraction, aimed at providing the asker with a  more precise information. The recent success of intelligent personal assistants supporting users in searching or even extracting information and answers from large collections of electronic documents signals the onset of a new era in man-machine communication – we shall soon explain to our small devices what we need to know and expect valuable answers quickly and automatically delivered. The progress of man-machine communication is accompanied by growth in the significance of applied Computational Linguistics – we need machines to understand much more from the language we speak naturally than it is the case of up-to-date search systems. Moreover, w...

  17. Performance analysis of supply chains under customer demand information sharing using role play game

    T. Chinna Pamulety

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is a network of organizations that work together and performs various business functions such as procurement of raw materials, converting the raw material into semi-finished or finished goods and distributing the same to their ultimate customers. Presence of bullwhip effect in a supply chain is costly and degrades the performance of the supply chain. Reduction in bullwhip effect can improve the efficiency or profitability of a supply chain. The objective of this paper is to know the impact of imperfect Advance Demand Information (ADI sharing on bullwhip effect in a four-stage serial supply chain and to evaluate the supply chain performance by conducting an experiment similar to the beer distribution game. The performance measures used are variance of orders placed by each stage, fill rate, total inventory at each stage and total holding cost of the supply chain. Results show that imperfect ADI improves the performance of the supply chain. The performance of the supply chain is also evaluated under order up to level (R, S policy with safety stock and it is found that the performance of supply chain is better when inventory policy used.

  18. Applied Linguistics and the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics."

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines the complexities and differences involved in granting disciplinary status to the role of applied linguistics, discusses the role of the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics" as a contributor to the development of applied linguistics, and highlights a set of publications for the future of applied linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  19. DEVELOPING LINGUISTIC SKILLS AND ABILITIES IN EMP STUDENTS

    Nataša Milosavljević

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available English for medical purposes falls within the category of discipline-specific language learning. It is characterized by specific linguistic features and requires specific study that is possible to carry out using specially designed programmes. Reading skill is one way of learning strategy of English for medical purposes. Most often, students use this skill in order to obtain information for some particular topic from the area of medical science, or because they need some sort of instruction in order to carry out certain task. Vocabulary acquisition plays a very important role in EMP teaching. It is achieved best through learning vocabulary in context, rather than in isolation. One of the most important questions in EMP teaching is related to what grammatical constructions should be analysed and emphasised. Some types of these activities would include, for example, asking students to find examples of one particular structure in the text or fill in the blanks with the missing forms such as tenses, passive forms, prepositions, etc. Speaking skill represents productive skill the aim of which is communication. In order for foreign language communication to be suucessful, a student should know linguistic and cultural features of native speakers and follow certain rules and conventions that are not easy to define. It is of crucial importance that during teaching process students develop strategies and techniques that will help them use linguistic structures fluently, apply language in different situations, take part in discussions, and use acquired vocabulary in accurate and precise way.

  20. Some thoughts on economy within linguistics

    URIAGEREKA Juan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the cornerstones of Chomsky's Minimalist Program is the role played by economy. This paper discusses different ways in which Chomsky's notion of economy in linguistics can be understood, given current views on dynamic systems and, in particular, on evolution in biological systems.

  1. The Perilous Life of a Linguistic Genre Convention

    Borchmann, Simon

    2014-01-01

    , the descriptions are more informative than the structures hitherto described by text linguistics. Secondly, as historical norms, they are a testimony to the development and change of language use. Thirdly, the descriptions contribute to language users’ awareness of the origin of standards, their understanding......The primary, theoretical aim of the article is to present a linguistic text analysis that differs from standard text linguistic approaches by being informative with regard to the linguistic choices and textual organisation that characterise a text as a social act. The analysis is exemplified...... by using texts of a relatively new Danish journalistic genre nyhedsanalyse (news analysis). The secondary, empirical aim of the article is to present a corpus-based, linguistic analysis of central elements of the genre nyhedsanalyse within the Danish system of newspaper genres. Text linguistics is based...

  2. Saussure and Linguistic Geography.

    Harris, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Saussures's "Cours de linguistique generale," which was published in 1916, and devotes specific attention to the significance of Part VI, which is devoted to linguistic geography. (16 references) (Author/VWL)

  3. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  4. Mathematics and linguistics

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  5. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  6. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  7. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Danylyuk Illya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  8. Words Get in the Way: Linguistic Effects on Talker Discrimination.

    Narayan, Chandan R; Mak, Lorinda; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    A speech perception experiment provides evidence that the linguistic relationship between words affects the discrimination of their talkers. Listeners discriminated two talkers' voices with various linguistic relationships between their spoken words. Listeners were asked whether two words were spoken by the same person or not. Word pairs varied with respect to the linguistic relationship between the component words, forming either: phonological rhymes, lexical compounds, reversed compounds, or unrelated pairs. The degree of linguistic relationship between the words affected talker discrimination in a graded fashion, revealing biases listeners have regarding the nature of words and the talkers that speak them. These results indicate that listeners expect a talker's words to be linguistically related, and more generally, indexical processing is affected by linguistic information in a top-down fashion even when listeners are not told to attend to it. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Play Matters

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  10. Improving English Instruction through Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Helm, David Jay

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the background information and numerous applications of neuro-linguistic programming as it applies to improving English instruction. In addition, the N.L.P. modalities of eye movement, the use of predicates, and posturing are discussed. Neuro-linguistic programming presents all students of English an opportunity to reach their…

  11. Peace linguistics for language teachers

    Francisco GOMES DE MATOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at presenting the concept of Peace Linguistics - origins and recent developments -- as being implemented in the author's ongoing work in that emerging branch of Applied Linguistics. Examples of applicational possibilities are given, with a focus on language teaching-learning and a Checklist is provided, of topics for suggested linguistic-educational research, centered on communicative peace.

  12. Linguistic Corpora and Language Teaching.

    Murison-Bowie, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Examines issues raised by corpus linguistics concerning the description of language. The article argues that it is necessary to start from correct descriptions of linguistic units and the contexts in which they occur. Corpus linguistics has joined with language teaching by sharing a recognition of the importance of a larger, schematic view of…

  13. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  14. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    rbr

    It could be argued that lexicography has little business with linguistic creativ- ...... The forms in which traditional proverbs are found can also vary greatly: many ... BoE has examples of the proverb every cloud has a silver lining but many more ...

  15. Variation and Linguistic Theory.

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This volume presents principles and models for describing language variation, and introduces a time-based, dynamic framework for linguistic description. The book first summarizes some of the problems of grammatical description encountered from Saussure through the present and then outlines possibilities for new descriptions of language which take…

  16. Untangling Linguistic Salience

    Boswijk, Vincent; Coler, Matt; Loerts, Hanneke; Hilton, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    The concept of linguistic salience is broadly used within sociolinguistics to account for processes as diverse as language change (Kerswill & Williams, 2002) and language acquisition (Ellis, 2016) in that salient forms are e.g. more likely to undergo change, or are often acquired earlier than other

  17. Guatemalan Linguistics Project

    Linguistic Reporter, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The general goals of the Guatemalan technical institution, the Proyecto Linguistico Francisco Marroquin, are to: create a national technical resource institution in linguistics and Mayan languages; enable Indians to influence programs for their communities; and stimulate the study of Mayan languages and their use as communication medium. (SW)

  18. Formal monkey linguistics

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions: (i) what morphology and

  19. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  20. Perspectives in Linguistics.

    Waterman, John T.

    Intended for the student of linguistics or the structural grammarian, who must develop an awareness of their intellectual heritage, the present work surveys the study of language in ancient times, the medieval and early modern periods, the nineteenth century, and the twentieth century to 1950. (This second edition includes additional material on…

  1. Gradual linguistic summaries

    Wilbik, A.M.; Kaymak, U.; Laurent, A.; Strauss, O.; Bouchon-Meunier, xx

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new type of protoform-based linguistic summary – the gradual summary. This new type of summaries aims in capturing the change over some time span. Such summaries can be useful in many domains, for instance in economics, e.g., "prices of X are getting smaller" in eldercare,

  2. Linguistics in Language Education

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  3. Linguistics and Literacy.

    Kindell, Gloria

    1983-01-01

    Discusses four general areas of linguistics studies that are particularly relevant to literacy issues: (1) discourse analysis, including text analysis, spoken and written language, and home and school discourse; (2) relationships between speech and writing, the distance between dialects and written norms, and developmental writing; (3)…

  4. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of

  5. Sleepless in Seoul: Neoliberalism, English Fever, and Linguistic Insecurity among Korean Interpreters

    Cho, Jinhyun

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the socially constructed nature of significant linguistic insecurity with regard to the English language in Korean society as informed by neoliberalism. It specifically explores how linguistic insecurity leads to the pursuit of linguistic perfectionism under the popular discourse of neoliberal personhood. Participants are…

  6. Multiple Uses of Applied Linguistics Literature.

    Casanave, Christine Pearson

    2003-01-01

    Discusses ways that applied linguistics literature can be used in a multidisciplinary graduate-level English for academic purposes class. Focuses on three main uses: (1) providing students with information about issues in academic and professional writing; (2) helping them make comparisons of form and style with academic articles in their own…

  7. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Editorial Policies

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  8. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity | Moon | Lexikos

    Abstract: Conventionally, dictionaries present information about institutionalized words, phrases, and senses of words; more creative formations and usages are generally ignored. Yet text and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordinary linguistic behaviour and indeed ...

  9. Linguistic Prescription: Familiar Practices and New Perspectives.

    Finegan, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a question by a law student of whether a correction of "sneaked" to "snuck" suggests misinformation and misguided rigidity in the context of better information about current legal usage and a perennial tendency to linguistic prescription. Explores attitudes to current borrowings from English into Japanese and French…

  10. Functional MR imaging of cerebral auditory cortex with linguistic and non-linguistic stimulation: preliminary study

    Kang, Su Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Shin, Tae Min

    1999-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data for understanding the central auditory neural pathway by means of functional MR imaging (fMRI) of the cerebral auditory cortex during linguistic and non-linguistic auditory stimulation. In three right-handed volunteers we conducted fMRI of auditory cortex stimulation at 1.5 T using a conventional gradient-echo technique (TR/TE/flip angle: 80/60/40 deg). Using a pulsed tone of 1000 Hz and speech as non-linguistic and linguistic auditory stimuli, respectively, images-including those of the superior temporal gyrus of both hemispheres-were obtained in sagittal plases. Both stimuli were separately delivered binaurally or monoaurally through a plastic earphone. Images were activated by processing with homemade software. In order to analyze patterns of auditory cortex activation according to type of stimulus and which side of the ear was stimulated, the number and extent of activated pixels were compared between both temporal lobes. Biaural stimulation led to bilateral activation of the superior temporal gyrus, while monoaural stimulation led to more activation in the contralateral temporal lobe than in the ipsilateral. A trend toward slight activation of the left (dominant) temporal lobe in ipsilateral stimulation, particularly with a linguistic stimulus, was observed. During both biaural and monoaural stimulation, a linguistic stimulus produced more widespread activation than did a non-linguistic one. The superior temporal gyri of both temporal lobes are associated with acoustic-phonetic analysis, and the left (dominant) superior temporal gyrus is likely to play a dominant role in this processing. For better understanding of physiological and pathological central auditory pathways, further investigation is needed

  11. The Extension of Quality Function Deployment Based on 2-Tuple Linguistic Representation Model for Product Design under Multigranularity Linguistic Environment

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality function deployment (QFD is a customer-driven approach for product design and development. A QFD analysis process includes a series of subprocesses, such as determination of the importance of customer requirements (CRs, the correlation among engineering characteristics (ECs, and the relationship between CRs and ECs. Usually more than group of one decision makers are involved in the subprocesses to make the decision. In most decision making problems, they often provide their evaluation information in the linguistic form. Moreover, because of different knowledge, background, and discrimination ability, decision makers may express their linguistic preferences in multigranularity linguistic information. Therefore, an effective approach to deal with the multi-granularity linguistic information in QFD analysis process is highly needed. In this study, the QFD methodology is extended with 2-tuple linguistic representation model under multi-granularity linguistic environment. The extended QFD methodology can cope with multi-granularity linguistic evaluation information and avoid the loss of information. The applicability of the proposed approach is demonstrated with a numerical example.

  12. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  13. Multi-attribute Group Decision-Making with Incomplete Interval Linguistic Information%基于残缺语言区间信息的多属性群决策

    梁海明; 姜艳萍

    2011-01-01

    With respect to the multi-attribute group decision-making problem in which the attribute weights are linguistic variable and assessment information is incomplete interval linguistic information,a revised fuzzy interval evidential reasoning method was proposed.Firstly,the incomplete information was represented by random variables,and decision matrixes given by experts were combined into a credibility matrix according to the importance degrees of the experts.Then,the distributed assessment values of the alternatives were calculated by using the revised fuzzy interval evidential reasoning method.Further,fuzzy assessment values of all the alternatives were calculated to determine the alternative ranking result.Finally,a numerical example was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.%针对属性权重为语言变量、评价信息为残缺语言区间信息的多属性群决策问题,提出了基于改进的模糊区间证据推理的分析方法.首先给出了残缺信息的随机变量表示方法,并根据专家在决策中的重要程度,将专家给出的决策矩阵组合成信任度矩阵,然后采用所提出的改进的模糊区间证据推理方法求得各方案的分布式评价值.计算各方案的模糊评价值,给出方案排序方法.最后给出了一个算例,证明了所提方法的有效性.

  14. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice. PMID:28926985

  15. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection.

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-09-17

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice.

  16. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  17. Virtual plagues and real-world pandemics: reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research.

    Oultram, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    In the wake of the Corrupted Blood incident, which afflicted the massively multiplayer online computer role-playing game World of Warcraft in 2005, it has been suggested that both, the incident itself and massively multiplayer online computer role-playing games in general, can be utilised to inform and assist real-world epidemic and public health research. In this paper, I engage critically with these claims.

  18. Linguistics and the digital humanities

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software......, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and figures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. This article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data...... and method and also offers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented...

  19. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. Playful Membership

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...

  1. Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play, as defined by biologists and psychologists, is probably heterogeneous. On the other hand, playfulness may be a unitary motivational state. Playful play as opposed to activities that merge into aggression is characterized by positive mood, intrinsic motivation, occurring in a protected context and easily disrupted by stress. Playful play is a good measure of positive welfare. It can occupy a substantial part of the waking-life of a young mammal or bird. Numerous functions for play have been proposed and they are by no means mutually exclusive, but some evidence indicates that those individual animals that play most are most likely to survive and reproduce. The link of playful play to creativity and hence to innovation in humans is strong. Considerable evidence suggests that coming up with new ideas requires a different mindset from usefully implementing a new idea.

  2. Learnability and linguistic performance

    Drozd, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    of the human biological endowment for language in the form of a UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (UG) (Chomsky, 1965). With respect to experimental design, C&T have strongly maintained that even young children know UG constraints but perform poorly in some experiments-due to the extralinguistic demands associated...... with experimental tasks, particularly those involved in presupposition accommodation and complex response planning. C&T specifically design their experiments to reduce the impact of extralinguistic demands on children's linguistic performance while at the same time providing felicitous environments for adultlike...... performance....

  3. Formal monkey linguistics

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Zuberbühler: The research leading to these results received funding from the European Research Council under ERC grant ‘Prilang 283871’ and also from the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant ‘FN 310030_143359/1’. We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions:...

  4. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  5. Playing on the edge

    Cermak-Sassenrath, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    and specific ways. For instance, gambling for money, party and drinking games, professional play and show sports, art installations, violent and military propaganda computer games, pervasive/mobile gaming, live-action role playing, festivals, performances, and games such as Ghosting and Planking. It is argued......Everything gets more interesting, challenging, or intense the closer it gets to the edge, and so does play. How edgy can play become and still be play? Based on Huizinga’s notion of play, this chapter discusses how a wide range of playful activities pushes the boundaries of play in different...... that in concert with a number of characteristics that mark an activity as play, play is essentially a subjective perspective and individual decision of the player. Huizinga calls this attitude the play spirit, which informs a player’s actions and is in turn sustained by them. Edgy digital or mobile games do...

  6. Informing Active Play and Screen Time Behaviour Change Interventions for Low Socioeconomic Position Mothers of Young Children: What Do Mothers Want?

    Katherine L. Downing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated views of mothers from disadvantaged urban and regional areas (i.e., beyond major capital cities as potential end users of child active play and screen time behaviour change interventions, with a focus on text messaging and web-based delivery platforms. Methods. Thirty-two mothers (22 urban; 10 regional were interviewed. Purpose-designed questions covered topics regarding mothers’ preferences for accessing and receiving information related to parenting and child active play and screen time. Data from transcribed interviews were analysed to identify responses and key themes. Results. Mothers reported frequently accessing parenting- and child-related information online. Regional mothers reported seeking information by talking with other people less frequently than urban mothers and seemed to have a stronger preference for receiving information online. There were few differences between responses from low and high educated mothers. The majority of mothers reported that they would be happy to receive text messages containing information about active play and screen time and that they would find a dedicated website with this information useful. Conclusions. Mothers in this study held favourable views on the potential of receiving information via new communication technologies. Future interventions targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers may benefit from delivering intervention messages via these technologies.

  7. Play Therapy

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  8. Linguistics and the Literary Text.

    Ferrar, Madeleine

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the opposing viewpoints of the two most influential linguists of this century--Saussure and Chomsky--suggesting that while both are interested in form as opposed to substance, Saussure sees linguistics as a branch of semiotics and Chomsky sees it as part of cognitive psychology. Evaluates the relevance of these two viewpoints to the…

  9. New Conceptualizations of Linguistic Giftedness

    Biedron, Adriana; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    This state-of-the art paper focuses on the issue of linguistic giftedness, somewhat neglected in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature, attempting to reconceptualize, expand and update this concept in response to latest developments in the fields of psychology, linguistics and neurology. It first discusses contemporary perspectives on…

  10. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  11. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  12. Linguistics and the TEFL Teacher.

    Fraser, Bruce

    This paper asserts the "unquestionable" relevance of linguistic insights in the training of and subsequent use by teachers of English as a foreign language. Although the author agrees with Chomsky's view that linguistics has nothing to offer the teacher in the form of specific proposals for language teaching methodology, he argues that linguistics…

  13. Machine Learning and Applied Linguistics

    Vajjala, Sowmya

    2018-01-01

    This entry introduces the topic of machine learning and provides an overview of its relevance for applied linguistics and language learning. The discussion will focus on giving an introduction to the methods and applications of machine learning in applied linguistics, and will provide references for further study.

  14. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  15. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics.

    Leki, Ilona

    2000-01-01

    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  16. Literacy in Somali: Linguistic Consequences.

    Biber, Douglas; Hared, Mohamed

    1991-01-01

    Linguistic consequences of literacy in Somalia are examined in a review of the literature and through a study of five dimensions of variation among Somali registers and the expansion of linguistic variation in Somali resulting from the introduction of written registers. (36 references) (LB)

  17. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    А В Бондаренко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  18. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  19. Conceptual and Pragmatic Motivation as an Explanatory Concept in Linguistics

    Klaus-Uwe Panther

    2008-01-01

    The concept of motivation has been rejected by many formalist linguists as irrelevant, or at least, negligible. It isargued in this article that motivation deserves a place of honor in linguistic theorizing. After an introduction to variousperception verbs in English and Spanish are analyzed. These constructions provide evidence for the hypothesis thatlexicogrammatieal form is often motivated conceptually. Consequently, contrary to the dogma of autonomous syntax,semantic and pragmatic information has to be built into the formulation of lexicogrammatical regularities.

  20. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  1. The linguistic repudiation of Wundt.

    Nerlich, B; Clarke, D D

    1998-08-01

    Wilhelm Wundt's influence on the development of linguistics and psychology was pervasive. The foundations for this web of influence on the sciences of mind and language were laid down in Wundt's own research program, which was quite different from other attempts at founding a new psychology, as it was deeply rooted in German philosophy. This resulted in certain gaps in Wundt's conception of mind and language. These gaps provoked a double repudiation of Wundt's theories, by linguists and psychologists. The psychological repudiation has been studied by historians of psychology, and the linguistic repudiation has been studied by historians of linguistics. The intent of this article is to bring the linguistic repudiation to the attention of historians of psychology, especially the one outlined by two important figures in the history of psychology: Karl Buhler and George Mead.

  2. From Documenting to Revitalizing an Endangered Language: Where Do Applied Linguists Fit?

    Penfield, Susan D.; Tucker, Benjamin V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the distance between documenting and revitalizing endangered languages and indicates critical points at which applied linguistics can play a role. We look at language documentation, language revitalization and their relationship. We then provide some examples from our own work. We see the lack of applied linguistics as a…

  3. Hemispheric lateralization of linguistic prosody recognition in comparison to speech and speaker recognition.

    Kreitewolf, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-11-15

    Hemispheric specialization for linguistic prosody is a controversial issue. While it is commonly assumed that linguistic prosody and emotional prosody are preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, neuropsychological work directly comparing processes of linguistic prosody and emotional prosody suggests a predominant role of the left hemisphere for linguistic prosody processing. Here, we used two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to clarify the role of left and right hemispheres in the neural processing of linguistic prosody. In the first experiment, we sought to confirm previous findings showing that linguistic prosody processing compared to other speech-related processes predominantly involves the right hemisphere. Unlike previous studies, we controlled for stimulus influences by employing a prosody and speech task using the same speech material. The second experiment was designed to investigate whether a left-hemispheric involvement in linguistic prosody processing is specific to contrasts between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody or whether it also occurs when linguistic prosody is contrasted against other non-linguistic processes (i.e., speaker recognition). Prosody and speaker tasks were performed on the same stimulus material. In both experiments, linguistic prosody processing was associated with activity in temporal, frontal, parietal and cerebellar regions. Activation in temporo-frontal regions showed differential lateralization depending on whether the control task required recognition of speech or speaker: recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved right temporo-frontal areas when it was contrasted against speech recognition; when contrasted against speaker recognition, recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved left temporo-frontal areas. The results show that linguistic prosody processing involves functions of both hemispheres and suggest that recognition of linguistic prosody is based on

  4. Music playschool enhances children's linguistic skills.

    Linnavalli, Tanja; Putkinen, Vesa; Lipsanen, Jari; Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2018-06-08

    Several studies have suggested that intensive musical training enhances children's linguistic skills. Such training, however, is not available to all children. We studied in a community setting whether a low-cost, weekly music playschool provided to 5-6-year-old children in kindergartens could already affect their linguistic abilities. Children (N = 66) were tested four times over two school-years with Phoneme processing and Vocabulary subtests, along with tests for Perceptual reasoning skills and Inhibitory control. We compared the development of music playschool children to their peers either attending to similarly organized dance lessons or not attending to either activity. Music playschool significantly improved the development of children's phoneme processing and vocabulary skills. No such improvements on children's scores for non-verbal reasoning and inhibition were obtained. Our data suggest that even playful group music activities - if attended to for several years - have a positive effect on pre-schoolers' linguistic skills. Therefore we promote the concept of implementing regular music playschool lessons given by professional teachers in early childhood education.

  5. What role can information play in improved equity in Pakistan's irrigation system? Evidence from an experimental game in Punjab

    Andrew Reid. Bell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indus Basin Irrigation System suffers significant inequity in access to surface water across its millions of users. Information, i.e., monitoring and reporting of water availability, may be of value in improving conditions across the basin, and we investigated this via an experimental game of water distribution in Punjab, Pakistan. We found evidence that flow information allowed players to take more effective action to target overuse, and that overall activities that might bring social disapproval were reduced with information. However, we did not find any overall improvement in equity across the system, suggesting that information on its own might not be sufficient to lead to better water distribution among irrigators.

  6. Associations between children's video game playing and psychosocial health: Information from both parent and child reports. [corrected].

    Lobel, Adam; Granic, Isabela; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-04-01

    Healthy emotion regulation is crucial for navigating stressful situations. Interoceptive awareness-the awareness of one's internal states-is important for such healthy regulation. Given the propensity for video games to induce stress, the associations between in-game and real world emotion regulation strategies during duress are worth exploring. We therefore present a method for measuring the interoceptive awareness of negative affect during stressful video game play, and investigate whether individual differences in this ability relate to emotion regulation strategies. Twenty-six proficient video game players were recruited to play a session of the video game Starcraft II in the lab. Players' physiological and subjective states of in-game negative arousal were measured consecutively. A comparison of these measures was used to calculate players' interoceptive awareness of real time in-game arousal. The relation between interoceptive awareness and a suite of emotion regulation strategies was then investigated. We observed a positive relation between in-game interoceptive awareness and the self-reported tendency to actively seek a resolution to negative affect. A positive trend was also observed between interoceptive awareness and the self-reported tendency to seek instrumental social support. Findings are discussed in terms of the relative effectiveness of different emotion regulation strategies for aiding in-game success. We further discuss the benefits and limitations of this pilot testing. In all, we hope to inspire future research into the associations between in-game arousal and emotion regulation strategies used in everyday life.

  7. Neurological evidence linguistic processes precede perceptual simulation in conceptual processing.

    Louwerse, Max; Hutchinson, Sterling

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence from response time experiments that language statistics and perceptual simulations both play a role in conceptual processing. In an EEG experiment we compared neural activity in cortical regions commonly associated with linguistic processing and visual perceptual processing to determine to what extent symbolic and embodied accounts of cognition applied. Participants were asked to determine the semantic relationship of word pairs (e.g., sky - ground) or to determine their iconic relationship (i.e., if the presentation of the pair matched their expected physical relationship). A linguistic bias was found toward the semantic judgment task and a perceptual bias was found toward the iconicity judgment task. More importantly, conceptual processing involved activation in brain regions associated with both linguistic and perceptual processes. When comparing the relative activation of linguistic cortical regions with perceptual cortical regions, the effect sizes for linguistic cortical regions were larger than those for the perceptual cortical regions early in a trial with the reverse being true later in a trial. These results map upon findings from other experimental literature and provide further evidence that processing of concept words relies both on language statistics and on perceptual simulations, whereby linguistic processes precede perceptual simulation processes.

  8. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation

    Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language. This article is part of the themed issue ‘New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences’. PMID:27872370

  9. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation.

    Smith, Kenny; Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-05

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Playful Interaction

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  11. Mediatized play

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts........ In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  12. Play Practices and Play Moods

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  13. Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Utility Set and Its Application in Selection of Fire Rescue Plans

    Si, Guangsen; Xu, Zeshui

    2018-01-01

    Hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set provides an effective tool to represent uncertain decision information. However, the semantics corresponding to the linguistic terms in it cannot accurately reflect the decision-makers’ subjective cognition. In general, different decision-makers’ sensitivities towards the semantics are different. Such sensitivities can be represented by the cumulative prospect theory value function. Inspired by this, we propose a linguistic scale function to transform the semantics corresponding to linguistic terms into the linguistic preference values. Furthermore, we propose the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference utility set, based on which, the decision-makers can flexibly express their distinct semantics and obtain the decision results that are consistent with their cognition. For calculations and comparisons over the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference utility sets, we introduce some distance measures and comparison laws. Afterwards, to apply the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference utility sets in emergency management, we develop a method to obtain objective weights of attributes and then propose a hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference utility-TOPSIS method to select the best fire rescue plan. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified by some comparisons of the method with other two representative methods including the hesitant fuzzy linguistic-TOPSIS method and the hesitant fuzzy linguistic-VIKOR method. PMID:29614019

  14. Playing Shakespeare.

    Bashian, Kathleen Ryniker

    1993-01-01

    Describes a yearlong project at 12 Catholic middle schools in the Diocese of Arlington, Virginia, to incorporate the plays of William Shakespeare into the curriculum. Teachers attended university lectures and directed students in performances of the plays. Concludes that Shakespeare can be understood and enjoyed by middle school students. (BCY)

  15. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  16. What role does performance information play in securing improvement in healthcare? a conceptual framework for levers of change.

    Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Sutherland, Kim

    2017-08-28

    Across healthcare systems, there is consensus on the need for independent and impartial assessment of performance. There is less agreement about how measurement and reporting performance improves healthcare. This paper draws on academic theories to develop a conceptual framework-one that classifies in an integrated manner the ways in which change can be leveraged by healthcare performance information. A synthesis of published frameworks. The framework identifies eight levers for change enabled by performance information, spanning internal and external drivers, and emergent and planned processes: (1) cognitive levers provide awareness and understanding; (2) mimetic levers inform about the performance of others to encourage emulation; (3) supportive levers provide facilitation, implementation tools or models of care to actively support change; (4) formative levers develop capabilities and skills through teaching, mentoring and feedback; (5) normative levers set performance against guidelines, standards, certification and accreditation processes; (6) coercive levers use policies, regulations incentives and disincentives to force change; (7) structural levers modify the physical environment or professional cultures and routines; (8) competitive levers attract patients or funders. This framework highlights how performance measurement and reporting can contribute to eight different levers for change. It provides guidance into how to align performance measurement and reporting into quality improvement programme. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Associations between children’s video game playing and psychosocial health: information from both parent and child reports.

    Lobel, Adam; Granic, Isabela; Stone, Lisanne L; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-10-01

    Video games are a highly heterogeneous form of entertainment. As recent reviews highlight, this heterogeneity makes likely that video games have both positive and negative consequences for child development. This study investigated the associations between gaming frequency and psychosocial health among children younger than 12 years of age, an understudied cohort in this field. Both parents and children reported children's gaming frequency, with parents also reporting on children's psychosocial health. Given that children may be too young to report the time they spend playing video games accurately, children's reports were scaffolded by a developmentally appropriate measure. We further investigated the potential bias of having parents report both their children's gaming frequency and their children's psychosocial health (i.e., a single source bias). Parental reports of children's gaming frequency were higher than their children's reports. However, a direct test of the potential single source bias rendered null results. Notably, however, while parental reports showed negative associations between gaming and psychosocial health, children's reports showed no associations. Specifically, based on parent reports, children's gaming was associated with more conduct and peer problems, and less prosocial behavior. As children's reports produced no associations between gaming and psychosocial health, parental reports in this study may belie an erroneous set of conclusions. We therefore caution against relying on just one reporter when assessing children's gaming frequency.

  18. Librarians Aren’t Born with Information Superpowers: Leveling the Playing Field for Incoming Library Science Graduate Students

    Annette Lamb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Students enter the library science graduate program with a wide range of information and technology skills. Today’s graduate courses require students to be able to build web-based pathfinders, use social media, and search databases. This article examines the design and development of an introductory course for incoming library science graduate students that personalizes instruction and ensures that each student is ready for the rigors of graduate school. Taken during the first semester of the program, this introductory course teaches information and technology skills and concepts that are core to library science. The author explores the process of creating a computer-based course that addresses the diverse needs of this student population. Using a systematic approach to instructional design and development, the author outlines the steps in designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating an online, self-paced graduate course. Based on the Dick and Carey model, the process included identifying the instructional goals, conducting an instructional analysis, analyzing learners and contexts, writing performance objectives, developing assessment instruments, developing instructional strategies, developing and selecting instructional materials, designing and conducting formative evaluation of instruction, revising instruction, and designing and conducting summative evaluation. This process produced effective, efficient, and appealing instructional materials. Les étudiants entament un programme d’études supérieures en sciences de l’information avec une panoplie d’habiletés en matière d’information et de technologie. Les cours d’études supérieures requièrent aujourd’hui que les étudiants puissent créer des guides en ligne, utiliser des médias sociaux et interroger des bases de données. Cet article porte sur la conception et le développement d’un cours d’introduction qui est offert aux nouveaux étudiants diplômés en

  19. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva

    2014-04-01

    phenomena and brain lateralization. More precisely, on the basis of substantial neurolinguistic research it is argued that novel speech is represented in the left hemisphere, whereas formulaic speech is modulated by a subcortical right hemisphere circuit. Within the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013 it is argued that there is a similar correlation between two domains of grammar, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar: Aphasic patients and other persons with left hemisphere damage appear to draw mainly on linguistic expressions within the domain of Thetical Grammar; persons with right hemisphere damage, by contrast, use primarily Sentence Grammar as their main domain of structuring speech (Heine et al. 2014. While arriving at similar conclusions, there are a few differences between these two frameworks. In particular, the dual process model relies on the distinction between novel and formulaic speech as its main parameter, while in the framework of Discourse Grammar it is distinctions in the functions and the syntactic and prosodic independence of linguistic units that are most central. The present paper argues that such differences can be accounted for with reference to the differential role played by the situation of discourse in linguistic communication.

  20. LANGUE AND PAROLE IN AMERICAN LINGUISTICS.

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE PROBLEM OF THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED AND THE FORM WHICH ANY LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION SHOULD TAKE. THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE INFLUENCE OF THE SWISS LINGUIST, FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE, ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN LINGUISTICS. THE QUESTION OF "MENTALISM" IN LINGUISTICS IS REDUCED TO THE PROBLEM OF WHETHER LINGUISTIC…

  1. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  2. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    The relationship between linguistics and second language teaching has always been a controversial one. Many linguists have argued that linguistics has nothing to say to the teacher. Sampson (1980, p.10), for example, says: ·"1 do not believe that linguistics has any contribution to make to the teaching of English or the.

  3. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Journal Sponsorship

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. Sources of Support. The Department of General Linguistics acknowledges the financial support provided by the Fonds ...

  4. Linguistic Features of English and Russian Dictionaries (A Comparative Study

    Robert Leščinskij

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish differences and similarities between linguistic characteristics of English and Russian dictionaries. Two dictionaries were selected for the study – electronic version of the 8th edition of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (OALD and the online version of Ozhegov’s explanatory dictionary. The methods chosen for the study were descriptive, comparative and contrastive analysis. Linguistic characteristics of the dictionaries were analysed and compared. The research showed that both reference books provided different linguistic information on the headwords. OALD provided exhaustive phonetic information, which Ozhegov’s dictionary lacked. The two dictionaries provided different orthographic information. OALD disclosed semantic information via various tools available in the electronic version; these were unavailable in Ozhegov’s dictionary. Both dictionaries used similar stylistic labels.

  5. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Gesture Modelling for Linguistic Purposes

    Olivrin, GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of sign languages attempts to create a coherent model that binds the expressive nature of signs conveyed in gestures to a linguistic framework. Gesture modelling offers an alternative that provides device independence, scalability...

  9. Is Rorty a linguistic idealist?

    Marvan, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2011), s. 272-279 ISSN 1210-3055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Rorty * linguistic idealism * internal realism * intrinsic structure of reality * representation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  10. The Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol: a valid linguistic approach to awake brain surgery.

    De Witte, E; Satoer, D; Robert, E; Colle, H; Verheyen, S; Visch-Brink, E; Mariën, P

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES) is increasingly used in patients operated on for tumours in eloquent areas. Although a positive impact of DES on postoperative linguistic outcome is generally advocated, information about the neurolinguistic methods applied in awake surgery is scarce. We developed for the first time a standardised Dutch linguistic test battery (measuring phonology, semantics, syntax) to reliably identify the critical language zones in detail. A normative study was carried out in a control group of 250 native Dutch-speaking healthy adults. In addition, the clinical application of the Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol (DuLIP) was demonstrated by means of anatomo-functional models and five case studies. A set of DuLIP tests was selected for each patient depending on the tumour location and degree of linguistic impairment. DuLIP is a valid test battery for pre-, intraoperative and postoperative language testing and facilitates intraoperative mapping of eloquent language regions that are variably located. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Linguistic Characteristics of Advertising English

    易高燕

    2010-01-01

    Advertising language takes form under the influence of linguistics,psychology and sociology,etc,and its way of choosing words and building sentences are quite different from normal English.And as a practical language,advertising English has its specific functions,and it has been distinguished from normal English as an independent language,and it has plentiful values.This paper aims to discuss some linguistic characteristics of advertising English.

  12. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  13. Copyright Essentials for Linguists

    Paul Newman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses copyright issues that linguists confront in their capacity as users and creators of scholarly work. It is organized in a simple question-answer format. Questions 1-3 present the basics of U.S. copyright law, including the fundamental nature of copyright as a bundle of intellectual property rights and the role of registration. Questions 4-5 treat issues of copyright notice. Questions 6-8 explain licenses, especially Creative Commons licenses, and the function of an Author's Addendum. Questions 9-10 look at copyright in the context of online open access publishing. Question 11 discusses the concept of Fair Use. Question 12 analyzes the problem of what are called Orphan Works. Questions 13-19 explore issues of copyright ownership, including Work for Hire, joint authorship, and attribution. Questions 20-22 deal with copyright with specific reference to fieldwork situations and indigenous rights. The paper concludes with a brief presentation of key sources for further study and clarification.

  14. The new linguistic order

    Joshua A. Fishman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation phenomenon that we are currently seeing has lead to major linguistic changes on a worldwide scale. English has become the leading international language, in economic and political spheres, and is becoming the language of high society and of the young. At the same time, however, regional languages are also making considerable headway, thanks to new social interaction and economic backing from their governments. In turn, and as a result of these two trends, there is impetus for feelings of belonging to local communities which see their language as a sign of their own authenticity, one that has to be defended against the phenomena of globalisation and regionalisation. We are thus heading towards a multilingual society, in which each language has its own, distinct social functions, even though it is inevitable that there will be conflict between the languages that come into contact. In this scenario, the author predicts a loss of hegemony for English, in favour of regional languages, and the future extinction of the least spoken minority languages.

  15. GEOLINGUISTICS: THE LINGUISTIC ATLAS OF PARANÁ

    Rosa Evangelina de Santana BELLI RODRIGUES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the methodology adopted by the Linguistic Atlas of Paraná – APLR (AGUILERA, 1990 and to describe its results in relation to other Brazilian atlas. To meet this objective, we first present the modifications, mainly methodological, under gone by Geolinguistics towards a more complete and in depth description of linguistic variation. The Pluridimensional Geolinguistics and Contractual model of Harald Thun (1998 and the Linguistics Atlas of Brazil – ALiB (CARDOSO et all, 2014, published in October, 2014, are presented. It was also necessary to describe, although briefly, the most traditional Geolinguistics research method, characteristic of the ALPR, before referring the text back to Aguilera’s Atlas. After discussing the criteria on which the ALPR was constructed, from choice of informers to the Geolinguistics charts that compose it, as well as its complementation by the ALPR II (ALTINO, 2007, it was possible to analyze the results and relate them to the hypotheses posed by the thesis which gave origin to it.

  16. Linguistic coding deficits in foreign language learners.

    Sparks, R; Ganschow, L; Pohlman, J

    1989-01-01

    As increasing numbers of colleges and universities require a foreign language for graduation in at least one of their degree programs, reports of students with difficulties in learning a second language are multiplying. Until recently, little research has been conducted to identify the nature of this problem. Recent attempts by the authors have focused upon subtle but ongoing language difficulties in these individuals as the source of their struggle to learn a foreign language. The present paper attempts to expand upon this concept by outlining a theoretical framework based upon a linguistic coding model that hypothesizes deficits in the processing of phonological, syntactic, and/or semantic information. Traditional psychoeducational assessment batteries of standardized intelligence and achievement tests generally are not sensitive to these linguistic coding deficits unless closely analyzed or, more often, used in conjunction with a more comprehensive language assessment battery. Students who have been waived from a foreign language requirement and their proposed type(s) of linguistic coding deficits are profiled. Tentative conclusions about the nature of these foreign language learning deficits are presented along with specific suggestions for tests to be used in psychoeducational evaluations.

  17. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  18. Postphenomenological Play

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed am...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  19. Linguistic adaptation between mothers and children in ASD

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan; Fein, Deborah

    We investigate mother-child linguistic adaptation in 33 ASD and 33 matched TD children at two time-scales: conversational match and longitudinal development. We employ a longitudinal corpus (6 visits over 2 years) consisting of controlled playful activities between mothers and their children...... (Goodwin et al. 2012). We quantified amount (number of words and utterances) and complexity (lexical repertoire and utterance length) of linguistic behavior in both mother and child. We used mixed-effects growth curve models to quantify i)match within-conversation and ii)longitudinal impact between visits....... Child and mother are strongly correlated in their linguistic behaviors (R2 between .07 and .62, pMother-child pairs in the ASD group, however, show a shallower increase in match. Amount and complexity...

  20. How do we communicate stereotypes? Linguistic bases and inferential consequences

    Wigboldus, DHJ; Semin, GR; Spears, R

    The linguistic expectancy bias is defined as the tendency to describe expectancy-consistent information at a higher level of abstraction than expectancy-inconsistent information; The communicative consequences of this bias were examined in 3 experiments. Analyses of judgments that recipients made on

  1. Playful Organizations

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring...

  2. Clay Play

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  3. Sweet Play

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  4. Group play

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  5. Playing Teacher.

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    The acceptance of animation technologies is increasing. Video games, such as Sony PlayStation (SONY, 2002), have become part of the culture for young people from kindergarten through undergraduate school. Animation technologies have been implemented into educational systems in the form of animated pedagogical agents (Johnson, 2000). The research…

  6. Aesthetic Play

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activitie...

  7. Water Play

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  8. Translation and linguistic validation of the Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System measures into simplified Chinese using cognitive interviewing methodology.

    Liu, Yanyan; Hinds, Pamela S; Wang, Jichuan; Correia, Helena; Du, Shizheng; Ding, Jian; Gao, Wen Jun; Yuan, Changrong

    2013-01-01

    The Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures were developed using modern measurement theory and tested in a variety of settings to assess the quality of life, function, and symptoms of children and adolescents experiencing a chronic illness and its treatment. Developed in English, this set of measures had not been translated into Chinese. The objective of this study was to develop the Chinese version of the Pediatric PROMIS measures (C-Ped-PROMIS), specifically 8 short forms, and to pretest the translated measures in children and adolescents through cognitive interviewing methodology. The C-Ped-PROMIS was developed following the standard Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Translation Methodology. Bilingual teams from the United States and China reviewed the translation to develop a provisional version, which was then pretested with cognitive interview by probing 10 native Chinese-speaking children aged 8 to 17 years in China. The translation was finalized by the bilingual teams. Most items, response options, and instructions were well understood by the children, and some revisions were made to address patient's comments during the cognitive interview. The results indicated that the C-Ped-PROMIS items were semantically and conceptually equivalent to the original. Children aged 8 to 17 years in China were able to comprehend these measures and express their experience and feelings about illness or their life. The C-Ped-PROMIS is available for psychometric validation. Future work will be directed at translating the rest of the item banks, calibrating them and creating a Chinese final version of the short forms.

  9. Playing with social identities

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... by ethnographic observations and draws on illustrative examples with symbolic group play as well as game-play with rules (soccer) among 5 year old boys. Findings suggest that day-care children’s play, involves negotiation of roles, positioning and identification, and rules – and that these negotiations......This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...

  10. Probabilistic Linguistic Power Aggregation Operators for Multi-Criteria Group Decision Making

    Agbodah Kobina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As an effective aggregation tool, power average (PA allows the input arguments being aggregated to support and reinforce each other, which provides more versatility in the information aggregation process. Under the probabilistic linguistic term environment, we deeply investigate the new power aggregation (PA operators for fusing the probabilistic linguistic term sets (PLTSs. In this paper, we firstly develop the probabilistic linguistic power average (PLPA, the weighted probabilistic linguistic power average (WPLPA operators, the probabilistic linguistic power geometric (PLPG and the weighted probabilistic linguistic power geometric (WPLPG operators. At the same time, we carefully analyze the properties of these new aggregation operators. With the aid of the WPLPA and WPLPG operators, we further design the approaches for the application of multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM with PLTSs. Finally, we use an illustrated example to expound our proposed methods and verify their performances.

  11. Linguistic and Psycho-Linguistic Principles of Linguadidactics (theoretical interpretation

    Liudmila Mauzienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers linguadidactics being closely related to linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics and didactics and applies their theoretical statements and regularities in its scientific studies. Methodology refers to linguistics which investigates the language as a teaching subject. Methodology is linked to psychology in two ways. First of all, it is based on psychology as the teaching process is an intellectual psychical act and its regularities are necessary to know. On the other hand, methodology applies rules of pedagogy that predicts ways of learning and development of language skills. The article emphasizes that sustainable work experience and analysis of scientific research show that teaching process is more effective if consistent patterns of linguistics and psychology are appropriately applied.

  12. Implicit learning of non-linguistic and linguistic regularities in children with dyslexia.

    Nigro, Luciana; Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Simpson, Ian C; Defior, Sylvia

    2016-07-01

    One of the hallmarks of dyslexia is the failure to automatise written patterns despite repeated exposure to print. Although many explanations have been proposed to explain this problem, researchers have recently begun to explore the possibility that an underlying implicit learning deficit may play a role in dyslexia. This hypothesis has been investigated through non-linguistic tasks exploring implicit learning in a general domain. In this study, we examined the abilities of children with dyslexia to implicitly acquire positional regularities embedded in both non-linguistic and linguistic stimuli. In experiment 1, 42 children (21 with dyslexia and 21 typically developing) were exposed to rule-governed shape sequences; whereas in experiment 2, a new group of 42 children were exposed to rule-governed letter strings. Implicit learning was assessed in both experiments via a forced-choice task. Experiments 1 and 2 showed a similar pattern of results. ANOVA analyses revealed no significant differences between the dyslexic and the typically developing group, indicating that children with dyslexia are not impaired in the acquisition of simple positional regularities, regardless of the nature of the stimuli. However, within group t-tests suggested that children from the dyslexic group could not transfer the underlying positional rules to novel instances as efficiently as typically developing children.

  13. Playing facilitator

    Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...... workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our...... experience was rather characterized by conflictual negotiations with the students. Data from our observations and from interviews with group representatives show that the students took a discontinuous learning path, characterised by a false start, failure, and a thorough reconsideration of their work...

  14. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  15. Data Acquisition and Linguistic Resources

    Strassel, Stephanie; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John; Staderman, William; Olive, Joseph

    All human language technology demands substantial quantities of data for system training and development, plus stable benchmark data to measure ongoing progress. While creation of high quality linguistic resources is both costly and time consuming, such data has the potential to profoundly impact not just a single evaluation program but language technology research in general. GALE's challenging performance targets demand linguistic data on a scale and complexity never before encountered. Resources cover multiple languages (Arabic, Chinese, and English) and multiple genres -- both structured (newswire and broadcast news) and unstructured (web text, including blogs and newsgroups, and broadcast conversation). These resources include significant volumes of monolingual text and speech, parallel text, and transcribed audio combined with multiple layers of linguistic annotation, ranging from word aligned parallel text and Treebanks to rich semantic annotation.

  16. Playing Possum

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  17. Playful Technology

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  18. Social network size can influence linguistic malleability and the propagation of linguistic change.

    Lev-Ari, Shiri

    2018-07-01

    We learn language from our social environment, but the more sources we have, the less informative each source is, and therefore, the less weight we ascribe its input. According to this principle, people with larger social networks should give less weight to new incoming information, and should therefore be less susceptible to the influence of new speakers. This paper tests this prediction, and shows that speakers with smaller social networks indeed have more malleable linguistic representations. In particular, they are more likely to adjust their lexical boundary following exposure to a new speaker. Experiment 2 uses computational simulations to test whether this greater malleability could lead people with smaller social networks to be important for the propagation of linguistic change despite the fact that they interact with fewer people. The results indicate that when innovators were connected with people with smaller rather than larger social networks, the population exhibited greater and faster diffusion. Together these experiments show that the properties of people's social networks can influence individuals' learning and use as well as linguistic phenomena at the community level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards psychoanalytic contribution to linguistic metaphor theory.

    Caspi, Tair

    2017-07-05

    This paper lays out a formulation of the psychoanalytical contribution to linguistic metaphor theory. The author's main argument is that psychoanalysis can help enrich and shed light on linguistic metaphor theories, since these have focused on the cognitive aspect, to the exclusion of the role played by affect. Based on the tight link between metaphor and symbol - both configurations of figurative language - the author shall apply ideas sourced from some of the key psychoanalytic symbolization theories, focusing in particular on Klein, Winnicott, and Ogden. The course of exploration will serve to trace the unconscious emotional aspects that participate in the metaphor's mechanism, just as they participate in the symbol's workings. The study leads to the main conclusion that the intersubjective transitional space is of substantial importance to metaphor's constitution, particularly in regard to novel metaphors. Expanding the understanding of metaphor's modus operandi has important implications in conceptual clarification and for an in-depth analytical work, and is of immense significance when it comes to analytical work with patients who suffer impairment of their metaphoric ability. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  20. Mathematical Approaches to Cognitive Linguistics

    Chuluundorj Begz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive linguistics, neuro-cognitive and psychological analysis of human verbal cognition present important area of multidisciplinary research. Mathematical methods and models have been introduced in number of publications with increasing attention to these theories. In this paper we have described some possible applications of mathematical methods to cognitive linguistics. Human verbal perception and verbal mapping deal with dissipative mental structures and symmetric/asymmetric relationships between objects of perception and deep (also surface structures of language. In that’s way methods of tensor analysis are ambitious candidate to be applied to analysis of human verbal thinking and mental space.

  1. Linguistics, human communication and psychiatry.

    Thomas, P; Fraser, W

    1994-11-01

    Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics have extended our understanding of the abnormal communication seen in psychosis, as well as that of people with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Psycholinguistics has the potential to increase the explanatory power of cognitive and neuropsychological approaches to psychosis and new methods of assessment and therapy are now being developed, based on linguistic theory. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Of 205 relevant articles identified, 65 were selected for review. Greater familiarity with linguistic theory could improve psychiatrists' assessment skills and their understanding of the relevance of human communication to the new cognitive models of psychosis.

  2. On Norms and Linguistic Categories in Linguistic Diversity Management

    Marácz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Due to globalization there is an increase in the appearances of languages in the multilingual linguistic landscape in urban spaces. Commentators have described this state of affairs as super-, mega- or complex diversity. Mainstream sociolinguists have argued that languages have no fixed boundaries

  3. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  4. Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development. Miami Linguistics Series No. 9.

    von Humboldt, Wilhelm

    Although this edition of Wilhelm von Humboldt's "Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development" is based entirely on the original German edition, the translators (George C. Buck and Frithjof A. Raven) and the publisher have attempted to clarify certain aspects of this work for the modern-day reader. These features include the addition of…

  5. Information

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  6. First Steps into Language? Examining the Specific Longitudinal Relations between Walking, Exploration and Linguistic Skills.

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Volman, M Chiel J M; Leseman, Paul P M

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2) exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3) no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard) tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial language. Moreover

  7. First steps into language? Examining the specific longitudinal relations between walking, exploration and linguistic skills

    Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1 the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2 exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3 no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial

  8. Clinical Linguistics--Retrospect and Prospect.

    Grunwell, Pamela

    In the past 20 years, linguistics has gained a prominent position in speech and language pathology in Britain, evolving into a new field, clinical linguistics. It includes three related areas of activity: training of speech pathologists/therapists; professional practice; and research. Linguistics and speech/language pathology have developed as…

  9. Quantitative Research in Systemic Functional Linguistics

    He, Qingshun

    2018-01-01

    The research of Systemic Functional Linguistics has been quite in-depth in both theory and practice. However, many linguists hold that Systemic Functional Linguistics has no hypothesis testing or experiments and its research is only qualitative. Analyses of the corpus, intelligent computing and language evolution on the ideological background of…

  10. Evaluating automatically annotated treebanks for linguistic research

    Bloem, J.; Bański, P.; Kupietz, M.; Lüngen, H.; Witt, A.; Barbaresi, A.; Biber, H.; Breiteneder, E.; Clematide, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses evaluation methods for linguists to use when employing an automatically annotated treebank as a source of linguistic evidence. While treebanks are usually evaluated with a general measure over all the data, linguistic studies often focus on a particular construction or a group

  11. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  12. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  13. Interdisciplinarity in pragmatics and linguistics

    Mey, Jacob L.

    2017-01-01

    At the Second International Conference ‘Zeichen und System der Sprache’ (Magdeburg, September 1964), a certain East German professor took the floor during a discussion of one of the linguistic presentations. He started his comments by saying: ‘Als Mathematiker weiß ich zwar von der Sache nichts...

  14. Fuzzy linguistic model for interpolation

    Abbasbandy, S.; Adabitabar Firozja, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy method for interpolating of smooth curves was represented. We present a novel approach to interpolate real data by applying the universal approximation method. In proposed method, fuzzy linguistic model (FLM) applied as universal approximation for any nonlinear continuous function. Finally, we give some numerical examples and compare the proposed method with spline method

  15. Desiderata for Linguistic Software Design

    Garretson, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of guidelines both for researchers in search of software to be used in linguistic analysis and for programmers designing such software. A description of the intended audience and the types of software under consideration and a review of some relevant literature are followed by a discussion of several important…

  16. Saussurean structuralism and cognitive linguistics

    Elffers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive linguistics (CL) is often regarded as a continuation of Saussurean structuralism. This paper explores the relationship between the two paradigms, focussing on the connection between semantics and views on the language-thought relationship. As it turns out, the similarity in this respect

  17. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  18. 140 CIRCULAR INTERACTION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC ...

    economy. Although a country or administrative district should have one or more official languages for obvious reasons, Nelde (1991) proposes that the ... circular interaction between linguistic departments and language departments. Finding an answer to' Plato's abovementioned problem entails that as many languages as ...

  19. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  20. Applied Linguistics in the Philippines.

    Tucker, G. Richard

    This paper traces the three major developmental strands that converged to contribute to the definition of the applied linguistics field in the Philippines: the institution and capacity-building work supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations; the forging of a vibrant consortium among three Filipino institutions of higher education to offer…

  1. Development, Underdevelopment and Poverty: A Linguistic Study of ...

    Development, Underdevelopment and Poverty: A Linguistic Study of Joseph Edoki's The African Dream. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  2. Linguistic Theory in Practical Lexicography of African Languages

    Mev. R.B. Ruthven

    improve their work by using insights from theoretically-guided linguistic investigations. Our view .... The processes of compiling, editing and extending dictionaries as ... plinary nature of dictionaries, lexicographers should not only follow develop- ... as terminology, information technology, language teaching, translation, psy-.

  3. LINGUISTIC GAFFES IN THE NIGERIAN MEDIA NEWSCAST: AN ...

    Mitch

    It particularly explores cases of linguistic gaffes- wrong usage of .... of primary and secondary sources of information for its analysis. ... cybercrime in the sub region”. ... Lagos” (NTA Network News Broadcast, Sunday 12,June, 2005). .... keep tab on the trendiest of developments in the language in order not to lag behind or.

  4. Persian Linguistic and Rhetorical Pathology in The Telegram Communication Network

    M. Hedayat Mofidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the mobile phone, with its wide range of features, is an inexpensive, easy to use, and most modern communication tool. One of the special applications of smart phones is providing spaces and facilities such as SMS services, virtual networks, and interactive groups that link people and groups from different linguistic and cultural background. In this paper, we tried to study the messages of the Farsi-speaking users of the Telegram communication network from the linguistics perspective. In this regard, the linguistics and rhetorical correspondence of short messages in Persian language was studied by the content-analysis method. The statistical population consisted of 150 messages which contained 327 sentences. These messages were randomly selected from 5 different groups. Persian language used in cyberspace differs from standard Persian language. The first step in correcting communication language errors in cyberspace is to inform the users about the type of errors.

  5. A Fuzzy Linguistic Methodology to Deal With Unbalanced Linguistic Term Sets

    Herrera, F.; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique; Martinez, L.

    2008-01-01

    Many real problems dealing with qualitative aspects use linguistic approaches to assess such aspects. In most of these problems, a uniform and symmetrical distribution of the linguistic term sets for linguistic modeling is assumed. However, there exist problems whose assessments need to be represented by means of unbalanced linguistic term sets, i.e., using term sets that are not uniformly and symmetrically distributed. The use of linguistic variables implies processes of computing with words...

  6. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  7. The Effects of Linguistic Labels Related to Abstract Scenes on Memory

    Kentaro Inomata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Boundary extension is the false memory beyond the actual boundary of a picture scene. Gagnier (2011 suggested that a linguistic label has no effect on the magnitude of boundary extension. Although she controlled the timing of the presentation or information of the linguistic label, the information of stimulus was not changed. In the present study, the depiction of the main object was controlled in order to change the contextual information of a scene. In experiment, the 68 participants were shown 12 pictures. The stimulus consisted pictures that depicted the main object or did not depict the main object, and half of them were presented with linguistic description. Participants rated the object-less pictures more closely than the original pictures, when the former were presented with linguistic labels. However, when they were presented without linguistic labels, boundary extension did not occur. There was no effect of labels on the pictures that depicted the main objects. On the basis of these results, the linguistic label enhances the representation of the abstract scene like a homogeneous field or a wall. This finding suggests that boundary extension may be affected by not only visual information but also by other sensory information mediated by linguistic representation.

  8. Linguistic embodiment and verbal constraints: human cognition and the scales of time

    Cowley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Using radical embodied cognitive science, the paper offers the hypothesis that language is symbiotic: its agent-environment dynamics arise as linguistic embodiment is managed under verbal constraints. As a result, co-action grants human agents the ability to use a unique form of phenomenal......, linguistic symbiosis grants access to diachronic resources. On this distributed-ecological view, language can thus be redefined as: “activity in which wordings play a part.”...

  9. Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses.

    Garritty, Chantelle; Stevens, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald; King, Valerie; Kamel, Chris

    2016-10-28

    Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid reviews" have emerged as an efficient tool to get evidence to decision-makers more quickly. However, the use of rapid reviews does present challenges. To date, there has been limited published empirical information about this approach to compiling evidence. Thus, it remains a poorly understood and ill-defined set of diverse methodologies with various labels. In recent years, the need to further explore rapid review methods, characteristics, and their use has been recognized by a growing network of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews. In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group was formed and outline the group's structure and remit. We also discuss the need to establish a more robust evidence base for rapid reviews in the published literature, and the importance of promoting registration of rapid review protocols in an effort to promote efficiency and transparency in research. As with standard systematic reviews, the core principles of evidence-based synthesis should apply to rapid reviews in order to minimize bias to the extent possible. The Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group will serve to establish a network of rapid review stakeholders and provide a forum for discussion and training. By facilitating

  10. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  11. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor.

    Nichols, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc.), but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten , or Turkish korkmak 'fear, be afraid' and korkutmak 'frighten, scare', or Finnish istua 'sit' and istutta 'seat (someone)', or Spanish sentarse 'sit down' and sentar 'seat (someone)' is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where 'seat' is derived from 'sit' by addition of a suffix-is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  12. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an e...

  13. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc., but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten, or Turkish korkmak ‘fear, be afraid’ and korkutmak ‘frighten, scare’, or Finnish istua ‘sit’ and istutta ‘seat (someone’, or Spanish sentarse ‘sit down’ and sentar ‘seat (someone’ is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where ‘seat’ is derived from ‘sit’ by addition of a suffix—is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  14. A lattice-valued linguistic decision model for nuclear safeguards applications

    Ruan, D.; Liu, J.; Carchon, R.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we focus our attention on decision making models to process uncertainty-based information directly without transforming them into any particular membership function, i.e., directly using linguistic information (linguistic values) instead of numbers (numerical values). By analyzing the feature of linguistic values ordered by their means of common usage, we argue that the set of linguistic values should be characterized by a lattice structure. We propose the lattice structure based on a logical algebraic structure i.e., lattice implication algebra. Finally, we obtain a multi-objective decision-making model by extending Yager's multi-objective model from the following aspects: (1) extension of linguistic information: from a set of linear ordered linguistic labels (values) to that of lattice-valued linguistic labels; (2) extension of the combination function M, which is used to combine the individual ratings with the weights of criteria. We propose an implication operation form of M. The implication operation can be drawn from lattice implication algebra. As an illustration, we will finally apply this decision model to the evaluation problem in safeguard relevant information. (orig.)

  15. The linguistic roots of natural pedagogy.

    Mattos, Otávio; Hinzen, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Natural pedagogy is a human-specific capacity that allows us to acquire cultural information from communication even before the emergence of the first words, encompassing three core elements: (i) a sensitivity to ostensive signals like eye contact that indicate to infants that they are being addressed through communication, (ii) a subsequent referential expectation (satisfied by the use of declarative gestures) and (iii) a biased interpretation of ostensive-referential communication as conveying relevant information about the referent's kind (Csibra and Gergely, 2006, 2009, 2011). Remarkably, the link between natural pedagogy and another human-specific capacity, namely language, has rarely been investigated in detail. We here argue that children's production and comprehension of declarative gestures around 10 months of age are in fact expressions of an evolving faculty of language. Through both declarative gestures and ostensive signals, infants can assign the roles of third, second, and first person, building the 'deictic space' that grounds both natural pedagogy and language use. Secondly, we argue that the emergence of two kinds of linguistic structures (i.e., proto-determiner phrases and proto-sentences) in the one-word period sheds light on the different kinds of information that children can acquire or convey at different stages of development (namely, generic knowledge about kinds and knowledge about particular events/actions/state of affairs, respectively). Furthermore, the development of nominal and temporal reference in speech allows children to cognize information in terms of spatial and temporal relations. In this way, natural pedagogy transpires as an inherent aspect of our faculty of language, rather than as an independent adaptation that pre-dates language in evolution or development (Csibra and Gergely, 2006). This hypothesis is further testable through predictions it makes on the different linguistic profiles of toddlers with developmental

  16. The linguistic roots of Natural Pedagogy

    Otávio eMattos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural pedagogy is a human-specific capacity that allows us to acquire cultural information from communication even before the emergence of the first words, encompassing three core elements: (i a sensitivity to ostensive signals like eye contact that indicate to infants that they are being addressed through communication, (ii a subsequent referential expectation (satisfied by the use of declarative gestures and (iii a biased interpretation of ostensive-referential communication as conveying relevant information about the referent's kind (Csibra & Gergely, 2011, 2009, 2006. Remarkably, the link between natural pedagogy and another human-specific capacity, namely language, has rarely been investigated in detail. We here argue that children’s production and comprehension of declarative gestures around 10 months of age are in fact expressions of an evolving faculty of language. Through both declarative gestures and ostensive signals, infants can assign the roles of 3rd , 2nd and 1st person, building the ‘deictic space’ that grounds both natural pedagogy and language use. Secondly, we argue that the emergence of two kinds of linguistic structures (i.e. proto-determiner phrases and proto-sentences in the one-word period sheds light on the different kinds of information that children can acquire or convey at different stages of development (namely, generic knowledge about kinds and knowledge about particular events/actions/state of affairs, respectively. Furthermore, the development of nominal and temporal reference in speech allows children to cognize information in terms of spatial and temporal relations. In this way, natural pedagogy transpires as an inherent aspect of our faculty of language, rather than as an independent adaptation that pre-dates language in evolution or development (Csibra & Gergely, 2006. This hypothesis is further testable through predictions it makes on the different linguistic profiles of toddlers with developmental

  17. A primer in macromolecular linguistics.

    Searls, David B

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English le...... the economic and geopolitical agenda behind this English teaching business, there is clear evidence of linguistic imperialism in the functions of this global professional service. These activities serve to strengthen Western interests.......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  19. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  20. Linguistic complex networks as a young field of quantitative linguistics. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by J. Cong and H. Liu

    Köhler, Reinhard

    2014-12-01

    We have long been used to the domination of qualitative methods in modern linguistics. Indeed, qualitative methods have advantages such as ease of use and wide applicability to many types of linguistic phenomena. However, this shall not overshadow the fact that a great part of human language is amenable to quantification. Moreover, qualitative methods may lead to over-simplification by employing the rigid yes/no scale. When variability and vagueness of human language must be taken into account, qualitative methods will prove inadequate and give way to quantitative methods [1, p. 11]. In addition to such advantages as exactness and precision, quantitative concepts and methods make it possible to find laws of human language which are just like those in natural sciences. These laws are fundamental elements of linguistic theories in the spirit of the philosophy of science [2,3]. Theorization effort of this type is what quantitative linguistics [1,4,5] is devoted to. The review of Cong and Liu [6] has provided an informative and insightful survey of linguistic complex networks as a young field of quantitative linguistics, including the basic concepts and measures, the major lines of research with linguistic motivation, and suggestions for future research.

  1. Linguistics, cognitive psychology, and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.

    Endress, Ansgar D; Katzir, Roni

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C)'s key premise is that "if linguistic information is not processed rapidly, that information is lost for good" (sect. 1, para. 1). From this "Now-or-Never bottleneck" (NNB), C&C derive "wide-reaching and fundamental implications for language processing, acquisition and change as well as for the structure of language itself" (sect. 2, para. 10). We question both the premise and the consequentiality of its purported implications.

  2. A fuzzy linguistic interface for data bases in nuclear safety problems

    Lyapin, B.; Ryjov, A.; Moscow Univ.

    1994-01-01

    This work describes the idea of a fuzzy linguistic interface for large-scale data bases, allowing to effectively handle a large amount of information. This effect is reached by providing an opportunity to search information on the basis of generalised concepts, or in other words, linguistic descriptions. These concepts are formulated by the user in natural language, and modelled by fuzzy sets, defined on the universe of the significances of the characteristics of the data base objects

  3. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity

    Rosamund Moon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Conventionally, dictionaries present information about institutionalized words,phrases, and senses of words; more creative formations and usages are generally ignored. Yet textand corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordinarylinguistic behaviour and indeed often systematic.This article looks at four specific types of lexical creativity in English: figurative meaning,word formation, idioms, and spelling. Focusing on selected examples, it discusses corpus evidenceand then treatment in (principally three recent monolingual dictionaries for learners of English. Itargues that, even taking into account the pedagogical function and limited scope of these dictionaries,more could be said about creative aspects of lexis, and the systematicity of creative usage.This would be of benefit and interest to dictionary users, and empower them.

    Keywords: AFFIXATION, CORPUS, CREATIVITY, DICTIONARY COVERAGE, ENGLISH,FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE, IDIOMS, LEXICOGRAPHY, NEOLOGISM, NORMATIVENESS,SPELLING, WORD FORMATION

    Opsomming: Leksikografie en taalkreatiwiteit. Normaalweg verskaf woordeboekeinligting oor geïnstitutionaliseerde woorde, frases en betekenisse van woorde; meer kreatiewe vormingeen gebruike word gewoonlik geïgnoreer. Tog bied teks- en korpusgegewens volop bewysevan kreatiwiteit in taal, wat toon dat dit deel van gewone taalkundige gedrag is en inderdaaddikwels sistematies.Hierdie artikel beskou vier spesifieke soorte leksikale kreatiwiteit in Engels: figuurlike betekenis,woordvorming, idiome, en spelling. Deur op uitgesoekte voorbeelde te fokus, bespreek ditkorpusbewyse en daarna behandeling in (hoofsaaklik drie resente eentalige woordeboeke viraanleerders van Engels. Dit voer aan dat, selfs al word die opvoedkundige funksie en beperkteomvang van hierdie woordeboeke in ag geneem, meer gesê sou kon word oor die kreatieweaspekte van leksis, en die sistematisiteit van kreatiewe gebruik

  4. MULTIMODAL CONSTRUCTION OF CHILDREN'S ARGUMENTS IN DISPUTES DURING PLAY

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a sociocultural theory of human development and learning (Vigotsky, 2009; Bruner, 1986; Nelson, 1996; Tomasello, 1998, 2003, this paper aims to investigate the multimodal construction of arguments produced by 5 year-old children during disputes in a kindergarten play situation. We considered the juxtaposition of information provided by resources from different semiotic fields (Goodwin, 2000, 2007. The corpus consists of the interactions in a group of children while they play with building blocks. This play situation was videotaped in a kindergarten classroom that is attended by an urban marginalized population of outer Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis makes use of the qualitative logic derived from the methodological tools of Conversation Analysis developed in previous research (Goodwin, 2000, 2007; Goodwin and Goodwin, 1990, 2000; Goodwin, Goodwin and Yaeger-Dror, 2002. The results show the different semiotic fields that overlap with the linguistic expression of the arguments or points of view that children maintain while quarrelling during play situations. This demonstrates the importance of attending to intonation, the use of space, the direction of gaze, gestures, and body positioning as they are components that contribute to the argumentative force of the utterances in disputes. These elements emerge as indicators of the emotions that parties experience in disputes which can not be disregarded when attempting to account for how argumentation occurs in real situations of interaction. This paper is written in Spanish.

  5. Bridging the Linguistic and Affective Gaps

    Westbrook, Peter Nils; Henriksen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    feedback sessions. The study also includes a structured, in-depth interview with the informant, which yields very specific and rich data about how one lecturer feels about teaching in English, the informant’s own learning focus and the outcomes of a short language course. The aims of the study are fourfold......This paper reports on a small-scale case study which follows an experienced Danish university lecturer during a tailor-made, one-to-one language course to improve her English language skills for lecturing, consisting of a five-week cycle of observed English-medium lectures and subsequent language......, namely: 1) to describe the informant’s motivation for taking an English course; 2) to compare her affective and perceived linguistic needs with her objective needs; 3) to follow her own language focus areas during the course; and 4) to identify any subjective or objective gains she achieved from...

  6. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...

  7. LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY AT PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOK: SOME CONSIDERATIONS

    Paula Gaida Winch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed how linguistic diversity is dealt with in a Portuguese textbook, where two chapters are designated to it. In these, it is pointed out that speaker ethnic origin can be manifested differently by: morphological changes; use of foreign expressions; accent in oral language. In synthesis, the linguistic diversity is dealt with through activities of identification and reproduction of linguistic varieties to be carried out by the students.

  8. On the interaction of Linguistic Typology and Functional Grammar

    Rijkhoff, J.

    2002-01-01

    of adjectives as a distinct word class. Conversely it will be shown that facts from many different languages have played an important role in the development of a layered model of the noun phrase in Functional Grammar and how currently these facts are used to test hypotheses concerning parallels between NPs...... empirical research in a wide variety of languages as practiced in the context of linguistic typology and one particular theory, Simon Dik's theory of Functional Grammar. In my view, the relationship between Functional Grammar and linguistic typology is an excellent example of the fruitful combination...... of theory driven data collection and data driven hypothesis formation. Furthermore, typological facts do not only serve to confirm the theory of Functional Grammar, but they also serve as a heuristics for an extension of the theory.Research conducted within the wider theoretical framework of Dik...

  9. English linguistic purism: history, development, criticism

    Grishechko Ovsanna Savvichna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic purism as an area of linguistic analysis describes the practices of identification and acknowledgement of a certain language variety as more structurally advanced as compared to its other varieties. Linguistic protection is associated with preservation of some abstract, classical, conservative linguistic ideal and performs the regulatory function, above all. The puristic approach to the development of the English language has been subjected to heated debate for several centuries and is reflected in both scientific research and literary texts. Supporters of purification of the English language champion the idea of protection of “pure language”. The idea, however, is actively criticized by opponents.

  10. Data modelling in corpus linguistics: how low may we go?

    van Velzen, Marjolein H; Nanetti, Luca; de Deyn, Peter P

    2014-06-01

    Corpus linguistics allows researchers to process millions of words. However, the more words we analyse, i.e., the more data we acquire, the more urgent the call for correct data interpretation becomes. In recent years, a number of studies saw the light attempting to profile some prolific authors' linguistic decline, linking this decline to pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, in line with the nature of the (literary) work that was analysed, numbers alone do not suffice to 'tell the story'. The one and only objective of using statistical methods for the analysis of research data is to tell a story--what happened, when, and how. In the present study we describe a computerised but individualised approach to linguistic analysis--we propose a unifying approach, with firm grounds in Information Theory, that, independently from the specific parameter being investigated, guarantees to produce a robust model of the temporal dynamics of an author's linguistic richness over his or her lifetime. We applied this methodology to six renowned authors with an active writing life of four decades or more: Iris Murdoch, Gerard Reve, Hugo Claus, Agatha Christie, P.D. James, and Harry Mulisch. The first three were diagnosed with probable Alzheimer Disease, confirmed post-mortem for Iris Murdoch; this same condition was hypothesized for Agatha Christie. Our analysis reveals different evolutive patterns of lexical richness, in turn plausibly correlated with the authors' different conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On Functional Potential of Interrogative Structures in Academic Linguistic Discourse

    Sergey Trofimovich Nefedov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the language of scientific communication in the field of linguistics, namely, with the functional potential of the interrogative structures in the form of direct and embedded questions. From a pragmatic perspective the interrogative structures does not seem to be compatible with the contexts of scientific interaction: scientists do not ask for information, but they offer their own solutions for the problem situations. This is reflected in the extremely low frequency of questions in academic research articles and monographs. Their text frequency works out a little over 2 % of the total number of the text predications and that of direct questions is about 1 %. Therefore, their place in verbalization of scientific knowledge in linguistics is metaphorically characterized in this article as «interrogative prohibition» by analogy with the «prohibitions» of Harald Weinrich who introduced several notions point to rarely used linguistic units: «prohibition of authorization» – das «Ich-Verbot», «narrative prohibition» – das «Erzähl-Verbot»; «prohibition of metaphors»– das «MetaphernVerbot». In its turn, low frequency makes the analyzed structures an effective tool to formulate the discussed problems, enables further argumentation, integrate the current text into overall linguistic discourse, control the development of the argumentation in scientific text and finally to draw the recipient's attention to a crucial or unexpected argument.

  12. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    on their needs and desires. This paper presents results from SoundScapes body of research which is utilising technology in assistive (re)habilitation from Virtual Interactive Space (VIS); furthermore the paper describes what emerges in play scenarios that utilise enabling technology. The involved study exhibits...... implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...

  13. The Grammar of Linguistic Semiotics

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new typology of linguistic signs primarily based on Peirce’s sign conception. It is demonstrated that the fundamental simple sign, the symbolic nominal lexeme, has an arbitrary relationship to its object in order to make it omnipotent, that is, open to various possible...... objects (ensured by nouns) and situations (ensured by the verb)--the latter corresponding to Peirce's rhematic sign-- and in addition to the level of assertion--corresponding to Peirce's dicentic sign-- there is a third level at which verbal categories collaborate in order to make a deduction, abduction...... or induction-- corresponding to Peirce's argumentative signs....

  14. Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials.

    Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

    Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

  15. Measuring Linguistic Empathy: An Experimental Approach to Connecting Linguistic and Social Psychological Notions of Empathy

    Kann, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…

  16. Right Lateral Cerebellum Represents Linguistic Predictability.

    Lesage, Elise; Hansen, Peter C; Miall, R Chris

    2017-06-28

    Mounting evidence indicates that posterolateral portions of the cerebellum (right Crus I/II) contribute to language processing, but the nature of this role remains unclear. Based on a well-supported theory of cerebellar motor function, which ascribes to the cerebellum a role in short-term prediction through internal modeling, we hypothesize that right cerebellar Crus I/II supports prediction of upcoming sentence content. We tested this hypothesis using event-related fMRI in male and female human subjects by manipulating the predictability of written sentences. Our design controlled for motor planning and execution, as well as for linguistic features and working memory load; it also allowed separation of the prediction interval from the presentation of the final sentence item. In addition, three further fMRI tasks captured semantic, phonological, and orthographic processing to shed light on the nature of the information processed. As hypothesized, activity in right posterolateral cerebellum correlated with the predictability of the upcoming target word. This cerebellar region also responded to prediction error during the outcome of the trial. Further, this region was engaged in phonological, but not semantic or orthographic, processing. This is the first imaging study to demonstrate a right cerebellar contribution in language comprehension independently from motor, cognitive, and linguistic confounds. These results complement our work using other methodologies showing cerebellar engagement in linguistic prediction and suggest that internal modeling of phonological representations aids language production and comprehension. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cerebellum is traditionally seen as a motor structure that allows for smooth movement by predicting upcoming signals. However, the cerebellum is also consistently implicated in nonmotor functions such as language and working memory. Using fMRI, we identify a cerebellar area that is active when words are predicted and

  17. An Extended TOPSIS Method for Multiple Attribute Decision Making based on Interval Neutrosophic Uncertain Linguistic Variables

    Said Broumi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables can easily express the indeterminate and inconsistent information in real world, and TOPSIS is a very effective decision making method more and more extensive applications. In this paper, we will extend the TOPSIS method to deal with the interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic information, and propose an extended TOPSIS method to solve the multiple attribute decision making problems in which the attribute value takes the form of the interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables and attribute weight is unknown. Firstly, the operational rules and properties for the interval neutrosophic variables are introduced. Then the distance between two interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables is proposed and the attribute weight is calculated by the maximizing deviation method, and the closeness coefficients to the ideal solution for each alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the decision making steps and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Linguistic spatial classifications of event domains in narratives of crime

    Blake Stephen Howald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Structurally, formal definitions of the linguistic narrative minimally require two temporally linked past-time events. The role of space in this definition, based on spatial language indicating where events occur, is considered optional and non-structural. However, based on narratives with a high frequency of spatial language, recent research has questioned this perspective, suggesting that space is more critical than may be readily apparent. Through an analysis of spatially rich serial criminal narratives, it will be demonstrated that spatial information qualitatively varies relative to narrative events. In particular, statistical classifiers in a supervised machine learning task achieve a 90% accuracy in predicting Pre-Crime, Crime, and Post-Crime events based on spatial (and temporal information. Overall, these results suggest a deeper spatial organization of discourse, which not only provides practical event resolution possibilities, but also challenges traditional formal linguistic definitions of narrative.

  19. Multidisciplinary Approach in Teaching Foreign Languages to Information Security Professionals

    N. M. Nikiforova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The program of teaching foreign languages to information security professionals is aimed at unifying linguistic, extra linguistic and professional information distributed in the contents of the course.

  20. Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance

    Wyman, Leisy

    2012-01-01

    Detailing a decade of life and language use in a remote Alaskan Yup'ik community, Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance provides rare insight into young people's language brokering and Indigenous people's contemporary linguistic ecologies. This book examines how two consecutive groups of youth in a Yup'ik village…

  1. MODERN LINGUISTICS, ITS DEVELOPMENT AND SCOPE.

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN LINGUISTICS STARTED WITH JONES' DISCOVERY IN 1786 THAT SANSKRIT IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE CLASSICAL, GERMANIC, AND CELTIC LANGUAGES, AND HAS ADVANCED TO INCLUDE THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS IN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS. THE HIGHLIGHTS OF LINGUISTIC RESEARCH HAVE BEEN DE SAUSSURE'S DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE DIACHRONIC AND THE…

  2. What can literature do for linguistics?

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2007-01-01

      Through analyses of selected passages from James Joyce's Ulysses, this article demonstrates how the challenging of the boundaries between linguistics and literary studies can be more than a one-way process aimed at uncovering linguistic patterns of literary texts. The theoretical basis...

  3. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  4. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners

    Dressler, Roswita

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  5. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  6. Political Liberalism, Linguistic Diversity and Equal Treatment

    Bonotti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of John Rawls' political liberalism for linguistic diversity and language policy, by focusing on the following question: what kind(s) of equality between speakers of different languages and with different linguistic identities should the state guarantee under political liberalism? The article makes three…

  7. Using the Linguistic Landscape to Bridge Languages

    Mari, Vanessa

    2018-01-01

    In this article Vanessa Mari describes how she uses the linguistic landscape to bridge two or more languages with students learning English. The linguistic landscape is defined by Landry and Bourhis (1997, 25) as "the language of public road signs, advertising billboards, street names, place names, commercial shop signs, and public signs on…

  8. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  9. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Journal Sponsorship

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Publisher contact person: Mrs Christine Smit. Email: linguis@sun.ac.za. Phone: 021 808 2052. Fax: 021 808 2009. Mailing address: Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602. Department of General ...

  10. Are Prospective English Teachers Linguistically Intelligent?

    Tezel, Kadir Vefa

    2017-01-01

    Language is normally associated with linguistic capabilities of individuals. In the theory of multiple intelligences, language is considered to be related primarily to linguistic intelligence. Using the theory of Multiple Intelligences as its starting point, this descriptive survey study investigated to what extent prospective English teachers'…

  11. A General Overview of Motivation in Linguistics

    王航

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the term of motivation in linguistics study has aroused the interests of scholars. Different studies of mo -tivation have been produced by different scholars. In this paper, the writer organizes the recent studies on motivation in linguistics. the paper is divided into three parts, the introduction of the term motivation, different types of motivation, and theories of moti -vation.

  12. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Editorial Policies

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at www.ajol.info. However print-on-demand copies can be made ...

  13. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  14. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    Smit, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  15. Applied Linguistics in Its Disciplinary Context

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's current attempt to develop a process to evaluate the quality of research (Excellence in Research for Australia--ERA) places a central emphasis on the disciplinary organisation of academic work. This disciplinary focus poses particular problems for Applied Linguistics in Australia. This paper will examine Applied Linguistics in relation…

  16. Plenary Speeches: Applied Linguists without Borders

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Until 1989, the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) could have been viewed as an interest group of the Linguistics Society of America (LSA); AAAL met in two designated meeting rooms as a subsection of the LSA conference. In 1991, I was asked to organize the first independent meeting of AAAL in New York City, with the help of…

  17. Non-linguistic analysis of call center conversations

    Kopparapu, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on the part of the audio conversation not related to language such as speaking rate (in terms of number of syllables per unit time) and emotion centric features. This text examines using non-linguistics features to infer information from phone calls to call centers. The author analyzes 'how' the conversation happens and not 'what' the conversation is about by audio signal processing and analysis.

  18. International Meeting on Languages, Applied Linguistics and Translation

    Guerra, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This meeting aims at providing an overview of the current theory and practice, exploring new directions and emerging trends, sharing good practice, and exchanging information regarding foreign languages, applied linguistics and translation. The meeting is an excellent opportunity for the presentation of current or previous language learning and translation projects funded by the European Commission or by other sources. Proposals are invited for one or more of the following topics, in any of t...

  19. Linguistic Characteristics of Commercial and Social Advertising Slogans

    Pavel Skorupa; Tatjana Dubovičienė

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents the analysis of linguistic characteristics of commercial and social advertising slogans. There is no uniform definition of the advertising slogan in the scientific literature, therefore, an attempt to provide the definition of a slogan in the context of marketing communication was made. One of the main functions of both social and commercial advertising is to provide information to the target audience and make it act in a way desired by the advertisers. As language,...

  20. Tracking Anglicisms in Domains by the Corpus-Linguistic Method

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2015-01-01

    Lay investors and semi-professionals lean on professional stock bloggers and stock analysts for advice on stock investments; semi-professionals and professionals write about investments globally, and stock information has to be available in many local markets. Using the correct terminology......’s critical sense is not enough to make the right choices. Our corpus-linguistic tool can be a help in this specialized field....

  1. Flexible and fast: linguistic shortcut affects both shallow and deep conceptual processing.

    Connell, Louise; Lynott, Dermot

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that people use linguistic distributional information during conceptual processing, and that it is especially useful for shallow tasks and rapid responding. Using two conceptual combination tasks, we showed that this linguistic shortcut extends to the processing of novel stimuli, is used in both successful and unsuccessful conceptual processing, and is evident in both shallow and deep conceptual tasks. Specifically, as predicted by the ECCo theory of conceptual combination, people use the linguistic shortcut as a "quick-and-dirty" guide to whether the concepts are likely to combine into a coherent conceptual representation, in both shallow sensibility judgment and deep interpretation generation tasks. Linguistic distributional frequency predicts both the likelihood and the time course of rejecting a novel word compound as nonsensical or uninterpretable. However, it predicts the time course of successful processing only in shallow sensibility judgment, because the deeper conceptual process of interpretation generation does not allow the linguistic shortcut to suffice. Furthermore, the effects of linguistic distributional frequency are independent of any effects of conventional word frequency. We discuss the utility of the linguistic shortcut as a cognitive triage mechanism that can optimize processing in a limited-resource conceptual system.

  2. Combining shallow and deep processing for a robust, fast, deep-linguistic dependency parser

    Schneider, G

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes Pro3Gres, a fast, robust, broad-coverage parser that delivers deep-linguistic grammatical relation structures as output, which are closer to predicate-argument structures and more informative than pure constituency structures. The parser stays as shallow as is possible for each task, combining shallow and deep-linguistic methods by integrating chunking and by expressing the majority of long-distance dependencies in a context-free way. It combines statistical and rule-base...

  3. The Use of Non-linguistic Data in a Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    ‘symbol’, non-verbal form’ and ‘non-linguistic form’ – are they synonymous designations of one data category or do they designate diff erent data categories? In the presentation we will discuss defi nitions from e.g. ISOcat, ISO 704:2009 and the DanTermBank taxonomy of terminological data categories......, and we will present some thoughts about the relevance of non-linguistic information in a national term bank....

  4. Clinical linguistics: its past, present and future.

    Perkins, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the results of a survey of articles published in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics between 1987 and 2008 which shows, for example, a consistent primary focus on phonetics and phonology at the expense of grammar, semantics and pragmatics. I also trace the gradual broadening of the discipline from its roots in structural linguistics to its current reciprocal relationship with speech and language pathology and a range of other academic disciplines. Finally, I consider the scope of clinical linguistic research in 2011 and assess how the discipline seems likely develop in the future.

  5. Designing Out the Play: Accessibility and Playfulness in Inclusive Play.

    Holt, Raymond; Beckett, Angharad

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important part of child development, yet disabled children are often excluded from the opportunity to play, either due to lack of accessible toys and games, or social pressures. This paper presents a case study reflecting on the development of Button Bash: a switch accessible game intended to encourage inclusive play between disabled and non-disabled children. In particular, the paper focuses on how changes intended to make the game more accessible tended to make it less playful, and reflects on the relationship between playfulness and accessibility.

  6. How Linguistic Metaphor Scaffolds Reasoning.

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Hendricks, Rose K; Boroditsky, Lera

    2017-11-01

    Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are 'light bulbs', crime is a 'virus', and cancer is an 'enemy' in a 'war'. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior. Then we explore the conditions under which metaphors are most influential. Throughout, we highlight theoretical and practical implications, as well as key challenges and opportunities for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  8. Creating Pretence and Sharing Friendship: Modal Expressions in Children's Play

    Hoyte, Frances; Torr, Jane; Degotardi, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Friendships and play provide children with opportunities for mutual engagement, which both require and facilitate children's language use. Modality is a semantic system in the language associated with children's learning. One way in which modality is realised is through linguistic expressions which allow speakers to moderate the degree of…

  9. Measuring the diffusion of linguistic change.

    Nerbonne, John

    2010-12-12

    We examine situations in which linguistic changes have probably been propagated via normal contact as opposed to via conquest, recent settlement and large-scale migration. We proceed then from two simplifying assumptions: first, that all linguistic variation is the result of either diffusion or independent innovation, and, second, that we may operationalize social contact as geographical distance. It is clear that both of these assumptions are imperfect, but they allow us to examine diffusion via the distribution of linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. Several studies in quantitative linguistics have examined this relation, starting with Séguy (Séguy 1971 Rev. Linguist. Romane 35, 335-357), and virtually all report a sublinear growth in aggregate linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. The literature from dialectology and historical linguistics has mostly traced the diffusion of individual features, however, so that it is sensible to ask what sort of dynamic in the diffusion of individual features is compatible with Séguy's curve. We examine some simulations of diffusion in an effort to shed light on this question.

  10. A Linguistic Multigranular Sensory Evaluation Model for Olive Oil

    Luis Martinez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation is a process that analyzes elements in order to achieve different objectives such as quality inspection, marketing and other fields in industrial companies. This paper focuses on sensory evaluation where the evaluated items are assessed by a panel of experts according to the knowledge acquired via human senses. In these evaluation processes the information provided by the experts implies uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision. The use of the Fuzzy Linguistic Approach 32 has provided successful results modelling such a type of information. In sensory evaluation it may happen that the panel of experts have more or less degree knowledge of about the evaluated items or indicators. So, it seems suitable that each expert could express their preferences in different linguistic term sets based on their own knowledge. In this paper, we present a sensory evaluation model that manages multigranular linguistic evaluation framework based on a decision analysis scheme. This model will be applied to the sensory evaluation process of Olive Oil.

  11. "Voices of the people": linguistic research among Germany's prisoners of war during World War I.

    Kaplan, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the history of the Royal Prussian Phonographic Commission, a body that collected and archived linguistic, ethnographic, and anthropological data from prisoners-of-war (POWs) in Germany during World War I. Recent literature has analyzed the significance of this research for the rise of conservative physical anthropology. Taking a complementary approach, the essay charts new territory in seeking to understand how the prison-camp studies informed philology and linguistics specifically. I argue that recognizing philological commitments of the Phonographic Commission is essential to comprehending the project contextually. My approach reveals that linguists accommodated material and contemporary evidence to older text-based research models, sustaining dynamic theories of language. Through a case study based on the Iranian philologist F. C. Andreas (1846-1930), the paper ultimately argues that linguistics merits greater recognition in the historiography of the behavioral sciences. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Fluctuating Development of Cross-Linguistic Semantic Awareness: A Longitudinal Multiple-Case Study

    Zheng, Yongyan

    2014-01-01

    Second language (L2) learners' awareness of first language-second language (L1-L2) semantic differences plays a critical role in L2 vocabulary learning. This study investigates the long-term development of eight university-level Chinese English as a foreign language learners' cross-linguistic semantic awareness over the course of 10 months. A…

  13. A Comparison of the Linguistic and Interactional Features of Language Learning Websites and Textbooks

    Kong, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Self-study is playing an increasingly important role in the learning and instruction of many subjects, including second and foreign languages. With the rapid development of the internet, language websites for self-study are flourishing. While the language of print-based teaching materials has received some attention, the linguistic and…

  14. Applied linguistics - a science of culture?

    Benke, Gertraud

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the status of applied linguistics as discipline is questioned and problems of establishing it - and other newly formed scientific enterprises like cultural science - as disciplines are discussed. This discussion is contextualized using the author's own experience as applied linguist working in (the institutional structure of Austria. Secondly, applied linguistics is presented as complementing cultural science, with both exploring at times the same phenomena albeit under different perspectives and focussing on different levels of experience. Two examples of research involving such a joint interest with different foci are discussed.

  15. Educational Linguistics and College English Syllabus Design

    LIU Ji-xin

    2016-01-01

    The direct application of linguistic theories to syllabus design gives rise to frequent change of syllabus type in the histo-ry of syllabus development, which makes language teachers feel difficult to adapt to, to adopt and to implement. The recognition and popularization of the new-born discipline educational linguistics servers as a method to ease the situation, especially in the college English syllabus design in China. The development and application of the fruitful achievements in educational linguis-tics is bound to provide us with a more scientific approach to syllabus design in the future.

  16. Linguistic fire and human cognitive powers

    Cowley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To view language as a cultural tool challenges much of what claims to be linguistic science while opening up a new people-centred linguistics. On this view, how we speak, think and act depends on, not just brains (or minds), but also cultural traditions. Yet, Everett is conservative: like others...... theory, bodily dynamics themselves act as cues to meaning. Linguistic exostructures resemble tools that constrain how people concert acting-perceiving bodies. The result is unending renewal of verbal structures: like artefacts and institutions, they function to sustain a species-specific cultural ecology...

  17. Collective Variables in Apphed Linguistics Research

    ヘンスリー, ジョール; HENSLEY, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the key dynamic(al)systems theory concept of collective variables as it relates to developmental research in applied linguistics. Dynamic(al) systems theory is becoming prevalent in linguistic research and in the past two decades has jumped to the forefront of cutting edge in the field. One key concept in dynamic(al) systems theory is that of collective variables. In order to help properly orient this concept in the field of applied linguistics, this paper discusses the ...

  18. Improving Climate Communication through Comprehensive Linguistic Analyses Using Computational Tools

    Gann, T. M.; Matlock, T.

    2014-12-01

    An important lesson on climate communication research is that there is no single way to reach out and inform the public. Different groups conceptualize climate issues in different ways and different groups have different values and assumptions. This variability makes it extremely difficult to effectively and objectively communicate climate information. One of the main challenges is the following: How do we acquire a better understanding of how values and assumptions vary across groups, including political groups? A necessary starting point is to pay close attention to the linguistic content of messages used across current popular media sources. Careful analyses of that information—including how it is realized in language for conservative and progressive media—may ultimately help climate scientists, government agency officials, journalists and others develop more effective messages. Past research has looked at partisan media coverage of climate change, but little attention has been given to the fine-grained linguistic content of such media. And when researchers have done detailed linguistic analyses, they have relied primarily on hand-coding, an approach that is costly, labor intensive, and time-consuming. Our project, building on recent work on partisan news media (Gann & Matlock, 2014; under review) uses high dimensional semantic analyses and other methods of automated classification techniques from the field of natural language processing to quantify how climate issues are characterized in media sources that differ according to political orientation. In addition to discussing varied linguistic patterns, we share new methods for improving climate communication for varied stakeholders, and for developing better assessments of their effectiveness.

  19. Using Pretend Play to Promote Foundations for Text Comprehension: Examples from a Program for Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    Westby, Carol; Wilson, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This review article starts with an overview of changing education paradigms and the literature on cognitive and linguistic relationships in imaginative play related to comprehension of oral and written texts. Strategies for developing the cognitive and linguistic foundations for text comprehension through play are described. A review of current…

  20. Play Therapy: A Review

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  1. In- and Out-of-Character: The Digital Literacy Practices and Emergent Information Worlds of Active Role-Players in a New Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Hollister, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores and describes the in-character and out-of-character information worlds and digital literacy practices of role-players, those that create and enact their characters' or avatars' stories, both within and outside of WildStar, a Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) (Carbine Studios, 2015). Utilizing Jaeger…

  2. Circular Interaction Between Linguistic Departments And Language ...

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Linguistik und Didaktik (Linguistics and Didactics)

    Mollay, Karl

    1974-01-01

    Briefly summarizes the papers presented at the 10th annual convention of the German Language Institute in Mannheim. The relationship between linguistic research and its applicability in the area of language instruction is discussed. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  4. Glossematik und Linguistik (Glossematics and Linguistics)

    Hoger, Alfons

    1974-01-01

    Provides a short summary on the background, current development and future perspectives of the glossematic theory of language and linguistics, as developed by Hjelmslev and those associated with him (Loosely called "the Danish school"). (Text is in German.) (DS)

  5. Zweiter Linguistischer Orientierungskurs (Second Linguistic Orientation Course)

    Gosewitz, Uta; Wiegand, Herbert Ernst

    1973-01-01

    Report on the Second Linguistic Orientation Course sponsored by the Institut fur deutsche Sprache (Institute for the German Language) and funded by the Volkswagen Foundation; held at Mannheim, West Germany, February 21-March 3, 1972. (RS)

  6. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    methods, the cognitive code method and the cognitive anti-method, emerged, both drawing on .... sciences; he must have some knowledge of linguistics. ... much as the nature of the organising power that is capable of handling such data.

  7. Design and Practice: Enacting Functional Linguistics.

    Martin, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Draws on experience with a transdisciplinary literacy project in writing development at the secondary level to address the sub-field of "writing-literacy," writing as a linguist working across an applied versus theoretical frontier. (Author/VWL)

  8. The Unbalanced Linguistic Aggregation Operator in Group Decision Making

    Li Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many linguistic aggregation methods have been proposed and applied in the linguistic decision-making problems. In practice, experts need to assess a number of values in a side of reference domain higher than in the other one; that is, experts use unbalanced linguistic values to express their evaluation for problems. In this paper, we propose a new linguistic aggregation operator to deal with unbalanced linguistic values in group decision making, we adopt 2-tuple representation model of linguistic values and linguistic hierarchies to express unbalanced linguistic values, and moreover, we present the unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted geometric operator to aggregate unbalanced linguistic evaluation values; a comparison example is given to show the advantage of our method.

  9. The Responders' Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game.

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts' stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  10. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers playing the Ultimatum Game

    Eve Florianne Fabre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders. The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo. When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  11. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game

    Fabre, Eve F.; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics. PMID:26834684

  12. Ling An: Linguistic analysis of NPP instructions

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L. (Helsingfors Univ., Institutionen foer allmaen spraakvetenskap (Finland)); Wahlstroem, B. (VTT (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  13. A Python Library for Historical Comparative Linguistics

    Moran , Steven; List , Johann-Mattis

    2012-01-01

    Awarded best paper award; International audience; In this talk we will discuss a European Research Council funded collaborative effort to build a Python library for undertaking academic research in historical-comparative linguistics. Our aim of implementing quantitative methods, specifically in Python, is to transform historical-comparative linguistics from a primarily handcrafted scientific scholarly endeavor, performed by individual researchers, into a quantitative and collaborative field o...

  14. Ling An: LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF NPP INSTRUCTIONS

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L.; Wahlstroem, B.

    2008-07-01

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  15. Legal Linguistics as a Mutual Arena for Cooperation: Recent Developments in the Field of Applied Linguistics and Law

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on some of the recent projects and individual works in the field of Legal Linguistics as examples of cooperation between Applied Linguistics and law. The article starts by discussing relevant prototypical concepts of Legal Linguistics. Legal Linguistics scrutinizes interactions between human beings in the framework of legal…

  16. Formal linguistics as a cue to demographic history.

    Longobardi, Giuseppe; Ceolin, Andrea; Ecay, Aaron; Ghirotto, Silvia; Guardiano, Cristina; Irimia, Monica-Alexandrina; Michelioudakis, Dimitris; Radkevich, Nina; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Barbujani, Guido

    2016-06-20

    Beyond its theoretical success, the development of molecular genetics has brought about the possibility of extraordinary progress in the study of classification and in the inference of the evolutionary history of many species and populations. A major step forward was represented by the availability of extremely large sets of molecular data suited to quantitative and computational treatments. In this paper, we argue that even in cognitive sciences, purely theoretical progress in a discipline such as linguistics may have analogous impact. Thus, exactly on the model of molecular biology, we propose to unify two traditionally unrelated lines of linguistic investigation: 1) the formal study of syntactic variation (parameter theory) in the biolinguistic program; 2) the reconstruction of relatedness among languages (phylogenetic taxonomy). The results of our linguistic analysis have thus been plotted against data from population genetics and the correlations have turned out to be largely significant: given a non-trivial set of languages/populations, the description of their variation provided by the comparison of systematic parametric analysis and molecular anthropology informatively recapitulates their history and relationships. As a result, we can claim that the reality of some parametric model of the language faculty and language acquisition/transmission (more broadly of generative grammar) receives strong and original support from its historical heuristic power. Then, on these grounds, we can begin testing Darwin's prediction that, when properly generated, the trees of human populations and of their languages should eventually turn out to be significantly parallel.

  17. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characterization, the parallel, the synthesis, epitomizing and abstracting, the scientific communication, the essay, and the scientific description. The representations on maps, photos, graphics and profiles are translated into verbal or written expression in order to render geographical scientific information from diagrams and images through diverse discursive procedures. Through school linguistic creations, teachers develop their students’ observation spirit, in a written and oral form, their geographical thinking through metaphors, they develop and stimulate their students’ imagination and fantasy, their cognitive, reflexive and affective sensitivity, their abilities to express themselves, to present and argument in a scientific way according to different criteria (sufficiency, demonstrative reasoning, lineal reasoning, pros and cons, giving examples, inferential deduction through using truth tables, etc.. Trough description, students give names and define geographical objects and beings (plants, animals, and people according to their form and aspect, they explain toponyms and appellatives, they classify and make hierarchies, they define their identity through processes of differentiation, emblematizing, personification, location in time and space.

  18. Pragmatic expressions in cross-linguistic perspective

    Maryann Overstreet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on some pragmatic expressions that are characteristic of informal spoken English, their possible equivalents in some other languages, and their use by EFL learners from different backgrounds. These expressions, called general extenders (e.g. and stuff, or something, are shown to be different from discourse markers and to exhibit variation in form, function and distribution across varieties of English, as well as in other languages. In EFL contexts, students are reported to use fewer pragmatic expressions and a smaller range of possible forms. They also tend to favor expressions more often associated with writing and formal speaking (e.g. and so on, include literal translation equivalents from their first language that are not used in English (e.g. and, and, and, or used only in restricted contexts (e.g. or so, and often seem not to realize that some forms may carry negative connotations (e.g. and blah, blah, blah. The possibility of fostering better pragmatic awareness among EFL students is discussed in terms of an explicit cross-linguistic focus on the forms and functions of pragmatic expressions.

  19. Linguistic Stereotyping in Older Adults' Perceptions of Health Care Aides.

    Rubin, Donald; Coles, Valerie Berenice; Barnett, Joshua Trey

    2016-07-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. health care provider workforce is expanding. Diversity among health care personnel such as paraprofessional health care assistants (HCAs)-many of whom are immigrants-means that intimate, high-stakes cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contact characterizes many health interactions. In particular, nonmainstream HCAs may face negative patient expectations because of patients' language stereotypes. In other contexts, reverse linguistic stereotyping has been shown to result in negative speaker evaluations and even reduced listening comprehension quite independently of the actual language performance of the speaker. The present study extends the language and attitude paradigm to older adults' perceptions of HCAs. Listeners heard the identical speaker of Standard American English as they watched interactions between an HCA and an older patient. Ethnolinguistic identities-either an Anglo native speaker of English or a Mexican nonnative speaker-were ascribed to HCAs by means of fabricated personnel files. Dependent variables included measures of perceived HCA language proficiency, personal characteristics, and professional competence, as well as listeners' comprehension of a health message delivered by the putative HCA. For most of these outcomes, moderate effect sizes were found such that the HCA with an ascribed Anglo identity-relative to the Mexican guise-was judged more proficient in English, socially superior, interpersonally more attractive, more dynamic, and a more satisfactory home health aide. No difference in listening comprehension emerged, but the Anglo guise tended to engender a more compliant listening mind set. Results of this study can inform both provider-directed and patient-directed efforts to improve health care services for members of all linguistic and cultural groups.

  20. Curriculum-Based Language Assessment With Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in the Context of Mathematics.

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L; Johnson, Valerie E

    2018-04-05

    The purpose of this tutorial is to discuss the use of curriculum-based language assessment (CBLA) with students who are English language learners and students who speak nonmainstream varieties of English, such as African American English. The article begins with a discussion of the discourse of mathematics and the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP), followed by a review of studies that includes those that examined the performance of English language learner and nonmainstream dialect-speaking students on word-based math items. The literature review highlights the linguistic and content biases associated with word-based math problems. Useful strategies that SLPs and educators can incorporate in culturally and linguistically appropriate assessments are discussed. The tutorial ends with a discussion of CBLA as a viable assessment approach to use with culturally and linguistically diverse students. Tests used at national, state, and school levels to assess students' math abilities have associated linguistic bias and content bias often leading to an inaccurate depiction of culturally and linguistically diverse students' math skills. CBLA as an assessment method can be used by school-based SLPs to gather valid and useful information about culturally and linguistically diverse students' language for learning math. By using CBLA, SLPs can help modify curricular tasks in broader contexts in an effort to make math, including high-level math, "accessible and achievable for all" students (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2017).

  1. Intuitionistic uncertain linguistic partitioned Bonferroni means and their application to multiple attribute decision-making

    Liu, Zhengmin; Liu, Peide

    2017-04-01

    The Bonferroni mean (BM) was originally introduced by Bonferroni and generalised by many other researchers due to its capacity to capture the interrelationship between input arguments. Nevertheless, in many situations, interrelationships do not always exist between all of the attributes. Attributes can be partitioned into several different categories and members of intra-partition are interrelated while no interrelationship exists between attributes of different partitions. In this paper, as complements to the existing generalisations of BM, we investigate the partitioned Bonferroni mean (PBM) under intuitionistic uncertain linguistic environments and develop two linguistic aggregation operators: intuitionistic uncertain linguistic partitioned Bonferroni mean (IULPBM) and its weighted form (WIULPBM). Then, motivated by the ideal of geometric mean and PBM, we further present the partitioned geometric Bonferroni mean (PGBM) and develop two linguistic geometric aggregation operators: intuitionistic uncertain linguistic partitioned geometric Bonferroni mean (IULPGBM) and its weighted form (WIULPGBM). Some properties and special cases of these proposed operators are also investigated and discussed in detail. Based on these operators, an approach for multiple attribute decision-making problems with intuitionistic uncertain linguistic information is developed. Finally, a practical example is presented to illustrate the developed approach and comparison analyses are conducted with other representative methods to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed approach.

  2. Gender differences in brain activity toward unpleasant linguistic stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships: an fMRI study.

    Shirao, Naoko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Okada, Go; Ueda, Kazutaka; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2005-10-01

    Women are more vulnerable to psychosocial stressors such as interpersonal conflicts than men, and are more susceptible to some psychiatric disorders. We hypothesized that there are differences in the brain activity of men and women while perceiving unpleasant linguistic stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships, and that they underlie the different sensitivity toward these stressful stimuli. We carried out a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on 13 young female adults and 13 young male adults who performed an emotional decision task including sets of unpleasant words concerning interpersonal relationships and sets of neutral words. In the women, the unpleasant words more significantly activated the bilateral caudate nuclei and left putamen than the neutral words. However, among the men, there was no difference in the level of activation of any brain area induced by the unpleasant or neutral word stimuli. Upon performing the task, there was a significant gender difference in brain activation. Moreover, among the female subjects, the activation in the bilateral caudate nuclei and left thalamus was negatively correlated with the average rating of pleasantness of the words concerning interpersonal conflicts by the subject. These results demonstrate gender differences in brain activity in processing unpleasant linguistic stimuli related to interpersonal conflicts. Our data suggest that the bilateral caudate nuclei and left putamen play an important role in the perception of words concerning interpersonal conflicts in women. The bilateral caudate nuclei and left thalamus may regulate a woman's sensitivity to unpleasant information about interpersonal difficulties.

  3. Design for Play

    Feder, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...... and inspire children to grow up to be creative designers of their own life and the world around them. The Design for Play research team will study the interplay between people, processes and products in design for play and support the development of playful designers, playful solutions and playful experiences...

  4. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Indigenous Languages in National Development: A Case Study of Nigerian Linguistic Situation

    Anthony Ayodele Olaoye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous languages are indispensable cultural legacies without which all forms of human interactions can be carried out. National development is the development of individuals in a nation. Individuals can develop educationally, socially, politically, economically, and culturally through interaction with government agencies that disseminate policies through various indigenous languages. Development indices such as internal cohesion, integration, unity, economic wellbeing and citizens’ participation in governance are promoted through indigenous languages. Based on these assertions, the author studied the current linguistic situations in Nigeria and found that native languages play fundamental role on issues  such as democracy, technology, metalanguage and linguistic globalization .There are however some challenges in the optimum  utilization of these mother tongues. The major problems being orthographic inadequacy,the multiplicity of minority languages, linguistic desertification and deforestation and  language endangerment.The author then suggests a way forward.

  6. The effects of linguistic modification on ESL students' comprehension of nursing course test items.

    Bosher, Susan; Bowles, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that language may be a source of construct-irrelevant variance for non-native speakers of English, or English as a second language (ESL) students, when they take exams. As a result, exams may not accurately measure knowledge of nursing content. One accommodation often used to level the playing field for ESL students is linguistic modification, a process by which the reading load of test items is reduced while the content and integrity of the item are maintained. Research on the effects of linguistic modification has been conducted on examinees in the K-12 population, but is just beginning in other areas. This study describes the collaborative process by which items from a pathophysiology exam were linguistically modified and subsequently evaluated for comprehensibility by ESL students. Findings indicate that in a majority of cases, modification improved examinees' comprehension of test items. Implications for test item writing and future research are discussed.

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Undergraduate Students' Perceptions and Use Patterns of the University Libraries Web Portal: Does Information Literacy Instruction Play a Role?

    Chen, Yu-Hui

    2012-01-01

    As the availability of digital resources increased exponentially over the last two decades, academic libraries have heavily invested in electronic resources and made them accessible via library Web portals. Yet, underutilization of library Web portals is a common concern among academic libraries. According to the information systems (IS)…

  8. A Survey on the Exchange of Linguistic Resources: Publishing Linguistic Linked Open Data on the Web

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Roa-Valverde, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the principal formats and frameworks that have been used in the last 20 years to exchange linguistic resources. It aims to give special attention to the most recent approaches to publishing linguistic linked open data on the Web. Design/methodology/approach: Research papers…

  9. Sample Undergraduate Linguistics Courses. Linguistics in the Undergraduate Curriculum, Appendix 5.

    Linguistic Society of America, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-six nontraditional undergraduate courses in linguistics are described. Course topics include: animal communication, bilingualism, sociolinguistics, introductory linguistics, language and formal reasoning, language and human conflict, language and power, language and sex, language and the brain, language planning, language typology and…

  10. Play at Work

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine fo...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....

  11. Linguistic fuzzy selection of liquid levelmeters in nuclear facilities

    Ghyym, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, a selection methodology of liquid levelmeters, especially, level sensors in non-nuclear category, to be installed in nuclear facilities is developed using a linguistic fuzzy approach. Depending on defuzzification techniques, the linguistic fuzzy methodology leads to either linguistic (exactly, fully-linguistic) or cardinal (i.e., semi-linguistic) evaluation. In the case of the linguistic method, for each alternative, fuzzy preference index is converted to linguistic utility value by means of a similarity measure determining the degree of similarity between fuzzy index and linguistic ratings. For the cardinal method, the index is translated to cardinal overall utility value. According to these values, alternatives of interest are linguistically or numerically evaluated and a suitable alternative can be selected. Under given selection criteria, the suitable selections out of some liquid levelmeters for nuclear facilities are dealt with using the linguistic fuzzy methodology proposed. Then, linguistic fuzzy evaluation results are compared with numerical results available in the literature. It is found that as to a suitable option the linguistic fuzzy selection is in agreement with the crisp numerical selection. In addition, this comparison shows that the fully-linguistic method facilitates linguistic interpretation regarding evaluation results

  12. Linguistic fuzzy selection of liquid levelmeters in nuclear facilities

    Ghyym, S. H. [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    In this work, a selection methodology of liquid levelmeters, especially, level sensors in non-nuclear category, to be installed in nuclear facilities is developed using a linguistic fuzzy approach. Depending on defuzzification techniques, the linguistic fuzzy methodology leads to either linguistic (exactly, fully-linguistic) or cardinal (i.e., semi-linguistic) evaluation. In the case of the linguistic method, for each alternative, fuzzy preference index is converted to linguistic utility value by means of a similarity measure determining the degree of similarity between fuzzy index and linguistic ratings. For the cardinal method, the index is translated to cardinal overall utility value. According to these values, alternatives of interest are linguistically or numerically evaluated and a suitable alternative can be selected. Under given selection criteria, the suitable selections out of some liquid levelmeters for nuclear facilities are dealt with using the linguistic fuzzy methodology proposed. Then, linguistic fuzzy evaluation results are compared with numerical results available in the literature. It is found that as to a suitable option the linguistic fuzzy selection is in agreement with the crisp numerical selection. In addition, this comparison shows that the fully-linguistic method facilitates linguistic interpretation regarding evaluation results.

  13. As práticas de tradução redefinidas pelas relações linguísticas na economia informacional Translation practices redefined by linguistic relations in the informational economy

    Érika Nogueira de Andrade Stupiello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar um panorama das relações linguísticas no mundo globalizado via internet, refletindo sobre a crescente ruptura da associação entre língua e cultura e sua influência para a prática de tradução na contemporaneidade. A partir da descrição das principais mudanças na contratação da tradução na atualidade, discute-se como a preferência pela padronização da língua de origem, especialmente o inglês, dos materiais textuais em formato eletrônico colabora para a manutenção dessa língua em sua "posição dominante" ao mesmo tempo em que desloca o ônus da tradução para aqueles que não a conhecem. Conforme argumento, é essa língua híbrida e sem vínculo com sua cultura de origem que, na maioria das vezes, serve de ponto de partida para a tradução de materiais textuais para as mais diversas línguas e posterior divulgação em meio eletrônico.The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the linguistic relations in the globalized world via internet, considering the growing dissociation between language and culture and its influence on the contemporary practice of translation. From the description of the main changes in the way translation services are currently hired, we discuss how the preference for standardization of the original language, mainly English, of textual materials in electronic format collaborates in maintaining this language at its "dominant position", whereas it dislocates the burden of translation to those who cannot speak it. As we argue, this "hybrid" language with no ties to its original culture is mostly used as a source for the translation of textual materials into different languages and subsequent dissemination in electronic medium.

  14. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  15. AN ANALYSIS OF THE LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY OF CYBERSPACE

    Professor dr. habil., eng. Cezar VASILESCU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an analysis regarding the relationship between Internet usage and language. Moreover, it highlights the impact the latter have on the human interactions depicted by future knowledge societies within the framework of the Information Age. This endeavor explores from a linguistic perspective how cyber users’ native language affects their Internet usage patterns. Hence, its final goal is to determine whether the Internet is expected to remain overbalanced in English usage. In this respect, the relationship between web users’ native language and the language content of the Internet websites they access is also examined based on statistic data.

  16. Play Therapy. ERIC Digest.

    Landreth, Garry; Bratton, Sue

    Play therapy is based on developmental principles and, thus, provides, through play, developmentally appropriate means of expression and communication for children. Therefore, skill in using play therapy is an essential tool for mental health professionals who work with children. Therapeutic play allows children the opportunity to express…

  17. The role of play

    Schouten, B.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Play is seen as an activity that is fun, voluntary, offers escape, and is fundamentally exciting. Play is however, more than that; it is a working model of flexibility! There is a vital link between play, psychological development and learning. Moreover, the importance of play has gained importance

  18. LEXICAL STUDY OF VARIATION IN THE PARÁ AMAZON: A LOOK ON THE LINGUISTIC ATLAS OF BRAZIL

    Sandra Regina FEITEIRO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the semantic-lexical occurrences of speech of residents located in rural Pará Amazon, compared to proposals from the Linguistic Atlas of Brazil (COMITÊ NACIONAL, 2001. Data were collected in situ by applying the Semantic-Lexical Questionnaire (QSL, composed of fourteen semantic fields for four informants that linguistic point. Analyzes were made with the intention of fulfilling the diatopical, diageneric and diageracional dimensions the variation in the speech of informants. This study was also guided by theoretical and methodological assumptions of Sociolinguistics, Dialectology and Linguistic Geography. Therefore, the research appealed to authors like Cardoso and Ferreira (1994, Aguilera (2005, Brandão (2005 and Labov (2008, among others. The results presented in language letters show the importance of dialectologies research to the knowledge of lexical norm of a geographic space, with high productivity variants for the same semantic content and not coincident with the Alib.

  19. An Integrated Approach of Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Based AHP and Fuzzy COPRAS for Machine Tool Evaluation.

    Huu-Tho Nguyen

    Full Text Available Globalization of business and competitiveness in manufacturing has forced companies to improve their manufacturing facilities to respond to market requirements. Machine tool evaluation involves an essential decision using imprecise and vague information, and plays a major role to improve the productivity and flexibility in manufacturing. The aim of this study is to present an integrated approach for decision-making in machine tool selection. This paper is focused on the integration of a consistent fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and a fuzzy COmplex PRoportional ASsessment (COPRAS for multi-attribute decision-making in selecting the most suitable machine tool. In this method, the fuzzy linguistic reference relation is integrated into AHP to handle the imprecise and vague information, and to simplify the data collection for the pair-wise comparison matrix of the AHP which determines the weights of attributes. The output of the fuzzy AHP is imported into the fuzzy COPRAS method for ranking alternatives through the closeness coefficient. Presentation of the proposed model application is provided by a numerical example based on the collection of data by questionnaire and from the literature. The results highlight the integration of the improved fuzzy AHP and the fuzzy COPRAS as a precise tool and provide effective multi-attribute decision-making for evaluating the machine tool in the uncertain environment.

  20. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  1. [An essay about science and linguistics].

    Cugini, P

    2011-01-01

    Both the methodology and epistemology of science provided the criteria by which the scientific research can describe and interpret data and results of its observational or experimental studies. When the scientist approaches the conclusive inference, it is mandatory to think that both the knowledge and truth imply the use of words semantically and etymologically (semiologically) appropriate, especially if neologisms are required. Lacking a vocabulary, there will be the need of popularizing the inference to the linguistics of the context to which the message is addressed. This could imply a discrepancy among science, knowledge, truth and linguistics, that can be defined "semiologic bias". To avoid this linguistic error, the scientist must feel the responsibility to provide the scientific community with the new words that are semantically and etymologically coherent with what it has been scientifically discovered.

  2. Linguistic Ethnography, Literacy Teaching and Teacher Training

    Dolmer, Grete; Nielsen, Henrik Balle

    in current attempts to research-base teacher education. Lefstein, A. & J. Snell. 2014. Better than best practice. Developing teaching and learning through dialogue. London: Routledge. Keywords: literacy teaching classroom dialogue teacher feedback linguistic ethnography research-based teacher education...... material consists of field notes and video observations from the literacy classroom combined with reflective interviews with the literacy teacher and analyses of pupils’ oral and written texts. Taking a linguistic ethnographic approach, the case study investigates the interplay between teacher, pupil...... eclecticism, openness and systematicity characteristic of a linguistic ethnographic analysis (Lefstein & Snell 2014, 185-86). In the poster, we will focus on emergent data analysis. Our main points of interest are 1) the classroom dialogue between teacher and pupils and 2) the literacy teacher’s assessment...

  3. Preprocessing Greek Papyri for Linguistic Annotation

    Vierros, Marja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Greek documentary papyri form an important direct source for Ancient Greek. It has been exploited surprisingly little in Greek linguistics due to a lack of good tools for searching linguistic structures. This article presents a new tool and digital platform, “Sematia”, which enables transforming the digital texts available in TEI EpiDoc XML format to a format which can be morphologically and syntactically annotated (treebanked, and where the user can add new metadata concerning the text type, writer and handwriting of each act of writing. An important aspect in this process is to take into account the original surviving writing vs. the standardization of language and supplements made by the editors. This is performed by creating two different layers of the same text. The platform is in its early development phase. Ongoing and future developments, such as tagging linguistic variation phenomena as well as queries performed within Sematia, are discussed at the end of the article.

  4. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It is examined, how Zulu linguistic culture is regarded a resource in the isiZulu-speaking community and as one of the most salient tools of in-group identification in the larger contemporary South African society. Zulu people’s culture is profoundly language-embedded and Zulu linguistic culture often based on essentialism.

  5. The Study of Critical Eco-Linguistic in Green Discourse: Prospective Eco-Linguistic Analysis

    Tommi Yuniawan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eco-linguistic studies are influenced by one of the other interdisciplinary sciences, namely critical discourse analysis. The combination of these two sciences is called critical eco-linguistic studies. Critical eco-linguistic examines the discourse about the environment and various forms of discourse and their ideology which concerns people and the environment. The environmental discourse with all its manifestations (oral text, written text is called green discourse. To that end, critical eco-linguistic dictates the linguistic aspects contained in the green discourse. Utilization of lingual units in green discourse will affect the sense and logic of people involved in the discourse, ie the writers and readers or the speakers and the speakers. What is recorded in their cognition, will affect their attitudes and actions to the environment. If green discourse is constructive, then their attitude and actions to the environment are constructive. Conversely, if green discourse is more destructive and exploitative, then their attitudes and actions towards the environment will also be affected towards destruction and exploitation. For this reason, critical eco-linguistic studies in green discourse deserve to be given space as a form of prospective eco-linguistic analysis.

  6. Alibis for Adult Play

    2017-01-01

    The social meanings of play sit at odds with norms of responsible and productive adult conduct. To be “caught” playing as an adult therefore risks embarrassment. Still, many designers want to create enjoyable, nonembarrassing play experiences for adults. To address this need, this article reads instances of spontaneous adult play through the lens of Erving Goffman’s theory of the interaction order to unpack conditions and strategies for nonembarrassing adult play. It identifies established frames, segregated audiences, scripts supporting smooth performance, managing audience awareness, role distancing, and, particularly, alibis for play: Adults routinely provide alternative, adult-appropriate motives to account for their play, such as child care, professional duties, creative expression, or health. Once legitimized, the norms and rules of play themselves then provide an alibi for behavior that would risk being embarrassing outside play.

  7. Learner Interaction in a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG): A Sociocultural Discourse Analysis

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants' text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a…

  8. Children, Time, and Play

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  9. Play the MRI Game

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  10. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    ... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  11. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  12. Information categorization approach to literary authorship disputes

    Yang, Albert C.-C.; Peng, C.-K.; Yien, H.-W.; Goldberger, Ary L.

    2003-11-01

    Scientific analysis of the linguistic styles of different authors has generated considerable interest. We present a generic approach to measuring the similarity of two symbolic sequences that requires minimal background knowledge about a given human language. Our analysis is based on word rank order-frequency statistics and phylogenetic tree construction. We demonstrate the applicability of this method to historic authorship questions related to the classic Chinese novel “The Dream of the Red Chamber,” to the plays of William Shakespeare, and to the Federalist papers. This method may also provide a simple approach to other large databases based on their information content.

  13. [Play therapy in hospital].

    Gold, Katharina; Grothues, Dirk; Leitzmann, Michael; Gruber, Hans; Melter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The following article presents an overview of current research studies on play therapy in the hospital. It highlights individual diagnoses for which play therapy has shown reasonable success. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of the scientific debate on play therapy for sick children in order to allow conclusions regarding the indications for which play therapy is or might be useful.

  14. Backward Dependencies and in-Situ wh-Questions as Test Cases on How to Approach Experimental Linguistics Research That Pursues Theoretical Linguistics Questions.

    Pablos, Leticia; Doetjes, Jenny; Cheng, Lisa L-S

    2017-01-01

    The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses. First, we discuss the general challenges that experimental work faces in finding a compromise between addressing theoretically relevant questions and being able to implement these questions in a specific controlled experimental paradigm. We discuss the Granularity Mismatch Problem (Poeppel and Embick, 2005) which addresses the challenges that research that is trying to bridge the representations and computations of language and their psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic evidence faces, and the basic assumptions that interdisciplinary research needs to consider due to the different conceptual granularity of the objects under study. To illustrate the practical implications of the points addressed, we compare two approaches to perform linguistic experimental research by reviewing a number of our own studies strongly grounded on theoretically informed questions. First, we show how linguistic phenomena similar at a conceptual level can be tested within the same language using measurement of event-related potentials (ERP) by discussing results from two ERP experiments on the processing of long-distance backward dependencies that involve coreference and negative polarity items respectively in Dutch. Second, we examine how the same linguistic phenomenon can be tested in different languages using reading time measures by discussing the outcome of four self

  15. Backward Dependencies and in-Situ wh-Questions as Test Cases on How to Approach Experimental Linguistics Research That Pursues Theoretical Linguistics Questions

    Pablos, Leticia; Doetjes, Jenny; Cheng, Lisa L.-S.

    2018-01-01

    The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses. First, we discuss the general challenges that experimental work faces in finding a compromise between addressing theoretically relevant questions and being able to implement these questions in a specific controlled experimental paradigm. We discuss the Granularity Mismatch Problem (Poeppel and Embick, 2005) which addresses the challenges that research that is trying to bridge the representations and computations of language and their psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic evidence faces, and the basic assumptions that interdisciplinary research needs to consider due to the different conceptual granularity of the objects under study. To illustrate the practical implications of the points addressed, we compare two approaches to perform linguistic experimental research by reviewing a number of our own studies strongly grounded on theoretically informed questions. First, we show how linguistic phenomena similar at a conceptual level can be tested within the same language using measurement of event-related potentials (ERP) by discussing results from two ERP experiments on the processing of long-distance backward dependencies that involve coreference and negative polarity items respectively in Dutch. Second, we examine how the same linguistic phenomenon can be tested in different languages using reading time measures by discussing the outcome of four self

  16. Backward Dependencies and in-Situ wh-Questions as Test Cases on How to Approach Experimental Linguistics Research That Pursues Theoretical Linguistics Questions

    Leticia Pablos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses. First, we discuss the general challenges that experimental work faces in finding a compromise between addressing theoretically relevant questions and being able to implement these questions in a specific controlled experimental paradigm. We discuss the Granularity Mismatch Problem (Poeppel and Embick, 2005 which addresses the challenges that research that is trying to bridge the representations and computations of language and their psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic evidence faces, and the basic assumptions that interdisciplinary research needs to consider due to the different conceptual granularity of the objects under study. To illustrate the practical implications of the points addressed, we compare two approaches to perform linguistic experimental research by reviewing a number of our own studies strongly grounded on theoretically informed questions. First, we show how linguistic phenomena similar at a conceptual level can be tested within the same language using measurement of event-related potentials (ERP by discussing results from two ERP experiments on the processing of long-distance backward dependencies that involve coreference and negative polarity items respectively in Dutch. Second, we examine how the same linguistic phenomenon can be tested in different languages using reading time measures by discussing the outcome of

  17. Protein linguistics - a grammar for modular protein assembly?

    Gimona, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The correspondence between biology and linguistics at the level of sequence and lexical inventories, and of structure and syntax, has fuelled attempts to describe genome structure by the rules of formal linguistics. But how can we define protein linguistic rules? And how could compositional semantics improve our understanding of protein organization and functional plasticity?

  18. What Does Corpus Linguistics Have to Offer to Language Assessment?

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, continuing advances in technology have increased the capacity to automate the extraction of a range of linguistic features of texts and thus have provided the impetus for the substantial growth of corpus linguistics. While corpus linguistic tools and methods have been used extensively in second language learning research, they…

  19. Citation Analysis and Authorship Patterns of Two Linguistics Journals

    Ezema, Ifeanyi J.; Asogwa, Brendan E.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sources cited in articles published in two linguistics journals, "Applied Linguistics and Journal of Linguistics," from 2001 to 2010. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using bibliometric indicators, such as types of cited sources, timeliness of cited sources, authorship patterns, rank lists of the…

  20. A phylogenetic and cognitive perspective on linguistic complexity ...

    In recent years a growing interest in the nature of linguistic complexity has emerged in linguistic circles. A striking feature of this interest is that linguistic complexity is taken to be a phenomenon in its own right. In fact, an extreme construal of the inherent complexity of language is represented in the notion of universal ...

  1. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  2. Ideologeme "Order" in Modern American Linguistic World Image

    Ibatova, Aygul Z.; Vdovichenko, Larisa V.; Ilyashenko, Lubov K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the topic of modern American linguistic world image. It is known that any language is the most important instrument of cognition of the world by a person but there is also no doubt that any language is the way of perception and conceptualization of this knowledge about the world. In modern linguistics linguistic world image is…

  3. Educational language planning and linguistic identity

    Sutton, Peter

    1991-03-01

    There are cases in which a "high" form of a language is taught and used in formal situations, but linguistic variation is also caused by geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic class. Certain variants are regarded as inferior and restricted in expressive capacity, and are disadvantageous. The paper suggests that it is possible to map each person's linguistic identity in two dimensions: the number of languages spoken, and the situation-specific variants of each language. Further, it is argued that the distance between a "low" variant and a "high" standard form of a language may present to the "low" learner of a standardized mother tongue a barrier just as great as that posed by the learning of a related foreign language to a speaker of the high variant. It is proposed that greater tolerance be exercised in acceptance of variation and in recognition of linguistic identity, so that this can be built on in the necessary and desirable expansion of linguistic competence, rather than being devalued. The relevance of the communicative approach to language teaching is touched on.

  4. Novice Teachers and Linguistics: Foregrounding the Functional

    Chappell, Phil; Moore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This forum article describes a postgraduate certificate teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) program with a strong linguistics orientation and argues that such a program provides novice language teachers with knowledge and skills superior to those of programs which focus more on methodology and practicum experience and less on…

  5. Linguistic and Cultural Strategies in ELT Dictionaries

    Corrius, Montse; Pujol, Didac

    2010-01-01

    There are three main types of ELT dictionaries: monolingual, bilingual, and bilingualized. Each type of dictionary, while having its own advantages, also hinders the learning of English as a foreign language and culture in so far as it is written from a homogenizing (linguistic- and culture-centric) perspective. This paper presents a new type of…

  6. A Short History of Structural Linguistics.

    Matthews, Peter

    This book is a concise history of structural linguistics, charting its development from the 1870s to the present day. It explains what structuralism was and why its ideas are still central today. For structuralists, a language is a self-contained and tightly organized system whose history is of changes from one state of the system to another. This…

  7. Imitation, Awareness, and Folk Linguistic Artifacts

    Brunner, Elizabeth Gentry

    2010-01-01

    Imitations are sophisticated performances displaying regular patterns. The study of imitation allows linguists to understand speakers' perceptions of sociolinguistic variation. In this dissertation, I analyze imitations of non-native accents in order to answer two questions: what can imitation reveal about perception, and how are "folk linguistic…

  8. Indeterminacy, linguistic semantics and fuzzy logic

    Novak, V. [Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic semantics.

  9. The Foundations of Linguistics: Two Theses

    Barrios, Edison

    2009-01-01

    Linguists tell us that the sentence "I enjoyed yourself" is ungrammatical because it violates structural constraints on English sentences. Is this a fact about the "psychology" of English speakers, or a fact about some "mind-independent" state of affairs? If it is indeed a fact about the speaker's psychological makeup then is it so in virtue of…

  10. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  11. The Deaf Child as a Linguistic Minority.

    Charrow, Veda R.; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    The author offers support for viewing the deaf child as a member of a linguistic minority and considers how this situation affects education of the deaf. Deaf persons are discussed in terms of their intellectual abilities, educational achievement, English competence, and the sociolinguistic factors which point to the existence of a deaf community.…

  12. Leadership and Languages: Inspiring Young Linguists

    Hawkes, Rachel; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Language Leader Award, created by Rachel Hawkes and run by Routes into Languages East "helps pupils learn to lead, using language teaching as the medium. Throughout the year-long programme they develop their leadership and [linguistic] skills, growing in confidence and enhancing their future careers" (Hawkes, n.d. c, p. 1). Some…

  13. The Influence of Bloomfield's Linguistics on Skinner

    Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.; Matos, Maria Amelia

    2007-01-01

    Bloomfield's "Linguistics as a Science" (1930/1970), "Language" (1933/1961), and "Language or Ideas?" (1936a/1970), and Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) and "Science and Human Behavior" (1953) were analyzed in regard to their respective perspectives on science and scientific method, the verbal episode, meaning, and subject matter. Similarities…

  14. LINGUISTIC REALITIES IN KENYA: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY

    Amitabh@1234

    Kenya is a boon for a field linguist but misinformed politicians and education policy ... to date. Language realities have been observed in this study from a temporal lens of .... The knowledge of a language of international currency is not a curse, and it is ... But the colonial mind-sets of the people worked against the growth.

  15. York Papers in Linguistics, Volume 17.

    Local, J. K., Ed.; Warner, A. R., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These 14 articles on aspects of linguistics include the following: "Economy and Optionality: Interpretations of Subjects in Italian" (David Adger); "Collaborative Repair in EFL Classroom Talk" (Zara Iles); "A Timing Model for Fast French" (Eric Keller, Brigitte Zellner); "Another Travesty of Representation:…

  16. The Prague Linguistic Circle and Dialectics

    Sládek, Ondřej

    -, č. 19 (2017), s. 352-357 E-ISSN 2037-2426 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : The Prague Linguistic Circle * Jan Mukařovský * Structuralism * Structural Poetics * Dialectics Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision OBOR OECD: Specific literatures

  17. The Linguistic Functions of Some Nonverbal Communication ...

    This paper highlights the linguistic concerns of the rhetorical “polylogic” approach to the exploration of the stylistic aspects of language, which include paralinguistic communication devices, such as waving of hands, blinking of eyes, etc. These paralinguistic elements (proxemics for example) usually occur together with ...

  18. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality. Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  19. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  20. Political Economy in Applied Linguistics Research

    Block, David

    2017-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review is based on the fundamental idea that political economy should be adopted as a frame for research and discussion in applied linguistics as part of a general social turn which has taken hold in the field over the past three decades. It starts with Susan Gal's (1989) early call for such a move in sociolinguistics and…

  1. L2 Literacy and Biliteracy: Linguistic Consequences.

    Pugh, Stefan M.

    1991-01-01

    In a study of literacy and linguistics that focuses on bilingual and multilingual societies, the following topics are covered: bilingualism and biliteracy; biliteracy in the Soviet Union; case studies in Karelia and Ukraine; and predicting the future of biliteracy. (43 references. (LB)

  2. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics: 1981.

    Kaplan, Robert B., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 18 essays focuses on the linguistic problems involved in accommodating and educating displaced and migrant populations throughout the world. The essays are divided into three sections covering (1) language policy at the national level, (2) language in education policy, and (3) educational practice. Among the specific topics…

  3. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 1983.

    Kaplan, Robert B., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of reports on literacy and literacy issues includes a variety of perspectives and descriptions of diverse programs and is divided into three sections. The first examines broad questions of literacy: "On the Study of Literacy" (David Bendor-Samuel); "Linguistics and Literacy" (Gloria Kindell); and "Literacy in…

  4. Second Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics.

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the second language acquisition (SLA) process and the differential success of second language learners. Examines the fundamental challenges that this characterization faces, and highlights the contributions SLA is capable of in the coming decade. Offers topics for a training and development of curriculum for future applied linguists from…

  5. Psycholinguistics in Applied Linguistics: Trends and Perspectives.

    de Bot, Kees

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between the terms psycholinguistics and applied linguistics, and in the process explores key issues in multilingual processing, such as the structure of the bilingual lexicon, language choice in production and perception, and the language mode. (Author/VWL)

  6. Bridges Over Troubled Waters: Theoretical Linguistics And ...

    This paper tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical linguistics and those of multilingualism and code-switching (CS) research. It argues that the primary special point of interaction between these fields lies in the question of potential equivalence between elements or categories, bridging across ...

  7. Linguistic resources and strategies used in multilingual ...

    infrastructure, larger patients base and more staff than its counterpart, (HC-2), which is smaller and has a smaller patient and ... staff members, particularly doctors, have a variety of linguistic repertoires and cultural .... consultation. Some can use odd words that they have picked up, others felt that they could follow the gist of.

  8. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  9. Ideology in Applied Linguistics for Language Teaching

    Waters, Alan

    2009-01-01

    It is contended that much of present-day applied linguistics for language teaching (ALLT) fails to mediate effectively, primarily because an ideological construction, emanating from a critical theory perspective, is too often imposed on everyday pedagogical practices. This has resulted in an exaggerated level of concern about the power imbalances…

  10. Applied Linguistics and Primary School Teaching

    Ellis, Sue, Ed.; McCartney, Elspeth, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Modern primary teachers must adapt literacy programmes and ensure efficient learning for all. They must also support children with language and literacy difficulties, children learning English as an additional language and possibly teach a modern foreign language. To do this effectively, they need to understand the applied linguistics research…

  11. Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington DC, USA

    Sugarman, Julie; Fee, Molly; Donovan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private, nonprofit organization with over 50 years' experience in the application of research on language and culture to educational and societal concerns. CAL carries out its mission to improve communication through better understanding of language and culture by engaging in a variety of projects in…

  12. Linguistics, pedagogy and teaching of the language

    Álvaro William Santiago Galvis

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article tackles the relationship that exists between linguistics and pedagogy with regards to pedagocical language practices. From this relationship, the approach that has been given to practical native language teaching can be determined as well as characterized. Finally, the paper provides reasons for the communicational approach to teaching spanish.   

  13. Linguistic Imperialism, Cultural Integrity, and EIL.

    Modiano, Marko

    2001-01-01

    Argues that while linguistic imperialism is real and needs to be addressed, one way for the language instructor to come to terms with the cultural imposition of English language teaching is to define English as an international language. Suggests promoting "prestige varieties" positions the practitioner as purveyor of Anglo-American hegemony and…

  14. Experiences from Nordic research collaboration in linguistics

    Helge Sandøy

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The project “Modern loanwords in the languages of the Nordic countries (MIN – Moderne importord i språka i Norden” was the first large-scale collaborative project between linguists in the Nordic countries. This article presents both the aim of the project and some experiences from the work with respect to project design, financing and networking.

  15. SOCIO CUM LINGUISTIC INTERPLAY IN LANGUAGE CHOICE ...

    Sir George

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... learn to speak a language by force, or refuse to speak it. This is a ... circumstances such as the effects of linguistic deprivation, how bilingual children can learn ..... the other; the effects of books, movies and so on. Out.

  16. The Pedagogy of Play

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  17. The play grid

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs. intro...

  18. Play the Mosquito Game

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  19. Ethno linguistic material regarding Christmas rituals among the Serbs in Bela Krajina

    Petrović Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the current ethno linguistic situation in four Orthodox Serbian villages in the Bela Krajina region of Slovenia. Ethno linguistic material collected in these villages enables the synchronic state of traditional culture to be established. Special attention is payed to the way the interviewees describe Christmas rituals and interpret and evaluate then-present state; apart from description of Christmas interviewees' statements (here named ethno linguistic texts also carry precious information about attitudes of carriers of a certain culture towards its values, and indicate in- and out-group relations, establishing oppositions such as then vs. now, me vs. them, us vs. them. These subjective comments provided by the interviewees help obtain a complete, multilevel picture of a traditional culture, with all interactions that characterize it, both within the ethno linguistic community and in relation to other communities. It is especially important that these interactions be taken into account for isolated ethnic and linguistic groups such as the Orthodox Serbs in Bela Krajina.

  20. Gender Concepts and Gender Stereotypes in a Linguistic Picture of the World

    Yuliia Petrivna Maslova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article comprehends the notion of a concept and a stereotypes in the linguistic picture of the world through the prism of a gender perspective. The linguistic and philosophical interpretations of the above concepts by well-known scholars are described, special attention is paid to their scientific research. The observation of the city of the world is based on the understanding of the following: the name of the city of culture, the historical city of culture, the special culture of the world, the city of culture, the information picture of the world. The gender stereotypes, concepts and the conceptosphere in interaction with the language are analyzed in detail.

  1. Historical Trajectory of the Quechuan Linguistic Family and its Relations to the Aimaran Linguistic Family

    Adelaar, Willem

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to present the principal stages of the prehistory and history of the Quechuan language family in its interaction with the Aimaran family. It reconstructs a plausible scenario for a unique, intensive process of linguistic convergence that underlies the protolanguages of both families. From there on, it traces the principal developments that characterize the history of the Quechuan linguistic family, such as the initial split in two main branches, Quechua I and Quechua II (fo...

  2. Adaptations for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families of English Language Learning Students with Autisim Spectrum Disorders

    Mitchell, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, grounded theory study was to describe adaptations for culturally and linguistically diverse families of English language learning students with autism spectrum disorders. Each family's parent was interviewed three separate times to gather information to understand the needs and experiences regarding their…

  3. Estimating valence from the sound of a word : Computational, experimental, and cross-linguistic evidence

    Louwerse, Max; Qu, Zhan

    2017-01-01

    It is assumed linguistic symbols must be grounded in perceptual information to attain meaning, because the sound of a word in a language has an arbitrary relation with its referent. This paper demonstrates that a strong arbitrariness claim should be reconsidered. In a computational study, we showed

  4. Kitchen talk – Exploring linguistic practices in liminal institutional interactions in a multilingual university setting

    Hazel, Spencer; Mortensen, Janus

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reports on a small-scale investigation of how linguistic diversity is managed and turned into a resource for social meaning making in an informal, multilingual setting at Danish university. Although firmly located within the institution of the university, the particular setting (know...

  5. Overview of a Linguistic Theory of Design. AI Memo 383A.

    Miller, Mark L.; Goldstein, Ira P.

    The SPADE theory, which uses linguistic formalisms to model the planning and debugging processes of computer programming, was simultaneously developed and tested in three separate contexts--computer uses in education, automatic programming (a traditional artificial intelligence arena), and protocol analysis (the domain of information processing…

  6. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their…

  7. Understanding Higher Education-Based Teacher Educators' Identities in Hong Kong: A Sociocultural Linguistic Perspective

    Yuan, Rui

    2016-01-01

    While teacher educator identities have received increasing attention over the past decade, there is a lack of research on teacher educators' professional identities in the complex and shifting higher education contexts. Informed by the sociocultural linguistic perspective, this study investigates two language teacher educators' professional…

  8. Evaluating Autism Diagnostic and Screening Tools for Cultural and Linguistic Responsiveness

    Harris, Bryn; Barton, Erin E.; Albert, Chantel

    2014-01-01

    While clear guidelines and best practices exist for the assessment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little information is available about assessing for ASD in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) populations. CLD populations might be misidentified and under-identified with ASD due to the assessment practices that we employ. Four autism…

  9. Cognitive bias in spider-phobic children: Comparison of a pictorial and a linguistic spider Stroop.

    Kindt, M.; Brosschot, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the relation between spider fear in children and cognitive processing bias toward threatening information. It was investigated whether spider fear in children is related to a cognitive bias for threatening pictures and words. Pictorial and linguistic Stroop stimuli were administered to 28

  10. Neuro-Linguistic Programming as an Innovation in Education and Teaching

    Tosey, Paul; Mathison, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)--an emergent, contested approach to communication and personal development created in the 1970s--has become increasingly familiar in education and teaching. There is little academic work on NLP to date. This article offers an informed introduction to, and appraisal of, the field for educators. We review the…

  11. Organic chemistry as a language and the implications of chemical linguistics for structural and retrosynthetic analyses.

    Cadeddu, Andrea; Wylie, Elizabeth K; Jurczak, Janusz; Wampler-Doty, Matthew; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2014-07-28

    Methods of computational linguistics are used to demonstrate that a natural language such as English and organic chemistry have the same structure in terms of the frequency of, respectively, text fragments and molecular fragments. This quantitative correspondence suggests that it is possible to extend the methods of computational corpus linguistics to the analysis of organic molecules. It is shown that within organic molecules bonds that have highest information content are the ones that 1) define repeat/symmetry subunits and 2) in asymmetric molecules, define the loci of potential retrosynthetic disconnections. Linguistics-based analysis appears well-suited to the analysis of complex structural and reactivity patterns within organic molecules. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Interval 2-Tuple Linguistic Distance Operators and Their Applications to Supplier Evaluation and Selection

    Meng-Meng Shan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to multicriteria supplier selection problems with interval 2-tuple linguistic information, a new decision making approach that uses distance measures is proposed. Motivated by the ordered weighted distance (OWD measures, in this paper, we develop some interval 2-tuple linguistic distance operators such as the interval 2-tuple weighted distance (ITWD, the interval 2-tuple ordered weighted distance (ITOWD, and the interval 2-tuple hybrid weighted distance (ITHWD operators. These aggregation operators are very useful for the treatment of input data in the form of interval 2-tuple linguistic variables. We study some desirable properties of the ITOWD operator and further generalize it by using the generalized and the quasi-arithmetic means. Finally, the new approach is utilized to complete a supplier selection study for an actual hospital from the healthcare industry.

  13. Dynamic Neural Processing of Linguistic Cues Related to Death

    Ma, Yina; Qin, Jungang; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that humans evolve the capacity to cope with anxiety induced by the awareness of death’s inevitability. However, the neurocognitive processes that underlie online death-related thoughts remain unclear. Our recent functional MRI study found that the processing of linguistic cues related to death was characterized by decreased neural activity in human insular cortex. The current study further investigated the time course of neural processing of death-related linguistic cues. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP) to death-related, life-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words in a modified Stroop task that required color naming of words. We found that the amplitude of an early frontal/central negativity at 84–120 ms (N1) decreased to death-related words but increased to life-related words relative to neutral-valence words. The N1 effect associated with death-related and life-related words was correlated respectively with individuals’ pessimistic and optimistic attitudes toward life. Death-related words also increased the amplitude of a frontal/central positivity at 124–300 ms (P2) and of a frontal/central positivity at 300–500 ms (P3). However, the P2 and P3 modulations were observed for both death-related and negative-valence words but not for life-related words. The ERP results suggest an early inverse coding of linguistic cues related to life and death, which is followed by negative emotional responses to death-related information. PMID:23840787

  14. Linguistic aspects of eponymic professional endocrinologic terminology

    N.I. Bytsko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special linguistic researches of terminological units of different branches of medicine allow analyzing in details the ways of creating the systems of clinical terminology from different aspects: historical, scientific, cultural, linguistic and semantic. There is a wide area of terminology related to the clinical and experimental endocrino­logy within general medical terminological system. The purpose of the study: to demonstrate the structure of endocrine medical terms — eponyms through the prism of systematization of methodological researches on eponymic vocabulary. Materials and methods. The actual material received as a result of a total choice of eponyms (there were 296 terms from the “Reference dictionary for endocrinologist”, which was composed by the scientists of V. Danilevsky Institute of Endocrine Pathology Problems and Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate education — A.V. Kozakov, N.A. Kravchun, I.M. Ilyina, M.I. Zubko, O.A. Goncharova, I.V. Cherniavska has 10,000 endocrine terms, the authors successfully streamlined medical terms of the clinical and experimental endocrinology into the vocabulary. The method of total choice of terms from professional literature, the descriptive method and distributive method were used in the study that allowed distinguishing lexical and semantic features of eponymic terms in the branch of endocrinology. Results. The obtained results point out to the modernity of studies in the field of clinical and experimental endocrinology, which is due to the fact that this is the oldest terminology, by the example of which it is possible to trace the ways of formation, development and improvement of terms, the realization of semantic processes, certain trends, ways and means of word formation. Conclusions. The results of the research on the above mentioned sublanguage of clinical medicine at the level of linguistic observations of the functio­ning in dictionaries and scientific works will

  15. Playing with the city

    Tosca, Susana; Marquez, Israel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...... that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...

  16. Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application.

    Rudner, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  17. Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application

    Mary Rudner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  18. LINGUISTIC CAPITAL AND PERMANENT EDUCATION

    Cornelia DUMITRU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Europe of Knowledge means shifting to a new stage of identifying, redefining and satisfying the exigencies related to human capital. Among the basic competencies, the language ones shall play a more important role for all age groups, and all categories of jobs and professions in the economic, social and cultural fields due to the emergence of the virtual society and economy. Market internationalisation, as well as the strong outspread of English in all fields led to the emergence of the “working language” making it “strict requirement” from the perspective of the qualitative attributes of human capital. At the same time, from the viewpoint of the human capital, “English is not enough” for sustainable development at regional and international level.

  19. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2001. Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond.

    Tannen, Deborah, Ed.; Alatis, James E., Ed.

    This book contains papers from the 2001 Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, "Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond." Papers include: "Introduction" (Deborah Tannen); "A Brief History of the Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics" (James E.…

  20. Designing Play for Dark Times

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a knowledge-exchange network project that had the core aim of informing the development of a video game for hospitalized children. In order to do this, it brought together hospital play specialists, academics and representatives from the digital games industry to co-produce knowledge that could be used in the future…

  1. The linguistics of schizophrenia: thought disturbance as language pathology across positive symptoms

    Wolfram eHinzen; Wolfram eHinzen; Wolfram eHinzen; Joana eRosselló

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that linguistic (dis-) organization in the schizophrenic brain plays a much more central role in the pathogenesis of this disease than commonly supposed. Against the standard view, that schizophrenia is a disturbance of thought or selfhood, we argue that the origins of the relevant forms of thought and selfhood at least partially depend on language. The view that they do not is premised by a theoretical conception of language that we here identify as ‘Cartesian’ and contrast wi...

  2. Neural organization of linguistic short-term memory is sensory modality-dependent: evidence from signed and spoken language.

    Pa, Judy; Wilson, Stephen M; Pickell, Herbert; Bellugi, Ursula; Hickok, Gregory

    2008-12-01

    Despite decades of research, there is still disagreement regarding the nature of the information that is maintained in linguistic short-term memory (STM). Some authors argue for abstract phonological codes, whereas others argue for more general sensory traces. We assess these possibilities by investigating linguistic STM in two distinct sensory-motor modalities, spoken and signed language. Hearing bilingual participants (native in English and American Sign Language) performed equivalent STM tasks in both languages during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Distinct, sensory-specific activations were seen during the maintenance phase of the task for spoken versus signed language. These regions have been previously shown to respond to nonlinguistic sensory stimulation, suggesting that linguistic STM tasks recruit sensory-specific networks. However, maintenance-phase activations common to the two languages were also observed, implying some form of common process. We conclude that linguistic STM involves sensory-dependent neural networks, but suggest that sensory-independent neural networks may also exist.

  3. Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making Methods Based on Trapezoidal Fuzzy Two-Dimensional Linguistic Partitioned Bonferroni Mean Aggregation Operators.

    Yin, Kedong; Yang, Benshuo; Li, Xuemei

    2018-01-24

    In this paper, we investigate multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problems where decision makers represent their evaluation of alternatives by trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional uncertain linguistic variable. To begin with, we introduce the definition, properties, expectation, operational laws of trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic information. Then, to improve the accuracy of decision making in some case where there are a sort of interrelationship among the attributes, we analyze partition Bonferroni mean (PBM) operator in trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional variable environment and develop two operators: trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic partitioned Bonferroni mean (TF2DLPBM) aggregation operator and trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic weighted partitioned Bonferroni mean (TF2DLWPBM) aggregation operator. Furthermore, we develop a novel method to solve MAGDM problems based on TF2DLWPBM aggregation operator. Finally, a practical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method and analyses the impact of different parameters on the results of decision-making.

  4. FairyPlay

    Toft, Herdis

    2018-01-01

    in a play culture where children recycle them in transmitted, transformed and transgressive modes. His fairy tales function as raw materials – trash – for play-production, and these contemporary children muddle, mingle, remix their formulas and elements with other materials and adjust them to a play context......Hans Christian Andersen is a cultural icon in the Danish community, and his fairy tales are canonized as treasured Danish cultural heritage. However, situated as they are today in a crosscultural mix between folklore, booklore and medialore, they also may be analysed as useful, treasured trash...... through improvisations. So they perform what we shall name FairyPlay - just like Hans Christian Andersen himself did. We show Hans Christian Andersen as an intimate connoisseur of play culture, a homo ludens, a trash-sculptor and a thing-finder, like Pippi Longstocking and like children in play. Examples...

  5. Chomsky and Wittgenstein on Linguistic Competence

    Thomas McNally

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In his Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language, Saul Kripke presents his influential reading of Wittgenstein’s later writings on language. One of the largely unexplored features of that reading is that Kripke makes a small number of suggestive remarks concerning the possible threat that Wittgenstein’s arguments pose for Chomsky’s linguistic project. In this paper, we attempt to characterise the relevance of Wittgenstein’s later work on meaning and rule-following for transformational linguistics, and in particular to identify the potentially negative impact it has on that project. Although we use Kripke’s remarks to articulate some of the pertinent issues, we return to Wittgenstein’s later writings to address them. We argue that Wittgenstein’s main target in the relevant sections of the Philosophical Investigations is the notion of ‘logical compulsion’, which involves assuming that there is more to applying a word or rule than how we are naturally or “psychologically” compelled to apply. We characterise two of the main lines of argument in the Investigations in terms of the rejection of logical compulsion. We thus propose to address the relevance of Wittgenstein’s writings for Chomsky by considering whether Chomsky’s linguistics presupposes the targeted notion of logical compulsion. We argue that Chomsky’s conception of linguistic competence in terms of successive states of the “language faculty” (containing the principles of universal grammar does presuppose this problematic notion. Chomsky responded to Kripke by devoting a chapter of his Knowledge of Language to defending this conception of linguistic competence against the Wittgensteinian arguments. We evaluate his response and argue that he has misidentified the threat to his linguistic project as consisting in the attack on its ‘individual psychology’ standpoint, rather than its commitment to logical compulsion. We conclude by arguing that Chomsky

  6. Work Hard / Play Hard

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  7. An exploratory study of neuro linguistic programming and communication anxiety

    Brunner, Lois M.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis is an exploratory study of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), and its capabilities to provide a technique or a composite technique that will reduce the anxiety associated with making an oral brief or presentation before a group, sometimes referred to as Communication Apprehension. The composite technique comes from NLP and Time Line Therapy, which is an extension to NLP. Student volunteers (17) from a Communications course given by the Administrative Sciences Department were taught this technique. For each volunteer, an informational oral presentation was made and videotaped before the training and another informational oral presentation made and videotaped following the training. The before and after training presentations for each individual volunteer were evaluated against criteria for communications anxiety and analyzed to determine if there was a noticeable reduction of anxiety after the training. Anxiety was reduced in all of the volunteers in this study.

  8. Free riders play fair

    Takikawa, Hirohide

    2012-01-01

    After the demise of the social contract theory, the argument from fair play, which employs the principle of fair play, has been widely acknowledged as one of the most promising ways of justifying political obligation. First, I articulate the most promising version of the principle of fair play. Then, I show that free riders play fair, that is, that their moral fault lies not in unfairness but in the violation of a rule by appealing to the example of three-in-a-boat. Finally, I conclude that e...

  9. Designing for Immediate Play

    Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play...... offer using examples and expert opinions. While most practices and game examples mentioned in this paper are from non-digital games, a special focus is put on the role of technology in immediately playable experiences. Still, the examined design dimensions are independent of the technological foundation...... of the game. This paper provides a starting point for designing better immediate play situations....

  10. Late Modern Play Culture

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    and the Danish University of Education (among others) have been working with different kind of products, all referred to as PlAYWARE. Playware combines modern technology and knowledge about play culture in order to produce playful experiences for its players. This paper will exemplify how the concept of play can...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...

  11. Linguistic Validation of Interactive Educational Interventions in Neurologic Trauma.

    Sahyouni, Ronald; Mahmoodi, Amin; Tran, Diem K; Tran, Peter; Chen, Jefferson W

    2017-11-01

    Neurological surgeons oftentimes educate patients and their families on complex medical conditions and treatment options. Time constraints and varied linguistic and cultural backgrounds limit the amount of information that can be disbursed. In this study, we assessed the linguistic validity of interactive educational interventions in non-English-speaking patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and concussion and their families. A total of 273 English-, Spanish-, Korean-, and Vietnamese-speaking neurotrauma patients (n =124) and family members (n =149) completed a presurvey to evaluate their incipient understanding, interacted with an iPad-based iBook (Apple) on concussion or TBI in their native language, completed a postsurvey to gauge changes in understanding, and then consulted with their neurosurgeon. All participants (124 patients and 149 family members) had significantly increased (95% confidence interval [CI], P cultural background. Caucasian participants scored significantly higher than the combination of all ethnicities on both the baseline survey (95% CI, P cultural background. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Linguistic Characteristics of Commercial and Social Advertising Slogans

    Pavel Skorupa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the analysis of linguistic characteristics of commercial and social advertising slogans. There is no uniform definition of the advertising slogan in the scientific literature, therefore, an attempt to provide the definition of a slogan in the context of marketing communication was made. One of the main functions of both social and commercial advertising is to provide information to the target audience and make it act in a way desired by the advertisers. As language, either spoken or written, has a powerful influence over people and their behaviour, the article analysis the language of advertising from the linguistic point of view and focuses on the phonological and semantic characteristics of slogans for commercial and social advertising campaigns. The analysis of 110 English slogans (55 commercial and 55 social advertising campaigns showed the frequent use of both sound techniques and figurative language in commercial advertising slogans, which make the slogans more memorable, attractive and highlighting the advertised brand in a positive way. In contrast, the sound techniques and figurative language are scarce in slogans for social advertising campaigns.

  13. Framing effects are robust to linguistic disambiguation: A critical test of contemporary theory.

    Chick, Christina F; Reyna, Valerie F; Corbin, Jonathan C

    2016-02-01

    Theoretical accounts of risky choice framing effects assume that decision makers interpret framing options as extensionally equivalent, such that if 600 lives are at stake, saving 200 implies that 400 die. However, many scholars have argued that framing effects are caused, instead, by filling in pragmatically implied information. This linguistic ambiguity hypothesis is grounded in neo-Gricean pragmatics, information leakage, and schema theory. In 2 experiments, we conducted critical tests of the linguistic ambiguity hypothesis and its relation to framing. We controlled for this crucial implied information by disambiguating it using instructions and detailed examples, followed by multiple quizzes. After disambiguating missing information, we presented standard framing problems plus truncated versions, varying types of missing information. Truncations were also critical tests of prospect theory and fuzzy trace theory. Participants were not only college students, but also middle-age adults (who showed similar results). Contrary to the ambiguity hypothesis, participants who interpreted missing information as complementary to stated information nonetheless showed robust framing effects. Although adding words like "at least" can change interpretations of framing information, this form of linguistic ambiguity is not necessary to observe risky choice framing effects. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Verba tene, res sequentur. Lewis Carroll’s play on words and linguistic-textual generation

    Katajamäki, Sakari

    2016-01-01

    In the beginning of Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking-Glass (1872), the chessman White King is writing a note in his memorandum book, but his pencil does not obey him. The poor King struggles with it but, despite his efforts, he is not able to write what he intends. The text that appears in his book is something entirely peculiar and contrary to his intention: “The White Knight is sliding down the poker. He balances badly.” This episode reflects the manner in which language is often represe...

  15. Songs to syntax: the linguistics of birdsong.

    Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Beckers, Gabriel J L; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2011-03-01

    Unlike our primate cousins, many species of bird share with humans a capacity for vocal learning, a crucial factor in speech acquisition. There are striking behavioural, neural and genetic similarities between auditory-vocal learning in birds and human infants. Recently, the linguistic parallels between birdsong and spoken language have begun to be investigated. Although both birdsong and human language are hierarchically organized according to particular syntactic constraints, birdsong structure is best characterized as 'phonological syntax', resembling aspects of human sound structure. Crucially, birdsong lacks semantics and words. Formal language and linguistic analysis remains essential for the proper characterization of birdsong as a model system for human speech and language, and for the study of the brain and cognition evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Constructing an XML database of linguistics data

    J H Kroeze

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A language-oriented, multi-dimensional database of the linguistic characteristics of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament can enable researchers to do ad hoc queries. XML is a suitable technology to transform free text into a database. A clause’s word order can be kept intact while other features such as syntactic and semantic functions can be marked as elements or attributes. The elements or attributes from the XML “database” can be accessed and proces sed by a 4th generation programming language, such as Visual Basic. XML is explored as an option to build an exploitable database of linguistic data by representing inherently multi-dimensional data, including syntactic and semantic analyses of free text.

  17. Genre analysis of linguistics research introductions

    Anthony Porras

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of exploring genre analysis has been a trend in Applied Linguistics, not only for its interesting factor, but also because of its pedagogical implications. This study aimed to determine the overall structure, specifically the presence and conformity of moves and steps of the research introductions in the field of Linguistics. Twelve (12 available research introductions were analyzed using Create-A-Research-Space (CARS model. The findings revealed that moves and steps across the research introductions are present. Majority of the research introductions conformed to the CARS model, but did not necessarily follow the suggested sequence. Results imply that teachers of research writing should acknowledge and introduce the CARS model as a basis for teaching the method of writing research introductions effectively.

  18. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    Poulsen, Mads

    finding from research on sentence processing that sentences are processed incrementally. Empirical methods for establishing grammaticality status are discussed and applied in relation to non-WH extraction phenomena in Danish. In Chapter 2, I discuss the use of the notions of grammaticality......The dissertation presents a functional linguistic model of grammaticality and investigates methods for applying this notion in empirical work. The use of the notion of grammaticality in generative grammar has been criticized by functionalists (Harder, 1996; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999), but attempts...... grammaticality. It is concluded that the intuitions of linguists should in principle be considered hypotheses of grammaticality, and that such hypotheses need to be tested with independent data. Such data can for example take the form of corpus data or acceptability judgment experiments. It is furthermore argued...

  19. M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic/literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by philologist V.V. Vinogrado

    Larisa N. Kuznetsova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic / literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by Great Russian scientist-philologist and linguist, Academician V.V. Vinogradov.

  20. Playfulness and Openness

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    What does it mean to design a playful learning tool? What is needed for a learning tool to be perceived by potential users as playful? These questions emerged reflecting on a Participatory Design process aimed at enhancing museum-learning practice from the perspective of primary school children...

  1. Play framework cookbook

    Reelsen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at advanced developers who are looking to harness the power of Play 2.x. This book will also be useful for professionals looking to dive deeper into web development. Play 2 .x is an excellent framework to accelerate your learning of advanced topics.

  2. Five recent play dates

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    An advantage of the playground metaphor is that it comes with the activity of going out on ‘play dates’ and developing friendships. In such playful relationships, there is always something at stake, but the interaction is also fun and inherently exploratory. In the following, we take a tour of five...

  3. Art of Play

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  4. Play your part

    Ramsey, Gaynor

    1978-01-01

    Play your part is a collection of then situations in which students have to take on the roles of particular people and express their opinions, feelings or arguments about the situation. Play your part is intended for use with advanced students of English.

  5. Return to Play

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  6. Linguistic control of a nuclear power plant

    Feeley, J.J.; Johnson, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A multivariable linguistic controller based on fuzzy set theory is discussed and its application to a pressurized water nuclear power plant control is illustrated by computer simulation. The nonlinear power plant simulation model has nine states, two control inputs, one disturbance input, and two outputs. Although relatively simple, the model captures the essential coupled nonlinear plant dynamics and is convenient to use for control system studies. The use of an adaptive version of the controller is also demonstrated by computer simulation

  7. A review on gender linguistics studies

    Roozbeh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Gender linguistics is a cynosure branch within the framework of language sociology and it deals with the effect that the gender, as a variable, has on the creation of lingual diversities. Because a great many of the social-cultural concepts, including gender, are multifaceted, one-dimensional and absolute perceptions of such concepts lead to some sort of superficiality, particularly in research areas. The present article, firstly, deals with the presentation of the notions opined by two promi...

  8. Precedent Phenomena in Quebecois Linguistic World View

    Ксения Эдуардовна Болотина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the linguocultural analysis of precedent phenomena as parts of Quebecois’ cognitive base. Precedent phenomena being cultural facts are one of the key issues in modern linguistic and cognitive studies. By precedent phenomena we mean, according to Y.E. Prohorov, such entities when verbalized in discourse that refer to a certain cultural fact behind them. In the article the precedent phenomena such as precedent text, precedent situation, precedent utterance, and precedent name are analyzed. The main theses of the precedence theory given in the article (Y.N. Karaulov, Y.E. Prohorov, V.V. Krasnyh, D.B. Gudkov are at the heart of precedence studies on the basis of different languages. However, a complex analysis of precedent phenomena in the Quebec national variant of French is new to Russian linguistics. The study of precedent phenomena enables us to elicit features of their functioning in ethnospecific discourse and determine cultural dominants existing in Quebecois’ linguistic world view. Given the fact that the size of the article is limited, we undertooke the analysis of eight phenomena precedent of the bearers of Quebec linguoculture. The choice of phenomena is determined by the frequency of their use in discourse. The facts analyzed are of national character, i.e. known to all members of the linguocultural community. A certain cultural fact is at the very core of each precedent phenomenon given in the article. To get the whole picture we analysed historic, political, and cultural context connected to the precedent phenomena in question. The study enables us to elicit distinctive features that are at the core of each phenomenon. The results are backed with the supportive material drawn from analysis of different types of discourse. The analysis of precedent phenomena undertaken in this article allows us to reconstruct, to a certain extent, Quebec cultural space and is a stepping stone to the reconstruction of the

  9. Deep learning evaluation using deep linguistic processing

    Kuhnle, Alexander; Copestake, Ann

    2017-01-01

    We discuss problems with the standard approaches to evaluation for tasks like visual question answering, and argue that artificial data can be used to address these as a complement to current practice. We demonstrate that with the help of existing 'deep' linguistic processing technology we are able to create challenging abstract datasets, which enable us to investigate the language understanding abilities of multimodal deep learning models in detail, as compared to a single performance value ...

  10. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It ...

  11. The Notion of Culture in Linguistic Research

    Dominic Busch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works on intercultural communication from the field of linguistics share the assumption that influences of culture on social interaction will manifest in communicative exchanges—and conversely, that an academic's look at these exchanges will be a sufficient basis for an adequate description of what intercultural communication is supposed to be about. Linguistic theory itself lacking of places to integrate culture as a factor into its concepts, urges scholars to borrow operationalizations of culture from neighboring disciplines like e.g. different strands of psychology, sociology or anthropology. Approaches resulting from this transdisciplinary orientation as a consequence share very divergent assumptions on how, at what moment in a communicative process and with what effects culture influences social interaction. While many surveys on similar behalf distinguish between primordial and constructionist approaches, a closer look at different strands of empirical linguistic research may reveal even more precise and detailed distinctions on how culture may be captured and framed. This article will present and analyze a selection of approaches from the mentioned field, e.g. from intercultural and contrastive pragmatics, interactional sociolinguistics, ethnography of communication, ethnomethodology as well as discourse analysis. In each case, the underlying notions of culture will be revealed and put into contrast. Additionally, this exemplary analysis may show that most of the empirical schools mentioned follow and adopt changing notions of culture from social theory over time. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901508

  12. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  13. How fifth grade Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction

    Stevenson, Alma R.

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative, sociolinguistic research study examines how bilingual Latino/a students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States serving an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a fifth grade science class entirely comprised of language minority students transitioning out of bilingual education. Therefore, English was the means of instruction in science, supported by informal peer-to-peer Spanish-language communication. This study is grounded in a social constructivist paradigm. From this standpoint, learning science is a social process where social, cultural, and linguistic factors are all considered crucial to the process of acquiring scientific knowledge. The study was descriptive in nature, examining specific linguistic behaviors with the purpose of identifying and analyzing the linguistic functions of students' utterances while participating in science learning. The results suggest that students purposefully adapt their use of linguistic resources in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. What is underscored in this study is the importance of explicitly acknowledging, supporting, and incorporating bilingual students' linguistic resources both in Spanish and English into the science classroom in order to optimize students' participation and facilitate their understanding.

  14. Comprehensive assessment of firm financial performance using financial ratios and linguistic analysis of annual reports

    Renáta Myšková; Petr Hájek

    2017-01-01

    Indicators of financial performance, especially financial ratio analysis, have become important financial decision-support information used by firm management and other stakeholders to assess financial stability and growth potential. However, additional information may be hidden in management communication. The article deals with the analysis of the annual reports of U.S. firms from both points of view, a financial one based on a set of financial ratios, and a linguistic one based on the anal...

  15. Playful Collaboration (Or Not)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...... and interdisciplinary Innovation and Business master's program in Denmark. We identify several important themes related to the process of learning through playing and the social dynamics of open collaborative innovation, while we also highlight possible caveats of “playing” and practicing open innovation. Our findings...

  16. "New linguistic issues", by Pier Pasolini, is causing scandal among linguists, philologists, writers, critics and intellectuals

    Teodoro Negri

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Pasolini departs from the diagnosis of a problem: the critical quest stage in contemporary literature, centered on the 1950s; he points out the author´s inability to create the design for a national language. He goes on to analyze the deep mutation in Italian Society, which determineted a new socio-linguistic outlook; to wit, a language clearly marked by strong technicality and instrumentation. Drawing examples from newspapers, TV features, official political speeches and commercials, Pasolini demonstrates that factual communication takes precedence over formal expression. This is ascribed to one principle which sets both rules and approvals for all forms of national language. This fact, according to Pasolini, is the result of an industrial and technological transformation process, which would  permite advent of a new linguistic bourgeoisie. The linguistic unification caused by such approving  principle would, therefore, imply the social manifestation of the bourgeoisie.

  17. Verbal Working Memory Is Related to the Acquisition of Cross-Linguistic Phonological Regularities.

    Bosma, Evelyn; Heeringa, Wilbert; Hoekstra, Eric; Versloot, Arjen; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Closely related languages share cross-linguistic phonological regularities, such as Frisian -âld [ͻ:t] and Dutch -oud [ʱut], as in the cognate pairs kâld [kͻ:t] - koud [kʱut] 'cold' and wâld [wͻ:t] - woud [wʱut] 'forest'. Within Bybee's (1995, 2001, 2008, 2010) network model, these regularities are, just like grammatical rules within a language, generalizations that emerge from schemas of phonologically and semantically related words. Previous research has shown that verbal working memory is related to the acquisition of grammar, but not vocabulary. This suggests that verbal working memory supports the acquisition of linguistic regularities. In order to test this hypothesis we investigated whether verbal working memory is also related to the acquisition of cross-linguistic phonological regularities. For three consecutive years, 5- to 8-year-old Frisian-Dutch bilingual children ( n = 120) were tested annually on verbal working memory and a Frisian receptive vocabulary task that comprised four cognate categories: (1) identical cognates, (2) non-identical cognates that either do or (3) do not exhibit a phonological regularity between Frisian and Dutch, and (4) non-cognates. The results showed that verbal working memory had a significantly stronger effect on cognate category (2) than on the other three cognate categories. This suggests that verbal working memory is related to the acquisition of cross-linguistic phonological regularities. More generally, it confirms the hypothesis that verbal working memory plays a role in the acquisition of linguistic regularities.

  18. Verbal Working Memory Is Related to the Acquisition of Cross-Linguistic Phonological Regularities

    Evelyn Bosma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Closely related languages share cross-linguistic phonological regularities, such as Frisian -âld [ͻ:t] and Dutch -oud [ʱut], as in the cognate pairs kâld [kͻ:t] – koud [kʱut] ‘cold’ and wâld [wͻ:t] – woud [wʱut] ‘forest’. Within Bybee’s (1995, 2001, 2008, 2010 network model, these regularities are, just like grammatical rules within a language, generalizations that emerge from schemas of phonologically and semantically related words. Previous research has shown that verbal working memory is related to the acquisition of grammar, but not vocabulary. This suggests that verbal working memory supports the acquisition of linguistic regularities. In order to test this hypothesis we investigated whether verbal working memory is also related to the acquisition of cross-linguistic phonological regularities. For three consecutive years, 5- to 8-year-old Frisian-Dutch bilingual children (n = 120 were tested annually on verbal working memory and a Frisian receptive vocabulary task that comprised four cognate categories: (1 identical cognates, (2 non-identical cognates that either do or (3 do not exhibit a phonological regularity between Frisian and Dutch, and (4 non-cognates. The results showed that verbal working memory had a significantly stronger effect on cognate category (2 than on the other three cognate categories. This suggests that verbal working memory is related to the acquisition of cross-linguistic phonological regularities. More generally, it confirms the hypothesis that verbal working memory plays a role in the acquisition of linguistic regularities.

  19. THE CATEGORY OF GENERATION IN POLISH LINGUISTIC STUDIES (CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Marek Ruszkowski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In linguistic studies, a generation is understood as “a group of people who are more or less the same age (Dubisz red. 2003, t. 3: 298 ”. It is assumed that the linguistic memory, the knowledge of linguistic conventions, the ability to take notice of nuances in one's language is the only and unique cultural heritage that is difficult to learn and is passed from generation to generation, albeit with smaller or bigger modifications. Such modifications are the reason why the language is differentiated in generational terms, and it is the age that plays the principal role in that differentiation. Apart from the biological criterion, the geographic one, that is the area of a specific region, determinates the distinct features in the speech of generations. The analysis of differences in speech of generations allows determining the direction, nature, pace, mechanism of and reasons for linguistic changes. Generally, scientists focus on phonetic, lexical, and morphological differences shown in the language spoken by people from different generations. In Poland, the studies of differences in the speech of generations are at an introductory stage. The reconnaissance of the research area has been carried out, and basic determinations have been made, but the scope of analysis seems to be too narrow. A research perspective would be to use the quantitative indicators that are showing now and will show in the future that the common sense assumptions about specific frequency ratios between parts of speech, an increase in complexity of utterances and their lexical wealth concurrent with age does not need to be corroborated by empirical research. It is also advisable to analyse the differences in speech of one generation, especially the medium-age or old-age generation, in terms of sex, education, living, and other possible parameters. It will give the answer to the question to what extent the speech of people from a specific generation is a linguistic

  20. Linguistic Markers of Stereotype in National Character Descriptions (Based on Ukrainian Newspaper Articles

    Falafivka Olesya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnic stereotypes are in the focus of current linguistic research, because they play an important role in the formation of international relations that develop rapidly in the modern world. The majority of linguistic studies today are devoted to the cognitive nature of stereotypes. However, researchers also pay attention to means of stereotype verbalization in different languages. The main ones have been identified already: these are ethnonyms, toponyms, ethnically marked anthroponyms, ethnically marked color names, names of religions, names of national symbols and values, ethnic and national realia and code switching. Nevertheless, not always do these units verbalize ethnic stereotypes in discourse. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to develop a method of identification and suggest a typology of linguistic markers of stereotype that occur in descriptions of different national characters in Ukrainian journalistic discourse. Results: Linguistic markers of stereotype have been identified at almost all levels of the language structure. They are morphemes, lexemes, set phrases, idioms, proverbs, certain syntactic structures and even texts (anecdotes, the semantic structure of which contains the semes MANY and ALWAYS. Importantly, linguistic markers of stereotype are used in combination rather than separately. Discussion: Ethnic stereotypes can be identified in discourse using two basic criteria. The first one is explicit description or implicit reference to the features of a certain national character (ethnonyms, toponyms, realia etc. are indispensable elements of such a description or reference; the second one is occurrence of the aforesaid markers of stereotype (different language units, the semantic structure of which includes the semes MANY and ALWAYS in the text. The prospect of this research is comparative analysis of markers of ethnic stereotypes in Ukrainian and other languages.

  1. Play vs. Procedures

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...... and alters the former, and vice versa. Consequently, if the appointed procedures of a game are no longer fixed and rigid in their conveyance of meaning, qua the appropriative and dissolving nature of play, then understandings of games as conveying a fixed meaning through their procedures are inadequate...

  2. Can play be defined?

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  3. LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL STUDIES: THE QUEST FOR NEW IDEAS

    Vitalii Kononenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the principles of researching into text from the interdisciplinary linguistic and cultural perspective. Cognitological analysis of linguistic and extralinguistic cultural meanings reveals that there exist of specific linguistic and aesthetic formations best presented through the ‘language – culture – identity’ triad. One of the components of literary discourse is monocultural layer, which secures the continuity of national cultural tradition; researching into it, one should take into account mental and historical, psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic and other factors. Linguistic and aesthetic analysis helps to establish the system of linguistic and cultural means (metaphorization, imagery, verbal symbols, linguistic conceptualization, connotative meanings, which reveals its potential in literary texts. The lingual identity as a general notional category shows its nationally-oriented characteristics through the dichotomies of ‘addresser-addressee’ , ‘author-reader’, ‘narrator-narratee’ and is presented in the author’s idiolect.

  4. Language and Family Dispersion: North Korean Linguist Kim Su-gyŏng and the Korean War

    Ryuta Itagaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the unpublished memoir of Kim Su-gyŏng (1918–2000, a linguist who was active in North Korea from the mid-1940s until the late 1960s, and situates his account of his experience of the Korean War within the context of his linguistic essays and correspondence. In doing so, the article considers the role that the personal and the social play in language, utilizing Saussure’s theoretical framework, with which Kim himself was well versed. Kim wrote his memoirs in the 1990s to his family, from whom he had become separated during the Korean War and who now lived in Toronto. In this text, he writes in “personal” language that reveals his uncertainty and his feelings for his family, but then immediately negates these feelings through the use of “social” language, which resonates with his interpretation of the linguistic thesis that Josef Stalin developed during the Korean War on language and national identity. For Kim, the relationship between language and nation was not at all self-evident, but something that he idealized in response to the dispersal of his family. By offering a reflexive reading of a memoir written by a North Korean linguist, this article makes a breakthrough in the investigation of North Korean wartime academic history, which has not risen above the level of analyzing articles in the field of linguistics that were published at the time.

  5. The Linguistic and Social Aspects of the Bedouin Dialect

    Mahmoud El Salman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a sociolinguistic study that tries to investigate the peculiarity of the Bedouin dialect regardless of the place where it is used. Some variants that are used in their dialect are used wherever they are from. Two sounds in particular were chosen to carry out this study. These are the /ʤ/ variant of the (Q variable, and the /ts/ variant of the (K variable. The study shows that some sounds that are known to be exclusively used by Bedouins, are still used by the old Bedouins wherever they live. For example, Old informants from Jordan used the /ts/ variant within the tribe domains, and the old informants from other tribes living in Saudi Arabia used it as well. This is also seen with regard to the /ʤ/ sound.  The /ʤ/ is used also in relatively high percentage in the speech of the old in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. This shows that belonging to the Bedouin group per se, is what matters in determining the sound used regardless of the region to which one belongs. Unlike the rural people who might use the different alternates of the (Q variable depending on the region to which they belong, for example, [k] is used in some parts of Palestine while [q] is used in other parts like Tirat Haifa village in the northern part of Palestine. Bedouins are consistent in using the [g] variant or the /ʤ/ of the (Q variable regardless of the area where they live. In other words, the two sounds appear in the dialects of the Bedouins whether they live in Jordan or Saudi Arabia.  This raises the possibility that their sharing the same culture (being Bedouins leads to their sharing these linguistic features. Part of their culture is belonging to their tribes as they are traditionally divided into tribes. The dialect of the tribe remains important where ever they are. Keywords. Linguistic variation, variant

  6. Linguistic approaches to the study of Persian Literature

    محمد امین ناصح

    2010-01-01

    Since the start of the last century, along with those literary men who took a literary approach to the study of literary texts, there has been another group who has taken a linguistic approach. The ancient and ever flourishing tradition of literary studies of translation can no doubt take benefit from linguistic methods and tools in the investigations of literary texts. As a result of this we come across linguistic terms in three high school textbooks of Persian language and literature. In f...

  7. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia.

    Hunley, Keith; Dunn, Michael; Lindström, Eva; Reesink, Ger; Terrill, Angela; Healy, Meghan E; Koki, George; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Friedlaender, Jonathan S

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain). There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast, global patterns may

  8. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia.

    Keith Hunley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain. There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast

  9. Aspects of conversational style—linguistic versus behavioral analysis

    Hall, Genae A.

    1992-01-01

    Skinner's functional analysis of verbal behavior has been contrasted with formal linguistic analysis which studies the grammatical structure and “meaning” of verbal response-products, regardless of the circumstances under which they are produced. Nevertheless, it appears that certain areas of linguistic analysis are not entirely structural. In her recent books That's Not What I Meant (1986) and You Just Don't Understand (1990), the linguist Deborah Tannen purports to explain how people exhibi...

  10. A responsible agenda for applied linguistics: Confessions of a philosopher

    Albert Weideman

    2011-01-01

    When we undertake academic, disciplinary work, we rely on philosophical starting points. Several straightforward illustrations of this can be found in the history of applied linguistics. It is evident from the history of our field that various historically influential approaches to our discipline base themselves upon different academic confessions. This paper examines the effects of basing our applied linguistic work on the idea that applied linguistics is a discipline concerned with design. ...

  11. A departure from cognitivism: Implications of Chomsky's second revolution in linguistics

    Schoneberger, Ted

    2000-01-01

    In 1957 Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, expressing views characterized as constituting a “revolution” in linguistics. Chomsky proposed that the proper subject matter of linguistics is not the utterances of speakers, but what speakers and listeners know. To that end, he theorized that what they know is a system of rules that underlie actual performance. This theory became known as transformational grammar. In subsequent versions of this theory, rules continued to play a dominant role. However, in 1980 Chomsky began a second revolution by proposing the elimination of rules in a new theory: the principles-and-parameters approach. Subsequent writings finalized the abandonment of rules. Given the centrality of rules to cognitivism, this paper argues that Chomsky's second revolution constitutes a departure from cognitivism. PMID:22477214

  12. A departure from cognitivism: Implications of Chomsky's second revolution in linguistics.

    Schoneberger, T

    2000-01-01

    In 1957 Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, expressing views characterized as constituting a "revolution" in linguistics. Chomsky proposed that the proper subject matter of linguistics is not the utterances of speakers, but what speakers and listeners know. To that end, he theorized that what they know is a system of rules that underlie actual performance. This theory became known as transformational grammar. In subsequent versions of this theory, rules continued to play a dominant role. However, in 1980 Chomsky began a second revolution by proposing the elimination of rules in a new theory: the principles-and-parameters approach. Subsequent writings finalized the abandonment of rules. Given the centrality of rules to cognitivism, this paper argues that Chomsky's second revolution constitutes a departure from cognitivism.

  13. Psychological and Linguistic Portrait of Criminals. Introduction to Discussion

    Jadwiga Stawnicka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns one aspect of forensic linguistics, which concerns determination by the challenged statements. This is done in collaboration with linguist – creating a profile linguistic songwriter – and a psychologist – that creates a psychological profile. The cooperation of specialists can be used at the level of assessment, which is used for the purposes of investigation and legal proceedings. Expertise in the field of forensic linguistics (forensic linguistics, German. Forensische Linguistik include setting by/performance of speech based on the content of spoken or written (eg. The farewell letters, threatening letters, ransom demands; the possibility of setting texts by anonymous on the Internet, to determine the characteristics of linguistic stalkers and cyberstalkerów that can identify the sender of the message sender identification of the origin country, constructing linguistic profile anonymous author, the linguistic profile of the author of the well-known text. It should be added that the analysis of the content in content-language document contains emotional component, which is related to our knowledge about the determinants of language to express emotions, both negative and positive. An important element of the text is a matter of psychological portrait of the sender (author and / or performer of the text based on the identified linguistic features.

  14. An Analysis of Social Class Classification Based on Linguistic Variables

    QU Xia-sha

    2016-01-01

    Since language is an influential tool in social interaction, the relationship of speech and social factors, such as social class, gender, even age is worth studying. People employ different linguistic variables to imply their social class, status and iden-tity in the social interaction. Thus the linguistic variation involves vocabulary, sounds, grammatical constructions, dialects and so on. As a result, a classification of social class draws people’s attention. Linguistic variable in speech interactions indicate the social relationship between people. This paper attempts to illustrate three main linguistic variables which influence the social class, and further sociolinguistic studies need to be more concerned about.

  15. Genre Analysis in the Frame of Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Najih Imtihani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Functional Linguistics is a linguistics approach which cop-siders not only the structure of the language but also its social context. In the Systemic Functional Linguistics the concept of genre is defined as a step-by-step activity to reach the goal. The concept of genre is used to describe the cultural context in a language. According to this view, text should be seen and observed in its interaction with the context and social background. For that, the genre analysis will constantly involve the linguistic social context in the forms of field, tenor, mode, schematic structure and its realization in the text.

  16. Linguistic Theory in the Practical Lexicography of the African Languages

    Emmanuel Chabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this article, we look at the relationship between linguistics and lexicography. We specifically look at the relevance of data derived from theoretical linguistic investigations to the compilation of diction-aries in African languages. Our point of departure is that since it is language description that lies at the core of both lexicography and linguistic theory, lexicographers can improve their work by using insights from theoretically-guided linguistic investigations. Our view is that as long as lexicographers focus on words and their existence in the linguistic system, they cannot work effectively without referring to linguistic theory, consciously or unconsciously. Lexicography is not only concerned with dictionary creation, that is, with the collection of lexical units and their proper description in dictionary entries, but also with the theoretical aspects concerning the lexicon. It is necessary for dictionaries to capture all lexical interrelationships of a phonetic, morphological, syntactic or semantic nature. Drawing examples from a few dictionaries on African languages, we try to show how dictionary compilers have benefited from specific theoretical investigations in general linguistics. We look at how the different linguistic theories have contributed to the improvement in the quality of the contents of some dictionaries of African languages. Our conclusion is that there is a stronger bond between linguistic theory and lexicographic practice than is generally assumed. Ways must therefore be found to understand the various links between the two disciplines. There should be a deliberate move from mutual neglect to collaboration between the two disciplines.

  17. Online cancer communication: meeting the literacy, cultural and linguistic needs of diverse audiences.

    Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L

    2008-06-01

    This article provides an analysis of issues and empirical evidence related to literacy, cultural, and linguistic factors in online health and cancer communication, and recommendations to improve cancer communication for diverse audiences. We examined English-language online literature and selected books and policy documents related to literacy, cultural, and linguistic factors in health and cancer communication. Studies about literacy, cultural, and linguistic factors in online cancer communication for diverse audiences are limited, but have increased during the past 15 years. Empirical evidence and theoretical guidance describe the critical importance of these factors, significant unmet needs among low-literate, multicultural and non-English-speaking populations, and strategies to improve communication. Overall, online cancer communication has not met the literacy, cultural, and linguistic needs of diverse populations. The literature offers valuable recommendations about enhancing research, practice, and policy for better cancer communication. Practitioners should understand the strengths and weaknesses of online cancer communication for vulnerable groups, guide patients to better Websites, and supplement that information with oral and tailored communication.

  18. Loyalty and Disavowal in Holy Qur’an Descriptive linguistic study

    Iman Kanani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to clarify the meaning of loyalty and disavowal from linguistic point of view, between the views of linguists, and the exegetes in the Lexicons and exegeses with analysis and debate. First of all, the researcher Indicates definition of loyalty as stated in the dictionaries, with bringing the examples from the Holy Qur’an and the views of the commentators about this issue, then analysis and discussion. Second, he defines Disavowal in the language, with a point of view from linguists, and interpreters, by analyzing and discussion the examples from the Noble Qur’an. Finally, it illustrates the application of the legal and practical concept of loyalty and disavowal, to enhance the significance of language. The importance of the current study is- according to researcher’s information- due to its doctrinal and sociological matter and nobody precede such a linguistic study of Loyalty. This research approaches the issue, using the method of descriptive and analytical, based on the description and analysis of the phenomenon.

  19. REALIZATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMME ON THE BASIS OF LINGUISTIC DATABASE FOR AUTOMATIC TEXTS PROCESSING SYSTEM

    M. A. Makarych

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the constant increasing of electronic textual information, modern society needs for the automatic processing of natural language (NL. The main purpose of NL automatic text processing systems is to analyze and create texts and represent their content. The purpose of the paper is the development of linguistic and software bases of an automatic system for processing English publicistic texts. This article discusses the examples of different approaches to the creation of linguistic databases for processing systems. The author gives a detailed description of basic building blocks for a new linguistic processor: lexical-semantic, syntactical and semantic-syntactical. The main advantage of the processor is using special semantic codes in the alphabetical dictionary. The semantic codes have been developed in accordance with a lexical-semantic classification. It helps to precisely define semantic functions of the keywords that are situated in parsing groups and allows the automatic system to avoid typical mistakes. The author also represents the realization of a developed linguistic database in the form of a training computer program.

  20. Drawing as Social Play: Shared Meaning-Making in Young Children's Collective Drawing Activities

    Kukkonen, Tiina; Chang-Kredl, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    The ability to construct shared meaning with peers is important for young children's social and linguistic development. Previous studies have mainly focused on shared meaning-making within cooperative pretend play with little mention of other childhood activities that might promote intersubjectivity. This study investigated the group play that…