WorldWideScience

Sample records for linguistic context processing

  1. Applied Linguistics in Its Disciplinary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's current attempt to develop a process to evaluate the quality of research (Excellence in Research for Australia--ERA) places a central emphasis on the disciplinary organisation of academic work. This disciplinary focus poses particular problems for Applied Linguistics in Australia. This paper will examine Applied Linguistics in relation…

  2. Philippine linguistic policy in the global context

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Jiménez, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    The Philippines suffers an enduring linguistic problem that is not identified as such. Through the 20th century the goal has been to study a foreign language hoping for economical competitiveness in an Asian context. At present, this very context has revealed the fallacy of abandoning the education of the citizens in its own setting, if not pointed out the problem—Diglossia. By using an alien means of communication in the schools, the whole education has been alienated, and the result is a so...

  3. Genre and Literacy-Modeling Context in Educational Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James R.

    1992-01-01

    Complements review in previous volume concerning Australian literacy (in first- and second-language) initiatives that drew on systemic functional linguistics, highlights ongoing research within the same theoretical framework, and focuses on the question of modeling context in educational linguistics. The discussion includes modeling context as…

  4. Text Linguistics in the Context of the Communication Sciences

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    Silviu Serban

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to analyse the conditions of emerging of text linguistics, taking into consideration the rootsof the preoccupations in its domain, originated in the framework of the communication studies. Thus, the change ofthe perspective on communication, from the mechanistic transmission to interactivity and the exchange of themeanings, led to the pragmatic orientation of the linguistic researches, not just to the message itself, but also to theelements of the communicative act and to the context where the exchange of the meanings takes place. As a result,text linguistics defines the text as communicational occurrence, involving both the members of the communicationand the conditions of the production and the reception of the message, unlike conventional linguistics which studiesthe text in abstracto, just the message itself, ignoring the world that the text refers to, or the users of the message, thetransmitter and the receiver.

  5. Linguistic expressions and semantic processing a practical approach

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    Butler, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces formal semantics techniques for a natural language processing audience. Methods discussed involve: (i) the denotational techniques used in model-theoretic semantics, which make it possible to determine whether a linguistic expression is true or false with respect to some model of the way things happen to be; and (ii) stages of interpretation, i.e., ways to arrive at meanings by evaluating and converting source linguistic expressions, possibly with respect to contexts, into output (logical) forms that could be used with (i). The book demonstrates that the methods allow w

  6. Functional Grammar in the Context of Linguistic Applications in Turkish Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epcacan, Cahit

    2013-01-01

    In the last century, language researches adopted the scientific method and linguistics became an autonomous discipline. Linguistics is a framework concept that analyzes all languages in the world in various contexts according to its own rules and draws conclusions using the systematic approach. Functional linguistics is a linguistic trend that…

  7. When do we communicate stereotypes? Influence of the social context on the linguistic expectancy bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, DHJ; Spears, R; Semin, GR

    The linguistic expectancy bias (LEB) refers to the tendency to describe expectancy consistent information at a higher level of linguistic abstraction than expectancy inconsistent information. Two experiments examined the influence of the social communicative context on the production of this

  8. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    finding from research on sentence processing that sentences are processed incrementally. Empirical methods for establishing grammaticality status are discussed and applied in relation to non-WH extraction phenomena in Danish. In Chapter 2, I discuss the use of the notions of grammaticality......The dissertation presents a functional linguistic model of grammaticality and investigates methods for applying this notion in empirical work. The use of the notion of grammaticality in generative grammar has been criticized by functionalists (Harder, 1996; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999), but attempts...... grammaticality. It is concluded that the intuitions of linguists should in principle be considered hypotheses of grammaticality, and that such hypotheses need to be tested with independent data. Such data can for example take the form of corpus data or acceptability judgment experiments. It is furthermore argued...

  9. Neurological evidence linguistic processes precede perceptual simulation in conceptual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Max; Hutchinson, Sterling

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence from response time experiments that language statistics and perceptual simulations both play a role in conceptual processing. In an EEG experiment we compared neural activity in cortical regions commonly associated with linguistic processing and visual perceptual processing to determine to what extent symbolic and embodied accounts of cognition applied. Participants were asked to determine the semantic relationship of word pairs (e.g., sky - ground) or to determine their iconic relationship (i.e., if the presentation of the pair matched their expected physical relationship). A linguistic bias was found toward the semantic judgment task and a perceptual bias was found toward the iconicity judgment task. More importantly, conceptual processing involved activation in brain regions associated with both linguistic and perceptual processes. When comparing the relative activation of linguistic cortical regions with perceptual cortical regions, the effect sizes for linguistic cortical regions were larger than those for the perceptual cortical regions early in a trial with the reverse being true later in a trial. These results map upon findings from other experimental literature and provide further evidence that processing of concept words relies both on language statistics and on perceptual simulations, whereby linguistic processes precede perceptual simulation processes.

  10. Deep learning evaluation using deep linguistic processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnle, Alexander; Copestake, Ann

    2017-01-01

    We discuss problems with the standard approaches to evaluation for tasks like visual question answering, and argue that artificial data can be used to address these as a complement to current practice. We demonstrate that with the help of existing 'deep' linguistic processing technology we are able to create challenging abstract datasets, which enable us to investigate the language understanding abilities of multimodal deep learning models in detail, as compared to a single performance value ...

  11. Group prioritisation with unknown expert weights in incomplete linguistic context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dong; Cheng, Faxin; Zhou, Zhili; Wang, Juan

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study a group prioritisation problem in situations when the expert weights are completely unknown and their judgement preferences are linguistic and incomplete. Starting from the theory of relative entropy (RE) and multiplicative consistency, an optimisation model is provided for deriving an individual priority vector without estimating the missing value(s) of an incomplete linguistic preference relation. In order to address the unknown expert weights in the group aggregating process, we define two new kinds of expert weight indicators based on RE: proximity entropy weight and similarity entropy weight. Furthermore, a dynamic-adjusting algorithm (DAA) is proposed to obtain an objective expert weight vector and capture the dynamic properties involved in it. Unlike the extant literature of group prioritisation, the proposed RE approach does not require pre-allocation of expert weights and can solve incomplete preference relations. An interesting finding is that once all the experts express their preference relations, the final expert weight vector derived from the DAA is fixed irrespective of the initial settings of expert weights. Finally, an application example is conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the RE approach.

  12. The Linguistic and Embodied Nature of Conceptual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Max M.; Jeuniaux, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Recent theories of cognition have argued that embodied experience is important for conceptual processing. Embodiment can be contrasted with linguistic factors such as the typical order in which words appear in language. Here, we report four experiments that investigated the conditions under which embodiment and linguistic factors determine…

  13. Gender stereotypes and linguistic sexism present in books in educational context for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Finco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, since the 1970s, there has been a significant debate on the studies on linguistic sexism that have contributed to the problematization of the presence of gender stereotypes in children's literature. This article presents a historical reconstruction of the debate developed in Italy in the last forty years. The debate showed the importance of problematizing the patterns of identity and behavior transmitted through reading in educational contexts for children. This context also led to the drafting of the Polite Project, which invites editors to be respectful with gender differences, both text and images. It presents important research on the problem of the presence of stereotyped messages of gender present in books for children and the changes that have occurred throughout this process.

  14. Dissociating linguistic and non-linguistic gesture processing: electrophysiological evidence from American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvald, Michael; Gutierrez, Eva; Hafer, Sarah; Corina, David

    2012-04-01

    A fundamental advance in our understanding of human language would come from a detailed account of how non-linguistic and linguistic manual actions are differentiated in real time by language users. To explore this issue, we targeted the N400, an ERP component known to be sensitive to semantic context. Deaf signers saw 120 American Sign Language sentences, each consisting of a "frame" (a sentence without the last word; e.g. BOY SLEEP IN HIS) followed by a "last item" belonging to one of four categories: a high-close-probability sign (a "semantically reasonable" completion to the sentence; e.g. BED), a low-close-probability sign (a real sign that is nonetheless a "semantically odd" completion to the sentence; e.g. LEMON), a pseudo-sign (phonologically legal but non-lexical form), or a non-linguistic grooming gesture (e.g. the performer scratching her face). We found significant N400-like responses in the incongruent and pseudo-sign contexts, while the gestures elicited a large positivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Curriculum-Based Language Assessment With Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in the Context of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L; Johnson, Valerie E

    2018-04-05

    The purpose of this tutorial is to discuss the use of curriculum-based language assessment (CBLA) with students who are English language learners and students who speak nonmainstream varieties of English, such as African American English. The article begins with a discussion of the discourse of mathematics and the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP), followed by a review of studies that includes those that examined the performance of English language learner and nonmainstream dialect-speaking students on word-based math items. The literature review highlights the linguistic and content biases associated with word-based math problems. Useful strategies that SLPs and educators can incorporate in culturally and linguistically appropriate assessments are discussed. The tutorial ends with a discussion of CBLA as a viable assessment approach to use with culturally and linguistically diverse students. Tests used at national, state, and school levels to assess students' math abilities have associated linguistic bias and content bias often leading to an inaccurate depiction of culturally and linguistically diverse students' math skills. CBLA as an assessment method can be used by school-based SLPs to gather valid and useful information about culturally and linguistically diverse students' language for learning math. By using CBLA, SLPs can help modify curricular tasks in broader contexts in an effort to make math, including high-level math, "accessible and achievable for all" students (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2017).

  16. N400 Response Indexes Word Learning from Linguistic Context in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Alyson D.; Schneider, Julie; Maguire, Mandy J

    2018-01-01

    Word learning from linguistic context is essential for vocabulary growth from grade school onward; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying successful word learning in children. Current methods for studying word learning development require children to identify the meaning of the word after each exposure, a method that interacts…

  17. Learning to Teach Elementary Science through Iterative Cycles of Enactment in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, SueAnn I.; Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.; Hartman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Iterative cycles of enactment embedded in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts provide rich opportunities for preservice teachers (PSTs) to enact core practices of science. This study is situated in the larger Families Involved in Sociocultural Teaching and Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (FIESTAS) project, which weaves…

  18. Developmental trends in the interaction between auditory and linguistic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, S; Pirozzolo, F; Jerger, J; Elizondo, R; Desai, S; Wright, E; Reynosa, R

    1993-09-01

    The developmental course of multidimensional speech processing was examined in 80 children between 3 and 6 years of age and in 60 adults between 20 and 86 years of age. Processing interactions were assessed with a speeded classification task (Garner, 1974a), which required the subjects to attend selectively to the voice dimension while ignoring the linguistic dimension, and vice versa. The children and adults exhibited both similarities and differences in the patterns of processing dependencies. For all ages, performance for each dimension was slower in the presence of variation in the irrelevant dimension; irrelevant variation in the voice dimension disrupted performance more than irrelevant variation in the linguistic dimension. Trends in the degree of interference, on the other hand, showed significant differences between dimensions as a function of age. Whereas the degree of interference for the voice-dimension-relevant did not show significant age-related change, the degree of interference for the word-dimension-relevant declined significantly with age in a linear as well as a quadratic manner. A major age-related change in the relation between dimensions was that word processing, relative to voice-gender processing, required significantly more time in the children than in the adults. Overall, the developmental course characterizing multidimensional speech processing evidenced more pronounced change when the linguistic dimension, rather than the voice dimension, was relevant.

  19. Processing and Linguistics Properties of Adaptable Systems

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    Dumitru TODOROI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuation and development of the research in Adaptable Programming Initialization [Tod-05.1,2,3] is presented. As continuation of [Tod-05.2,3] in this paper metalinguistic tools used in the process of introduction of new constructions (data, operations, instructions and controls are developed. The generalization schemes of evaluation of adaptable languages and systems are discussed. These results analogically with [Tod-05.2,3] are obtained by the team, composed from the researchers D. Todoroi [Tod-05.4], Z. Todoroi [ZTod-05], and D. Micusa [Mic-03]. Presented results will be included in the book [Tod-06].

  20. Linguistic Processing of Accented Speech Across the Lifespan

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    Alejandrina eCristia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In most of the world, people have regular exposure to multiple accents. Therefore, learning to quickly process accented speech is a prerequisite to successful communication. In this paper, we examine work on the perception of accented speech across the lifespan, from early infancy to late adulthood. Unfamiliar accents initially impair linguistic processing by infants, children, younger adults, and older adults, but listeners of all ages come to adapt to accented speech. Emergent research also goes beyond these perceptual abilities, by assessing links with production and the relative contributions of linguistic knowledge and general cognitive skills. We conclude by underlining points of convergence across ages, and the gaps left to face in future work.

  1. Cyclic Processing for Context Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Many machine-learning techniques use feedback information. However, current context fusion systems do not support this because they constrain processing to be structured as acyclic processing. This paper proposes a generalization which enables the use of cyclic processing in context fusion systems....... A solution is proposed to the inherent problem of how to avoid uncontrollable looping during cyclic processing. The solution is based on finding cycles using graph-coloring and breaking cycles using time constraints....

  2. Linguistic Context Versus Semantic Competition in Word Recognition by Younger and Older Adults With Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichetti, Nicole M; Atagi, Eriko; Kong, Ying-Yee; Wingfield, Arthur

    The increasing numbers of older adults now receiving cochlear implants raises the question of how the novel signal produced by cochlear implants may interact with cognitive aging in the recognition of words heard spoken within a linguistic context. The objective of this study was to pit the facilitative effects of a constraining linguistic context against a potential age-sensitive negative effect of response competition on effectiveness of word recognition. Younger (n = 8; mean age = 22.5 years) and older (n = 8; mean age = 67.5 years) adult implant recipients heard 20 target words as the final words in sentences that manipulated the target word's probability of occurrence within the sentence context. Data from published norms were also used to measure response entropy, calculated as the total number of different responses and the probability distribution of the responses suggested by the sentence context. Sentence-final words were presented to participants using a word-onset gating paradigm, in which a target word was presented with increasing amounts of its onset duration in 50 msec increments until the word was correctly identified. Results showed that for both younger and older adult implant users, the amount of word-onset information needed for correct recognition of sentence-final words was inversely proportional to their likelihood of occurrence within the sentence context, with older adults gaining differential advantage from the contextual constraints offered by a sentence context. On the negative side, older adults' word recognition was differentially hampered by high response entropy, with this effect being driven primarily by the number of competing responses that might also fit the sentence context. Consistent with previous research with normal-hearing younger and older adults, the present results showed older adult implant users' recognition of spoken words to be highly sensitive to linguistic context. This sensitivity, however, also resulted in a

  3. Dynamic Neural Processing of Linguistic Cues Related to Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Qin, Jungang; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that humans evolve the capacity to cope with anxiety induced by the awareness of death’s inevitability. However, the neurocognitive processes that underlie online death-related thoughts remain unclear. Our recent functional MRI study found that the processing of linguistic cues related to death was characterized by decreased neural activity in human insular cortex. The current study further investigated the time course of neural processing of death-related linguistic cues. We recorded event-related potentials (ERP) to death-related, life-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words in a modified Stroop task that required color naming of words. We found that the amplitude of an early frontal/central negativity at 84–120 ms (N1) decreased to death-related words but increased to life-related words relative to neutral-valence words. The N1 effect associated with death-related and life-related words was correlated respectively with individuals’ pessimistic and optimistic attitudes toward life. Death-related words also increased the amplitude of a frontal/central positivity at 124–300 ms (P2) and of a frontal/central positivity at 300–500 ms (P3). However, the P2 and P3 modulations were observed for both death-related and negative-valence words but not for life-related words. The ERP results suggest an early inverse coding of linguistic cues related to life and death, which is followed by negative emotional responses to death-related information. PMID:23840787

  4. Social movements as emotional contexts: the emotional drive in the Basque linguistic movement

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    Ane Larrinaga Renteria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on some of the functions that the emotions perform in constructing and maintaining the collective action of social movements in the long term. Based on a case study, we applied the conceptual instrument known as “Frame Analysis” to the successive discursive frames produced by the linguistic movement of the Basque Country between the 1980s and the first decade of 2000. With the aid of qualitative techniques, consisting in in-depth interviews conducted with qualified activists of the movement and an analysis of documents it produced, we identified the emotional contexts associated with the discourses and meanings generated by the movement at different times. Activation of the emotional components aided both the movement’s internal solidarity and external adhesion and, in short, favored the long-term sustainability of an increasingly institutionalized and professionalized movement.

  5. Using templates and linguistic patterns to define process performance indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Río-Ortega, Adela; Resinas, Manuel; Durán, Amador; Ruiz-Cortés, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Process performance management (PPM) aims at measuring, monitoring and analysing the performance of business processes (BPs), in order to check the achievement of strategic and operational goals and to support decision-making for their optimisation. PPM is based on process performance indicators (PPIs), so having an appropriate definition of them is crucial. One of the main problems of PPIs definition is to express them in an unambiguous, complete, understandable, traceable and verifiable manner. In practice, PPIs are defined informally - usually in ad hoc, natural language, with its well-known problems - or they are defined from an implementation perspective, hardly understandable to non-technical people. In order to solve this problem, in this article we propose a novel approach to improve the definition of PPIs using templates and linguistic patterns. This approach promotes reuse, reduces both ambiguities and missing information, is understandable to all stakeholders and maintains traceability with the process model. Furthermore, it enables the automated processing of PPI definitions by its straightforward translation into the PPINOT metamodel, allowing the gathering of the required information for their computation as well as the analysis of the relationships between them and with BP elements.

  6. The role of linguistic experience in the processing of probabilistic information in production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Erin; Goldrick, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Speakers track the probability that a word will occur in a particular context and utilize this information during phonetic processing. For example, content words that have high probability within a discourse tend to be realized with reduced acoustic/articulatory properties. Such probabilistic information may influence L1 and L2 speech processing in distinct ways (reflecting differences in linguistic experience across groups and the overall difficulty of L2 speech processing). To examine this issue, L1 and L2 speakers performed a referential communication task, describing sequences of simple actions. The two groups of speakers showed similar effects of discourse-dependent probabilistic information on production, suggesting that L2 speakers can successfully track discourse-dependent probabilities and use such information to modulate phonetic processing.

  7. Neurocognitive processes of linguistic cues related to death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Qin, Jungang; Ma, Yina

    2010-10-01

    Consciousness of the finiteness of one's personal existence influences human thoughts and behaviors tremendously. However, the neural substrates underlying the processing of death-related information remain unclear. The current study addressed this issue by scanning 20 female adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, in a modified Stroop task that required naming colors of death-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words. We found that, while both death-related and negative-valence words increased activity in the precuneus/posterior cingulate and lateral frontal cortex relative to neutral-valence words, the neural correlate of the processing of death-related words was characterized by decreased activity in bilateral insula relative to both negative-valence and neutral-valence words. Moreover, the decreased activity in the left insula correlated with subjective ratings of death relevance of death-related words and the decreased activity in the right insula correlated with subjective ratings of arousal induced by death-related words. Our fMRI findings suggest that, while both death-related and negative-valence words are associated with enhanced arousal and emotion regulation, the processing of linguistic cues related to death is associated with modulations of the activity in the insula that mediates neural representation of the sentient self. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of Linguistic Context on Word Recognition in Noise by Elderly Listeners Using Spanish Sentence Lists (SSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Teresa; Rosell, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the linguistic context on the recognition of words in noise in older listeners using the Spanish Sentence Lists. These sentences were developed based on the approach of the SPIN test for the English language, which contains high and low predictability (HP and LP) sentences. In addition, the relative contribution…

  9. Combining shallow and deep processing for a robust, fast, deep-linguistic dependency parser

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, G

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes Pro3Gres, a fast, robust, broad-coverage parser that delivers deep-linguistic grammatical relation structures as output, which are closer to predicate-argument structures and more informative than pure constituency structures. The parser stays as shallow as is possible for each task, combining shallow and deep-linguistic methods by integrating chunking and by expressing the majority of long-distance dependencies in a context-free way. It combines statistical and rule-base...

  10. Flexible and fast: linguistic shortcut affects both shallow and deep conceptual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise; Lynott, Dermot

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that people use linguistic distributional information during conceptual processing, and that it is especially useful for shallow tasks and rapid responding. Using two conceptual combination tasks, we showed that this linguistic shortcut extends to the processing of novel stimuli, is used in both successful and unsuccessful conceptual processing, and is evident in both shallow and deep conceptual tasks. Specifically, as predicted by the ECCo theory of conceptual combination, people use the linguistic shortcut as a "quick-and-dirty" guide to whether the concepts are likely to combine into a coherent conceptual representation, in both shallow sensibility judgment and deep interpretation generation tasks. Linguistic distributional frequency predicts both the likelihood and the time course of rejecting a novel word compound as nonsensical or uninterpretable. However, it predicts the time course of successful processing only in shallow sensibility judgment, because the deeper conceptual process of interpretation generation does not allow the linguistic shortcut to suffice. Furthermore, the effects of linguistic distributional frequency are independent of any effects of conventional word frequency. We discuss the utility of the linguistic shortcut as a cognitive triage mechanism that can optimize processing in a limited-resource conceptual system.

  11. Symbol Grounding Without Direct Experience: Do Words Inherit Sensorimotor Activation From Purely Linguistic Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Fritz; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-05-01

    Theories of embodied cognition assume that concepts are grounded in non-linguistic, sensorimotor experience. In support of this assumption, previous studies have shown that upwards response movements are faster than downwards movements after participants have been presented with words whose referents are typically located in the upper vertical space (and vice versa for downwards responses). This is taken as evidence that processing these words reactivates sensorimotor experiential traces. This congruency effect was also found for novel words, after participants learned these words as labels for novel objects that they encountered either in their upper or lower visual field. While this indicates that direct experience with a word's referent is sufficient to evoke said congruency effects, the present study investigates whether this direct experience is also a necessary condition. To this end, we conducted five experiments in which participants learned novel words from purely linguistic input: Novel words were presented in pairs with real up- or down-words (Experiment 1); they were presented in natural sentences where they replaced these real words (Experiment 2); they were presented as new labels for these real words (Experiment 3); and they were presented as labels for novel combined concepts based on these real words (Experiment 4 and 5). In all five experiments, we did not find any congruency effects elicited by the novel words; however, participants were always able to make correct explicit judgements about the vertical dimension associated to the novel words. These results suggest that direct experience is necessary for reactivating experiential traces, but this reactivation is not a necessary condition for understanding (in the sense of storing and accessing) the corresponding aspects of word meaning. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. PROBLEMS OF MASTERING LATVIAN AS A SECOND LANGUAGE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Lazdiņa, Sanita

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to illuminate the interpretation of the term „Applied Linguistics” in Latvia and abroad (in Western Europe, the USA and Russia), and thereby identifying possibilities and grounds for the research of Latvian as a second language in the context of the development of applied linguistics in Latvia. Apart from theoretical literature, the author also uses data from observations of classroom discussions, which were obtained in three secondary schools and one elementary ...

  13. Combination Across Domains: An MEG Investigation into the Relationship between Mathematical, Pictorial, and Linguistic Processing

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    Bemis, Douglas K.; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2013-01-01

    Debates surrounding the evolution of language often hinge upon its relationship to cognition more generally and many investigations have attempted to demark the boundary between the two. Though results from these studies suggest that language may recruit domain-general mechanisms during certain types of complex processing, the domain-generality of basic combinatorial mechanisms that lie at the core of linguistic processing is still unknown. Our previous work (Bemis and Pylkkänen, 2011, 2012) used magnetoencephalography to isolate neural activity associated with the simple composition of an adjective and a noun (“red boat”) and found increased activity during this processing localized to the left anterior temporal lobe (lATL), ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and left angular gyrus (lAG). The present study explores the domain-generality of these effects and their associated combinatorial mechanisms through two parallel non-linguistic combinatorial tasks designed to be as minimal and natural as the linguistic paradigm. In the first task, we used pictures of colored shapes to elicit combinatorial conceptual processing similar to that evoked by the linguistic expressions and find increased activity again localized to the vmPFC during combinatorial processing. This result suggests that a domain-general semantic combinatorial mechanism operates during basic linguistic composition, and that activity generated by its processing localizes to the vmPFC. In the second task, we recorded neural activity as subjects performed simple addition between two small numerals. Consistent with a wide array of recent results, we find no effects related to basic addition that coincide with our linguistic effects and instead find increased activity localized to the intraparietal sulcus. This result suggests that the scope of the previously identified linguistic effects is restricted to compositional operations and does not extend generally to all tasks that are merely similar

  14. Context predicts word order processing in Broca's region.

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    Kristensen, Line Burholt; Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Wallentin, Mikkel

    2014-12-01

    The function of the left inferior frontal gyrus (L-IFG) is highly disputed. A number of language processing studies have linked the region to the processing of syntactical structure. Still, there is little agreement when it comes to defining why linguistic structures differ in their effects on the L-IFG. In a number of languages, the processing of object-initial sentences affects the L-IFG more than the processing of subject-initial ones, but frequency and distribution differences may act as confounding variables. Syntactically complex structures (like the object-initial construction in Danish) are often less frequent and only viable in certain contexts. With this confound in mind, the L-IFG activation may be sensitive to other variables than a syntax manipulation on its own. The present fMRI study investigates the effect of a pragmatically appropriate context on the processing of subject-initial and object-initial clauses with the IFG as our ROI. We find that Danish object-initial clauses yield a higher BOLD response in L-IFG, but we also find an interaction between appropriateness of context and word order. This interaction overlaps with traditional syntax areas in the IFG. For object-initial clauses, the effect of an appropriate context is bigger than for subject-initial clauses. This result is supported by an acceptability study that shows that, given appropriate contexts, object-initial clauses are considered more appropriate than subject-initial clauses. The increased L-IFG activation for processing object-initial clauses without a supportive context may be interpreted as reflecting either reinterpretation or the recipients' failure to correctly predict word order from contextual cues.

  15. Early print-tuned ERP response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in Japanese Hiragana strings.

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    Okumura, Yasuko; Kasai, Tetsuko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2014-04-16

    The act of reading leads to the development of specific neural responses for print, the most frequently reported of which is the left occipitotemporal N170 component of event-related potentials. However, it remains unclear whether this electrophysiological response solely involves print-tuned neural activities. The present study examined an early print-tuned event-related potential response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in a nonalphabetic language. Japanese Hiragana words, nonwords, and alphanumeric symbol strings were presented rapidly and the task was to detect the change in color of a fixation cross to restrict linguistic processing. As a result, Hiragana words and nonwords elicited a larger posterior N1 than alphanumeric symbol strings bilaterally, irrespective of intercharacter spacing. The fact that this N1 was enhanced specifically for rapidly presented Hiragana strings suggests the existence of print-tuned neural processes that are relatively independent of the influence of linguistic processing.

  16. Use of Context in Video Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen; Aghajan, Hamid

    Interpreting an event or a scene based on visual data often requires additional contextual information. Contextual information may be obtained from different sources. In this chapter, we discuss two broad categories of contextual sources: environmental context and user-centric context. Environmental context refers to information derived from domain knowledge or from concurrently sensed effects in the area of operation. User-centric context refers to information obtained and accumulated from the user. Both types of context can include static or dynamic contextual elements. Examples from a smart home environment are presented to illustrate how different types of contextual data can be applied to aid the decision-making process.

  17. Full-fledged temporal processing: bridging the gap between deep linguistic processing and temporal extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The full-fledged processing of temporal information presents specific challenges. These difficulties largely stem from the fact that the temporal meaning conveyed by grammatical means interacts with many extra-linguistic factors (world knowledge, causality, calendar systems, reasoning. This article proposes a novel approach to this problem, based on a hybrid strategy that explores the complementarity of the symbolic and probabilistic methods. A specialized temporal extraction system is combined with a deep linguistic processing grammar. The temporal extraction system extracts eventualities, times and dates mentioned in text, and also temporal relations between them, in line with the tasks of the recent TempEval challenges; and uses machine learning techniques to draw from different sources of information (grammatical and extra-grammatical even if it is not explicitly known how these combine to produce the final temporal meaning being expressed. In turn, the deep computational grammar delivers richer truth-conditional meaning representations of input sentences, which include a principled representation of temporal information, on which higher level tasks, including reasoning, can be based. These deep semantic representations are extended and improved according to the output of the aforementioned temporal extraction module. The prototype implemented shows performance results that increase the quality of the temporal meaning representations and are better than the performance of each of the two components in isolation.

  18. THE PROGRAMMING NEURO-LINGUISTICS AND THEIR APPLICABILITY IN THE PROCESS OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Álamo Sánchez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available He/she is carried out a study referred to tools of Programming Neuro-linguistics (PNL for the Selection, Employment and Training that allow choosing the appropriate personnel taking the language and the behavior as a result. For their development theories were revised referred to the PNL and the recruitment process and selection sustained in the process of the interview. The summations are oriented to the importance and convenience for the Management of Human resources of applying the Programming Neuro-linguistics as selection tool of personal. Finally it is recommended to apply the proposal inside the mark of adaptability according to the necessities and demands of each organization.

  19. Fuzzy linguistic hedges for the selection of manufacturing process for prosthetic sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Pandey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparison is presented between two prime methods of producing prosthetic sockets by using the fuzzy linguistic hedges approach on the qualitative feedback of Indian prosthetic users. Recent trends indicate that the Indian manufacturers have tried to adopt the newer technologies like reverse engineering (RE approach to achieve the desired goals. However, the satisfaction of the user is of utmost importance for the unique and customized products for rehabilitation. In order to analyze the effectiveness of the manufacturing approaches, user case studies are taken, based on the linguistic feedbacks, and a comparative study is conducted. Thirteen users from four different manufacturing units are taken for study and sockets made by conventional as well as RE are experimented. Fuzzy membership functions are constructed using the linguistic hedges based on the user feedbacks. An analytical hierarchy process (AHP is applied to arrive at a decision to select the manufacturing process for user satisfaction and manufacturing excellence.

  20. The development of determiners in the context of French-English bilingualism: a study of cross-linguistic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Coralie; Serratrice, Ludovica

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results of a study examining the role of structural overlap, language exposure, and language use on cross-linguistic influence (CLI) in bilingual first language acquisition. We focus on the longitudinal development of determiners in a corpus of two French-English children between the ages of 2;4 and 3;7. The results display bi-directional CLI in the rate of development, i.e., accelerated development in English and a minor delay in French. Unidirectional CLI from English to French was instead observed in the significantly higher rate of ungrammatical determiner omissions in plural and generic contexts than in singular specific contexts in French. These findings suggest that other language-internal mechanisms may be at play. They also lend support to the role of expressive abilities on the magnitude of this phenomenon.

  1. Relationships among Linguistic Processing Speed, Phonological Working Memory, and Attention in Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie D.; Wagovich, Stacy A.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively recently, experimental studies of linguistic processing speed in children who stutter (CWS) have emerged, some of which suggest differences in performance among CWS compared to children who do not stutter (CWNS). What is not yet well understood is the extent to which underlying cognitive skills may impact performance on timed tasks of…

  2. Auditory Processing, Linguistic Prosody Awareness, and Word Reading in Mandarin-Speaking Children Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Bidelman, Gavin M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined language-specific links among auditory processing, linguistic prosody awareness, and Mandarin (L1) and English (L2) word reading in 61 Mandarin-speaking, English-learning children. Three auditory discrimination abilities were measured: pitch contour, pitch interval, and rise time (rate of intensity change at tone onset).…

  3. REALIZATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMME ON THE BASIS OF LINGUISTIC DATABASE FOR AUTOMATIC TEXTS PROCESSING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Makarych

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the constant increasing of electronic textual information, modern society needs for the automatic processing of natural language (NL. The main purpose of NL automatic text processing systems is to analyze and create texts and represent their content. The purpose of the paper is the development of linguistic and software bases of an automatic system for processing English publicistic texts. This article discusses the examples of different approaches to the creation of linguistic databases for processing systems. The author gives a detailed description of basic building blocks for a new linguistic processor: lexical-semantic, syntactical and semantic-syntactical. The main advantage of the processor is using special semantic codes in the alphabetical dictionary. The semantic codes have been developed in accordance with a lexical-semantic classification. It helps to precisely define semantic functions of the keywords that are situated in parsing groups and allows the automatic system to avoid typical mistakes. The author also represents the realization of a developed linguistic database in the form of a training computer program.

  4. Using Templates and Linguistic Patterns to Define Process Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Río Ortega, Adela del; Resinas Arias de Reyna, Manuel; Durán Toro, Amador; Ruiz Cortés, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Process performance management (PPM) aims at measuring, monitoring and analysing the performance of business processes (BPs), in order to check the achievement of strategic and operational goals and to support decision making for their optimisation. PPM is based on process performance indicators (PPIs), so having an appropriate definition of them is crucial. One of the main problems of PPIs definition is to express them in an unambiguous, complete, understandable, traceable ...

  5. Unravelling the influence of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on cognitive-linguistic processing: a comparative group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Caroline H S; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive-linguistic deficits often accompany traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can negatively impact communicative competency. The linguistic sequelae underpinning mild TBI (MTBI) remain largely unexplored in contemporary literature. The present research methods aim to provide group evidence pertaining to the influence of MTBI on linguistic and higher-level language processing. Extrapolating on the findings of recent case reports, it is hypothesized that performance of the MTBI patients will be significantly reduced compared to normal controls performance on the employed high-level linguistic tasks. Sixteen patients with MTBI and 16 age- and education-matched normal control participants were assessed using a comprehensive battery of cognitive-linguistic assessments. The results demonstrated statistically significant differences between MTBI and normal control group performance across a number of higher-level linguistic, general cognitive and general language tasks. MTBI group performance was significantly lower than the normal control group on tasks requiring complex lexical semantic operations and memory demands, including: Recall, organization, making inferences, naming and perception/discrimination. These outcomes confer that post-MTBI, cognitive, high-level language and isolated general language performance (e.g. naming) is significantly reduced in MTBI patients, compared to normal controls. Furthermore, the detailed cognitive-linguistic profile offered provides a necessary direction for the identification of areas of linguistic decline in MTBI and targets for therapeutic intervention of impaired cognitive-linguistic processes to ultimately improve communicative outcomes in MTBI.

  6. Good-enough linguistic representations and online cognitive equilibrium in language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hossein; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    We review previous research showing that representations formed during language processing are sometimes just "good enough" for the task at hand and propose the "online cognitive equilibrium" hypothesis as the driving force behind the formation of good-enough representations in language processing. Based on this view, we assume that the language comprehension system by default prefers to achieve as early as possible and remain as long as possible in a state of cognitive equilibrium where linguistic representations are successfully incorporated with existing knowledge structures (i.e., schemata) so that a meaningful and coherent overall representation is formed, and uncertainty is resolved or at least minimized. We also argue that the online equilibrium hypothesis is consistent with current theories of language processing, which maintain that linguistic representations are formed through a complex interplay between simple heuristics and deep syntactic algorithms and also theories that hold that linguistic representations are often incomplete and lacking in detail. We also propose a model of language processing that makes use of both heuristic and algorithmic processing, is sensitive to online cognitive equilibrium, and, we argue, is capable of explaining the formation of underspecified representations. We review previous findings providing evidence for underspecification in relation to this hypothesis and the associated language processing model and argue that most of these findings are compatible with them.

  7. Selective processing of linguistic and pictorial food stimuli in females with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormark, Kjell Morten; Torkildsen, Øivind

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated subjects with eating disorders' selective attention to linguistic and pictorial representations of food stimuli in a version of the Stroop color-naming task. If subjects with eating disorders' attention really are biased by food stimuli, one would expect equally delayed color-naming latencies to food pictures as previous studies have found to food words. Twenty females with eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or a combination of both) and 24 female controls identified the color of Stroop versions of linguistic and pictorial representations of color, food, emotional, and neutral stimuli. The eating disorder group was slower than the controls in identifying the color of all words (including the food words) and the pictures depicting food stimuli (but not any of the other pictures). The eating disorder group was also slower in identifying the color of both food and emotional than neutral stimuli, both for the linguistic and pictorial stimuli. These findings indicate that females with bulimia and anorexia nervosa's biased attention to food stimuli are not restricted to linguistic representations. The delayed responses to the emotional words and pictures suggest that processing of negative emotional stimuli, in addition to dysfunctional concerns about stimuli related to food and eating, is important in the maintenance of eating disorders.

  8. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    -hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made...... perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required......, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may...

  9. Typing pictures: Linguistic processing cascades into finger movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaltritti, Michele; Arfé, Barbara; Torrance, Mark; Peressotti, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigated the effect of psycholinguistic variables on measures of response latency and mean interkeystroke interval in a typewritten picture naming task, with the aim to outline the functional organization of the stages of cognitive processing and response execution associated with typewritten word production. Onset latencies were modulated by lexical and semantic variables traditionally linked to lexical retrieval, such as word frequency, age of acquisition, and naming agreement. Orthographic variables, both at the lexical and sublexical level, appear to influence just within-word interkeystroke intervals, suggesting that orthographic information may play a relevant role in controlling actual response execution. Lexical-semantic variables also influenced speed of execution. This points towards cascaded flow of activation between stages of lexical access and response execution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Behr, Michael K; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2011-09-27

    Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain regions. For the critical case of language, conflicting answers arise from the neuropsychological literature, which features striking dissociations between deficits in linguistic and nonlinguistic abilities, vs. the neuroimaging literature, which has argued for overlap between activations for linguistic and nonlinguistic processes, including arithmetic, domain general abilities like cognitive control, and music. Here, we use functional MRI to define classic language regions functionally in each subject individually and then examine the response of these regions to the nonlinguistic functions most commonly argued to engage these regions: arithmetic, working memory, cognitive control, and music. We find little or no response in language regions to these nonlinguistic functions. These data support a clear distinction between language and other cognitive processes, resolving the prior conflict between the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literatures.

  11. Of Mother Tongues and Other Tongues: The Stakes of Linguistically Inclusive Pedagogy in Minority Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa K.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses two key challenges that globalization poses to literacy research: the need for new models of literacy and literacy education, and the stakes of adopting multiliteracies pedagogies in different contexts--that is, the tensions between competing hegemonic discourses of collective identity in the public sphere of ethnolinguistic…

  12. Medical Professionals and Parents: A Linguistic Analysis of Communication Across Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah; Wallat, Cynthia

    1986-01-01

    This study analyzes videotaped conversations between various family members of a child with cerebral palsy and medical professionals. The conversations are examined for information elaboration and condensation, information negotiation, as well as methodological benefits. The medical interviews elicited new information in various contexts and…

  13. Process and Context in Choice Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Palma, André de; McFadden, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    . The extended choice framework includes more behavioral richness through the explicit representation of the planning process preceding an action and its dynamics and the effects of context (family, friends, and market) on the process leading to a choice, as well as the inclusion of new types of subjective data...... in choice models. We discuss the key issues involved in applying the extended framework, focusing on richer data requirements, theories, and models, and present three partial demonstrations of the proposed framework. Future research challenges include the development of more comprehensive empirical tests...

  14. The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Demberg

    Full Text Available While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA, relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match/mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German, three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments, and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments.

  15. Optimal Selection Method of Process Patents for Technology Transfer Using Fuzzy Linguistic Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the open innovation paradigm, technology transfer of process patents is one of the most important mechanisms for manufacturing companies to implement process innovation and enhance the competitive edge. To achieve promising technology transfers, we need to evaluate the feasibility of process patents and optimally select the most appropriate patent according to the actual manufacturing situation. Hence, this paper proposes an optimal selection method of process patents using multiple criteria decision-making and 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic computing to avoid information loss during the processes of evaluation integration. An evaluation index system for technology transfer feasibility of process patents is designed initially. Then, fuzzy linguistic computing approach is applied to aggregate the evaluations of criteria weights for each criterion and corresponding subcriteria. Furthermore, performance ratings for subcriteria and fuzzy aggregated ratings of criteria are calculated. Thus, we obtain the overall technology transfer feasibility of patent alternatives. Finally, a case study of aeroengine turbine manufacturing is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  16. Healthy Academic Processes in the University Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Castillo-Cedeño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article aims to identify the perceptions of healthy academic administrative processes in the university context. This contribution was directed by socio-educational research processes generated at the National University of Costa Rica (UNA, in the Center for Research and Teaching in Education (CIDE. The issue of health is part of the institutional plan and the Center. Whereas health, like education, is a fundamental human right that deserves responsibilities from pedagogy as educational science research, which analyzes and transforms. Therefore, it is urgent, in the face of new global challenges to address planetary crises linked to health. This research is based on the naturalistic paradigm and a methodology that assumes a type of joint research, where using a semi-structured interview achieves a deeper analysis that allows contrasting perceptions, theories and practices by comparing qualitative and quantitative data. From the results of impact the concept of Healthy Pedagogy is unknown in the university context. The connection between education and health as a holistic theoretical, epistemological and axiological construction, it includes the complexity theory that allows the university to take challenges with an enormous potential; promoting environments, styles and healthy organizations from healthy academic administrations from both individual and collective aspects. It is possible to construct new sense of orders, which assume in a responsible manner to re-dignify the university life in its various spaces and dimensions. Research has the valuable potential to become a dynamic element of institutional policies in favor of life.

  17. Perceptual processing of a complex musical context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga Martinez, David Ricardo; Hansen, Niels Christian; Højlund, Andreas

    play a fundamental role in music perception. The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a brain response that offers a unique insight into these processes. The MMN is elicited by deviants in a series of repetitive sounds and reflects the perception of change in physical and abstract sound regularities. Therefore......, it is regarded as a prediction error signal and a neural correlate of the updating of predictive perceptual models. In music, the MMN has been particularly valuable for the assessment of musical expectations, learning and expertise. However, the MMN paradigm has an important limitation: its ecological validity....... To this aim we will develop a new paradigm using more real-sounding stimuli. Our stimuli will be two-part music excerpts made by adding a melody to a previous design based on the Alberti bass (Vuust et al., 2011). Our second goal is to determine how the complexity of this context affects the predictive...

  18. Unity and disunity in evolutionary sciences: process-based analogies open common research avenues for biology and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Johann-Mattis; Pathmanathan, Jananan Sylvestre; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric

    2016-08-20

    For a long time biologists and linguists have been noticing surprising similarities between the evolution of life forms and languages. Most of the proposed analogies have been rejected. Some, however, have persisted, and some even turned out to be fruitful, inspiring the transfer of methods and models between biology and linguistics up to today. Most proposed analogies were based on a comparison of the research objects rather than the processes that shaped their evolution. Focusing on process-based analogies, however, has the advantage of minimizing the risk of overstating similarities, while at the same time reflecting the common strategy to use processes to explain the evolution of complexity in both fields. We compared important evolutionary processes in biology and linguistics and identified processes specific to only one of the two disciplines as well as processes which seem to be analogous, potentially reflecting core evolutionary processes. These new process-based analogies support novel methodological transfer, expanding the application range of biological methods to the field of historical linguistics. We illustrate this by showing (i) how methods dealing with incomplete lineage sorting offer an introgression-free framework to analyze highly mosaic word distributions across languages; (ii) how sequence similarity networks can be used to identify composite and borrowed words across different languages; (iii) how research on partial homology can inspire new methods and models in both fields; and (iv) how constructive neutral evolution provides an original framework for analyzing convergent evolution in languages resulting from common descent (Sapir's drift). Apart from new analogies between evolutionary processes, we also identified processes which are specific to either biology or linguistics. This shows that general evolution cannot be studied from within one discipline alone. In order to get a full picture of evolution, biologists and linguists need to

  19. From Shared Contexts to Syntactic Categories: The Role of Distributional Information in Learning Linguistic Form-Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Patricia A.; Newport, Elissa L.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental component of language acquisition involves organizing words into grammatical categories. Previous literature has suggested a number of ways in which this categorization task might be accomplished. Here we ask whether the patterning of the words in a corpus of linguistic input ("distributional information") is sufficient, along with a…

  20. A Linguistic Foundation for Communicating Geo-Information in the context of BML and geoBML

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    section, the C2LG is presented. C2LG is a formal grammar. As such, it follows the definition of formal grammars in general as proposed by Chomsky ...In: Mitkov, R. (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Chomsky , N. (1957). Syntactic

  1. The Knowledge Base of Teaching in Linguistically Diverse Contexts: 10 Grounded Principles of Multilingual Classroom Pedagogy for EAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongcan; Fisher, Linda; Forbes, Karen; Evans, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to define the knowledge base of teaching in linguistically diverse secondary schools in England. Based on extensive interviews with the teachers across two schools, the paper identifies a range of good practices centred on flexibility and differentiation. These include diversifying teaching resources by using bilingual materials…

  2. Linguistic Corpora and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murison-Bowie, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Examines issues raised by corpus linguistics concerning the description of language. The article argues that it is necessary to start from correct descriptions of linguistic units and the contexts in which they occur. Corpus linguistics has joined with language teaching by sharing a recognition of the importance of a larger, schematic view of…

  3. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  4. Linguistic & Rhetorical Paradigm as Innovative Theoretical Methodological Platform of Studying Discursive Processes of East Slavic and Western Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlexandra A. Vorozhbitova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests studying conceptual models and mechanisms of linguistic consciousness of East Slavic and Western cultures with the application of the theoretical methodological approach of Linguistic & Rhetorical (L&R Paradigm as an integrative philological trend of an innovative type. The L&R Paradigm rests on the intersection of three categorical dimensions: ideological aspects of a speech event (ethos, logos, pathos; stages of universal cycle of idea-into-speech transformation (invention, disposition, elocution as a technology of discursive processes; levels of the structure of a linguistic personality as a discourse producer and ideology bearer (associative verbal network, thesaurus, pragmatic field. Hence, the article proposes three groups of L&R parameters of studying speech and thinking phenomena: ethos-motivational-dispositional; logos-thesaurus-inventional; pathos-verbal-elocutionary.

  5. Context and Behavioral Processes in Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a selective review and integration of the behavioral literature on Pavlovian extinction. The first part reviews evidence that extinction does not destroy the original learning, but instead generates new learning that is especially context-dependent. The second part examines insights provided by research on several related…

  6. Linguistic processing in visual and modality-nonspecific brain areas: PET recordings during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, Victor A; Alho, Kimmo; Medvedev, Svyatoslav V; Pakhomov, Sergey V; Roudas, Marina S; Rutkovskaya, Julia M; Tervaniemi, Mari; Van Zuijen, Titia L; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate the neural basis of selective processing of linguistic material during concurrent presentation of multiple stimulus streams ("cocktail-party effect"). Fifteen healthy right-handed adult males were to attend to one of three simultaneously presented messages: one presented visually, one to the left ear, and one to the right ear. During the control condition, subjects attended to visually presented consonant letter strings and ignored auditory messages. This paper reports the modality-nonspecific language processing and visual word-form processing, whereas the auditory attention effects have been reported elsewhere [Cogn. Brain Res. 17 (2003) 201]. The left-hemisphere areas activated by both the selective processing of text and speech were as follows: the inferior prefrontal (Brodmann's area, BA 45, 47), anterior temporal (BA 38), posterior insular (BA 13), inferior (BA 20) and middle temporal (BA 21), occipital (BA 18/30) cortices, the caudate nucleus, and the amygdala. In addition, bilateral activations were observed in the medial occipito-temporal cortex and the cerebellum. Decreases of activation during both text and speech processing were found in the parietal (BA 7, 40), frontal (BA 6, 8, 44) and occipito-temporal (BA 37) regions of the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the present data suggest that the left occipito-temporal cortex (BA 18, 20, 37, 21) can be subdivided into three functionally distinct regions in the posterior-anterior direction on the basis of their activation during attentive processing of sublexical orthography, visual word form, and supramodal higher-level aspects of language.

  7. Gender and neural substrates subserving implicit processing of death-related linguistic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jungang; Shi, Zhenhao; Ma, Yina; Han, Shihui

    2018-02-01

    Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed decreased activities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral insula for women during the implicit processing of death-related linguistic cues. Current work tested whether aforementioned activities are common for women and men and explored potential gender differences. We scanned twenty males while they performed a color-naming task on death-related, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words. Whole-brain analysis showed increased left frontal activity and decreased activities in the ACC and bilateral insula to death-related versus negative-valence words for both men and women. However, relative to women, men showed greater increased activity in the left middle frontal cortex and decreased activity in the right cerebellum to death-related versus negative-valence words. The results suggest, while implicit processing of death-related words is characterized with weakened sense of oneself for both women and men, men may recruit stronger cognitive regulation of emotion than women.

  8. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  9. ADAPTIVE CONTEXT PROCESSING IN ON-LINE HANDWRITTEN CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwayama, N.; Ishigaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new approach to context processing in on-line handwritten character recognition (OLCR). Based on the observation that writers often repeat the strings that they input, we take the approach of adaptive context processing. (ACP). In ACP, the strings input by a writer are automatically

  10. Linguistic measures of the referential process in psychodynamic treatment: the English and Italian versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Rachele; Maskit, Bernard; Bucci, Wilma; De Coro, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The referential process is defined in the context of Bucci's multiple code theory as the process by which nonverbal experience is connected to language. The English computerized measures of the referential process, which have been applied in psychotherapy research, include the Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary (WRAD), and measures of Reflection, Affect and Disfluency. This paper presents the development of the Italian version of the IWRAD by modeling Italian texts scored by judges, and shows the application of the IWRAD and other Italian measures in three psychodynamic treatments evaluated for personality change using the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200). Clinical predictions based on applications of the English measures were supported.

  11. INCORPORATING A COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF A SELECTION OF FIGURATIVE IDIOMS IN EFL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzung Trung Dang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prodromou (2003: 43 states that “the way for a student of English to become more fluent in the language is not only to have a good command of grammar and vocabulary but also a good command of the ‘idiom principle’ and there is “the need for idiomatic competence is precisely what linguists propose for the non-native speaker”. In addition, research shows that idioms are among the biggest challenge for EFL/ESL learners. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on ways to deal with a selection of figurative idioms by employing a CL perspective and to suggest some pedagogical implications. The paper attempts to examine a small number of Vietnamese EFL learners in the use of a non CL and a CL activity to evaluate its effectiveness and learning gains. The results could be used to further explore the use of CL to the teaching of idioms.

  12. Musical and linguistic expertise influence pre-attentive and attentive processing of non-speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Céline; Kujala, Teija; Besson, Mireille

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was two-fold. Our first goal was to determine whether linguistic expertise influences the pre-attentive [as reflected by the Mismatch Negativity - (MMN)] and the attentive processing (as reflected by behavioural discrimination accuracy) of non-speech, harmonic sounds. The second was to directly compare the effects of linguistic and musical expertise. To this end, we compared non-musician native speakers of a quantity language, Finnish, in which duration is a phonemically contrastive cue, with French musicians and French non-musicians. Results revealed that pre-attentive and attentive processing of duration deviants was enhanced in Finn non-musicians and French musicians compared to French non-musicians. By contrast, MMN in French musicians was larger than in both Finns and French non-musicians for frequency deviants, whereas no between-group differences were found for intensity deviants. By showing similar effects of linguistic and musical expertise, these results argue in favor of common processing of duration in music and speech. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  13. Linguistic Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    on the Scandinavian variant of polyphony, ScaPoLine. ScaPoLine is a formal linguistic theory whose main purpose is to specify the instructions conveyed through linguistic form for the creation of polyphonic meaning. The theoretical introduction is followed by polyphonic analyses of linguistic phenomena...

  14. The Effect of Signal-to-Noise Ratio on Linguistic Processing in a Semantic Judgment Task: An Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicholas; Davis, Tara; Estis, Julie

    2017-03-01

    Aging effects on speech understanding in noise have primarily been assessed through speech recognition tasks. Recognition tasks, which focus on bottom-up, perceptual aspects of speech understanding, intentionally limit linguistic and cognitive factors by asking participants to only repeat what they have heard. On the other hand, linguistic processing tasks require bottom-up and top-down (linguistic, cognitive) processing skills and are, therefore, more reflective of speech understanding abilities used in everyday communication. The effect of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on linguistic processing ability is relatively unknown for either young (YAs) or older adults (OAs). To determine if reduced SNRs would be more deleterious to the linguistic processing of OAs than YAs, as measured by accuracy and reaction time in a semantic judgment task in competing speech. In the semantic judgment task, participants indicated via button press whether word pairs were a semantic Match or No Match. This task was performed in quiet, as well as, +3, 0, -3, and -6 dB SNR with two-talker speech competition. Seventeen YAs (20-30 yr) with normal hearing sensitivity and 17 OAs (60-68 yr) with normal hearing sensitivity or mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss within age-appropriate norms. Accuracy, reaction time, and false alarm rate were measured and analyzed using a mixed design analysis of variance. A decrease in SNR level significantly reduced accuracy and increased reaction time in both YAs and OAs. However, poor SNRs affected accuracy and reaction time of Match and No Match word pairs differently. Accuracy for Match pairs declined at a steeper rate than No Match pairs in both groups as SNR decreased. In addition, reaction time for No Match pairs increased at a greater rate than Match pairs in more difficult SNRs, particularly at -3 and -6 dB SNR. False-alarm rates indicated that participants had a response bias to No Match pairs as the SNR decreased. Age-related differences were

  15. Linguistic Diversity in a Deaf Prison Population: Implications for Due Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2004-01-01

    The entire deaf prison population in the state of Texas formed the basis for this research. The linguistic skills of prison inmates were assessed using the following measures: (1) Kannapell's categories of bilingualism, (2) adaptation of the diagnostic criteria for Primitive Personality Disorder, (3) reading scores on the Test of Adult Basic…

  16. Linguistic Diversity in the International Workplace: Language Ideologies and Processes of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on a study of language choice and language ideologies in an international company in Denmark. It focuses on the linguistic and social challenges that are related to the diversity of language competences among employees in the modern workplace. Research on multilingualism at work has shown that employees may be excluded from…

  17. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents' Perceptions of the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Katie; Durán, Lillian K.

    2013-01-01

    Many parents of students with disabilities face barriers to meaningful participation in Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meetings; parents who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) encounter additional challenges. Given the changing demographics of the United States and the central role of the IEP in special education, it is important…

  18. Medical Signbank: Bringing Deaf People and Linguists Together in the Process of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Trevor; Napier, Jemina

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe an Australian project in which linguists, signed language interpreters, medical and health care professionals, and members of the Deaf community use the technology of the Internet to facilitate cooperative language development. A web-based, interactive multimedia lexicon, an encyclopedic dictionary, and a database of…

  19. Frozen Actions in the Arctic Linguistic Landscape: A Nexus Analysis of Language Processes in Visual Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietikainen, Sari; Lane, Pia; Salo, Hanni; Laihiala-Kankainen, Sirkka

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the linguistic landscape (LL) of seven villages above the Arctic Circle, in the region called North Calotte. The area forms a complex nexus of contested and changing multilingualism, particularly as regards to endangered indigenous Sami languages and Kven and Meankieli minority languages. Viewing LL as a discursively…

  20. 41 Pragmatics: The Cornerstone of Linguistic Exploration in the 21st ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... This study investigates into the relevance of context in the interpretation of linguistic entities. ... processes can be attributed to the works of Morris (1938; 1946) and Carnap. (1942). .... overall framework of the pragmatic perspective. This is ... new kind of theory of linguistic communication, has to rely on.

  1. Speech-language assessment in a linguistically diverse setting: Preliminary exploration of the possible impact of informal ‘solutions’ within the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Barratt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech-language therapists (SLTs working in the context of cultural and linguistic diversity face considerable challenges in providing equitable services to all clients. This is complicated by the fact that the majority of SLTs in South Africa are English or Afrikaans speakers, while the majority of the population have a home language other than English/Afrikaans. Consequently, SLTs are often forced to call on untrained personnel to act as interpreters or translators, and to utilise informally translated materials in the assessment and management of clients with communication impairments. However, variations in translation have the potential to considerably alter intervention plans. This study explored whether the linguistic complexity conveyed in translation of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB test changed when translated from English to isiZulu by five different first-language IsiZulu speakers. A qualitative comparative research design was adopted and results were analysed using comparative data analysis. Results revealed notable differences in the translations, with most differences relating to vocabulary and semantics. This finding holds clinical implications for the use of informal translators as well as for the utilisation of translated material in the provision of speech-language therapy services in multilingual contexts. This study highlights the need for cautious use of translators and/or translated materials that are not appropriately and systematically adapted for local usage. Further recommendations include a call for intensified efforts in the transformation of the profession within the country, specifically by attracting greater numbers of students who are fluent in African languages.

  2. Context-Based Synchronization of Concurrent Process Using Aspect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... will not cause any race condition if all other threads are accessing from the same context. The result of our experiment shows that context-based synchronization performs better than Java given the same number of threads. Keywords: Aspect-oriented programming, synchronization, resource, and concurrent process.

  3. A Voice Processing Technology for Rural Specific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zhao, Chunshen

    Durian the promotion and applications of rural information, different geographical dialect voice interaction is a very complex issue. Through in-depth analysis of TTS core technologies, this paper presents the methods of intelligent segmentation, word segmentation algorithm and intelligent voice thesaurus construction in the different dialects context. And then COM based development methodology for specific context voice processing system implementation and programming method. The method has a certain reference value for the rural dialect and voice processing applications.

  4. Fine-Grained Linguistic Soft Constraints on Statistical Natural Language Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    his engaging phonology and cognitive science classes. I also had the pleasure and privilege of collaborating with, and learning from, Chris Callison...semantic constraints models can be viewed as instances? What possible benefits this might have? A few stylistic remarks: 1. Throughout the...although I make no cognitive or neuroscientific claims in this dissertation. Two “classic” views on linguistic representations in the brain are

  5. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc.), but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten , or Turkish korkmak 'fear, be afraid' and korkutmak 'frighten, scare', or Finnish istua 'sit' and istutta 'seat (someone)', or Spanish sentarse 'sit down' and sentar 'seat (someone)' is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where 'seat' is derived from 'sit' by addition of a suffix-is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  6. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc., but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten, or Turkish korkmak ‘fear, be afraid’ and korkutmak ‘frighten, scare’, or Finnish istua ‘sit’ and istutta ‘seat (someone’, or Spanish sentarse ‘sit down’ and sentar ‘seat (someone’ is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where ‘seat’ is derived from ‘sit’ by addition of a suffix—is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  7. Linguistic fundamentals for natural language processing 100 essentials from morphology and syntax

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Emily M

    2013-01-01

    Many NLP tasks have at their core a subtask of extracting the dependencies-who did what to whom-from natural language sentences. This task can be understood as the inverse of the problem solved in different ways by diverse human languages, namely, how to indicate the relationship between different parts of a sentence. Understanding how languages solve the problem can be extremely useful in both feature design and error analysis in the application of machine learning to NLP. Likewise, understanding cross-linguistic variation can be important for the design of MT systems and other multilingual a

  8. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.

  9. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like—not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context. PMID:28076400

  10. Probabilistic linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic linguistics takes all linguistic evidence as positive evidence and lets statistics decide. It allows for accurate modelling of gradient phenomena in production and perception, and suggests that rule-like behaviour is no more than a side effect of maximizing probability. This chapter

  11. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  12. Social Context in Usability Evaluations: Concepts, Processes and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul

    social context is considered important, only little research has been done to identify how it influences usability evaluations. In this thesis I explore how social context affects the process and product of a usability evaluation and explain the findings in terms of the theory of behaviour settings...... leader) and non-operatives (members, spectators, neutrals and potentials) from the theory of behaviour settings to usability evaluations generates an understanding and create an awareness of the level of power possessed by each of the participants in the social context. 2. On the operative level...... and a field experiment. Findings from these activities are presented in five published paper contributions. I furthermore introduce the theory of behaviour settings as a tool to help characterise the key concepts of social context which, together with an understanding of usability evaluations, provide...

  13. The Influence of Context on Hemispheric Recruitment during Metaphor Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the left hemisphere's prominence in language is well established, less emphasis has been placed on possible roles for the right hemisphere. Behavioral, patient, and neuroimaging research suggests that the right hemisphere may be involved in processing figurative language. Additionally, research has demonstrated that context can modify…

  14. Pipeline Processing with an Iterative, Context-Based Detection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    wave precursor artifacts. Distortion definitely is reduced with the addition of more channels to the processed data stream (comparing trace 3 to...limitations of fully automatic hypothesis evaluation with a test case of two events in Central Asia – a deep Hindu Kush earthquake and a shallow earthquake in...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0080 TR-2016-0080 PIPELINE PROCESSING WITH AN ITERATIVE, CONTEXT-BASED DETECTION MODEL T. Kværna, et al

  15. Context effects in embodied lexical-semantic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel O Van Dam

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The embodied view of language comprehension proposes that the meaning of words is grounded in perception and action rather than represented in abstract amodal symbols. Support for embodied theories of language processing comes from behavioural studies showing that understanding a sentence about an action can modulate congruent and incongruent physical responses, suggesting motor involvement during comprehension of sentences referring to bodily movement. Additionally, several neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that comprehending single words denoting manipulable objects elicits specific responses in the neural motor system. An interesting question that remains is whether action semantic knowledge is directly activated as motor simulations in the brain, or rather modulated by the semantic context in which action words are encountered. In the current paper we investigated the nature of conceptual representations using a go/no-go lexical decision task. Specifically, target words were either presented in a semantic context that emphasized dominant action features (features related to the functional use of an object or non-dominant action features. The response latencies in a lexical decision task reveal that participants were faster to respond to words denoting objects for which the functional use was congruent with the prepared movement. This facilitation effect, however, was only apparent when the semantic context emphasized corresponding motor properties. These findings suggest that motor involvement during comprehension of sentences is not automatic. Rather, the results suggest that conceptual processing is a context-dependent process that incorporates motor-related knowledge in a flexible manner.

  16. The COGs (context, object, and goals) in multisensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Oever, Sanne; Romei, Vincenzo; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Murray, Micah M; Matusz, Pawel J

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how perception operates in real-world environments has been substantially advanced by studying both multisensory processes and "top-down" control processes influencing sensory processing via activity from higher-order brain areas, such as attention, memory, and expectations. As the two topics have been traditionally studied separately, the mechanisms orchestrating real-world multisensory processing remain unclear. Past work has revealed that the observer's goals gate the influence of many multisensory processes on brain and behavioural responses, whereas some other multisensory processes might occur independently of these goals. Consequently, other forms of top-down control beyond goal dependence are necessary to explain the full range of multisensory effects currently reported at the brain and the cognitive level. These forms of control include sensitivity to stimulus context as well as the detection of matches (or lack thereof) between a multisensory stimulus and categorical attributes of naturalistic objects (e.g. tools, animals). In this review we discuss and integrate the existing findings that demonstrate the importance of such goal-, object- and context-based top-down control over multisensory processing. We then put forward a few principles emerging from this literature review with respect to the mechanisms underlying multisensory processing and discuss their possible broader implications.

  17. Proper Names and Named Entities Recognition in the Automatic Text Processing. Review of the book: Nouvel, D., Ehrmann, M., & Rosset, S. (2016. Named Entities for Computational Linguistics. London; Hoboken: ISTE Ltd; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria M. Golikova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The reviewed book by Damien Nouvel, Maud Ehrmann, and Sophie Rosset Named Entities for Computational Linguistics deals with automatic processing of texts, written in a natural language, and with named entities recognition, aimed at extracting most important information in these texts. The notion of named entities here extends to the entire set of linguistic units referring to an object. The researchers minutely consider the concept of named entities, juxtaposing this category to that of proper names and comparing their definitions, and describe all the stages of creation and implementation of automatic text annotation algorithms, as well as different ways of evaluating their performance quality. Proper names, in this context, are seen as a particular instance of named entities, one of the typical sources of reference to real objects to be electronically recognized in the text. The book provides a detailed overview and analysis of previous studies in the same field, based mainly on the English language data. It presents instruments and resources required to create and implement the algorithms in question, these may include typologies, knowledge or databases, and various types of corpora. Theoretical considerations, proposed by the authors, are supported by a significant number of exemplary cases, with algorithms operation principles presented in charts. The reviewed book gives quite a comprehensive picture of modern computational linguistic studies focused on named entities recognition and indicates some problems which are unresolved as yet.

  18. A Fuzzy Linguistic Methodology to Deal With Unbalanced Linguistic Term Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, F.; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique; Martinez, L.

    2008-01-01

    Many real problems dealing with qualitative aspects use linguistic approaches to assess such aspects. In most of these problems, a uniform and symmetrical distribution of the linguistic term sets for linguistic modeling is assumed. However, there exist problems whose assessments need to be represented by means of unbalanced linguistic term sets, i.e., using term sets that are not uniformly and symmetrically distributed. The use of linguistic variables implies processes of computing with words...

  19. Empoderamiento: Proceso, Nivel y Contexto Empowerment: Process, Level, and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discute el fenómeno del empoderamiento y se analiza la distinción teórica entre proceso y resultado de empoderamiento (Zimmerman, 2000. A partir de las formulaciones de este autor y el aporte de una perspectiva interaccional (Bronfenbrenner, 1987, se sostiene que aquella diferenciación es poco viable en términos objetivos y absolutos o de esencia, pero sí útil, en términos analíticos, desde la percepción de la propia comunidad involucrada, que debe ser comprendida por el colaborador externo. También se propone establecer una diferencia entre contexto y nivel de empoderamiento, y analizar el contexto del fenómeno en los niveles individual, organizacional y comunitario del agregado social, lo que aporta claridad a su definición. De esta manera adquiere centralidad la concepción del empoderamiento como proceso en sucesivos contextos que benefician no sólo a los individuos sino que a los colectivos socialesA critical analysis of the concept of empowerment and the theoretical distinction between empowerment process and outcome (Zimmerman, 2000 are presented. Based on Zimmerman's conceptualisation, and the interaccional perspective (Bronfenbrenner, 1987, we argue that the distinction between empowerment process and outcome, though analytically useful (if based on the perception of the community itself from their own experience, which must be understood by professional agent is not always viable in absolute or objective terms. In addition, we suggest to distinguish between context and level of analyses in empowerment theory, and to analyze the context of the empowerment phenomenon at the individual, organizational and community level, which clarifies the definition of each of them. In sum, empowerment is conceived as a process within successive contexts that benefits not only individuals, but also different social aggregate kinds of groups

  20. A Measurable Model of the Creative Process in the Context of a Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Min; Van Oystaeyen, Fred

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to arrive at a measurable model of the creative process by putting creativity in the context of a learning process. The authors aimed to provide a rather detailed description of how creative thinking fits in a general description of the learning process without trying to go into an analysis of a biological description of the…

  1. Physical Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Physical linguistics is defined as the use of treatments from the field of speech pathology to enhance first and second language production in healthy individuals, resulting in increased quality and strength of phonation and articulation. A series of exercises for treating dysarthria (weakness, paralysis, discoordination, primary and secondary…

  2. Visualizing time: how linguistic metaphors are incorporated into displaying instruments in the process of interpreting time-varying signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Belmonte, Germà

    2017-06-01

    Spatial visualization is a well-established topic of education research that has allowed improving science and engineering students' skills on spatial relations. Connections have been established between visualization as a comprehension tool and instruction in several scientific fields. Learning about dynamic processes mainly relies upon static spatial representations or images. Visualization of time is inherently problematic because time can be conceptualized in terms of two opposite conceptual metaphors based on spatial relations as inferred from conventional linguistic patterns. The situation is particularly demanding when time-varying signals are recorded using displaying electronic instruments, and the image should be properly interpreted. This work deals with the interplay between linguistic metaphors, visual thinking and scientific instrument mediation in the process of interpreting time-varying signals displayed by electronic instruments. The analysis draws on a simplified version of a communication system as example of practical signal recording and image visualization in a physics and engineering laboratory experience. Instrumentation delivers meaningful signal representations because it is designed to incorporate a specific and culturally favored time view. It is suggested that difficulties in interpreting time-varying signals are linked with the existing dual perception of conflicting time metaphors. The activation of specific space-time conceptual mapping might allow for a proper signal interpretation. Instruments play then a central role as visualization mediators by yielding an image that matches specific perception abilities and practical purposes. Here I have identified two ways of understanding time as used in different trajectories through which students are located. Interestingly specific displaying instruments belonging to different cultural traditions incorporate contrasting time views. One of them sees time in terms of a dynamic metaphor

  3. Theory of mind for processing unexpected events across contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, James A; Stepanovic, Michael; Young, Liane

    2016-08-01

    Theory of mind, or mental state reasoning, may be particularly useful for making sense of unexpected events. Here, we investigated unexpected behavior across both social and non-social contexts in order to characterize the precise role of theory of mind in processing unexpected events. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how people respond to unexpected outcomes when initial expectations were based on (i) an object's prior behavior, (ii) an agent's prior behavior and (iii) an agent's mental states. Consistent with prior work, brain regions for theory of mind were preferentially recruited when people first formed expectations about social agents vs non-social objects. Critically, unexpected vs expected outcomes elicited greater activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, which also discriminated in its spatial pattern of activity between unexpected and expected outcomes for social events. In contrast, social vs non-social events elicited greater activity in precuneus across both expected and unexpected outcomes. Finally, given prior information about an agent's behavior, unexpected vs expected outcomes elicited an especially robust response in right temporoparietal junction, and the magnitude of this difference across participants correlated negatively with autistic-like traits. Together, these findings illuminate the distinct contributions of brain regions for theory of mind for processing unexpected events across contexts. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Context effects on processing widely deviant sounds in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Péter Háden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and orienting towards sounds carrying new information is a crucial feature of the human brain that supports adaptation to the environment. Rare, acoustically widely deviant sounds presented amongst frequent tones elicit large event related brain potentials (ERPs in neonates. Here we tested whether these discriminative ERP responses reflect only the activation of fresh afferent neuronal populations (i.e., neuronal circuits not affected by the tones or they also index the processing of contextual mismatch between the rare and the frequent sounds.In two separate experiments, we presented sleeping newborns with 150 different environmental sounds and the same number of white noise bursts. Both sounds served either as deviants in an oddball paradigm with the frequent standard stimulus a tone (Novel/Noise deviant, or as the standard stimulus with the tone as deviant (Novel/Noise standard, or they were delivered alone with the same timing as the deviants in the oddball condition (Novel/Noise alone.Whereas the ERP responses to noise–deviants elicited similar responses as the same sound presented alone, the responses elicited by environmental sounds in the corresponding conditions morphologically differed from each other. Thus whereas the ERP response to the noise sounds can be explained by the different refractory state of stimulus specific neuronal populations, the ERP response to environmental sounds indicated context sensitive processing. These results provide evidence for an innate tendency of context dependent auditory processing as well as a basis for the different developmental trajectories of processing acoustical deviance and contextual novelty.

  5. Affective reactions and context-dependent processing of negations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Rubaltelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments demonstrate how the processing of negations is contingent on the evaluation context in which the negative information is presented. In addition, the strategy used to process the negations induced different affective reactions toward the stimuli, leading to inconsistency of preference. Participants were presented with stimuli described by either stating the presence of positive features (explicitly positive alternative or negating the presence of negative features (non-negative alternative. Alternatives were presented for either joint (JE or separate evaluation (SE. Experiment 1 showed that the non-negative stimuli were judged less attractive than the positive ones in JE but not in SE. Experiment 2 revealed that the non-negative stimuli induced a less clear and less positive feeling when they were paired with explicitly positive stimuli rather than evaluated separately. Non-negative options were also found less easy to judge than the positive ones in JE but not in SE. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that people process negations using two different models depending on the evaluation mode. Through a memory task, we found that in JE people process the non-negative attributes as negations of negative features, whereas in SE they directly process the non-negative attributes as positive features.

  6. Linguistic Identity and Career Decision-Making Difficulties among French-Speaking Canadian Students Living in an Anglo-Dominant Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovet, Laurent; DiMillo, Julia; Samson, André

    2017-01-01

    Career decision-making difficulties (CDMD) are often faced by students entering their final year of high school, and can further complicate when a student belongs to a minority group, such as a linguistic minority (Francophone) within an Anglo-dominant society (Ontario, Canada). The current study aimed to examine CDMD in 984 Franco-Ontarian grade…

  7. Untangling Linguistic Salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, Vincent; Coler, Matt; Loerts, Hanneke; Hilton, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    The concept of linguistic salience is broadly used within sociolinguistics to account for processes as diverse as language change (Kerswill & Williams, 2002) and language acquisition (Ellis, 2016) in that salient forms are e.g. more likely to undergo change, or are often acquired earlier than other

  8. Identification and intensity of disgust: Distinguishing visual, linguistic and facial expressions processing in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Anna; Petito, Sara; Guarino, Maria; Stracciari, Andrea

    2017-07-14

    Most of the studies since now show an impairment for facial displays of disgust recognition in Parkinson disease. A general impairment in disgust processing in patients with Parkinson disease might adversely affect their social interactions, given the relevance of this emotion for human relations. However, despite the importance of faces, disgust is also expressed through other format of visual stimuli such as sentences and visual images. The aim of our study was to explore disgust processing in a sample of patients affected by Parkinson disease, by means of various tests tackling not only facial recognition but also other format of visual stimuli through which disgust can be recognized. Our results confirm that patients are impaired in recognizing facial displays of disgust. Further analyses show that patients are also impaired and slower for other facial expressions, with the only exception of happiness. Notably however, patients with Parkinson disease processed visual images and sentences as controls. Our findings show a dissociation within different formats of visual stimuli of disgust, suggesting that Parkinson disease is not characterized by a general compromising of disgust processing, as often suggested. The involvement of the basal ganglia-frontal cortex system might spare some cognitive components of emotional processing, related to memory and culture, at least for disgust. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. On-Line Sentence Processing in Swedish: Cross-Linguistic Developmental Comparisons with French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Michele; Kihlstedt, Maria; Bonnet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study examined on-line processing of Swedish sentences in a grammaticality-judgement experiment within the framework of the Competition Model. Three age groups from 6 to 11 and an adult group were asked to detect grammatical violations as quickly as possible. Three factors concerning cue cost were studied: violation position (early vs. late),…

  11. Examples of transcultural processes in two colonial linguistic documents on Jebero (Peru)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander-Bakkerus, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we bring to light the "transcultural processes" and "the impacts of colonial thinking" as contained in The British Library manuscripts Add. 25,323 and 25,324. The manuscripts deal with Jebero, an indigenous language of North-Peru, as it was spoken in the 18th century. (The language,

  12. Process evaluation for complex interventions in health services research: analysing context, text trajectories and disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jamie

    2016-08-19

    Process evaluations assess the implementation and sustainability of complex healthcare interventions within clinical trials, with well-established theoretical models available for evaluating intervention delivery within specific contexts. However, there is a need to translate conceptualisations of context into analytical tools which enable the dynamic relationship between context and intervention implementation to be captured and understood. In this paper I propose an alternative approach to the design, implementation and analysis of process evaluations for complex health interventions through a consideration of trial protocols as textual documents, distributed and enacted at multiple contextual levels. As an example, I conduct retrospective analysis of a sample of field notes and transcripts collected during the ESTEEM study - a cluster randomised controlled trial of primary care telephone triage. I draw on theoretical perspectives associated with Linguistic Ethnography to examine the delivery of ESTEEM through staff orientation to different texts. In doing so I consider what can be learned from examining the flow and enactment of protocols for notions of implementation and theoretical fidelity (i.e. intervention delivered as intended and whether congruent with the intervention theory). Implementation of the triage intervention required staff to integrate essential elements of the protocol within everyday practice, seen through the adoption and use of different texts that were distributed across staff and within specific events. Staff were observed deploying texts in diverse ways (e.g. reinterpreting scripts, deviating from standard operating procedures, difficulty completing decision support software), providing numerous instances of disruption to maintaining intervention fidelity. Such observations exposed tensions between different contextual features in which the trial was implemented, offering theoretical explanations for the main trial findings. The value of

  13. Runes and Words : Runic Lexicography in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Jesch, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The paper begins by noting the lack of a comprehensive dictionary of Scandi­navian runic inscriptions, as well as the absence of the runic evidence from most dictionaries of the early Scandinavian languages, and considers possible reasons for this. Runic inscriptions may need a different kind of dictionary, because they require a different kind of reading that takes extra-linguistic as well as linguistic contexts into account (a process that has been called “inter­disciplinary semantics”). Us...

  14. The Analysis of Communicative Context Adaptation in English Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向凤雅; 杨婧; 张明耀

    2015-01-01

    Communicative context adaptation,a non-linguistic context is one of Verschueren's Adaptation Theory.To master key elements of communicative of communicative context adaptation help us in the process of advertisements translation. Here,we will detail it from the three aspects -the adaptation to the physical world,the mental world and the social world.

  15. The Analysis of Communicative Context Adaptation in English Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向凤雅; 杨婧; 张明耀

    2015-01-01

    Communicative context adaptation,a non-linguistic context is one of Verschueren’s Adaptation Theory.To master key elements of communicative of communicative context adaptation help us in the process of advertisements translation.Here,we will detail it from the three aspects-the adaptation to the physical world,the mental world and the social world.

  16. Presenting characteristics and processing times for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients with chest pain in an emergency department: Time, Ethnicity, and Delay (TED) Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechkunanukul, Kannikar; Grantham, Hugh; Teubner, David; Hyun, Karice K; Clark, Robyn A

    2016-10-01

    To date there has been limited published data presenting the characteristics and timeliness of the management in an Emergency Department (ED) for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients presenting with chest pain. This study aimed to describe the presenting characteristics and processing times for CALD patients with chest pain compared to the Australian-born population, and current guidelines. This study was a cross sectional analysis of a cohort of patients who presented with chest pain to the metropolitan hospital between 1 July 2012 and 30 June 2014. Of the total study population (n=6640), 1241 (18.7%) were CALD and 5399 (81.3%) were Australian-born. CALD patients were significantly older than Australian-born patients (mean age 62 vs 56years, p<0.001). There were no differences in the proportion of patients who had central chest pain (74.9% vs 75.7%, p=0.526); ambulance utilisation (41.7% vs 41.1%, p=0.697); and time to initial treatment in ED (21 vs 22min, p=0.375). However, CALD patients spent a significantly longer total time in ED (5.4 vs 4.3h, p<0.001). There was no difference in guideline concordance between the two groups with low rates of 12.5% vs 13%, p=0.556. Nonetheless, CALD patients were 22% (95% CI, 0.65, 0.95, p=0.015) less likely to receive the guideline management for chest pain. The initial emergency care was equally provided to all patients in the context of a low rate of concordance with three chest pain related standards from the two guidelines. Nonetheless, CALD patients spent a longer time in ED compared to the Australian-born group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  18. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  19. Modality-specific processing precedes amodal linguistic processing during L2 sign language acquisition: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    The present study tracked activation pattern differences in response to sign language processing by late hearing second language learners of American Sign Language. Learners were scanned before the start of their language courses. They were scanned again after their first semester of instruction and their second, for a total of 10 months of instruction. The study aimed to characterize modality-specific to modality-general processing throughout the acquisition of sign language. Results indicated that before the acquisition of sign language, neural substrates related to modality-specific processing were present. After approximately 45 h of instruction, the learners transitioned into processing signs on a phonological basis (e.g., supramarginal gyrus, putamen). After one more semester of input, learners transitioned once more to a lexico-semantic processing stage (e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus) at which language control mechanisms (e.g., left caudate, cingulate gyrus) were activated. During these transitional steps right hemispheric recruitment was observed, with increasing left-lateralization, which is similar to other native signers and L2 learners of spoken language; however, specialization for sign language processing with activation in the inferior parietal lobule (i.e., angular gyrus), even for late learners, was observed. As such, the present study is the first to track L2 acquisition of sign language learners in order to characterize modality-independent and modality-specific mechanisms for bilingual language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The process of urban regeneration in context of information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazik Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the concept of innovation of the urban regeneration process in context of transformations which are generated by information-communication technologies. From one aspect, Serbia has an exceptional human potential presented in number of 13,000 graduates each year, or in share of 42% of population who speaks English, which is the largest among all Eastern and Central European countries. This forms a basis for formulation of strategies of information society development in Serbia as well as for economic adjustments based upon knowledge, and for tracing the way to future knowledge society, i.e. eEurope 2020. On the other hand, we are witnessing an intensive development of huge complexes of mega and hypermarkets as a present dominant way for our city spaces' regeneration. At the same time, experiences from some other locations point to the deterioration of cities' urban identity as a consequence of the global capital infiltration and of development within an urban tissue of a huge complex of multi-national companies. Aiming to overcome the mistakes portrayed by international experience, as well as potential oversights that may occur because of routine and mismatch between certain phases of the sustainable development process, this paper makes an emphasis on the importance of an integral evaluation of the information society development trends and the spatial aspects of urban regeneration. It is essential to adjust devastated urban spaces as artifacts of one technological era to the actual information era with indication of future digital knowledge era, i.e. to plan, design and develop *according to new technological requirements and possibilities for new working places and new quality of living.

  2. INTERDISCURSIVE PROCESSES IN LINGUISTICS AND LITERARY STUDIES: LANGUAGES AND MEDIA IN THE INNOVATION PROCESS OF THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Barbosa da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a brief reflection on the interaction between languages ??and media, resulting in a close dialogue between language and technological processes that underlie the historical, and temporal dimensions, but also discursive and audiovisual, especially in poetic interart. Such elements have formed the basis of the discussion held in the discipline Language, Media and Discourse Processes within the Postgraduate in Studies of Languages of CEFET MG

  3. Genre Analysis in the Frame of Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najih Imtihani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Functional Linguistics is a linguistics approach which cop-siders not only the structure of the language but also its social context. In the Systemic Functional Linguistics the concept of genre is defined as a step-by-step activity to reach the goal. The concept of genre is used to describe the cultural context in a language. According to this view, text should be seen and observed in its interaction with the context and social background. For that, the genre analysis will constantly involve the linguistic social context in the forms of field, tenor, mode, schematic structure and its realization in the text.

  4. Preserving the Context of Interrupted Business Process Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassil, S.; Rinderle, S.B.; Keller, R.; Reichert, M.U.; Kropf, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    The capability to safely interrupt business process activities is an important requirement for advanced process-aware information systems. Indeed, exceptions stemming from the application environment often appear while one or more application-related process activities are running. Safely

  5. Preserving the Context of Interrupted Business Process Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassil, S.; Rinderle, S.B.; Keller, R.; Kropf, P.G.; Reichert, M.U.; Chen, C.S.; Filipe, J.; Seruca, I.; Cordeiro, J.

    2006-01-01

    The capability to safely interrupt business process activities is an important requirement for advanced process-aware information systems. Indeed, exceptions stemming from the application environment often appear while one or more application-related process activities are running. Safely

  6. Context counts! Social anxiety modulates the processing of fearful faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eAdolph

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During emotion perception, context is an important source of information. Whether contextual cues from modalities other than vision or audition influence the perception of social emotional information has not been investigated.Thus, the present study aimed at testing emotion perception and regulation in response to fearful facial expressions presented in the context of chemosensory stimuli derived from sweat of anxious individuals. In groups of high (HSA and low socially anxious (LSA participants we recorded the startle reflex (Experiment I, and analysed event-related potentials (ERPs; Experiment II while they viewed anxious facial expressions in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals and chemosensory control stimuli. Results revealed that N1/P1 and N170 amplitudes were larger while Late Positive Potential (LPP activity was smaller for facial expressions presented in the context of the anxiety and the chemosensory control stimulus as compared to facial expressions without a chemosensory context. Furthermore, HSA participants were highly sensitive to the contextual anxiety signals. They showed enhanced motivated attention allocation (LPP, Study II, as well as larger startle responses towards faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals than did LSA participants (Study I. Chemosensory context had no effect on emotion regulation, and both LSA and HSA participants showed effective emotion regulation (Study I and II. In conclusion, both anxiety and chemosensory sport context stimuli enhanced early attention allocation and structural encoding, but diminished motivated attention allocation to the facial expressions. The current results show that visual and chemosensory information is integrated on virtually all levels of stimulus processing and that socially anxious individuals might be especially sensitive to chemosensory contextual social information.

  7. Overview of a Linguistic Theory of Design. AI Memo 383A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark L.; Goldstein, Ira P.

    The SPADE theory, which uses linguistic formalisms to model the planning and debugging processes of computer programming, was simultaneously developed and tested in three separate contexts--computer uses in education, automatic programming (a traditional artificial intelligence arena), and protocol analysis (the domain of information processing…

  8. Using Defined Processes as a Context for Resilience Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    processes. 1 "W. Edwards Deming." BrainyQuote.com. Xplore Inc, 2010. Accessed September 22, 2011. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/w...process owner of this process element or another related organizational home page, e.g., Software Engineering Institute, IEEE or a government regulatory

  9. Context-Aware Design for Process Flexibility and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Today's organizations face continuous and unprecedented changes in their business environment. Traditional process design tools tend to be inflexible and can only support rigidly defined processes (e.g., order processing in the supply chain). This considerably restricts their real-world applications value, especially in the dynamic and…

  10. The COGs (context, object, and goals) in multisensory processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Oever, Sanne; Romei, Vincenzo; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Murray, Micah M; Matusz, Pawel J

    Our understanding of how perception operates in real-world environments has been substantially advanced by studying both multisensory processes and "top-down" control processes influencing sensory processing via activity from higher-order brain areas, such as attention, memory, and expectations. As

  11. A Study of Directive Speech Acts Used by Iranian Nursery School Children: The Impact of Context on Children’s Linguistic Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at finding out the forms and functions of directive speech acts uttered by Persian-speaking children. The writer’s goal is to discover the distinct strategies applied by speakers of nursery school age children regarding three parameters: the choice of form, the negotiation of communicative goals within conversation, and the protection of face. The data collected for this purpose are based on actual school conversational situations that were audio recorded in four nursery schools during classroom work and playtime activities. Children, who are the subjects of this study, are of both sexes and various social backgrounds. The results revealed that (1 the investigation of children’s directive speech acts confirm the fact that they are aware of social parameters of talk (Andersen- Slosberg,1990; Ervin, Tripp et al., 1990; (2 they use linguistic forms that are different from what is used by adults as politeness marker, such as, polite 2nd plural subject-agreement on the verb, “please” and “thank you” words; (3 They use declaratives with illocutionary force in order to mark distance (Georgalidou, 2001. Keywords: Iranian children’s speech; Directive speech act; Politeness, Conversational analysis; Persian

  12. Integrated model of assisted parking system and performance evaluation with entropy weight extended analytic hierarchy process and two-tuple linguistic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiding Hua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating comprehensive performance of assisted parking system has been a very important issue for car companies for years, because the overall performance of assisted parking system directly influences car intellectualization and customers’ degree of satisfaction. Therefore, this article proposes two-tuple linguistic analytic hierarchy process to evaluate assisted parking system so as to avoid information loss during the processes of evaluation integration. The performance evaluation attributes for assisted parking system are established initially. Subsequently, the information entropy theory is proposed to improve the evaluation attribute weight determined by analytic hierarchy process for the influencing factors of the randomness in parking test process. Furthermore, the evaluation attribute measure values of comprehensive performance are calculated and the assisted parking system evaluation results are obtained with ordered weighted averaging operator. Finally, numerical examples of vehicle types equipped with eight different assisted parking systems and computational results are presented.

  13. The Bantu-Romance-Greek connection revisited: Processing constraints in auxiliary and clitic placement from a cross-linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Chatzikyriakidis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a connection between Romance and Greek on the one hand, and Bantu on the other. More specifically, we look at auxiliary placement in Rangi and clitic placement in Tobler Mussafia languages, with a special emphasis on Cypriot Greek, and argue that a common explanation for their distribution can be found once a move into a dynamic framework is made. Rangi exhibits an unusual word order alternation in auxiliary constructions under which the position of the auxiliary appears to be sensitive to an element appearing at the left periphery of the clause. A similar sensitivity to a left-peripheral element can be seen to regulate clitic placement in Cypriot Greek (and generally in the so-called Tobler Mussafia clitic languages. The paper presents a parsing-oriented account of these two phenomena in the Dynamic Syntax framework, arguing that the similarities in syntactic distribution are the result of the encoding in the lexicon of processing strategies that were potentially pragmatic preferences in earlier stages of the respective languages. The account thus leans on the role played by the lexical entries for auxiliary and clitic forms, as well as the assumption that underspecification is inherent in the process of establishing meaning in context. The account is further supplemented by possible pathways of diachronic change that could have given rise to the systems found in present day varieties.

  14. Assessment Moderation in an Australian Context: Processes, Practices, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Denise; Adie, Lenore; Lloyd, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Moderation is a quality assurance process that plays a central role in the teaching, learning, and assessment cycle in higher education. While there is a growing body of research globally on teaching, learning, and, to a lesser degree, assessment in higher education, the process of moderation of assessment has received even less attention. In a…

  15. Process chain modeling and selection in an additive manufacturing context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Stolfi, Alessandro; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new two-dimensional approach to modeling manufacturing process chains. This approach is used to consider the role of additive manufacturing technologies in process chains for a part with micro scale features and no internal geometry. It is shown that additive manufacturing...... evolving fields like additive manufacturing....

  16. Processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain: Insights from simultaneous interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Until now, considerable effort has been made to determine structural brain characteristics related to exceptional multilingual skills. However, at least one important question has not yet been satisfactorily addressed in the previous literature, namely whether and to which extent the processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions may promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain. Based on the premise that simultaneous interpretation is a highly demanding linguistic task that places strong demands on executive and articulatory functions, here we compared grey matter volumes between professional simultaneous interpreters (SI) and multilingual control subjects. Thereby, we focused on a specific set of a-priori defined bilateral brain regions that have previously been shown to support neurocognitional aspects of language control and linguistic functions in the multilingual brain. These regions are the cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, frontal operculum (pars triangularis and opercularis), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (supramarginal and angular gyrus), and the insula. As a main result, we found reduced grey matter volumes in professional SI, compared to multilingual controls, in the left middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, bilateral middle part of the insula, and in the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Interestingly, grey matter volume in left pars triangularis, right pars opercularis, middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, and in the bilateral caudate nucleus was negatively correlated with the cumulative number of interpreting hours. Hence, we provide first evidence for an expertise-related grey matter architecture that may reflect a composite of brain characteristics that were still present before interpreting training and training-related changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  18. Linguistic and Psycho-Linguistic Principles of Linguadidactics (theoretical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Mauzienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers linguadidactics being closely related to linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics and didactics and applies their theoretical statements and regularities in its scientific studies. Methodology refers to linguistics which investigates the language as a teaching subject. Methodology is linked to psychology in two ways. First of all, it is based on psychology as the teaching process is an intellectual psychical act and its regularities are necessary to know. On the other hand, methodology applies rules of pedagogy that predicts ways of learning and development of language skills. The article emphasizes that sustainable work experience and analysis of scientific research show that teaching process is more effective if consistent patterns of linguistics and psychology are appropriately applied.

  19. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an e...

  20. Linguistic and cultural factors in the readability of mathematics texts: the Whorfian hypothesis revisited with evidence from the South African context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, E.D.; Ulijn, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    South Africa is a country of many languages and cultures. Education is mostly in English which implies that about 80% of all secondary school students are second language learners. Currently many mathematical problems are posed in real-life contexts. This not only introduces more language in

  1. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English le...... the economic and geopolitical agenda behind this English teaching business, there is clear evidence of linguistic imperialism in the functions of this global professional service. These activities serve to strengthen Western interests.......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  2. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  3. Task context impacts visual object processing differentially across the cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Assaf; Kravitz, Dwight J.; Baker, Chris I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception reflects an integration of “bottom-up” (sensory-driven) and “top-down” (internally generated) signals. Although models of visual processing often emphasize the central role of feed-forward hierarchical processing, less is known about the impact of top-down signals on complex visual representations. Here, we investigated whether and how the observer’s goals modulate object processing across the cortex. We examined responses elicited by a diverse set of objects under six distinct tasks, focusing on either physical (e.g., color) or conceptual properties (e.g., man-made). Critically, the same stimuli were presented in all tasks, allowing us to investigate how task impacts the neural representations of identical visual input. We found that task has an extensive and differential impact on object processing across the cortex. First, we found task-dependent representations in the ventral temporal and prefrontal cortex. In particular, although object identity could be decoded from the multivoxel response within task, there was a significant reduction in decoding across tasks. In contrast, the early visual cortex evidenced equivalent decoding within and across tasks, indicating task-independent representations. Second, task information was pervasive and present from the earliest stages of object processing. However, although the responses of the ventral temporal, prefrontal, and parietal cortex enabled decoding of both the type of task (physical/conceptual) and the specific task (e.g., color), the early visual cortex was not sensitive to type of task and could only be used to decode individual physical tasks. Thus, object processing is highly influenced by the behavioral goal of the observer, highlighting how top-down signals constrain and inform the formation of visual representations. PMID:24567402

  4. Elaborative Processing in the Korsakoff Syndrome: Context versus Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2008-01-01

    Using a procedure of Hay and Jacoby [Hay, J. F., & Jacoby, L. L. (1999). "Separating habit and recollection in young and older adults: Effects of elaborative processing and distinctiveness." "Psychology and Aging," 14, 122-134], Korsakoff patients' capacity to encode and retrieve elaborative, semantic information was investigated. Habits were…

  5. A interferência da frequência em fenômenos linguísticos The interface between frequency and linguistic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Huback

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute efeitos de frequência em alguns casos de variações fonológicas e morfológicas do português brasileiro. O Modelo de Redes (Bybee 1985, 2001, 2010 foi adotado como foco teórico. Quatro fenômenos linguísticos do português brasileiro foram comparados na tentativa de entender que tipos de processos linguísticos afetam as palavras mais frequentes ou as menos frequentes primeiro. Conclui-se que, nos casos analisados, variações de fundo analógico parecem afetar as palavras menos frequentes primeiro, ao passo que reduções fonéticas parecem afetar as palavras mais frequentes primeiro.This article discusses frequency effects in some Brazilian Portuguese phonological and morphological variations. The theoretical background adopted is the Network Model (Bybee 1985, 2001, 2010. Different linguistic phenomena are compared to analyze which linguistic processes affect the most or the least frequent words first. As a conclusion, it is observed that variations based on analogy seem to affect the least frequent words first, whereas phonetic reductions seem to affect the most frequent words first.

  6. What can literature do for linguistics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2007-01-01

      Through analyses of selected passages from James Joyce's Ulysses, this article demonstrates how the challenging of the boundaries between linguistics and literary studies can be more than a one-way process aimed at uncovering linguistic patterns of literary texts. The theoretical basis...

  7. What Is Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Ostensive and expository definitions of applied linguistics are assessed. It is suggested that the key to a meaningful definition lies in the dual articulation of applied linguistics: it is an interface between linguistics and practicality. Its role as an "expert system" is suggested. (45 references) (Author/LB)

  8. Relevance as process: judgements in the context of scholarly research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa D. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper discusses how exploring the research process in-depth and over time contributes to a fuller understanding of interactions with various representations of information. Method. A longitudinal ethnographic study explored decisions made by two informants involved in scholarly research. Relevance assessment and information seeking were observed as part of informants' own ongoing research projects. Fieldwork used methods of discovery that allowed informants to shape the exploration of the practices surrounding the evolving understandings of their topics. Analysis. Inductive analysis was carried out on the qualitative data collected over a two-year period of judgements observed on a document-by-document basis. The paper introduces broad categories that point to the variability and richness of the ways that informants used representations of information resources to make relevance judgements. Results. Relevance judgements appear to be drivers of the search and research processes informants moved through during the observations. Focusing on research goals rather than on retrieval tasks brings us to a fuller understanding of the relationship between ultimate research goals and the articulation of those goals in interactions with information systems. Conclusion. Relevance assessment is a process that unfolds in the doing of a search, the making of judgements and the using of texts and representations of information.

  9. Estudos sobre educação bilíngüe e escolarização em contextos de minorias lingüisticas no Brasil Studies on bilingual education and schooling in Brazilian contexts of linguistic minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda C. CAVALCANTI

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a state-of-the-art of a subarea in Applied Linguistics, i.e., bilingual education studies in Brazil or yet education in bilingual settings such as indigenous communities, immigrant, frontier and deaf communities. These settings usually have more than two languages in use as well as language varieties. The paper shows a sociolinguistic panorama of the country and of the studies about education in linguistic minority contexts and draws implications for teacher education and language diversity.

  10. OCCASIONAL ADNOMINAL IDIOM MODIFICATION - A COGNITIVE LINGUISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Langlotz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available occasional Adnominal Idiom Modification - A Cognitive Linguistic Approach From a cognitive-linguistic perspective, this paper explores alternative types of adnoniinal modification in occasional variants of English verbal idioms. Being discussed against data extracted from the British National Corpiis (BNC, the model claims that in idioni-production idiomatic constructions are activated as complex linguistic schemas to code a context-specific target-conceptualisation. Adnominal pre- and postmodifications are one specific form of creative alteration to adapt the idiom for this purpose. Semantically, idiom-interna1 NPextension is not a uniforni process. It is necessary to distinguish two systematic types of adnominal modification: external and internal modification (Ernst 1981. While external NPmodification has adverbial function, ¡.e. it modifies the idiom as a unit, internal modification directly applies to the head-noun and thus depends on the degree of motivation and analysability of a given idiom. Following the cognitive-linguistic framework, these dimensions of idiom-transparency result from the language user's ability to remotivate the bipartite semantic structure by conceptual metaphors and metonymies.

  11. Extending CPN tools with ontologies to support the management of context-adaptive business processes

    OpenAIRE

    Serral Asensio, Estefanía; De Smedt, Johannes; Vanthienen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Colored Petri Nets (CPN) are a widely used graphical modeling language to manage business processes. Business processes often appear in dynamic environments; therefore, context adaptation has recently emerged as a new challenge to explicitly addressfitness between business process modeling and its execution environment. Although CPN can introduce data by dedefining internal data records, this is not enough to capture the complexity and dynamics of the execution context data. This paper ext...

  12. Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering: Adaptation of Linguistic Paradigm for Circumstance of Engineering Epoch

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Halina

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems of linguistic knowledge in the Engineering Epoch. Engineering Epoch is the time of adaptation to the information flows by knowledge management, The system of adaptation mechanisms is connected with linguistic and linguistic technologies, forming in new linguistic patterns Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering.

  13. Grounding Context in Face Processing: Color, Emotion and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eGil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers have become interested in the way that the affective quality of contextual information transfers to a perceived target. We therefore examined the effect of a red (versus green, mixed red/green and achromatic background–known to be valenced−on the processing of stimuli that play a key role in human interactions, namely facial expressions. We also examined whether the valenced-color effect can be modulated by gender, which is also known to be valenced. Female and male adult participants performed a categorization task of facial expressions of emotion in which the faces of female and male posers expressing two ambiguous emotions (i.e., neutral and surprise were presented against the four different colored backgrounds. Additionally, this task was completed by collecting subjective ratings for each colored background in the form of five semantic differential scales corresponding to both discrete and dimensional perspectives of emotion. We found that the red background resulted in more negative face perception than the green background, whether the poser was female or male. However, whereas this valenced-color effect was the only effect for female posers, for male posers, the effect was modulated by both the nature of the ambiguous emotion and the decoder’s gender. Overall, our findings offer evidence that color and gender have a common valence-based dimension.

  14. Right to resistance in the context of democratic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. О. Павшук

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. Right to resistance and especially right to rebellion should be considered as an element of constitutional order’s ensuring. It means the right of some Ukrainian citizen to realize civil disobedience as a resistance and a rebellion as to one kind of it. Rebellion against the power is the result of absence of stage-by-stage mutual discussion and consensus between power and people. It means that the absence of past democratic practices could be the reason of power usurpation and human rights violations. Recent research and publications analysis. Right of people to resistance and rebellion was considered by numerous scientists in the spheres of constitutional right, of political science and legal theory of past and modern times. Among them it could be named J. Lock, V.V. Rechitskij, S.Pogrebnjak etc. Paper objective. The main aim of the article is to find out the essence of the right to resistance and rebellion as an element of constitutional order’s ensuring, to review reasons of it, its forms and their realizations in a modern democratic state. Paper main body. In the article it is considered the direct and indirect form of the right’s realization. Directly the right to resistance takes is executed in the case of violations by bodies of a state power or in the case of citizen’s disagreement with their activity by means of unarmed meetings, campaigns and demonstrations, strikes for protection of their economic and social interests. One of the most democratic methods of resistance that has indirect character is a nationwide referendum against the solutions of a parliament. The alternative forms of resistance are civil hearings and people’s legislative initiatives, “people’s veto”, which can decrease the probability of a conflict aggravation.   Conclusions. Only participation of each citizen in the process of state rule should to prevent human and civil rights violations, abuses of state authority that can have as

  15. Diagnostic Problem-Solving Process in Professional Contexts: Theory and Empirical Investigation in the Context of Car Mechatronics Using Computer-Generated Log-Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with a theory-based investigation of the diagnostic problem-solving process in professional contexts. To begin with, a theory of the diagnostic problem-solving process was developed drawing on findings from different professional contexts. The theory distinguishes between four sub-processes of the diagnostic problem-solving…

  16. On Linguistic Abilities, Multilingualism, and Linguistic Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannàccaro Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of linguistic justice should be related to the concept of linguistic ease, by which we mean the full social and communicative freedom of concern of the speaker in a given social interaction involving the use of language(s present in the society, according to the social norms of use. To acquire an acceptable degree of linguistic ease, the knowledge of at least one L2 is considered important. But the acquisition of a L2 is interfered by the previous linguistic skills of the learner/speaker who, in many cases, does not have a suitable competence even of the languages of the society in which he/she lives.

  17. Effects of global and local contexts on chord processing: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zhou, Xuefeng; Chang, Ruohan; Yang, Yufang

    2018-01-31

    In real life, the processing of an incoming event is continuously influenced by prior information at multiple timescales. The present study investigated how harmonic contexts at both local and global levels influence the processing of an incoming chord in an event-related potentials experiment. Chord sequences containing two phrases were presented to musically trained listeners, with the last critical chord either harmonically related or less related to its preceding context at local and/or global levels. ERPs data showed an ERAN-like effect for local context in early time window and a N5-like component for later interaction between the local context and global context. These results suggest that both the local and global contexts influence the processing of an incoming music event, and the local effect happens earlier than the global. Moreover, the interaction between the local context and global context in N5 may suggest that music syntactic integration at local level takes place prior to the integration at global level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lancaster Summer School in Corpus Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Čibej

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Med 12. in 15. julijem je na Univerzi v Lancastru potekala poletna šola korpusnega jezikoslovja Lancaster Summer Schools in Corpus Linguistics and Other Digital Methods. Poletno šolo so organizirali UCREL (University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, ERC (Evropski svet za raziskave – European Research Council, CASS (ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science in ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council, razdeljena pa je bila na šest programov, prilagojenih različnim področjem: Korpusno jezikoslovje za proučevanje jezikov (Corpus Linguistics for Language Studies, Korpusno jezikoslovje za družbene vede (Corpus Linguistics for Social Science, Korpusno jezikoslovje za humanistiko (Corpus Linguistics for Humanities, Statistika za korpusno jezikoslovje (Statistics for Corpus Linguistics, Geografski informacijski sistemi za digitalno humanistiko (Geographical Information Systems for the Digital Humanities in Korpusno podprta obdelava naravnih jezikov (Corpus-based Natural Language Processing.

  19. Evolutionary approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Jordan, Peter; Cochrane, Ethan

    2010-12-12

    Evolutionary approaches to cultural change are increasingly influential, and many scientists believe that a 'grand synthesis' is now in sight. The papers in this Theme Issue, which derives from a symposium held by the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (University College London) in December 2008, focus on how the phylogenetic tree-building and network-based techniques used to estimate descent relationships in biology can be adapted to reconstruct cultural histories, where some degree of inter-societal diffusion will almost inevitably be superimposed on any deeper signal of a historical branching process. The disciplines represented include the three most purely 'cultural' fields from the four-field model of anthropology (cultural anthropology, archaeology and linguistic anthropology). In this short introduction, some context is provided from the history of anthropology, and key issues raised by the papers are highlighted.

  20. Conceptualizing Context and Its Relationship to the Information Behavior in Disseertation Research Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ju L.Chang、Yu-Ya Lee

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:4-18

    Context has been addressed as an influential factor of human information behavior. However, there is no consensus on what constitutes a context, or what the relationship between context and information behavior is. In this paper we explore the notions of context and describe the relationship between context and information behavior based on empirical findings, and reviews of current· literature. Our finding suggests that context is stratified and dynamic.

    A context is consisted of several situations, and each situation is defined by a set of related contextual factors. In this way, we propose a new approach to represent the context and situation. At different levels of context, multiple relationships between context and information behavior are identified, including the association relationship, the interaction relationship, and the one-directional relationship. These findings substantiate the concept of situation in Dervin's Sense-making approach, the concept of information horizon proposed by Sonnenwald, and Ingwersen's cognitive model of IR interaction. The multiple relationships between context and information behavior imply that information behavior is related to, but not equal to the process of problem solving. In contrast, information behavior can be viewed as a response of certain situation in the context.

  1. The subcortical role of language processing. High level linguistic features such as ambiguity-resolution and the human brain; an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketteler, Daniel; Kastrau, Frank; Vohn, Rene; Huber, Walter

    2008-02-15

    In the present study, we were interested in the neurofunctional representations of ambiguity processing by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve right-handed, healthy adults aged between 21 and 29 years (6 male, 6 female) underwent an ambiguity resolution task with 4 different conditions (dominant vs. non-dominant; dominant vs. distractor; non-dominant vs. distractor; distractor vs. distractor). After subtraction of the corresponding control task (distractor vs. distractor) we found significant activation especially in the thalamus and some parts of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen). Our findings implicate a participation of the thalamus and other basal ganglia circuits in high level linguistic functions and match with theoretical considerations on this highly controversial topic. Subcortical neural circuits probably become activated when the language processing system cannot rely entirely on automatic mechanisms but has to recruit controlled processes as well. Furthermore, we found broad activation in the inferior parietal lobule, the prefrontal gyrus, pre-SMA and SMA and the cingulate cortex. This might reflect a strategic semantic search mechanism which probably can be illustrated with connectionist models of language processing. According to this, we hypothesize a neuroregulatory role for the thalamus and basal ganglia in regulating and monitoring the release of preformulated language segments for motor programming and semantic verification. According to our findings there is strong evidence, that especially the thalamus, the caudate nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobule and the prefrontal cortex are responsible for an accurate ambiguity resolution in the human brain.

  2. Context processing in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: How complex could it be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Dekel; Anaki, David; Golan, Ofer

    2017-03-01

    The ability of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to process context has long been debated: According to the Weak Central Coherence theory, ASD is characterized by poor global processing, and consequently-poor context processing. In contrast, the Social Cognition theory argues individuals with ASD will present difficulties only in social context processing. The complexity theory of autism suggests context processing in ASD will depend on task complexity. The current study examined this controversy through two priming tasks, one presenting human stimuli (facial expressions) and the other presenting non-human stimuli (animal faces). Both tasks presented visual targets, preceded by congruent, incongruent, or neutral auditory primes. Local and global processing were examined by presenting the visual targets in three spatial frequency conditions: High frequency, low frequency, and broadband. Tasks were administered to 16 adolescents with high functioning ASD and 16 matched typically developing adolescents. Reaction time and accuracy were measured for each task in each condition. Results indicated that individuals with ASD processed context for both human and non-human stimuli, except in one condition, in which human stimuli had to be processed globally (i.e., target presented in low frequency). The task demands presented in this condition, and the performance deficit shown in the ASD group as a result, could be understood in terms of cognitive overload. These findings provide support for the complexity theory of autism and extend it. Our results also demonstrate how associative priming could support intact context processing of human and non-human stimuli in individuals with ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 520-530. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Context-dependent motor skill: perceptual processing in memory-based sequence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Marit F L; Abrahamse, Elger L; De Kleine, Elian; Verwey, Willem B

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that motor sequencing skill can benefit from the reinstatement of the learning context-even with respect to features that are formally not required for appropriate task performance. The present study explored whether such context-dependence develops when sequence execution is fully memory-based-and thus no longer assisted by stimulus-response translations. Specifically, we aimed to distinguish between preparation and execution processes. Participants performed two keying sequences in a go/no-go version of the discrete sequence production task in which the context consisted of the color in which the target keys of a particular sequence were displayed. In a subsequent test phase, these colors either were the same as during practice, were reversed for the two sequences or were novel. Results showed that, irrespective of the amount of practice, performance across all key presses in the reversed context condition was impaired relative to performance in the same and novel contexts. This suggests that the online preparation and/or execution of single key presses of the sequence is context-dependent. We propose that a cognitive processor is responsible both for these online processes and for advance sequence preparation and that combined findings from the current and previous studies build toward the notion that the cognitive processor is highly sensitive to changes in context across the various roles that it performs.

  4. Effects of the situational context and interactional process on the quality of family caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L R; Morrison, E; Steffl, B; Chae, Y M; Cromwell, S L; Russell, C K

    1995-06-01

    A staged theoretical model designed to explain the quality of elder caring by family members was tested. The model posits how the situational context, interactional process, and caregiving burden perceived by the caregiver affect the quality of elder caring. The purpose was to determine the amount of variance explained by the interactional process beyond that explained by the situational context and caregiving burden. Data were collected from 209 elder-caregiver dyads using interviews, observations, and caregiver self-reports. The strongest predictors of caregiving burden were the caregiver's stressful negative life events (situational context) and discrepancy between past and present image of elder (interactional process). The strongest predictors of quality of elder caring were the caregiver's perception of subjective burden and a monitoring role definition on the part of the caregiver (interactional process).

  5. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  6. Copyright Essentials for Linguists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Newman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses copyright issues that linguists confront in their capacity as users and creators of scholarly work. It is organized in a simple question-answer format. Questions 1-3 present the basics of U.S. copyright law, including the fundamental nature of copyright as a bundle of intellectual property rights and the role of registration. Questions 4-5 treat issues of copyright notice. Questions 6-8 explain licenses, especially Creative Commons licenses, and the function of an Author's Addendum. Questions 9-10 look at copyright in the context of online open access publishing. Question 11 discusses the concept of Fair Use. Question 12 analyzes the problem of what are called Orphan Works. Questions 13-19 explore issues of copyright ownership, including Work for Hire, joint authorship, and attribution. Questions 20-22 deal with copyright with specific reference to fieldwork situations and indigenous rights. The paper concludes with a brief presentation of key sources for further study and clarification.

  7. Risk management in medical product development process using traditional FMEA and fuzzy linguistic approach: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkire, Milind Shrikant; Rane, Santosh B.; Jadhav, Jagdish Rajaram

    2015-12-01

    Medical product development (MPD) process is highly multidisciplinary in nature, which increases the complexity and the associated risks. Managing the risks during MPD process is very crucial. The objective of this research is to explore risks during MPD in a dental product manufacturing company and propose a model for risk mitigation during MPD process to minimize failure events. A case study approach is employed. The existing MPD process is mapped with five phases of the customized phase gate process. The activities during each phase of development and risks associated with each activity are identified and categorized based on the source of occurrence. The risks are analyzed using traditional Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fuzzy FMEA. The results of two methods when compared show that fuzzy approach avoids the duplication of RPNs and helps more to convert cognition of experts into information to get values of risk factors. The critical, moderate, low level and negligible risks are identified based on criticality; risk treatments and mitigation model are proposed. During initial phases of MPD, the risks are less severe, but as the process progresses the severity of risks goes on increasing. The MPD process should be critically designed and simulated to minimize the number of risk events and their severity. To successfully develop the products/devices within the manufacturing companies, the process risk management is very essential. A systematic approach to manage risks during MPD process will lead to the development of medical products with expected quality and reliability. This is the first research of its kind having focus on MPD process risks and its management. The methodology adopted in this paper will help the developers, managers and researchers to have a competitive edge over the other companies by managing the risks during the development process.

  8. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is an annual/biannual open access, peer-reviewed international journal, published by the Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. The papers published in SPiL are ... Poetry in South African Sign Language: What is different? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  9. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...

  10. Linguistic Communications 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia).

    The present compilation of papers on linguistics is the result of joint efforts by the Classical Studies, French, Japanese, Linguistics, and Russian Departments of Monash University. Selections in the Pre-Prints and Articles section include: "For/Arabic Bilingualism in the Zalingei Area," by B. Jernudd; "Prosodic Problems in a Generative Phonology…

  11. A benefit of context reinstatement to recognition memory in aging: the role of familiarity processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Emma V; Maylor, Elizabeth A; Poirier, Marie; Korko, Malgorzata; Ruud, Jens C M

    2017-11-01

    Reinstatement of encoding context facilitates memory for targets in young and older individuals (e.g., a word studied on a particular background scene is more likely to be remembered later if it is presented on the same rather than a different scene or no scene), yet older adults are typically inferior at recalling and recognizing target-context pairings. This study examined the mechanisms of the context effect in normal aging. Age differences in word recognition by context condition (original, switched, none, new), and the ability to explicitly remember target-context pairings were investigated using word-scene pairs (Experiment 1) and word-word pairs (Experiment 2). Both age groups benefited from context reinstatement in item recognition, although older adults were significantly worse than young adults at identifying original pairings and at discriminating between original and switched pairings. In Experiment 3, participants were given a three-alternative forced-choice recognition task that allowed older individuals to draw upon intact familiarity processes in selecting original pairings. Performance was age equivalent. Findings suggest that heightened familiarity associated with context reinstatement is useful for boosting recognition memory in aging.

  12. The Linguistic Landscape as a Learning Space for Contextual Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladjem, Ruthi; Jou, Bibiana

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges of teaching and learning a foreign language is that students are not being sufficiently exposed to the target language. However, it is quite common to find linguistic and cultural exponents of different foreign languages in authentic contexts (termed the "Linguistic landscape"). Using the Linguistic landscape as a…

  13. Why metaphor and other tropes? Linguistic approaches to analysing policies and the political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanow, D.; Cienki, A.

    2013-01-01

    The articles in this special issue on linguistic approaches to analysing policies and the political share the goal of taking language seriously, achieved through detailed attention to linguistic usage in its respective contexts. They reflect a stance common to both cognitive linguistic and

  14. Linguistic Prescription: Familiar Practices and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a question by a law student of whether a correction of "sneaked" to "snuck" suggests misinformation and misguided rigidity in the context of better information about current legal usage and a perennial tendency to linguistic prescription. Explores attitudes to current borrowings from English into Japanese and French…

  15. A performance evaluation of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) processes within the South African context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retief, Francois

    2007-01-01

    SEA has been described as being more about process than about product. Yet very little research has been conducted to gain a better understanding of how SEA processes perform within developing country contexts. To address this gap in knowledge the research underlying this paper aimed to evaluate the quality of SEA processes within the South African context against specifically designed key performance indicators. Comparison of the different data patterns revealed general SEA process features as well as three broad models, namely the 'stand alone', 'central to decision making' and 'integrated' models. The research results suggest a particularly poor performance in terms of process quality for the SEA case studies investigated. Moreover, it shows that there is no one understanding of SEA process within the South African context. The main limitations related to a weak understanding of the decision making processes SEA aimed to inform, as well as an inability to incorporate flexibility into process design. To take the debate forward it is proposed that SEA follow-up and effectiveness research be explored to determine which of these models (if any) ultimately contributed to influencing decision making and promote sustainability

  16. Deficits in Sequential Processing Manifest in Motor and Linguistic Tasks in a Multigenerational Family with Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Button, Le; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Chapman, Kathy; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a global deficit in sequential processing as candidate endophenotypein a family with familial childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Of 10 adults and 13 children in a three-generational family with speech sound disorder (SSD) consistent with CAS, 3 adults and 6 children had past or present SSD diagnoses. Two…

  17. Linguistic knowledge, processing speed, and metacognitive knowledge in first- and second-language reading comprehension : A componential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, Amos; Schoonen, Rob; de Glopper, Kees; Hulstijn, Jan; Simis, Annegien; Snellings, Patrick; Stevenson, Marie

    The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2.

  18. Linguistic knowledge, processing speed and metacognitive knowledge in first and second language reading comprehension; a componential analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, A.; Schoonen, R.; de Glopper, K.; Hulstijn, J.; Simis, A.; Snellings, P.; Stevenson, M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2.

  19. What can speech production errors tell us about cross-linguistic processing in bilingual aphasia? Evidence from four English/Afrikaans bilingual individuals with aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Kendall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is contribute to clinical practice of bilinguals around the globe, as well as to add to our understanding of bilingual aphasia processing, by analysing confrontation naming data from four Afrikaans/English bilingual individuals with acquired aphasia due to a left hemisphere stroke. Methods: This is a case series analysis of four Afrikaans/English bilingual aphasic individuals following a left cerebrovascular accident. Error analysis of confrontation naming data in both languages was performed. Research questions were directed toward the between language differences in lexical retrieval abilities, types of errors produced and degree of cognate overlap. Results: Three of the four participants showed significantly higher naming accuracy in first acquired language (L1 relative to the second acquired language (L2 and the largest proportion of error type for those three participants in both L1 and L2 was omission. One of the four participants (linguistically balanced showed no between language accuracy difference. Regarding cognate overlap, there was a trend for higher accuracy for higher cognate words (compared to low. Discussion: This study showed that naming performance in these four individuals was reflective of their relative language proficiency and use patterns prior to their stroke. These findings are consistent with the hierarchical model, in normal bilingual speakers and with persons with bilingual aphasia.

  20. Estudo do papel do contexto linguístico no tratamento do desvio fonológico Study of the role of the linguistic context in the treatment of articulatory disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Ferreira Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    promoted more changes in the phonological system of the subjects than the favorable environment. The data of the subjects of this study showed favorable contexts for the acquisition of /r/ in children with phonological disorders. CONCLUSION: The favorable linguistic context, based on normality data, is not applicable to children with phonological disorders. It is suggested the realization of research in the treatment of phonological disorders using the contexts proposed in this study to test their applicability.

  1. A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, James N; Howard, Ian S; Flanagan, J Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field) perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar object dynamics

  2. A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Ingram

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar

  3. Applied Linguistics and the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines the complexities and differences involved in granting disciplinary status to the role of applied linguistics, discusses the role of the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics" as a contributor to the development of applied linguistics, and highlights a set of publications for the future of applied linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  4. DEVELOPING LINGUISTIC SKILLS AND ABILITIES IN EMP STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Milosavljević

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available English for medical purposes falls within the category of discipline-specific language learning. It is characterized by specific linguistic features and requires specific study that is possible to carry out using specially designed programmes. Reading skill is one way of learning strategy of English for medical purposes. Most often, students use this skill in order to obtain information for some particular topic from the area of medical science, or because they need some sort of instruction in order to carry out certain task. Vocabulary acquisition plays a very important role in EMP teaching. It is achieved best through learning vocabulary in context, rather than in isolation. One of the most important questions in EMP teaching is related to what grammatical constructions should be analysed and emphasised. Some types of these activities would include, for example, asking students to find examples of one particular structure in the text or fill in the blanks with the missing forms such as tenses, passive forms, prepositions, etc. Speaking skill represents productive skill the aim of which is communication. In order for foreign language communication to be suucessful, a student should know linguistic and cultural features of native speakers and follow certain rules and conventions that are not easy to define. It is of crucial importance that during teaching process students develop strategies and techniques that will help them use linguistic structures fluently, apply language in different situations, take part in discussions, and use acquired vocabulary in accurate and precise way.

  5. The Context, Process, and Outcome Evaluation Model for Organisational Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Annemarie; Jenny, Gregor J; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate evaluation of complex, organisational health interventions (OHIs), this paper aims at developing a context, process, and outcome (CPO) evaluation model. It builds on previous model developments in the field and advances them by clearly defining and relating generic evaluation categories for OHIs. Context is defined as the underlying frame that influences and is influenced by an OHI. It is further differentiated into the omnibus and discrete contexts. Process is differentiated into the implementation process, as the time-limited enactment of the original intervention plan, and the change process of individual and collective dynamics triggered by the implementation process. These processes lead to proximate, intermediate, and distal outcomes, as all results of the change process that are meaningful for various stakeholders. Research questions that might guide the evaluation of an OHI according to the CPO categories and a list of concrete themes/indicators and methods/sources applied within the evaluation of an OHI project at a hospital in Switzerland illustrate the model's applicability in structuring evaluations of complex OHIs. In conclusion, the model supplies a common language and a shared mental model for improving communication between researchers and company members and will improve the comparability and aggregation of evaluation study results.

  6. The Context, Process, and Outcome Evaluation Model for Organisational Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Annemarie; Jenny, Gregor J.; Bauer, Georg F.

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate evaluation of complex, organisational health interventions (OHIs), this paper aims at developing a context, process, and outcome (CPO) evaluation model. It builds on previous model developments in the field and advances them by clearly defining and relating generic evaluation categories for OHIs. Context is defined as the underlying frame that influences and is influenced by an OHI. It is further differentiated into the omnibus and discrete contexts. Process is differentiated into the implementation process, as the time-limited enactment of the original intervention plan, and the change process of individual and collective dynamics triggered by the implementation process. These processes lead to proximate, intermediate, and distal outcomes, as all results of the change process that are meaningful for various stakeholders. Research questions that might guide the evaluation of an OHI according to the CPO categories and a list of concrete themes/indicators and methods/sources applied within the evaluation of an OHI project at a hospital in Switzerland illustrate the model's applicability in structuring evaluations of complex OHIs. In conclusion, the model supplies a common language and a shared mental model for improving communication between researchers and company members and will improve the comparability and aggregation of evaluation study results. PMID:26557665

  7. Facial emotion processing in pediatric social anxiety disorder: Relevance of situational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Daniela; Schienle, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) typically begins in childhood. Previous research has demonstrated that adult patients respond with elevated late positivity (LP) to negative facial expressions. In the present study on pediatric SAD, we investigated responses to negative facial expressions and the role of social context information. Fifteen children with SAD and 15 non-anxious controls were first presented with images of negative facial expressions with masked backgrounds. Following this, the complete images which included context information, were shown. The negative expressions were either a result of an emotion-relevant (e.g., social exclusion) or emotion-irrelevant elicitor (e.g., weight lifting). Relative to controls, the clinical group showed elevated parietal LP during face processing with and without context information. Both groups differed in their frontal LP depending on the type of context. In SAD patients, frontal LP was lower in emotion-relevant than emotion-irrelevant contexts. We conclude that SAD patients direct more automatic attention towards negative facial expressions (parietal effect) and are less capable in integrating affective context information (frontal effect). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How Do Pre-Service Teachers' Reflective Processes Differ in Relation to Different Contexts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasila, Raimo; Lauriala, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Reflective practice represents a central theme in teacher education. The focus of this study is to look at pre-service teachers' reflection processes and their breadth and depth in four different contexts. Our research data consist of 53 pre-service teachers' mathematics portfolios, from which three were selected for closer scrutiny. The chosen…

  9. Suppression of Literal Meanings in L2 Idiom Processing: Does Context Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslicka, Anna B.

    2011-01-01

    Most current idiom processing models acknowledge, after Gernsbacher and Robertson (1999) that deriving an idiomatic meaning entails suppression of contextually inappropriate, literal meanings of idiom constituent words. While embedding idioms in the rich disambiguating context can promote earlier suppression of incompatible literal meanings,…

  10. The Effect of Context on the EFL Learners' Idiom Processing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Gholamreza; Ketabi, Saeed; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of context on the strategies the EFL learners utilized to process idioms. To do so, ten Iranian intermediate EFL learners were randomly assigned to two groups who then attended a think-aloud session. The 5 subjects in the first group were exposed to an animated cartoon including 23 unfamiliar idioms while…

  11. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Processing L1 and L2 Idioms: Effects of Salience and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslicka, Anna B.; Heredia, Roberto R.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the contribution of the left and right hemispheres to the comprehension of bilingual figurative language and the joint effects of salience and context on the differential cerebral involvement in idiom processing. The divided visual field and the lexical decision priming paradigms were employed to examine the activation of…

  12. Understanding Children's Emotional Processes and Behavioral Strategies in the Context of Marital Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Kalsea J.; George, Melissa R. W.; Bergman, Kathleen N.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Marital conflict is a distressing context in which children must regulate their emotion and behavior; however, the associations between the multidimensionality of conflict and children's regulatory processes need to be examined. The current study examined differences in children's (N=207, mean age=8.02 years) emotions (mad, sad, scared, and happy)…

  13. Early referential context effects in sentence processing: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, J.J.A. van; Brown, C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    1999-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials experiment was carried out to examine the interplay of referential and structural factors during sentence processing in discourse. Subjects read (Dutch) sentences beginning like “David told the girl that … ” in short story contexts that had introduced either one or

  14. New contexts, new processes, new strategies: the co-construction of meaning in plurilingual interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Capucho

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we will present the analysis of an extract from the Bucharest-Cinco corpus that will allow us to identify the strategies developed in the process of co-construction of meaning in multilingual contexts through a close examination of verbal and non-verbal features.

  15. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features: implications for mapping language recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-06-01

    Verbal stimuli often induce right-hemispheric activation in patients with aphasia after left-hemispheric stroke. This right-hemispheric activation is commonly attributed to functional reorganization within the language system. Yet previous evidence suggests that functional activation in right-hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required subjects to decide whether a stimulus is natural or man-made; the phonologic decision required a decision on whether a stimulus contains two or three syllables. Compared to phonologic or semantic decision, nonlinguistic perceptual decisions resulted in a stronger right-hemispheric activation. Specifically, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may, in some instances, be driven by a "nonlinguistic perceptual processing" mode that focuses on nonlinguistic word features. This raises the possibility that stronger activation of right inferior frontal areas during language tasks in aphasic patients with left-hemispheric stroke may at least partially reflect increased attentional focus on nonlinguistic perceptual aspects of language. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS FOR THE BELARUSIAN CORPUS WITH THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING AND MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Hetsevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problems existing in text-to-speech synthesis. Different morphological, lexical and syntactical elements were localized with the help of the Belarusian unit of NooJ program. Those types of errors, which occur in Belarusian texts, were analyzed and corrected. Language model and part of speech tagging model were built. The natural language processing of Belarusian corpus with the help of developed algorithm using machine learning was carried out. The precision of developed models of machine learning has been 80–90 %. The dictionary was enriched with new words for the further using it in the systems of Belarusian speech synthesis.

  17. Saussure and Linguistic Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Saussures's "Cours de linguistique generale," which was published in 1916, and devotes specific attention to the significance of Part VI, which is devoted to linguistic geography. (16 references) (Author/VWL)

  18. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  19. Mathematics and linguistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  20. [An essay about science and linguistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugini, P

    2011-01-01

    Both the methodology and epistemology of science provided the criteria by which the scientific research can describe and interpret data and results of its observational or experimental studies. When the scientist approaches the conclusive inference, it is mandatory to think that both the knowledge and truth imply the use of words semantically and etymologically (semiologically) appropriate, especially if neologisms are required. Lacking a vocabulary, there will be the need of popularizing the inference to the linguistics of the context to which the message is addressed. This could imply a discrepancy among science, knowledge, truth and linguistics, that can be defined "semiologic bias". To avoid this linguistic error, the scientist must feel the responsibility to provide the scientific community with the new words that are semantically and etymologically coherent with what it has been scientifically discovered.

  1. “Time for Some Traffic Problems": Enhancing E-Discovery and Big Data Processing Tools with Linguistic Methods for Deception Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Smith Crabb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic deception theory provides methods to discover potentially deceptive texts to make them accessible to clerical review. This paper proposes the integration of these linguistic methods with traditional e-discovery techniques to identify deceptive texts within a given author’s larger body of written work, such as their sent email box. First, a set of linguistic features associated with deception are identified and a prototype classifier is constructed to analyze texts and describe the features’ distributions, while avoiding topic-specific features to improve recall of relevant documents. The tool is then applied to a portion of the Enron Email Dataset to illustrate how these strategies identify records, providing an example of its advantages and capability to stratify the large data set at hand.

  2. Remediation of context-processing deficits in schizophrenia: preliminary data with ambiguous sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besche-Richard C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrystel Besche-Richard,1,2 Sarah Terrien,1 Marion Lesgourgues,3,4 Célia Béchiri-Payet,5 Fabien Gierski,1,3 Frédéric Limosin6–8 1Laboratory Cognition, Santé, Socialisation, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France; 2Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France; 3Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pôle de Psychiatrie des Adultes, Reims, France; 4Service Universitaire de Médecine Préventive et de Promotion de la Santé, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France; 5Etablissement Public de Santé mentale départemental de l’Aisne, Prémontré, France; 6Department of Adult and Geriatric Psychiatry, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris, Ouest (Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Corentin-Celton, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France; 7Faculty of Medicine, University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; 8Psychiatry and Neurosciences Center, French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U894, Paris, France Background: Processing of contextual information is essential for the establishment of good interpersonal relations and communicational interactions. Nevertheless, it is known that schizophrenic patients present impairments in the processing of contextual information. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of the remediation of context processing in schizophrenic patients. Methods: Thirty-one schizophrenic patients and 28 matched healthy participants were included in this study. All participants were assessed on verbal knowledge (Mill-Hill test and depression intensity (Beck Depression Scale 21 items. Schizophrenic patients were also assessed on thought, language, and communication disorders (Thought, Language and Communication scale. All participants completed a disambiguation task with two different levels of contextualization (high or low context and a context-processing remediation task containing social scenarios that

  3. Having Linguistic Rules and Knowing Linguistic Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ludlow

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    'Knowledge' doesn't correctly describe our relation to linguistic rules. It is too thick a notion (for example, we don't believe linguistic rules. On the other hand, 'cognize', without further elaboration, is too thin a notion, which is to say that it is too thin to play a role in a competence theory. One advantage of the term 'knowledge'-and presumably Chomsky's original motivation for using it-is that knowledge would play the right kind of role in a competence theory: Our competence would consist in a body of knowledge which we have and which we may or may not act upon-our performance need not conform to the linguistic rules that we know.

    Is there a way out of the dilemma? I'm going to make the case that the best way to talk about grammatical rules is simply to say that we have them. That doesn't sound very deep, I know, but saying that we have individual rules leaves room for individual norm guidance in a way that 'cognize' does not. Saying we have a rule like subjacency is also thicker than merely saying we cognize it. Saying I have such a rule invites the interpretation that it is a rule for me-that I am normatively guided by it. The competence theory thus becomes a theory of the rules that we have. Whether we follow those rules is another matter entirely.

  4. The Prague Linguistic Circle and Dialectics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Sládek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with dialectics in the context of the Prague Linguistic Circle, particularly in the context of Jan Mukařovský’s thinking. The essay presents 1 main sources of Mukařovský’s dialectics, and outlines 2 Mukařovský’s dialectical method. The notion of dialectics appears in Mukařovský’s scholarly work in a set of connections. He applied dialectics as a method, manner or form of rationality. It served as a means of gaining knowledge about the world, specific phenomena and objects, their essence, interconnectedness as well as development. Mukařovský also used it as a procedure for resolving contradictions (antinomies that he encountered in his scientific explorations and in ordinary practical activities. He understood dialectical thinking as dynamic, open, and pluralist thinking striving to reflect reality as a constant process. Gradual coming together of dialectics and materialism, evident in Mukařovský’s scholarly works from the mid-1930s, resulted, ten years later, in a public adoption of dialectical materialism.

  5. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylyuk Illya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  6. Acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory and disrupts pattern separation processes in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawski, Jennifer; Guzowski, John F

    2014-09-10

    Although it is known that immune system activation can impair cognition, no study to date has linked cognitive deficits during acute neuroinflammation to dysregulation of task-relevant neuronal ensemble activity. Here, we assessed both neural circuit activity and context discrimination memory retrieval, in a within-subjects design, of male rats given systemic administration of saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were exposed over several days to two similar contexts: one of which was paired with weak foot shock and the other was not. After reaching criteria for discriminative freezing, rats were given systemic LPS or saline injection and tested for retrieval of context discrimination 6 h later. Importantly, LPS administration produced an acute neuroinflammatory response in dorsal hippocampus at this time (as assessed by elevation of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels) and abolished retrieval of the previously acquired discrimination. The impact of neuroinflammation on hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neural circuit activity was assessed using the Arc/Homer1a cellular analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging method. Whereas the saline-treated subjects discriminated and had low overlap of hippocampal ensembles activated in the two contexts, LPS-treated subjects did not discriminate and had greater ensemble overlap (i.e., reduced orthogonalization). Additionally, retrieval of standard contextual fear conditioning, which does not require context discrimination, was not affected by pretesting LPS administration. Together, the behavioral and circuit analyses data provide compelling evidence that LPS administration impairs context discrimination memory by disrupting cellular pattern separation processes within the hippocampus, thus linking acute neuroinflammation to disruption of specific neural circuit functions and cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3412470-11$15.00/0.

  7. Social Information Processing, Experiences of Aggression in Social Contexts, and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lösel, Friedrich; Bliesener, Thomas; Bender, Doris

    2013-01-01

    This study examines social information processing and experiences of aggression in social contexts as predictors of different forms of aggressive behavior. A sample of 102 boys (aggressive, average, competent, and victimized students) was investigated with a prospective design in Grade 7/8 and again in Grade 9/10. Results show an aggressive-impulsive response repertoire strongly predicted self-reported and teacher-reported physical aggression, verbal aggression, violent offenses, general aggr...

  8. Context-Aware Recommender System: A Review of Recent Developmental Process and Future Research Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Haruna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent data handling techniques are beneficial for users; to store, process, analyze and access the vast amount of information produced by electronic and automated devices. The leading approach is to use recommender systems (RS to extract relevant information from the vast amount of knowledge. However, early recommender systems emerged without the cognizance to contextualize information regarding users’ recommendations. Considering the historical methodological limitations, Context-Aware Recommender Systems (CARS are now deployed, which leverage contextual information in addition to the classical two-dimensional search processes, providing better-personalized user recommendations. This paper presents a review of recent developmental processes as a fountainhead for the research of a context-aware recommender system. This work contributes by taking an integrated approach to the complete CARS developmental process, unlike other review papers, which only address a specific aspect of the CARS process. First, an in-depth review is presented pertaining to the state-of-the-art and classified literature, considering the domain of the application models, filters, extraction and evaluation approaches. Second, viewpoints are presented relating to the extraction of literature with analysis on the merit and demerit of each, and the evolving processes between them. Finally, the outstanding challenges and opportunities for future research directions are highlighted.

  9. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunley, Keith; Dunn, Michael; Lindström, Eva; Reesink, Ger; Terrill, Angela; Healy, Meghan E; Koki, George; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Friedlaender, Jonathan S

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain). There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast, global patterns may

  10. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Hunley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain. There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast

  11. On the importance of being bilingual: word stress processing in a context of segmental variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboub, Nawal; Bijeljac-Babic, Ranka; Serres, Josette; Nazzi, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    French-learning infants have language-specific difficulties in processing lexical stress due to the lack of lexical stress in French. These difficulties in discriminating between words with stress-initial (trochaic) and stress-final (iambic) patterns emerge by 10months of age in the easier context of low variability (using a single item pronounced with a trochaic pattern vs. an iambic pattern) as well as in the more challenging context of high segmental variability (using lists of segmentally different trochaic and iambic items). These findings raise the question of stress pattern perception in simultaneous bilinguals learning French and a second language using stress at the lexical level. Bijeljac-Babic, Serres, Höhle, and Nazzi (2012) established that at 10 months of age, in the simpler context of low variability, such bilinguals have better stress discrimination abilities than French-learning monolinguals. The current study explored whether this advantage extends to the more challenging context of high segmental variability. Results first establish stress pattern discrimination in a group of bilingual 10-month-olds learning French and one language with (variable) lexical stress, but not in French-learning 10-month-old monolinguals. Second, discrimination in bilinguals appeared not to be affected by the language balance of the infants, suggesting that sensitivity to stress patterns might be maintained in these bilingual infants provided that they hear at least 30% of a language with lexical stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Attachment Representation Moderates the Influence of Emotional Context on Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyh, Rainer; Heinisch, Christine; Kungl, Melanie T; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    The induction of emotional states has repeatedly been shown to affect cognitive processing capacities. At a neurophysiological level, P3 amplitude responses that are associated with attention allocation have been found to be reduced to task-relevant stimuli during emotional conditions as compared to neutral conditions suggesting a draining impact of emotion on cognitive resources. Attachment theory claims that how individuals regulate their emotions is guided by an internal working model (IWM) of attachment that has formed early in life. While securely attached individuals are capable of freely evaluating their emotions insecurely attached ones tend to either suppress or heighten the emotional experience in a regulatory effort. To explore how attachment quality moderates the impact of emotional contexts on information processing event-related potentials (ERPs) in 41 individuals were assessed. Subjects were instructed to detect neutral target letters within an oddball paradigm. Various images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) served as background pictures and represented negative, positive and neutral task-irrelevant contexts. Attachment representation was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and individuals were assigned to one of three categories (secure, insecure-dismissing, insecure-preoccupied). At a behavioral level, the study revealed that negative emotionally conditions were associated with the detection of less target stimuli in insecure-dismissing subjects. Accordingly, ERPs yielded reduced P3 amplitudes in insecure-dismissing subjects when given a negative emotional context. We interpret these findings in terms of less sufficient emotion regulation strategies in insecure-dismissing subjects at the cost of accurate behavioral performance. The study suggests that attachment representation differentially moderates the relationship between emotional contexts and information processing most evident in insecure

  13. Words Get in the Way: Linguistic Effects on Talker Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Chandan R; Mak, Lorinda; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    A speech perception experiment provides evidence that the linguistic relationship between words affects the discrimination of their talkers. Listeners discriminated two talkers' voices with various linguistic relationships between their spoken words. Listeners were asked whether two words were spoken by the same person or not. Word pairs varied with respect to the linguistic relationship between the component words, forming either: phonological rhymes, lexical compounds, reversed compounds, or unrelated pairs. The degree of linguistic relationship between the words affected talker discrimination in a graded fashion, revealing biases listeners have regarding the nature of words and the talkers that speak them. These results indicate that listeners expect a talker's words to be linguistically related, and more generally, indexical processing is affected by linguistic information in a top-down fashion even when listeners are not told to attend to it. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. The relationship between context, structure, and processes with outcomes of 6 regional diabetes networks in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Mahdi; Vissers, Jan; Elkhuizen, Sylvia; van Dijk, Mattees; Vanhala, Antero; Karampli, Eleftheria; Faubel, Raquel; Forte, Paul; Coroian, Elena; van de Klundert, Joris

    2018-01-01

    While health service provisioning for the chronic condition Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) often involves a network of organisations and professionals, most evidence on the relationships between the structures and processes of service provisioning and the outcomes considers single organisations or solo practitioners. Extending Donabedian's Structure-Process-Outcome (SPO) model, we investigate how differences in quality of life, effective coverage of diabetes, and service satisfaction are associated with differences in the structures, processes, and context of T2D services in six regions in Finland, Germany, Greece, Netherlands, Spain, and UK. Data collection consisted of: a) systematic modelling of provider network's structures and processes, and b) a cross-sectional survey of patient reported outcomes and other information. The survey resulted in data from 1459 T2D patients, during 2011-2012. Stepwise linear regression models were used to identify how independent cumulative proportion of variance in quality of life and service satisfaction are related to differences in context, structure and process. The selected context, structure and process variables are based on Donabedian's SPO model, a service quality research instrument (SERVQUAL), and previous organization and professional level evidence. Additional analysis deepens the possible bidirectional relation between outcomes and processes. The regression models explain 44% of variance in service satisfaction, mostly by structure and process variables (such as human resource use and the SERVQUAL dimensions). The models explained 23% of variance in quality of life between the networks, much of which is related to contextual variables. Our results suggest that effectiveness of A1c control is negatively correlated with process variables such as total hours of care provided per year and cost of services per year. While the selected structure and process variables explain much of the variance in service satisfaction, this is

  15. Historical Trajectory of the Quechuan Linguistic Family and its Relations to the Aimaran Linguistic Family

    OpenAIRE

    Adelaar, Willem

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to present the principal stages of the prehistory and history of the Quechuan language family in its interaction with the Aimaran family. It reconstructs a plausible scenario for a unique, intensive process of linguistic convergence that underlies the protolanguages of both families. From there on, it traces the principal developments that characterize the history of the Quechuan linguistic family, such as the initial split in two main branches, Quechua I and Quechua II (fo...

  16. Students’ Algebraic Thinking Process in Context of Point and Line Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurrahmi, H.; Suryadi, D.; Fatimah, S.

    2017-09-01

    Learning of schools algebra is limited to symbols and operating procedures, so students are able to work on problems that only require the ability to operate symbols but unable to generalize a pattern as one of part of algebraic thinking. The purpose of this study is to create a didactic design that facilitates students to do algebraic thinking process through the generalization of patterns, especially in the context of the property of point and line. This study used qualitative method and includes Didactical Design Research (DDR). The result is students are able to make factual, contextual, and symbolic generalization. This happen because the generalization arises based on facts on local terms, then the generalization produced an algebraic formula that was described in the context and perspective of each student. After that, the formula uses the algebraic letter symbol from the symbol t hat uses the students’ language. It can be concluded that the design has facilitated students to do algebraic thinking process through the generalization of patterns, especially in the context of property of the point and line. The impact of this study is this design can use as one of material teaching alternative in learning of school algebra.

  17. The magic spell of language. Linguistic categories and their perceptual consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, D.; Semin, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Language is a tool that directs attention to different aspects of reality. Using participants from the same linguistic community, the authors demonstrate in 4 studies that metasemantic features of linguistic categories influence basic perceptual processes. More specifically, the hypothesis that

  18. Higher education in nursing: the faculty work process in different institutional contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Marli Leonello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the characteristics of faculty work in nursing higher education. Method An exploratory qualitative study with a theoretical-methodological framework of dialectical and historical materialism. The faculty work process was adopted as the analytical category, grounded on conceptions of work and professionalism. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 faculty members from three higher education institutions in the city of São Paulo, classified according to the typology of institutional contexts. Results The faculty members at these higher education institutions are a heterogeneous group, under different working conditions. Intensification and precarious conditions of the faculty work is common to all three contexts, although there are important distinctions in the practices related to teaching, research and extension. Conclusion Faculty professionalization can be the starting point for analyzing and coping with such a distinct reality of faculty work and practice.

  19. Toward a Process Framework of Business Model Innovation in the Global Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yangfeng; Li, Peter Ping; Skat-Rørdam, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Primarily due to the large gaps in economic and institutional contexts between the developed and emerging economies, effective business models in the two distinctive contexts tend to differ. In particular, the business model innovation (BMI) at the subsidiary level plays an important role...... in the success of multinational enterprises (MNE) from the developed economies operating in the emerging economies as top-down ventures. While some studies claim that direct involvement of headquarters (HQ) in the operations of subsidiaries is critical, surprisingly little is known about how HQ specifically...... enable BMI at the subsidiary level, especially for medium-sized MNE. Adopting the method of comparative and longitudinal case study, we tracked the BMI processes of six Danish medium-sized MNE operating in China. The emergent framework indicates that entrepreneurial aspiration and flexibility at the HQ...

  20. Psycholinguistics in Applied Linguistics: Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between the terms psycholinguistics and applied linguistics, and in the process explores key issues in multilingual processing, such as the structure of the bilingual lexicon, language choice in production and perception, and the language mode. (Author/VWL)

  1. Neural mechanisms of context-dependent processing of CO2 avoidance behavior in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siju, K P; Bräcker, Lasse B; Grunwald Kadow, I C

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, innately avoids even low levels of CO2. CO2 is part of the so-called Drosophila stress odor produced by stressed flies, but also a byproduct of fermenting fruit, a main food source, making the strong avoidance behavior somewhat surprising. Therefore, we addressed whether feeding states might influence the fly's behavior and processing of CO2. In a recent report, we showed that this innate behavior is differentially processed and modified according to the feeding state of the fly. Interestingly, we found that hungry flies require the function of the mushroom body, a higher brain center required for olfactory learning and memory, but thought to be dispensable for innate olfactory behaviors. In addition, we anatomically and functionally characterized a novel bilateral projection neuron connecting the CO2 sensory input to the mushroom body. This neuron was essential for processing of CO2 in the starved fly but not in the fed fly. In this Extra View article, we provide evidence for the potential involvement of the neuromodulator dopamine in state-dependent CO2 avoidance behavior. Taken together, our work demonstrates that CO2 avoidance behavior is mediated by alternative neural pathways in a context-dependent manner. Furthermore, it shows that the mushroom body is not only involved in processing of learned olfactory behavior, as previously suggested, but also in context-dependent innate olfaction.

  2. Memory-related functional connectivity in visual processing regions varies by prior emotional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Holly J; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-06

    Memory retrieval involves the reactivation of processes that were engaged at encoding. Using a Generalized Linear Model to test for effects of valence, our prior study suggests that memory for information previously encoded in a negative context reengages sensory processing regions at retrieval to a greater extent than positive. Here, we used partial least squares analyses of the same dataset to determine whether this valence-specific processing was one of the dominant patterns in the retrieval data. Trials previously paired with a face revealed a strong pattern of emotion that did not vary by valence, but for trials previously paired with a scene, an extensive network of regions was active during recollection of trials paired with negative content. These same regions were negatively correlated with recollection of trials paired with positive content. These results confirm that, despite no emotional content present during the time of retrieval, strong patterns of emotional study context are present in the data. Moreover, at least for trials paired with scenes at encoding, valence-specific networks are linked to episodic memory recollection, providing further support for recapitulation of sensory processing during recollection of negative emotional information.

  3. Disambiguating past events: Accurate source memory for time and context depends on different retrieval processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Bjorn M; Ainge, James A; O'Connor, Akira R

    2016-07-01

    Current animal models of episodic memory are usually based on demonstrating integrated memory for what happened, where it happened, and when an event took place. These models aim to capture the testable features of the definition of human episodic memory which stresses the temporal component of the memory as a unique piece of source information that allows us to disambiguate one memory from another. Recently though, it has been suggested that a more accurate model of human episodic memory would include contextual rather than temporal source information, as humans' memory for time is relatively poor. Here, two experiments were carried out investigating human memory for temporal and contextual source information, along with the underlying dual process retrieval processes, using an immersive virtual environment paired with a 'Remember-Know' memory task. Experiment 1 (n=28) showed that contextual information could only be retrieved accurately using recollection, while temporal information could be retrieved using either recollection or familiarity. Experiment 2 (n=24), which used a more difficult task, resulting in reduced item recognition rates and therefore less potential for contamination by ceiling effects, replicated the pattern of results from Experiment 1. Dual process theory predicts that it should only be possible to retrieve source context from an event using recollection, and our results are consistent with this prediction. That temporal information can be retrieved using familiarity alone suggests that it may be incorrect to view temporal context as analogous to other typically used source contexts. This latter finding supports the alternative proposal that time since presentation may simply be reflected in the strength of memory trace at retrieval - a measure ideally suited to trace strength interrogation using familiarity, as is typically conceptualised within the dual process framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  5. Brain processing of emotional scenes in aging: effect of arousal and affective context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gilles Mathieu

    Full Text Available Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP, sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age.

  6. How does context affect intimate relationships? linking external stress and cognitive processes within marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

    2004-02-01

    Stressors external to the marriage frequently affect the way spouses evaluate their marital quality. To date, however, understanding of the interplay between external stress and internal relationship processes has been limited in two ways. First, research has generally examined only the short-term consequences of stress. Second, the mechanisms through which external stressors influence relationship outcomes are unclear. This study addressed both limitations by examining relationship cognitions that may mediate the effects of external stress throughout 4 years of marriage. Analyses confirmed that stressful experiences were associated with the trajectory of marital quality overtime. Furthermore, both the content and the organization of spouses' specific relationship cognitions mediated this effect. That is, stress negatively influenced the nature of spouses' marital perceptions as well as the way spouses interpreted and processed those perceptions. These findings draw attention to ways that the context of relationships shapes and constrains relationship processes.

  7. Interpretations of linguistic identity in contemporary social and humanitarian knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Liakhovich

    2015-03-01

    Despite the existence of a plurality of options interpreting linguistic identity, the symbolic, real and imagined projection of categories on language problems can be an innovative approach to the study of linguistic phenomena, as it allows to shift the emphasis from standardized methods to reflective identifying meanings and codes of the phenomenon or process.

  8. Breaking Classroom Silences: A View from Linguistic Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampton, Ben; Charalambous, Constadina

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses potentially problematic classroom episodes in which someone foregrounds a social division that is normally taken for granted. It illustrates the way in which linguistic ethnography can unpack the layered processes that collide in the breaking of silence, showing how linguistic form and practice, individual positioning, local…

  9. Emotional voices in context: a neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Emotional voices in context: A neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues.

  11. Hemispheric lateralization of linguistic prosody recognition in comparison to speech and speaker recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitewolf, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-11-15

    Hemispheric specialization for linguistic prosody is a controversial issue. While it is commonly assumed that linguistic prosody and emotional prosody are preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, neuropsychological work directly comparing processes of linguistic prosody and emotional prosody suggests a predominant role of the left hemisphere for linguistic prosody processing. Here, we used two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to clarify the role of left and right hemispheres in the neural processing of linguistic prosody. In the first experiment, we sought to confirm previous findings showing that linguistic prosody processing compared to other speech-related processes predominantly involves the right hemisphere. Unlike previous studies, we controlled for stimulus influences by employing a prosody and speech task using the same speech material. The second experiment was designed to investigate whether a left-hemispheric involvement in linguistic prosody processing is specific to contrasts between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody or whether it also occurs when linguistic prosody is contrasted against other non-linguistic processes (i.e., speaker recognition). Prosody and speaker tasks were performed on the same stimulus material. In both experiments, linguistic prosody processing was associated with activity in temporal, frontal, parietal and cerebellar regions. Activation in temporo-frontal regions showed differential lateralization depending on whether the control task required recognition of speech or speaker: recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved right temporo-frontal areas when it was contrasted against speech recognition; when contrasted against speaker recognition, recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved left temporo-frontal areas. The results show that linguistic prosody processing involves functions of both hemispheres and suggest that recognition of linguistic prosody is based on

  12. Peace linguistics for language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GOMES DE MATOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at presenting the concept of Peace Linguistics - origins and recent developments -- as being implemented in the author's ongoing work in that emerging branch of Applied Linguistics. Examples of applicational possibilities are given, with a focus on language teaching-learning and a Checklist is provided, of topics for suggested linguistic-educational research, centered on communicative peace.

  13. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    It could be argued that lexicography has little business with linguistic creativ- ...... The forms in which traditional proverbs are found can also vary greatly: many ... BoE has examples of the proverb every cloud has a silver lining but many more ...

  14. Variation and Linguistic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This volume presents principles and models for describing language variation, and introduces a time-based, dynamic framework for linguistic description. The book first summarizes some of the problems of grammatical description encountered from Saussure through the present and then outlines possibilities for new descriptions of language which take…

  15. Guatemalan Linguistics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguistic Reporter, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The general goals of the Guatemalan technical institution, the Proyecto Linguistico Francisco Marroquin, are to: create a national technical resource institution in linguistics and Mayan languages; enable Indians to influence programs for their communities; and stimulate the study of Mayan languages and their use as communication medium. (SW)

  16. Formal monkey linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions: (i) what morphology and

  17. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  18. Perspectives in Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, John T.

    Intended for the student of linguistics or the structural grammarian, who must develop an awareness of their intellectual heritage, the present work surveys the study of language in ancient times, the medieval and early modern periods, the nineteenth century, and the twentieth century to 1950. (This second edition includes additional material on…

  19. Gradual linguistic summaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbik, A.M.; Kaymak, U.; Laurent, A.; Strauss, O.; Bouchon-Meunier, xx

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new type of protoform-based linguistic summary – the gradual summary. This new type of summaries aims in capturing the change over some time span. Such summaries can be useful in many domains, for instance in economics, e.g., "prices of X are getting smaller" in eldercare,

  20. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  1. Linguistics and Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindell, Gloria

    1983-01-01

    Discusses four general areas of linguistics studies that are particularly relevant to literacy issues: (1) discourse analysis, including text analysis, spoken and written language, and home and school discourse; (2) relationships between speech and writing, the distance between dialects and written norms, and developmental writing; (3)…

  2. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of

  3. Using graph theory to analyze the vulnerability of process plants in the context of cascading effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakzad, Nima; Reniers, Genserik

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with large quantities of flammable and explosive materials, usually at high-pressure high-temperature conditions, makes process plants very vulnerable to cascading effects compared with other infrastructures. The combination of the extremely low frequency of cascading effects and the high complexity and interdependencies of process plants makes risk assessment and vulnerability analysis of process plants very challenging in the context of such events. In the present study, cascading effects were represented as a directed graph; accordingly, the efficacy of a set of graph metrics and measurements was examined in both unit and plant-wide vulnerability analysis of process plants. We demonstrated that vertex-level closeness and betweenness can be used in the unit vulnerability analysis of process plants for the identification of critical units within a process plant. Furthermore, the graph-level closeness metric can be used in the plant-wide vulnerability analysis for the identification of the most vulnerable plant layout with respect to the escalation of cascading effects. Furthermore, the results from the application of the graph metrics have been verified using a Bayesian network methodology. - Highlights: • Graph metrics can effectively be employed to identify vulnerable units and layouts in process plants. • Units with larger vertex-level closeness result in more probable and severe cascading effects. • Units with larger vertex-level betweenness contribute more to the escalation of cascading effects. • Layouts with larger graph-level closeness are more vulnerable to the escalation of cascading effects

  4. Processing Incomplete Query Specifications in a Context-Dependent Reasoning Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli P. Zlatareva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Search is the most prominent web service, which is about to change dramatically with the transition to the Semantic Web. Semantic Web applications are expected to deal with complex conjunctive queries, and not always such queries can be completely and precisely defined. Current Semantic Web reasoners built upon Description Logics have limited processing power in such environments. We discuss some of their limitations, and show how an alternative logical framework utilizing context-dependent rules can be extended to handle incomplete or imprecise query specifications.

  5. Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  6. Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Rudner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  7. Does the Effort of Processing Potential Incentives Influence the Adaption of Context Updating in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Hannah; Kray, Jutta; Ferdinand, Nicola K

    2017-01-01

    A number of aging studies suggest that older adults process positive and negative information differently. For instance, the socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that older adults preferably process positive information in service of emotional well-being (Reed and Carstensen, 2012). Moreover, recent research has started to investigate whether incentives like gains or losses can influence cognitive control in an ongoing task. In an earlier study (Schmitt et al., 2015), we examined whether incentive cues, indicating potential monetary gains, losses, or neutral outcomes for good performance in the following trial, would influence older adults' ability to exert cognitive control. Cognitive control was measured in an AX-Continuous-Performance-Task (AX-CPT) in which participants had to select their responses to probe stimuli depending on a preceding context cue. In this study, we did not find support for a positivity effect in older adults, but both gains and losses led to enhanced context processing. As the trial-wise presentation mode may be too demanding on cognitive resources for such a bias to occur, the main goal of the present study was to examine whether motivational mindsets, induced by block-wise presentation of incentives, would result in a positivity effect. For this reason, we examined 17 older participants (65-76 years) in the AX-CPT using a block-wise presentation of incentive cues and compared them to 18 older adults (69-78 years) with the trial-wise presentation mode from our earlier study (Schmitt et al., 2015). Event-related potentials were recorded to the onset of the motivational cue and during the AX-CPT. Our results show that (a) older adults initially process cues signaling potential losses more strongly, but later during the AX-CPT invest more cognitive resources in preparatory processes like context updating in conditions with potential gains, and (b) block-wise and trial-wise presentation of incentive cues differentially influenced

  8. Does the Effort of Processing Potential Incentives Influence the Adaption of Context Updating in Older Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Schmitt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of aging studies suggest that older adults process positive and negative information differently. For instance, the socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that older adults preferably process positive information in service of emotional well-being (Reed and Carstensen, 2012. Moreover, recent research has started to investigate whether incentives like gains or losses can influence cognitive control in an ongoing task. In an earlier study (Schmitt et al., 2015, we examined whether incentive cues, indicating potential monetary gains, losses, or neutral outcomes for good performance in the following trial, would influence older adults’ ability to exert cognitive control. Cognitive control was measured in an AX-Continuous-Performance-Task (AX-CPT in which participants had to select their responses to probe stimuli depending on a preceding context cue. In this study, we did not find support for a positivity effect in older adults, but both gains and losses led to enhanced context processing. As the trial-wise presentation mode may be too demanding on cognitive resources for such a bias to occur, the main goal of the present study was to examine whether motivational mindsets, induced by block-wise presentation of incentives, would result in a positivity effect. For this reason, we examined 17 older participants (65–76 years in the AX-CPT using a block-wise presentation of incentive cues and compared them to 18 older adults (69–78 years with the trial-wise presentation mode from our earlier study (Schmitt et al., 2015. Event-related potentials were recorded to the onset of the motivational cue and during the AX-CPT. Our results show that (a older adults initially process cues signaling potential losses more strongly, but later during the AX-CPT invest more cognitive resources in preparatory processes like context updating in conditions with potential gains, and (b block-wise and trial-wise presentation of incentive cues

  9. Effects of context and individual differences on the processing of taboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Kiel; Zhou, Peiyun; Palmer, Cassie; Raizen, Adina

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that taboo words are special in regards to language processing. Findings from the studies have led to the formation of two theories, global resource theory and binding theory, of taboo word processing. The current study investigates how readers process taboo words embedded in sentences during silent reading. In two experiments, measures collected include eye movement data, accuracy and reaction time measures for recalling probe words within the sentences, and individual differences in likelihood of being offended by taboo words. Although certain aspects of the results support both theories, as the likelihood of a person being offended by a taboo word influenced some measures, neither theory sufficiently predicts or describes the effects observed. The results are interpreted as evidence that processing effects ascribed to taboo words are largely, but not completely, attributable to the context in which they are used and the individual attitudes of the people who hear/read them. The results also demonstrate the importance of investigating taboo words in naturalistic language processing paradigms. A revised theory of taboo word processing is proposed that incorporates both global resource theory and binding theory along with the sociolinguistic factors and individual differences that largely drive the effects observed here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. MAIA - Method for Architecture of Information Applied: methodological construct of information processing in complex contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Moura Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paper to presentation the MAIA Method for Architecture of Information Applied evolution, its structure, results obtained and three practical applications.Objective: Proposal of a methodological constructo for treatment of complex information, distinguishing information spaces and revealing inherent configurations of those spaces. Metodology: The argument is elaborated from theoretical research of analitical hallmark, using distinction as a way to express concepts. Phenomenology is used as a philosophical position, which considers the correlation between Subject↔Object. The research also considers the notion of interpretation as an integrating element for concepts definition. With these postulates, the steps to transform the information spaces are formulated. Results: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Conclusions: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Besides that, the article presents not only possible applications as a cientific method, but also as configuration tool in information spaces, as well as generator of ontologies. At last, but not least, presents a brief summary of the analysis made by researchers who have already evaluated the method considering the three aspects mentioned.

  11. The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBaez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition –the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships– is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger’s syndrome (AS (DSM-V. However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a assess multiple social cognition domains, (b examine executive functions, (c follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012 addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients’ performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia. Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing.

  12. Cultural Context In Process Of Mining Data From Social Media – Recommendations Based On Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Michalak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Social media is nothing else than a modern communication channel that carry a lot of advantages, such as their reach or range. Social media has such a big power of its reach that a single post, tweet, or "broad" start to matter globally. With globalization, we have seen an increase in usage of social media everywhere. This means that communication is being conducted across the borders or different countries, continents or even cultures. It is an desirable effect, however the social media user across the world differs in respect to their culture and data shows that significant differences exist in a way people in the world social media. However, in order to be well prepared to dig in social media, the question should be post whether the cultural context affects the activity of users. If so, it is appropriate to prepare data filters to include some specific criteria. In first part authors apply the Cross - Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM in social media data to specify the process of data analysis. Second part focuses on recommendations about cultural context in mining social media.

  13. Resilience processes within the school context of adolescents with sexual violence history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Gomes Pessoa

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study examines the school context of adolescents with a sexual violence history, highlighting their perceptions of protective and vulnerability mechanisms within a social ecological resilience framework. The study was conducted in a youth service agency located in a mid-sized city in the inner of Sao Paulo state. Initially, 31 male and female adolescents victims of sexual violence, aged 12-18, answered survey items assessing resilience processes. Based on their responses, a subgroup of seven adolescents was selected to participate in individual semi-structured interviews addressing the role of school in their lives. Five key themes were identified in the data, with two overarching categories emerging: ‘evaluation of school structure’ and ‘formative processes through diversity and difference’. Exploration of interview excerpts within these categories revealed that schools occupy an ambivalent space in terms of risk and protective factors in the participants’ lives, with predominately negative social indicators emerging.

  14. Abandoning mathematics. Reconstructing the process in the context of the social perception of mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baczko-Dombi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics, as no other school subject, evokes conflicting emotions and contradictory attitudes – from “the gate to a career” and “the queen of science” to the widespread acceptance of mathematical ignorance in society. The process of studying mathematics requires systematic work and patience, as mathematical knowledge has a cumulative nature. In the case of mathematics education, some students abandon mathematics at quite early levels of education and begin to consider themselves “humanists”, which results in serious consequences for future educational and career choices. In this paper, I propose a description of the process of escaping from mathematics in the context of students’ perceptions of this subject, using the results of two studies – one qualitative and the other quantitative.

  15. Preprocessing Greek Papyri for Linguistic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierros, Marja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Greek documentary papyri form an important direct source for Ancient Greek. It has been exploited surprisingly little in Greek linguistics due to a lack of good tools for searching linguistic structures. This article presents a new tool and digital platform, “Sematia”, which enables transforming the digital texts available in TEI EpiDoc XML format to a format which can be morphologically and syntactically annotated (treebanked, and where the user can add new metadata concerning the text type, writer and handwriting of each act of writing. An important aspect in this process is to take into account the original surviving writing vs. the standardization of language and supplements made by the editors. This is performed by creating two different layers of the same text. The platform is in its early development phase. Ongoing and future developments, such as tagging linguistic variation phenomena as well as queries performed within Sematia, are discussed at the end of the article.

  16. Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant basic emotion approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in

  17. Second Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the second language acquisition (SLA) process and the differential success of second language learners. Examines the fundamental challenges that this characterization faces, and highlights the contributions SLA is capable of in the coming decade. Offers topics for a training and development of curriculum for future applied linguists from…

  18. REGIONAL AUTHORS SELF-IDENTITY DEMONSTRATION IN MEMORIAL CONTEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Victorovna Vekkesser

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to the pressing issue of regional identity preservation under conditions of linguoculturological globalization in modern society. The purpose of our research is to identify verbal means of expressing regional self-identification of narrators in the memorial context. The object is the self-identification of the narrator in memorial genre and the subject is verbal means of expressing regional self-identification. Methodology and methods of work. An appeal to the memorial genre, searching linguistic methods of the regional authors self-identity is considered in a context of regional linguistic from the perspective of communicative discourse approach; discursive and contextual methods are used. Results. The article theoretically describes the memorat from the standpoint of the speech genres theory. The research shows the narrators through the actualization of language tools associate themselves with their native region, the result being the formation of regional self-identification. In the era of linguistic globalization it is important to study regional self-identification, in particular, in the context of the memorial speech genre. Practical implications. Both the article materials and results can be applied in the educational process of reading special courses on regional linguistic issues.

  19. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  20. Situation-based social anxiety enhances the neural processing of faces: evidence from an intergroup context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofan, Renana H.; Rubin, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety is the intense fear of negative evaluation by others, and it emerges uniquely from a social situation. Given its social origin, we asked whether an anxiety-inducing social situation could enhance the processing of faces linked to the situational threat. While past research has focused on how individual differences in social anxiety relate to face processing, we tested the effect of manipulated social anxiety in the context of anxiety about appearing racially prejudiced in front of a peer. Visual processing of faces was indexed by the N170 component of the event-related potential. Participants viewed faces of Black and White males, along with nonfaces, either in private or while being monitored by the experimenter for signs of prejudice in a ‘public’ condition. Results revealed a difference in the N170 response to Black and Whites faces that emerged only in the public condition and only among participants high in dispositional social anxiety. These results provide new evidence that anxiety arising from the social situation modulates the earliest stages of face processing in a way that is specific to a social threat, and they shed new light on how anxiety effects on perception may contribute to the regulation of intergroup responses. PMID:23709354

  1. Culture, context and therapeutic processes: delivering a parent-child intervention in a remote Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sarah; Robinson, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Little is written about the process of delivering mainstream, evidence-based therapeutic interventions for Aboriginal children and families in remote communities. Patterns of interaction between parents and children and expectations about parenting and professional roles and responsibilities vary across cultural contexts. This can be a challenging experience for professionals accustomed to work in urban settings. Language is only a part of cultural difference, and the outsider in a therapeutic group in an Aboriginal community is outside not only in language but also in access to community relationships and a place within those relationships. This paper uses examples from Let's Start, a therapeutic parent-child intervention to describe the impact of distance, culture and relationships in a remote Aboriginal community, on the therapeutic framework, group processes and relationships. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Program adaptation, evaluation and staff training and support need to take these factors into account to ensure cultural accessibility without loss of therapeutic fidelity and efficacy.

  2. The influence of context and process when implementing e-health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heaney David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investing in computer-based information systems is notoriously risky, since many systems fail to become routinely used as part of everyday working practices, yet there is clear evidence about the management practices which improve the acceptance and integration of such systems. Our aim in this study was to identify to what extent these generic management practices are evident in e-health projects, and to use that knowledge to develop a theoretical model of e-health implementation. This will support the implementation of appropriate e-health systems. Methods This study consisted of qualitative semi-structured interviews with managers and health professionals in Scotland, UK. We contacted the Scottish Ethics Committee, who advised that formal application to that body was not necessary for this study. The interview guide aimed to identify the issues which respondents believed had affected the successful implementation of e-health projects. We drew on our research into information systems in other sectors to identify likely themes and questions, which we piloted and revised. Eighteen respondents with experience of e-health projects agreed to be interviewed. These were recorded, transcribed, coded, and then analysed with 'Nvivo' data analysis software. Results Respondents identified factors in the context of e-health projects which had affected implementation, including clarity of the strategy; supportive structures and cultures; effects on working processes; and how staff perceived the change. The results also identified useful implementation practices such as balancing planning with adaptability; managing participation; and using power effectively. Conclusion The interviews confirmed that the contextual factors that affect implementation of information systems in general also affect implementation of e-health projects. As expected, these take place in an evolving context of strategies, structures, cultures, working processes and

  3. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories concepts are contextually-situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and non-emotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e. focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e. focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources. PMID:25748274

  4. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MEASURE OF STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FROM A DIFFERENT CONTEXT: AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON TURKISH MANAGERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ozleblebici, Zafer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide another explanation of strategy development process from a different context. Even though several studies exploring different approaches to strategy development process have been employed, most of them have examined organizations in similar samplings, more specifically Anglo-Saxon cultures/countries. Therefore, in order to explore the strategy development approaches from a different context, the paper aims to expose and describe the strategy development...

  5. Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the EU integration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stojić-Mitrović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to present Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration and asylum in the context of the attempts of the Serbian state to become a member of the European Union. I would describe the history of the asylum system prior and after the implementation of the independent asylum system in Serbia in 2008. My presentation of the Serbian migration policy would be channelled by the analysis of some particular political issues, such as the externalization of the EU borders’ control, as well as some relevant elements of the European integration process, like visa liberalization. The second, more culturally specific dimension of the issue would be accessed through the demonstration of both legislative and public conceptualizations of the irregular migrants, asylum seekers and refugees in Serbia.

  6. Analysing contemporary metropolitan spatial plans in Europe through their institutional context, instrumental content and planning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elinbaum, Pablo; Galland, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article sets out to propose and apply a qualitative framework for thinking about how to analyze and compare metropolitan spatial plans in a milieu of divergent spatial planning traditions and discretionary planning practices. In doing so, the article reviews and develops an understanding...... concerning the institutional context, instrumental content and planning processes associated with four contemporary metropolitan spatial plans in Europe, namely London, Copenhagen, Paris and Barcelona. Through the results of a multiple case study and a subsequent cross comparative analysis, the article...... stresses that contemporary metropolitan spatial plans tend to merge characteristics associated with project-based and strategy-based spatial plans, thus contrasting with the typical land-use character of municipal plans and the often strategic, growth-oriented pursuit of regional plans in Europe...

  7. The 2nd State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-2): Process, Progress and Institutional Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, G.; Cavallaro, N.; Zhu, Z.; Larson, E. K.; Butler, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Over 200 scientists and program managers from U.S., Mexican and Canadian government and non-government institutions have been collaborating on SOCCR-2 since 2015. Responding to the U.S. Global Change Research Act (1990) and the U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Plan (2011), this special Sustained National Climate Assessment report covers many of the GCRA mandated sectors such as agriculture, energy, forestry, aquatic systems, coasts, wetlands, atmospheric and human social systems, integrating the scientific uncertainties and analyzing the effects of global change on the carbon cycle and vice versa, including projections for both human- induced and natural changes. This presentation covers the SOCCR-2 process, progress and institutional context, providing a historical perspective on the interagency instruments and mechanisms that have facilitated the last decades of carbon cycle science reflected in SOCCR-2.

  8. MAppERS experience: natural processes and preparedness in the societal context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bossi, Giulia; Mantovani, Matteo; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Within natural processes responsibilities from central authorities to local levels as first actors of civil protection is a changing pattern. Prevention and preparedness in natural hazards are long-term goals based on capacities of professional volunteers, and improving the awareness of the citizens as local inhabitants. Local people have impacts on their lives but training and involvement towards specific techniques change their role within risk communication and emergency preparedness. A collaborative user environment is useful for emergency response and support in the wake of disasters, feeding updated information on the ground directly to on-site responders. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a funded project (2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) based on human role as "crowd-sourced mappers" through smart phone application able to share GPS-localised and detailed parameters. The feedback from testing and the training courses aim to raising public awareness and participation in a networked disaster response. The project implies design and test of smart phone linked with a real-time dashboard platform for rescue services citizens and volunteers of civil protection. Two pilot sites, including trainings on modules functioning control usability and quality of the product. The synchronized platform offers the activity of cloud data collection with a central data dashboard. Information is collected in a context of floods processes, with crowdsourcing action from local population, for proper awareness with own personal flood plan and long-term preparedness. A second context tested pre-emergency actions on field with rescue team, collecting state-of-art and condition of hazards.

  9. Functional MR imaging of cerebral auditory cortex with linguistic and non-linguistic stimulation: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Su Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Shin, Tae Min

    1999-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data for understanding the central auditory neural pathway by means of functional MR imaging (fMRI) of the cerebral auditory cortex during linguistic and non-linguistic auditory stimulation. In three right-handed volunteers we conducted fMRI of auditory cortex stimulation at 1.5 T using a conventional gradient-echo technique (TR/TE/flip angle: 80/60/40 deg). Using a pulsed tone of 1000 Hz and speech as non-linguistic and linguistic auditory stimuli, respectively, images-including those of the superior temporal gyrus of both hemispheres-were obtained in sagittal plases. Both stimuli were separately delivered binaurally or monoaurally through a plastic earphone. Images were activated by processing with homemade software. In order to analyze patterns of auditory cortex activation according to type of stimulus and which side of the ear was stimulated, the number and extent of activated pixels were compared between both temporal lobes. Biaural stimulation led to bilateral activation of the superior temporal gyrus, while monoaural stimulation led to more activation in the contralateral temporal lobe than in the ipsilateral. A trend toward slight activation of the left (dominant) temporal lobe in ipsilateral stimulation, particularly with a linguistic stimulus, was observed. During both biaural and monoaural stimulation, a linguistic stimulus produced more widespread activation than did a non-linguistic one. The superior temporal gyri of both temporal lobes are associated with acoustic-phonetic analysis, and the left (dominant) superior temporal gyrus is likely to play a dominant role in this processing. For better understanding of physiological and pathological central auditory pathways, further investigation is needed

  10. Putting the face in context: Body expressions impact facial emotion processing in human infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva Rajhans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body expressions exert strong contextual effects on facial emotion perception in adults. Specifically, conflicting body cues hamper the recognition of emotion from faces, as evident on both the behavioral and neural level. We examined the developmental origins of the neural processes involved in emotion perception across body and face in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs. We primed infants with body postures (fearful, happy that were followed by either congruent or incongruent facial expressions. Our results revealed that body expressions impact facial emotion processing and that incongruent body cues impair the neural discrimination of emotional facial expressions. Priming effects were associated with attentional and recognition memory processes, as reflected in a modulation of the Nc and Pc evoked at anterior electrodes. These findings demonstrate that 8-month-old infants possess neural mechanisms that allow for the integration of emotion across body and face, providing evidence for the early developmental emergence of context-sensitive facial emotion perception.

  11. Putting the face in context: Body expressions impact facial emotion processing in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhans, Purva; Jessen, Sarah; Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Body expressions exert strong contextual effects on facial emotion perception in adults. Specifically, conflicting body cues hamper the recognition of emotion from faces, as evident on both the behavioral and neural level. We examined the developmental origins of the neural processes involved in emotion perception across body and face in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We primed infants with body postures (fearful, happy) that were followed by either congruent or incongruent facial expressions. Our results revealed that body expressions impact facial emotion processing and that incongruent body cues impair the neural discrimination of emotional facial expressions. Priming effects were associated with attentional and recognition memory processes, as reflected in a modulation of the Nc and Pc evoked at anterior electrodes. These findings demonstrate that 8-month-old infants possess neural mechanisms that allow for the integration of emotion across body and face, providing evidence for the early developmental emergence of context-sensitive facial emotion perception. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Reconciliation of ontology and terminology to cope with linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Robert H; Ceusters, Werner; Ruch, Patrick; Rassinoux, Anne-Marie; Lovis, Christian; Geissbühler, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    To discuss the relationships between ontologies, terminologies and language in the context of Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications in order to show the negative consequences of confusing them. The viewpoints of the terminologist and (computational) linguist are developed separately, and then compared, leading to the presentation of reconciliation among these points of view, with consideration of the role of the ontologist. In order to encourage appropriate usage of terminologies, guidelines are presented advocating the simultaneous publication of pragmatic vocabularies supported by terminological material based on adequate ontological analysis. Ontologies, terminologies and natural languages each have their own purpose. Ontologies support machine understanding, natural languages support human communication, and terminologies should form the bridge between them. Therefore, future terminology standards should be based on sound ontology and do justice to the diversities in natural languages. Moreover, they should support local vocabularies, in order to be easily adaptable to local needs and practices.

  13. A Context Maintenance and Retrieval Model of Organizational Processes in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present the context maintenance and retrieval (CMR) model of memory search, a generalized version of the temporal context model of M. W. Howard and M. J. Kahana (2002a), which proposes that memory search is driven by an internally maintained context representation composed of stimulus-related and source-related features. In the CMR…

  14. Linguistics and the digital humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software......, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and figures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. This article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data...... and method and also offers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented...

  15. The influence of monetary incentives on context processing in younger and older adults: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Hannah; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Kray, Jutta

    2015-06-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that neuronal activity related to reward anticipation benefits subsequent stimulus processing, but the effect of penalties remains largely unknown. Since the dual-mechanisms-of-control theory (DMC; Braver & Barch, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, 809-81, 2002) assumes that temporal differences in context updating underlie age differences in cognitive control, in this study we investigated whether motivational cues (signaling the chance to win or the risk to lose money, relative to neutral cues) preceding context information in a modified AX-CPT paradigm influence the temporal stages of context processing in younger and older adults. In the behavioral data, younger adults benefited from gain cues, evident in their enhanced context updating, whereas older adults exhibited slowed responding after motivational cues, irrespective of valence. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the enhanced processing of motivational cues in the P2 and P3b was mainly age-invariant, whereas age-differential effects were found for the ERP correlates of context processing. Younger adults showed improved context maintenance (i.e., a larger negative-going CNV), as well as increased conflict detection (larger N450) and resolution (indicated by a sustained positivity), whenever incorrect responding would lead to a monetary loss. In contrast, motivationally salient cues benefited context representations (in cue-locked P3b amplitudes), but increased working memory demands during response preparation (via a temporally prolonged P3b) in older adults. In sum, motivational valence and salience effects differentially modulated the temporal stages of context processing in younger and older adults. These results are discussed in terms of the DMC theory, recent findings of emotion regulation in old age, and the relationship between cognitive and affective processing.

  16. A transactional framework for pediatric rehabilitation: shifting the focus to situated contexts, transactional processes, and adaptive developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Imms, Christine; Stewart, Debra; Freeman, Matt; Nguyen, Tram

    2018-07-01

    A paradigm shift is taking place in pediatric rehabilitation research, practice, and policy - a shift towards the real-life contexts of clients rather than requiring clients to navigate the world of pediatric rehabilitation. This article proposes a conceptual framework to bring about a broader awareness of clients' lives and transactional processes of change over the life course. The framework draws attention to transactional processes by which individuals, situated in life contexts, change and adapt over the life course and, in turn, influence their contextual settings and broader environments. This framework is based on (a) basic tenets derived from foundational theories taking a life course perspective to change, and (b) transactional processes identified from relevant pediatric rehabilitation models that bring these foundational theories into the pediatric rehabilitation sphere. The framework identifies three types of transactional processes relevant to pediatric rehabilitation: facilitative, resiliency, and socialization processes. These processes describe how contexts and people mutually influence each other via opportunities and situated experiences, thus facilitating capacity, adaptation to adversity, and socialization to new roles and life transitions. The utility of the framework is considered for research, practice, service organizations, and policy. Implications for Rehabilitation The framework supports practitioners going beyond person and environment as separate entities, to provide services to the "situated person" in real-life contexts The framework shifts the focus from "body structures/functions" and "person in activity" to "person in changing and challenging life contexts" Working from a transactional perspective, practitioner-client conversations will change; practitioners will view client situations through a lens of opportunities and experiences, assess client experiences in real-life contexts, and strive to create context-based therapy

  17. Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming: the Stapel and Semin (2007) paradigm revisited in twelve experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Regenberg, Nina F E; Saddlemyer, Justin; Koole, Sander L

    2015-05-01

    Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories (verbs) led to more local perceptual processing (Stapel & Semin, 2007). However, this report was compromised by data fabrication by the first author, so that it remains unclear whether or not linguistic category priming influences perceptual processing. To fill this gap in the literature, the present article reports 12 studies among Dutch and US samples examining the perceptual effects of linguistic category priming. The results yielded no evidence of linguistic category priming effects. These findings are discussed in relation to other research showing cultural variations in linguistic category priming effects (IJzerman, Saddlemyer, & Koole, 2014). The authors conclude by highlighting the importance of conducting and publishing replication research for achieving scientific progress. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Providing Context for Complexity: Using Infographics and Conceptual Models to Teach Global Change Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding modern and historical global changes requires interdisciplinary knowledge of the physical and life sciences. The Understanding Global Change website from the UC Museum of Paleontology will use a focal infographic that unifies diverse content often taught in separate K-12 science units. This visualization tool provides scientists with a structure for presenting research within the broad context of global change, and supports educators with a framework for teaching and assessing student understanding of complex global change processes. This new approach to teaching the science of global change is currently being piloted and refined based on feedback from educators and scientists in anticipation of a 2016 website launch. Global change concepts are categorized within the infographic as causes of global change (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, volcanism), ongoing Earth system processes (e.g., ocean circulation, the greenhouse effect), and the changes scientists measure in Earth's physical and biological systems (e.g., temperature, extinctions/radiations). The infographic will appear on all website content pages and provides a template for the creation of flowcharts, which are conceptual models that allow teachers and students to visualize the interdependencies and feedbacks among processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. The development of this resource is timely given that the newly adopted Next Generation Science Standards emphasize cross-cutting concepts, including model building, and Earth system science. Flowchart activities will be available on the website to scaffold inquiry-based lessons, determine student preconceptions, and assess student content knowledge. The infographic has already served as a learning and evaluation tool during professional development workshops at UC Berkeley, Stanford University, and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. At these workshops, scientists and educators used the infographic

  19. Emergency management: does it have a sufficiently comprehensive understanding of decision-making, process and context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculae, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: It is now widely recognized in the social and management sciences that the effective support of decision-making requires a multi-disciplinary perspective, with businesses increasingly using inter-disciplinary teams. This trend is also seen in nuclear emergency management, for example in the UK inter-disciplinary groups are formed to focus on specific topics such as remediation where their recommendations are feed to the decision makers. The necessity of taking a multi-disciplinary perspective is particularly important for contexts in which the decision makers are likely to be under high stress and so could revert to instinctive patterns of behaviour and modes of communication found in their core disciplines. Yet when we look at the design of the information systems produced to support emergency management, we find a very partial set of disciplinary perspectives providing a strongly rationalistic, technocratic view. These systems have been developed by the technical community with little consultation with non-expert decision makers and limited understanding of emergency management processes across Europe and the social systems with which they interact. In this paper we have considered the Cynefin model, developed by IBM, which draws together much of the work on decision making and decision context over the past 30-40 years, describing the possible contexts in which decision-making may take place, the known, the knowable, the complex and the chaotic space. The known space is the realm of scientific knowledge where the cause and effect are understood. Next, there is the knowable space the realm of scientific enquiry where the cause and effect can be determined with sufficient data. In the complex space there are many interacting cause and effects, to the extent that we do not have sufficiently refined models to predict what will happen as a consequence of any particular actions and the cause and effect may only be explained after the event. In the chaotic

  20. Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Kumiko

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that speakers can take account of the addressee's needs when referring. However, what representations drive the speaker's audience design has been less clear. This study aims to go beyond previous studies by investigating the interplay between the visual and linguistic context during audience design. Speakers repeated subordinate descriptions (e.g., firefighter) given in the prior linguistic context less and used basic-level descriptions (e.g., man) more when the addressee did not hear the linguistic context than when s/he did. But crucially, this effect happened only when the referent lacked the visual attributes associated with the expressions (e.g., the referent was in plain clothes rather than in a firefighter uniform), so there was no other contextual cue available for the identification of the referent. This suggests that speakers flexibly use different contextual cues to help their addressee map the referring expression onto the intended referent. In addition, speakers used fewer pronouns when the addressee did not hear the linguistic antecedent than when s/he did. This suggests that although speakers may be egocentric during anaphoric reference (Fukumura & Van Gompel, 2012), they can cooperatively avoid pronouns when the linguistic antecedents were not shared with their addressee during initial reference. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. What neuroscience can tell about intuitive processes in the context of perceptual discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kirsten G; von Cramon, D Yves

    2006-12-01

    According to the Oxford English Dictionary, intuition is "the ability to understand or know something immediately, without conscious reasoning." Most people would agree that intuitive responses appear as ideas or feelings that subsequently guide our thoughts and behaviors. It is proposed that people continuously, without conscious attention, recognize patterns in the stream of sensations that impinge upon them. What exactly is being recognized is not clear yet, but we assume that people detect potential content based on only a few aspects of the input (i.e., the gist). The result is a vague perception of coherence which is not explicitly describable but instead embodied in a "gut feeling" or an initial guess, which subsequently biases thought and inquiry. To approach the nature of intuitive processes, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging when participants were working at a modified version of the Waterloo Gestalt Closure Task. Starting from our conceptualization that intuition involves an informed judgment in the context of discovery, we expected activation within the median orbito-frontal cortex (OFC), as this area receives input from all sensory modalities and has been shown to be crucially involved in emotionally driven decisions. Results from a direct contrast between intuitive and nonintuitive judgments, as well as from a parametric analysis, revealed the median OFC, the lateral portion of the amygdala, anterior insula, and ventral occipito-temporal regions to be activated. Based on these findings, we suggest our definition of intuition to be promising and a good starting point for future research on intuitive processes.

  2. A Grounded Theory Approach in a Branding Context: Challenges and lessons learnt during the research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Rindell, PhD.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss challenges and lessons learnt when conducting a classic grounded theory study in a marketing context. The paper focuses on two specific challenges that were met during a specific research process. The first challenge related to positioning the study, namely, specifying“what the study is a study of”. The second challenge concerned the choice between formal or substantive theory. Both challenges were accentuated as the emerged core category concerned a phenomenon that has caught less attention in marketing, that is, the temporal dimension in corporate images. By the temporal dimension in corporate images we mean that corporate images often have roots in earlier times through consumer memories. In other words, consumers are not tabula rasa, that is, blank sheets of paper on which communication messages can be printed. Rather, consumers have a pre-understanding of the company that works as an interpretation framework for company actions in the present. The lessons learnt from this research process can be summarized as “stay faithful to the data”, “write memos on issues you reflect upon although they might be in another substantial field” as they might become useful later, and, “look into thinking in other disciplines” as disciplines do not develop equally.

  3. Undergraduate medical education programme renewal: a longitudinal context, input, process and product evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzazadeh, Azim; Gandomkar, Roghayeh; Hejri, Sara Mortaz; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Koochak, Hamid Emadi; Golestani, Abolfazl; Jafarian, Ali; Jalili, Mohammad; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Saleh, Narges; Shahi, Farhad; Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) evaluation model as a comprehensive framework to guide initiating, planning, implementing and evaluating a revised undergraduate medical education programme. The eight-year longitudinal evaluation study consisted of four phases compatible with the four components of the CIPP model. In the first phase, we explored the strengths and weaknesses of the traditional programme as well as contextual needs, assets, and resources. For the second phase, we proposed a model for the programme considering contextual features. During the process phase, we provided formative information for revisions and adjustments. Finally, in the fourth phase, we evaluated the outcomes of the new undergraduate medical education programme in the basic sciences phase. Information was collected from different sources such as medical students, faculty members, administrators, and graduates, using various qualitative and quantitative methods including focus groups, questionnaires, and performance measures. The CIPP model has the potential to guide policy makers to systematically collect evaluation data and to manage stakeholders' reactions at each stage of the reform in order to make informed decisions. However, the model may result in evaluation burden and fail to address some unplanned evaluation questions.

  4. Learnability and linguistic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozd, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    of the human biological endowment for language in the form of a UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (UG) (Chomsky, 1965). With respect to experimental design, C&T have strongly maintained that even young children know UG constraints but perform poorly in some experiments-due to the extralinguistic demands associated...... with experimental tasks, particularly those involved in presupposition accommodation and complex response planning. C&T specifically design their experiments to reduce the impact of extralinguistic demands on children's linguistic performance while at the same time providing felicitous environments for adultlike...... performance....

  5. Formal monkey linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Zuberbühler: The research leading to these results received funding from the European Research Council under ERC grant ‘Prilang 283871’ and also from the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant ‘FN 310030_143359/1’. We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions:...

  6. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  7. Linguistic Means of Depersonalization and Dematerialization in the Descriptions of Subjective Perception of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella V. Nesterik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses linguistic means of depersonalization and dematerialization in the descriptions of subjective perception of time by characters, detects functions, fulfilled by them in such contexts. Subjective perception of time is considered as a text category and is studied in terms of text linguistics

  8. What's in a Name? Degree Programs and What They Tell Us about "Applied Linguistics" in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Neil; Crichton, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore the provision of applied linguistics within Australian universities. We focus on how the "what" of applied linguistics, as captured in scholarly definitions of the discipline, accords with the "where", as captured in potential contexts of application as these are manifested in provision. In doing so, we…

  9. Deriving evaluation indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffeisen, Renate; Grosfeld, Klaus; Kuhlmann, Franziska

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the field of climate science have captured intensive attention in recent years as being an important part of research activities. Therefore, the demand and pressure to develop a set of indicators for the evaluation of different activities in this field have increased, too. Research institutes are being asked more and more to build up structures in order to map these activities and, thus, are obliged to demonstrate the success of these efforts. This paper aims to serve as an input to stimulate further reflection on the field of evaluation of knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate sciences. The work performed in this paper is embedded in the efforts of the German Helmholtz Association in the research field of earth and environment and is driven by the need to apply suitable indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in climate research center evaluations. We carry out a comparative analysis of three long-term activities and derive a set of indicators for measuring their output and outcome by balancing the wide diversity and range of activity contents as well as the different tools to realize them. The case examples are based on activities which are part of the regional Helmholtz Climate Initiative Regional Climate Change (REKLIM) and the Climate Office for Polar Regions and Sea Level Rise at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research. Both institutional units have been working on a wide range of different knowledge transfer and dialogue processes since 2008/2009. We demonstrate that indicators for the evaluation must be based on the unique objectives of the individual activities and the framework they are embedded in (e.g., research foci which provide the background for the performed knowledge transfer and dialogue processes) but can partly be classified in a principle two-dimensional scheme. This scheme might serve as a usable basis for climate

  10. Health policy evolution in Lao People's Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-05-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People's Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally. Published by Oxford University Press

  11. The effect of manipulating context-specific information on perceptual-cognitive processes during a simulated anticipation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobert, Allistair P; Ward, Paul; Eccles, David W; Williams, A Mark

    2011-08-01

    We manipulated contextual information in order to examine the perceptual-cognitive processes that support anticipation using a simulated cricket-batting task. Skilled (N= 10) and less skilled (N= 10) cricket batters responded to video simulations of opponents bowling a cricket ball under high and low contextual information conditions. Skilled batters were more accurate, demonstrated more effective search behaviours, and provided more detailed verbal reports of thinking. Moreover, when they viewed their opponent multiple times (high context), they reduced their mean fixation time. All batters improved performance and altered thought processes when in the high context, compared to when they responded to their opponent without previously seeing them bowl (low context). Findings illustrate how context influences performance and the search for relevant information when engaging in a dynamic, time-constrained task. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Mimicry Is Presidential: Linguistic Style Matching in Presidential Debates and Improved Polling Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel M; Swaab, Roderick I; Uzzi, Brian; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-10-01

    The current research used the contexts of U.S. presidential debates and negotiations to examine whether matching the linguistic style of an opponent in a two-party exchange affects the reactions of third-party observers. Building off communication accommodation theory (CAT), interaction alignment theory (IAT), and processing fluency, we propose that language style matching (LSM) will improve subsequent third-party evaluations because matching an opponent's linguistic style reflects greater perspective taking and will make one's arguments easier to process. In contrast, research on status inferences predicts that LSM will negatively impact third-party evaluations because LSM implies followership. We conduct two studies to test these competing hypotheses. Study 1 analyzed transcripts of U.S. presidential debates between 1976 and 2012 and found that candidates who matched their opponent's linguistic style increased their standing in the polls. Study 2 demonstrated a causal relationship between LSM and third-party observer evaluations using negotiation transcripts. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Parent-child coregulation of parasympathetic processes varies by social context and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika; Tiberio, Stacey S; Skoranski, Amanda M; Buss, Kristin A; Cole, Pamela M

    2018-02-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system supports social interaction and varies in relation to psychopathology. However, we know little about parasympathetic processes from a dyadic framework, nor in early childhood when parent-child social interactions become more complex and child psychopathology first emerges. We hypothesized that higher risk for psychopathology (maternal psychopathology symptoms and child problem behavior) would be related to weaker concordance of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) between mothers and children (M = 3½ years old; N = 47) and that these relations could vary by social contextual demands, comparing unstructured free play, semistructured cleanup, and structured teaching tasks. Multilevel coupled autoregressive models of RSA during parent-child interactions showed overall dynamic, positive concordance in mother-child RSA over time, but this concordance was weaker during the more structured teaching task. In contrast, higher maternal psychological aggression and child externalizing and internalizing problems were associated with weaker dyadic RSA concordance, which was weakest during unstructured free play. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were related to disrupted individual mother and child RSA but not to RSA concordance. Thus, risk for psychopathology was generally related to weaker dyadic mother-child RSA concordance in contexts with less complex structure or demands (free play, cleanup), as compared to the structured teaching task that showed weaker RSA concordance for all dyads. Implications for the meaning and utility of the construct of parent-child physiological coregulation are discussed. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Theory of mind and context processing in schizophrenia: the role of cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne-Lavau, Maud; Charest, Anick; Anselmo, Karyne; Rodriguez, Jean-Pierre; Blouin, Guy

    2012-12-30

    The present study sought to identify whether cognitive flexibility and context processing may impact theory of mind (ToM) ability in schizophrenia. Thirty two patients with schizophrenia and 29 matched healthy participants were tested individually on their ToM ability using a task involving attribution and comprehension of a speaker's ironic intent. This task made it possible to determine whether the degree of incongruity between contextual information and a target sentence has an impact on the attribution of ironic intent to the protagonists of a story. Participants were also assessed on their cognitive flexibility and working memory. The main results revealed that participants with schizophrenia correctly perceived contextual information cueing attribution of ironic intent to the protagonist of the stimulus, but they showed difficulty to correctly integrate this information, performing significantly worse than healthy participants when they attributed mental states. However, some participants with schizophrenia performed like healthy control participants on the ToM task while others did not. A lack of flexibility seems to differentiate the two schizophrenia subgroups thereby obtained, suggesting that cognitive flexibility has an impact on ToM performances in schizophrenia. These difficulties were not associated with clinical symptoms. Such results will have an impact on cognitive remediation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. "New linguistic issues", by Pier Pasolini, is causing scandal among linguists, philologists, writers, critics and intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Negri

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Pasolini departs from the diagnosis of a problem: the critical quest stage in contemporary literature, centered on the 1950s; he points out the author´s inability to create the design for a national language. He goes on to analyze the deep mutation in Italian Society, which determineted a new socio-linguistic outlook; to wit, a language clearly marked by strong technicality and instrumentation. Drawing examples from newspapers, TV features, official political speeches and commercials, Pasolini demonstrates that factual communication takes precedence over formal expression. This is ascribed to one principle which sets both rules and approvals for all forms of national language. This fact, according to Pasolini, is the result of an industrial and technological transformation process, which would  permite advent of a new linguistic bourgeoisie. The linguistic unification caused by such approving  principle would, therefore, imply the social manifestation of the bourgeoisie.

  17. Linguistics and the Literary Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Madeleine

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the opposing viewpoints of the two most influential linguists of this century--Saussure and Chomsky--suggesting that while both are interested in form as opposed to substance, Saussure sees linguistics as a branch of semiotics and Chomsky sees it as part of cognitive psychology. Evaluates the relevance of these two viewpoints to the…

  18. New Conceptualizations of Linguistic Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    This state-of-the art paper focuses on the issue of linguistic giftedness, somewhat neglected in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature, attempting to reconceptualize, expand and update this concept in response to latest developments in the fields of psychology, linguistics and neurology. It first discusses contemporary perspectives on…

  19. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  20. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  1. Linguistics and the TEFL Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Bruce

    This paper asserts the "unquestionable" relevance of linguistic insights in the training of and subsequent use by teachers of English as a foreign language. Although the author agrees with Chomsky's view that linguistics has nothing to offer the teacher in the form of specific proposals for language teaching methodology, he argues that linguistics…

  2. Machine Learning and Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Vajjala, Sowmya

    2018-01-01

    This entry introduces the topic of machine learning and provides an overview of its relevance for applied linguistics and language learning. The discussion will focus on giving an introduction to the methods and applications of machine learning in applied linguistics, and will provide references for further study.

  3. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  4. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leki, Ilona

    2000-01-01

    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  5. Literacy in Somali: Linguistic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Hared, Mohamed

    1991-01-01

    Linguistic consequences of literacy in Somalia are examined in a review of the literature and through a study of five dimensions of variation among Somali registers and the expansion of linguistic variation in Somali resulting from the introduction of written registers. (36 references) (LB)

  6. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Бондаренко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  7. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  8. Parallel language activation during word processing in bilinguals: Evidence from word production in sentence context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starreveld, P.A.; de Groot, A.M.B.; Rossmark, B.M.M.; van Hell, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    In two picture-naming experiments we examined whether bilinguals co-activate the non-target language during word production in the target language. The pictures were presented out-of-context (Experiment 1) or in visually presented sentence contexts (Experiment 2). In both experiments different

  9. The Extension of Quality Function Deployment Based on 2-Tuple Linguistic Representation Model for Product Design under Multigranularity Linguistic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality function deployment (QFD is a customer-driven approach for product design and development. A QFD analysis process includes a series of subprocesses, such as determination of the importance of customer requirements (CRs, the correlation among engineering characteristics (ECs, and the relationship between CRs and ECs. Usually more than group of one decision makers are involved in the subprocesses to make the decision. In most decision making problems, they often provide their evaluation information in the linguistic form. Moreover, because of different knowledge, background, and discrimination ability, decision makers may express their linguistic preferences in multigranularity linguistic information. Therefore, an effective approach to deal with the multi-granularity linguistic information in QFD analysis process is highly needed. In this study, the QFD methodology is extended with 2-tuple linguistic representation model under multi-granularity linguistic environment. The extended QFD methodology can cope with multi-granularity linguistic evaluation information and avoid the loss of information. The applicability of the proposed approach is demonstrated with a numerical example.

  10. Linguistic and Social Constructions of Fragrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2004-01-01

    them, except in terms of the other senses of sight, sound, touch and taste. Scents are communicated primarily through metaphors. What are these linguistic and visual metaphors, and what do they tell us about the societies and cultures in which they are used? How do we know what scents `mean'? Is smell...... a universal form of semiotic communication (as global advertising campaigns suggest), or does it vary in different social and cultural contexts (as anthropological and other literature asserts)? Are there specific `scent cultures'? If so, in what do they consist? And how do these affect the creation...

  11. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  12. The linguistic repudiation of Wundt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, B; Clarke, D D

    1998-08-01

    Wilhelm Wundt's influence on the development of linguistics and psychology was pervasive. The foundations for this web of influence on the sciences of mind and language were laid down in Wundt's own research program, which was quite different from other attempts at founding a new psychology, as it was deeply rooted in German philosophy. This resulted in certain gaps in Wundt's conception of mind and language. These gaps provoked a double repudiation of Wundt's theories, by linguists and psychologists. The psychological repudiation has been studied by historians of psychology, and the linguistic repudiation has been studied by historians of linguistics. The intent of this article is to bring the linguistic repudiation to the attention of historians of psychology, especially the one outlined by two important figures in the history of psychology: Karl Buhler and George Mead.

  13. Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Krek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

  14. Conflict and disfluency as aversive signals: context-specific processing adjustments are modulated by affective location associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Reindl, Anna-Lena; Fischer, Rico

    2018-03-01

    Context-specific processing adjustments are one signature feature of flexible human action control. However, up to now the precise mechanisms underlying these adjustments are not fully understood. Here it is argued that aversive signals produced by conflict- or disfluency-experience originally motivate such context-specific processing adjustments. We tested whether the efficiency of the aversive conflict signal for control adaptation depends on the affective nature of the context it is presented in. In two experiments, high vs. low proportions of aversive signals (Experiment 1: conflict trials; Experiment 2: disfluent trials) were presented either above or below the screen center. This location manipulation was motivated by existing evidence that verticality is generally associated with affective valence with up being positive and down being negative. From there it was hypothesized that the aversive signals would lose their trigger function for processing adjustments when presented at the lower (i.e., more negative) location. This should then result in a reduced context-specific proportion effect when the high proportion of aversive signals was presented at the lower location. Results fully confirmed the predictions. In both experiments, the location-specific proportion effects were only present when the high proportion of aversive signals occurred at the more positive location above but were reduced (Experiment 1) or even eliminated (Experiment 2) when the high proportion occurred at the more negative location below. This interaction of processing adjustments with affective background contexts can thus be taken as further hint for an affective origin of control adaptations.

  15. Precedent Phenomena in Quebecois Linguistic World View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ксения Эдуардовна Болотина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the linguocultural analysis of precedent phenomena as parts of Quebecois’ cognitive base. Precedent phenomena being cultural facts are one of the key issues in modern linguistic and cognitive studies. By precedent phenomena we mean, according to Y.E. Prohorov, such entities when verbalized in discourse that refer to a certain cultural fact behind them. In the article the precedent phenomena such as precedent text, precedent situation, precedent utterance, and precedent name are analyzed. The main theses of the precedence theory given in the article (Y.N. Karaulov, Y.E. Prohorov, V.V. Krasnyh, D.B. Gudkov are at the heart of precedence studies on the basis of different languages. However, a complex analysis of precedent phenomena in the Quebec national variant of French is new to Russian linguistics. The study of precedent phenomena enables us to elicit features of their functioning in ethnospecific discourse and determine cultural dominants existing in Quebecois’ linguistic world view. Given the fact that the size of the article is limited, we undertooke the analysis of eight phenomena precedent of the bearers of Quebec linguoculture. The choice of phenomena is determined by the frequency of their use in discourse. The facts analyzed are of national character, i.e. known to all members of the linguocultural community. A certain cultural fact is at the very core of each precedent phenomenon given in the article. To get the whole picture we analysed historic, political, and cultural context connected to the precedent phenomena in question. The study enables us to elicit distinctive features that are at the core of each phenomenon. The results are backed with the supportive material drawn from analysis of different types of discourse. The analysis of precedent phenomena undertaken in this article allows us to reconstruct, to a certain extent, Quebec cultural space and is a stepping stone to the reconstruction of the

  16. Linguistic aspects of eponymic professional endocrinologic terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Bytsko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special linguistic researches of terminological units of different branches of medicine allow analyzing in details the ways of creating the systems of clinical terminology from different aspects: historical, scientific, cultural, linguistic and semantic. There is a wide area of terminology related to the clinical and experimental endocrino­logy within general medical terminological system. The purpose of the study: to demonstrate the structure of endocrine medical terms — eponyms through the prism of systematization of methodological researches on eponymic vocabulary. Materials and methods. The actual material received as a result of a total choice of eponyms (there were 296 terms from the “Reference dictionary for endocrinologist”, which was composed by the scientists of V. Danilevsky Institute of Endocrine Pathology Problems and Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate education — A.V. Kozakov, N.A. Kravchun, I.M. Ilyina, M.I. Zubko, O.A. Goncharova, I.V. Cherniavska has 10,000 endocrine terms, the authors successfully streamlined medical terms of the clinical and experimental endocrinology into the vocabulary. The method of total choice of terms from professional literature, the descriptive method and distributive method were used in the study that allowed distinguishing lexical and semantic features of eponymic terms in the branch of endocrinology. Results. The obtained results point out to the modernity of studies in the field of clinical and experimental endocrinology, which is due to the fact that this is the oldest terminology, by the example of which it is possible to trace the ways of formation, development and improvement of terms, the realization of semantic processes, certain trends, ways and means of word formation. Conclusions. The results of the research on the above mentioned sublanguage of clinical medicine at the level of linguistic observations of the functio­ning in dictionaries and scientific works will

  17. Health Care Communication: A Problematic Site for Applied Linguistics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candlin, Christopher N.; Candlin, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Addresses how applied linguists and those concerned with discourse analysis in particular have recently approached the study of health care communication, especially in intercultural contexts, and relates these approaches to studies undertaken by researchers in other academic disciplines, such as the sociology of medicine and by health care…

  18. Writer Identity Construction in Mexican Students of Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the connection between discursive and non-discursive features and the construction of writer identity. In particular, the paper compares and contrasts the writer identity development of two groups of undergraduate students of applied linguistics in the Mexican context, one made up of locally educated ones and the other composed…

  19. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

  20. Exploring the impact of situational context – A case study of a software development process for a microservices architecture

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Rory; Elger, Peter; Clarke, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Over the decades, a variety of software development processes have been proposed, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. It is however widely accepted that there is no single process that is perfectly suited to all settings, thus a software process should be molded to the needs of its situational context. In previous work, we have consolidated a substantial body of related research into an initial reference framework of the situational factors affecting the software development pro...

  1. The linguistically aware teacher and the teacher-aware linguist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue

    2013-07-01

    This review evaluates issues of teacher linguistic knowledge relating to their work with children with speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). Information is from Ellis and McCartney [(2011a). Applied linguistics and primary school teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], a state-of-the-art text deriving from a British Association of Applied Linguistics/Cambridge University Press expert seminar series that details: linguistic research underpinning primary school curricula and pedagogy; the form of linguistic knowledge useful for teachers supporting children with SLCD in partnership with speech and language therapists; and how and when teachers acquire and learn to apply such knowledge. Critical analysis of the options presented for teacher learning indicate that policy enjoinders now include linguistic application as an expected part of teachers' professional knowledge, for all children including those with SLCD, but there is a large unmet learning need. It is concluded that there is a role for clinical linguists to disseminate useable knowledge to teachers in an accessible format. Ways of achieving this are considered.

  2. MIGRATION PROCESSES "EAST-WEST" IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article refl ects the infl uence of the migration processes to the economic security of European Union. The article underlines most common economical risks in case if there is an increase of the volume of migration and describes the ways how to reduce those risks.The main conclusions obtained from the results of the study, can be structured as follows: trends and consequences of the migration crisis in the European Union are defi ned by the set of reasons that are due on the one hand the policy of transparency being implemented by individual countries, making the whole European Union is the center of attraction of immigrants (primarily from the MENA countries and other hand, the intense and growing fl ow of migrants creates regional threats, including the European Union's economic security; the problem of ensuring the economic security of the European Union in the context of the impact of the migration crisis is most actual issue at the moment and the main reason is that the accumulation of the fl ow of migrants to the strongest European economy – Germany. In this case, not only Germany, but also France (and until recently UK had to improve the economic and social consequences of migration and also to implement measures aimed to recover from fi nancial crisis of the last few years, the consequences of which to date are shown in the many social and economic areas of the European Union; addressing the problem with migration crisis in the European Union seems to use a special system of measures, in which on the one hand realized containment of migration fl ows and on the other hand held solutions aimed at the assimilation of migrants in multicultural environment with full adoption of the latest socio-economic, democratic and moral values specifi c to European societies.

  3. I. WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY IN CONTEXT: MODELING DYNAMIC PROCESSES OF BEHAVIOR, MEMORY, AND DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R

    2016-09-01

    Working memory is a vital cognitive skill that underlies a broad range of behaviors. Higher cognitive functions are reliably predicted by working memory measures from two domains: children's performance on complex span tasks, and infants' performance in looking paradigms. Despite the similar predictive power across these research areas, theories of working memory development have not connected these different task types and developmental periods. The current project takes a first step toward bridging this gap by presenting a process-oriented theory, focusing on two tasks designed to assess visual working memory capacity in infants (the change-preference task) versus children and adults (the change detection task). Previous studies have shown inconsistent results, with capacity estimates increasing from one to four items during infancy, but only two to three items during early childhood. A probable source of this discrepancy is the different task structures used with each age group, but prior theories were not sufficiently specific to explain how performance relates across tasks. The current theory focuses on cognitive dynamics, that is, how memory representations are formed, maintained, and used within specific task contexts over development. This theory was formalized in a computational model to generate three predictions: 1) capacity estimates in the change-preference task should continue to increase beyond infancy; 2) capacity estimates should be higher in the change-preference versus change detection task when tested within individuals; and 3) performance should correlate across tasks because both rely on the same underlying memory system. I also tested a fourth prediction, that development across tasks could be explained through increasing real-time stability, realized computationally as strengthening connectivity within the model. Results confirmed these predictions, supporting the cognitive dynamics account of performance and developmental changes in real

  4. Situated conceptualization and semantic processing: effects of emotional experience and context availability in semantic categorization and naming tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Michael; Siakaluk, Paul D; Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-04-01

    It has been proposed that much of conceptual knowledge is acquired through situated conceptualization, such that both external (e.g., agents, objects, events) and internal (e.g., emotions, introspections) environments are considered important (Barsalou, 2003). To evaluate this proposal, we characterized two dimensions by which situated conceptualization may be measured and which should have different relevance for abstract and concrete concepts; namely, emotional experience (i.e., the ease with which words evoke emotional experience; Newcombe, Campbell, Siakaluk, & Pexman, 2012) and context availability (i.e., the ease with which words evoke contexts in which their referents may appear; Schwanenflugel & Shoben, 1983). We examined the effects of these two dimensions on abstract and concrete word processing in verbal semantic categorization (VSCT) and naming tasks. In the VSCT, emotional experience facilitated processing of abstract words but inhibited processing of concrete words, whereas context availability facilitated processing of both types of words. In the naming task in which abstract words and concrete words were not blocked by emotional experience, context availability facilitated responding to only the abstract words. In the naming task in which abstract words and concrete words were blocked by emotional experience, emotional experience facilitated responding to only the abstract words, whereas context availability facilitated responding to only the concrete words. These results were observed even with several lexical (e.g., frequency, age of acquisition) and semantic (e.g., concreteness, arousal, valence) variables included in the analyses. As such, the present research suggests that emotional experience and context availability tap into different aspects of situated conceptualization and make unique contributions to the representation and processing of abstract and concrete concepts.

  5. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva

    2014-04-01

    The present paper compares the two modes of processing proposed by Van Lancker Sidtis (2009 in her dual process model and the two domains of discourse organization distinguished in the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013; Kaltenböck et al. 2011. These two frameworks were developed on different kinds of data. In the dual process model it is observations on patients with left or right hemisphere damage that marked the starting point of analysis. Central to the dual process model is the distinction between novel speech (or novel language, or newly created language, or propositional speech and formulaic speech (or formulaic expressions or automatic speech. Easily identified instances of formulaic speech are swear words, interjections, pause fillers, discourse elements, non-literal lexical meanings for idioms, proverbs. Unlike the dual process model, in the Discourse Grammar model it is linguistic discontinuities that provided the basis of analysis. Discourse grammar in this model is understood as all the linguistic resources that are available for constructing spoken and written (and signed texts. We argue that Discourse Grammar can be divided into two distinct domains, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar. Whereas Sentence Grammar has been at the centre of interest in mainstream linguistics, Thetical Grammar encompasses linguistic phenomena – such as formulae of social exchange, imperatives, vocatives, interjections, including hesitation markers and pause fillers and what is traditionally known as “parenthetical” constructions – that pose a problem to orthodox grammatical analysis. We show that the findings made within the two frameworks are largely compatible with one another: both models converge on claiming that there is a significant correlation between linguistic categorization and hemisphere-based brain activity. In the dual process model it is hypothesized that there is a significant correlation between certain kinds of speech

  6. The effect of affective context on visuocortical processing of neutral faces in social anxiety - An ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that verbal context information alters the neural processing of ambiguous faces such as faces with no apparent facial expression. In social anxiety, neutral faces may be implicitly threatening for socially anxious individuals due to their ambiguous nature, but even more so if these neutral faces are put in self-referential negative contexts. Therefore, we measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs in response to neutral faces which were preceded by affective verbal information (negative, neutral, positive. Participants with low social anxiety (LSA; n = 23 and high social anxiety (HSA; n = 21 were asked to watch and rate valence and arousal of the respective faces while continuous EEG was recorded. ERP analysis revealed that HSA showed elevated P100 amplitudes in response to faces, but reduced structural encoding of faces as indexed by reduced N170 amplitudes. In general, affective context led to an enhanced early posterior negativity (EPN for negative compared to neutral facial expressions. Moreover, HSA compared to LSA showed enhanced late positive potentials (LPP to negatively contextualized faces, whereas in LSA this effect was found for faces in positive contexts. Also, HSA rated faces in negative contexts as more negative compared to LSA. These results point at enhanced vigilance for neutral faces regardless of context in HSA, while structural encoding seems to be diminished (avoidance. Interestingly, later components of sustained processing (LPP indicate that LSA show enhanced visuocortical processing for faces in positive contexts (happy bias, whereas this seems to be the case for negatively contextualized faces in HSA (threat bias. Finally, our results add further new evidence that top-down information in interaction with individual anxiety levels can influence early-stage aspects of visual perception.

  7. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context , no.1, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cosciug

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  8. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.1, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cosciug

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  9. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.1, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Cosciug Angela

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  10. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.1-2, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Cosciug Angela

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  11. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.1, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cosciug

    2009-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  12. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context. no. 2, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Cosciug Angela

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  13. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.2, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cosciug

    2009-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  14. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.2, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Cosciug Angela

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  15. Limbaj și context = Speech and Context, no.2, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cosciug

    2017-01-01

    Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science (SCIJLSLS) is an open access, peer reviewed (double blind reviewed) journal which is indexed in many prestigious international databases, directories, lists etc. (see Journal Indexing and Registration by databases types or Journal Indexing and Registration by countries). It appears there like Limbaj şi context or Speech and Context International Journal of Linguistics, Semiotics and Literary Science. The j...

  16. Cultural and Linguistic Adaptation of a Multimedia Colorectal Cancer Screening Decision Aid for Spanish Speaking Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Linda K.; Reuland, Daniel; Jolles, Monica; Clay, Rebecca; Pignone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    As the United States becomes more linguistically and culturally diverse, there is a need for effective health communication interventions that target diverse and most vulnerable populations. Latinos also have the lowest colorectal (CRC) screening rates of any ethnic group in the U.S. To address such disparities, health communication interventionists are often faced with the challenge to adapt existing interventions from English into Spanish in a way that retains essential elements of the original intervention while also addressing the linguistic needs and cultural perspectives of the target population. We describe the conceptual framework, context, rationale, methods, and findings of a formative research process used in creating a Spanish language version of an evidenced-based (English language) multimedia CRC screening decision aid. Our multi-step process included identification of essential elements of the existing intervention, literature review, assessment of the regional context and engagement of key stakeholders, and solicitation of direct input from target population. We integrated these findings in the creation of the new adapted intervention. We describe how we used this process to identify and integrate socio-cultural themes such as personalism (personalismo), familism (familismo), fear (miedo), embarrassment (verguenza), power distance (respeto), machismo, and trust (confianza) into the Spanish language decision aid. PMID:24328496

  17. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  18. A Context Aware Recommender System for Mobile Phone Selection Using Combination of Elimination Method and Analytic Hierarchy Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Rezaeenour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems suggest proper items to customers based on their preferences and needs. Needed time to search is reduced and the quality of customer’s choice is increased using recommender systems. The context information like time, location and user behaviors can enhance the quality of recommendations and customer satisfication in such systems. In this paper a context aware recommender system is designed and implemented in android smart phones to help customers select mobile phones. The system removes ineffective criteria on user’s purcheses using customer mobile phones’ sensor data. Then creates analytic hierarchy processing tree and computes weights. Finally the recommender system recommends proper mobile phone to user. The system selects and recommends suitable phones using combination of elimination method and analytic hierarchy processing (AHP. The context aware recommender system is used by mobile phone customers to assess recomendation satisfication and user interface design satisfication. In addition a traditional non-context aware recommender system is used by users to compare the recommendation results in two different systems. The article concludes that using context information can improve the recommendation quality and user satisfication. Because of decreasing criteria and pair-wised comparisions, the user interface design satisfication improves a little too.

  19. Lunar archive panoramas: modern image processing and access to the historic data based on spatial context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, Natalia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Nadezhdina, Irina; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Karachevtseva, Irina; Garov, Andrey; Matveev, Evgeniy

    The objectives of our work are to fully exploit the historic Soviet Lunokhod data and use the results for scientific and public purposes. Unfortunately, many of the relevant operational parameters of the Lunokhods missions are lost. Modern photogrammetry is a key to solving these issues, providing analysis techniques, not available at the time of the early lunar missions. For this purpose we use special developed software, GIS tools and high-resolution LRO data [1]. Results of new image processing of historic data are part of PRoViDE project (Planetary Robotics Vision Data Exploitation) which aims to assemble a major portion of the imaging data gathered from different vehicles and probes on planetary surfaces into a unique database, bringing them into a spatial context and providing access to a complete set of 3D vision products (http://www.provide-space.eu/). Our technology of archive panorama processing allows us to recover lost information of Soviet lunar missions and study lunar landing site imagery by state-of-the-art photogrammetric techniques. Our main task is to perform lunar panoramas in measurement form based on photogrammetry and geoanalyses methods, and then involve them in more detailed morphometric analyses [2] and 3D-modeling of lunar surface based on LROC NAC image processing [3]. The results of our work are various types of new products: panoramas in different projections, updated metadata with recovering parameters, and ortho-panoramas, which can be used for quantitative geomorphology assessment based on spatial tools [4]. All data products obtained as a result of the study are to be placed into Planetary data storage which is developing as Geodesy and Cartography Node [5]. Access to archive lunar data will be organized via Geo-portal (http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal/) using authorization service, which provided data security and user control. Planetary spatial information system can integrate various types of data for planets and their

  20. T-Check in Technologies for Interoperability: Business Process Management in a Web Services Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    UML Sequence Diagram) 6  Figure 3:   BPMN Diagram of the Order Processing Business Process 9  Figure 4:   T-Check Process for Technology Evaluation 10...Figure 5:  Notional System Architecture 12  Figure 6:  Flow Chart of the Order Processing Business Process 14  Figure 7:  Order Processing Activities...features. Figure 3 (created with Intalio BPMS Designer [Intalio 2008]) shows a BPMN view of the Order Processing business process that is used in the

  1. Latin American Identity and The Contradictory Processes Involved in its Construction-Deconstruction-Reconfiguration in Global Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Hugo Ramos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficult and contradictory formation, consolidation and change processes of Latin American identity from an anthropological and holistic perspective and in the context of the emergence of the world-system from the conquest, colonization and independence struggles to its current reconfiguration in the midst of transnational globalization and the alternatives to it. This approach, which we could call dynamicsynthetic, sees identity as a constantly changing open process...

  2. Effective management of construction company in terms of linguistic communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirina, Elena; Gaybarian, Olga; Myasischev, Georg

    2017-10-01

    The research presented here has been made over the years in the field of increasing the effectiveness of management in a construction company in terms of applied linguistics. The aim of this work is to share with the scientific community some practical findings of applying the technology of process management of the company, in particular the methods of linguistic efficiency considering the factors of the linguistic personality of the employee. The study deals with the description of applied linguistic and managerial models, views, practical results of their application in the applied field in order to assess production sustainability and minimize losses. The authors applied the developed technology to practical use, and the article presents the results of this application. The authors continue the research in this direction aiming at improving the production effectiveness of the proposed technologies and eliminating some identified drawback.

  3. LANGUE AND PAROLE IN AMERICAN LINGUISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE PROBLEM OF THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED AND THE FORM WHICH ANY LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION SHOULD TAKE. THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE INFLUENCE OF THE SWISS LINGUIST, FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE, ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN LINGUISTICS. THE QUESTION OF "MENTALISM" IN LINGUISTICS IS REDUCED TO THE PROBLEM OF WHETHER LINGUISTIC…

  4. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  5. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between linguistics and second language teaching has always been a controversial one. Many linguists have argued that linguistics has nothing to say to the teacher. Sampson (1980, p.10), for example, says: ·"1 do not believe that linguistics has any contribution to make to the teaching of English or the.

  6. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. Sources of Support. The Department of General Linguistics acknowledges the financial support provided by the Fonds ...

  7. Music playschool enhances children's linguistic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnavalli, Tanja; Putkinen, Vesa; Lipsanen, Jari; Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2018-06-08

    Several studies have suggested that intensive musical training enhances children's linguistic skills. Such training, however, is not available to all children. We studied in a community setting whether a low-cost, weekly music playschool provided to 5-6-year-old children in kindergartens could already affect their linguistic abilities. Children (N = 66) were tested four times over two school-years with Phoneme processing and Vocabulary subtests, along with tests for Perceptual reasoning skills and Inhibitory control. We compared the development of music playschool children to their peers either attending to similarly organized dance lessons or not attending to either activity. Music playschool significantly improved the development of children's phoneme processing and vocabulary skills. No such improvements on children's scores for non-verbal reasoning and inhibition were obtained. Our data suggest that even playful group music activities - if attended to for several years - have a positive effect on pre-schoolers' linguistic skills. Therefore we promote the concept of implementing regular music playschool lessons given by professional teachers in early childhood education.

  8. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  10. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Gesture Modelling for Linguistic Purposes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of sign languages attempts to create a coherent model that binds the expressive nature of signs conveyed in gestures to a linguistic framework. Gesture modelling offers an alternative that provides device independence, scalability...

  13. Is Rorty a linguistic idealist?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marvan, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2011), s. 272-279 ISSN 1210-3055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Rorty * linguistic idealism * internal realism * intrinsic structure of reality * representation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. On the concept of a linguistic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of a linguistic variable plays a crucial role in the representation of imprecise knowledge in information sciences. A variable is called linguistic as soon as its values are linguistic terms rather than numerical ones. The power of daily communication and common sense reasoning lies in the use of such linguistic values. Even when exact numerical values are available, experts tend to transform these values into linguistic ones. A physician will usually translate a numerical measurement of a blood pressure into linguistic specifications such as normal, very high, too low... Zadeh has argued that the set of values for a linguistic variable assumes a more-or-less fixed structure. Starting from an atomic value and its antonym all remaining values are constructed using logical connectives on the one hand and linguistic hedges on the other hand. In this paper we will describe how to represent the value set of a linguistic variable in general and of linguistic hedges in particular

  15. Understanding of Idiomatic Expressions in Context in Skilled and Less Skilled Comprehenders: Online Processing and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakhill, Jane; Cain, Kate; Nesi, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a study in which good and poor comprehenders (in 2 age groups: 8- and 10-year-olds) read short passages containing phrases that could be interpreted as idiomatic or not, depending on the context. Familiarity was manipulated by including real (English) idioms and novel (translations of Italian) idioms. Reading times for the…

  16. Developing an Undergraduate International Business Program: Context, Rationale, Process and Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jim; Gray, Brendan; McNaughton, Rod

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent development of a new undergraduate international business program at the University of Otago in New Zealand. Firstly, it describes the context of the initiative in terms of the New Zealand business environment, the university sector in New Zealand and recent global trends in international business education.…

  17. Teachers' Emotions in the Context of Education Reform: Labor Process Theory and Social Constructionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Kwong, Tsun Lok

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, many teachers suffered different kinds of negative emotions in the context of education reforms. A typical explanation was that the education reforms disempowered teachers in teaching, so teachers were forced to do much non-instructional work. Teachers considered their work meaningless but were powerless to change it, and…

  18. Context-dependent motor skill: perceptual processing in memory-based sequence production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, M.F.L.; Abrahamse, E.L.; de Kleine, Elian; Verwey, Willem B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that motor sequencing skill can benefit from the reinstatement of the learning context—even with respect to features that are formally not required for appropriate task performance. The present study explored whether such context-dependence develops when sequence

  19. Linguistic Characteristics of Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2010-01-01

    Advertising language takes form under the influence of linguistics,psychology and sociology,etc,and its way of choosing words and building sentences are quite different from normal English.And as a practical language,advertising English has its specific functions,and it has been distinguished from normal English as an independent language,and it has plentiful values.This paper aims to discuss some linguistic characteristics of advertising English.

  20. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  1. The new linguistic order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Fishman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation phenomenon that we are currently seeing has lead to major linguistic changes on a worldwide scale. English has become the leading international language, in economic and political spheres, and is becoming the language of high society and of the young. At the same time, however, regional languages are also making considerable headway, thanks to new social interaction and economic backing from their governments. In turn, and as a result of these two trends, there is impetus for feelings of belonging to local communities which see their language as a sign of their own authenticity, one that has to be defended against the phenomena of globalisation and regionalisation. We are thus heading towards a multilingual society, in which each language has its own, distinct social functions, even though it is inevitable that there will be conflict between the languages that come into contact. In this scenario, the author predicts a loss of hegemony for English, in favour of regional languages, and the future extinction of the least spoken minority languages.

  2. Computational Linguistics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Piasecki, Maciej; Jassem, Krzysztof; Fuglewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Google over the recent decade has required a specific method of man-machine communication: human query should be short, whereas the machine answer may take a form of a wide range of documents. This type of communication has triggered a rapid development in the domain of Information Extraction, aimed at providing the asker with a  more precise information. The recent success of intelligent personal assistants supporting users in searching or even extracting information and answers from large collections of electronic documents signals the onset of a new era in man-machine communication – we shall soon explain to our small devices what we need to know and expect valuable answers quickly and automatically delivered. The progress of man-machine communication is accompanied by growth in the significance of applied Computational Linguistics – we need machines to understand much more from the language we speak naturally than it is the case of up-to-date search systems. Moreover, w...

  3. Friendship Selection and Influence Processes for Physical Aggression and Prosociality: Differences between Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, influence processes reveal the reversed pattern by indicating how friends affect individual behaviors. Data were derived from a longitudinal sample of early adolescents from Chile. Four all-male classrooms ( n  = 150 male adolescents), four all-female classrooms ( n  = 190 female adolescents), and eight mixed-sex classrooms ( n  = 272 students) were followed one year from grades 5 to 6 ( M age  = 13). Analyses were conducted by means of stochastic-actor-based modeling as implemented in RSIENA. Although it was expected that selection and influence effects for physical aggression and prosociality would vary by context, these effects showed remarkably similar trends across all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms, with physical aggression reducing and with prosociality increasing the number of nominations received as best friend in all-male and particularly all-female classrooms. Further, perceived popularity increased the number of friendship nominations received in all contexts. Influence processes were only found for perceived popularity, but not for physical aggression and prosociality in any of the three contexts. Together, these findings highlight the importance of both behaviors for friendship selection independent of sex-specific contexts, attenuating the implications of these gendered behaviors for peer relations.

  4. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  5. Validation of King's transaction process for healthcare provider-patient communication in pharmaceutical context: One cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Zinan; Ye, Liping; Zhang, Xinping

    2018-03-27

    With the impressive advantages of patient-pharmacist communication being advocated and poor pharmacist-patient communication in different settings, it is of great significance and urgency to explore the mechanism of the pharmacist-patient communicative relationship. The King's theory of goal attainment is proposed as one of the most promising models to be applied, because it takes into consideration both improving the patient-pharmacist relationship and attaining patients' health outcomes. This study aimed to validate the King's transaction process and build the linkage between the transaction process and patient satisfaction in a pharmaceutical context. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four tertiary hospitals in two provincial cities (Wuhan and Shanghai) in central and east China in July 2017. Patients over 18 were investigated in the pharmacies of the hospitals. The instrument for the transaction process was revised and tested. Path analysis was conducted for the King's transaction process and its relationship with patient satisfaction. Five hundred eighty-nine participants were investigated for main study. Prior to the addition of covariates, the hypothesised model of the King's transaction process was validated, in which all paths of the transaction process were statistically significant (p process had direct effects on patient satisfaction (p process was established as one valid theoretical framework of healthcare provider-patient communication in a pharmaceutical context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Notion of Culture in Linguistic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Busch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works on intercultural communication from the field of linguistics share the assumption that influences of culture on social interaction will manifest in communicative exchanges—and conversely, that an academic's look at these exchanges will be a sufficient basis for an adequate description of what intercultural communication is supposed to be about. Linguistic theory itself lacking of places to integrate culture as a factor into its concepts, urges scholars to borrow operationalizations of culture from neighboring disciplines like e.g. different strands of psychology, sociology or anthropology. Approaches resulting from this transdisciplinary orientation as a consequence share very divergent assumptions on how, at what moment in a communicative process and with what effects culture influences social interaction. While many surveys on similar behalf distinguish between primordial and constructionist approaches, a closer look at different strands of empirical linguistic research may reveal even more precise and detailed distinctions on how culture may be captured and framed. This article will present and analyze a selection of approaches from the mentioned field, e.g. from intercultural and contrastive pragmatics, interactional sociolinguistics, ethnography of communication, ethnomethodology as well as discourse analysis. In each case, the underlying notions of culture will be revealed and put into contrast. Additionally, this exemplary analysis may show that most of the empirical schools mentioned follow and adopt changing notions of culture from social theory over time. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901508

  7. Linguistic coding deficits in foreign language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R; Ganschow, L; Pohlman, J

    1989-01-01

    As increasing numbers of colleges and universities require a foreign language for graduation in at least one of their degree programs, reports of students with difficulties in learning a second language are multiplying. Until recently, little research has been conducted to identify the nature of this problem. Recent attempts by the authors have focused upon subtle but ongoing language difficulties in these individuals as the source of their struggle to learn a foreign language. The present paper attempts to expand upon this concept by outlining a theoretical framework based upon a linguistic coding model that hypothesizes deficits in the processing of phonological, syntactic, and/or semantic information. Traditional psychoeducational assessment batteries of standardized intelligence and achievement tests generally are not sensitive to these linguistic coding deficits unless closely analyzed or, more often, used in conjunction with a more comprehensive language assessment battery. Students who have been waived from a foreign language requirement and their proposed type(s) of linguistic coding deficits are profiled. Tentative conclusions about the nature of these foreign language learning deficits are presented along with specific suggestions for tests to be used in psychoeducational evaluations.

  8. Cognitive diffusion model with user-oriented context-to-text recognition for learning to promote high level cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yuin Hwang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of studies on how to promote students’ cognitive processes and learning achievements through various learning activities supported by advanced learning technologies. However, not many of them focus on applying the knowledge that students learn in school to solve authentic daily life problems. This study aims to propose a cognitive diffusion model called User-oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL to facilitate and improve students’ learning and cognitive processes from lower levels (i.e., Remember and Understand to higher levels (i.e., Apply and above through an innovative approach, called User-Oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL. With U-CTRL, students participate in learning activities in which they capture the learning context that can be scanned and recognized by a computer application as text. Furthermore, this study proposes the use of an innovative model, called Cognitive Diffusion Model, to investigate the diffusion and transition of students’ cognitive processes in different learning stages including pre-schooling, after-schooling, crossing the chasm, and higher cognitive processing. Finally, two cases are presented to demonstrate how the U-CTRL approach can be used to facilitate student cognition in their learning of English and Natural science.

  9. Eye-tracking reveals a slowdown of social context processing during intention attribution in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Paul; Brunet-Gouet, Eric; Passerieux, Christine; Ramus, Franck

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with poor theory of mind (ToM), particularly in the attribution of intentions to others. It is also associated with abnormal gaze behaviours and contextual processing. This study investigated to what extent impaired ToM in patients with schizophrenia is related to abnormal processing of social context. We evaluated ToM using a nonverbal intention attribution task based on comic strips depicting social/nonsocial and contextual/noncontextual events while eye movements were recorded. Eye-tracking was used to assess processing time dedicated to visual cues contained in regions of interest identified in a pilot study. We measured cognitive contextual control on a separate task. We tested 29 patients with schizophrenia and 29 controls. Compared with controls, patients were slower in intention attribution but not in physical reasoning. They looked longer than controls at contextual cues displayed in the first 2 context pictures of the comic strips, and this difference was greater for intention attribution than for physical reasoning. We found no group difference in time spent looking at noncontextual cues. Patients' impairment in contextual control did not explain their increased reaction time and gaze duration on contextual cues during intention attribution. Difficulty may not have been equivalent between intention attribution and physical reasoning conditions. Overall, schizophrenia was characterized by a delay in intention attribution related to a slowdown of social context processing that was not explained by worse executive contextual control.

  10. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language. This article is part of the themed issue ‘New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences’. PMID:27872370

  11. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny; Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-05

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Using micro-contexts to describe a writing process in Estonian as a second language across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pastuhhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the writing process of native Russian‑speaking students in Estonian as a second language. 34 participants were given the assignment of writing a text in the L2. The written texts were then rated as being at levels from A2 to C1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. The data were collected by computer keystroke logging and analysed based on the concept of a ‘micro-context’. Micro-contexts were analysed according to their frequency and duration and were compared across proficiency levels. The results show that writing in the L2 is not a smooth process. The longest transitions in micro-contexts reveal that the most cognitive effort is made between paragraphs and sentences and when deletions are involved. The growing number of consecutive deletions demonstrates that even with developing proficiency, the linear production text is subject to constant revision, correction and modification.

  13. T-Check in Technologies for Interoperability: Business Process Management in a Web Services Context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hueppi, Fabian; Wrage, Lutz; Lewis, Grace A

    2008-01-01

    .... Composition languages are one type of BPM technology. Through the use of composition languages, business processes that are implemented through software and available as web services can be combined into new processes...

  14. A proposal framework for investigating website success in the context of e-banking:an analytic network process approach

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Mona; Keramati, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a framework to investigate website success factors, and their relative importance in selecting the most preferred e-banking website. For one thing, Updated Delone and Mclean IS success model is chosen to extract significant website success factors in the context of e-banking in Iran. Secondly, Updated Delone and McLean IS success model is extended through applying an analytic network process (ANP) approach in order to investigate the relative importance of each factor and ...

  15. UNITS OF MEASUREMENT: ORAL TRADITION, TRANSLATION STUDIES AND CORPUS LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ZEMKE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the world’s verbal arts offers an opportunity to consider ways that computational analysis and modeling of narratives may lead to new understandings of how they are constructed, their dynamics and relationships. Similarly, as corpus linguistics operations must define metrics, it offers an occasion to review basic interpretive concepts such as “units of analysis, context, and genre." My essay begins with an admittedly cursory overview from a novice perspective of what capabilities corpus linguistics currently possesses for the analysis and modeling of narratives. Consideration is given to the epistemological issue in the social sciences with the positivistic prescription or empiricist description of units of analysis and the potential pitfalls or advantages corpus linguistics encounters in searching for adequate equivalent terms. This review leads naturally to reflection on the crucial determinative action of context on meaning and the extent to which current computational interfaces are able to account for and integrate into global analysis of linguistic and performance dimensions such as performer, intonation, gesture, diction, idioms and figurative language, setting, audience, time, and occasion. As a tentative conclusion from this review, it can be stated that artificial intelligence for modeling narratives or devising narrative algorithms must develop capacities to account for performance dimensions in order to fulfill their analytical potential.

  16. Thinking indigenous agency: contexts, actors and changing processes between guarani Indians (XVIIth. C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Perusset

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At the multiethnic and multicultural colonial Paraguay’s space, some people played a central role as intermediaries between different cultural traditions. Within this context, in the reducciones de indios emerged a new kind of actors who displayed a diversity of strategies in order to preserve indigenous welfare as self-profit. These were the guaraní leaders, a kind of cultural bridges as well as political and economic agents because of the daily practices they play in thecolonial society.

  17. Flexible recruitment of semantic richness: Context modulates body-object interaction effects in lexical-semantic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody eTousignant

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Body-object interaction (BOI is a semantic richness variable that measures the perceived ease with which the human body can physically interact with a word’s referent. Lexical and semantic processing is facilitated when words are associated with relatively more bodily experience (high BOI words, e.g., belt. To date, BOI effects have been examined in only one semantic decision context (is it imageable?. It has been argued that semantic processing is dynamic and can be modulated by context. We examined these influences by testing how task knowledge modulated BOI effects. We presented the same stimuli (high- and low-BOI entity words and a set of action words in each of four action/entity semantic categorization tasks (SCTs. Task framing was manipulated: participants were told about one (actions or entities or both (actions and entities categories of words in the decision task. Facilitatory BOI effects were observed when participants knew that ‘entity’ was part of the decision category, regardless of whether the high- and low-BOI entity words appeared on the affirmative or negative side of the decision. That BOI information was only useful when participants had expectations that object words would be presented suggests a strong role for the decision context in lexical-semantic processing, and supports a dynamic view of conceptual knowledge.

  18. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  19. Dorsoventral and Proximodistal Hippocampal Processing Account for the Influences of Sleep and Context on Memory (Reconsolidation: A Connectionist Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Lines

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The context in which learning occurs is sufficient to reconsolidate stored memories and neuronal reactivation may be crucial to memory consolidation during sleep. The mechanisms of context-dependent and sleep-dependent memory (reconsolidation are unknown but involve the hippocampus. We simulated memory (reconsolidation using a connectionist model of the hippocampus that explicitly accounted for its dorsoventral organization and for CA1 proximodistal processing. Replicating human and rodent (reconsolidation studies yielded the following results. (1 Semantic overlap between memory items and extraneous learning was necessary to explain experimental data and depended crucially on the recurrent networks of dorsal but not ventral CA3. (2 Stimulus-free, sleep-induced internal reactivations of memory patterns produced heterogeneous recruitment of memory items and protected memories from subsequent interference. These simulations further suggested that the decrease in memory resilience when subjects were not allowed to sleep following learning was primarily due to extraneous learning. (3 Partial exposure to the learning context during simulated sleep (i.e., targeted memory reactivation uniformly increased memory item reactivation and enhanced subsequent recall. Altogether, these results show that the dorsoventral and proximodistal organization of the hippocampus may be important components of the neural mechanisms for context-based and sleep-based memory (reconsolidations.

  20. Gender Differences in Liking and Wanting Sex: Examining the Role of Motivational Context and Implicit Versus Explicit Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Marieke

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the specificity of sexual appraisal processes by making a distinction between implicit and explicit appraisals and between the affective (liking) and motivational (wanting) valence of sexual stimuli. These appraisals are assumed to diverge between men and women, depending on the context in which the sexual stimulus is encountered. Using an Implicit Association Test, explicit ratings, and film clips to prime a sexual, romantic or neutral motivational context, we investigated whether liking and wanting of sexual stimuli differed at the implicit and explicit level, differed between men and women, and were differentially sensitive to context manipulations. Results showed that, at the implicit level, women wanted more sex after being primed with romantic mood whereas men showed the least wanting of sex in the romantic condition. At the explicit level, men reported greater liking and wanting of sex than women, independently of context. We also found that women's (self-reported) sexual behavior was best predicted by the incentive salience of sexual stimuli whereas men's sexual behavior was more closely related to the hedonic qualities of sexual stimuli. Results were discussed in relation to an emotion-motivational account of sexual functioning.

  1. Using Amazon Mechanical Turk for linguistic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnoebelen Tyler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amazon’s Mechanical Turk service makes linguistic experimentation quick, easy, and inexpensive. However, researchers have not been certain about its reliability. In a series of experiments, this paper compares data collected via Mechanical Turk to those obtained using more traditional methods One set of experiments measured the predictability of words in sentences using the Cloze sentence completion task (Taylor, 1953. The correlation between traditional and Turk Cloze scores is high (rho=0.823 and both data sets perform similarly against alternative measures of contextual predictability. Five other experiments on the semantic relatedness of verbs and phrasal verbs (how much is “lift” part of “lift up” manipulate the presence of the sentence context and the composition of the experimental list. The results indicate that Turk data correlate well between experiments and with data from traditional methods (rho up to 0.9, and they show high inter-rater consistency and agreement. We conclude that Mechanical Turk is a reliable source of data for complex linguistic tasks in heavy use by psycholinguists. The paper provides suggestions for best practices in data collection and scrubbing.

  2. Issues Related to University Education in Ukraine in the Context of Globalization, European Integration and Bologna Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna V. Bosenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of issued linked to the development of Ukrainian education in the contexts of globalization, European integration and Bologna Process. The needs for reforms related to the university education in Ukraine is linked with job market and social services, including educational services, globalization of economics and IT technologies: enhancing of socio-economical and pedagogical processes, informatization in society, transition to ‘knowledge societies’, changing the system f values, expanding the core of university education, emergence and distribution of innovative technologies, freedom of choice in electing the university curriculum, fundamentalization and humanization of education etc.

  3. Probabilistic Linguistic Power Aggregation Operators for Multi-Criteria Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbodah Kobina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As an effective aggregation tool, power average (PA allows the input arguments being aggregated to support and reinforce each other, which provides more versatility in the information aggregation process. Under the probabilistic linguistic term environment, we deeply investigate the new power aggregation (PA operators for fusing the probabilistic linguistic term sets (PLTSs. In this paper, we firstly develop the probabilistic linguistic power average (PLPA, the weighted probabilistic linguistic power average (WPLPA operators, the probabilistic linguistic power geometric (PLPG and the weighted probabilistic linguistic power geometric (WPLPG operators. At the same time, we carefully analyze the properties of these new aggregation operators. With the aid of the WPLPA and WPLPG operators, we further design the approaches for the application of multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM with PLTSs. Finally, we use an illustrated example to expound our proposed methods and verify their performances.

  4. The development of perceptual grouping biases in infancy: a Japanese-English cross-linguistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Katherine A; Iversen, John R; Patel, Aniruddh D; Mazuka, Reiko; Nito, Hiromi; Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F

    2010-05-01

    Perceptual grouping has traditionally been thought to be governed by innate, universal principles. However, recent work has found differences in Japanese and English speakers' non-linguistic perceptual grouping, implicating language in non-linguistic perceptual processes (Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Two experiments test Japanese- and English-learning infants of 5-6 and 7-8 months of age to explore the development of grouping preferences. At 5-6 months, neither the Japanese nor the English infants revealed any systematic perceptual biases. However, by 7-8 months, the same age as when linguistic phrasal grouping develops, infants developed non-linguistic grouping preferences consistent with their language's structure (and the grouping biases found in adulthood). These results reveal an early difference in non-linguistic perception between infants growing up in different language environments. The possibility that infants' linguistic phrasal grouping is bootstrapped by abstract perceptual principles is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  6. Data Acquisition and Linguistic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassel, Stephanie; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John; Staderman, William; Olive, Joseph

    All human language technology demands substantial quantities of data for system training and development, plus stable benchmark data to measure ongoing progress. While creation of high quality linguistic resources is both costly and time consuming, such data has the potential to profoundly impact not just a single evaluation program but language technology research in general. GALE's challenging performance targets demand linguistic data on a scale and complexity never before encountered. Resources cover multiple languages (Arabic, Chinese, and English) and multiple genres -- both structured (newswire and broadcast news) and unstructured (web text, including blogs and newsgroups, and broadcast conversation). These resources include significant volumes of monolingual text and speech, parallel text, and transcribed audio combined with multiple layers of linguistic annotation, ranging from word aligned parallel text and Treebanks to rich semantic annotation.

  7. Associations among measures of sequential processing in motor and linguistics tasks in adults with and without a family history of childhood apraxia of speech: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Le; Peter, Beate; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Raskind, Wendy H

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the hypothesis that childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is influenced by an underlying deficit in sequential processing that is also expressed in other modalities. In a sample of 21 adults from five multigenerational families, 11 with histories of various familial speech sound disorders, 3 biologically related adults from a family with familial CAS showed motor sequencing deficits in an alternating motor speech task. Compared with the other adults, these three participants showed deficits in tasks requiring high loads of sequential processing, including nonword imitation, nonword reading and spelling. Qualitative error analyses in real word and nonword imitations revealed group differences in phoneme sequencing errors. Motor sequencing ability was correlated with phoneme sequencing errors during real word and nonword imitation, reading and spelling. Correlations were characterized by extremely high scores in one family and extremely low scores in another. Results are consistent with a central deficit in sequential processing in CAS of familial origin.

  8. Emergency management: Does it have a sufficiently comprehensive understanding of decision-making, process and context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculae, C.; French, S.; Carter, E.

    2004-01-01

    It is widely recognised in the social and management sciences that the effective support of decision-making requires a multidisciplinary perspective. This trend is also clear in nuclear emergency management (EM). However, communication between disciplines is not easy to maintain in EM contexts when the decision makers (DMs) are likely to be highly stressed. Such circumstances can lead them to revert to the instinctive patterns of perception of their core disciplines, making communication between disciplines difficult and, perhaps, obscuring complex interactions that have not been rehearsed in practice exercises. This paper explores decision making in EM and the nature of the socio-technical issues that will arise, suggesting that despite the lessons of past accidents the research EM community is still not taking a broad enough view of what future incidents may entail. (authors)

  9. The influence of context on word order processing - an fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Line Burholt; Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Nielsen, Andreas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    In languages that have subject-before-object as their canonical word order, e.g. German, English and Danish, behavioral experiments have shown more processing difficulties for object-initial clauses (OCs) than for subject-initial clauses (SCs). For processing of OCs in such languages, neuroimagin...

  10. Aproximación al estudio de las actitudes lingüÍsticas en un contexto de contacto de español y portugués en el área urbana trifronteriza B rasil-Colombia-Perú An overview of the study of linguistic attitudes in the context of language contact between spanish and portuguese of the tri-border area, Brasil-Colombia-Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Liliana Rojas Molina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo describir y analizar las actitudes lingüísticas de los habitantes de la trifrontera Brasil-Colombia-Perú frente al portugués y español del área, así como frente al fenómeno de alternancias e interferencias lingüísticas surgidas del contacto. A través de la técnica de la entrevista y la observación directa, se describen las actitudes desde sus dimensiones cognitiva, afectiva y conductual, y se descubren altos porcentajes de valoraciones y autovaloraciones negativas frente a las formas de habla estudiadas, lo cual sugiere una situación de discriminación lingüística que se suma al de discriminación social existente. Se propone, entonces, el comienzo de discusiones alrededor de políticas lingüísticas que apunten a la promoción de las formas de habla locales a través de los medios de comunicación existentes y los escenarios educativos, con el propósito de garantizar procesos de consolidación de la democratización lingüística y, en consecuencia, de equidad y justicia social.The aim of the present work is to describe and analyze the linguistic attitude of people at the tri-border among Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards the Spanish and Portuguese varieties spoken in the area, and towards the phenomenon of codeswitching and interference resulting from linguistic contact. By means of interviews and direct observation, the article attempts to describe the linguistic attitude from three dimensions: cognitive, affective and behavioral. Data analysis shows that there is a high level of negative attitude and negative self-attitude towards these speech varieties. Results indicate a situation of linguistic stigmatization that is added to the ongoing social discrimination. Thus, the study proposes the implementation of linguistic policies that promote the local speech forms through mass media and education in order to guarantee a process of consolidation of linguistic democracy, which in turn will

  11. Color adaptation induced from linguistic description of color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Zheng

    Full Text Available Recent theories propose that language comprehension can influence perception at the low level of perceptual system. Here, we used an adaptation paradigm to test whether processing language caused color adaptation in the visual system. After prolonged exposure to a color linguistic context, which depicted red, green, or non-specific color scenes, participants immediately performed a color detection task, indicating whether they saw a green color square in the middle of a white screen or not. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the green color square after listening to discourses denoting red compared to discourses denoting green or conveying non-specific color information, revealing that language comprehension caused an adaptation aftereffect at the perceptual level. Therefore, semantic representation of color may have a common neural substrate with color perception. These results are in line with the simulation view of embodied language comprehension theory, which predicts that processing language reactivates the sensorimotor systems that are engaged during real experience.

  12. Associations among Measures of Sequential Processing in Motor and Linguistics Tasks in Adults with and without a Family History of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Le; Peter, Beate; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the hypothesis that childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is influenced by an underlying deficit in sequential processing that is also expressed in other modalities. In a sample of 21 adults from five multigenerational families, 11 with histories of various familial speech sound disorders, 3 biologically…

  13. Mathematical Approaches to Cognitive Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuluundorj Begz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive linguistics, neuro-cognitive and psychological analysis of human verbal cognition present important area of multidisciplinary research. Mathematical methods and models have been introduced in number of publications with increasing attention to these theories. In this paper we have described some possible applications of mathematical methods to cognitive linguistics. Human verbal perception and verbal mapping deal with dissipative mental structures and symmetric/asymmetric relationships between objects of perception and deep (also surface structures of language. In that’s way methods of tensor analysis are ambitious candidate to be applied to analysis of human verbal thinking and mental space.

  14. Linguistics, human communication and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Fraser, W

    1994-11-01

    Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics have extended our understanding of the abnormal communication seen in psychosis, as well as that of people with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Psycholinguistics has the potential to increase the explanatory power of cognitive and neuropsychological approaches to psychosis and new methods of assessment and therapy are now being developed, based on linguistic theory. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Of 205 relevant articles identified, 65 were selected for review. Greater familiarity with linguistic theory could improve psychiatrists' assessment skills and their understanding of the relevance of human communication to the new cognitive models of psychosis.

  15. An analytic hierarchy process for benchmarking of automobile car service industry in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupender Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to help decision maker evaluate different processes to identify the weaknesses of an automobile car service where the best alternatives and critical success factors are identified to improve their performances against the market leader. The proposed benchmarking process may help provide effective systematic decision support tool. Thus the endeavor has been made for car service industry to exhibit proposed framework by applying AHP to enhance its competitiveness. The proposed study provides an opportunity to apply to other industries in addition with a diminutive alteration.

  16. Effects of semantic context and feedback on perceptual learning of speech processed through an acoustic simulation of a cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebach, Jeremy L; Pisoni, David B; Svirsky, Mario A

    2010-02-01

    The effect of feedback and materials on perceptual learning was examined in listeners with normal hearing who were exposed to cochlear implant simulations. Generalization was most robust when feedback paired the spectrally degraded sentences with their written transcriptions, promoting mapping between the degraded signal and its acoustic-phonetic representation. Transfer-appropriate processing theory suggests that such feedback was most successful because the original learning conditions were reinstated at testing: Performance was facilitated when both training and testing contained degraded stimuli. In addition, the effect of semantic context on generalization was assessed by training listeners on meaningful or anomalous sentences. Training with anomalous sentences was as effective as that with meaningful sentences, suggesting that listeners were encouraged to use acoustic-phonetic information to identify speech than to make predictions from semantic context.

  17. On Norms and Linguistic Categories in Linguistic Diversity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Due to globalization there is an increase in the appearances of languages in the multilingual linguistic landscape in urban spaces. Commentators have described this state of affairs as super-, mega- or complex diversity. Mainstream sociolinguists have argued that languages have no fixed boundaries

  18. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  19. Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development. Miami Linguistics Series No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Humboldt, Wilhelm

    Although this edition of Wilhelm von Humboldt's "Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development" is based entirely on the original German edition, the translators (George C. Buck and Frithjof A. Raven) and the publisher have attempted to clarify certain aspects of this work for the modern-day reader. These features include the addition of…

  20. A change navigation-based, scenario planning process within a developing world context from an Afro-centric leadership perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Geldenhuys

    2011-02-01

    Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate how scenario-based planning (a strictly cognitive management tool can be combined with organisational change navigation (a practice addressing the emotionality of change and how this integrated process should be aligned with the prerequisites imposed by a developing country context and an Afro-centric leadership perspective in order to make the process more context relevant and aligned. Motivation for the study: The integration of organisational change navigation with conventional scenario based planning, as well as the incorporation of the perquisites of a developing countries and an Afro-centric leadership perspective, will give organisations a more robust, holistic strategic management tool that will add significantly more value within a rapidly, radically and unpredictably changing world. Research design, approach and method: The adopted research approach comprised a combination of the sourcing of the latest thinking in the literature (the ‘theory’ as well as the views of seasoned practitioners of scenario planning (the ‘practice’ through an iterative research process, moving between theory and practice, back to practice and finally returning to theory in order to arrive at a validated expanded and enhanced scenario-based planning process which is both theory and practice ‘proof’. Main findings: A management tool incorporating the change navigation and the unique features of developing countries and Afro-centric leadership was formulated and empirically validated. This management tool is referred to as a change navigation based, scenario planning process (CNBSPP. Practical/managerial implications: CNBSPP is available for use by organisations wishing to apply a strategic planning tool that fits within a developing country context and an Afro-centric leadership approach. Contribution/value add: The research makes a unique contribution to the current level of knowledge by integrating two disciplines

  1. Conceptualizing playfulness for reflection processes in responsible research and innovation contexts: a narrative literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Marjoleine G.; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.; Kupper, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Playfulness supports people in learning. This study synthesizes a framework for playfulness for one particular type of learning: responsible research and innovation (RRI) reflection processes. Playfulness design elements were extracted from literature about playfulness in various learning and

  2. Questioning Faculty Use of Information Technology by Context of NETS-T Standards in Bologna Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, Muzaffer

    2013-01-01

    Using technology in and out of class has been becoming more and more important recently. University settings also become more dependent to technology. Bologna process requires university and faculty diffuse and

  3. MANAGEMENT OF COMPANIES’ BUSINESS PROCESSES IN A CONTEXT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Samchinska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The feature of information technology management as one of critical business process of the companies, that has a considerable influence on efficiency of their functioning and success achievement is considered in the article.

  4. Resources allocation and scheduling approaches for business process applications in Cloud contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Bessai , Kahina; Youcef , Samir; Oulamara , Ammar; Godart , Claude; Nurcan , Selmin

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the last years, the Cloud computing environment has emerged as new execution support of business process. However, despite the proven benefits of using Cloud to run business process, users lack guidance for choosing between multiple offerings while taking into account several objectives, which are often conflicting. On the other side, elastic computing, such as Amazon EC2, allows users to allocate and release compute resources (virtual machines) on-demand and pay on...

  5. Psychotherapy process and relationship in the context of a brief attachment-based mother-infant intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Susan S; Lauer, Maria; Beeney, Julie R S; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated links between the observer-rated process of psychotherapy and 2 key psychotherapy relationship constructs (i.e., working alliance and attachment to the therapist) in the context of a brief, attachment-based, home-visiting, mother-infant intervention that aimed to promote later secure infant attachment. Additionally, links between observer ratings of intervener and mother contributions to process were examined. Participants included 85 economically stressed mothers of first-born, 5.5-month-old, temperamentally irritable infants. Therapists included 2 doctoral-level and 4 master's-level home visitors. Observer-rated therapist psychotherapy process variables (i.e., warmth, exploration, and negative attitude) were not linked to maternal ratings of working alliance. Therapist warmth, however, was positively associated with maternal ratings of security of attachment to the therapist, and therapist negative attitude was positively related to maternal ratings of preoccupied-merger attachment to the therapist. As expected, both therapist warmth and exploration were positively associated with both maternal participation and exploration. Therapist negative attitude was inversely related to maternal exploration, but not to maternal participation. Results support the idea that attention to the psychotherapy process and relationship may be important in the context of a brief home-visiting parenting intervention with a nonclinical sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Latin American Identity and The Contradictory Processes Involved in its Construction-Deconstruction-Reconfiguration in Global Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Ramos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the difficult and contradictory formation, consolidation and change processes of Latin American identity from an anthropological and holistic perspective and in the context of the emergence of the world-system from the conquest, colonization and independence struggles to its current reconfiguration in the midst of transnational globalization and the alternatives to it. This approach, which we could call dynamicsynthetic, sees identity as a constantly changing open process where contradictory dynamics interact in the construction-deconstruction-reconfiguration of Latin American identity in specific historical contexts. Our continental collective identity is analyzed as the result of complex strains among various civilizational dynamics and opposing geopolitical forces. Dialectical and dialogical processes work together to allow the “reconciliation” of converse and diverse elements in innovative syntheses and create a space for dialogue that fosters what is shared to have a positive interaction, without denying the specific. In other words, they facilitate the interaction between “we” and the “others”, the “national” and the “continental”, the “local” and the “global”, enabling a better understanding of our inclusive continental nominative process: “Hispano-American”, “Ibero-American”, “Latin American”

  7. The process of translation and linguistic validation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain quality of life instrument from English to Malayalam: The challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgapoorna Menon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Both brain tumors and their treatments have a major negative impact on the quality of life (QoL. EORTC BN20 and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-BR are the most commonly used tools to assess QoL. The FACT-BR is a 23-item questionnaire, especially about the psychosocial aspects of QoL. This paper describes the challenges we faced during the process of translation and validation of the FACT-BR into Malayalam. Methods: We first screened the patients to ensure their mental status was satisfactory and that they could communicate well in both languages. According to the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy methodology, there were two forward translations from English to Malayalam by two independent translators, a reconciliation of the two forward translations, a back-translation into English, a review/finalization by a fifth translator, proofreading, and then testing on a small cohort of patients. Results: The whole process of translation was fraught with small and large hurdles – from small technical issues to the gaps in sociocultural norms. The sub item BR 7, due to the lack of an exact equivalent word, had issues that persisted up to the validation phase. The postquestionnaire debriefing interviews confirmed that the translations were well understood and conceptually equivalent to the original English one. Conclusions: Translation of the FACT-BR into Malayalam nearly completely reproduced the concepts of the original English questionnaire, as proved in the subsequent validation process.

  8. A Social Choice Analysis of the Borda Rule in a General Linguistic Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Lapresta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Borda rule is extended by allowing the voters to show their preferences among alternatives through linguistic labels. To this aim, we need to add them up for assigning a qualification to each alternative and then to compare such qualifications. Theoretically, all these assessments and comparisons fall into a totally ordered commutative monoid generated by the initial set of linguistic labels. Practically, we show an example which illustrates the suitability of this linguistic approach. Finally, some interesting properties for this Borda rule are proven in the Social Choice context.

  9. Linguistic Characteristics of Commercial and Social Advertising Slogans

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Skorupa; Tatjana Dubovičienė

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents the analysis of linguistic characteristics of commercial and social advertising slogans. There is no uniform definition of the advertising slogan in the scientific literature, therefore, an attempt to provide the definition of a slogan in the context of marketing communication was made. One of the main functions of both social and commercial advertising is to provide information to the target audience and make it act in a way desired by the advertisers. As language,...

  10. Challenges to fair decision-making processes in the context of health care services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Norheim, Ole F.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.

    2012-01-01

    challenges to fair decision-making processes in health care services with a special focus on the potential influence of gender, wealth, ethnicity and education. We draw on the principle of fairness as outlined in the deliberative democratic theory. METHODS: The study was carried out in the Mbarali District......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fair processes in decision making need the involvement of stakeholders who can discuss issues and reach an agreement based on reasons that are justifiable and appropriate in meeting people's needs. In Tanzania, the policy of decentralization and the health sector reform place......: The study findings indicate a substantial influence of gender, wealth, ethnicity and education on health care decision-making processes. Men, wealthy individuals, members of strong ethnic groups and highly educated individuals had greater influence. Opinions varied among the study informants as to whether...

  11. A Case of Generativity in a Culturally and Linguistically Complex English Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Allison

    2011-01-01

    This article examines an ESL English language arts teacher's conceptions of linguistic diversity, literacy learning and her role as teacher in a culturally and linguistically complex classroom. It further examines her processes of learning about, and developing curricular and pedagogical innovations to meet, her students' learning needs. The…

  12. Making Sense of Phrasal Verbs: A Cognitive Linguistic Account of L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rafael Alejo

    2010-01-01

    Phrasal verbs (PVs) have recently been the object of interest by linguists given their status as phraseological units whose meaning is non-compositional and opaque. They constitute a perfect case for theories of language processing and language acquisition to be tested. Cognitive linguists have participated in this debate and shown a certain…

  13. Ethnicity, Language-in-Education Policy and Linguistic Discrimination: Perspectives of Nepali Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Chura Bahadur; Adamson, Bob

    2018-01-01

    Educational issues in relation to ethnicity and language education policies have been underexplored in Asian contexts. In particular, issues related to ethnic and linguistic minority students have not received much attention in the post-colonial context of Hong Kong. This paper highlights challenges and tensions faced by Nepali ethnic minority…

  14. Children’s empathy in context: Individual abilities embedded in social processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerig, S.; van Wesel, F.; Evers, S.J.T.M.; Krabbendam, L.

    2015-01-01

    In neuropsychological and neuro-scientific research, empathy is often approached as an individual ability, whereas researchers in the field of anthropology focus on empathy as a dialectic process between two (or more) people. In our study we work as an interdisciplinary research team combining and

  15. Language Analysis in the Context of the Asylum Process: Procedures, Validity, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, Anne

    2004-01-01

    In 1993, the language section of the Swedish Migration Board initiated the production of documents they called "language analyses" to aid in the processing of asylum seekers. Today, 11 years later, 2 privately owned companies in Stockholm produce these documents. These companies have produced language analyses not only for the Swedish…

  16. Visualizing asphalt roller trajectories in context: acquiring, processing, and representing sensor readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt compaction process relies heavily on the skills and knowledge of roller operators who act alongside other stakeholders involved in asphalt paving. It is essential that these construction specialists: (1) are adequately informed about the initial temperature distribution of the asphalt

  17. International Student Mobility in Europe in the Context of the Bologna Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichler, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process is the newest of a chain of activities stimulated by supra-national actors since the 1950s to challenge national borders in higher education in Europe. Now, the ministers in charge of higher education of the individual European countries agreed to promote a similar cycle-structure of study programmes and programmes based on the…

  18. Collaborative Learning Processes in the Context of a Public Health Professional Development Program: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie; Brousselle, Astrid; Chiocchio, François; Beaudet, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The health promotion laboratory (HPL-Canada) is a public health professional development program building on a collaborative learning approach in order to support long-term practice change in local health services teams. This study aims to analyse the collaborative learning processes of two teams involved in the program during the first year of…

  19. The relationship between context, structure, and processes with outcomes of 6 regional diabetes networks in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdavi, M. (Mahdi); J. Vissers (Jan); S. Elkhuizen (Sylvia); Van Dijk, M. (Mattees); Vanhala, A. (Antero); Karampli, E. (Eleftheria); R. Faubel (Raquel); P. Forte (Paul); Coroian, E. (Elena); J.J. van de Klundert (Joris)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground While health service provisioning for the chronic condition Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) often involves a network of organisations and professionals, most evidence on the relationships between the structures and processes of service provisioning and the outcomes considers single

  20. Monitoring the transformation of historic features in Antarctica and Svalbard : local processes and regional contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roura, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Historical sites in Antarctica and Svalbard contain the material remains of past activities of exploration and exploitation of these regions. These sites have been subject to transformation by cultural and non-cultural (natural) processes since their abandonment to the present. For research and

  1. Use of context in vision processing: an introduction to the UCVP 2009 workshop.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghajan, Hamid; Braspenning, Ralph; Ivanov, Yuri; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Aghajan, H.; Braspenning, R.; Ivanov, Y.; Morency, L.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Yang, M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent efforts in defining ambient intelligence applications based on user-centric concepts, the advent of technology in different sensing modalities as well as the expanding interest in multimodal information fusion and situation-aware and dynamic vision processing algorithms have created a common

  2. Enhancing the cross-cultural adaptation and validation process: linguistic and psychometric testing of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of a self-report measure for dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Felipe; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Epstein, Jonathan; Novaes, Priscila

    2015-04-01

    To provide a reliable, validated, and culturally adapted instrument that may be used in monitoring dry eye in Brazilian patients and to discuss the strategies for the enhancement of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of a self-report measure for dry eye. The cross-cultural adaptation process (CCAP) of the original Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) into Brazilian-Portuguese was conducted using a 9-step guideline. The synthesis of translations was tested twice, for face and content validity, by different subjects (focus groups and cognitive interviews). The expert committee contributed on several steps, and back translations were based on the final rather than the prefinal version. For validation, the adapted version was applied in a prospective longitudinal study to 101 patients from the Dry Eye Clinic at the General Hospital of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Simultaneously to the OSDI, patients answered the short form-36 health survey (SF-36) and the 25-item visual function questionnaire (VFQ-25) and underwent clinical evaluation. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and measure validity were assessed. Cronbach's alpha value of the cross-culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the OSDI was 0.905, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.801. There was a statistically significant difference between OSDI scores in patients with dry eye (41.15 ± 27.40) and without dry eye (17.88 ± 17.09). There was a negative association between OSDI and VFQ-25 total score (P adaptation process requires skill, knowledge, experience, and a considerable investment of time to maximize the attainment of semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalence between the source and target questionnaires. A well-established guideline resulted in a culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the OSDI, tested and validated on a sample of Brazilian population, and proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing

  3. Clinical Linguistics--Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwell, Pamela

    In the past 20 years, linguistics has gained a prominent position in speech and language pathology in Britain, evolving into a new field, clinical linguistics. It includes three related areas of activity: training of speech pathologists/therapists; professional practice; and research. Linguistics and speech/language pathology have developed as…

  4. Quantitative Research in Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingshun

    2018-01-01

    The research of Systemic Functional Linguistics has been quite in-depth in both theory and practice. However, many linguists hold that Systemic Functional Linguistics has no hypothesis testing or experiments and its research is only qualitative. Analyses of the corpus, intelligent computing and language evolution on the ideological background of…

  5. Evaluating automatically annotated treebanks for linguistic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Bański, P.; Kupietz, M.; Lüngen, H.; Witt, A.; Barbaresi, A.; Biber, H.; Breiteneder, E.; Clematide, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses evaluation methods for linguists to use when employing an automatically annotated treebank as a source of linguistic evidence. While treebanks are usually evaluated with a general measure over all the data, linguistic studies often focus on a particular construction or a group

  6. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  7. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  8. Interdisciplinarity in pragmatics and linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mey, Jacob L.

    2017-01-01

    At the Second International Conference ‘Zeichen und System der Sprache’ (Magdeburg, September 1964), a certain East German professor took the floor during a discussion of one of the linguistic presentations. He started his comments by saying: ‘Als Mathematiker weiß ich zwar von der Sache nichts...

  9. Fuzzy linguistic model for interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.; Adabitabar Firozja, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy method for interpolating of smooth curves was represented. We present a novel approach to interpolate real data by applying the universal approximation method. In proposed method, fuzzy linguistic model (FLM) applied as universal approximation for any nonlinear continuous function. Finally, we give some numerical examples and compare the proposed method with spline method

  10. Desiderata for Linguistic Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of guidelines both for researchers in search of software to be used in linguistic analysis and for programmers designing such software. A description of the intended audience and the types of software under consideration and a review of some relevant literature are followed by a discussion of several important…

  11. Saussurean structuralism and cognitive linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive linguistics (CL) is often regarded as a continuation of Saussurean structuralism. This paper explores the relationship between the two paradigms, focussing on the connection between semantics and views on the language-thought relationship. As it turns out, the similarity in this respect

  12. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333450; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  13. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  14. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  15. 140 CIRCULAR INTERACTION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy. Although a country or administrative district should have one or more official languages for obvious reasons, Nelde (1991) proposes that the ... circular interaction between linguistic departments and language departments. Finding an answer to' Plato's abovementioned problem entails that as many languages as ...

  16. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  17. Applied Linguistics in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    This paper traces the three major developmental strands that converged to contribute to the definition of the applied linguistics field in the Philippines: the institution and capacity-building work supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations; the forging of a vibrant consortium among three Filipino institutions of higher education to offer…

  18. Understanding implementation processes of clinical pathways and clinical practice guidelines in pediatric contexts: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Shannon D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada is among the most prosperous nations in the world, yet the health and wellness outcomes of Canadian children are surprisingly poor. There is some evidence to suggest that these poor health outcomes are partly due to clinical practice variation, which can stem from failure to apply the best available research evidence in clinical practice, otherwise known as knowledge translation (KT. Surprisingly, clinical practice variation, even for common acute paediatric conditions, is pervasive. Clinical practice variation results in unnecessary medical treatments, increased suffering, and increased healthcare costs. This study focuses on improving health outcomes for common paediatric acute health concerns by evaluating strategies that improve KT and reduce clinical practice variation. Design/Methods Using a multiple case study design, qualitative and quantitative data will be collected from four emergency departments in western Canada. Data sources will include: pre- and post-implementation focus group data from multidisciplinary healthcare professionals; individual interviews with the local champions, KT intervention providers, and unit/site leaders/managers; Alberta Context Tool (ACT survey data; and aggregated patient outcome data. Qualitative and quantitative data will be systematically triangulated, and matrices will be built to do cross-case comparison. Explanations will be built about the success or lack of success of the clinical practice guidelines (CPG and clinical pathways (CPs uptake based upon the cross-case comparisons. Significance This study will generate new knowledge about the potential causal mechanisms and factors which shape implementation. Future studies will track the impact of the CPG/CPs implementation on children's health outcome, and healthcare costs.

  19. Hormones and phenotypic plasticity in an ecological context: linking physiological mechanisms to evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Sean C

    2014-11-01

    Hormones are chemical signaling molecules that regulate patterns of cellular physiology and gene expression underlying phenotypic traits. Hormone-signaling pathways respond to an organism's external environment to mediate developmental stage-specific malleability in phenotypes, so that environmental variation experienced at different stages of development has distinct effects on an organism's phenotype. Studies of hormone-signaling are therefore playing a central role in efforts to understand how plastic phenotypic responses to environmental variation are generated during development. But, how do adaptive, hormonally mediated phenotypes evolve if the individual signaling components (hormones, conversion enzymes, membrane transporters, and receptors) that comprise any hormone-signaling pathway show expressional flexibility in response to environmental variation? What relevance do these components hold as molecular targets for selection to couple or decouple correlated hormonally mediated traits? This article explores how studying the endocrine underpinnings of phenotypic plasticity in an ecologically relevant context can provide insights into these, and other, crucial questions into the role of phenotypic plasticity in evolution, including how plasticity itself evolves. These issues are discussed in the light of investigations into how thyroid hormones mediate morphological plasticity in Death Valley's clade of pupfishes (Cyprinodon spp.). Findings from this work with pupfish illustrate that the study of hormone-signaling from an ecological perspective can reveal how phenotypic plasticity contributes to the generation of phenotypic novelty, as well as how physiological mechanisms developmentally link an organism's phenotype to its environmental experiences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Cancer Survivors' Social Context in the Return to Work Process: Narrative Accounts of Social Support and Social Comparison Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaou, M; Schumacher, L; Grunfeld, E A

    2017-10-04

    Purpose Returning to work is a process that is intertwined with the social aspects of one's life, which can influence the way in which that person manages their return to work and also determines the support available to them. This study aimed to explore cancer patients' perceptions of the role of their social context in relation to returning to work following treatment. Methods Twenty-three patients who had received a diagnosis of either urological, breast, gynaecological, or bowel cancer participated in semi-structured interviews examining general perceptions of cancer, work values and perceptions of the potential impact of their cancer diagnosis and treatment on work. Interviews were analysed using the iterative process of Framework Analysis. Results Two superordinate themes emerged as influential in the return to work process: Social support as a facilitator of return to work (e.g. co-workers' support and support outside of the workplace) and Social comparison as an appraisal of readiness to return to work (e.g. comparisons with other cancer patients, colleagues, and employees in other organisations or professions). Conclusions Two functions of the social context of returning to work after cancer were apparent in the participants' narrative: the importance of social support as a facilitator of returning to work and the utilisation of social comparison information in order to appraise one's readiness to return to work. The role of social context in returning to work has largely been absent from the research literature to date. The findings of this study suggest that social support and social comparison mechanisms may have a significant impact on an individual's successful return to the workplace.

  1. How organizational context affects bioethical decision-making: pharmacists' management of gatekeeping processes in retail and hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Social science studies of bioethics demonstrate that ethics are highly contextual, functioning differently across local settings as actors make daily decisions "on the ground." Sociological studies that demonstrate the key role organizations play in shaping ethical decision-making have disproportionately focused on physicians and nurses working in hospital settings where they contend with life and death issues. This study broadens our understanding of the contexts of ethical decision-making by empirically examining understudied healthcare professionals - pharmacists - working in two organizational settings, retail and hospital, where they act as gatekeepers to regulated goods and services as they contend with ethical issues ranging from the serious to the mundane. This study asks: How do organizations shape pharmacists' identification, negotiation, and resolution of ethical challenges; in other words, how do organizations shape pharmacists' gatekeeping processes? Based on 95 semi-structured interviews with U.S. pharmacists practicing in retail and hospital pharmacies conducted between September 2009 and May 2011, this research finds that organizations influence ethical decision-making by shaping how pharmacists construct four gatekeeping processes: medical, legal, fiscal, and moral. Each gatekeeping process manifests differently across organizations due to how these settings structure inter-professional power dynamics, proximity to patients, and means of accessing information. Findings suggest new directions for theorizing about ethical decision-making in medical contexts by drawing attention to new ethical actors, new organizational settings, an expanded definition of ethical challenges, and a broader conceptualization of gatekeeping. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A test of processing efficiency theory in a team sport context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N C; Bellamy, M; Collins, D J; Newell, D

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we tested some key postulates of Eysenck and Calvo's processing efficiency theory in a team sport. The participants were 12 elite male volleyball players who were followed throughout the course of a competitive season. Self-report measures of pre-match and in-game cognitive anxiety and mental effort were collected in groups of players high and low in dispositional anxiety. Player performance was determined from the statistical analysis of match-play. Sets were classified according to the point spread separating the two teams into one of three levels of criticality. Game momentum was also analysed to determine its influence on in-game state anxiety. Significant differences in in-game cognitive anxiety were apparent between high and low trait anxiety groups. An interaction between anxiety grouping and momentum condition was also evident in cognitive anxiety. Differences in set criticality were reflected in significant elevations in mental effort, an effect more pronounced in dispositionally high anxious performers. Consistent with the predictions of processing efficiency theory, mental effort ratings were higher in high trait-anxious players in settings where their performance was equivalent to that of low trait-anxious performers. The usefulness of processing efficiency theory as an explanatory framework in sport anxiety research is discussed in the light of these findings.

  3. Judging emotional congruency: Explicit attention to situational context modulates processing of facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Aguado, Luis; Albert, Jacobo; Hinojosa, José Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The influence of explicit evaluative processes on the contextual integration of facial expressions of emotion was studied in a procedure that required the participants to judge the congruency of happy and angry faces with preceding sentences describing emotion-inducing situations. Judgments were faster on congruent trials in the case of happy faces and on incongruent trials in the case of angry faces. At the electrophysiological level, a congruency effect was observed in the face-sensitive N170 component that showed larger amplitudes on incongruent trials. An interactive effect of congruency and emotion appeared on the LPP (late positive potential), with larger amplitudes in response to happy faces that followed anger-inducing situations. These results show that the deliberate intention to judge the contextual congruency of facial expressions influences not only processes involved in affective evaluation such as those indexed by the LPP but also earlier processing stages that are involved in face perception. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Cross-Linguistic Influence in the Bilingual Mental Lexicon: Evidence of Cognate Effects in the Phonetic Production and Processing of a Vowel Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines cognate effects in the phonetic production and processing of the Catalan back mid-vowel contrast (/o/-/ɔ/) by 24 early and highly proficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals in Majorca (Spain). Participants completed a picture-naming task and a forced-choice lexical decision task in which they were presented with either words (e.g., /bɔsk/ "forest") or non-words based on real words, but with the alternate mid-vowel pair in stressed position ((*)/bosk/). The same cognate and non-cognate lexical items were included in the production and lexical decision experiments. The results indicate that even though these early bilinguals maintained the back mid-vowel contrast in their productions, they had great difficulties identifying non-words and real words based on the identity of the Catalan mid-vowel. The analyses revealed language dominance and cognate effects: Spanish-dominants exhibited higher error rates than Catalan-dominants, and production and lexical decision accuracy were also affected by cognate status. The present study contributes to the discussion of the organization of early bilinguals' dominant and non-dominant sound systems, and proposes that exemplar theoretic approaches can be extended to include bilingual lexical connections that account for the interactions between the phonetic and lexical levels of early bilingual individuals.

  5. On Functional Potential of Interrogative Structures in Academic Linguistic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Trofimovich Nefedov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the language of scientific communication in the field of linguistics, namely, with the functional potential of the interrogative structures in the form of direct and embedded questions. From a pragmatic perspective the interrogative structures does not seem to be compatible with the contexts of scientific interaction: scientists do not ask for information, but they offer their own solutions for the problem situations. This is reflected in the extremely low frequency of questions in academic research articles and monographs. Their text frequency works out a little over 2 % of the total number of the text predications and that of direct questions is about 1 %. Therefore, their place in verbalization of scientific knowledge in linguistics is metaphorically characterized in this article as «interrogative prohibition» by analogy with the «prohibitions» of Harald Weinrich who introduced several notions point to rarely used linguistic units: «prohibition of authorization» – das «Ich-Verbot», «narrative prohibition» – das «Erzähl-Verbot»; «prohibition of metaphors»– das «MetaphernVerbot». In its turn, low frequency makes the analyzed structures an effective tool to formulate the discussed problems, enables further argumentation, integrate the current text into overall linguistic discourse, control the development of the argumentation in scientific text and finally to draw the recipient's attention to a crucial or unexpected argument.

  6. Formation of new linguistic competences in education space: naming examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remchukova Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The naming examination is a new kind of linguistic examination. The article deals with linguistic aspects of teaching this course in higher school for the special training of experts. In order to form professional competence on naming examination in the process of teaching special attention is paid to studies of theory of nomination and onomastics, to examination of language units from the point of view of component analysis, semantic-stylistic analysis and others, as well as the formation of the skills of work with different lexicographic sources and digital resources and database. In the laboratory course “Applied and mathematical linguistics,” the skills of lexico-semantic, morphological, etymological, morphemic, word-formation, phonetic analysis of concrete names are practiced. We focus on the studies of artificial naming patterns, including advertising names, which bring out the creative potential of the Russian language. Creative trends dominate in this area of nomination. Naming examination as a new kind of forensic linguistic examination is taught within the course ”Forensic linguistic examination” which accomplishes technical education of students

  7. Risk Factors, Processes and Risk Management within a Public Health Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Szentes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides clinical medicine, which is in the process of constant and fast development, the focus is increasingly on public health services, which should be well prepared for reducing or keeping under control the dangers induced by the growing social burden of disease. Continuous risk management is represented by these services that are specially designed to prevent diseases and health damages. The grounds for the planning and implementation of public health services are constituted by risk factor management and assessment by means of adopting a unified approach.

  8. The clinical surveillance process as carried out by expert nurses in a critical care context: A theoretical explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhomme, Daniel; Gagnon, Johanne; Lechasseur, Kathleen

    2018-02-01

    Nursing Science presents surveillance as an indispensable component of patient safety. Although the literature defines surveillance fully, its implementation is not well understood. This research aims to formulate a theoretical explanation of the surveillance process that expert nurses employ in critical care. To develop the theoretical explanation for the surveillance process of critical care nurses, Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory approach and Think Aloud Method (Fonteyn et al., 1993) were used with fifteen expert critical care nurses (n=15). Surveillance in critical care is a continual process of collaborative vigilance that starts with the thought process and behaviour related to data collection, analysis and interpretation. The surveillance process comprises five key elements: 1) Managing the risk of complications; 2) Collecting data; 3) Detecting a problem; 4) Making a decision and 5) Working in synergy. In developing a theoretical explanation, this research leads to an understanding of the surveillance process performed by expert nurses in a critical care context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Strategy, Corporate Culture, Structure and Operational Processes as the Context for the Innovativeness of an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepańska-Woszczyna Katarzyna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to relationships between the innovativeness of an organization and its selected determinants such as strategy, corporate culture, structure and operational processes. Research was conducted among 200 managers at the top, middle and operational levels of management (200 companies operating in Poland implementing innovations - innovative companies. Conditions leading to innovations are described as the combination of processes, which result from the internal and external dynamics of a given entity. The analysis assumed that the assessment of company innovativeness would be based on an assessment of whether the company is a leader in the industry in terms of new products (the higher the rating, the more innovative the company is considered to be. The relationship between the dimensions of the company's functioning and the degree of its innovativeness was rated on the basis of two measures: the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the chi-square coefficient. It was assumed that the most innovative companies have structures similar to organic ones, with a weak influence of the elements of mechanistic structures. This assumption was proven in relation to features of organizations considered important for innovativeness.

  10. Cultural and linguistic adaptation of a multimedia colorectal cancer screening decision aid for Spanish-speaking Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Linda K; Reuland, Daniel; Jolles, Monica; Clay, Rebecca; Pignone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    As the United States becomes more linguistically and culturally diverse, there is a need for effective health communication interventions that target diverse, vulnerable populations, including Latinos. To address such disparities, health communication interventionists often face the challenge to adapt existing interventions from English into Spanish in a way that retains essential elements of the original intervention while also addressing the linguistic needs and cultural perspectives of the target population. The authors describe the conceptual framework, context, rationale, methods, and findings of a formative research process used in creating a Spanish-language version of an evidence-based (English language) multimedia colorectal cancer screening decision aid. The multistep process included identification of essential elements of the existing intervention, literature review, assessment of the regional context and engagement of key stakeholders, and solicitation of direct input from target population. The authors integrated these findings in the creation of the new adapted intervention. They describe how they used this process to identify and integrate sociocultural themes such as personalism (personalismo), familism (familismo), fear (miedo), embarrassment (verguenza), power distance (respeto), machismo, and trust (confianza) into the Spanish-language decision aid.

  11. Right Lateral Cerebellum Represents Linguistic Predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Elise; Hansen, Peter C; Miall, R Chris

    2017-06-28

    Mounting evidence indicates that posterolateral portions of the cerebellum (right Crus I/II) contribute to language processing, but the nature of this role remains unclear. Based on a well-supported theory of cerebellar motor function, which ascribes to the cerebellum a role in short-term prediction through internal modeling, we hypothesize that right cerebellar Crus I/II supports prediction of upcoming sentence content. We tested this hypothesis using event-related fMRI in male and female human subjects by manipulating the predictability of written sentences. Our design controlled for motor planning and execution, as well as for linguistic features and working memory load; it also allowed separation of the prediction interval from the presentation of the final sentence item. In addition, three further fMRI tasks captured semantic, phonological, and orthographic processing to shed light on the nature of the information processed. As hypothesized, activity in right posterolateral cerebellum correlated with the predictability of the upcoming target word. This cerebellar region also responded to prediction error during the outcome of the trial. Further, this region was engaged in phonological, but not semantic or orthographic, processing. This is the first imaging study to demonstrate a right cerebellar contribution in language comprehension independently from motor, cognitive, and linguistic confounds. These results complement our work using other methodologies showing cerebellar engagement in linguistic prediction and suggest that internal modeling of phonological representations aids language production and comprehension. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cerebellum is traditionally seen as a motor structure that allows for smooth movement by predicting upcoming signals. However, the cerebellum is also consistently implicated in nonmotor functions such as language and working memory. Using fMRI, we identify a cerebellar area that is active when words are predicted and

  12. The linguistic aspect of strategic framing in modern political campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pluwak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The linguistic aspect of strategic framing in modern political campaigns The following article describes the role of semantics in political marketing, emphasizing the mechanism of framing and perspectivising in discourse. The complexity of the framing process is discussed in the introduction, then the linguistic aspect of political framing is debated and the technique of wording formulation in political discourse analyzed. Finally, implications and conclusions for further research are presented. Examples of political framing provided within the paper are based on the analysis of contemporary public discourses.

  13. PENERAPAN HIPNOTEACHING MELALUI NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN KIMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ismuzaroh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penerapan hypnoteaching melalui neuro linguistic programming (NLP dalam proses pembelajaran kimia adalah untuk menghilangkan pikiran negatif siswa terhadap pembelajaran kimia, yang selanjutnya meningkatkan minat, motivasi dan keaktifan belajar kimia siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan siswa lebih terbuka, berani mengemukakan pendapat terhadap permasalahan kimia yang pelajari, siswa merasa fresh, dan nyaman. Hypnoteaching goals through the application of neuro linguistic programming (NLP is a chemical in the learning process to eliminate the negative thoughts of students towards learning chemistry, which further increase the interest, motivation and active learning chemistry students. Results showed students were more open, daring to express opinions on issues studied chemistry, students feel fresh, and comfortable.

  14. Pain Processing in a Social Context and the Link with Psychopathic Personality Traits—An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H. van Heck

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy describes the ability to understand another person’s feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to investigate pain empathy and pain sensitivity by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs extracted from the ongoing EEG in an interactive setup. Each participant fulfilled subsequently the role of “villain” and “victim”. In addition, mode of control was modulated resulting in four different conditions; passive villain, active villain, active victim and passive victim. Response-, visual- and pain ERPs were compared between the four conditions. Furthermore, the role of psychopathic traits in these outcomes was investigated. Our findings suggested that people experience more conflict when hurting someone else than hurting themselves. Furthermore, our results indicated that self-controlled pain was experienced as more painful than uncontrolled pain. People that scored high on psychopathic traits seemed to process and experience pain differently. According to the results of the current study, social context, attention and personality traits seem to modulate pain processing and the empathic response to pain in self and others. The within-subject experimental design described here provides an excellent approach to further unravel the influence of social context and personality traits on social cognition.

  15. Support for linguistic macrofamilies from weighted sequence alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Computational phylogenetics is in the process of revolutionizing historical linguistics. Recent applications have shed new light on controversial issues, such as the location and time depth of language families and the dynamics of their spread. So far, these approaches have been limited to single-language families because they rely on a large body of expert cognacy judgments or grammatical classifications, which is currently unavailable for most language families. The present study pursues a different approach. Starting from raw phonetic transcription of core vocabulary items from very diverse languages, it applies weighted string alignment to track both phonetic and lexical change. Applied to a collection of ∼1,000 Eurasian languages and dialects, this method, combined with phylogenetic inference, leads to a classification in excellent agreement with established findings of historical linguistics. Furthermore, it provides strong statistical support for several putative macrofamilies contested in current historical linguistics. In particular, there is a solid signal for the Nostratic/Eurasiatic macrofamily. PMID:26403857

  16. A cellular automata model for social-learning processes in a classroom context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordogna, C. M.; Albano, E. V.

    2002-02-01

    A model for teaching-learning processes that take place in the classroom is proposed and simulated numerically. Recent ideas taken from the fields of sociology, educational psychology, statistical physics and computational science are key ingredients of the model. Results of simulations are consistent with well-established empirical results obtained in classrooms by means of different evaluation tools. It is shown that students engaged in collaborative groupwork reach higher achievements than those attending traditional lectures only. However, in many cases, this difference is subtle and consequently very difficult to be detected using tests. The influence of the number of students forming the collaborative groups on the average knowledge achieved is also studied and discussed.

  17. Decentralized Data Storage and Processing in the Context of the LHC Experiments at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Blomer, Jakob; Fuhrmann, Thomas

    The computing facilities used to process data for the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN are scattered around the world. The embarrassingly parallel workload allows for use of various computing resources, such as computer centers comprising the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, commercial and institutional cloud resources, as well as individual home PCs in “volunteer clouds”. Unlike data, the experiment software and its operating system dependencies cannot be easily split into small chunks. Deployment of experiment software on distributed grid sites is challenging since it consists of millions of small files and changes frequently. This thesis develops a systematic approach to distribute a homogeneous runtime environment to a heterogeneous and geographically distributed computing infrastructure. A uniform bootstrap environment is provided by a minimal virtual machine tailored to LHC applications. Based on a study of the characteristics of LHC experiment software, the thesis argues for the ...

  18. Physician-Researchers' Experiences of the Consent Process in the Sociocultural Context of a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Aisha Y

    2011-07-01

    Background: International guidelines for medical research involving human subjects maintain the primacy of informed consent while recognizing cultural diversity. Methods: This article draws on empirical data obtained from interviews with physician-researchers in teaching hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan, to identify social and cultural factors that affect the consent process for participants in research. Results: This article presents variable findings with regards to communication, comprehension, and decision making. While some physicians consider that social factors such as lack of education, a patriarchal family system, and skepticism about research can make patients dependent on either the physician-researcher or the family, others believe that patients do make independent decisions. Conclusions: In light of the findings, the article ends with a recommendation for communication and decision making that is sensitive to the local sociocultural environment while at the same time meeting the ethical imperative of respect for persons.

  19. Decentralized data storage and processing in the context of the LHC experiments at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomer, Jakob Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The computing facilities used to process data for the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN are scattered around the world. The embarrassingly parallel workload allows for use of various computing resources, such as computer centers comprising the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, commercial and institutional cloud resources, as well as individual home PCs in ''volunteer clouds''. Unlike data, the experiment software and its operating system dependencies cannot be easily split into small chunks. Deployment of experiment software on distributed grid sites is challenging since it consists of millions of small files and changes frequently. This thesis develops a systematic approach to distribute a homogeneous runtime environment to a heterogeneous and geographically distributed computing infrastructure. A uniform bootstrap environment is provided by a minimal virtual machine tailored to LHC applications. Based on a study of the characteristics of LHC experiment software, the thesis argues for the use of content-addressable storage and decentralized caching in order to distribute the experiment software. In order to utilize the technology at the required scale, new methods of pre-processing data into content-addressable storage are developed. A co-operative, decentralized memory cache is designed that is optimized for the high peer churn expected in future virtualized computing clusters. This is achieved using a combination of consistent hashing with global knowledge about the worker nodes' state. The methods have been implemented in the form of a file system for software and Conditions Data delivery. The file system has been widely adopted by the LHC community and the benefits of the presented methods have been demonstrated in practice.

  20. Decentralized data storage and processing in the context of the LHC experiments at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomer, Jakob Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The computing facilities used to process data for the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN are scattered around the world. The embarrassingly parallel workload allows for use of various computing resources, such as computer centers comprising the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, commercial and institutional cloud resources, as well as individual home PCs in ''volunteer clouds''. Unlike data, the experiment software and its operating system dependencies cannot be easily split into small chunks. Deployment of experiment software on distributed grid sites is challenging since it consists of millions of small files and changes frequently. This thesis develops a systematic approach to distribute a homogeneous runtime environment to a heterogeneous and geographically distributed computing infrastructure. A uniform bootstrap environment is provided by a minimal virtual machine tailored to LHC applications. Based on a study of the characteristics of LHC experiment software, the thesis argues for the use of content-addressable storage and decentralized caching in order to distribute the experiment software. In order to utilize the technology at the required scale, new methods of pre-processing data into content-addressable storage are developed. A co-operative, decentralized memory cache is designed that is optimized for the high peer churn expected in future virtualized computing clusters. This is achieved using a combination of consistent hashing with global knowledge about the worker nodes' state. The methods have been implemented in the form of a file system for software and Conditions Data delivery. The file system has been widely adopted by the LHC community and the benefits of the presented methods have been demonstrated in practice.

  1. The effects of context on processing words during sentence reading among adults varying in age and literacy skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Baker, Allison A; Ng, Shukhan; Payne, Brennan R; Anderson, Carolyn J; Federmeier, Kara D; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2017-08-01

    The facilitation of word processing by sentence context reflects the interaction between the build-up of message-level semantics and lexical processing. Yet, little is known about how this effect varies through adulthood as a function of reading skill. In this study, Participants 18-64 years old with a range of literacy competence read simple sentences as their eye movements were monitored. We manipulated the predictability of a sentence-final target word, operationalized as cloze probability. First fixation durations showed an interaction between age and literacy skill, decreasing with age among more skilled readers but increasing among less skilled readers. This pattern suggests that age-related slowing may impact reading when not buffered by skill, but with continued practice, automatization of reading can continue to develop in adulthood. In absolute terms, readers were sensitive to predictability, regardless of age or literacy, in both early and later measures. Older readers showed differential contextual sensitivity in regression patterns, effects not moderated by literacy skill. Finally, comprehension performance increased with age and literacy skill, but performance among less skilled readers was especially reduced when predictability was low, suggesting that low-literacy adults (regardless of age) struggle when creating mental representations under weaker semantic constraints. Collectively, these findings suggest that aging readers (regardless of reading skill) are more sensitive to context for meaning-integration processes; that less skilled adult readers (regardless of age) depend more on a constrained semantic representation for comprehension; and that the capacity for literacy engagement enables continued development of efficient lexical processing in adult reading development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Environmental Determinants of Lexical Processing Effort

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation A central concern of psycholinguistic research is explaining the relative ease or difficulty involved in processing words. In this thesis, we explore the connection between lexical processing effort and measurable properties of the linguistic environment. Distributional information (information about a word’s contexts of use) is easily extracted from large language corpora in the form of co-occurrence statistics. We claim that su...

  3. Linguistic Scene Analysis and the Importance of Synergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberg, Steven; Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    than predicted by linear-integration models. This is because decoding speech relies on multi-tier processing strategies that are opportunistic and idiosyncratic. Models incorporating synergistic integration are more likely to predict linguistic comprehension than conventional, linear approaches......, particularly in challenging listening conditions....

  4. Linguistic Skills and Speaking Fluency in a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…

  5. Linguistic Theory in Practical Lexicography of African Languages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mev. R.B. Ruthven

    improve their work by using insights from theoretically-guided linguistic investigations. Our view .... The processes of compiling, editing and extending dictionaries as ... plinary nature of dictionaries, lexicographers should not only follow develop- ... as terminology, information technology, language teaching, translation, psy-.

  6. Preserving Musicality through Pictures: A Linguistic Pathway to Conventional Notation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Alice L.

    2016-01-01

    The natural musicality so often present in children's singing can begin to fade as the focus of a lesson shifts to the process of reading and writing conventional notation symbols. Approaching the study of music from a linguistic perspective preserves the pace and flow that is inherent in spoken language and song. SongWorks teaching practices…

  7. The Power of Folk Linguistic Knowledge in Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albury, Nathan John

    2017-01-01

    Just as an expanded view of language policy now affords agency to many more actors across society than authorities and linguists alone, it also accepts that the dispositions these agents bring to language affairs influence language policy processes and outcomes. However, this paper makes the case that language policy may also be guided, to some…

  8. Temporal Context in Speech Processing and Attentional Stream Selection: A Behavioral and Neural perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zion Golumbic, Elana M.; Poeppel, David; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity for processing speech is remarkable, especially given that information in speech unfolds over multiple time scales concurrently. Similarly notable is our ability to filter out of extraneous sounds and focus our attention on one conversation, epitomized by the ‘Cocktail Party’ effect. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying on-line speech decoding and attentional stream selection are not well understood. We review findings from behavioral and neurophysiological investigations that underscore the importance of the temporal structure of speech for achieving these perceptual feats. We discuss the hypothesis that entrainment of ambient neuronal oscillations to speech’s temporal structure, across multiple time-scales, serves to facilitate its decoding and underlies the selection of an attended speech stream over other competing input. In this regard, speech decoding and attentional stream selection are examples of ‘active sensing’, emphasizing an interaction between proactive and predictive top-down modulation of neuronal dynamics and bottom-up sensory input. PMID:22285024

  9. Reform of abortion law in Uruguay: context, process and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susan; Abracinskas, Lilián; Correa, Sonia; Pecheny, Mario

    2016-11-01

    In October 2012, a new law was approved in Uruguay that allows abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, 14 weeks in the case of rape, and without a time limit when the woman's health is at risk or in the case of foetal anomalies. This paper analyses this legal reform. It is based on 27 individual and group interviews with key informants, and on review of primary documents and the literature. The factors explaining the reform include: secular values in society, favourable public opinion, a persistent feminist movement, effective coalition building, particular party politics, and a vocal public health sector. The content of the new law reflects the tensions between a feminist perspective of women's rights and public health arguments that stop short of fully recognizing women's autonomy. The Uruguayan reform shows that, even in Latin America, abortion can be addressed politically without electoral cost to the parties that promote it. On the other hand, the prevailing public health rationale and conditionalities built into the law during the negotiation process resulted in a law that cannot be interpreted as a full recognition of women's rights, but rather as a modified protectionist approach that circumscribes women's autonomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. THE HIGHER SCHOOL LECTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF MODERN EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zagvyazinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current situation in the higher education requires both the extensive implementation of the new information and communications technologies and transformation of traditional forms and ways of teaching. The author emphasizes the vital necessity of redefining the types, functions, and place of the university lecture in educational process along with the related potentials and advantages. While the mere informative outcome of the lecture is losing its position, the functions related to adjustment, methodology, meaning-building, personal development and moral upbringing are likely to get additional meaning and importance. The author demonstrates the advantages of face-to-face communication between a lecturer and a student; the special emphasis is on the problem-setting lectures implementing the interactive techniques and methods. According to the author, the optimum educational methods and technologies require both the unity and integrity of traditional and modern approaches. The rejection of approbated and recognized methods of interpersonal face-to-face communications can generate the technocratic graduates with a selfish attitude to professional activity and lack of individuality.

  11. Constructing Identities in a Linguistically Diverse Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoe, Pinky

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between language, hegemony and identity in a desegregated school in suburban Johannesburg, South Africa. Drawing on post-structuralist theories of language learning and identity that evaluate cultural models of literacy, ideologies and institutional discourses, this article examines how multilingual learners'…

  12. Wireless Communications for Monitoring Nuclear Material Processes part 1.: Context and Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braina, F.; Goncalves, J.C.M.; Versino, C.; Heppleston, M.; Schoeneman, B.; Tolk, K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in radio frequency communication technologies offer the motivation to consider the use of wireless communication in nuclear safeguards applications. From the Nuclear Safeguards Inspectorate' (NSI) point of view, wireless data transmission, which would be supplemental to wired communication is attractive for the ease of installation and the ability to respond to the changing requirements as the inspection approach evolves, resulting in a reduction of costs. However, for wireless technologies to be considered as a viable complement to cables, a number of concerns have to be addressed. First, nuclear operators need to be guaranteed that RF transmission will not interfere with the facilities safety and physical security systems. On their side, the NSI must be satisfied that Containment and Surveillance equipment and data transmission processes will not be affected by the other existing RF equipment. Second, it is desirable, both for the NSI and the operators, that the data being transmitted is not available for analysis by a third party. In addition, the NSI require data to be authenticated as close to the point of acquisition as possible. This paper was prepared as an account of work performed and approved by the ESARDA Working Group on Containment and Surveillance. It is the first of a suite dedicated to bridging RF technologies with safeguards monitoring applications. The paper focuses on technological issues: it introduces basic concepts underlying wireless communication, including methods for transmission, issues on power consumption, frequency, range, and considerations on interference and noise resilience. It overviews state-of-the-art wireless technologies and presents a projection on wireless capabilities that are likely to be reached in the near future

  13. The circulation of linguistic knowledge in the Revista Brasileira de Filologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schneiders

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we reflect upon the importance of scientific journals for the circulation and the legitimation of scientific knowledge. For this purpose, we gathered as object the Revista Brasileira de Filologia, a representative journal that circulated between the 1950s and early 1960s under the Brazilian national context. In view of this journal and the socio-historical context of its circulation, we analyzed how this discursive materiality has contributed to the legitimacy of certain areas of knowledge, such as Philology, Linguistics and Dialectology. Therefore, our main goal is to understand how this journal influences and contributes to the establishment and constitution of linguistic knowledge both in the national context and in southern Brazil. The development of this study is affiliated to the theoretical assumptions of the History of Linguistic Ideas and Pêcheux’s Discourse Analysis, as both are developed in Brazil.

  14. A primer in macromolecular linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, David B

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  16. Neonatal intensive care nursing curriculum challenges based on context, input, process, and product evaluation model: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Ashghali-Farahani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weakness of curriculum development in nursing education results in lack of professional skills in graduates. This study was done on master's students in nursing to evaluate challenges of neonatal intensive care nursing curriculum based on context, input, process, and product (CIPP evaluation model. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with qualitative approach, which was completed according to the CIPP evaluation model. The study was conducted from May 2014 to April 2015. The research community included neonatal intensive care nursing master's students, the graduates, faculty members, neonatologists, nurses working in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, and mothers of infants who were hospitalized in such wards. Purposeful sampling was applied. Results: The data analysis showed that there were two main categories: “inappropriate infrastructure” and “unknown duties,” which influenced the context formation of NICU master's curriculum. The input was formed by five categories, including “biomedical approach,” “incomprehensive curriculum,” “lack of professional NICU nursing mentors,” “inappropriate admission process of NICU students,” and “lack of NICU skill labs.” Three categories were extracted in the process, including “more emphasize on theoretical education,” “the overlap of credits with each other and the inconsistency among the mentors,” and “ineffective assessment.” Finally, five categories were extracted in the product, including “preferring routine work instead of professional job,” “tendency to leave the job,” “clinical incompetency of graduates,” “the conflict between graduates and nursing staff expectations,” and “dissatisfaction of graduates.” Conclusions: Some changes are needed in NICU master's curriculum by considering the nursing experts' comments and evaluating the consequences of such program by them.

  17. Automated psychological categorization via linguistic processing system

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, Christopher M.; Eramo, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Influencing one's adversary has always been an objective in warfare. However, to date the majority of influence operations have been geared toward the masses or to very small numbers of individuals. Although marginally effective, this approach is inadequate with respect to larger numbers of high value targets and to specific subsets of the population. Limited human resources have prevented a more tailored approach, which would focus on...

  18. An Image Processing Approach to Linguistic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatur, Shruthi; Sreehari, Suhas; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    The art of translation is as old as written literature. Developments since the Industrial Revolution have influenced the practice of translation, nurturing schools, professional associations, and standard. In this paper, we propose a method of translation of typed Kannada text (taken as an image) into its equivalent English text. The National Instruments (NI) Vision Assistant (version 8.5) has been used for Optical character Recognition (OCR). We developed a new way of transliteration (which we call NIV transliteration) to simplify the training of characters. Also, we build a special type of dictionary for the purpose of translation.

  19. Automated Psychological Categorization via Linguistic Processing System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eramo, Mark

    2004-01-01

    .... This research examined whether or not Information Technology (IT) tools, specializing in text mining, are robust enough to automate the categorization/segmentation of individual profiles for the purpose...

  20. La influencia de "los de abajo" en tres procesos de cambio linguistico en el espanol de Morelia, Michoacan (The Influence of "the Underclass" on Three Processes of Linguistic Change in the Spanish of Morelia, Michoacan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Manuel J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of the educational and socioeconomic levels of the speakers in advancing linguistic change. The study reviews three grammatical phenomena found at distinct stages of change. Individuals at the lower socioeconomic and educational strata of society embrace innovations in language more readily than their affluent and educated…

  1. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Movie Legally Multiplex Heralded As Linchpin To Growth The Shape of Cinema , Transformed At the Click of a Mouse A Peaceful Crew Puts Muppets...Linguistic Representation of Multiple Languages The formalism of WordNet has been applied to many languages from different language families, e.g. Japanese ...could be also share information gleaned from 100 reviews on Amazon.com’s Japanese and German language sites. 6.2.3 Learning Deeper Structures and Testing

  2. Psychological Aspects of the Formation of an Individual's Secondary Linguistic Identity in the Professional Training of Linguists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, Nikolai Nikolaevich

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to one of the major problems of educational psychology: the professional training of specialists in intercultural communication. The proposed approach allows us to uncover the significance of the concept of "linguistic consciousness" and methods governing its application to the process of the formation of the…

  3. Linguistic identity matching

    CERN Document Server

    Lisbach, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Regulation, risk awareness and technological advances are increasingly drawing identity search functionality into business, security and data management processes, as well as fraud investigations and counter-terrorist measures.Over the years, a number of techniques have been developed for searching identity data, traditionally focusing on logical algorithms. These techniques often failed to take into account the complexities of language and culture that provide the rich variations  seen in names used around the world. A new paradigm has now emerged for understanding the way that identity data

  4. The Acquisition of Context Data of Study Process and their Application in Classroom and Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicans Janis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, researchers are investigating the potential of the educational paradigm shift from the traditional “one-size-fits all” teaching approach to an adaptive and more personalized study process. Availability of fast mobile connections along with the portative handheld device evolution, like phones and tablets, enable teachers and learners to communicate and interact with each other in a completely different way and speed. The mentioned devices not only deliver tutoring material to the learner, but might also serve as sensors to provide data about the learning process itself, e.g., learning conditions, location, detailed information on learning of tutoring material and other information. This sensor data put into the context of the study process can be widely used to improve student experience in the classroom and e-learning by providing more precise and detailed information to the teacher and/or an intelligent tutoring system for the selection of an appropriate tutoring strategy. This paper analyses and discusses acquisition, processing, and application scenarios of contextual information.

  5. Linguistic intergroup bias in political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolli, Luigi; Zurloni, Valentino; Riva, Giuseppe

    2006-07-01

    The Linguistic Intergroup Bias (LIB) illustrates the disposition to communicate positive in-group and negative out-group behaviors more abstractly than negative in-group and positive out-group behaviors. The present research examined the function of language in reinforcing this bias in political communication. To illustrate the LIB, the Linguistic Category Model (LCM) was used, including a nouns category. Because social stereotypes are usually conveyed by nominal terms, the aim was to observe the relationship between stereotypes and language in political communication. Moreover, we were interested in analyzing the psychological processes that drive the LIB. Therefore, we verified whether the LIB is more related to language abstractness than to agent-patient causality. Several political debates and interviews, which took place before the latest Italian provincial elections, were analyzed. Results suggested that the language politicians use in communicating about political groups are conceptualized as stereotypes rather than as trait-based categories. Moreover, it seems that the LIB could not be explained only at a lexical level. Social implications of the present findings in interpersonal relations and causal attribution were discussed.

  6. Pragmatic expressions in cross-linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Overstreet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on some pragmatic expressions that are characteristic of informal spoken English, their possible equivalents in some other languages, and their use by EFL learners from different backgrounds. These expressions, called general extenders (e.g. and stuff, or something, are shown to be different from discourse markers and to exhibit variation in form, function and distribution across varieties of English, as well as in other languages. In EFL contexts, students are reported to use fewer pragmatic expressions and a smaller range of possible forms. They also tend to favor expressions more often associated with writing and formal speaking (e.g. and so on, include literal translation equivalents from their first language that are not used in English (e.g. and, and, and, or used only in restricted contexts (e.g. or so, and often seem not to realize that some forms may carry negative connotations (e.g. and blah, blah, blah. The possibility of fostering better pragmatic awareness among EFL students is discussed in terms of an explicit cross-linguistic focus on the forms and functions of pragmatic expressions.

  7. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  8. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  9. Neural systems supporting linguistic structure, linguistic experience, and symbolic communication in sign language and gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Aaron J; Supalla, Ted; Fernandez, Nina; Newport, Elissa L; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-09-15

    Sign languages used by deaf communities around the world possess the same structural and organizational properties as spoken languages: In particular, they are richly expressive and also tightly grammatically constrained. They therefore offer the opportunity to investigate the extent to which the neural organization for language is modality independent, as well as to identify ways in which modality influences this organization. The fact that sign languages share the visual-manual modality with a nonlinguistic symbolic communicative system-gesture-further allows us to investigate where the boundaries lie between language and symbolic communication more generally. In the present study, we had three goals: to investigate the neural processing of linguistic structure in American Sign Language (using verbs of motion classifier constructions, which may lie at the boundary between language and gesture); to determine whether we could dissociate the brain systems involved in deriving meaning from symbolic communication (including both language and gesture) from those specifically engaged by linguistically structured content (sign language); and to assess whether sign language experience influences the neural systems used for understanding nonlinguistic gesture. The results demonstrated that even sign language constructions that appear on the surface to be similar to gesture are processed within the left-lateralized frontal-temporal network used for spoken languages-supporting claims that these constructions are linguistically structured. Moreover, although nonsigners engage regions involved in human action perception to process communicative, symbolic gestures, signers instead engage parts of the language-processing network-demonstrating an influence of experience on the perception of nonlinguistic stimuli.

  10. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Donna; Sexton, Patrina; Hui, Katrina; Teitcher, Jennifer; Sugarman, Jeremy; London, Alex John; Barnes, Mark; Purpura, James; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  11. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications – US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  12. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Hanrahan

    Full Text Available Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN, regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1 context, (2 process, (3 content and (4 translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level, and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh, syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent; and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several

  13. Portuguese Electoral Debate: Presidentialization and Linguistic Mitigation Strategies in Situations of Political Confrontation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aldina Marques

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In a context of increasing presidentialization of legislative election campaigns, I aim to study mitigation as a feature of the Portuguese electoral political debate, a genre of political discourse marked by the intersection with the television media discourse. It is a discursive genre of confrontation between participants-adversaries, seeking for the adhesion of voters by the proposals that they present and also, if not mainly, by the discredit of the political opponent. However, confrontation is not absolute, as the interlocutors must guarantee basic dimensions of political communication, ensuring by the construction, negotiation and co-management of the interpersonal relationship the preservation of a positive individual image in relation to the electorate. I hypothesize that, in this process, linguistic mitigation constitutes a nuclear strategy, carried out in each moment of the debate according to different linguistic-discursive mechanisms. The electoral debate here analysed was held in May 2011 in RTP between Pedro Passos Coelho, leader of the Social Democratic Party, and future prime minister, and José Sócrates, of the Socialist Party, prime minister in office, at the time.

  14. The Role of Stakeholder Relationship Management Crisis Management Processes within the Hotel Industry in a Tourism Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola ZECH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rates of worldwide environmental, social, technological and other crises are perceived to be constantly increasing - if nothing else due to almost instant broadcasting by media and internet. The Tourism Industry is especially vulnerable to such crises as numerous Stakeholder Groups on the one hand and large numbers of travelers on the other hand are or might be affected. Therefore, Tourism Industry Stakeholder Groups claims regarding transparency can t be denied. This Research Paper focuses on Crisis Management processes from the aspect of the Hotel Industry in a Tourism Context considering a variety of Tourism Market Players. Theoretical foundations combined with empirical research reveal prerequisites, Status Quo as well as opportunities and challenges towards an integrated Crisis Management Model. Finally, key success factors for a Stakeholder Relationship Management based approach are introduced.

  15. On the interaction of Linguistic Typology and Functional Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, J.

    2002-01-01

    of adjectives as a distinct word class. Conversely it will be shown that facts from many different languages have played an important role in the development of a layered model of the noun phrase in Functional Grammar and how currently these facts are used to test hypotheses concerning parallels between NPs...... empirical research in a wide variety of languages as practiced in the context of linguistic typology and one particular theory, Simon Dik's theory of Functional Grammar. In my view, the relationship between Functional Grammar and linguistic typology is an excellent example of the fruitful combination...... of theory driven data collection and data driven hypothesis formation. Furthermore, typological facts do not only serve to confirm the theory of Functional Grammar, but they also serve as a heuristics for an extension of the theory.Research conducted within the wider theoretical framework of Dik...

  16. Stanford Occasional Papers in Linguistics, No. 3. Papers from the Annual California Linguistics Conference (3rd, May 5-6, 1973).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul, Ed.; And Others

    This volume includes 12 of the 24 papers presented at the Third Annual California Linguistics Conference. Selections are drawn from each of the four sessions, covering semantic and lexical structure, phonology, syntax, and language in context. Each of the papers includes a bibliography, as well as diagrams, charts, and appendixes when necessary.…

  17. Family physicians' professional identity formation: a study protocol to explore impression management processes in institutional academic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Charo; Pawlikowska, Teresa; Schweyer, Francois-Xavier; López-Roig, Sofia; Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Burns, Jane; Hugé, Sandrine; Pastor-Mira, Maria Ángeles; Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Spencer, Sarah; Fiquet, Laure; Pereiró-Berenguer, Inmaculada

    2014-09-06

    Despite significant differences in terms of medical training and health care context, the phenomenon of medical students' declining interest in family medicine has been well documented in North America and in many other developed countries as well. As part of a research program on family physicians' professional identity formation initiated in 2007, the purpose of the present investigation is to examine in-depth how family physicians construct their professional image in academic contexts; in other words, this study will allow us to identify and understand the processes whereby family physicians with an academic appointment seek to control the ideas others form about them as a professional group, i.e. impression management. The methodology consists of a multiple case study embedded in the perspective of institutional theory. Four international cases from Canada, France, Ireland and Spain will be conducted; the "case" is the medical school. Four levels of analysis will be considered: individual family physicians, interpersonal relationships, family physician professional group, and organization (medical school). Individual interviews and focus groups with academic family physicians will constitute the main technique for data generation, which will be complemented with a variety of documentary sources. Discourse techniques, more particularly rhetorical analysis, will be used to analyze the data gathered. Within- and cross-case analysis will then be performed. This empirical study is strongly grounded in theory and will contribute to the scant body of literature on family physicians' professional identity formation processes in medical schools. Findings will potentially have important implications for the practice of family medicine, medical education and health and educational policies.

  18. The trade-offs of emotional reactivity for youths’ social information processing in the context of maternal depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan eFlynn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although research demonstrates that emotional experiences can influence cognitive processing, little is known about individual differences in this association, particularly in youth. The present study examined how the emotional backdrop of the caregiving environment, as reflected in exposure to maternal depression and anxiety, was linked to biases in youths’ cognitive processing of mother-referent information. Further, we investigated whether this association differed according to variation in youths’ emotional reactivity to stress. Youth (50 boys, 46 girls; M age = 12.36, SD = 1.05 completed a behavioral task assessing cognitive bias. Semi-structured interviews were administered to assess (a youths’ emotional reactivity to naturally occurring stressors, and (b maternal depression and anxiety. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that emotional reactivity to interpersonal stressors moderated the linkage between maternal depression and cognitive bias such that maternal depression predicted a greater negative bias in youth exhibiting high and average, but not low, levels of emotional reactivity. At low levels of maternal depression, youth with heightened interpersonal emotional reactivity showed a greater positive cognitive bias. This pattern of effects was specific to interpersonal (but not noninterpersonal emotional reactivity and to maternal depression (but not anxiety. These findings illuminate one personal characteristic of youth that moderates emotion-cognition linkages, and reveal that emotional reactivity both enhances and impairs youths’ cognitive processing as a function of socialization context.

  19. Context and Implicature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces Paul Grice's notion of conversational implicature. The basic ideas - the cooperative principle, the maxims of conversation, and the contrast between implicature and presupposition - make it clear that conversational implicature is a highly contextualized form of language use...... that has a lot in common with non-linguistic behavior. But what exactly is its role? We invite the reader to view conversational implicature as a way of negotiating meaning in conversational contexts. Along the way, the reader will learn something of the theoretical properties of implicatures, why...

  20. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...