Sample records for linguistic cohesion dixie

  1. Parenthetical Cohesive Explicitness: A Linguistic Approach for a Modified Translation of the Quranic Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Hawamdeh


    Full Text Available Motivated by the severe criticism the Hilali and Khan (HK Translation of the Holy Quran has received for its too many parenthetical insertions, this study aimed at linguistically realizing how such added pieces of information could be for necessary cohesive explicitness or worthless redundant interpolation. Methodically, the HK translation of the first 8 verses of Chapter 18 (The Cave, Surah Al Kahf of the Holy Quran was selected to be a subject material. A number of 15 instances of explicitation put in parentheses were encountered; they were found to be based upon 23 cohesive (grammatical/lexical relationships and, hence, to be considered as ones of cohesive explicitness. Eventually, such an analysis could be of use for modifying the available translations of the Holy Quran.

  2. 75 FR 1052 - Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; TGP Dixie Development Company, LLC; New York Canyon, LLC; Notice of... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-29-000] Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; TGP Dixie Development Company, LLC; New York Canyon, LLC; Notice of Filing December 30, 2009. Take notice that on December 24, 2009, Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC, TGP Dixie Development Company, LLC...

  3. Interface between Linguistic Noticing and Fossilization of Grammatical, Lexical, and Cohesive Features among Advanced EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin


    Full Text Available Fossilization has become the focus of many L2 studies since its introduction in 1972 as many learners fail to achieve native-speaker competence. Researchers have tried to unravel the causes of fossilization, among which noticing has been claimed to be of great importance. This  study  aimed  to  explore  the  effect  of  noticing  on  fossilization.  To  achieve  this  aim,  a mixed-methods approach was utilized. Sixty advanced L1 Persian learners of English studying in  Iran  were  chosen  to  perform  two  written  and  three  spoken  tasks  twice.  Qualitative  data included the content analysis of the participants’ performance on the written and spoken tasks while  the  quantitative  data  included  percentages  of  noticed  errors  and  recurrent  erroneous forms.  The  errors  observed  in  both  performances  were  counted  and  classified.  Three  main categories named Grammatical Errors, Lexical Errors, and Cohesive Errors were identified. The observed errors were further classified into 36 subcategories. When learners’ ability in noticing their errors was investigated, it was found that they could notice 37.4% of the 3,796 fossilized forms  they  had  produced.  Most  of  the  errors  observed  were  categorized  in  the  category  of grammatical errors. Noticing affected the number of errors produced. It can be concluded that becoming aware of ones fossilized forms, one will produce fewer fossilized forms. The results of  the  current  study  have  implications  for  English  language  teachers  and  learners.  By  being informed of the errors learners make while learning a language and how their noticing affects fossilization, teachers can improve their teaching practice which in turn enhances learning.   ارتباط بین توجه زبانی و فسیل­شدگی جنبه ­های دستوری، واژگانی، و پیوستگی زبانی در

  4. Computational Linguistic Assessment of Genre Differences Focusing on Text Cohesive Devices of Student Writing: Implications for Library Instruction (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cho, Kwangsu


    This study examined two major academic genres of writing: argumentative and technical writing. Three hundred eighty-four undergraduate student-produced texts were parsed and analyzed through a computational tool called Coh-Metrix. The results inform the instructional librarians that students used genre-dependent cohesive devices in a limited way…

  5. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.


    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  6. Network cohesion


    Cavalcanti, Tiago Vanderlei; Giannitsarou, Chrysi; Johnson, CR


    We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and define a network aggregator that preserves network cohesion.

  7. Leadership styles of elite Dixie youth baseball coaches. (United States)

    Bennett, G; Maneval, M


    Chelladurai and Saleh's Leadership Scale for Sports was administered to 52 elite Dixie Youth baseball coaches. Analyses indicated that subjects scored high in positive feedback, training and instruction, and social support, moderate in democratic behavior, and low in autocratic behavior. These results seem to support the validity of using the scale to compare coaching behavior.

  8. Network cohesion


    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. V.; Giannitsarou, Chryssi; Johnson, Charles R.


    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and d...

  9. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2013 Digital Orthophotos - Dixie County (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset is a collection of GeoTIFF and MrSID format natural color orthophotos covering Dixie County, Florida. An orthophoto is remotely sensed image data in...

  10. Towards a Cohesive Theory of Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet McLeod


    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom suggests that group cohesion is strongly related to performance. This may be based on the notion that better cohesion leads to the sharing of group goals. However, empirical and meta-analytic studies have been unable to consistently demonstrate a relationship between cohesion and performance. Partially, this problem could be attributed to the disagreement on the precise definition of cohesion and its components. Further, when the cohesion construct is evaluated under Cohen’s Cumulative Research Program (CRP, it is surprisingly found to belong to the category of early-to-intermediate stage of theory development. Therefore, a thorough re-examination of the cohesion construct is essential to advance our understanding of the cohesion-productivity relationship. We propose a qualitative approach because it will help establish the definitions, enable us to better test our theories about cohesion and its moderators, and provide insights into how best to enlist cohesion to improve team performance.

  11. Anaphoric Referencing: A Cohesive Device in Written and Spoken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    cohesive function "if and when they can be interpreted through their relation to some other (explicit) encoding device in the same passage". ... is Anaphoric but when the implicit term precedes its linguistic referent, the cohesive tie is known as ...

  12. Written cohesion in children with and without language learning disabilities. (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D; Petersen, Victoria


    Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing (TD) peers on measures of cohesion in spoken language and on written transcription measures; however, there is far less research comparing groups on cohesion as a measure of written language across genres. The current study addresses this gap through the following two aims. First, to describe and compare cohesion in narrative and expository writing samples of children with and without language learning disabilities. Second, to relate measures of cohesion to written transcription and translation measures, oral language, and writing quality. Fifty intermediate-grade children produced one narrative and one expository writing sample from which measures of written cohesion were obtained. These included the frequency, adequacy and complexity of referential and conjunctive ties. Expository samples resulted in more complex cohesive ties and children with TD used more complex ties than peers with LLD. Different relationships among cohesion measures and writing were observed for narrative verse expository samples. Findings from this study demonstrate cohesion as a discourse-level measure of written transcription and how the use of cohesion can vary by genre and group (LLD, TD). Clinical implications for assessment, intervention, and future research are provided. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  13. Linguistic Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    on the Scandinavian variant of polyphony, ScaPoLine. ScaPoLine is a formal linguistic theory whose main purpose is to specify the instructions conveyed through linguistic form for the creation of polyphonic meaning. The theoretical introduction is followed by polyphonic analyses of linguistic phenomena...

  14. Groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration, Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada, March 2009-September 2011 (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Huntington, Jena M; Buto, Susan G.; Moreo, Michael T.; Smith, J. LaRue; Andraski, Brian J.


    With increasing population growth and land-use change, urban communities in the desert Southwest are progressively looking toward remote basins to supplement existing water supplies. Pending applications by Churchill County for groundwater appropriations from Dixie Valley, Nevada, a primarily undeveloped basin east of the Carson Desert, have prompted a reevaluation of the quantity of naturally discharging groundwater. The objective of this study was to develop a revised, independent estimate of groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration (ETg) from Dixie Valley using a combination of eddy-covariance evapotranspiration (ET) measurements and multispectral satellite imagery. Mean annual ETg was estimated during water years 2010 and 2011 at four eddy-covariance sites. Two sites were in phreatophytic shrubland dominated by greasewood, and two sites were on a playa. Estimates of total ET and ETg were supported with vegetation cover mapping, soil physics considerations, water‑level measurements from wells, and isotopic water sourcing analyses to allow partitioning of ETg into evaporation and transpiration components. Site-based ETg estimates were scaled to the basin level by combining remotely sensed imagery with field reconnaissance. Enhanced vegetation index and brightness temperature data were compared with mapped vegetation cover to partition Dixie Valley into five discharging ET units and compute basin-scale ETg. Evapotranspiration units were defined within a delineated groundwater discharge area and were partitioned as (1) playa lake, (2) playa, (3) sparse shrubland, (4) moderate-to-dense shrubland, and (5) grassland.

  15. Scour in cohesive soils (United States)


    This study of scour in cohesive soils had two objectives. The first was to introduce and demonstrate a new ex situ erosion testing device (ESTD) that can mimic the near-bed flow of open channels to erode cohesive soils within a specified range of she...

  16. Dynamics of Cohesive Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Claus

    The present thesis considers the transport processes of cohesive sediments. The cohesive sediment used in the laboratory experiments was kaolinite, a clay mineral, in order to be able to reproduce the individual experiments. In the first part of the thesis, the theoretical considerations regarding...

  17. Towards an integrated approach to cohesion and coherence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The notions of cohesion and coherence have a long tradition in the linguistic literature. They date back to ancient .... syntax, and operates in short-term or working memory. Coherence is related to the ..... account of all the elements that occur in the film, namely, words, gestures, images, music and sound effects. In other ...

  18. The Structure of Group Cohesion. (United States)

    Cota, Albert A.; And Others


    Reviews the literature on unidimensional and multidimensional models of cohesion and describes cohesion as a multidimensional construct with primary and secondary dimensions. Found that primary dimensions described the cohesiveness of all or most types of groups, whereas secondary dimensions only described the cohesiveness of specific types of…

  19. Probabilistic linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.


    Probabilistic linguistics takes all linguistic evidence as positive evidence and lets statistics decide. It allows for accurate modelling of gradient phenomena in production and perception, and suggests that rule-like behaviour is no more than a side effect of maximizing probability. This chapter

  20. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert


    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  1. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.


    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  2. Hydrosalinity studies of the Virgin River, Dixie Hot Springs, and Littlefield Springs, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.


    The Virgin River contributes a substantial amount of dissolved solids (salt) to the Colorado River at Lake Mead in the lower Colorado River Basin. Degradation of Colorado River water by the addition of dissolved solids from the Virgin River affects the suitability of the water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use within the basin. Dixie Hot Springs in Utah are a major localized source of dissolved solids discharging to the Virgin River. The average measured discharge from Dixie Hot Springs during 2009–10 was 11.0 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the average dissolved-solids concentration was 9,220 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average dissolved-solids load—a measurement that describes the mass of salt that is transported per unit of time—from Dixie Hot Springs during this period was 96,200 tons per year (ton/yr). Annual dissolved-solids loads were estimated at 13 monitoring sites in the Virgin River Basin from streamflow data and discrete measurements of dissolved-solids concentrations and (or) specific conductance. Eight of the sites had the data needed to estimate annual dissolved-solids loads for water years (WYs) 1999 through 2010. During 1999–2010, the smallest dissolved-solids loads in the Virgin River were upstream of Dixie Hot Springs (59,900 ton/yr, on average) and the largest loads were downstream of Littlefield Springs (298,200 ton/yr, on average). Annual dissolved-solids loads were smallest during 2002–03, which was a period of below normal precipitation. Annual dissolved-solids loads were largest during 2005—a year that included a winter rain storm that resulted in flooding throughout much of the Virgin River Basin. An average seepage loss of 26.7 ft3/s was calculated from analysis of monthly average streamflow from July 1998 to September 2010 in the Virgin River for the reach that extends from just upstream of the Utah/Arizona State line to just above the Virgin River Gorge Narrows. Seepage losses from three river reaches

  3. Earth-based Observing Campaign For Comet 103p/hartley 2 For The Dixi Mission (United States)

    Meech, Karen Jean; Kelley, M. S.; A'Hearn, M. F.; DIXI Observing Team


    The Deep Impact Extended mission (DIXI) is part of the EPOXI mission and will rendezvous with the comet 103P/Hartley 2 on 4 Nov. 2010 at 13:50 UT. Many of the anticipated key science results will come from the combined interpretation of the in-situ spacecraft data and the Earth- and space-based observing campaigns. DIXI in-situ objectives include characterizing the nucleus properties, understanding the activity (outbursts, and sources), mapping the surface and correlating surface albedo, color and temperature with topography to understand the thermal properties of the surface. The Earth-based observations provide a longer-term context for the in-situ observations, and will characterize the activity levels leading up to the encounter, including assessing the dust environment and volatile species production rates. Earth-based observations will search for outbursts and jets that might be linked to activity. The international observing campaign scheduled at more than 20 observatories, began in March 2010, and will continue beyond January 2011, although selected observations began in 2008 with the recovery of the nucleus (Snodgrass et al., (2010), A&A, 516L) and Spitzer IR observations (Lisse et al., (2009) PASP 121, 968), and in 2009 with the measurement of the rotational light curve. We will report on Earth-based observing highlights and their synergies with the in-situ observations. With these combined data we can not only better understand comet Hartley 2, but through the legacy of telescopic observations we may also better understand comets as a whole.

  4. Physical Linguistics. (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Physical linguistics is defined as the use of treatments from the field of speech pathology to enhance first and second language production in healthy individuals, resulting in increased quality and strength of phonation and articulation. A series of exercises for treating dysarthria (weakness, paralysis, discoordination, primary and secondary…

  5. Cognitive linguistics. (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan


    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Competition and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Libertini


    Full Text Available "Competition" and "social cohesion" are both protected by E.U. and Italian laws. The author moves from the analysis of the meaning of these two concepts, in order to reflect on their compatibility and the way to conciliate them. The central problem - in the opinion of the Author - is to abandon the myth of spontaneous markets' order and to rebuild a political order able to maintain and support, as far as possible, the competitive market economy, but also to govern economic processes in critical moments and situations.

  7. Leadership, cohesion and groupthink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurchevici Iulia


    Full Text Available The Groupthink Phenomenon refers to the tendency of the members of a group to reach solidarity and cohesion, the trend that makes to bypass any questions which would lead to disputes. In such cases, if the members expect counter-arguments regarding a certain issue, they avoid to raise the matter. If it is believed that a question cannot be answered – it isn’t asked. Originally, Janis the author of the term, explains this process through the environment that has been established within groups that are in the leading position, but later, puts a strong emphasis towards the tendency to maintain the unanimity of the decision of the group. As preceding conditions of this decision-making process are listed the following: the high cohesion of the group, its isolation from other external sources of information, the lack of an impartial leadership, lack of appropriate legal framework and procedures in the decision - making process, and also “homogeneity of members, background and their ideology”. The Groupthink is manifested by: Illusion of Invulnerability, Collective Rationalization, Illusion of morality, Out – Group Stereotypes, Strong pressures towards conformism, Self – Censorship, Illusions of unanimity, and the presence of “Mind Guards”. In order to understand the decisions of a group, it is important that some analysis of Groupthink to be done, because in this way, can be controlled or eliminated the communicational distortion that occurs at a time among members forming these groups.

  8. Linguistic relativity. (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J


    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Study on Lexical Cohesion in English and Persian Research Articles (A Comparative Study) (United States)

    Mirzapour, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Maryam


    The present study aims to analyze comparatively English and Persian research articles (Linguistics, Literature, and Library and Information disciplines) in terms of number and degree of utilization of sub-types of lexical cohesion in order to appreciate textualization processes in the two languages concerned. The study analyzes 60 research…

  10. Evaluating Lexical Cohesion in Nigerian Newspaper Genres: Focus on the Editorials

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    Zubairu Malah


    Full Text Available Applied linguists paying scholarly attention to newspaper genres have often argued that findings emerging from such studies would be of pedagogical significance because most of the newspaper genres share certain conventional features with school genres. Similarly, this study explored lexical cohesion in newspaper editorials, and it is understood that the findings could help learners in handling persuasive writings. The study sought to identify the dominant sources of lexical cohesion in the editorials, and also to examine how lexical cohesion is utilized to achieve coherence in the editorials. Drawing on Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL, the study applied Eggins’ (2004 model of lexical cohesion and analyzed 30 editorial texts of 20, 354 words drawn from three major Nigerian newspapers: The Guardian, The Nation, and Vanguard. The analysis revealed 2, 685 ties across 849 sentences. The data demonstrated that the major types of lexical cohesion in the editorials include: repetition (49.5%, expectancy relations (15. 8%, class/sub-class (11%, and synonymy (10.8%. It was further revealed that lexical cohesion devices, which formed into chains (586 and isolated ties (837, were utilized in building coherence in the editorial texts. It was finally shown how findings of the study could be beneficial in ESP, EAP, and EGP learning, especially in persuasive writings.

  11. Immigration, social cohesion, and naturalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    social trust do not connect with issues of naturalization at all. Other conceptions of social cohesion are either politically controversial, problematic as part of the justification of stricter naturalization requirements, or in fact justify less demanding naturalization requirements....

  12. Developing Indicators of Territorial Cohesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea; Farrugia, Nadia

    setting. The concept of territorial cohesion attaches importance to the diversity of the European territory which is seen as a key competitive advantage, the preservation of the European social model, and the ability of the citizens of Europe's nations and regions to be able to continue to live within...... (EU). The objective of territorial cohesion, which builds on the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), is to help achieve a more balanced development by reducing existing disparities, avoiding territorial imbalances and by making sectoral policies, which have a spatial impact and regional...... policy more coherent. It also aims to improve territorial integration and encourage cooperation between regions. Territorial cohesion complements the notions of economic and social cohesion by translating the fundamental EU goal of a balanced competitiveness and sustainable development into a territorial...

  13. [A measure of team cohesion in sport. Spanish adaptation of Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ)]. (United States)

    Iturbide, Luis María; Elosua, Paula; Yanes, Félix


    The aim of this work was to adapt the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) to Spanish. Judgmental procedures were used to assess the linguistic and cultural equivalence of the versions. Psychometric procedures were used in the operational phase of the study. The normative sample comprised 924 sportsmen/sportswomen from 75 teams. The GEQ scale showed suitable indexes of internal consistency and a bidimensional structure based on two factors of the cohesion model, the Task component and the Social component. In addition, a positive relation between team-performance and the Task component of team cohesion was observed. Overall, the results supported the Spanish version of the GEQ.

  14. Etymology and Modern Linguistics (United States)

    Malkiel, Yakov


    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  15. The Role of Lexical Cohesion in Writing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hmoud Alotaibi


    Full Text Available The idea of whether repetition has any relation with the writing quality of the text has remained an issue that intrigues a number of scholars in linguistics and in writing studies. Michael Hoey (1991, Halliday and Hasan (1976 are two prominent works in presenting detailed and thoughtful analysis of repetition occurrences in the text. This study uses a model of lexical cohesion proposed by Witte and Faigley (1981 which itself is based on the taxonomies of cohesive ties presented by Halliday and Hasan (1976.  The model deals with lexical cohesion and its subclasses, namely, repetition (same type, synonym, near-synonym, super-ordinate item, and general item and collocation. The corpus includes five argumentative essays written by students in the field of English language literature. Five teaching assistants were asked to rank the papers on a five-point scale based on their perception of the papers’ writing quality. The results showed that the paper that received the lowest rating in terms of the writing quality was the one that included the largest number of repetition occurrences of the same type. The study concludes by arguing that repetition may not be considered as monolithic, and suggests that every type of repetition needs to be examined individually in order to determine what enhances and what deteriorates the writing quality.

  16. Forms of cohesion in confinement institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina D. Slobodenyuk


    Full Text Available Objective to identify the diversity of cohesion forms in confinement institutions. Methods qualitative analyses based on indepth semistructured interviews. Results the study included adaptation of Western methodologies of the cohesion phenomenon analysis to the Russian reality and operationalization of the moral bases of group cohesion. This served as the bases for designing a guide for indepth semistructured interviews 10 interviews were conducted with people recently released from general and strict regime colonies. Content analysis of the interviews revealed a number of structural sections that demonstrate the diversity of cohesion forms alongside with one that is most meaningful to the prisoners and therefore the most well perceived and articulated by respondents. Analysis of the latter allowed to identify a set of groups showing different degree and nature of cohesion. By the degree of cohesion one can identify the poorly cohesive groups quotloutsquot moderately cohesive quotredsquot quotthievesquot and highly cohesive quotfightersquot. By the nature of cohesion in the prisonersrsquo community there are both groups united on the basis of social morality quotredsquot quotthievesquot and groups demonstrating a high degree of cohesion based on the social justice morality quotfightersquot. A detailed analysis of the latter group also showed that the cohesion can have both traits of morality social justice and features of social order moral. Scientific novelty using the sociopsychological theory of the moral motives in determining the bases of cohesion. Practical significance the research results can be applied for the development of sociopsychological techniques for the penal system reform.

  17. What Is Applied Linguistics? (United States)

    James, Carl


    Ostensive and expository definitions of applied linguistics are assessed. It is suggested that the key to a meaningful definition lies in the dual articulation of applied linguistics: it is an interface between linguistics and practicality. Its role as an "expert system" is suggested. (45 references) (Author/LB)

  18. Auto consolidated cohesive sediments erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternat, F.


    Pollutants and suspended matters of a river can accumulate into the sedimentary column. Once deposited, they are submitted to self-weight consolidation processes, ageing and burying, leading to an increase of their erosion resistance. Pollutant fluxes can be related to sedimentary fluxes, determined by threshold laws. In this work, an erosion threshold model is suggested by introducing a cohesion force into the usual force balance. A model of cohesion is developed on the basis of interactions between argillaceous cohesive particles (clays), particularly the Van der Waals force, whose parameterization is ensured by means of granulometry and porosity. Artificial erosion experiments were performed in a recirculating erosion flume with natural cored sediments where critical shear stress measurements were performed. Other analyses provided granulometry and porosity. The results obtained constitute a good database for the literature. The model is then applied to the experimental conditions and gives good agreement with measurements. An example of the accounting for self-weight consolidation processes is finally suggested, before finishing on a Mohr like diagram dedicated to soft cohesive sediment erosion. (author)

  19. Flocculation Dynamics of cohesive sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.


    Cohesive sediment suspended in natural waters is subject not only to transport and deposition processes but also to reactions of flocculation, \\textit{i.e.} aggregation of fine particles, and breakup of aggregates. Although aggregation and breakup occur at small and very small length scales compared

  20. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky


    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality. Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  1. Psychological characteristics of group cohesion athletes.


    Sheriff Sarhan


    The basic components of group cohesion in sport teams. An analysis of publications on cohesion within the groups where an interconnection of individual goals of each participant group with common goals and the end result of teamwork. The concept of harmony in the team sports, where the rate of group cohesion is dependent on such integrative index as psychological climate. It is established that a number of athletes to achieve high results require high cohesion, unity, value-normative orientat...

  2. Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering: Adaptation of Linguistic Paradigm for Circumstance of Engineering Epoch


    Natalya Halina


    The article is devoted to the problems of linguistic knowledge in the Engineering Epoch. Engineering Epoch is the time of adaptation to the information flows by knowledge management, The system of adaptation mechanisms is connected with linguistic and linguistic technologies, forming in new linguistic patterns Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering.

  3. On Linguistic Abilities, Multilingualism, and Linguistic Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannàccaro Gabriele


    Full Text Available The notion of linguistic justice should be related to the concept of linguistic ease, by which we mean the full social and communicative freedom of concern of the speaker in a given social interaction involving the use of language(s present in the society, according to the social norms of use. To acquire an acceptable degree of linguistic ease, the knowledge of at least one L2 is considered important. But the acquisition of a L2 is interfered by the previous linguistic skills of the learner/speaker who, in many cases, does not have a suitable competence even of the languages of the society in which he/she lives.

  4. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A


    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  5. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters


    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika


    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  6. Cohesion Policy Contributing to Territorial Cohesion – Future Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi


    Full Text Available The Barca Report advocates for developmental policies to be ‘place-based’: integrated as far as they affect ‘places’. The debate on territorial cohesion is equally concerned with integrating relevant policies and actions. This requires well-established democratic institutions and adequate responses to the demands of technical systems and of markets. Following Lisbeth Hooghe and Gary Marks, the respective arrangements are described as Governance Type I and Type II. All levels of government, including that of the EU, partake in both types, but relations between them are problematic, particularly in the context of Europe 2020: Will this EU strategy be mainly a matter for Directorate-Generals and their various clients pursuing their policies (Governance Type II, or will Cohesion policy, with its more integrated and decentralised approach, involving many levels of government and stakeholders (Governance Type I form platforms for integrating them? This paper presents four scenarios; each based on a combination of strong/weak Governance Type I and Type II, which are labelled as the ‘Anglo-Saxon’, ‘Saint-Simonian’, ‘Rhineland’ and the ‘European’ Scenarios. The authors prefer the latter, but the best one can hope for in the short term is for this option not to fall by the wayside.

  7. Reservoir characteristics and control factors of Carboniferous volcanic gas reservoirs in the Dixi area of Junggar Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji'an Shi


    Full Text Available Field outcrop observation, drilling core description, thin-section analysis, SEM analysis, and geochemistry, indicate that Dixi area of Carboniferous volcanic rock gas reservoir belongs to the volcanic rock oil reservoir of the authigenic gas reservoir. The source rocks make contact with volcanic rock reservoir directly or by fault, and having the characteristics of near source accumulation. The volcanic rock reservoir rocks mainly consist of acidic rhyolite and dacite, intermediate andesite, basic basalt and volcanic breccia: (1 Acidic rhyolite and dacite reservoirs are developed in the middle-lower part of the structure, have suffered strong denudation effect, and the secondary pores have formed in the weathering and tectonic burial stages, but primary pores are not developed within the early diagenesis stage. Average porosity is only at 8%, and the maximum porosity is at 13.5%, with oil and gas accumulation showing poor performance. (2 Intermediate andesite and basic basalt reservoirs are mainly distributed near the crater, which resembles the size of and suggests a volcanic eruption. Primary pores are formed in the early diagenetic stage, secondary pores developed in weathering and erosion transformation stage, and secondary fractures formed in the tectonic burial stage. The average porosity is at 9.2%, and the maximum porosity is at 21.9%: it is of the high-quality reservoir types in Dixi area. (3 The volcanic breccia reservoir has the same diagenetic features with sedimentary rocks, but also has the same mineral composition with volcanic rock; rigid components can keep the primary porosity without being affected by compaction during the burial process. At the same time, the brittleness of volcanic breccia reservoir makes it easily fracture under the stress; internal fracture was developmental. Volcanic breccia developed in the structural high part and suffered a long-term leaching effect. The original pore-fracture combination also made

  8. Team cohesion and team success in sport. (United States)

    Carron, Albert V; Bray, Steven R; Eys, Mark A


    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between task cohesiveness and team success in elite teams using composite team estimates of cohesion. A secondary aim was to determine statistically the consistency (i.e. 'groupness') present in team members' perceptions of cohesion. Elite university basketball teams (n = 18) and club soccer teams (n = 9) were assessed for cohesiveness and winning percentages. Measures were recorded towards the end of each team's competitive season. Our results indicate that cohesiveness is a shared perception, thereby providing statistical support for the use of composite team scores. Further analyses indicated a strong relationship between cohesion and success (r = 0.55-0.67). Further research using multi-level statistical techniques is recommended.

  9. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is an annual/biannual open access, peer-reviewed international journal, published by the Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. The papers published in SPiL are ... Poetry in South African Sign Language: What is different? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  10. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning


    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...

  11. Linguistic Communications 1. (United States)

    Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia).

    The present compilation of papers on linguistics is the result of joint efforts by the Classical Studies, French, Japanese, Linguistics, and Russian Departments of Monash University. Selections in the Pre-Prints and Articles section include: "For/Arabic Bilingualism in the Zalingei Area," by B. Jernudd; "Prosodic Problems in a Generative Phonology…

  12. Sustaining exercise participation through group cohesion. (United States)

    Estabrooks, P A


    The general hypothesis to be examined by this article is that increased group cohesion leads to an increase in adherence to an exercise program over time. Although preliminary research is promising, there is a need for further research aimed at examining the model of group development in exercise classes, the impact of group cohesion on both group and individual exercise behavior, and the measurement of group cohesion.

  13. Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (7th, March 1993). (United States)

    Drouin, Patrick, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a 1993 conference on linguistics, all in French, include essays on the following: Yoruba morphophonology; literary Arabic morphophonology; grammatical cohesion in Burushaski; phonological and lexical variation in French Canadian dialects, including Acadian; insults in Madrid Spanish; discourse analysis; maintenance of meaning in…

  14. Assessing Software Quality Through Visualised Cohesion Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Shih


    Full Text Available Cohesion is one of the most important factors for software quality as well as maintainability, reliability and reusability. Module cohesion is defined as a quality attribute that seeks for measuring the singleness of the purpose of a module. The module of poor quality can be a serious obstacle to the system quality. In order to design a good software quality, software managers and engineers need to introduce cohesion metrics to measure and produce desirable software. A highly cohesion software is thought to be a desirable constructing. In this paper, we propose a function-oriented cohesion metrics based on the analysis of live variables, live span and the visualization of processing element dependency graph. We give six typical cohesion examples to be measured as our experiments and justification. Therefore, a well-defined, well-normalized, well-visualized and well-experimented cohesion metrics is proposed to indicate and thus enhance software cohesion strength. Furthermore, this cohesion metrics can be easily incorporated with software CASE tool to help software engineers to improve software quality.

  15. Psychological characteristics of group cohesion athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheriff Sarhan


    Full Text Available The basic components of group cohesion in sport teams. An analysis of publications on cohesion within the groups where an interconnection of individual goals of each participant group with common goals and the end result of teamwork. The concept of harmony in the team sports, where the rate of group cohesion is dependent on such integrative index as psychological climate. It is established that a number of athletes to achieve high results require high cohesion, unity, value-normative orientation, deep identification and responsibility for the results of the joint group activities.

  16. Regions and the Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ianos


    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion is an important target of European Union, constantly promoted by its institutions and their representatives. In the context of the Europe 2020 strategy, one of the most important support documents, the region represents a very important issue, being considered to be the key to its successfulness. The region is seen as a support for the smart growth and all the operational policy concepts try to make use of the spatial potential, by taking better account of the territorial specificities. Two main questions play attention: the need to transform the present-day developmental regions into administrative ones is a priority? What kind of regionalization it must to be promoted? Correlating these issues with already defined territorial cohesion, the administrative region is a real tool for the future territorial development. The experience of the last 14 years asks urgently the building of a new territorial administrative reform, giving competences to regions. For instant, each development region is a construction resulted from a free association of the counties. Their role in the regional development is much reduced one, because their regional councils are not elected; decisions taken at this level are consultative for the social, economical, cultural or political actors.

  17. Applied Linguistics and the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics." (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William


    Examines the complexities and differences involved in granting disciplinary status to the role of applied linguistics, discusses the role of the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics" as a contributor to the development of applied linguistics, and highlights a set of publications for the future of applied linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  18. Why are Rich Countries more Politically Cohesive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    of other groups in society. If the gains from specialization become sufficiently large, however, a market economy will emerge. From being essentially non-cohesive under self-sufficiency, the political decision making process becomes cohesive in the market economy, as the welfare of individuals...

  19. Education and Social Cohesion: Higher Education (United States)

    Moiseyenko, Olena


    Social cohesion is understood as the social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from connections among individuals. When students attend higher education institutions, they go through a process of socialization, and it is vital to ensure that they acquire the core values that underpin the social cohesion. This…

  20. Transfer and Cohesion in Interdisciplinary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Harnow Klausen


    Full Text Available One of the great challenges of interdisciplinary education is to create sufficient cohesion between disciplines. It is suggested that cohesion depends on the transfer of knowledge (in a broad sense, which includes skill and competences among the disciplines involved. Some of the most characteristic types of such transfer are identified and analyzed: Transfer of factual knowledge, theories, methods, models, skills, modes of collaboration and organization, meta-competences, disciplinary self-consciousness, problem selection, framework construction and motivation. Though some of these types of transfer may have a greater or smaller potential for creating cohesion, different kinds of cohesion may serve different interests, and there is no reason to assume that e.g. joint problem solving or theoretical integration should be more conducive to cohesion than e.g. contributions to motivation or disciplinary self-consciousness.

  1. Saussure and Linguistic Geography. (United States)

    Harris, Roy


    Discusses Saussures's "Cours de linguistique generale," which was published in 1916, and devotes specific attention to the significance of Part VI, which is devoted to linguistic geography. (16 references) (Author/VWL)

  2. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn


    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  3. Mathematics and linguistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.


    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  4. Having Linguistic Rules and Knowing Linguistic Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ludlow


    Full Text Available

    'Knowledge' doesn't correctly describe our relation to linguistic rules. It is too thick a notion (for example, we don't believe linguistic rules. On the other hand, 'cognize', without further elaboration, is too thin a notion, which is to say that it is too thin to play a role in a competence theory. One advantage of the term 'knowledge'-and presumably Chomsky's original motivation for using it-is that knowledge would play the right kind of role in a competence theory: Our competence would consist in a body of knowledge which we have and which we may or may not act upon-our performance need not conform to the linguistic rules that we know.

    Is there a way out of the dilemma? I'm going to make the case that the best way to talk about grammatical rules is simply to say that we have them. That doesn't sound very deep, I know, but saying that we have individual rules leaves room for individual norm guidance in a way that 'cognize' does not. Saying we have a rule like subjacency is also thicker than merely saying we cognize it. Saying I have such a rule invites the interpretation that it is a rule for me-that I am normatively guided by it. The competence theory thus becomes a theory of the rules that we have. Whether we follow those rules is another matter entirely.

  5. Neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood disorder, and cardiometabolic risk. (United States)

    Robinette, Jennifer W; Charles, Susan T; Gruenewald, Tara L


    Perceptions of neighborhood disorder (trash, vandalism) and cohesion (neighbors trust one another) are related to residents' health. Affective and behavioral factors have been identified, but often in studies using geographically select samples. We use a nationally representative sample (n = 9032) of United States older adults from the Health and Retirement Study to examine cardiometabolic risk in relation to perceptions of neighborhood cohesion and disorder. Lower cohesion is significantly related to greater cardiometabolic risk in 2006/2008 and predicts greater risk four years later (2010/2012). The longitudinal relation is partially accounted for by anxiety and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural disasters and indicators of social cohesion. (United States)

    Calo-Blanco, Aitor; Kovářík, Jaromír; Mengel, Friederike; Romero, José Gabriel


    Do adversarial environmental conditions create social cohesion? We provide new answers to this question by exploiting spatial and temporal variation in exposure to earthquakes across Chile. Using a variety of methods and controlling for a number of socio-economic variables, we find that exposure to earthquakes has a positive effect on several indicators of social cohesion. Social cohesion increases after a big earthquake and slowly erodes in periods where environmental conditions are less adverse. Our results contribute to the current debate on whether and how environmental conditions shape formal and informal institutions.

  7. Justice and Social Cohesion: Some conservative perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid


    In the wake of recent debates on multiculturalism and value-pluralism, the pressing questions now focuses on whether social cohesion and the notion of justice are sustainable and can be upheld, at least from a European perspective. There are many theoretical and academic responses, mainly from...... liberals, on how to accommodate the different demands of various ethnic and religious groups and at the same time sustain a minimum of social cohesion and justice. One voice is missing and that is a conservative perspective. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a modern conservative analysis...... of this problem. The argument presented in this paper will, first, take its point of departure from David Hume’s notion of sympathy and how this makes social cohesion possible. Second, it will be argued that social cohesion is a prerequisite for the existence of justice, and therefore justice is a derivative...

  8. Cohesion in a Multinational Coalition Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaab, Brooke


    .... All of the remaining nine items fell within the agree-to-strongly agree area. On interpersonal cohesion, highest agreement was found on items addressing the importance of liking and socializing with team members...

  9. Social cohesion and integration: Learning active citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, T.J.M.; Chioncel, N.E.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.


    This article starts from a conceptual clarification of the notions social integration and social cohesion as a prerequisite for the reorientation of citizenship education. Turning away from uncritically reproduced assumptions represented in mainstream `deficiency discourse', the article first

  10. Emerging technologies, innovative teachers and moral cohesion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Batchelor, J


    Full Text Available efficacy when they engage with emerging technologies. The concept of moral cohesion is further expanded and forms the main focus of this article. Keywords: emerging technologies, innovative teachers, moral cohesion, pedagogies, ethics, teacher.... African Renaissance and teacher disposition is identified as the strongest drivers. Teacher training forms the link between the strong drivers and the outcomes manifest as Stewardship and ethical considerations. 3.2 Professional Burden The theme...

  11. Investigating Some Technical Issues on Cohesive Zone Modeling of Fracture (United States)

    Wang, John T.


    This study investigates some technical issues related to the use of cohesive zone models (CZMs) in modeling fracture processes. These issues include: why cohesive laws of different shapes can produce similar fracture predictions; under what conditions CZM predictions have a high degree of agreement with linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis results; when the shape of cohesive laws becomes important in the fracture predictions; and why the opening profile along the cohesive zone length needs to be accurately predicted. Two cohesive models were used in this study to address these technical issues. They are the linear softening cohesive model and the Dugdale perfectly plastic cohesive model. Each cohesive model constitutes five cohesive laws of different maximum tractions. All cohesive laws have the same cohesive work rate (CWR) which is defined by the area under the traction-separation curve. The effects of the maximum traction on the cohesive zone length and the critical remote applied stress are investigated for both models. For a CZM to predict a fracture load similar to that obtained by an LEFM analysis, the cohesive zone length needs to be much smaller than the crack length, which reflects the small scale yielding condition requirement for LEFM analysis to be valid. For large-scale cohesive zone cases, the predicted critical remote applied stresses depend on the shape of cohesive models used and can significantly deviate from LEFM results. Furthermore, this study also reveals the importance of accurately predicting the cohesive zone profile in determining the critical remote applied load.

  12. Group cohesion, task performance, and the experimenter expectancy effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.


    Studied the effects of cohesion on task fulfillment and explored the influence of task fulfillment on the initial level of cohesion. Within 4-person groups of undergraduates, cohesion was manipulated successfully by a triple procedure. The level of cohesion was ascertained directly after the

  13. Peace linguistics for language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GOMES DE MATOS


    Full Text Available This text aims at presenting the concept of Peace Linguistics - origins and recent developments -- as being implemented in the author's ongoing work in that emerging branch of Applied Linguistics. Examples of applicational possibilities are given, with a focus on language teaching-learning and a Checklist is provided, of topics for suggested linguistic-educational research, centered on communicative peace.

  14. Linguistic Corpora and Language Teaching. (United States)

    Murison-Bowie, Simon


    Examines issues raised by corpus linguistics concerning the description of language. The article argues that it is necessary to start from correct descriptions of linguistic units and the contexts in which they occur. Corpus linguistics has joined with language teaching by sharing a recognition of the importance of a larger, schematic view of…

  15. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.


    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  16. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    It could be argued that lexicography has little business with linguistic creativ- ...... The forms in which traditional proverbs are found can also vary greatly: many ... BoE has examples of the proverb every cloud has a silver lining but many more ...

  17. Variation and Linguistic Theory. (United States)

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This volume presents principles and models for describing language variation, and introduces a time-based, dynamic framework for linguistic description. The book first summarizes some of the problems of grammatical description encountered from Saussure through the present and then outlines possibilities for new descriptions of language which take…

  18. Untangling Linguistic Salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, Vincent; Coler, Matt; Loerts, Hanneke; Hilton, Nanna


    The concept of linguistic salience is broadly used within sociolinguistics to account for processes as diverse as language change (Kerswill & Williams, 2002) and language acquisition (Ellis, 2016) in that salient forms are e.g. more likely to undergo change, or are often acquired earlier than other

  19. Guatemalan Linguistics Project (United States)

    Linguistic Reporter, 1974


    The general goals of the Guatemalan technical institution, the Proyecto Linguistico Francisco Marroquin, are to: create a national technical resource institution in linguistics and Mayan languages; enable Indians to influence programs for their communities; and stimulate the study of Mayan languages and their use as communication medium. (SW)

  20. Formal monkey linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus


    We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions: (i) what morphology and

  1. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography. (United States)

    Meijs, Willem


    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  2. Perspectives in Linguistics. (United States)

    Waterman, John T.

    Intended for the student of linguistics or the structural grammarian, who must develop an awareness of their intellectual heritage, the present work surveys the study of language in ancient times, the medieval and early modern periods, the nineteenth century, and the twentieth century to 1950. (This second edition includes additional material on…

  3. Gradual linguistic summaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbik, A.M.; Kaymak, U.; Laurent, A.; Strauss, O.; Bouchon-Meunier, xx


    In this paper we propose a new type of protoform-based linguistic summary – the gradual summary. This new type of summaries aims in capturing the change over some time span. Such summaries can be useful in many domains, for instance in economics, e.g., "prices of X are getting smaller" in eldercare,

  4. Linguistics in Language Education (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva


    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  5. Linguistics and Literacy. (United States)

    Kindell, Gloria


    Discusses four general areas of linguistics studies that are particularly relevant to literacy issues: (1) discourse analysis, including text analysis, spoken and written language, and home and school discourse; (2) relationships between speech and writing, the distance between dialects and written norms, and developmental writing; (3)…

  6. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Kees


    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of

  7. A Study on the Effect of Cohesive Laws on Finite Element Analysis of Crack Propagation Using Cohesive Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyeongseok; Baek, Hyungchan; Kim, Hyungyu [Seoul Nat' l Univ. of Sci. and Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, the effect of cohesive laws on the finite element analysis of crack propagation using cohesive elements is investigated through three-point bending and double cantilever beam problems. The cohesive elements are implemented into ABAQUS/Standard user subroutines(UEL), and the shape of cohesive law is varied by changing parameters in polynomial functions of cohesive traction-separation relations. In particular, crack propagation behaviors are studied by comparing load-displacement curves of the analysis models which have different shapes of cohesive laws with the same values of fracture energy and cohesive strength. Furthermore, the influence of the element size on crack propagation is discussed in this study.

  8. The Types of Cohesion Used in the ‘Issues of the Day’ Strip in the Jakarta Post

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Agustina


    Full Text Available This study is aimed at describing discourse studies especially at cohesion from reader’s opinion strip. This is literary research, so the writer uses descriptive qualitative approach. In this research, documentation and note taking technique are used to collect the data. There are two objectives of the research: 1 to carry out the types of grammatical cohesion used in the “Issues of the Day” strip in The Jakarta Post on March 2012 edition and 2 to find out the types of lexical cohesion used in the “Issues of The Day” strip in The Jakarta Post on March 2012 edition. After investigating the English sentences used in the “Issues of the Day” strip in The Jakarta Post on March 2012 edition, the writer found several findings as follows: 1 based on the analysis of grammatical cohesion, the writer found there are references, substitutions, ellipsis, and conjunctions; 2 based on the analysis of lexical cohesion, the writer found repetitions, synonyms, hyponyms, meronyms, antonyms, and collocations. The writer expects that it is able to contribute the science of linguistic and able to be guidance for all readers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu (Stingaciu Ana-Maria


    Full Text Available INTANGIBLE ASSETS THROUGH THE COHESION POLICY Roth Anne-Marie-Monika West University of Timisoara Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Popescu (Stingaciu Ana-Maria West University of Timisoara Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Intangible assets in general and intellectual capital in particular are important to both society and organizations. It can be a source of competitive advantage for business and stimulate innovation that leads to wealth generation. Technological revolutions, the rise of the knowledge-based economy and the networked society have all led to the same conclusion that intangibles and how they contribute to value creation have to be appreciated so that the appropriate decisions can be made to protect and enhance them. The Cohesion Policy represents the main EU measure to ensure a balanced and sustainable growth in Europe by promoting harmonious development and reducing the regional disparities. The general objective of the paper is to highlight the important role of the Cohesion Policy in the development of intangible assets. The objectives and the instruments of the Cohesion Policy are designed to support programs on regional development, economic change, enhanced competitiveness and territorial cooperation through the European Union, to develop human resources and employability. Keywords: intangible assets, intellectual capital, Cohesion policy, development; JEL Classification: O43, G32, D24, O34

  10. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni


    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    national unity and develop 'a single national consciousness'. The reality ... multilingual situation, it is easy to misunderstand or misinterpret ... violence and break-down of law and order. There is no .... cultural and linguistic habits. Nationality in ...

  12. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik


    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  13. Anisotropy in cohesive, frictional granular media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luding, Stefan


    The modelling of cohesive, frictional granular materials with a discrete particle molecular dynamics is reviewed. From the structure of the quasi-static granular solid, the fabric, stress, and stiffness tensors are determined, including both normal and tangential forces. The influence of the material properties on the flow behaviour is also reported, including relations between the microscopic attractive force and the macroscopic cohesion as well as the dependence of the macroscopic friction on the microscopic contact friction coefficient. Related to the dynamics, the anisotropy of both structure and stress are exponentially approaching the maximum

  14. Mixed Mode cohesive law with interface dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios


    displacements. As the crack faces displace relatively to each other, the roughness asperities ride on top of each other and result in an opening (dilatation) in the normal direction. Furthermore, the interaction of the crack surfaces in the contact zone gives rise to compressive normal stresses and frictional...... shear stresses opposing the crack face displacements. A phenomenological Mixed Mode cohesive zone law, derived from a potential function, is developed to describe the above mentioned fracture behaviour under monotonic opening. The interface dilatation introduces two new lengths. The cohesive law...

  15. Adsorption induced losses in interfacial cohesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaro, R.J.


    A model for interfacial cohesion is developed which describes the loss in the strength of an interface due to the segregation and adsorption of impurities on it. Distinctions are made between interface separations that occur too rapidly for any significant redistribution of adsorbing matter to take place and separations that are slow enough to allow full adsorption equilibrium. Expressions for the total work of complete decohesion are presented for both cases. The results are applied to well-known model adsorption isotherms and some experimental data for grain boundary adsorption of phosphorus in iron is analyzed with respect to the losses in intergranular cohesion

  16. Exploring Advertising Texts in Nigeria within the Framework of Cohesive Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek DALAMU


    Full Text Available The thrust of the study explicates the utilization of grammatical and lexical devices in the texts of advertisements in Nigeria. This exploration aimed at demonstrating the way that advertising professionals wisely move from disjunctive organic elements to clause complexes as a convincing strategy. The advertisements of UBA®, Toyota®, Wema®, etisalat®, Standard Chartered® and Stanbic IBTC® were chosen as analyzable data to explain the behavior of the clause and its complexes in advertising. The conceptual framework is cohesion. Cohesive facilities have been applied as sub-concepts to interpret the constituents of the texts. The study demonstrates that reference, repetition, synonym, fragmented structure are deployed as inciting devices in the discursive strategy. In that sense, the study has the capacity to assist scholars to understand the nature of linguistic elements in clause complexes of advertisements. The analysis also reveals to advertising experts the cohesive resources that can help communicators to achieve intended goals of excitement. The study illuminates the extent at which advertisers take advantage of and associate with events in society to campaign their goods and services to consumers.

  17. Analysis of cohesive devices in a short text: 'Whiskey. No water. No ice.' by Tom Hart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Anita V.


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was two-fold. Primarily, based on literature review, it presented various takes on what constitutes a text and what makes it cohesive. Secondly, it reported the results of the cohesion analysis performed on a short drama by Tom Hart. This drama was written as a submission for the London Royal Court Theatre competition '100 Word Play'. The author used the model of analysis of a dramatic dialogue proposed by Halliday and Hassan. The dramatic dialogue here is characterized as a speaking text, for the stage; therefore, the stage directions were excluded from the analysis as para-linguistic phenomena. The results of the analysis revealed immediate ellipsis of anaphoric direction as the most common cohesive device in 47 percent of the text. Second in frequency are referencing mechanisms, and finally lexical devices and connectors. Furthermore, the analysis exposed the use of reiteration, both lexical and structural, which is not predicted by the model. However, these instances were explained by Hoey's model of lexical repetition. The thematic progression in the text is linear which is characteristic of dialogues. The analysis noted no usage of substitution nor parallelism, which is in itself indicative of the set hypothesis because parallelisms are characteristic of poetry and political discourse.

  18. Solidarity and Social Cohesion in Late Modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Søren


    social cohesion. The central theme is that contemporary solidarity is about recognition and a fair distribution of chances for recognition. This ideal may function as a normative standard for critical research and as a guideline for people in their moral struggles. What ultimately needs to be done...

  19. The Corporate Stake in Social Cohesion (United States)

    Oketch, Moses O.


    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a function that transcends, but includes, making profits, creating jobs, and producing goods and services. The effectiveness with which corporations perform this function determines their contribution (or lack of contribution) to social cohesion. This article therefore presents a discussion of some of the…

  20. Cohesion as interaction in ELF spoken discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Christiansen


    Full Text Available Hitherto, most research into cohesion has concentrated on texts (usually written only in standard Native Speaker English – e.g. Halliday and Hasan (1976. By contrast, following on the work in anaphora of such scholars as Reinhart (1983 and Cornish (1999, Christiansen (2011 describes cohesion as an interac­tive process focusing on the link between text cohesion and discourse coherence. Such a consideration of cohesion from the perspective of discourse (i.e. the process of which text is the product -- Widdowson 1984, p. 100 is especially relevant within a lingua franca context as the issue of different variations of ELF and inter-cultural concerns (Guido 2008 add extra dimensions to the complex multi-code interaction. In this case study, six extracts of transcripts (approximately 1000 words each, taken from the VOICE corpus (2011 of conference question and answer sessions (spoken interaction set in multicultural university con­texts are analysed in depth by means of a qualitative method.

  1. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel


    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  2. Group Cohesiveness in the Black Panther Party (United States)

    Calloway, Carolyn R.


    This study selects for study the following propositions: 1) similarity among members increased the degree of cohesiveness within the party, 2) group devotion heightened interest in accomplishing group goals and 3) the threat of an external enemy led to interdependence among members and affected both activities and leadership styles. (Author/AM)

  3. Microzonation Analysis of Cohesionless and Cohesive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Choy Soon


    Full Text Available Urban seismic risk is a continuous worldwide issue, numerous researchers are putting great effort in dealing with how to minimise the level of the threat. The only way to minimise the social and economic consequences caused but the seismic risk is through comprehensive earthquake scenario analysis such as ground response analysis. This paper intends to examine the characteristic of shear wave velocity and peak ground acceleration on cohesionless and cohesiveness soil. In order to examine the characteristic of shear wave velocity and peak ground acceleration on cohesionless and cohesiveness soil, ground response analysis was performed using Nonlinear Earthquake Site Response Analysis (NERA and Equivalent-linear Earthquake Site Response Analysis (EERA. The value of ground acceleration was initially high at bedrock and vanishes during the propagation process. It is thus, the measured acceleration at surface is therefore much lower as compare to at bedrock. Result shows that seismic waves can travel faster in harder soil as compared to softer soil. Cohesive soil contributes more to the shaking amplification than cohesionless soil such as sand and harder soil. This is known as local site effect. The typical example is the Mexico Earthquake that happened in 1985. As conclusion, peak ground acceleration for cohesive soil is higher than in cohesionless soil.

  4. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (United States)

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd


    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…

  5. Toward a Cohesive Theory of Visual Literacy (United States)

    Avgerinou, Maria D.; Pettersson, Rune


    Despite the fact that to date Visual Literacy (VL) scholars have not arrived at a general consensus for a theoretical organization of the VL field, important conceptual investigations have emerged over the past four decades. In this paper we discuss and synthesize those studies. We then present a first attempt toward a cohesive theory of VL. The…

  6. Slow stress relaxation behavior of cohesive powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imole, Olukayode Isaiah; Paulick, Maria; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Morgenmeyer, Martin; Ramaioli, Marco; Chavez Montes, Bruno E.; Kwade, Arno; Luding, Stefan


    We present uniaxial (oedometric) compression tests on two cohesive industrially relevant granular materials (cocoa and limestone powder). A comprehensive set of experiments is performed using two devices – the FT4 Powder Rheometer and the custom made lambdameter – in order to investigate the

  7. Linguistics and the digital humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard


    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software......, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and figures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. This article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data...... and method and also offers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented...

  8. Cohesion, Coherence, and the Construction of Discourse Objects: a Glimpse of a Sociocognitive and Interacional Perspective on Teaching of Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Augusta Albert Bachur


    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting how current theoretical advances on Text Linguistics in its sociocognitive and interactional perspective, by approaching the concepts of cohesion, coherence, and referentiation, may contribute to the pedagogical practice regarding the teaching and learning of writing vis-à-vis the development of writing proficiency. Hence, cohesion and coherence are considered the criteria for textualization, and both their reciprocity and their mutual determination in the referentiation process are here acknowledged. From this point view, the construction of cohesion and coherence is a dynamic process that occurs via inferences and cognitive devices to which the linguistic marks, the speakers’ interaction, and the context contribute. Accordingly, a selection of nominal forms in the building of representations of discourse objects is to be highlighted and related to the project of saying enounced by the herald of college entrance essays. The hypothesis is thus that, by constructing representations of discourse objects, referentiation establishes a groundwork for text structuring and provides hints to produce meaning in writing. The main studies this article is grounded on are Koch (2006, Marcuschi (2006; 2007; 2008, Cavalcante et al. (2010, and Bentes (2012.

  9. Learnability and linguistic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozd, Kenneth


    of the human biological endowment for language in the form of a UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (UG) (Chomsky, 1965). With respect to experimental design, C&T have strongly maintained that even young children know UG constraints but perform poorly in some experiments-due to the extralinguistic demands associated...... with experimental tasks, particularly those involved in presupposition accommodation and complex response planning. C&T specifically design their experiments to reduce the impact of extralinguistic demands on children's linguistic performance while at the same time providing felicitous environments for adultlike...... performance....

  10. Formal monkey linguistics


    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus


    Zuberbühler: The research leading to these results received funding from the European Research Council under ERC grant ‘Prilang 283871’ and also from the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant ‘FN 310030_143359/1’. We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions:...

  11. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  12. Territorial cohesion post - 2013 : To whomsoever it may concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.


    Conceived as a motion for resolution, the paper considers territorial cohesion now being on the statute book, the Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion, Barca making the case for integrated, place-based strategies, the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region and the future of Cohesion policy. The

  13. So to Speak: A Computational and Empirical Investigation of Lexical Cohesion of Non-Literal and Literal Expressions in Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Palmer


    Full Text Available Lexical cohesion is an important device for signaling text organization. In this paper, we investigate to what extent a particular class of expressions which can have a non-literal interpretation participates in the cohesive structure of a text. Specifically, we look at five expressions headed by a verb which – depending on the context – can have either a literal or a non-literal meaning: bounce off the wall (“to be excited and full of nervous energy”, get one’s feet wet (“to start a new activity or job”, rock the boat (“to disturb the balance or routine of a situation”, break the ice (“to start to get to know people, to overcome initial shyness”, and play with fire (“to take part in a dangerous or risky undertaking”. We look at the problem both from an empirical and a computational perspective. The results from our empirical study suggest that both literal and non-literal expressions exhibit cohesion with their textual context, but that the latter appear to do so to a lesser extent. We also show that an automatically computable semantic relatedness measure based on search engine page counts correlates well with human intuitions about the cohesive structure of a text and can therefore be used to determine the cohesive structure of a text automatically with a reasonable degree of accuracy. This investigation is undertaken from the perspective of computational linguistics. We aim both to model this cohesion computationally and to support our approach to computational modeling with empirical data.

  14. The Role of Indigenous Languages in National Development: A Case Study of Nigerian Linguistic Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ayodele Olaoye


    Full Text Available Indigenous languages are indispensable cultural legacies without which all forms of human interactions can be carried out. National development is the development of individuals in a nation. Individuals can develop educationally, socially, politically, economically, and culturally through interaction with government agencies that disseminate policies through various indigenous languages. Development indices such as internal cohesion, integration, unity, economic wellbeing and citizens’ participation in governance are promoted through indigenous languages. Based on these assertions, the author studied the current linguistic situations in Nigeria and found that native languages play fundamental role on issues  such as democracy, technology, metalanguage and linguistic globalization .There are however some challenges in the optimum  utilization of these mother tongues. The major problems being orthographic inadequacy,the multiplicity of minority languages, linguistic desertification and deforestation and  language endangerment.The author then suggests a way forward.

  15. Linguistics and the Literary Text. (United States)

    Ferrar, Madeleine


    Discusses the opposing viewpoints of the two most influential linguists of this century--Saussure and Chomsky--suggesting that while both are interested in form as opposed to substance, Saussure sees linguistics as a branch of semiotics and Chomsky sees it as part of cognitive psychology. Evaluates the relevance of these two viewpoints to the…

  16. New Conceptualizations of Linguistic Giftedness (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Pawlak, Miroslaw


    This state-of-the art paper focuses on the issue of linguistic giftedness, somewhat neglected in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature, attempting to reconceptualize, expand and update this concept in response to latest developments in the fields of psychology, linguistics and neurology. It first discusses contemporary perspectives on…

  17. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  18. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language. (United States)

    Segerdahl, Par


    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  19. Linguistics and the TEFL Teacher. (United States)

    Fraser, Bruce

    This paper asserts the "unquestionable" relevance of linguistic insights in the training of and subsequent use by teachers of English as a foreign language. Although the author agrees with Chomsky's view that linguistics has nothing to offer the teacher in the form of specific proposals for language teaching methodology, he argues that linguistics…

  20. Machine Learning and Applied Linguistics


    Vajjala, Sowmya


    This entry introduces the topic of machine learning and provides an overview of its relevance for applied linguistics and language learning. The discussion will focus on giving an introduction to the methods and applications of machine learning in applied linguistics, and will provide references for further study.

  1. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics. (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David


    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  2. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics. (United States)

    Leki, Ilona


    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  3. Literacy in Somali: Linguistic Consequences. (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Hared, Mohamed


    Linguistic consequences of literacy in Somalia are examined in a review of the literature and through a study of five dimensions of variation among Somali registers and the expansion of linguistic variation in Somali resulting from the introduction of written registers. (36 references) (LB)

  4. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Бондаренко


    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  5. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde


    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  6. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  7. The linguistic repudiation of Wundt. (United States)

    Nerlich, B; Clarke, D D


    Wilhelm Wundt's influence on the development of linguistics and psychology was pervasive. The foundations for this web of influence on the sciences of mind and language were laid down in Wundt's own research program, which was quite different from other attempts at founding a new psychology, as it was deeply rooted in German philosophy. This resulted in certain gaps in Wundt's conception of mind and language. These gaps provoked a double repudiation of Wundt's theories, by linguists and psychologists. The psychological repudiation has been studied by historians of psychology, and the linguistic repudiation has been studied by historians of linguistics. The intent of this article is to bring the linguistic repudiation to the attention of historians of psychology, especially the one outlined by two important figures in the history of psychology: Karl Buhler and George Mead.

  8. Natural disasters and indicators of social cohesion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calo-Blanco, A.; Kovářík, Jaromír; Mengel, F.; Romero, J. G.


    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku e0176885. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22044S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : social cohesion * trust * climate Subject RIV: AH - Economic s OBOR OECD: Applied Economic s, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  9. Whither Elite Cohesion in Mexico: A Comment (United States)


    the problem of elite cohesion, including the mechanisms-- especially the camarilla system--whereby balance and equilibrium, control and cooptation...Generacicnes: Los Protagonistas de Ia Reforma y la Revoluci(n Mexicana, Secretaria de Educacion Pblica, Consejo Nacional de Fomento Educat ivo, Mexico City...loyalty and discipline toward the system as a whole, and especially its apex, the president, and its key institution, the PRI. All this looks different

  10. Brownfield regeneration: Towards strengthening social cohesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Marta


    Full Text Available In broader terms, the paper refers to the topic of brownfield regeneration, as one of the most complex mechanisms for sustainable spatial development. In addition to the fact that brownfield regeneration demands a variety of instruments, such as: tax subsidies, the change of land use ownership, soil remediation, planning regulative amendments, etc., the complexity of brownfield regeneration is primarily seen in a number of stakeholders participating in such a process. Thus, the paper focuses on the social aspect of brownfield regeneration - precisely, on researching the community role and reviewing the possibilities for achieving the 'local' interests in complex developmental processes. The main research hypothesis is that brownfield regeneration positively affects the creation of and strengthening the social cohesion in the areas close to the brownfield site. More precisley, the paper presents the ways towards strenghtening social cohesion in the initial phase of the brownfield regeneration process, as well as the effects of such a process in its operationalisation phase on social cohesion. The thesis is examined by two main parameters: 1 participation of local community, and 2 social costs and benefits of brownfield regeneration versus greenfield investment. The research results are presented in the form of argumentative essay. In fact, the critical overview of arguments for and against the main research hypothesis is provided based on the review of interdisciplinary literature in the domain of brownfield regeneration. Such research organisation ensures the identification and description of the measures needed for strengthening social cohesion, as an utmost goal of this research. The final research contribution is about offering the guidelines for similar methodological approach in urban research.

  11. Social cohesion and interpersonal conflicts in projects


    Ojiako, Udechukwu; Manville, Graham; Zouk, Nadine; Chipulu, Maxwell


    One particular area of project management literature that has continued to gain momentum in literature is its social dimension; with a number of scholars emphasising the fact that there is a considerable social dimension to every project activity. Within this context, the authors examine parameters that drive social facets of projects with a particular focus on social cohesion, interpersonal conflicts and national culture. Data from 167 project managers working in Kuwait were collected utilis...

  12. Micromechanical modeling and inverse identification of damage using cohesive approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blal, Nawfal


    In this study a micromechanical model is proposed for a collection of cohesive zone models embedded between two each elements of a standard cohesive-volumetric finite element method. An equivalent 'matrix-inclusions' composite is proposed as a representation of the cohesive-volumetric discretization. The overall behaviour is obtained using homogenization approaches (Hashin Shtrikman scheme and the P. Ponte Castaneda approach). The derived model deals with elastic, brittle and ductile materials. It is available whatever the triaxiality loading rate and the shape of the cohesive law, and leads to direct relationships between the overall material properties and the local cohesive parameters and the mesh density. First, rigorous bounds on the normal and tangential cohesive stiffnesses are obtained leading to a suitable control of the inherent artificial elastic loss induced by intrinsic cohesive models. Second, theoretical criteria on damageable and ductile cohesive parameters are established (cohesive peak stress, critical separation, cohesive failure energy,... ). These criteria allow a practical calibration of the cohesive zone parameters as function of the overall material properties and the mesh length. The main interest of such calibration is its promising capacity to lead to a mesh-insensitive overall response in surface damage. (author) [fr

  13. Relating Cohesive Zone Model to Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (United States)

    Wang, John T.


    The conditions required for a cohesive zone model (CZM) to predict a failure load of a cracked structure similar to that obtained by a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis are investigated in this paper. This study clarifies why many different phenomenological cohesive laws can produce similar fracture predictions. Analytical results for five cohesive zone models are obtained, using five different cohesive laws that have the same cohesive work rate (CWR-area under the traction-separation curve) but different maximum tractions. The effect of the maximum traction on the predicted cohesive zone length and the remote applied load at fracture is presented. Similar to the small scale yielding condition for an LEFM analysis to be valid. the cohesive zone length also needs to be much smaller than the crack length. This is a necessary condition for a CZM to obtain a fracture prediction equivalent to an LEFM result.

  14. The linguistically aware teacher and the teacher-aware linguist. (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue


    This review evaluates issues of teacher linguistic knowledge relating to their work with children with speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). Information is from Ellis and McCartney [(2011a). Applied linguistics and primary school teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], a state-of-the-art text deriving from a British Association of Applied Linguistics/Cambridge University Press expert seminar series that details: linguistic research underpinning primary school curricula and pedagogy; the form of linguistic knowledge useful for teachers supporting children with SLCD in partnership with speech and language therapists; and how and when teachers acquire and learn to apply such knowledge. Critical analysis of the options presented for teacher learning indicate that policy enjoinders now include linguistic application as an expected part of teachers' professional knowledge, for all children including those with SLCD, but there is a large unmet learning need. It is concluded that there is a role for clinical linguists to disseminate useable knowledge to teachers in an accessible format. Ways of achieving this are considered.

  15. Force Transmission Modes of Non-Cohesive and Cohesive Materials at the Critical State. (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Peng


    This paper investigates the force transmission modes, mainly described by probability density distributions, in non-cohesive dry and cohesive wet granular materials by discrete element modeling. The critical state force transmission patterns are focused on with the contact model effect being analyzed. By shearing relatively dense and loose dry specimens to the critical state in the conventional triaxial loading path, it is observed that there is a unique critical state force transmission mode. There is a universe critical state force distribution pattern for both the normal contact forces and tangential contact forces. Furthermore, it is found that using either the linear Hooke or the non-linear Hertz model does not affect the universe force transmission mode, and it is only related to the grain size distribution. Wet granular materials are also simulated by incorporating a water bridge model. Dense and loose wet granular materials are tested, and the critical state behavior for the wet material is also observed. The critical state strength and void ratio of wet granular materials are higher than those of a non-cohesive material. The critical state inter-particle distribution is altered from that of a non-cohesive material with higher probability in relatively weak forces. Grains in non-cohesive materials are under compressive stresses, and their principal directions are mainly in the axial loading direction. However, for cohesive wet granular materials, some particles are in tension, and the tensile stresses are in the horizontal direction on which the confinement is applied. The additional confinement by the tensile stress explains the macro strength and dilatancy increase in wet samples.

  16. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...




  18. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel


    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between linguistics and second language teaching has always been a controversial one. Many linguists have argued that linguistics has nothing to say to the teacher. Sampson (1980, p.10), for example, says: ·"1 do not believe that linguistics has any contribution to make to the teaching of English or the.

  20. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. Sources of Support. The Department of General Linguistics acknowledges the financial support provided by the Fonds ...

  1. Linguistics: evolution and language change. (United States)

    Bowern, Claire


    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heritage language and linguistic theory (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria


    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  3. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Gesture Modelling for Linguistic Purposes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ


    Full Text Available The study of sign languages attempts to create a coherent model that binds the expressive nature of signs conveyed in gestures to a linguistic framework. Gesture modelling offers an alternative that provides device independence, scalability...

  6. Is Rorty a linguistic idealist?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marvan, Tomáš


    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2011), s. 272-279 ISSN 1210-3055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Rorty * linguistic idealism * internal realism * intrinsic structure of reality * representation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. Broadcast news gisting using lexical cohesion analysis


    Stokes, Nicola; Newman, Eamonn; Carthy, Joe; Smeaton, Alan F.


    In this paper we describe an extractive method of creating very short summaries or gists that capture the essence of a news story using a linguistic technique called lexical chaining. The recent interest in robust gisting and title generation techniques originates from a need to improve the indexing and browsing capabilities of interactive digital multimedia systems. More specifically these systems deal with streams of continuous data, like a news programme, that require further annotation be...

  8. On the concept of a linguistic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerre, E.


    The concept of a linguistic variable plays a crucial role in the representation of imprecise knowledge in information sciences. A variable is called linguistic as soon as its values are linguistic terms rather than numerical ones. The power of daily communication and common sense reasoning lies in the use of such linguistic values. Even when exact numerical values are available, experts tend to transform these values into linguistic ones. A physician will usually translate a numerical measurement of a blood pressure into linguistic specifications such as normal, very high, too low... Zadeh has argued that the set of values for a linguistic variable assumes a more-or-less fixed structure. Starting from an atomic value and its antonym all remaining values are constructed using logical connectives on the one hand and linguistic hedges on the other hand. In this paper we will describe how to represent the value set of a linguistic variable in general and of linguistic hedges in particular

  9. Groupthink: one peril of group cohesiveness. (United States)

    Rosenblum, E H


    A group's aim is to make well-conceived, well-understood, well-accepted and realistic decisions to reach their agreed-upon goals. This aim applies equally to their own goals and those occasionally imposed by outsiders such as hospital administration, accreditation committees and the federal government. Effective groupwork requires group cohesion with its components of trust, risk taking, mutual support, and group esteem. With constant vigilance the group can maintain its positive dynamics, so that the unhealthy state of groupthink does not undermine its existence.

  10. Indocumentado en Dixie: Inmigración Indígena en el “Nuevo Sur” de la Alabama Rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Henken


    Full Text Available Existe una contradicción en torno a la creciente inmigración indocumentada en los Estados Unidos de América en general, y en la propia de Dixie, en lo particular, el nuevo Sur de la Alabama rural. Por un lado, los estadounidenses deseamos una frontera impermeable pero, por otra parte, ejercemos una progresiva dependencia de la fuerza laboral migrante. El estudio de caso del presente artículo deja de manifiesto que la política migratoria norteamiericana no funciona, pues ni sirve a los intereses de los ciudadanos norteamericanos, ni a los patrones estadounidenses, quienes cuentan con una fuerza laboral de los inmigrantes en una economía más global. Por lo tanto, ¿cómo podemos evitar esta problemática, y a la vez crear historias de inmigrantes exitosos, cumpliendo con el respeto de las leyes inmigratorias y laborales y la integridad de nuestras fronteras? Tres principios básicos, habrán de estimarse en la resolución del problema planteado: que el hambre es más fuerte que el miedo; manejar, sí; mano dura, no; y, que solo debemos tener miedo, del miedo mismo.

  11. Linguistic Characteristics of Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Advertising language takes form under the influence of linguistics,psychology and sociology,etc,and its way of choosing words and building sentences are quite different from normal English.And as a practical language,advertising English has its specific functions,and it has been distinguished from normal English as an independent language,and it has plentiful values.This paper aims to discuss some linguistic characteristics of advertising English.

  12. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  13. Coaches' Perceptions of Team Cohesion in Paralympic Sports. (United States)

    Falcão, William R; Bloom, Gordon A; Loughead, Todd M


    The purpose of this study was to investigate Paralympic coaches' perceptions of team cohesion. Seven head coaches of summer and winter Canadian Paralympic sport teams participated in the study. Four participants coached individual sports and 3 coached team sports. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results addressed the coaches' perceptions of cohesion in the Paralympic sport setting and strategies used to foster cohesion with their teams. Participants described using techniques and strategies for enhancing cohesion that were similar to those in nondisability sport, such as task-related activities, goal setting, and regularly communicating with their athletes. They also listed how cohesion was distinct to the Paralympic setting, such as the importance of interpersonal activities to build social cohesion. The implications of these results for coaching athletes with a disability are also presented.

  14. The association between status and cohesion in sport teams. (United States)

    Jacob, C S; Carron, A V


    The main objective of this study was to establish the relationship between perceptions of status attributes and cohesion and status ranking and cohesion. A secondary aim was to determine whether age (operationalized by scholastic levels) or culture serves as a moderator in the relationship between either status attributes or status ranking and cohesion. Another secondary aim was to determine if differences are present in the importance attached by athletes to status attributes. Canadian and Indian athletes were tested. Although perceptions of the importance of status attributes and cohesiveness were related, the effect size was small (Green, 1991); perceptions of status ranking and cohesiveness were not related. Neither scholastic level nor culture served as a moderator in the association between either status attributes or status rank and cohesion. The importance that athletes attach to status attributes is similar between scholastic levels and across cultures. The results are discussed in terms of the role of status in sport teams.

  15. Copyright Essentials for Linguists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Newman


    Full Text Available This paper addresses copyright issues that linguists confront in their capacity as users and creators of scholarly work. It is organized in a simple question-answer format. Questions 1-3 present the basics of U.S. copyright law, including the fundamental nature of copyright as a bundle of intellectual property rights and the role of registration. Questions 4-5 treat issues of copyright notice. Questions 6-8 explain licenses, especially Creative Commons licenses, and the function of an Author's Addendum. Questions 9-10 look at copyright in the context of online open access publishing. Question 11 discusses the concept of Fair Use. Question 12 analyzes the problem of what are called Orphan Works. Questions 13-19 explore issues of copyright ownership, including Work for Hire, joint authorship, and attribution. Questions 20-22 deal with copyright with specific reference to fieldwork situations and indigenous rights. The paper concludes with a brief presentation of key sources for further study and clarification.

  16. The new linguistic order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Fishman


    Full Text Available The globalisation phenomenon that we are currently seeing has lead to major linguistic changes on a worldwide scale. English has become the leading international language, in economic and political spheres, and is becoming the language of high society and of the young. At the same time, however, regional languages are also making considerable headway, thanks to new social interaction and economic backing from their governments. In turn, and as a result of these two trends, there is impetus for feelings of belonging to local communities which see their language as a sign of their own authenticity, one that has to be defended against the phenomena of globalisation and regionalisation. We are thus heading towards a multilingual society, in which each language has its own, distinct social functions, even though it is inevitable that there will be conflict between the languages that come into contact. In this scenario, the author predicts a loss of hegemony for English, in favour of regional languages, and the future extinction of the least spoken minority languages.

  17. Computational Linguistics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Piasecki, Maciej; Jassem, Krzysztof; Fuglewicz, Piotr


    The ever-growing popularity of Google over the recent decade has required a specific method of man-machine communication: human query should be short, whereas the machine answer may take a form of a wide range of documents. This type of communication has triggered a rapid development in the domain of Information Extraction, aimed at providing the asker with a  more precise information. The recent success of intelligent personal assistants supporting users in searching or even extracting information and answers from large collections of electronic documents signals the onset of a new era in man-machine communication – we shall soon explain to our small devices what we need to know and expect valuable answers quickly and automatically delivered. The progress of man-machine communication is accompanied by growth in the significance of applied Computational Linguistics – we need machines to understand much more from the language we speak naturally than it is the case of up-to-date search systems. Moreover, w...

  18. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf


    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  19. Cohesion, Cracking, Dilation, and Flow -- Rheological Behavior of Cohesive Pharmaceutical Powders (United States)

    Muzzio, Fernando


    Cohesive powders can be loosely defined as systems where the attractive forced between particles exceed the average particle weight. Cohesive powder flow is interesting from a wide range of reasons. Their main characteristic, intermittence, is evidenced both in the interruption of flow out of hoppers (a mundane issue causing great annoyance to industrial practitioners) and in the sudden avalanching of snow and dirt that has terrified and terrified mankind since the dawn of time. At the present time, our ability to predict either of these phenomena (and many more involving cohesive powders) is very limited, primarily due to an incomplete understanding of their constitutive behavior. To wit, consider just a simple fact: a flowing powder never has constant density. Equations describing the relationship between velocity, shear, stress, and density are rudimentary at best. Computational and experimental approaches for characterizing flow behavior are in their infancy. In this talk, I will describe some recent progress achieved at Rutgers by our group. New instruments have been developed to determine simultaneously powder density and cohesive flow effects. Extensive measurements have been carried out focusing on pharmaceutical blends. These results have been used to fine-tune computational models that accurately predict dilation, flow in drums, and flow in hoppers. Impact of these observations for pharmaceutical manufacturing applications will be discussed in some detail.

  20. Personality in teams: its relationship to social cohesion, task cohesion, and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.


    This study continued past research on the relationship between personality composition in teams and social cohesion and team performance (Barrick, Stewart, Neubert, & Mount, 1998). Results from the Barrick et al. sample (N = 50) were compared with data from two new samples, one comprising drilling

  1. Environmental cohesion across the Hungarian-Croatian border


    Varjú Viktor


    Environmental cohesion (as a new EU paradigm for a place-based interpretation of environmental justice) has a clear connection to territorial cohesion. Based on this idea, advantages for people can include an equitable distribution of environmental protection and access to environmental services. In non-EU countries regional environmental cohesion is used as an instrument to accelerate accession to the EU and it may be manifested as a declaration of environ...

  2. Constructing and validating readability models: the method of integrating multilevel linguistic features with machine learning. (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chen, Ju-Ling; Cha, Ji-Her; Tseng, Hou-Chiang; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Chang, Kuo-En


    Multilevel linguistic features have been proposed for discourse analysis, but there have been few applications of multilevel linguistic features to readability models and also few validations of such models. Most traditional readability formulae are based on generalized linear models (GLMs; e.g., discriminant analysis and multiple regression), but these models have to comply with certain statistical assumptions about data properties and include all of the data in formulae construction without pruning the outliers in advance. The use of such readability formulae tends to produce a low text classification accuracy, while using a support vector machine (SVM) in machine learning can enhance the classification outcome. The present study constructed readability models by integrating multilevel linguistic features with SVM, which is more appropriate for text classification. Taking the Chinese language as an example, this study developed 31 linguistic features as the predicting variables at the word, semantic, syntax, and cohesion levels, with grade levels of texts as the criterion variable. The study compared four types of readability models by integrating unilevel and multilevel linguistic features with GLMs and an SVM. The results indicate that adopting a multilevel approach in readability analysis provides a better representation of the complexities of both texts and the reading comprehension process.

  3. Automated Behavior and Cohesion Assessment Tools, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important consideration of long duration space flight operations is interpersonal dynamics that effect crew cohesion and performance. Flight surgeons have stated...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Görgüt


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine team cohesion of handballplayers who were actively engaged in sport in various categories. The study group consisted of a total of 607 handball players, 317 female and 290 male, selected by random method and from 11 provinces of Turkey according to the some factors. When we examine the age distributions of the participants, 121 athletes appear to be 13 years and under, 309 athletes 14-18 years, 94 athletes 19-23 years, 54 athletes 24-28 years and 29 athletes 29 years and over. In addition, 186 of them expressed their education situation as middle school, 253 of them expressed their education situation as high school and 168 of them expressed their education situation as university. Personal information form and team cohesion scale, developed by Widmeyer et al. (1985 and adapted to Turkish by Moralı (1994, were used as a data collecting tools. The Kolmogorov Smirnov test was used to measure whether the obtained data showed normal distribution or not and nonparametric tests were used to determine the subscale scores because they didn’t show normal disturbance. For binary comparisons Mann Whitney U test, for multiple comparisons Kruskal Wallis variance and for the difference between significant groups Bonferroni Mann Whitney U test were used. As a result of the research, there were significant differences in scale subscale scores in terms of gender, age, educational status, sports experience, income and province variables of handball players.

  5. Conversation, characterisation and corpus linguistics: Dialogue in Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Hubbard


    Full Text Available This article reports on a corpus-based exploration of the role that fictional dialogue plays in characterisation. The focus is on the two main characters of Austen’s Sense and Sensibility and (a the extent to which certain features of their dialogue can be said to tie in with general perceptions that Elinor represents the “sense” and Marianne the “sensibility” of the novel’s title; and (b the extent to which Austen can be said to have exploited these features to enable the sisters to speak with subtly differing voices. The features themselves were drawn from two linguistic frameworks, namely cohesion in text linguistics (specifically, the category of conjunctive cohesion as originated by Halliday and Hasan (1976, and the category of “involvement” in register analysis (most prominently, Biber 1988. The density of these features in each dialogue was calculated, compared statistically and salient differences considered in relation to the focal issues of the study. Although two of the five hypotheses formulated were not supported, the results overall provided strong indications that Austen successfully distinguishes between the sisters through their dialogue, and often in ways that link with less subtle, more explicit cues to their character that are given in the text. The study thus reveals how certain text-linguistic and register features can underpin characterisation in fiction, and in so doing explicates aspects of what it is that readers and literary critics respond to when they comment on characterisation in a novel.

  6. Linguistic and Psycho-Linguistic Principles of Linguadidactics (theoretical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Mauzienė


    Full Text Available This article considers linguadidactics being closely related to linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics and didactics and applies their theoretical statements and regularities in its scientific studies. Methodology refers to linguistics which investigates the language as a teaching subject. Methodology is linked to psychology in two ways. First of all, it is based on psychology as the teaching process is an intellectual psychical act and its regularities are necessary to know. On the other hand, methodology applies rules of pedagogy that predicts ways of learning and development of language skills. The article emphasizes that sustainable work experience and analysis of scientific research show that teaching process is more effective if consistent patterns of linguistics and psychology are appropriately applied.

  7. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt


    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  8. Cohesion and device reliability in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali; Bruner, Christopher; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.


    that the phase separated bulk heterojunction layer is the weakest layer and report quantitative cohesion values which ranged from ∼1 to 20 J m -2. The effects of layer thickness, composition, and annealing treatments on layer cohesion are investigated. Using

  9. Packing and Cohesive Properties of Some Locally Extracted Starches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... properties of the particles affect the packing and cohesive properties of the starches, and are important in predicting the behaviour of the starches during handling and use in pharmaceutical preparations. These properties need to be closely controlled in pre-formulation studies. Keywords: Packing and cohesive properties, ...

  10. A Reappraisal of Lexical Cohesion in Conversational Discourse (United States)

    Gomez Gonzalez, Maria De Los Angeles


    Cohesion, or the connectedness of discourse, has been recognized as playing a crucial role in both language production and comprehension processes. Researchers have debated about the "right" number and classification of cohesive devices, as well as about their interaction with coherence and/or genre. The present study proposes an integrative model…

  11. Cohesion in Online Student Teams versus Traditional Teams (United States)

    Hansen, David E.


    Researchers have found that the electronic methods in use for online team communication today increase communication quality in project-based work situations. Because communication quality is known to influence group cohesion, the present research examined whether online student project teams are more cohesive than traditional teams. We tested…

  12. Understanding Social Cohesion Differences in Common Interest Housing Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van R.I.; Eshuis, J.; Twist, van M.J.W.; Anquetil, V.


    The worldwide upsurge of common interest housing developments (CIDs) has stirred up debates regarding community development and social cohesion. Critics have argued that CIDs lack social cohesion because people regulate the community via rules and contracts rather than through social relationships

  13. Cohesion: An Overview for the Teacher of Reading. Revised. (United States)

    Chapman, L. John

    Pronouns, substitutes, elipses, conjunctions, synonyms, antonyms, superordinates and subordinates, and part-whole relations all provide cohesive ties that help a reader understand text. A study at Britain's Open University (England) has revealed the way in which the perception of cohesive ties is achieved as children's reading ability grows.…

  14. Characterizing delamination of fibre composites by mixed mode cohesive laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, Torben K.


    A novel method is used for the determination of mixed mode cohesive laws and bridging laws for the characterisation of crack bridging in composites. The approach is based on an application of the J integral. The obtained cohesive laws were found to possess high peak stress values. Mixed mode...

  15. Food education: health and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zafra Aparici


    Full Text Available Using a theoretical-reflexive approach, this article connects the results of various qualitative studies in social conflict and medical anthropology, in order to investigate how food can be a tool for social transformation in terms of health but also in terms of the dialogue, respect and coexistence among people, groups and communities. In this sense the article presents a first approximation to a new theoretical and methodological approach to food education. In this approach, food adopts a political, sociocultural and participatory perspective that brings us closer to an innovative understanding of the phenomenon of food: not only as an analytic and diagnostic tool, but also as an instrument for health education interventions toward conflict resolution and the promotion of healthier societies overall – nutritionally, but also in terms of equality and social cohesion.

  16. Time dependent fracture and cohesive zones (United States)

    Knauss, W. G.


    This presentation is concerned with the fracture response of materials which develop cohesive or bridging zones at crack tips. Of special interest are concerns regarding crack stability as a function of the law which governs the interrelation between the displacement(s) or strain across these zones and the corresponding holding tractions. It is found that for some materials unstable crack growth can occur, even before the crack tip has experienced a critical COD or strain across the crack, while for others a critical COD will guarantee the onset of fracture. Also shown are results for a rate dependent nonlinear material model for the region inside of a craze for exploring time dependent crack propagation of rate sensitive materials.

  17. Cohesive motion in one-dimensional flocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossetti, V


    A one-dimensional rule-based model for flocking, which combines velocity alignment and long-range centering interactions, is presented and studied. The induced cohesion in the collective motion of the self-propelled agents leads to unique group behavior that contrasts with previous studies. Our results show that the largest cluster of particles, in the condensed states, develops a mean velocity slower than the preferred one in the absence of noise. For strong noise, the system also develops a non-vanishing mean velocity, alternating its direction of motion stochastically. This allows us to address the directional switching phenomenon. The effects of different sources of stochasticity on the system are also discussed. (paper)

  18. In situ erosion of cohesive sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.J.; Ockenden, M.C.


    There has been increasing interest in tidal power schemes and the effect of a tidal energy barrage on the environment. A large man-made environmental change, such as a barrage, would be expected to have significant effects on the sediment distribution and stability of an estuary and these effects need to be assessed when considering a tidal barrage project. This report describes the development of apparatus for in-situ measurements of cohesive sediment erosion on inter-tidal mudflats. Development of the prototype field erosion bell and field testing was commissioned on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry by the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU). This later work commenced in August 1991 and was completed in September 1992. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina KARTASHOVA


    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  20. Data Acquisition and Linguistic Resources (United States)

    Strassel, Stephanie; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John; Staderman, William; Olive, Joseph

    All human language technology demands substantial quantities of data for system training and development, plus stable benchmark data to measure ongoing progress. While creation of high quality linguistic resources is both costly and time consuming, such data has the potential to profoundly impact not just a single evaluation program but language technology research in general. GALE's challenging performance targets demand linguistic data on a scale and complexity never before encountered. Resources cover multiple languages (Arabic, Chinese, and English) and multiple genres -- both structured (newswire and broadcast news) and unstructured (web text, including blogs and newsgroups, and broadcast conversation). These resources include significant volumes of monolingual text and speech, parallel text, and transcribed audio combined with multiple layers of linguistic annotation, ranging from word aligned parallel text and Treebanks to rich semantic annotation.

  1. Cohesive zone model for direct silicon wafer bonding (United States)

    Kubair, D. V.; Spearing, S. M.


    Direct silicon wafer bonding and decohesion are simulated using a spectral scheme in conjunction with a rate-dependent cohesive model. The cohesive model is derived assuming the presence of a thin continuum liquid layer at the interface. Cohesive tractions due to the presence of a liquid meniscus always tend to reduce the separation distance between the wafers, thereby opposing debonding, while assisting the bonding process. In the absence of the rate-dependence effects the energy needed to bond a pair of wafers is equal to that needed to separate them. When rate-dependence is considered in the cohesive law, the experimentally observed asymmetry in the energetics can be explained. The derived cohesive model has the potential to form a bridge between experiments and a multiscale-modelling approach to understand the mechanics of wafer bonding.

  2. Mathematical Approaches to Cognitive Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuluundorj Begz


    Full Text Available Cognitive linguistics, neuro-cognitive and psychological analysis of human verbal cognition present important area of multidisciplinary research. Mathematical methods and models have been introduced in number of publications with increasing attention to these theories. In this paper we have described some possible applications of mathematical methods to cognitive linguistics. Human verbal perception and verbal mapping deal with dissipative mental structures and symmetric/asymmetric relationships between objects of perception and deep (also surface structures of language. In that’s way methods of tensor analysis are ambitious candidate to be applied to analysis of human verbal thinking and mental space.

  3. Linguistics, human communication and psychiatry. (United States)

    Thomas, P; Fraser, W


    Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics have extended our understanding of the abnormal communication seen in psychosis, as well as that of people with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Psycholinguistics has the potential to increase the explanatory power of cognitive and neuropsychological approaches to psychosis and new methods of assessment and therapy are now being developed, based on linguistic theory. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Of 205 relevant articles identified, 65 were selected for review. Greater familiarity with linguistic theory could improve psychiatrists' assessment skills and their understanding of the relevance of human communication to the new cognitive models of psychosis.

  4. On Norms and Linguistic Categories in Linguistic Diversity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.


    Due to globalization there is an increase in the appearances of languages in the multilingual linguistic landscape in urban spaces. Commentators have described this state of affairs as super-, mega- or complex diversity. Mainstream sociolinguists have argued that languages have no fixed boundaries

  5. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller


    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  6. Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development. Miami Linguistics Series No. 9. (United States)

    von Humboldt, Wilhelm

    Although this edition of Wilhelm von Humboldt's "Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development" is based entirely on the original German edition, the translators (George C. Buck and Frithjof A. Raven) and the publisher have attempted to clarify certain aspects of this work for the modern-day reader. These features include the addition of…

  7. Text Linguistics in Research Papers Prepared by University Students: Teaching through Lesson Plans and Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Albarrán-Santiago


    Full Text Available This research project revolves around the properties of text linguistics under a qualitative approach.  The author analyzed drafts of a research paper by two university students as well as lesson plans and textbooks of high school Spanish Language and Literature courses and lesson plans of courses from the Licentiate degree in Education.  According to the information from the drafts, students struggle with coherence and cohesion in writing; however, they succeed in choosing the correct language for the type of writing.  Difficulties are most likely due to fact that this topic is not included in secondary education plans and is not commonly addressed in textbooks or university classes.  In conclusion, teachers should include the properties of text linguistics in their lesson plans in order to help students overcome these difficulties.

  8. Clinical Linguistics--Retrospect and Prospect. (United States)

    Grunwell, Pamela

    In the past 20 years, linguistics has gained a prominent position in speech and language pathology in Britain, evolving into a new field, clinical linguistics. It includes three related areas of activity: training of speech pathologists/therapists; professional practice; and research. Linguistics and speech/language pathology have developed as…

  9. Quantitative Research in Systemic Functional Linguistics (United States)

    He, Qingshun


    The research of Systemic Functional Linguistics has been quite in-depth in both theory and practice. However, many linguists hold that Systemic Functional Linguistics has no hypothesis testing or experiments and its research is only qualitative. Analyses of the corpus, intelligent computing and language evolution on the ideological background of…

  10. Evaluating automatically annotated treebanks for linguistic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Bański, P.; Kupietz, M.; Lüngen, H.; Witt, A.; Barbaresi, A.; Biber, H.; Breiteneder, E.; Clematide, S.


    This study discusses evaluation methods for linguists to use when employing an automatically annotated treebank as a source of linguistic evidence. While treebanks are usually evaluated with a general measure over all the data, linguistic studies often focus on a particular construction or a group

  11. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics


    Haspelmath, Martin


    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  12. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair


    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  13. Interdisciplinarity in pragmatics and linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mey, Jacob L.


    At the Second International Conference ‘Zeichen und System der Sprache’ (Magdeburg, September 1964), a certain East German professor took the floor during a discussion of one of the linguistic presentations. He started his comments by saying: ‘Als Mathematiker weiß ich zwar von der Sache nichts...

  14. Fuzzy linguistic model for interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.; Adabitabar Firozja, M.


    In this paper, a fuzzy method for interpolating of smooth curves was represented. We present a novel approach to interpolate real data by applying the universal approximation method. In proposed method, fuzzy linguistic model (FLM) applied as universal approximation for any nonlinear continuous function. Finally, we give some numerical examples and compare the proposed method with spline method

  15. Desiderata for Linguistic Software Design (United States)

    Garretson, Gregory


    This article presents a series of guidelines both for researchers in search of software to be used in linguistic analysis and for programmers designing such software. A description of the intended audience and the types of software under consideration and a review of some relevant literature are followed by a discussion of several important…

  16. Saussurean structuralism and cognitive linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, E.


    Cognitive linguistics (CL) is often regarded as a continuation of Saussurean structuralism. This paper explores the relationship between the two paradigms, focussing on the connection between semantics and views on the language-thought relationship. As it turns out, the similarity in this respect

  17. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333450; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus


    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  18. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences (United States)

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda


    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  19. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy. Although a country or administrative district should have one or more official languages for obvious reasons, Nelde (1991) proposes that the ... circular interaction between linguistic departments and language departments. Finding an answer to' Plato's abovementioned problem entails that as many languages as ...

  1. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko


    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  2. Applied Linguistics in the Philippines. (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    This paper traces the three major developmental strands that converged to contribute to the definition of the applied linguistics field in the Philippines: the institution and capacity-building work supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations; the forging of a vibrant consortium among three Filipino institutions of higher education to offer…

  3. Cohesion energetics of carbon allotropes: Quantum Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeondeok; Kang, Sinabro; Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Hoonkyung; Kwon, Yongkyung, E-mail: [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeongnim, E-mail: [Materials Science and Technology Division and Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)


    We have performed quantum Monte Carlo calculations to study the cohesion energetics of carbon allotropes, including sp{sup 3}-bonded diamond, sp{sup 2}-bonded graphene, sp–sp{sup 2} hybridized graphynes, and sp-bonded carbyne. The computed cohesive energies of diamond and graphene are found to be in excellent agreement with the corresponding values determined experimentally for diamond and graphite, respectively, when the zero-point energies, along with the interlayer binding in the case of graphite, are included. We have also found that the cohesive energy of graphyne decreases systematically as the ratio of sp-bonded carbon atoms increases. The cohesive energy of γ-graphyne, the most energetically stable graphyne, turns out to be 6.766(6) eV/atom, which is smaller than that of graphene by 0.698(12) eV/atom. Experimental difficulty in synthesizing graphynes could be explained by their significantly smaller cohesive energies. Finally, we conclude that the cohesive energy of a newly proposed graphyne can be accurately estimated with the carbon–carbon bond energies determined from the cohesive energies of graphene and three different graphynes considered here.

  4. Cohesion Energetics of Carbon Allotropes: Quantum Monte Carlo Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeondeok [Konkuk University, South Korea; Kang, Sinabro [Konkuk University, South Korea; Koo, Jahyun [Konkuk University, South Korea; Lee, Hoonkyung [Konkuk University, South Korea; Kim, Jeongnim [ORNL; Kwon, Yongkyung [Konkuk University, South Korea


    We have performed quantum Monte Carlo calculations to study the cohesion energetics of carbon allotropes, including sp3-bonded diamond, sp2-bonded graphene, sp-sp2 hybridized graphynes, and sp-bonded carbyne. The comput- ed cohesive energies of diamond and graphene are found to be in excellent agreement with the corresponding values de- termined experimentally for diamond and graphite, respectively, when the zero-point energies, along with the interlayer binding in the case of graphite, are included. We have also found that the cohesive energy of graphyne decreases system- atically as the ratio of sp-bonded carbon atoms increases. The cohesive energy of -graphyne, the most energetically- stable graphyne, turns out to be 6.766(6) eV/atom, which is smaller than that of graphene by 0.698(12) eV/atom. Experi- mental difficulty in synthesizing graphynes could be explained by their significantly smaller cohesive energies. Finally we conclude that the cohesive energy of a newly-proposed two-dimensional carbon network can be accurately estimated with the carbon-carbon bond energies determined from the cohesive energies of graphene and three different graphynes.

  5. Molecular Intercalation and Cohesion of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher; Miller, Nichole C.; McGehee, Michael D.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.


    The phase separated bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer in BHJ polymer:fullerene organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) are mechanically weak with low values of cohesion. Improved cohesion is important for OPV device thermomechanical reliability. BHJ devices are investigated and how fullerene intercalation within the active layer affects cohesive properties in the BHJ is shown. The intercalation of fullerenes between the side chains of the polymers poly(3,3″′-didocecyl quaterthiophene) (PQT-12) and poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT) is shown to enhance BHJ layer cohesion. Cohesion values range from ≈1 to 5 J m -2, depending on the polymer:fullerene blend, processing conditions, and composition. Devices with non-intercalated BHJ layers are found to have significantly reduced values of cohesion. The resulting device power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are also investigated and correlated with the device cohesion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Molecular Intercalation and Cohesion of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher


    The phase separated bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer in BHJ polymer:fullerene organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) are mechanically weak with low values of cohesion. Improved cohesion is important for OPV device thermomechanical reliability. BHJ devices are investigated and how fullerene intercalation within the active layer affects cohesive properties in the BHJ is shown. The intercalation of fullerenes between the side chains of the polymers poly(3,3″′-didocecyl quaterthiophene) (PQT-12) and poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT) is shown to enhance BHJ layer cohesion. Cohesion values range from ≈1 to 5 J m -2, depending on the polymer:fullerene blend, processing conditions, and composition. Devices with non-intercalated BHJ layers are found to have significantly reduced values of cohesion. The resulting device power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are also investigated and correlated with the device cohesion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Relationship between group cohesion and anxiety in soccer. (United States)

    Borrego, Carla Chicau; Cid, Luis; Silva, Carlos


    Group cohesion in sport is a widely spread theme today. Research has found cohesion to be influenced by several individual and group components. Among the cognitive variables that relate to cohesion we found competitive anxiety. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between task cohesion (ATG-T, and GI-T) and competitive state anxiety (A-state), and also if there would be a relation between cohesion and self-confidence. Participants were 366 football players of both genders male and female, aged between 15 to 23 years old, from Portugal's championships. Cohesion was measured using the Portuguese version of the Group Environment Questionnaire, and to assess competitive anxiety, we used the Portuguese version of the Competition State Anxiety Inventory 2. Our results show that female athletes report experiencing more cognitive anxiety and less self-confidence than male athletes. Only cognitive anxiety relates in a significantly negative way with the perception of cohesion (GI-T e ATG-T) in the total number of participants and in male athletes. Relatively to the somatic anxiety, it only relates negatively with the perception of the integration of the group in the total number of participants and in the male gender.

  8. A Fuzzy Linguistic Methodology to Deal With Unbalanced Linguistic Term Sets


    Herrera, F.; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique; Martinez, L.


    Many real problems dealing with qualitative aspects use linguistic approaches to assess such aspects. In most of these problems, a uniform and symmetrical distribution of the linguistic term sets for linguistic modeling is assumed. However, there exist problems whose assessments need to be represented by means of unbalanced linguistic term sets, i.e., using term sets that are not uniformly and symmetrically distributed. The use of linguistic variables implies processes of computing with words...

  9. Determination of mode-I cohesive strength for interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J. B.; Thouless, M. D.; Sørensen, Bent F.


    The cohesive strength is one of the governing parameters controlling crack deflection at interfaces, but measuring its magnitude is challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel approach to determine the mode-I cohesive strength of an interface by using a 4-point single-edge-notch beam...... in response to this stress, before the main crack starts to grow. Observations using 2D digital-image correlation showed that an ''apparent" strain across the interface initially increases linearly with the applied load, but becomes nonlinear upon the initiation of the interface crack. The cohesive strength...

  10. Characteristics of Non-Cohesive Embankment Failure (United States)

    Yusof, Z. M.; Wahab, A. K. A.; Ismail, Z.; Amerudin, S.


    Embankments are important infrastructure built to provide flood control. They also present risks to property and life due to their potential to fail and cause catastrophic flooding. To mitigate these risks, authorities and regulators need to carefully analyse and inspect dams to identify potential failure modes and protect against them. This paper presents morphology of an embankment study and its sediment behaviour of different grain sizes after the embankment fails. A few experiments were carried out for the embankment size of 1V:3H with different sediment grain sizes; medium and coarser sand. The embankment material used is non-cohesive soil with the embankment height of 0.1 m. The embankment is tested with inflows rate of Q = 0.8 L/s. Experimental results showed the peak discharge for the same inflow rate is affected by the shape of embankment breached. The peak discharge of medium grain size of the embankment is highest, which gave 3.63 L/s in comparison with a coarser embankment. This concludes that the embankment morphology patterns are dissimilar to each other. The flow and dimension of embankment are shown to influence the characteristics of embankment failure.

  11. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor. (United States)

    Nichols, Johanna


    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc.), but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten , or Turkish korkmak 'fear, be afraid' and korkutmak 'frighten, scare', or Finnish istua 'sit' and istutta 'seat (someone)', or Spanish sentarse 'sit down' and sentar 'seat (someone)' is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where 'seat' is derived from 'sit' by addition of a suffix-is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  12. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor


    Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols


    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an e...

  13. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Nichols


    Full Text Available An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc., but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten, or Turkish korkmak ‘fear, be afraid’ and korkutmak ‘frighten, scare’, or Finnish istua ‘sit’ and istutta ‘seat (someone’, or Spanish sentarse ‘sit down’ and sentar ‘seat (someone’ is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where ‘seat’ is derived from ‘sit’ by addition of a suffix—is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  14. Bridge pier scour in cohesive soil: a review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Sonia Devi

    process and mechanism at bridge pier in cohesive and noncohesive soil are presented. The effects ... examples: one under laboratory condition and another under field condition. ..... not take part in scouring as these sediments are swept over.

  15. Social cohesion: solution or driver of urban violence? | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Sep 28, 2016 ... Social cohesion can play an important role in building and maintaining ... Analysis of Violence demonstrates how social bonds and stark inequalities can also play ... Conflict and development in the hill settlements of Guwahati.

  16. Social cohesion: solution or driver of urban violence?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    to the state intervention, eroding existing civil society organization. The presence of the police ... creating its own parallel structures to existing representative bodies, ... When designing interventions take into account that social cohesion may ...

  17. Utilization of Large Cohesive Interface Elements for Delamination Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Lund, Erik


    This paper describes the difficulties of utilizing large interface elements in delamination simulation. Solutions to increase the size of applicable interface elements are described and cover numerical integration of the element and modifications of the cohesive law....

  18. Social cohesion: The missing link in overcoming violence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will test the hypothesis that social cohesion is a critical factor in ... to community members, and ethnographic social network analysis, to help map ... to identify the most effective strategies for addressing these challenges in Latin ...

  19. Student leadership and advocacy for social cohesion: A South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at how social cohesion could benefit economic development, hoped thereby ... institutions pledged to reverse 'outsourcing' to 'insourcing' of cleaning services, there is .... It is not so much the scale of these ills as it is the perceived failure of the.

  20. Effect of softening function on the cohesive crack fracture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cohesive crack model with linear softening yields the fracture process zones lower by ..... ignored during numerical simulation. In the crack band ..... performed with developed computer program using MATLAB for the following numerical.

  1. Barossa Night: cohesion in the British Army officer corps. (United States)

    Bury, Patrick


    Contrasting the classical explanation of military group cohesion as sustained by interpersonal bonds, recent scholars have highlighted the importance of ritualized communication, training and drills in explaining effective military performance in professional armies. While this has offered a welcome addition to the cohesion literature and a novel micro-sociological method of examining cohesion, its primary evidential base has been combat groups. Indeed, despite their prominent role in directing operations over the past decade, the British Army's officer corps has received relatively little attention from sociologists during this period. No attempt has been made to explain cohesion in the officer corps. Using a similar method to recent cohesion scholars, this paper seeks to address this imbalance by undertaking a micro-sociology of one ritual in particular: 'Barossa Night' in the Royal Irish Regiment. Firstly, it draws on the work of Durkheim to examine how cohesion amongst the officer corps is created and sustained through a dense array of practises during formal social rituals. It provides evidence that the use of rituals highlights that social solidarity is central to understanding officer cohesion. Secondly, following Hockey's work on how private soldiers negotiate order, the paper shows how this solidarity in the officer corps is based on a degree of negotiated order and the need to release organizational tensions inherent in a strictly hierarchical rank structure. It highlights how the awarding of gallantry medals can threaten this negotiated order and fuel deviancy. In examining this behaviour, the paper shows that even amongst an officer class traditionally viewed as the elite upholders of organizational discipline, the negotiation of rank and hierarchy can be fluid. How deviant behaviour is later accepted and normalized by senior officers indicates that negotiated order is as important to understanding cohesion in the British Army's officer corps as it is

  2. A primer in macromolecular linguistics. (United States)

    Searls, David B


    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert


    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English le...... the economic and geopolitical agenda behind this English teaching business, there is clear evidence of linguistic imperialism in the functions of this global professional service. These activities serve to strengthen Western interests.......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  4. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes


    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  5. Substitution as a Device of Grammatical Cohesion in English Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad


    Full Text Available The present study set out to investigate the effect of teaching substitution as a kind of grammatical cohesion on the true identification of confusing substitution elements with cohesive or non-cohesive roles in different contexts and also the production of modal, reporting and conditional contexts through clausal substitution acquaintance. To this end, the following procedures were taken. First 120 male and female EFL students were selected from Iranshahr Azad University. Having administered the language proficiency test, researchers selected 80 students as intermediate subjects according to their TOEFL band scores. First, pretests of cohesion identification (substitution and production of modal, reporting and conditional environments were administered to both control and experimental groups. Then, the experimental group was exposed to the teaching of the above-said above-mentioned cohesive device. Finally, post-tests of substitution elements’ identification and modal, reporting and conditional contexts’ production through clausal substitution familiarity were administered. The results showed that cohesive device treatment helped students on the true identification of substitution elements. Another finding proved that EFL students might have no difficulty in learning certain rules or classification of rules and application of their clausal substitution knowledge in creating modal, reporting and conditional contexts. Our findings can have implications for the field of language learning and teaching.

  6. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models (United States)


    Movie Legally Multiplex Heralded As Linchpin To Growth The Shape of Cinema , Transformed At the Click of a Mouse A Peaceful Crew Puts Muppets...Linguistic Representation of Multiple Languages The formalism of WordNet has been applied to many languages from different language families, e.g. Japanese ...could be also share information gleaned from 100 reviews on’s Japanese and German language sites. 6.2.3 Learning Deeper Structures and Testing

  7. Can delusions be understood linguistically? (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter


    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  8. Can delusions be understood linguistically? (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter


    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  9. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume


    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gaida Winch


    Full Text Available It is analyzed how linguistic diversity is dealt with in a Portuguese textbook, where two chapters are designated to it. In these, it is pointed out that speaker ethnic origin can be manifested differently by: morphological changes; use of foreign expressions; accent in oral language. In synthesis, the linguistic diversity is dealt with through activities of identification and reproduction of linguistic varieties to be carried out by the students.

  11. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X


    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  12. English linguistic purism: history, development, criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishechko Ovsanna Savvichna


    Full Text Available Linguistic purism as an area of linguistic analysis describes the practices of identification and acknowledgement of a certain language variety as more structurally advanced as compared to its other varieties. Linguistic protection is associated with preservation of some abstract, classical, conservative linguistic ideal and performs the regulatory function, above all. The puristic approach to the development of the English language has been subjected to heated debate for several centuries and is reflected in both scientific research and literary texts. Supporters of purification of the English language champion the idea of protection of “pure language”. The idea, however, is actively criticized by opponents.

  13. Dilation x-ray imager a new/faster gated x-ray imager for the NIF [DIXI (Dilation x-ray imager) a new/faster gated x-ray imager for the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Bell, P. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ayers, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barrios, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, R. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, O. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Chung, T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Piston, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Raman, K. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Hares, J. D. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)


    As the yield on implosion shots increases it is expected that the peak x-ray emission reduces to a duration with a FWHM as short as 20 ps for ~7 1018 neutron yield. However, the temporal resolution of currently used gated x-ray imagers on the NIF is 40-100 ps. We discuss the benefits of the higher temporal resolution for the NIF and present performance measurements for DIXI, which utilizes pulse-dilation technology [1] to achieve x-ray imaging with temporal gate times below 10 ps. Lastly, the measurements were conducted using the COMET laser, which is part of the Jupiter Laser Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  14. Britishness and Community Cohesion in Muslim News Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ZRIBA


    Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.

  15. Transport and deposition of cohesive pharmaceutical powders in human airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuan


    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical powders used in inhalation therapy are in the size range of 1-5 microns and are usually cohesive. Understanding the cohesive behaviour of pharmaceutical powders during their transportation in human airway is significant in optimising aerosol drug delivery and targeting. In this study, the transport and deposition of cohesive pharmaceutical powders in a human airway model is simulated by a well-established numerical model which combines computational fluid dynamics (CFD and discrete element method (DEM. The van der Waals force, as the dominant cohesive force, is simulated and its influence on particle transport and deposition behaviour is discussed. It is observed that even for dilute particle flow, the local particle concentration in the oral to trachea region can be high and particle aggregation happens due to the van der Waals force of attraction. It is concluded that the deposition mechanism for cohesive pharmaceutical powders, on one hand, is dominated by particle inertial impaction, as proven by previous studies; on the other hand, is significantly affected by particle aggregation induced by van der Waals force. To maximum respiratory drug delivery efficiency, efforts should be made to avoid pharmaceutical powder aggregation in human oral-to-trachea airway.

  16. Transport and deposition of cohesive pharmaceutical powders in human airway (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Chu, Kaiwei; Yu, Aibing


    Pharmaceutical powders used in inhalation therapy are in the size range of 1-5 microns and are usually cohesive. Understanding the cohesive behaviour of pharmaceutical powders during their transportation in human airway is significant in optimising aerosol drug delivery and targeting. In this study, the transport and deposition of cohesive pharmaceutical powders in a human airway model is simulated by a well-established numerical model which combines computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM). The van der Waals force, as the dominant cohesive force, is simulated and its influence on particle transport and deposition behaviour is discussed. It is observed that even for dilute particle flow, the local particle concentration in the oral to trachea region can be high and particle aggregation happens due to the van der Waals force of attraction. It is concluded that the deposition mechanism for cohesive pharmaceutical powders, on one hand, is dominated by particle inertial impaction, as proven by previous studies; on the other hand, is significantly affected by particle aggregation induced by van der Waals force. To maximum respiratory drug delivery efficiency, efforts should be made to avoid pharmaceutical powder aggregation in human oral-to-trachea airway.

  17. The Grammar of Linguistic Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per


    The paper presents a new typology of linguistic signs primarily based on Peirce’s sign conception. It is demonstrated that the fundamental simple sign, the symbolic nominal lexeme, has an arbitrary relationship to its object in order to make it omnipotent, that is, open to various possible...... objects (ensured by nouns) and situations (ensured by the verb)--the latter corresponding to Peirce's rhematic sign-- and in addition to the level of assertion--corresponding to Peirce's dicentic sign-- there is a third level at which verbal categories collaborate in order to make a deduction, abduction...... or induction-- corresponding to Peirce's argumentative signs....

  18. Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials. (United States)

    Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

    Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

  19. Measuring Linguistic Empathy: An Experimental Approach to Connecting Linguistic and Social Psychological Notions of Empathy (United States)

    Kann, Trevor


    This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…

  20. Pathways to age-friendly communities in diverse urban neighborhoods: Do social capital and social cohesion matter? (United States)

    Parekh, Rupal; Maleku, Arati; Fields, Noelle; Adorno, Gail; Schuman, Donna; Felderhoff, Brandi


    Using a social capital and social cohesion lens, we reposition the concept of civic engagement among older adults to examine pathways for building age-friendly communities. We analyzed data drawn from a Community-Based Participatory Research study in the Southern U.S. that explored lived experiences of older adults, age 55 and above, who participated in individual interviews (n = 15) and six focus group discussions (n = 45) to examine their perceptions of social identity, social connectedness, and civic engagement geared toward an age-friendly city. Findings indicated that several older adults had access to social networks and socially invested resources, thereby having opportunities for civic engagement and building age-friendly neighborhoods. However, social, cultural, linguistic, and structural barriers were more evident among certain diverse ethnic populations. Marginalized low-income minorities and immigrants, such as Hispanic participants, felt the lack of social cohesion among the larger society limited their ability to give back, thus decreasing their civic engagement activities. In contrast, Caucasian and African-American older adults were able to contribute to the political process through more civic participation activities. We provide implications for examining the role of social capital and social engagement to bolster civic engagement among older adults in building age-friendly communities.

  1. Cohesiveness in financial news and its relation to market volatility. (United States)

    Piškorec, Matija; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Novak, Petra Kralj; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha; Vodenska, Irena; Smuc, Tomislav


    Motivated by recent financial crises, significant research efforts have been put into studying contagion effects and herding behaviour in financial markets. Much less has been said regarding the influence of financial news on financial markets. We propose a novel measure of collective behaviour based on financial news on the Web, the News Cohesiveness Index (NCI), and we demonstrate that the index can be used as a financial market volatility indicator. We evaluate the NCI using financial documents from large Web news sources on a daily basis from October 2011 to July 2013 and analyse the interplay between financial markets and finance-related news. We hypothesise that strong cohesion in financial news reflects movements in the financial markets. Our results indicate that cohesiveness in financial news is highly correlated with and driven by volatility in financial markets.

  2. Cohesiveness in Financial News and its Relation to Market Volatility (United States)

    Piškorec, Matija; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Novak, Petra Kralj; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha; Vodenska, Irena; Šmuc, Tomislav


    Motivated by recent financial crises, significant research efforts have been put into studying contagion effects and herding behaviour in financial markets. Much less has been said regarding the influence of financial news on financial markets. We propose a novel measure of collective behaviour based on financial news on the Web, the News Cohesiveness Index (NCI), and we demonstrate that the index can be used as a financial market volatility indicator. We evaluate the NCI using financial documents from large Web news sources on a daily basis from October 2011 to July 2013 and analyse the interplay between financial markets and finance-related news. We hypothesise that strong cohesion in financial news reflects movements in the financial markets. Our results indicate that cohesiveness in financial news is highly correlated with and driven by volatility in financial markets. PMID:24849598

  3. The effect of biological cohesion on current ripple development (United States)

    Malarkey, Jonathan; Baas, Jaco H.; Hope, Julie


    Results are presented from laboratory experiments examining the role of biological cohesion, associated with Extra Polymeric Substances, on the development of current ripples. The results demonstrate the importance of biological cohesion compared to the effect of physical cohesion associated with clays in an otherwise sandy bed. FURTHER INFORMATION In fluvial and marine environments sediment transport is mainly dependent on the nature of the bed surface (rippled or flat) and the nature of cohesion in the bed. Cohesion can be either physical, as a result of the presence of clays, or biological as a result of the presence of organisms. In the case of the latter, biological cohesion occurs as a result of the presence of Extra Polymeric Substances (EPS) secreted by microorganisms. While it is known that EPS can dramatically increase the threshold of motion (Grant and Gust, 1987), comparatively little is known about the effect of EPS on ripple formation and development. The experiments described here seek to fill this gap. They also allow the effect of biological cohesion to be compared with that of physical cohesion from previous experiments (Baas et al., 2013). The experiments, which were conducted in a 10m flume at Bangor University, involved a current over a bed made of fine sand, with a median diameter of 0.148mm, and various amounts of xanthan gum, a proxy for naturally occurring EPS (Vardy et al., 2007). The hydrodynamic experimental conditions were matched very closely to those of Baas et al. (2013). The ripple dimensions were recorded through the glass side wall of the tank using time lapse photography. In the physical cohesion experiments of Baas et al. (2013) for clay contents up to 12%, the clay was very quickly winnowed out of the bed, leaving essentially clay-free ripples that developed at more or less the same rate as clean sand ripples. The resulting equilibrium ripples were essentially the same length as the clean sand ripples but reduced in height. By

  4. Elongational rheology and cohesive fracture of photo-oxidated LDPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H., E-mail:; Wagner, Manfred H. [Chair of Polymer Engineering/Polymer Physics, Berlin Institute of Technology (TU Berlin), Fasanenstrasse 90, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)


    It was found recently that low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samples with different degrees of photo-oxidation represent an interesting system to study the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture and the aspects of the cohesive rupture in elongational flow. Sheets of LDPE were subjected to photo-oxidation in the presence of air using a xenon lamp to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Characterisation methods included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solvent extraction method, and rheology in shear and uniaxial extensional flows. Linear viscoelasticity was increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by the carbonyl index, acid and aldehydes groups, and gel fraction. The molecular stress function model was used to quantify the experimental data, and the nonlinear model parameter β was found to be correlated with the gel content. The uniaxial data showed that the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture was shifted to lower elongational rates, the higher the gel content was. From 2 weeks photo-oxidation onwards, cohesive rupture occurred at every strain rate investigated. The true strain and true stress at cohesive fracture as well as the energy density applied to the sample up to fracture were analyzed. At low gel content, rupture was mainly determined by the melt fraction while at high gel content, rupture occurred predominantly in the gel structure. The strain at break was found to be independent of strain rate, contrary to the stress at break and the energy density. Thus, the true strain and not the stress at break or the energy density was found to be the relevant physical quantity to describe cohesive fracture behavior of photo-oxidated LDPE. The equilibrium modulus of the gel structures was correlated with the true strain at rupture. The stiffer the gel structure, the lower was the deformation tolerated before the sample breaks.

  5. Variation of Linguistic Form of News Titles of Indonesian National Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiqa Sabardila


    Full Text Available This descriptive-qualitative study aims at describing the linguistic form on news title. Related to data classification, this study uses segmenting immediate constituents technique. This technique is also utilized to separate the elements of the sentence function. The data is combined based on the similarities of their pattern and category. Furthermore, in order to classify the similarity of the meaning on the phrase or clause on title, this study provides the paraphrase and substitutes the constituent position of function in clause to recognize the arrangement. Moreover, in identifying the constituent of omitted clause, the technique is by inserting or expanding the structure of the title. The variation of the linguistic form is also based on whether or not the figurative language of the title appears. The news title is written by considering these several aspects: phonology, lexicon, grammatical, sentence modus, cohesion, and figurative language. Those aspects are intended to fulfill several functions, such as informing, influencing, preserving the social connection between the server and the receiver of the information or delivering the response about a phenomenon. Based on these several aspects, the characteristics of the linguistics of the titles give the practically ease of understanding for those who are learning to write the straight news discourse.

  6. Linguistic Feature Development Across Grades and Genre in Elementary Writing. (United States)

    Hall-Mills, Shannon; Apel, Kenn


    As children develop skills in writing across academic contexts, clinicians and educators need to have a fundamental understanding of typical writing development as well as valid and reliable assessment methods. The purpose of this study was to examine the progression of linguistic elements in school-age children's narrative and expository writing development. Narrative and expository writing samples produced by 89 children in Grades 2 through 4 were analyzed at the microstructure and macrostructure levels. Measures of receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, and reading comprehension were obtained. Exploratory factor analyses revealed 4 microstructure factors (e.g., productivity, grammatical complexity, grammatical accuracy, and lexical density) and 1 macrostructure factor (e.g., a combination of organization, text structure, and cohesion). Multivariate analyses of covariance with reading comprehension as a covariate showed that productivity and macrostructure were sensitive to grade-level and genre differences and that expository grammatical complexity was sensitive to grade-level differences. Findings are discussed in light of grade-level standards for narrative and expository writing and current practices in writing assessment. Multiple suggestions are offered for clinical and educational implications, and specific directions are provided for future research.

  7. Group cohesion in sports teams of different professional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazha M. Devishvili


    Full Text Available Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The paper also considered the phenomenon of the emergence of the aggregate subject in the process of joint activity. when the participants feel themselves as a whole and experience feelings of satisfaction and a surge of energy. Objective. The main objective of the work is to investigate the relationship between the level of team cohesion and subjective feelings of unity of its players. As additional variables in the study there is a sport (football and volleyball and team level (amateur and professional. To test the assumptions. two methods were used (the Sport Team Cohesion Questionnaire and the Subject Unity Index. which allow not only to determine the overall level of cohesion and unity. but also to reveal the structure of both phenomena. The study involved two men’s volleyball and two men’s football teams of different ages: 8-9 years (39 athletes; 12-14 years (24 athletes and 18-25 years (41 athletes. Design. For amateur groups represented by children’s and teenage sports teams. significant correlations between unity and unity were obtained (r = 0.618. p <0.01; r = 0.477. p <0.05. For professional teams. no significant correlations were found. Influence of the sport on cohesion is also different for amateur and professional teams. In the first case. the cohesion is higher for football players (U = 118. p <0.05. and in the second case for volleyball players (U = 124. p <0.05. Results. The findings indicate that the professional level of players affects group

  8. Group cohesion in sports teams of different professional level


    Vazha M. Devishvili; Marina O. Mdivani; Daria S. Elgina


    Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The pape...

  9. On the application of cohesive crack modeling in cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe


    typically for multi scale problems such as crack propagation in fiber reinforced composites. Mortar and concrete, however, are multi-scale materials and the question naturally arises, if bridged crack models in fact are more suitable for concrete and mortar as well? In trying to answer this question a model......Cohesive crack models-in particular the Fictitious Crack Model - are applied routinely in the analysis of crack propagation in concrete and mortar. Bridged crack models-where cohesive stresses are assumed to exist together with a stress singularity at the crack tip-on the other hand, are used...

  10. Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance (United States)

    Wyman, Leisy


    Detailing a decade of life and language use in a remote Alaskan Yup'ik community, Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance provides rare insight into young people's language brokering and Indigenous people's contemporary linguistic ecologies. This book examines how two consecutive groups of youth in a Yup'ik village…




  12. What can literature do for linguistics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina


      Through analyses of selected passages from James Joyce's Ulysses, this article demonstrates how the challenging of the boundaries between linguistics and literary studies can be more than a one-way process aimed at uncovering linguistic patterns of literary texts. The theoretical basis...

  13. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.


    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  14. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita


    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  15. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory (United States)

    McNamara, Tim


    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  16. Political Liberalism, Linguistic Diversity and Equal Treatment (United States)

    Bonotti, Matteo


    This article explores the implications of John Rawls' political liberalism for linguistic diversity and language policy, by focusing on the following question: what kind(s) of equality between speakers of different languages and with different linguistic identities should the state guarantee under political liberalism? The article makes three…

  17. Using the Linguistic Landscape to Bridge Languages (United States)

    Mari, Vanessa


    In this article Vanessa Mari describes how she uses the linguistic landscape to bridge two or more languages with students learning English. The linguistic landscape is defined by Landry and Bourhis (1997, 25) as "the language of public road signs, advertising billboards, street names, place names, commercial shop signs, and public signs on…

  18. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community. (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal


    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  19. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Publisher contact person: Mrs Christine Smit. Email: Phone: 021 808 2052. Fax: 021 808 2009. Mailing address: Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602. Department of General ...

  20. Are Prospective English Teachers Linguistically Intelligent? (United States)

    Tezel, Kadir Vefa


    Language is normally associated with linguistic capabilities of individuals. In the theory of multiple intelligences, language is considered to be related primarily to linguistic intelligence. Using the theory of Multiple Intelligences as its starting point, this descriptive survey study investigated to what extent prospective English teachers'…

  1. A General Overview of Motivation in Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In recent years, the term of motivation in linguistics study has aroused the interests of scholars. Different studies of mo -tivation have been produced by different scholars. In this paper, the writer organizes the recent studies on motivation in linguistics. the paper is divided into three parts, the introduction of the term motivation, different types of motivation, and theories of moti -vation.

  2. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at However print-on-demand copies can be made ...

  3. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria


    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  4. Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for pursuing their work. The theme of this year’s TKE is ‘Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data’. Mono- and multi-lingual term bases, which contain information about concepts (terms, definitions, examples of use, references, comments on equivalence etc.), have always made up valuable linguistic resources...

  5. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry


    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  6. Applied Linguistics in Its Disciplinary Context (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.


    Australia's current attempt to develop a process to evaluate the quality of research (Excellence in Research for Australia--ERA) places a central emphasis on the disciplinary organisation of academic work. This disciplinary focus poses particular problems for Applied Linguistics in Australia. This paper will examine Applied Linguistics in relation…

  7. Plenary Speeches: Applied Linguists without Borders (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine


    Until 1989, the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) could have been viewed as an interest group of the Linguistics Society of America (LSA); AAAL met in two designated meeting rooms as a subsection of the LSA conference. In 1991, I was asked to organize the first independent meeting of AAAL in New York City, with the help of…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Miguel Leo Marcos


    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships among cohesion, self-efficacy, coaches' perceptions of their players' efficacy at the individual level and athletes' perceptions of their teammates' efficacy. Participants (n = 76 recruited from four semi- professional soccer and basketball teams completed cohesiveness and efficacy questionnaires who. Data were analyzed through a correlational methodology. Results indicated significant correlations between self-efficacy and task cohesion and social cohesion. Regression analysis results suggest task cohesion positively related to coaches and teammate´s perception of efficacy. These results have implications for practitioners in terms of the importance of team building to enhance team cohesion and feelings of efficacy

  9. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)


    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  10. Clinical linguistics: its past, present and future. (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R


    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the results of a survey of articles published in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics between 1987 and 2008 which shows, for example, a consistent primary focus on phonetics and phonology at the expense of grammar, semantics and pragmatics. I also trace the gradual broadening of the discipline from its roots in structural linguistics to its current reciprocal relationship with speech and language pathology and a range of other academic disciplines. Finally, I consider the scope of clinical linguistic research in 2011 and assess how the discipline seems likely develop in the future.

  11. Lancaster Summer School in Corpus Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Čibej


    Full Text Available Med 12. in 15. julijem je na Univerzi v Lancastru potekala poletna šola korpusnega jezikoslovja Lancaster Summer Schools in Corpus Linguistics and Other Digital Methods. Poletno šolo so organizirali UCREL (University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, ERC (Evropski svet za raziskave – European Research Council, CASS (ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science in ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council, razdeljena pa je bila na šest programov, prilagojenih različnim področjem: Korpusno jezikoslovje za proučevanje jezikov (Corpus Linguistics for Language Studies, Korpusno jezikoslovje za družbene vede (Corpus Linguistics for Social Science, Korpusno jezikoslovje za humanistiko (Corpus Linguistics for Humanities, Statistika za korpusno jezikoslovje (Statistics for Corpus Linguistics, Geografski informacijski sistemi za digitalno humanistiko (Geographical Information Systems for the Digital Humanities in Korpusno podprta obdelava naravnih jezikov (Corpus-based Natural Language Processing.

  12. How Linguistic Metaphor Scaffolds Reasoning. (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Hendricks, Rose K; Boroditsky, Lera


    Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are 'light bulbs', crime is a 'virus', and cancer is an 'enemy' in a 'war'. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior. Then we explore the conditions under which metaphors are most influential. Throughout, we highlight theoretical and practical implications, as well as key challenges and opportunities for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W.


    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  14. Long Fibre Composite Modelling Using Cohesive User's Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Vladislav; Chlup, Zdenek


    The development glass matrix composites reinforced by unidirectional long ceramic fibre has resulted in a family of very perspective structural materials. The only disadvantage of such materials is relatively high brittleness at room temperature. The main micromechanisms acting as toughening mechanism are the pull out, crack bridging, matrix cracking. There are other mechanisms as crack deflection etc. but the primer mechanism is mentioned pull out which is governed by interface between fibre and matrix. The contribution shows a way how to predict and/or optimise mechanical behaviour of composite by application of cohesive zone method and write user's cohesive element into the FEM numerical package Abaqus. The presented results from numerical calculations are compared with experimental data. Crack extension is simulated by means of element extinction algorithms. The principal effort is concentrated on the application of the cohesive zone model with the special traction separation (bridging) law and on the cohesive zone modelling. Determination of micro-mechanical parameters is based on the combination of static tests, microscopic observations and numerical calibration procedures.

  15. Coach-Initiated Motivational Climate and Cohesion in Youth Sport (United States)

    Eys, Mark A.; Jewitt, Eryn; Evans, M. Blair; Wolf, Svenja; Bruner, Mark W.; Loughead, Todd M.


    Purpose: The general purpose of the present study was to examine the link between cohesion and motivational climate in youth sport. The first specific objective was to determine if relationships demonstrated in previous research with adult basketball and handball participants would be replicated in a younger sample and with a more heterogeneous…

  16. Examining the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Group Cohesion (United States)

    Moore, Amanda; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan


    Collaborative learning experiences increase student learning, but what happens when students fail to collaborate? The authors investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and group cohesion by studying 44 undergraduate teams who were completing semester-long projects in their business classes at a small private university in the…

  17. Fear, crime, and social cohesion in urban South Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Dec 13, 2016 ... Social cohesion” broadly refers to the factors that hold a society ... published in March 2016, explores the role of social cohesion and ... Learn more about IDRC's research support to make cities safer through the Safe and Inclusive Cities partnership with the UK's Department for International Development.

  18. Isotropic compression of cohesive-frictional particles with rolling resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, Stefan; Benz, Thomas; Nordal, Steinar


    Cohesive-frictional and rough powders are the subject of this study. The behavior under isotropic compression is examined for different material properties involving Coulomb friction, rolling-resistance and contact-adhesion. Under isotropic compression, the density continuously increases according

  19. ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Stavarache, Lucia Larise; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; McNamara, Danielle S.; Bianco, Maryse


    Dascalu, M., Stavarache, L.L., Dessus, P., Trausan-Matu, S., McNamara, D.S., & Bianco, M. (2015). ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework. In G. Conole, T. Klobucar, C. Rensing, J. Konert & É. Lavoué (Eds.), 10th European Conf. on Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 505–508). Toledo,

  20. Teacher Governance Factors and Social Cohesion: Insights from Pakistan (United States)

    Halai, Anjum; Durrani, Naureen


    This paper explores teacher governance factors, particularly recruitment and deployment of teachers, in relation to inequalities and social cohesion. Pakistan introduced major reforms in education in the post 9/11 context of escalating conflict. These include a merit and needs-based policy on teacher recruitment to eliminate corruption in…

  1. Cohesion and coordination effects on transition metal surface energies (United States)

    Ruvireta, Judit; Vega, Lorena; Viñes, Francesc


    Here we explore the accuracy of Stefan equation and broken-bond model semiempirical approaches to obtain surface energies on transition metals. Cohesive factors are accounted for either via the vaporization enthalpies, as proposed in Stefan equation, or via cohesive energies, as employed in the broken-bond model. Coordination effects are considered including the saturation degree, as suggested in Stefan equation, employing Coordination Numbers (CN), or as the ratio of broken bonds, according to the bond-cutting model, considering as well the square root dependency of the bond strength on CN. Further, generalized coordination numbers CN bar are contemplated as well, exploring a total number of 12 semiempirical formulations on the three most densely packed surfaces of 3d, 4d, and 5d Transition Metals (TMs) displaying face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystallographic structures. Estimates are compared to available experimental surface energies obtained extrapolated to zero temperature. Results reveal that Stefan formula cohesive and coordination dependencies are only qualitative suited, but unadvised for quantitative discussion, as surface energies are highly overestimated, favoring in addition the stability of under-coordinated surfaces. Broken-bond cohesion and coordination dependencies are a suited basis for quantitative comparison, where square-root dependencies on CN to account for bond weakening are sensibly worse. An analysis using Wulff shaped averaged surface energies suggests the employment of broken-bond model using CN to gain surface energies for TMs, likely applicable to other metals.

  2. An enriched cohesive zone model for delamination in brittle interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samimi, M.; Dommelen, van J.A.W.; Geers, M.G.D.


    Application of standard cohesive zone models in a finite element framework to simulate delamination in brittle interfaces may trigger non-smooth load-displacement responses that lead to the failure of iterative solution procedures. This non-smoothness is an artifact of the discretization; and hence

  3. Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of parametric study are compared with those of Smith and Teng. They confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach in predicting both interfacial shear and normal stresses. Keywords. Strengthened beam; interfacial stresses; cohesive zone; shear deformation. 1. Introduction. The FRP plates can be either ...

  4. The Impact of Cooperative Video Games on Team Cohesion (United States)

    Anderson, Greg


    In today's economy, productivity and efficiency require collaboration between employees. In order to improve collaboration the factors affecting teamwork must be examined to identify where changes can be made in order to increase performance. One factor contributing to teamwork is team cohesion and represents a process whereby members are joined…

  5. Cohesive zone modelling and the fracture process of structural tape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigh, Ulf; Biel, Anders; Svensson, Daniel


    and the separation is measured experimentally using methods based on the path independence of the J-integral. Repeated experiments are performed at quasi-static loading. A mixed mode cohesive law is adapted to the experimental data. The law is implemented as a UMAT in Abaqus. Simulations show minor thermal...

  6. Explaining Couple Cohesion in Different Types of Gay Families (United States)

    van Eeden-Moorefield, Brad; Pasley, Kay; Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret; King, Erin


    This Internet-based study used data from a convenience sample of 176 gay men in current partnerships to examine differences in outness, cohesion, and relationship quality between three types of gay male couples: first cohabiting partnerships, repartnerships, and gay stepfamilies. Also, we tested whether relationship quality mediated the link…

  7. Meiotic sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in two filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, van D.


    Homologous recombination and sister chromatid cohesion play important roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Within the living cell, the integrity of the DNA is threatened by various factors that cause DNA-lesions, of

  8. Visibility and anonymity effects on attraction and group cohesiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, Martin; Spears, Russell; Watt, Susan E.


    This study investigated attraction and group cohesiveness under different visibility and anonymity conditions for social categories that differed in their capacity to be visually cued. Using computer-mediated communication in 36 mixed gender (visually cued category) and nationality (non-visually

  9. Facilitating or hindering social cohesion? The impact of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, we show in this article that that the impact of the CWP is not always positive and that the CWP may in some cases result in tensions and contradictions that hinder social cohesion and even cause violence. If not implemented in a consultative participatory manner, the CWP may be a source of conflict rather than of ...

  10. Grain-resolving simulations of settling cohesive sediment (United States)

    Vowinckel, Bernhard; Whithers, Jade; Meiburg, Eckart; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo


    Cohesive sediment is ubiquitous in natural environments such as rivers, lakes and coastal ecosystems. For this type of sediment, we can no longer ignore the short-range attractive forces that result in flocculation of aggregates much larger than the individual grain size. Hence, understanding the complex dynamics of the interplay between flocculated sediment and the ambient fluid is of prime interest for managing aquatic environments, although a comprehensive understanding of these phenomena is still lacking. In the present study, we address this issue by carrying out grain-resolved simulations of cohesive particles settling under gravity using the Immersed Boundary Method. We present a computational model formulation to accurately resolve the process of flocculation. The cohesive model is then applied to a complex test case. A randomly distributed ensemble of 1261 polydisperse particles is released in a tank of quiescent fluid. Subsequently, particles start to settle, thereby replacing fluid at the bottom of the tank, which induces a counter flow opposing the settling direction. This mechanism will be compared to experimental studies from the literature, as well as to the non-cohesive counterpart to assessthe impact of flocculation on sedimentation.

  11. Working with Group-Tasks and Group Cohesiveness (United States)

    Anwar, Khoirul


    This study aimed at exploring the connection between the use of group task and group cohesiveness. This study is very important because the nature of the learner's success is largely determined by the values of cooperation, interaction, and understanding of the learning objectives together. Subjects of this study are 28 students on the course…

  12. Cohesive Errors in Writing among ESL Pre-Service Teachers (United States)

    Kwan, Lisa S. L.; Yunus, Melor Md


    Writing is a complex skill and one of the most difficult to master. A teacher's weak writing skills may negatively influence their students. Therefore, reinforcing teacher education by first determining pre-service teachers' writing weaknesses is imperative. This mixed-methods error analysis study aims to examine the cohesive errors in the writing…

  13. Family Cohesion, Adaptability and Composition in Adolescents from Callao, Peru (United States)

    Villarreal-Zegarra, David; Paz-Jesús, Angel


    The objective of the study was to analyze if there are significant differences between family cohesion and adaptability according to the type of family composition (nuclear, extended, single parent and non-nuclear). This is a non-experimental and empirical research, in which a non-probabilistic, cross-sectional, selective and associative strategy…

  14. Writing Cohesion Using Content Lexical Ties in ESOL. (United States)

    Liu, Dilin


    Describes a series of exercises that have proved useful in helping students learning English to enhance their writing skills, particularly cohesion in their writing. Exercises enabled students to learn words in context or in relation to one another as synonyms, antonyms, superordinates, or hyponyms, and a better understanding of these words…

  15. Social cohesion, sexuality, homophobia and women's sport in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... secondly, that the success of national teams and athletes promotes national pride and unity. ... We explore these issues by drawing on media reports of cases in which ... To realise the potential of sport as a tool for building social cohesion, ...

  16. Cohesion and device reliability in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali


    The fracture resistance of P3HT:PC 60BM-based photovoltaic devices are characterized using quantitative adhesion and cohesion metrologies that allow identification of the weakest layer or interface in the device structure. We demonstrate that the phase separated bulk heterojunction layer is the weakest layer and report quantitative cohesion values which ranged from ∼1 to 20 J m -2. The effects of layer thickness, composition, and annealing treatments on layer cohesion are investigated. Using depth profiling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the resulting fracture surfaces, we examine the gradient of molecular components through the thickness of the bulk heterojunction layer. Finally, using atomic force microscopy we show how the topography of the failure path is related to buckling of the metal electrode and how it develops with annealing. The research provides new insights on how the molecular design, structure and composition affect the cohesive properties of organic photovoltaics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Botswana team sport players' perception of cohesion and imagery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception of cohesion and imagery use among 45 elite team sport players in Botswana were assessed with the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron et al., 1985) and the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall et al., 1998) to determine whether a relationship exists between the variables, and whether imagery use will ...

  18. Leadership, Cohesion, and Team Norms Regarding Cheating and Aggression. (United States)

    Shields, David Lyle Light; And Others


    Study explored leadership, cohesion, and demographic variables in relation to team norms about cheating and aggression. Surveys of high school and college ball players indicated that older age, higher year in school, and more years playing ball correlated positively with expectations of peer cheating and aggression. (SM)

  19. The Relationship between Task Cohesion and Competitive State Anxiety. (United States)

    Eys, Mark A.; Hardy, James; Carron, Albert V.; Beauchamp, Mark R.


    Examined the association between athlete perceptions of task cohesiveness (Individual Attractions to the Group-Task and Group Integration-Task) and the degree to which they viewed their perceptions of the presence of pre-competition anxiety symptoms as facilitative or debilitative. Survey data indicated that the more positive their perceptions of…

  20. A cohesive finite element formulation for modelling fracture and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cohesive elements experience material softening and lose their stress carrying capacity. A few simple ..... In the present work, a Lagrangian finite element procedure is employed. In this formu clation ...... o, is related to 'c o by,. 't o='c o ¼ 1 ہ. 1.

  1. Sense of Cohesion among Community Activists Engaging in Volunteer Activity (United States)

    Levy, Drorit; Itzhaky, Haya; Zanbar, Lea; Schwartz, Chaya


    The present article attempts to shed light on the direct and indirect contribution of personal resources and community indices to Sense of Cohesion among activists engaging in community volunteer work. The sample comprised 481 activists. Based on social systems theory, three levels of variables were examined: (1) inputs, which included personal…

  2. Family Cohesion and Level of Communication Between Parents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the level of communication between parents and their adolescent children and how such communication affects family cohesion. A sample of 200 subjects made up of adolescents and parents were selected through cluster, stratified and random sampling techniques from ten Local Government Areas ...

  3. Cohesion, Flexibility, and the Mediating Effects of Shared Visionand Compassionon Engagement Army Acquisition Teams (United States)


    issues such as social desirability, negative affect, and acquiescence (Spector, 2006) in the analysis of final model. To test for multicollinearity ...emotional cohesion, cognitive cohesion, and flexibility) are independent with no multicollinearity issues. Development and test of structural

  4. An examination of the relationship between athlete leadership and cohesion using social network analysis. (United States)

    Loughead, Todd M; Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Hoffmann, Matt D; De Cuyper, Bert; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Boen, Filip


    Two studies investigated the structure of different athlete leadership networks and its relationship to cohesion using social network analysis. In Study 1, we examined the relationship between a general leadership quality network and task and social cohesion as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). In Study 2, we investigated the leadership networks for four different athlete leadership roles (task, motivational, social and external) and their association with task and social cohesion networks. In Study 1, the results demonstrated that the general leadership quality network was positively related to task and social cohesion. The results from Study 2 indicated positive correlations between the four leadership networks and task and social cohesion networks. Further, the motivational leadership network emerged as the strongest predictor of the task cohesion network, while the social leadership network was the strongest predictor of the social cohesion network. The results complement a growing body of research indicating that athlete leadership has a positive association with cohesion.

  5. Cohesive zone modeling of intergranular cracking in polycrystalline aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovski, Igor; Cizelj, Leon


    Highlights: • Alternative approach to cohesive elements is proposed: cohesive-zone contact. • Applicability to measured and simulated grain structures is demonstrated. • Normal and normal/shear separation as a damage initialization is explored. • Normal/shear damage initialization significantly reduces ductility. • Little difference in Voronoi aggregate size on macroscopic response. - Abstract: Understanding and controlling early damage initiation and evolution are amongst the most important challenges in nuclear power plants, occurring in ferritic, austenitic steels and nickel based alloys. In this work a meso-scale approach to modeling initiation and evolution of early intergranular cracking is presented. This damage mechanism is present in a number of nuclear power plant components and depends on the material (e.g. composition, heat treatment, microstructure), environment and load. Finite element modeling is used to explicitly model the microstructure – both the grains and the grain boundaries. Spatial Voronoi tessellation is used to obtain the grain topology. In addition, measured topology of a 0.4 mm stainless steel wire is used. Anisotropic elasticity and crystal plasticity are used as constitutive laws for the grains. Grain boundaries are modeled using the cohesive zone approach. Different modeling assumptions/parameters are evaluated against the numerical stability criteria. The biggest positive contribution to numerical stability is the use of cohesive-type contact instead of cohesive elements. A small amount of viscous regularization should be also used along with the addition of a small amount of viscous forces to the global equilibrium equations. Two cases of grain boundary damage initiation are explored: (1) initiation due to normal separation and (2) initiation due to a combination of normal and shear separation. The second criterion significantly decreases the ductility of an aggregate and slightly improves the numerical stability

  6. The Effects Of Physical And Biological Cohesion On Bedforms (United States)

    Parsons, D. R.; Schindler, R.; Baas, J.; Hope, J. A.; Malarkey, J.; Paterson, D. M.; Peakall, J.; Manning, A. J.; Ye, L.; Aspden, R.; Alan, D.; Bass, S. J.


    Most coastal sediments consist of complex mixtures of cohesionless sands, physically-cohesive clays and extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS) that impart biological cohesion. Yet, our ability to predict bedform dimensions in these substrates is reliant on predictions based exclusively on cohesionless sand. We present findings from the COHBED project - which explicitly examines how bedform dynamics are modified by natural cohesion. Our experimental results show that for ripples, height and length are inversely proportional to initial clay content and bedforms take longer to appear, with no ripples when clay content exceeds 18%. When clay is replaced by EPS the development time and time of first appearance of ripples both increase by two orders of magnitude, with no bedforms above 0.125% EPS. For dunes, height and length are also inversely proportional to initial substrate clay content, resulting in a transition from dunes to ripples normally associated with velocity decreases. Addition of low EPS concentrations into the substrate results in yet smaller bedforms at the same clay contents and at high EPS concentrations, biological cohesion supersedes all electrostatic bonding, and bedform size is no longer related to mud content. The contrast in physical and biological cohesion effects on bedform development result from the disparity between inter-particle electrostatic bonding of clay particles and EPS grain coating and strands that physically link sediments together, which effects winnowing rates as bedforms evolve. These findings have wide ranging implications for bedform predictions in both modern and ancient environments. Coupling of biological and morphological processes not only requires an understanding of how bedform dimensions influence biota and habitat, but also how benthic species can modify bedform dimensions. Consideration of both aspects provides a means in which fluid dynamics, sediment transport and ecosystem energetics can be linked to yield

  7. Measuring the diffusion of linguistic change. (United States)

    Nerbonne, John


    We examine situations in which linguistic changes have probably been propagated via normal contact as opposed to via conquest, recent settlement and large-scale migration. We proceed then from two simplifying assumptions: first, that all linguistic variation is the result of either diffusion or independent innovation, and, second, that we may operationalize social contact as geographical distance. It is clear that both of these assumptions are imperfect, but they allow us to examine diffusion via the distribution of linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. Several studies in quantitative linguistics have examined this relation, starting with Séguy (Séguy 1971 Rev. Linguist. Romane 35, 335-357), and virtually all report a sublinear growth in aggregate linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. The literature from dialectology and historical linguistics has mostly traced the diffusion of individual features, however, so that it is sensible to ask what sort of dynamic in the diffusion of individual features is compatible with Séguy's curve. We examine some simulations of diffusion in an effort to shed light on this question.

  8. Applied linguistics - a science of culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benke, Gertraud


    Full Text Available In this article, the status of applied linguistics as discipline is questioned and problems of establishing it - and other newly formed scientific enterprises like cultural science - as disciplines are discussed. This discussion is contextualized using the author's own experience as applied linguist working in (the institutional structure of Austria. Secondly, applied linguistics is presented as complementing cultural science, with both exploring at times the same phenomena albeit under different perspectives and focussing on different levels of experience. Two examples of research involving such a joint interest with different foci are discussed.

  9. Educational Linguistics and College English Syllabus Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ji-xin


    The direct application of linguistic theories to syllabus design gives rise to frequent change of syllabus type in the histo-ry of syllabus development, which makes language teachers feel difficult to adapt to, to adopt and to implement. The recognition and popularization of the new-born discipline educational linguistics servers as a method to ease the situation, especially in the college English syllabus design in China. The development and application of the fruitful achievements in educational linguis-tics is bound to provide us with a more scientific approach to syllabus design in the future.

  10. Linguistic fire and human cognitive powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen


    To view language as a cultural tool challenges much of what claims to be linguistic science while opening up a new people-centred linguistics. On this view, how we speak, think and act depends on, not just brains (or minds), but also cultural traditions. Yet, Everett is conservative: like others...... theory, bodily dynamics themselves act as cues to meaning. Linguistic exostructures resemble tools that constrain how people concert acting-perceiving bodies. The result is unending renewal of verbal structures: like artefacts and institutions, they function to sustain a species-specific cultural ecology...

  11. Collective Variables in Apphed Linguistics Research


    ヘンスリー, ジョール; HENSLEY, Joel


    This paper focuses on the key dynamic(al)systems theory concept of collective variables as it relates to developmental research in applied linguistics. Dynamic(al) systems theory is becoming prevalent in linguistic research and in the past two decades has jumped to the forefront of cutting edge in the field. One key concept in dynamic(al) systems theory is that of collective variables. In order to help properly orient this concept in the field of applied linguistics, this paper discusses the ...

  12. Estimating cohesion in small groups using audio-visual nonverbal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Gatica-Perez, D.


    Cohesiveness in teams is an essential part of ensuring the smooth running of task-oriented groups. Research in social psychology and management has shown that good cohesion in groups can be correlated with team effectiveness or productivity, so automatically estimating group cohesion for team

  13. Psychobiological Assessment and Enhancement of Team Cohesion and Psychological Resilience in ROTC Cadets Using a Virtual-Reality Team Cohesion Test (United States)


    Using a Virtual - Reality Team Cohesion Test PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Josh Woolley MD/PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: NORTHERN CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE SAN...Team Cohesion and Psychological Resilience in ROTC Cadets Using a Virtual - Reality Team Cohesion Test 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0042 5c. PROGRAM...targets while flying a virtual air vehicle. No individual has access to all the necessary information or controls, so operating as a team is crucial

  14. Circular Interaction Between Linguistic Departments And Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Linguistik und Didaktik (Linguistics and Didactics) (United States)

    Mollay, Karl


    Briefly summarizes the papers presented at the 10th annual convention of the German Language Institute in Mannheim. The relationship between linguistic research and its applicability in the area of language instruction is discussed. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  16. Glossematik und Linguistik (Glossematics and Linguistics) (United States)

    Hoger, Alfons


    Provides a short summary on the background, current development and future perspectives of the glossematic theory of language and linguistics, as developed by Hjelmslev and those associated with him (Loosely called "the Danish school"). (Text is in German.) (DS)

  17. Zweiter Linguistischer Orientierungskurs (Second Linguistic Orientation Course) (United States)

    Gosewitz, Uta; Wiegand, Herbert Ernst


    Report on the Second Linguistic Orientation Course sponsored by the Institut fur deutsche Sprache (Institute for the German Language) and funded by the Volkswagen Foundation; held at Mannheim, West Germany, February 21-March 3, 1972. (RS)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methods, the cognitive code method and the cognitive anti-method, emerged, both drawing on .... sciences; he must have some knowledge of linguistics. ... much as the nature of the organising power that is capable of handling such data.

  19. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R


    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  20. Design and Practice: Enacting Functional Linguistics. (United States)

    Martin, James R.


    Draws on experience with a transdisciplinary literacy project in writing development at the secondary level to address the sub-field of "writing-literacy," writing as a linguist working across an applied versus theoretical frontier. (Author/VWL)

  1. A New Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic TOPSIS Method for Group Multi-Criteria Linguistic Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangling Ren


    Full Text Available Hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision making is a focus point in linguistic decision making, in which the main method is based on preference ordering. This paper develops a new hesitant fuzzy linguistic TOPSIS method for group multi-criteria linguistic decision making; the method is inspired by the TOPSIS method and the preference degree between two hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTSs. To this end, we first use the preference degree to define a pseudo-distance between two HFLTSs and analyze its properties. Then we present the positive (optimistic and negative (pessimistic information of each criterion provided by each decision maker and aggregate these by using weights of decision makers to obtain the hesitant fuzzy linguistic positive and negative ideal solutions. On the basis of the proposed pseudo-distance, we finally obtain the positive (negative ideal separation matrix and a new relative closeness degree to rank alternatives. We also design an algorithm based on the provided method to carry out hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision making. An illustrative example shows the elaboration of the proposed method and comparison with the symbolic aggregation-based method, the hesitant fuzzy linguistic TOPSIS method and the hesitant fuzzy linguistic VIKOR method; it seems that the proposed method is a useful and alternative decision-making method.

  2. The Unbalanced Linguistic Aggregation Operator in Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zou


    Full Text Available Many linguistic aggregation methods have been proposed and applied in the linguistic decision-making problems. In practice, experts need to assess a number of values in a side of reference domain higher than in the other one; that is, experts use unbalanced linguistic values to express their evaluation for problems. In this paper, we propose a new linguistic aggregation operator to deal with unbalanced linguistic values in group decision making, we adopt 2-tuple representation model of linguistic values and linguistic hierarchies to express unbalanced linguistic values, and moreover, we present the unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted geometric operator to aggregate unbalanced linguistic evaluation values; a comparison example is given to show the advantage of our method.

  3. Ling An: Linguistic analysis of NPP instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L. (Helsingfors Univ., Institutionen foer allmaen spraakvetenskap (Finland)); Wahlstroem, B. (VTT (Finland))


    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  4. A Python Library for Historical Comparative Linguistics


    Moran , Steven; List , Johann-Mattis


    Awarded best paper award; International audience; In this talk we will discuss a European Research Council funded collaborative effort to build a Python library for undertaking academic research in historical-comparative linguistics. Our aim of implementing quantitative methods, specifically in Python, is to transform historical-comparative linguistics from a primarily handcrafted scientific scholarly endeavor, performed by individual researchers, into a quantitative and collaborative field o...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L.; Wahlstroem, B.


    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  6. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylyuk Illya


    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  7. Legal Linguistics as a Mutual Arena for Cooperation: Recent Developments in the Field of Applied Linguistics and Law (United States)

    Engberg, Jan


    This article reports on some of the recent projects and individual works in the field of Legal Linguistics as examples of cooperation between Applied Linguistics and law. The article starts by discussing relevant prototypical concepts of Legal Linguistics. Legal Linguistics scrutinizes interactions between human beings in the framework of legal…

  8. Derivation of Path Independent Coupled Mix Mode Cohesive Laws from Fracture Resistance Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios


    A generalised approach is presented to derive coupled mixed mode cohesive laws described with physical parameters such as peak traction, critical opening, fracture energy and cohesive shape. The approach is based on deriving mix mode fracture resistance curves from an effective mix mode cohesive...... law at different mode mixities. From the fracture resistance curves, the normal and shear stresses of the cohesive laws can be obtained by differentiation. Since, the mixed mode cohesive laws are obtained from a fracture resistance curve (potential function), path independence is automatically...

  9. A consistent partly cracked XFEM element for cohesive crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Jesper L.; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Nielsen, Leif Otto


    Present extended finite element method (XFEM) elements for cohesive crack growth may often not be able to model equal stresses on both sides of the discontinuity when acting as a crack-tip element. The authors have developed a new partly cracked XFEM element for cohesive crack growth with extra...... enrichments to the cracked elements. The extra enrichments are element side local and were developed by superposition of the standard nodal shape functions for the element and standard nodal shape functions for a sub-triangle of the cracked element. With the extra enrichments, the crack-tip element becomes...... capable of modelling variations in the discontinuous displacement field on both sides of the crack and hence also capable of modelling the case where equal stresses are present on each side of the crack. The enrichment was implemented for the 3-node constant strain triangle (CST) and a standard algorithm...

  10. Numerical simulation of particle settling and cohesion in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johno, Y; Nakashima, K; Shigematsu, T; Ono, B [SASEBO National College of Technology, 1-1 Okishin, Sasebo, Nagasaki, 857-1193 (Japan); Satomi, M, E-mail: [Sony Semiconductor Kyushu Corporation, Kikuchigun, Kumamoto (Japan)


    In this study, the motions of particles and particle clusters in liquid were numerically simulated. The particles of two sizes (Dp=40mum and 20mum) settle while repeating cohesion and dispersion, and finally the sediment of particles are formed at the bottom of a hexahedron container which is filled up with pure water. The flow field was solved with the Navier-Stokes equations and the particle motions were solved with the Lagrangian-type motion equations, where the interaction between fluid and particles due to drag forces were taken into account. The collision among particles was calculated using Distinct Element Method (DEM), and the effects of cohesive forces by van der Waals force acting on particle contact points were taken into account. Numerical simulations were performed under conditions in still flow and in shear flow. It was found that the simulation results enable us to know the state of the particle settling and the particle condensation.

  11. A cohesive zone framework for environmentally assisted fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Busto, Susana; Betegón, Covadonga; Martínez Pañeda, Emilio


    We present a compelling finite element framework to model hydrogen assisted fatigue by means of a hydrogen- and cycle-dependent cohesive zone formulation. The model builds upon: (i) appropriate environmental boundary conditions, (ii) a coupled mechanical and hydrogen diffusion response, driven...... by chemical potential gradients, (iii) a mechanical behavior characterized by finite deformation J2 plasticity, (iv) a phenomenological trapping model, (v) an irreversible cohesive zone formulation for fatigue, grounded on continuum damage mechanics, and (vi) a traction-separation law dependent on hydrogen...... coverage calculated from first principles. The computations show that the present scheme appropriately captures the main experimental trends; namely, the sensitivity of fatigue crack growth rates to the loading frequency and the environment. The role of yield strength, work hardening, and constraint...

  12. Grain boundary embrittlement and cohesion enhancement in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Anthony; Lozovoi, Alexander [Atomistic Simulation Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Schweinfest, Rainer [Science+Computing ag, Hagellocher Weg 71-5, 720270 T ubingen (Germany); Finnis, Michael [Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    There has been a long standing debate surrounding the mechanism of grain boundary embrittlement and cohesion enhancement in metals. Embrittlement can lead to catastrophic failure such as happened in the Hinkley Point disaster, or indeed in the case of the Titanic. This kind of embrittlement is caused by segregation of low solubility impurities to grain boundaries. While the accepted wisdom is that this is a phenomenon driven by electronic or chemical factors, using language such as charge transfer and electronegativity difference; we believe that in copper, at least, both cohesion enhancement and reduction are caused by a simple size effect. We have developed a theory that allows us to separate unambiguously, if not uniquely, chemical and structural factors. We have studied a large number of solutes in copper using first principles atomistic simulation to support this argument, and the results of these calculations are presented here.

  13. Cohesive fracture model for functionally graded fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoungsoo; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Roesler, Jeffery


    A simple, effective, and practical constitutive model for cohesive fracture of fiber reinforced concrete is proposed by differentiating the aggregate bridging zone and the fiber bridging zone. The aggregate bridging zone is related to the total fracture energy of plain concrete, while the fiber bridging zone is associated with the difference between the total fracture energy of fiber reinforced concrete and the total fracture energy of plain concrete. The cohesive fracture model is defined by experimental fracture parameters, which are obtained through three-point bending and split tensile tests. As expected, the model describes fracture behavior of plain concrete beams. In addition, it predicts the fracture behavior of either fiber reinforced concrete beams or a combination of plain and fiber reinforced concrete functionally layered in a single beam specimen. The validated model is also applied to investigate continuously, functionally graded fiber reinforced concrete composites.

  14. The limits of social capital: Durkheim, suicide, and social cohesion. (United States)

    Kushner, Howard I; Sterk, Claire E


    Recent applications of social capital theories to population health often draw on classic sociological theories for validation of the protective features of social cohesion and social integration. Durkheim's work on suicide has been cited as evidence that modern life disrupts social cohesion and results in a greater risk of morbidity and mortality-including self-destructive behaviors and suicide. We argue that a close reading of Durkheim's evidence supports the opposite conclusion and that the incidence of self-destructive behaviors such as suicide is often greatest among those with high levels of social integration. A reexamination of Durkheim's data on female suicide and suicide in the military suggests that we should be skeptical about recent studies connecting improved population health to social capital.

  15. Erosion of cohesive soil layers above underground conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luu Li-Hua


    Full Text Available Using a recently developed 2D numerical modelling that combines Discrete Element (DEM and Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM, we simulate the destabilisation by an hydraulic gradient of a cohesive granular soil clogging the top of an underground conduit. We aim to perform a multi-scale study that relates the grain scale behavior to the macroscopic erosion process. In particular, we study the influence of the flow conditions and the inter-particle contact forces intensity on the erosion kinetic.

  16. Erosion of cohesive soil layers above underground conduits (United States)

    Luu, Li-Hua; Philippe, Pierre; Noury, Gildas; Perrin, Jérôme; Brivois, Olivier


    Using a recently developed 2D numerical modelling that combines Discrete Element (DEM) and Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM), we simulate the destabilisation by an hydraulic gradient of a cohesive granular soil clogging the top of an underground conduit. We aim to perform a multi-scale study that relates the grain scale behavior to the macroscopic erosion process. In particular, we study the influence of the flow conditions and the inter-particle contact forces intensity on the erosion kinetic.

  17. Social cohesion and civil law: marriage, divorce and religious courts


    Douglas, Gillian; Doe, Christopher Norman; Gilliat-Ray, Sophie; Sandberg, Russell; Khan, Asma


    This Cardiff University study of religious courts and tribunals across the UK has been funded by the AHRC/ESRC Religion and Society Programme. The project, „Social Cohesion and Civil Law: Marriage, Divorce and Religious Courts‟, explores how religious law functions alongside civil law in England and Wales.\\ud The context, though not the catalyst, for our study, is the lecture given by the Archbishop of Canterbury in 2008 on the relationship between religious law - primarily though not exclusi...

  18. Family Change and Implications for Family Solidarity and Social Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanera, Zenaida


    Full Text Available EnglishSocial cohesion can be viewed in terms of common projects and networks of social relations that characterize families, communities and society. In the past decades, the basis for family cohesion has shifted from organic to mechanical or from breadwinner to collaborative model. As in many Western countries, data on family change in Canada point to a greater flexibility in the entry and exit from relationships, a delay in the timing of family events, and a diversity of family forms. After looking at changes in families and in the family setting of individuals, the paper considers both intra-family cohesion and families as basis for social cohesion. Implications are raised for adults, children and publicp olicy.FrenchLa cohésion sociale peut se voir à travers les projets communs et les réseaux desrelations sociales qui caractérisent les familles, les communautés et les sociétés.La base de cohésion familiale est passée d’organique à mécanique, pour utiliserles termes de Durkheim, ou vers un modèle de collaboration plutôt qu’unepartage asymétrique de tâches. Comme dans d’autres sociétés orientales, lafamille au Canada est devenue plus flexible par rapport aux entrées et sortiesd’unions, il y a un délais dans les événements familiaux, et une variété deformes de familles. Après un regard sur les changements dans les familles etdans la situation familiale des individus, nous considérons la cohésion intrafamilialeet la famille comme base de cohésion sociale. Nous discutons desimpacts sur les adultes, les enfants et la politique publique.

  19. Multiple intersecting cohesive discontinuities in 3D reservoir geomechanics


    Das, K. C.; Sandha, S.S.; Carol, Ignacio; Vargas, P.E.; Gonzalez, Nubia Aurora; Rodrigues, E.; Segura Segarra, José María; Lakshmikantha, Ramasesha Mookanahallipatna; Mello,, U.


    Reservoir Geomechanics is playing an increasingly important role in developing and producing hydrocarbon reserves. One of the main challenges in reservoir modeling is accurate and efficient simulation of arbitrary intersecting faults. In this paper, we propose a new formulation to model multiple intersecting cohesive discontinuities (faults) in reservoirs using the XFEM framework. This formulation involves construction of enrichment functions and computation of stiffness sub-matrices for bulk...

  20. The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi


    Full Text Available When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP, Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States. This paper is about the process architecture of territorial cohesion policy. In the past, this architecture resembled the Open Method of Coordination (OMC which the White Paper on European Governance praised, but only in areas where there was no EU competence. This reflected zero-sum thinking which may continue even under the Lisbon Treaty. After all, for as long as territorial cohesion was not a competence, voluntary cooperation as practiced in the ESDP process was pursued in this way. However, the practice of EU policies, even in areas where there is an EU competence, often exhibits features of the OMC. Surprisingly effective innovations hold the promise of rendering institutions of decision making comprehensible and democratically accountable. In the EU as a functioning polity decision making is thus at least part deliberative so that actors’ preferences are transformed by the force of the better argument. This brings into focus the socialisation of the deliberators into epistemic communities. Largely an informal process, this is reminiscent of European spatial planning having been characterised as a learning process.

  1. Influence of magnetic cohesion on the stability of granular slopes. (United States)

    Taylor, K; King, P J; Swift, Michael R


    We use a molecular dynamics model to simulate the formation and evolution of a granular pile in two dimensions in order to gain a better understanding of the role of magnetic interactions in avalanche dynamics. We find that the angle of repose increases only slowly with magnetic field; the increase in angle is small even for intergrain cohesive forces many times stronger than gravity. The magnetic forces within the bulk of the pile partially cancel as a result of the anisotropic nature of the dipole-dipole interaction between grains. However, we show that this cancellation effect is not sufficiently strong to explain the discrepancy between the angle of repose in wet systems and magnetically cohesive systems. In our simulations we observe shearing deep within the pile, and we argue that it is this motion that prevents the angle of repose from increasing dramatically. We also investigate different implementations of friction with the front and back walls of the container, and conclude that the nature of the friction dramatically affects the influence of magnetic cohesion on the angle of repose.

  2. An examination of the cohesion-performance relationship in university hockey teams. (United States)

    Slater, M R; Sewell, D F


    The objective of this study was to assess, using the Group Environment Questionnaire, whether team cohesion in university-level field hockey was a cause for, or an effect of, successful performance. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design with cross-lagged correlational analysis was adopted and measures of cohesion and performance were taken midway and later in the season. The results of the synchronous correlations showed a positive relationship (with good stationarity) between team cohesion and performance outcome. Although non-significant cross-lagged differentials indicated a circular relationship, the magnitudes of both the cross-lagged correlations and the partial correlations, together with multiple-regression analyses, revealed that the stronger flow was from cohesion to performance. The socially oriented aspects of cohesion, in particular, had significant associations with performance. The results imply that cohesion-performance relationships should be examined within a circular model, in which cohesion and performance are interdependent.

  3. A Systemic Functional Linguistic Analysis of the Utterances of Three South African Physical Sciences Teachers (United States)

    Jawahar, Kavish; Dempster, Edith R.


    In this study, the sociocultural view of science as a language and some quantitative language features of the complementary theoretical framework of systemic functional linguistics are employed to analyse the utterances of three South African Physical Sciences teachers. Using a multi-case study methodology, this study provides a sophisticated description of the utterances of Pietermaritzburg Physical Sciences teachers in language contexts characterised by varying proportions of English Second Language (ESL) students in each class. The results reveal that, as expected, lexical cohesion as measured by the cohesive harmony index and proportion of repeated content words relative to total words, increased with an increasing proportion of ESL students. However, the use of nominalisation by the teachers and the lexical density of their utterances did not decrease with an increasing proportion of ESL students. Furthermore, the results reveal that each individual Physical Sciences teacher had a 'signature' talk, unrelated to the language context in which they taught. This study signals the urgent and critical need for South African science teacher training programmes to place a greater emphasis on the functional use of language for different language contexts in order to empower South African Physical Sciences teachers to adequately apprentice their students into the use of the register of scientific English.

  4. A Survey on the Exchange of Linguistic Resources: Publishing Linguistic Linked Open Data on the Web (United States)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Roa-Valverde, Antonio J.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the principal formats and frameworks that have been used in the last 20 years to exchange linguistic resources. It aims to give special attention to the most recent approaches to publishing linguistic linked open data on the Web. Design/methodology/approach: Research papers…

  5. Sample Undergraduate Linguistics Courses. Linguistics in the Undergraduate Curriculum, Appendix 5. (United States)

    Linguistic Society of America, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-six nontraditional undergraduate courses in linguistics are described. Course topics include: animal communication, bilingualism, sociolinguistics, introductory linguistics, language and formal reasoning, language and human conflict, language and power, language and sex, language and the brain, language planning, language typology and…

  6. Drinking water biofilm cohesiveness changes under chlorination or hydrodynamic stress. (United States)

    Mathieu, L; Bertrand, I; Abe, Y; Angel, E; Block, J C; Skali-Lami, S; Francius, G


    Attempts at removal of drinking water biofilms rely on various preventive and curative strategies such as nutrient reduction in drinking water, disinfection or water flushing, which have demonstrated limited efficiency. The main reason for these failures is the cohesiveness of the biofilm driven by the physico-chemical properties of its exopolymeric matrix (EPS). Effective cleaning procedures should break up the matrix and/or change the elastic properties of bacterial biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the cohesive strength of two-month-old drinking water biofilms under increasing hydrodynamic shear stress τw (from ∼0.2 to ∼10 Pa) and shock chlorination (applied concentration at T0: 10 mg Cl2/L; 60 min contact time). Biofilm erosion (cell loss per unit surface area) and cohesiveness (changes in the detachment shear stress and cluster volumes measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM)) were studied. When rapidly increasing the hydrodynamic constraint, biofilm removal was found to be dependent on a dual process of erosion and coalescence of the biofilm clusters. Indeed, 56% of the biofilm cells were removed with, concomitantly, a decrease in the number of the 50-300 μm(3) clusters and an increase in the number of the smaller (i.e., 600 μm(3)) ones. Moreover, AFM evidenced the strengthening of the biofilm structure along with the doubling of the number of contact points, NC, per cluster volume unit following the hydrodynamic disturbance. This suggests that the compactness of the biofilm exopolymers increases with hydrodynamic stress. Shock chlorination removed cells (-75%) from the biofilm while reducing the volume of biofilm clusters. Oxidation stress resulted in a decrease in the cohesive strength profile of the remaining drinking water biofilms linked to a reduction in the number of contact points within the biofilm network structure in particular for the largest biofilm cluster volumes (>200 μm(3)). Changes in the cohesive

  7. Linguistic fuzzy selection of liquid levelmeters in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghyym, S. H.


    In this work, a selection methodology of liquid levelmeters, especially, level sensors in non-nuclear category, to be installed in nuclear facilities is developed using a linguistic fuzzy approach. Depending on defuzzification techniques, the linguistic fuzzy methodology leads to either linguistic (exactly, fully-linguistic) or cardinal (i.e., semi-linguistic) evaluation. In the case of the linguistic method, for each alternative, fuzzy preference index is converted to linguistic utility value by means of a similarity measure determining the degree of similarity between fuzzy index and linguistic ratings. For the cardinal method, the index is translated to cardinal overall utility value. According to these values, alternatives of interest are linguistically or numerically evaluated and a suitable alternative can be selected. Under given selection criteria, the suitable selections out of some liquid levelmeters for nuclear facilities are dealt with using the linguistic fuzzy methodology proposed. Then, linguistic fuzzy evaluation results are compared with numerical results available in the literature. It is found that as to a suitable option the linguistic fuzzy selection is in agreement with the crisp numerical selection. In addition, this comparison shows that the fully-linguistic method facilitates linguistic interpretation regarding evaluation results

  8. Linguistic fuzzy selection of liquid levelmeters in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghyym, S. H. [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this work, a selection methodology of liquid levelmeters, especially, level sensors in non-nuclear category, to be installed in nuclear facilities is developed using a linguistic fuzzy approach. Depending on defuzzification techniques, the linguistic fuzzy methodology leads to either linguistic (exactly, fully-linguistic) or cardinal (i.e., semi-linguistic) evaluation. In the case of the linguistic method, for each alternative, fuzzy preference index is converted to linguistic utility value by means of a similarity measure determining the degree of similarity between fuzzy index and linguistic ratings. For the cardinal method, the index is translated to cardinal overall utility value. According to these values, alternatives of interest are linguistically or numerically evaluated and a suitable alternative can be selected. Under given selection criteria, the suitable selections out of some liquid levelmeters for nuclear facilities are dealt with using the linguistic fuzzy methodology proposed. Then, linguistic fuzzy evaluation results are compared with numerical results available in the literature. It is found that as to a suitable option the linguistic fuzzy selection is in agreement with the crisp numerical selection. In addition, this comparison shows that the fully-linguistic method facilitates linguistic interpretation regarding evaluation results.

  9. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev


    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  10. [An essay about science and linguistics]. (United States)

    Cugini, P


    Both the methodology and epistemology of science provided the criteria by which the scientific research can describe and interpret data and results of its observational or experimental studies. When the scientist approaches the conclusive inference, it is mandatory to think that both the knowledge and truth imply the use of words semantically and etymologically (semiologically) appropriate, especially if neologisms are required. Lacking a vocabulary, there will be the need of popularizing the inference to the linguistics of the context to which the message is addressed. This could imply a discrepancy among science, knowledge, truth and linguistics, that can be defined "semiologic bias". To avoid this linguistic error, the scientist must feel the responsibility to provide the scientific community with the new words that are semantically and etymologically coherent with what it has been scientifically discovered.

  11. Linguistic Ethnography, Literacy Teaching and Teacher Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Grete; Nielsen, Henrik Balle

    in current attempts to research-base teacher education. Lefstein, A. & J. Snell. 2014. Better than best practice. Developing teaching and learning through dialogue. London: Routledge. Keywords: literacy teaching classroom dialogue teacher feedback linguistic ethnography research-based teacher education...... material consists of field notes and video observations from the literacy classroom combined with reflective interviews with the literacy teacher and analyses of pupils’ oral and written texts. Taking a linguistic ethnographic approach, the case study investigates the interplay between teacher, pupil...... eclecticism, openness and systematicity characteristic of a linguistic ethnographic analysis (Lefstein & Snell 2014, 185-86). In the poster, we will focus on emergent data analysis. Our main points of interest are 1) the classroom dialogue between teacher and pupils and 2) the literacy teacher’s assessment...

  12. Preprocessing Greek Papyri for Linguistic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierros, Marja


    Full Text Available Greek documentary papyri form an important direct source for Ancient Greek. It has been exploited surprisingly little in Greek linguistics due to a lack of good tools for searching linguistic structures. This article presents a new tool and digital platform, “Sematia”, which enables transforming the digital texts available in TEI EpiDoc XML format to a format which can be morphologically and syntactically annotated (treebanked, and where the user can add new metadata concerning the text type, writer and handwriting of each act of writing. An important aspect in this process is to take into account the original surviving writing vs. the standardization of language and supplements made by the editors. This is performed by creating two different layers of the same text. The platform is in its early development phase. Ongoing and future developments, such as tagging linguistic variation phenomena as well as queries performed within Sematia, are discussed at the end of the article.

  13. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rudwick


    Full Text Available This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It is examined, how Zulu linguistic culture is regarded a resource in the isiZulu-speaking community and as one of the most salient tools of in-group identification in the larger contemporary South African society. Zulu people’s culture is profoundly language-embedded and Zulu linguistic culture often based on essentialism.

  14. The Study of Critical Eco-Linguistic in Green Discourse: Prospective Eco-Linguistic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Yuniawan


    Full Text Available Eco-linguistic studies are influenced by one of the other interdisciplinary sciences, namely critical discourse analysis. The combination of these two sciences is called critical eco-linguistic studies. Critical eco-linguistic examines the discourse about the environment and various forms of discourse and their ideology which concerns people and the environment. The environmental discourse with all its manifestations (oral text, written text is called green discourse. To that end, critical eco-linguistic dictates the linguistic aspects contained in the green discourse. Utilization of lingual units in green discourse will affect the sense and logic of people involved in the discourse, ie the writers and readers or the speakers and the speakers. What is recorded in their cognition, will affect their attitudes and actions to the environment. If green discourse is constructive, then their attitude and actions to the environment are constructive. Conversely, if green discourse is more destructive and exploitative, then their attitudes and actions towards the environment will also be affected towards destruction and exploitation. For this reason, critical eco-linguistic studies in green discourse deserve to be given space as a form of prospective eco-linguistic analysis.

  15. Moralized Health-Related Persuasion Undermines Social Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Täuber


    Full Text Available Integrating theory and research on persuasion, moralization, and intergroup relations, the present research aims to highlight the far-reaching impact of health-related persuasion on society. I propose that governments’ health-related persuasion leads to the emergence of new social norms, and in particular moral norms. Importantly, moral norms provide strong behavioral imperatives and are seen as binding for group members. This suggests that moralized persuasion has a strong potential to divide society along the lines of citizens who conform to and citizens who deviate from health-related moral norms. Thus, departing from the traditional focus on targets of persuasion, the present research focuses on those holding a moralized view on health and lifestyle. Key aspects of social cohesion as defined by the OECD (2011 have been tested across four studies. The main hypothesis tested is that those conforming to the norm (e.g., non-smokers, normal weight people, people with healthy lifestyles will stigmatize those deviating from the norm (e.g., smokers, overweight people, people with unhealthy lifestyles. Flowing from stigmatization, less inclusion, lower solidarity with and greater endorsement of unequal treatment of those deviating from the moral norm are predicted. Four survey studies (total N = 1568 examining the proposed associations among non-smokers, normal weight people, and employees with healthy lifestyles are presented. The studies provide unanimous support for the hypothesis, with meta-analysis providing further support for the reliability of the findings. Consistent across studies, social cohesion indicators were negatively affected by health moralization through stigmatization of those deviating from health-related moral norms. Findings highlight an under-acknowledged potential of moralized health-related persuasion to divide society, thereby undermining cohesion and the achievement of important societal goals. In the discussion

  16. Applying automatic item generation to create cohesive physics testlets (United States)

    Mindyarto, B. N.; Nugroho, S. E.; Linuwih, S.


    Computer-based testing has created the demand for large numbers of items. This paper discusses the production of cohesive physics testlets using an automatic item generation concepts and procedures. The testlets were composed by restructuring physics problems to reveal deeper understanding of the underlying physical concepts by inserting a qualitative question and its scientific reasoning question. A template-based testlet generator was used to generate the testlet variants. Using this methodology, 1248 testlet variants were effectively generated from 25 testlet templates. Some issues related to the effective application of the generated physics testlets in practical assessments were discussed.

  17. Cucker-Smale Flocking with Bounded Cohesive and Repulsive Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Song


    Full Text Available This paper proposes two Cucker-Smale-type flocking models by introducing both cohesive and repulsive forces to second-order multiagent systems. Under some mild conditions on the initial state of the flocking system, it is shown that the velocity consensus of the agents can be reached independent of the parameter which describes the decay of communication rates. In particular, the collision between any two agents can always be avoided by designing an appropriate bounded repulsive function based on the initial energy of the flock. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  18. A Test to Express Diagnostic Cohesion of Football Team


    Alexandra O. Savinkina


    We proposed to assess the cohesion of a football team by its subject-goal and subject-value unity according to the A.V. Petrovsky theory. Goal unity was measured by the degree of compliance of the priority targets for various players in the team. Values were estimated by the coincidence of the ideas about a perfect football player. On the basis of the provisional diagnosis of the six teams, we had made the lists of goals and values. The tests were piloted on 35 football teams. The results all...

  19. Interactive effects of team cohesion on perceived efficacy in semi-professional sport. (United States)

    Marcos, Francisco Miguel Leo; Miguel, Pedro Antonio Sánchez; Oliva, David Sánchez; Calvo, Tomás García


    The present study examined the relationships among cohesion, self-efficacy, coaches' perceptions of their players' efficacy at the individual level and athletes' perceptions of their teammates' efficacy. Participants (n = 76) recruited from four semi- professional soccer and basketball teams completed cohesiveness and efficacy questionnaires who. Data were analyzed through a correlational methodology. Results indicated significant correlations between self-efficacy and task cohesion and social cohesion. Regression analysis results suggest task cohesion positively related to coaches and teammate's perception of efficacy. These results have implications for practitioners in terms of the importance of team building to enhance team cohesion and feelings of efficacy. Key pointsThis paper increases the knowledge about soccer and basketball match analysis.Give normative values to establish practice and match objectives.Give applications ideas to connect research with coaches' practice.

  20. Group cohesion and starting status in successful and less successful elite volleyball teams. (United States)

    Spink, K S


    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between members' perceptions of group cohesion and starting status in elite volleyball teams. The results of the study revealed that the form of the cohesion-starting status relationship was moderated by the variable of success. The results for less successful teams revealed that differences did emerge between specific measures of cohesion endorsed by starters and non-starters. No such differences in cohesion emerged when the starters and non-starters on successful teams were compared. These results provide initial support for the suggestion that the most successful teams are the ones where the perceptions of cohesiveness by starters and non-starters are similar. A secondary purpose of the study was to determine whether those teams that were the most successful and similar in their members' perceptions of cohesiveness, were also the teams whose members have the most positive outcome expectancy. The results supported this prediction.

  1. Evaluation Techniques of Creating Coherence in Poems of Kaiser Aminpour Relying on the Theory of Halliday’s Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sattari


    Full Text Available AbstractOne of the linguistics theories that are utilized in present age in the analysis of literary texts is the theory of Halliday’s linguistics which is called theory of systemic - functional linguistics. Halliday’s theory in the second half of the twentieth century, in contrast to the "generative linguistics" approach, which is based on formal language like a mental and individual phenomenon.    Hallidayan called the semantic, literal, syntax and logical relationship of words as coherence of a text and believes that the coherence of the text, includes all the semantic relations by which, every piece of speech or writing can serve as text. Hence, cohesion, referred to relations that relates all elements of a sentence to the elements of other sentences. From Hallidayan's  point of view, elements of coherence of a text are divided into two parts: grammatical and lexical. Grammatical cohesion includes factors such as referrals, replacements, removals and relevancy, and lexical coherence includes repetition and collocation in literary language.   Kaiser is one of the contemporary famous poets that have composed many poets in different molds of poetry. Kaiser Manipur's poems benefit the integration due to the poet's fluency in Persian and his familiarity with the vocabulary and grammatical and lexical capacities of Persian literature. In this research, we have studied the cohesion in Kaiser Manipur's poems from two views of lexical and grammatical by using Holidaying theory of coherence as well as the techniques that the poet has applied to reach the cohesion in his poems.    The method of research in the present paper is descriptive-analytical and all the information and data has been collected from the sources of library and electronic. In this paper, we first briefly discussed the Holidaying coherence theory, and then, with a special approach to this theory, the most important techniques that Kaiser Manipur has

  2. Relationship Among Team Collective Efficacy, Cohesion, and Coaching Competency in Sports


    Manning, Clayton T.


    A team's performance in any sport can be predicted by many factors. Some of these factors include team collective efficacy, team cohesiveness, and coaching competency. Currently, there is little research investigating the relationships among teams' beliefs about their capabilities, their level of cohesion, and their perceptions of coaching competency on overall sport performance. The purpose of this study was to document the relationship among collective efficacy, cohesion, and coaching on sp...

  3. Interactive Effects of Team Cohesion on Perceived Efficacy in Semi-Professional Sport


    Marcos, Francisco Miguel Leo; Miguel, Pedro Antonio Sánchez; Oliva, David Sánchez; Calvo, Tomás García


    The present study examined the relationships among cohesion, self-efficacy, coaches’ perceptions of their players’ efficacy at the individual level and athletes’ perceptions of their teammates’ efficacy. Participants (n = 76) recruited from four semi- professional soccer and basketball teams completed cohesiveness and efficacy questionnaires who. Data were analyzed through a correlational methodology. Results indicated significant correlations between self-efficacy and task cohesion and socia...

  4. Could Values and Social Structures in Singapore Facilitate Attainment of Patient-Focused, Cultural, and Linguistic Competency Standards in a Patient-Centered Medical Home Pilot? (United States)

    Shih, Jenny A; Shiow, Sue-Anne Toh Ee; Wee, Hwee-Lin


    Primary care practices in the United States are transforming into patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) at a rapid pace. Newer PCMH standards have emphasized culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS), but at this time, only some states in the United States have proposed or passed cultural competency training for health care professionals. Other countries are moving to PCMH models. Singapore, a small, ethnically diverse island nation, has national values and social structures that emphasize cultural and linguistic cohesion. In this piece, we examine Singapore’s first PCMH pilot with a national academic center and primary care practice group. Features such as common shared values, self-reliance, racial and religious harmony, patient experience surveillance, and incorporation of CLAS standards in routine health care transactions may predict success for the PCMH in Singapore, with some implications for the United States. PMID:28725822

  5. [Family cohesion associated with oral health, socioeconomic factors and health behavior]. (United States)

    Ferreira, Luale Leão; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Garcia, Gustavo; Batista, Marília Jesus; Costa, Ludmila da Silva Tavares; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima


    Overall health surveys have related family cohesion to socio-economic status and behavioral factors. The scope of this study was to investigate the association between family cohesion and socio-economic, behavioral and oral health factors. This was a, cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling. The random sample consisted of 524 adolescents attending public schools in the city of Piracicaba-SP. Variables were evaluated by self-applied questionnaires and caries and periodontal disease were assessed by DMF-T and CPI indices. The adolescent's perception of family cohesion was assessed using the family adaptability and cohesion scale. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression shows that adolescents with low family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have low income (OR 2,28 95% CI 1,14- 4,55), presence of caries (OR 2,23 95% CI 1,21-4,09), less than two daily brushings (OR 1,91 95% CI 1,03-3,54). Adolescents with high family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have high income and protective behavior against the habit of smoking. Thus, the data shows that adolescent perception of family cohesion was associated with behavioral, socio-economic and oral health variables, indicating the importance of an integral approach to patient health.

  6. Cohesive delamination and frictional contact on joining surface via XFEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Parrinello


    Full Text Available In the present paper, the complex mechanical behaviour of the surfaces joining two differentbodies is analysed by a cohesive-frictional interface constitutive model. The kinematical behaviouris characterized by the presence of discontinuous displacement fields, that take place at the internalconnecting surfaces, both in the fully cohesive phase and in the delamination one. Generally, in order tocatch discontinuous displacement fields, internal connecting surfaces (adhesive layers are modelled bymeans of interface elements, which connect, node by node, the meshes of the joined bodies, requiringthe mesh to be conforming to the geometry of the single bodies and to the relevant connecting surface.In the present paper, the Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM is employed to model, both fromthe geometrical and from the kinematical point of view, the whole domain, including the connectedbodies and the joining surface. The joining surface is not discretized by specific finite elements, butit is defined as an internal discontinuity surface, whose spatial position inside the mesh is analyticallydefined. The proposed approach is developed for two-dimensional composite domains, formed by twoor more material portions joined together by means of a zero thickness adhesive layer. The numericalresults obtained with the proposed approach are compared with the results of the classical interfacefinite element approach. Some examples of delamination and frictional contact are proposed withlinear, circular and curvilinear adhesive layer.

  7. Disaggregation of small, cohesive rubble pile asteroids due to YORP (United States)

    Scheeres, D. J.


    The implication of small amounts of cohesion within relatively small rubble pile asteroids is investigated with regard to their evolution under the persistent presence of the YORP effect. We find that below a characteristic size, which is a function of cohesive strength, density and other properties, rubble pile asteroids can enter a "disaggregation phase" in which they are subject to repeated fissions after which the formation of a stabilizing binary system is not possible. Once this threshold is passed rubble pile asteroids may be disaggregated into their constituent components within a finite time span. These constituent components will have their own spin limits - albeit potentially at a much higher spin rate due to the greater strength of a monolithic body. The implications of this prediction are discussed and include modification of size distributions, prevalence of monolithic bodies among meteoroids and the lifetime of small rubble pile bodies in the solar system. The theory is then used to place constraints on the strength of binary asteroids characterized as a function of their type.

  8. Improving the geotechnical behavior of sand through cohesive admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie eldin Mohamed Afify Elmashad


    Full Text Available Irrigation projects in Egypt have been facing tremendous challenges, mostly is the scarcity of irrigation water. The current research presents the effect of different cohesive admixture on the conductivity of siliceous sand in general and its other geotechnical properties. Two different types of conventional swelling clay from (Toshka, 6th of October as well as bentonite were used to construct the irrigation canals and embankment. The results indicated that increase in the plasticity properties of the treated soil also decrease the permeability and infiltration. Moreover, the dry density of 2.08 t/m3 was obtained from sand and 20% 6th of October mixture, also the CBR of 31.20% were obtained from sand and 8% 6th of October mixture. Increasing the bentonite ratio increases the cohesion and decreasing the permeability. The swelling ratios of sand 6th of October Clay mixture is equal to 0.28%, and the fictitious stress at which the swelling ratio is nil, is equal to 16 kPa. Keywords: Sand, Swelling clay, Bentonite, Compaction test, Consolidation test, Triaxial test

  9. Protein linguistics - a grammar for modular protein assembly? (United States)

    Gimona, Mario


    The correspondence between biology and linguistics at the level of sequence and lexical inventories, and of structure and syntax, has fuelled attempts to describe genome structure by the rules of formal linguistics. But how can we define protein linguistic rules? And how could compositional semantics improve our understanding of protein organization and functional plasticity?

  10. What Does Corpus Linguistics Have to Offer to Language Assessment? (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming


    In recent years, continuing advances in technology have increased the capacity to automate the extraction of a range of linguistic features of texts and thus have provided the impetus for the substantial growth of corpus linguistics. While corpus linguistic tools and methods have been used extensively in second language learning research, they…

  11. Citation Analysis and Authorship Patterns of Two Linguistics Journals (United States)

    Ezema, Ifeanyi J.; Asogwa, Brendan E.


    This article analyzes the sources cited in articles published in two linguistics journals, "Applied Linguistics and Journal of Linguistics," from 2001 to 2010. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using bibliometric indicators, such as types of cited sources, timeliness of cited sources, authorship patterns, rank lists of the…

  12. Ninth international conference on computational linguistics Coling 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This paper presents the summary reports presented at the concluding session and evaluating the state of the art, trends and perspectives as reflected in the papers presented at Coling 82 in six domains: machine translation, grammatico-semantic analysis, linguistics in its relations to computational linguistics, question answering, artificial intelligence and knowledge representation, and information retrieval and linguistic data bases.

  13. A phylogenetic and cognitive perspective on linguistic complexity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years a growing interest in the nature of linguistic complexity has emerged in linguistic circles. A striking feature of this interest is that linguistic complexity is taken to be a phenomenon in its own right. In fact, an extreme construal of the inherent complexity of language is represented in the notion of universal ...

  14. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.


    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  15. Ideologeme "Order" in Modern American Linguistic World Image (United States)

    Ibatova, Aygul Z.; Vdovichenko, Larisa V.; Ilyashenko, Lubov K.


    The paper studies the topic of modern American linguistic world image. It is known that any language is the most important instrument of cognition of the world by a person but there is also no doubt that any language is the way of perception and conceptualization of this knowledge about the world. In modern linguistics linguistic world image is…

  16. Multiple Uses of Applied Linguistics Literature. (United States)

    Casanave, Christine Pearson


    Discusses ways that applied linguistics literature can be used in a multidisciplinary graduate-level English for academic purposes class. Focuses on three main uses: (1) providing students with information about issues in academic and professional writing; (2) helping them make comparisons of form and style with academic articles in their own…

  17. Educational language planning and linguistic identity (United States)

    Sutton, Peter


    There are cases in which a "high" form of a language is taught and used in formal situations, but linguistic variation is also caused by geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic class. Certain variants are regarded as inferior and restricted in expressive capacity, and are disadvantageous. The paper suggests that it is possible to map each person's linguistic identity in two dimensions: the number of languages spoken, and the situation-specific variants of each language. Further, it is argued that the distance between a "low" variant and a "high" standard form of a language may present to the "low" learner of a standardized mother tongue a barrier just as great as that posed by the learning of a related foreign language to a speaker of the high variant. It is proposed that greater tolerance be exercised in acceptance of variation and in recognition of linguistic identity, so that this can be built on in the necessary and desirable expansion of linguistic competence, rather than being devalued. The relevance of the communicative approach to language teaching is touched on.

  18. Novice Teachers and Linguistics: Foregrounding the Functional (United States)

    Chappell, Phil; Moore, Stephen


    This forum article describes a postgraduate certificate teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) program with a strong linguistics orientation and argues that such a program provides novice language teachers with knowledge and skills superior to those of programs which focus more on methodology and practicum experience and less on…

  19. Linguistic and Cultural Strategies in ELT Dictionaries (United States)

    Corrius, Montse; Pujol, Didac


    There are three main types of ELT dictionaries: monolingual, bilingual, and bilingualized. Each type of dictionary, while having its own advantages, also hinders the learning of English as a foreign language and culture in so far as it is written from a homogenizing (linguistic- and culture-centric) perspective. This paper presents a new type of…

  20. A Short History of Structural Linguistics. (United States)

    Matthews, Peter

    This book is a concise history of structural linguistics, charting its development from the 1870s to the present day. It explains what structuralism was and why its ideas are still central today. For structuralists, a language is a self-contained and tightly organized system whose history is of changes from one state of the system to another. This…

  1. Imitation, Awareness, and Folk Linguistic Artifacts (United States)

    Brunner, Elizabeth Gentry


    Imitations are sophisticated performances displaying regular patterns. The study of imitation allows linguists to understand speakers' perceptions of sociolinguistic variation. In this dissertation, I analyze imitations of non-native accents in order to answer two questions: what can imitation reveal about perception, and how are "folk linguistic…

  2. Indeterminacy, linguistic semantics and fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, V. [Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)


    In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic semantics.

  3. The Foundations of Linguistics: Two Theses (United States)

    Barrios, Edison


    Linguists tell us that the sentence "I enjoyed yourself" is ungrammatical because it violates structural constraints on English sentences. Is this a fact about the "psychology" of English speakers, or a fact about some "mind-independent" state of affairs? If it is indeed a fact about the speaker's psychological makeup then is it so in virtue of…

  4. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics. (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.


    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  5. The Deaf Child as a Linguistic Minority. (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    The author offers support for viewing the deaf child as a member of a linguistic minority and considers how this situation affects education of the deaf. Deaf persons are discussed in terms of their intellectual abilities, educational achievement, English competence, and the sociolinguistic factors which point to the existence of a deaf community.…

  6. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  7. Leadership and Languages: Inspiring Young Linguists (United States)

    Hawkes, Rachel; Schechter, Sarah


    The Language Leader Award, created by Rachel Hawkes and run by Routes into Languages East "helps pupils learn to lead, using language teaching as the medium. Throughout the year-long programme they develop their leadership and [linguistic] skills, growing in confidence and enhancing their future careers" (Hawkes, n.d. c, p. 1). Some…

  8. The Influence of Bloomfield's Linguistics on Skinner (United States)

    Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.; Matos, Maria Amelia


    Bloomfield's "Linguistics as a Science" (1930/1970), "Language" (1933/1961), and "Language or Ideas?" (1936a/1970), and Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) and "Science and Human Behavior" (1953) were analyzed in regard to their respective perspectives on science and scientific method, the verbal episode, meaning, and subject matter. Similarities…

  9. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity | Moon | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Conventionally, dictionaries present information about institutionalized words, phrases, and senses of words; more creative formations and usages are generally ignored. Yet text and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordinary linguistic behaviour and indeed ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Kenya is a boon for a field linguist but misinformed politicians and education policy ... to date. Language realities have been observed in this study from a temporal lens of .... The knowledge of a language of international currency is not a curse, and it is ... But the colonial mind-sets of the people worked against the growth.

  11. York Papers in Linguistics, Volume 17. (United States)

    Local, J. K., Ed.; Warner, A. R., Ed.


    These 14 articles on aspects of linguistics include the following: "Economy and Optionality: Interpretations of Subjects in Italian" (David Adger); "Collaborative Repair in EFL Classroom Talk" (Zara Iles); "A Timing Model for Fast French" (Eric Keller, Brigitte Zellner); "Another Travesty of Representation:…

  12. The Prague Linguistic Circle and Dialectics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Ondřej

    -, č. 19 (2017), s. 352-357 E-ISSN 2037-2426 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : The Prague Linguistic Circle * Jan Mukařovský * Structuralism * Structural Poetics * Dialectics Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision OBOR OECD: Specific literatures

  13. The Linguistic Functions of Some Nonverbal Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the linguistic concerns of the rhetorical “polylogic” approach to the exploration of the stylistic aspects of language, which include paralinguistic communication devices, such as waving of hands, blinking of eyes, etc. These paralinguistic elements (proxemics for example) usually occur together with ...

  14. Some thoughts on economy within linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available One of the cornerstones of Chomsky's Minimalist Program is the role played by economy. This paper discusses different ways in which Chomsky's notion of economy in linguistics can be understood, given current views on dynamic systems and, in particular, on evolution in biological systems.

  15. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research (United States)

    Block, David


    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  16. Political Economy in Applied Linguistics Research (United States)

    Block, David


    This state-of-the-art review is based on the fundamental idea that political economy should be adopted as a frame for research and discussion in applied linguistics as part of a general social turn which has taken hold in the field over the past three decades. It starts with Susan Gal's (1989) early call for such a move in sociolinguistics and…

  17. L2 Literacy and Biliteracy: Linguistic Consequences. (United States)

    Pugh, Stefan M.


    In a study of literacy and linguistics that focuses on bilingual and multilingual societies, the following topics are covered: bilingualism and biliteracy; biliteracy in the Soviet Union; case studies in Karelia and Ukraine; and predicting the future of biliteracy. (43 references. (LB)

  18. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics: 1981. (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 18 essays focuses on the linguistic problems involved in accommodating and educating displaced and migrant populations throughout the world. The essays are divided into three sections covering (1) language policy at the national level, (2) language in education policy, and (3) educational practice. Among the specific topics…

  19. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 1983. (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of reports on literacy and literacy issues includes a variety of perspectives and descriptions of diverse programs and is divided into three sections. The first examines broad questions of literacy: "On the Study of Literacy" (David Bendor-Samuel); "Linguistics and Literacy" (Gloria Kindell); and "Literacy in…

  20. Second Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics. (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane


    Discusses the second language acquisition (SLA) process and the differential success of second language learners. Examines the fundamental challenges that this characterization faces, and highlights the contributions SLA is capable of in the coming decade. Offers topics for a training and development of curriculum for future applied linguists from…

  1. Psycholinguistics in Applied Linguistics: Trends and Perspectives. (United States)

    de Bot, Kees


    Discusses the relationship between the terms psycholinguistics and applied linguistics, and in the process explores key issues in multilingual processing, such as the structure of the bilingual lexicon, language choice in production and perception, and the language mode. (Author/VWL)

  2. Linguistic Prescription: Familiar Practices and New Perspectives. (United States)

    Finegan, Edward


    Reports on a question by a law student of whether a correction of "sneaked" to "snuck" suggests misinformation and misguided rigidity in the context of better information about current legal usage and a perennial tendency to linguistic prescription. Explores attitudes to current borrowings from English into Japanese and French…

  3. Bridges Over Troubled Waters: Theoretical Linguistics And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical linguistics and those of multilingualism and code-switching (CS) research. It argues that the primary special point of interaction between these fields lies in the question of potential equivalence between elements or categories, bridging across ...

  4. Linguistic resources and strategies used in multilingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infrastructure, larger patients base and more staff than its counterpart, (HC-2), which is smaller and has a smaller patient and ... staff members, particularly doctors, have a variety of linguistic repertoires and cultural .... consultation. Some can use odd words that they have picked up, others felt that they could follow the gist of.

  5. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul


    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  6. Ideology in Applied Linguistics for Language Teaching (United States)

    Waters, Alan


    It is contended that much of present-day applied linguistics for language teaching (ALLT) fails to mediate effectively, primarily because an ideological construction, emanating from a critical theory perspective, is too often imposed on everyday pedagogical practices. This has resulted in an exaggerated level of concern about the power imbalances…

  7. Applied Linguistics and Primary School Teaching (United States)

    Ellis, Sue, Ed.; McCartney, Elspeth, Ed.


    Modern primary teachers must adapt literacy programmes and ensure efficient learning for all. They must also support children with language and literacy difficulties, children learning English as an additional language and possibly teach a modern foreign language. To do this effectively, they need to understand the applied linguistics research…

  8. Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington DC, USA (United States)

    Sugarman, Julie; Fee, Molly; Donovan, Anne


    The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private, nonprofit organization with over 50 years' experience in the application of research on language and culture to educational and societal concerns. CAL carries out its mission to improve communication through better understanding of language and culture by engaging in a variety of projects in…

  9. Linguistics, pedagogy and teaching of the language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro William Santiago Galvis


    Full Text Available This article tackles the relationship that exists between linguistics and pedagogy with regards to pedagocical language practices. From this relationship, the approach that has been given to practical native language teaching can be determined as well as characterized. Finally, the paper provides reasons for the communicational approach to teaching spanish.   

  10. Linguistic Imperialism, Cultural Integrity, and EIL. (United States)

    Modiano, Marko


    Argues that while linguistic imperialism is real and needs to be addressed, one way for the language instructor to come to terms with the cultural imposition of English language teaching is to define English as an international language. Suggests promoting "prestige varieties" positions the practitioner as purveyor of Anglo-American hegemony and…

  11. Experiences from Nordic research collaboration in linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Sandøy


    Full Text Available The project “Modern loanwords in the languages of the Nordic countries (MIN – Moderne importord i språka i Norden” was the first large-scale collaborative project between linguists in the Nordic countries. This article presents both the aim of the project and some experiences from the work with respect to project design, financing and networking.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sir George


    Jun 2, 2016 ... learn to speak a language by force, or refuse to speak it. This is a ... circumstances such as the effects of linguistic deprivation, how bilingual children can learn ..... the other; the effects of books, movies and so on. Out.

  13. Historical Trajectory of the Quechuan Linguistic Family and its Relations to the Aimaran Linguistic Family


    Adelaar, Willem


    This article seeks to present the principal stages of the prehistory and history of the Quechuan language family in its interaction with the Aimaran family. It reconstructs a plausible scenario for a unique, intensive process of linguistic convergence that underlies the protolanguages of both families. From there on, it traces the principal developments that characterize the history of the Quechuan linguistic family, such as the initial split in two main branches, Quechua I and Quechua II (fo...

  14. Linguistic aspects of eponymic professional endocrinologic terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Bytsko


    Full Text Available Background. Special linguistic researches of terminological units of different branches of medicine allow analyzing in details the ways of creating the systems of clinical terminology from different aspects: historical, scientific, cultural, linguistic and semantic. There is a wide area of terminology related to the clinical and experimental endocrino­logy within general medical terminological system. The purpose of the study: to demonstrate the structure of endocrine medical terms — eponyms through the prism of systematization of methodological researches on eponymic vocabulary. Materials and methods. The actual material received as a result of a total choice of eponyms (there were 296 terms from the “Reference dictionary for endocrinologist”, which was composed by the scientists of V. Danilevsky Institute of Endocrine Pathology Problems and Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate education — A.V. Kozakov, N.A. Kravchun, I.M. Ilyina, M.I. Zubko, O.A. Goncharova, I.V. Cherniavska has 10,000 endocrine terms, the authors successfully streamlined medical terms of the clinical and experimental endocrinology into the vocabulary. The method of total choice of terms from professional literature, the descriptive method and distributive method were used in the study that allowed distinguishing lexical and semantic features of eponymic terms in the branch of endocrinology. Results. The obtained results point out to the modernity of studies in the field of clinical and experimental endocrinology, which is due to the fact that this is the oldest terminology, by the example of which it is possible to trace the ways of formation, development and improvement of terms, the realization of semantic processes, certain trends, ways and means of word formation. Conclusions. The results of the research on the above mentioned sublanguage of clinical medicine at the level of linguistic observations of the functio­ning in dictionaries and scientific works will

  15. Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application. (United States)

    Rudner, Mary


    Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  16. Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Rudner


    Full Text Available Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  17. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2001. Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond. (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah, Ed.; Alatis, James E., Ed.

    This book contains papers from the 2001 Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, "Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond." Papers include: "Introduction" (Deborah Tannen); "A Brief History of the Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics" (James E.…

  18. Investigating the settling dynamics of cohesive silt particles with particle-resolving simulations (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Honglei


    The settling of cohesive sediment is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, and the study of the settling process is important for both engineering and environmental reasons. In the settling process, the silt particles show behaviors that are different from non-cohesive particles due to the influence of inter-particle cohesive force. For instance, the flocs formed in the settling process of cohesive silt can loosen the packing, and thus the structural densities of cohesive silt beds are much smaller than that of non-cohesive sand beds. While there is a consensus that cohesive behaviors depend on the characteristics of sediment particles (e.g., Bond number, particle size distribution), little is known about the exact influence of these characteristics on the cohesive behaviors. In addition, since the cohesive behaviors of the silt are caused by the inter-particle cohesive forces, the motions of and the contacts among silt particles should be resolved to study these cohesive behaviors in the settling process. However, studies of the cohesive behaviors of silt particles in the settling process based on particle-resolving approach are still lacking. In the present work, three-dimensional settling process is investigated numerically by using CFD-DEM (Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method). The inter-particle collision force, the van der Waals force, and the fluid-particle interaction forces are considered. The numerical model is used to simulate the hindered settling process of silt based on the experimental setup in the literature. The results obtained in the simulations, including the structural densities of the beds, the characteristic lines, and the particle terminal velocity, are in good agreement with the experimental observations in the literature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that the influences of non-dimensional Bond number and particle polydispersity on the structural densities of silt beds have been investigated separately


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Fernando DEMARCO


    Full Text Available The bond strength of dentin adhesives to dentin has increased after each generation. Although dentin substratum is part of the bonding process, little importance has been given to measure dentin cohesive strength. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cohesive strength of dentin in human canines. Seventeen non carious canines were selected. All of them had been extracted for more than one year. The teeth were ground until dentin square samples with approximately 2 X 2 mm were obtained. They were embedded in acrylic resin and subjected to shear stress, in a Wolpert Machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean cohesive strength of dentin in shear mode was 33.95 (+-9.72 MPa. The fracture surfaces were observed under a X40 magnification. A finite element analysis was performed to observe the stress distribution as related to the shear test. The failure pattern was compatible with the shear test and also with the stress distribution in the finite element analysisA resistência de união dos adesivos dentinários tem sido aumentada com o desenvolvimento de cada nova geração. Pouca importância tem sido dada à resistência coesiva da dentina. A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência coesiva da dentina. Dezessete caninos humanos hígidos, os quais tinham sido extraídos há mais de um ano, foram usados. Os dentes foram desgastados até a obtenção de corpos-de-prova em dentina, de formato quadrangular, com tamanho aproximado de 2 X 2 mm. Os dentes foram incluídos em resina acrílica e, então, submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento em uma máquina de ensaios universais Wolpert, com uma velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. A resistência coesiva média da dentina no teste de cisalhamento foi de 33,95 (+- 9,72 MPa. O tipo de fratura foi analisado com um aumento de 40X. Foi realizada uma análise com elemento finito, para observar a distribuição do estresse relacionada com o teste de cisalhamento. O padrão de fratura encontrado foi compat

  20. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Vergez-Couret


    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de d

  1. Social cohesion and the transformation from ethnic to multicultural society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgård, Niels


    Danish society used to have a very homogenous culture; everybody was Lutheran and there were only very small groups of ethnic minorities. However, since the 1960s the immigration of foreign workers and refugees has created substantial minority groups of people who are very different ethnically, r......, religiously and linguistically. Becoming a multicultural country may be particularly problematic for such a formerly homogeneous society; formal and informal rules for the co-existence of different ethnic and religious segments of the society have until now not been necessary...

  2. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing complex linguistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lücking, Andy; Banisch, Sven; Blanchard, Philippe; Job, Barbara


    The aim of this book is to advocate and promote network models of linguistic systems that are both based on thorough mathematical models and substantiated in terms of linguistics. In this way, the book contributes first steps towards establishing a statistical network theory as a theoretical basis of linguistic network analysis the boarder of the natural sciences and the humanities.This book addresses researchers who want to get familiar with theoretical developments, computational models and their empirical evaluation in the field of complex linguistic networks. It is intended to all those who are interested in statisticalmodels of linguistic systems from the point of view of network research. This includes all relevant areas of linguistics ranging from phonological, morphological and lexical networks on the one hand and syntactic, semantic and pragmatic networks on the other. In this sense, the volume concerns readers from many disciplines such as physics, linguistics, computer science and information scien...

  3. Chomsky and Wittgenstein on Linguistic Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas McNally


    Full Text Available In his Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language, Saul Kripke presents his influential reading of Wittgenstein’s later writings on language. One of the largely unexplored features of that reading is that Kripke makes a small number of suggestive remarks concerning the possible threat that Wittgenstein’s arguments pose for Chomsky’s linguistic project. In this paper, we attempt to characterise the relevance of Wittgenstein’s later work on meaning and rule-following for transformational linguistics, and in particular to identify the potentially negative impact it has on that project. Although we use Kripke’s remarks to articulate some of the pertinent issues, we return to Wittgenstein’s later writings to address them. We argue that Wittgenstein’s main target in the relevant sections of the Philosophical Investigations is the notion of ‘logical compulsion’, which involves assuming that there is more to applying a word or rule than how we are naturally or “psychologically” compelled to apply. We characterise two of the main lines of argument in the Investigations in terms of the rejection of logical compulsion. We thus propose to address the relevance of Wittgenstein’s writings for Chomsky by considering whether Chomsky’s linguistics presupposes the targeted notion of logical compulsion. We argue that Chomsky’s conception of linguistic competence in terms of successive states of the “language faculty” (containing the principles of universal grammar does presuppose this problematic notion. Chomsky responded to Kripke by devoting a chapter of his Knowledge of Language to defending this conception of linguistic competence against the Wittgensteinian arguments. We evaluate his response and argue that he has misidentified the threat to his linguistic project as consisting in the attack on its ‘individual psychology’ standpoint, rather than its commitment to logical compulsion. We conclude by arguing that Chomsky

  4. The effect of coarse gravel on cohesive sediment entrapment in an annular flume (United States)

    Glasbergen, K.; Stone, M.; Krishnappan, B.; Dixon, J.; Silins, U.


    While cohesive sediment generally represents a small fraction (armour layer of the gravel bed (>16 Pa), cohesive materials trapped within the gravel bed will be entrained and transported into the Glenmore Reservoir, where sediment-associated nutrients may pose treatment challenges to the drinking water supply.

  5. "Sticking Together": The Adolescent Experience of the Cohesion Process in Rural School Counseling Groups (United States)

    Gray, Tara M.; Rubel, Deborah


    The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory of how adolescents experience the cohesion process in rural school counseling groups. A total of 20 individual interviews with 7 participants were conducted. Data analysis generated the central category of the cohesion process as "sticking together," which describes a "tight…

  6. Cohesive subgroup formation : enabling and constraining effects of social capital in strategic technology alliance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysters, G.M.; Lemmens, C.E.A.V.


    In this paper we will examine the role of embeddedness and social capital in the process of cohesive subgroup formation in strategic technology alliance networks. More in particular, we will investigate the social mechanisms that enable and enforce cohesive subgroup formation. We will argue that the

  7. Cohesion and Trauma: An Examination of a Collegiate Women's Volleyball Team (United States)

    Fletcher, Teresa B.; Meyer, Barbara B.


    This study examined the effects of Adventure Based Counseling (i.e., a low-element challenge program) on the cohesion of a collegiate women's volleyball team. Results suggest postintervention improvements in team cohesion. The support created in the challenge experience also transferred to the players helping one another to grieve the untimely…

  8. Social Capital or Social Cohesion: What Matters for Subjective Well-Being? (United States)

    Klein, Carlo


    The theoretical analysis of the concepts of social capital and of social cohesion shows that social capital should be considered as a micro concept whereas social cohesion, being a broader concept than social capital, is a more appropriate concept for macro analysis. Therefore, we suggest that data on the individual level should only be used to…

  9. Fatigue damage modeling in solder interconnects using a cohesive zone approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul-Baqi, A.J.J.; Schreurs, P.J.G.; Geers, M.G.D.


    The objective of this work is to model the fatigue damage process in a solder bump subjected to cyclic loading conditions. Fatigue damage is simulated using the cohesive zone methodology. Damage is assumed to occur at interfaces modeled through cohesive zones in the material, while the bulk material

  10. Family Cohesion in the Lives of Mexican American and European American Parents (United States)

    Behnke, Andrew O.; MacDermid, Shelley M.; Coltrane, Scott L.; Parke, Ross D.; Duffy, Sharon; Widaman, Keith F.


    This study investigated similarities and differences in relations between stress and parenting behaviors for 509 Mexican American and European American fathers and mothers in Southern California. Our model posited that family cohesion mediates the relation between stressors and parenting behavior, and we found that family cohesion strongly…

  11. The effect of coarse gravel on cohesive sediment entrapment in an annular flume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Glasbergen


    Full Text Available While cohesive sediment generally represents a small fraction (16 Pa, cohesive materials trapped within the gravel bed will be entrained and transported into the Glenmore Reservoir, where sediment-associated nutrients may pose treatment challenges to the drinking water supply.

  12. Cohesion Features in ESL Reading: Comparing Beginning, Intermediate and Advanced Textbooks (United States)

    Plakans, Lia; Bilki, Zeynep


    This study of English as a second language (ESL) reading textbooks investigates cohesion in reading passages from 27 textbooks. The guiding research questions were whether and how cohesion differs across textbooks written for beginning, intermediate, and advanced second language readers. Using a computational tool called Coh-Metrix, textual…

  13. Influence of Sport Education on Group Cohesion in University Physical Education (United States)

    Jenkins, Jayne M.; Alderman, Brandon L.


    The Sport Education ("SE") curricular model incorporated within university physical education Basic Instruction Program (BIP) may increase group cohesion. This study's purpose was to identify student perceptions of a BIP course taught within "SE," and investigate group cohesion in differing activity content. Participants…

  14. Performance auditing in EU cohesion policy: what do we know and what should we know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, M.; Groenendijk, Nico


    Recently, the European Commission has put forward proposals for the next program period of EU Cohesion Policy (EUCP). Part of these proposals is an increased emphasis on performance management. This paper analyses what we know so far on performance management of EU cohesion funds. It will be argued

  15. Social cohesiveness and absenteeism: The relationship between characteristics of employees and short-term absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Karin; Nauta, Aukje


    This study tries to explain the relationship between characteristics of the employees (e.g., gender and working hours) and short-term absenteeism by examining the social cohesiveness of a team. Hypotheses are formulated concerning gender and working hours of employees, social cohesiveness, and

  16. Interparental Conflict and Family Cohesion: Predictors of Loneliness, Social Anxiety, and Social Avoidance in Late Adolescence. (United States)

    Johnson, H. Durell; LaVoie, Joseph C.; Mahoney, Molly


    Examined relationship of family cohesion and interparental conflict with loneliness in 124 late adolescents. Found that feelings of loneliness were related to perceived levels of interparental conflict for males and females, and to decreased family cohesion for females. Feelings of social anxiety and social avoidance were related to feelings of…

  17. How to deal with legal uncertainty: Managing and Audit Authorities in Cohesion Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, Lysette; Brenninkmeijer, A.F.M.


    Cohesion policy (ERDF, ESF and CF) is implemented in a system of shared management. Signals received from some EU countries indicate that legal uncertainty is created for beneficiaries of cohesion policy funds due to differences in interpretation of, mostly national, regulation. This is a problem

  18. Social network cohesion in school classes promotes prosocial behavior. (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A; Meuwese, Rosa; Güroğlu, Berna


    Adolescence is a key period of social development at the end of which individuals are expected to take on adult social roles. The school class, as the most salient peer group, becomes the prime environment that impacts social development during adolescence. Using social network analyses, we investigated how individual and group level features are related to prosocial behavior and social capital (generalized trust). We mapped the social networks within 22 classrooms of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (N = 611), and collected data on social behaviors towards peers. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality show both higher levels of prosocial behavior and relational aggression. Importantly, greater social cohesion in the classroom was associated with (1) reduced levels of antisocial behavior towards peers and (2) increased generalized trust. These results provide novel insights in the relationship between social structure and social behavior, and stress the importance of the school environment in the development of not only intellectual but also social capital.

  19. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez P, G.; Cabrera, E.; Mijangos, R.R.; Valdez, E.; Duarte, C.


    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCl x KBrRbCl 2 maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The value of the lattice parameter given by X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. (Author)

  20. Stress-compatible embedded cohesive crack in CST element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe


    A simple element with an embedded strong discontinuity for modeling cohesive cracking of concrete is presented. The element differs from previous elements of the embedded type, in that a consistent stress field is obtained by direct enforcement of stress continuity across the crack....... The displacement discontinuity is modeled in an XFEM fashion; however, the discontinuous displacement field is special, allowing for the direct enforcement of stress continuity. This in turn allows for elimination of extra degrees of freedom necessary for describing the crack deformations, thus the element has...... the same number of freedoms as its continuous basis: CST. The good performance of the element is demonstrated by its ability to simulate threepoint bending of a notched concrete beam. The advantage of the element is its simplicity and the straightforward implementation of it. Handling situations...

  1. Mechanisms of de cohesion in cutting aluminium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichosz, Piotr; Karolczak, Pawel; Kuzinovski, Mikolaj


    In this paper properties and applications of aluminium matrix composites are presented with a composite reinforced with saffil fibres selected for topical study. Behavior of matrix and reinforcement during machining with a cutting tool is analyzed. The paper presents an explosive quick-stop device designed to obtain undisturbed machined surface for examination. Meso hardness measurements of deformed structure, resultant chips and built-up-edge were carried out. Scanning micrographs of machined surface are presented with morphology and types of chips analysed. Values of the fibrousness angle ψ and thickening index k h of chip are evaluated. The research performed has enabled the authors to define mechanisms of e cohesion during cutting aluminium matrix composites. The results received for composite material are compared with those pertinent to aluminum alloys.

  2. The Cohesiveness of Muslim Pangestu Members in Salatiga, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suciati


    Full Text Available The drying of spirituality and weakening of cohesiveness in the midst of materialistic hedonistic modern world become major challenge for the adherents of official religions in Indonesia. The practice of religions is considered too much focusing on ritual aspects. Therefore, those teachings cannot give the real meaningfulness of religious life. Consequently, some adherents of official religions begin to see other spiritual/mysticism sects. This study describes the social cohesiveness among muslims who become members of Pangestu, a spiritual-mysticism sect widely spreading among Javanese society in Indonesia. This research shows that the Pangestu in Salatiga, Central Java, can fulfill social, economic, and spiritual needs of its members. Among the underlying factors that make Pangestu succeed to meet its members’ needs and expectations are the capability of the members to intensely communicate with each other through meetings and bawaraos (Jv, informal gathering, the great concern between members, good-example of leadership, the defense of Pangestu’s good name, and the satisfaction in experiencing meaningfulness of religious practices.[Kekeringan spiritual dan lemahnya kebersamaan di tengah dunia modern yang serba hedonistik menjadi tantangan utama bagi para pemeluk agama di Indonesia. Praktik-praktik keagamaan terlalu banyak terfokus pada aspek ritual, sehingga ajaran agama tidak mampu menghadirkan praktek-praktek keagamaan yang benar-benar bermakna. Hal ini mendorong sebagian pemeluk agama untuk melirik aliran kepercayaan dan kebatinan. Artikel ini mendeskripsikan keguyuban sosial di antara orang-orang Islam yang menjadi anggota Pangestu, sebuah aliran kepercayaan di Indonesia yang banyak menyebar terutama di kalangan masyarakat Jawa. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa Pangestu di Salatiga, Jawa Tegah, mampu memenuhi kebutuhan sosial, ekonomi, dan spiritual para anggotanya. Di antara faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan Pangestu dalam memenuhi

  3. Functional MR imaging of cerebral auditory cortex with linguistic and non-linguistic stimulation: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Su Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Shin, Tae Min


    To obtain preliminary data for understanding the central auditory neural pathway by means of functional MR imaging (fMRI) of the cerebral auditory cortex during linguistic and non-linguistic auditory stimulation. In three right-handed volunteers we conducted fMRI of auditory cortex stimulation at 1.5 T using a conventional gradient-echo technique (TR/TE/flip angle: 80/60/40 deg). Using a pulsed tone of 1000 Hz and speech as non-linguistic and linguistic auditory stimuli, respectively, images-including those of the superior temporal gyrus of both hemispheres-were obtained in sagittal plases. Both stimuli were separately delivered binaurally or monoaurally through a plastic earphone. Images were activated by processing with homemade software. In order to analyze patterns of auditory cortex activation according to type of stimulus and which side of the ear was stimulated, the number and extent of activated pixels were compared between both temporal lobes. Biaural stimulation led to bilateral activation of the superior temporal gyrus, while monoaural stimulation led to more activation in the contralateral temporal lobe than in the ipsilateral. A trend toward slight activation of the left (dominant) temporal lobe in ipsilateral stimulation, particularly with a linguistic stimulus, was observed. During both biaural and monoaural stimulation, a linguistic stimulus produced more widespread activation than did a non-linguistic one. The superior temporal gyri of both temporal lobes are associated with acoustic-phonetic analysis, and the left (dominant) superior temporal gyrus is likely to play a dominant role in this processing. For better understanding of physiological and pathological central auditory pathways, further investigation is needed

  4. An Investigation into the Use of Cohesive Devises in Iranian High School EFL Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Shabani


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at probing into the use of grammatical and lexical cohesive subdevices in Iranian high school EFL textbooks. To this end, the reading sections of three high school EFL textbooks and one pre-university EFL textbook were analyzed in terms of the distribution of grammatical and lexical cohesive subdevices. The results of One-way ANOVA illustrated that: athere are no significant differences among the frequencies of grammatical cohesive subdevices across grade 1 high school EFL textbook and the pre-university EFL textbook, bthere are significant differences among the frequencies of grammatical cohesive subdevices across grades 2 and 3 high school EFL textbooks. Moreover, the results of Chi-Square test showed that the significant values of all of the lexical cohesive subdevices were higher than .05 across each of the Iranian EFL high school textbooks. These findings can be beneficial for textbook writers, materials developers and EFL teachers.

  5. Mode I Cohesive Law Characterization of Through-Crack Propagation in a Multidirectional Laminate (United States)

    Bergan, Andrew C.; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Awerbuch, Jonathan; Tan, Tein-Min


    A method is proposed and assessed for the experimental characterization of through-the-thickness crack propagation in multidirectional composite laminates with a cohesive law. The fracture toughness and crack opening displacement are measured and used to determine a cohesive law. Two methods of computing fracture toughness are assessed and compared. While previously proposed cohesive characterizations based on the R-curve exhibit size effects, the proposed approach results in a cohesive law that is a material property. The compact tension specimen configuration is used to propagate damage while load and full-field displacements are recorded. These measurements are used to compute the fracture toughness and crack opening displacement from which the cohesive law is characterized. The experimental results show that a steady-state fracture toughness is not reached. However, the proposed method extrapolates to steady-state and is demonstrated capable of predicting the structural behavior of geometrically-scaled specimens.

  6. Bedform development and morphodynamics in mixed cohesive sediment substrates: the importance of winnowing and flocculation (United States)

    Ye, Leiping; Parsons, Daniel; Manning, Andrew


    There remains a lack of process-based knowledge of sediment dynamics within flows over bedforms generated in complex mixtures of cohesionless sand and biologically-active cohesive muds in natural estuarine flow systems. The work to be presented forms a part of the UK NERC "COHesive BEDforms (COHBED)" project which aims to fill this gap in knowledge. Herein results from a field survey in sub-tidal zone of Dee estuary (NW, England) and a set of large-scale laboratory experiments, conducted using mixtures of non-cohesive sands, cohesive muds and Xanthan gum (as a proxy for the biological stickiness of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS)) will be presented. The results indicate the significance of biological-active cohesive sediments in controlling winnowing rates and flocculation dynamics, which contributes significantly to rates of bedform evolution.

  7. Sex differences in the development of perceived family cohesion and depressive symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents. (United States)

    Sze, Tat-Ming; Hsieh, Pei-Jung; Lin, Sieh-Hwa; Chen, I-Jung


    This study investigates the progression of family cohesion perceptions and depressive symptoms during the character development stage in adolescents. Data were used from the Taiwan Youth Project. The final sample comprised 2,690 adolescents with 1,312 girls (48.8%; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.5). Latent curve growth analysis was employed to explore these developments. Seventh-grade girls reported greater family cohesion and more depressive symptoms than boys, and boys reported greater growth in family cohesion than girls. However, progression of depressive symptoms was not associated with the child's sex. Higher perceived family cohesion in Grade 7 correlated with less increase of depressive symptoms from Grades 9 to 11. The long-term positive influence of family cohesion on depressive symptoms is discussed.

  8. Songs to syntax: the linguistics of birdsong. (United States)

    Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Beckers, Gabriel J L; Bolhuis, Johan J


    Unlike our primate cousins, many species of bird share with humans a capacity for vocal learning, a crucial factor in speech acquisition. There are striking behavioural, neural and genetic similarities between auditory-vocal learning in birds and human infants. Recently, the linguistic parallels between birdsong and spoken language have begun to be investigated. Although both birdsong and human language are hierarchically organized according to particular syntactic constraints, birdsong structure is best characterized as 'phonological syntax', resembling aspects of human sound structure. Crucially, birdsong lacks semantics and words. Formal language and linguistic analysis remains essential for the proper characterization of birdsong as a model system for human speech and language, and for the study of the brain and cognition evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva


    The present paper compares the two modes of processing proposed by Van Lancker Sidtis (2009 in her dual process model and the two domains of discourse organization distinguished in the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013; Kaltenböck et al. 2011. These two frameworks were developed on different kinds of data. In the dual process model it is observations on patients with left or right hemisphere damage that marked the starting point of analysis. Central to the dual process model is the distinction between novel speech (or novel language, or newly created language, or propositional speech and formulaic speech (or formulaic expressions or automatic speech. Easily identified instances of formulaic speech are swear words, interjections, pause fillers, discourse elements, non-literal lexical meanings for idioms, proverbs. Unlike the dual process model, in the Discourse Grammar model it is linguistic discontinuities that provided the basis of analysis. Discourse grammar in this model is understood as all the linguistic resources that are available for constructing spoken and written (and signed texts. We argue that Discourse Grammar can be divided into two distinct domains, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar. Whereas Sentence Grammar has been at the centre of interest in mainstream linguistics, Thetical Grammar encompasses linguistic phenomena – such as formulae of social exchange, imperatives, vocatives, interjections, including hesitation markers and pause fillers and what is traditionally known as “parenthetical” constructions – that pose a problem to orthodox grammatical analysis. We show that the findings made within the two frameworks are largely compatible with one another: both models converge on claiming that there is a significant correlation between linguistic categorization and hemisphere-based brain activity. In the dual process model it is hypothesized that there is a significant correlation between certain kinds of speech

  10. Constructing an XML database of linguistics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J H Kroeze


    Full Text Available A language-oriented, multi-dimensional database of the linguistic characteristics of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament can enable researchers to do ad hoc queries. XML is a suitable technology to transform free text into a database. A clause’s word order can be kept intact while other features such as syntactic and semantic functions can be marked as elements or attributes. The elements or attributes from the XML “database” can be accessed and proces sed by a 4th generation programming language, such as Visual Basic. XML is explored as an option to build an exploitable database of linguistic data by representing inherently multi-dimensional data, including syntactic and semantic analyses of free text.

  11. Genre analysis of linguistics research introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Porras


    Full Text Available The emergence of exploring genre analysis has been a trend in Applied Linguistics, not only for its interesting factor, but also because of its pedagogical implications. This study aimed to determine the overall structure, specifically the presence and conformity of moves and steps of the research introductions in the field of Linguistics. Twelve (12 available research introductions were analyzed using Create-A-Research-Space (CARS model. The findings revealed that moves and steps across the research introductions are present. Majority of the research introductions conformed to the CARS model, but did not necessarily follow the suggested sequence. Results imply that teachers of research writing should acknowledge and introduce the CARS model as a basis for teaching the method of writing research introductions effectively.

  12. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    finding from research on sentence processing that sentences are processed incrementally. Empirical methods for establishing grammaticality status are discussed and applied in relation to non-WH extraction phenomena in Danish. In Chapter 2, I discuss the use of the notions of grammaticality......The dissertation presents a functional linguistic model of grammaticality and investigates methods for applying this notion in empirical work. The use of the notion of grammaticality in generative grammar has been criticized by functionalists (Harder, 1996; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999), but attempts...... grammaticality. It is concluded that the intuitions of linguists should in principle be considered hypotheses of grammaticality, and that such hypotheses need to be tested with independent data. Such data can for example take the form of corpus data or acceptability judgment experiments. It is furthermore argued...

  13. Rotational Failure of Rubble-pile Bodies: Influences of Shear and Cohesive Strengths (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Richardson, Derek C.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis


    The shear and cohesive strengths of a rubble-pile asteroid could influence the critical spin at which the body fails and its subsequent evolution. We present results using a soft-sphere discrete element method to explore the mechanical properties and dynamical behaviors of self-gravitating rubble piles experiencing increasing rotational centrifugal forces. A comprehensive contact model incorporating translational and rotational friction and van der Waals cohesive interactions is developed to simulate rubble-pile asteroids. It is observed that the critical spin depends strongly on both the frictional and cohesive forces between particles in contact; however, the failure behaviors only show dependence on the cohesive force. As cohesion increases, the deformation of the simulated body prior to disruption is diminished, the disruption process is more abrupt, and the component size of the fissioned material is increased. When the cohesive strength is high enough, the body can disaggregate into similar-size fragments, which could be a plausible mechanism to form asteroid pairs or active asteroids. The size distribution and velocity dispersion of the fragments in high-cohesion simulations show similarities to the disintegrating asteroid P/2013 R3, indicating that this asteroid may possess comparable cohesion in its structure and experience rotational fission in a similar manner. Additionally, we propose a method for estimating a rubble pile’s friction angle and bulk cohesion from spin-up numerical experiments, which provides the opportunity for making quantitative comparisons with continuum theory. The results show that the present technique has great potential for predicting the behaviors and estimating the material strengths of cohesive rubble-pile asteroids.

  14. Relationship between the cohesion of guest particles on the flow behaviour of interactive mixtures. (United States)

    Mangal, Sharad; Gengenbach, Thomas; Millington-Smith, Doug; Armstrong, Brian; Morton, David A V; Larson, Ian


    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects cohesion of small surface-engineered guest binder particles on the flow behaviour of interactive mixtures. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) - a model pharmaceutical binder - was spray-dried with varying l-leucine feed concentrations to create small surface-engineered binder particles with varying cohesion. These spray-dried formulations were characterised by their particle size distribution, morphology and cohesion. Interactive mixtures were produced by blending these spray-dried formulations with paracetamol. The resultant blends were visualised under scanning electron microscope to confirm formation of interactive mixtures. Surface coverage of paracetamol by guest particles as well as the flow behaviour of these mixtures were examined. The flow performance of interactive mixtures was evaluated using measurements of conditioned bulk density, basic flowability energy, aeration energy and compressibility. With higher feed l-leucine concentrations, the surface roughness of small binder particles increased, while their cohesion decreased. Visual inspection of the SEM images of the blends indicated that the guest particles adhered to the surface of paracetamol resulting in effective formation of interactive mixtures. These images also showed that the low-cohesion guest particles were better de-agglomerated that consequently formed a more homogeneous interactive mixture with paracetamol compared with high-cohesion formulations. The flow performance of interactive mixtures changed as a function of the cohesion of the guest particles. Interactive mixtures with low-cohesion guest binder particles showed notably improved bulk flow performance compared with those containing high-cohesion guest binder particles. Thus, our study suggests that the cohesion of guest particles dictates the flow performance of interactive mixtures. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic/literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by philologist V.V. Vinogrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa N. Kuznetsova


    Full Text Available The article considers M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic / literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by Great Russian scientist-philologist and linguist, Academician V.V. Vinogradov.

  16. Linguistic control of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, J.J.; Johnson, J.C.


    A multivariable linguistic controller based on fuzzy set theory is discussed and its application to a pressurized water nuclear power plant control is illustrated by computer simulation. The nonlinear power plant simulation model has nine states, two control inputs, one disturbance input, and two outputs. Although relatively simple, the model captures the essential coupled nonlinear plant dynamics and is convenient to use for control system studies. The use of an adaptive version of the controller is also demonstrated by computer simulation

  17. A review on gender linguistics studies


    Roozbeh Moradi


    Gender linguistics is a cynosure branch within the framework of language sociology and it deals with the effect that the gender, as a variable, has on the creation of lingual diversities. Because a great many of the social-cultural concepts, including gender, are multifaceted, one-dimensional and absolute perceptions of such concepts lead to some sort of superficiality, particularly in research areas. The present article, firstly, deals with the presentation of the notions opined by two promi...

  18. Precedent Phenomena in Quebecois Linguistic World View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ксения Эдуардовна Болотина


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the linguocultural analysis of precedent phenomena as parts of Quebecois’ cognitive base. Precedent phenomena being cultural facts are one of the key issues in modern linguistic and cognitive studies. By precedent phenomena we mean, according to Y.E. Prohorov, such entities when verbalized in discourse that refer to a certain cultural fact behind them. In the article the precedent phenomena such as precedent text, precedent situation, precedent utterance, and precedent name are analyzed. The main theses of the precedence theory given in the article (Y.N. Karaulov, Y.E. Prohorov, V.V. Krasnyh, D.B. Gudkov are at the heart of precedence studies on the basis of different languages. However, a complex analysis of precedent phenomena in the Quebec national variant of French is new to Russian linguistics. The study of precedent phenomena enables us to elicit features of their functioning in ethnospecific discourse and determine cultural dominants existing in Quebecois’ linguistic world view. Given the fact that the size of the article is limited, we undertooke the analysis of eight phenomena precedent of the bearers of Quebec linguoculture. The choice of phenomena is determined by the frequency of their use in discourse. The facts analyzed are of national character, i.e. known to all members of the linguocultural community. A certain cultural fact is at the very core of each precedent phenomenon given in the article. To get the whole picture we analysed historic, political, and cultural context connected to the precedent phenomena in question. The study enables us to elicit distinctive features that are at the core of each phenomenon. The results are backed with the supportive material drawn from analysis of different types of discourse. The analysis of precedent phenomena undertaken in this article allows us to reconstruct, to a certain extent, Quebec cultural space and is a stepping stone to the reconstruction of the

  19. Deep learning evaluation using deep linguistic processing


    Kuhnle, Alexander; Copestake, Ann


    We discuss problems with the standard approaches to evaluation for tasks like visual question answering, and argue that artificial data can be used to address these as a complement to current practice. We demonstrate that with the help of existing 'deep' linguistic processing technology we are able to create challenging abstract datasets, which enable us to investigate the language understanding abilities of multimodal deep learning models in detail, as compared to a single performance value ...

  20. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa


    Stephanie Rudwick


    This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It ...

  1. Method and apparatus for blending fine and cohesive powders in a fluidized bed with gas injection through ball valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A fluidized bed blender is described, suitable for blending powders including a mixture of fine and cohesive powders and in particular for converting a heterogeneous mixture of fine and cohesive UO 2 into a homogeneous mixture. (U.K.)

  2. The Notion of Culture in Linguistic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Busch


    Full Text Available Many works on intercultural communication from the field of linguistics share the assumption that influences of culture on social interaction will manifest in communicative exchanges—and conversely, that an academic's look at these exchanges will be a sufficient basis for an adequate description of what intercultural communication is supposed to be about. Linguistic theory itself lacking of places to integrate culture as a factor into its concepts, urges scholars to borrow operationalizations of culture from neighboring disciplines like e.g. different strands of psychology, sociology or anthropology. Approaches resulting from this transdisciplinary orientation as a consequence share very divergent assumptions on how, at what moment in a communicative process and with what effects culture influences social interaction. While many surveys on similar behalf distinguish between primordial and constructionist approaches, a closer look at different strands of empirical linguistic research may reveal even more precise and detailed distinctions on how culture may be captured and framed. This article will present and analyze a selection of approaches from the mentioned field, e.g. from intercultural and contrastive pragmatics, interactional sociolinguistics, ethnography of communication, ethnomethodology as well as discourse analysis. In each case, the underlying notions of culture will be revealed and put into contrast. Additionally, this exemplary analysis may show that most of the empirical schools mentioned follow and adopt changing notions of culture from social theory over time. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901508


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Evangelina de Santana BELLI RODRIGUES


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the methodology adopted by the Linguistic Atlas of Paraná – APLR (AGUILERA, 1990 and to describe its results in relation to other Brazilian atlas. To meet this objective, we first present the modifications, mainly methodological, under gone by Geolinguistics towards a more complete and in depth description of linguistic variation. The Pluridimensional Geolinguistics and Contractual model of Harald Thun (1998 and the Linguistics Atlas of Brazil – ALiB (CARDOSO et all, 2014, published in October, 2014, are presented. It was also necessary to describe, although briefly, the most traditional Geolinguistics research method, characteristic of the ALPR, before referring the text back to Aguilera’s Atlas. After discussing the criteria on which the ALPR was constructed, from choice of informers to the Geolinguistics charts that compose it, as well as its complementation by the ALPR II (ALTINO, 2007, it was possible to analyze the results and relate them to the hypotheses posed by the thesis which gave origin to it.

  4. Linguistic coding deficits in foreign language learners. (United States)

    Sparks, R; Ganschow, L; Pohlman, J


    As increasing numbers of colleges and universities require a foreign language for graduation in at least one of their degree programs, reports of students with difficulties in learning a second language are multiplying. Until recently, little research has been conducted to identify the nature of this problem. Recent attempts by the authors have focused upon subtle but ongoing language difficulties in these individuals as the source of their struggle to learn a foreign language. The present paper attempts to expand upon this concept by outlining a theoretical framework based upon a linguistic coding model that hypothesizes deficits in the processing of phonological, syntactic, and/or semantic information. Traditional psychoeducational assessment batteries of standardized intelligence and achievement tests generally are not sensitive to these linguistic coding deficits unless closely analyzed or, more often, used in conjunction with a more comprehensive language assessment battery. Students who have been waived from a foreign language requirement and their proposed type(s) of linguistic coding deficits are profiled. Tentative conclusions about the nature of these foreign language learning deficits are presented along with specific suggestions for tests to be used in psychoeducational evaluations.

  5. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska


    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  6. Music playschool enhances children's linguistic skills. (United States)

    Linnavalli, Tanja; Putkinen, Vesa; Lipsanen, Jari; Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari


    Several studies have suggested that intensive musical training enhances children's linguistic skills. Such training, however, is not available to all children. We studied in a community setting whether a low-cost, weekly music playschool provided to 5-6-year-old children in kindergartens could already affect their linguistic abilities. Children (N = 66) were tested four times over two school-years with Phoneme processing and Vocabulary subtests, along with tests for Perceptual reasoning skills and Inhibitory control. We compared the development of music playschool children to their peers either attending to similarly organized dance lessons or not attending to either activity. Music playschool significantly improved the development of children's phoneme processing and vocabulary skills. No such improvements on children's scores for non-verbal reasoning and inhibition were obtained. Our data suggest that even playful group music activities - if attended to for several years - have a positive effect on pre-schoolers' linguistic skills. Therefore we promote the concept of implementing regular music playschool lessons given by professional teachers in early childhood education.

  7. Sister chromatid cohesion defects are associated with chromosome instability in Hodgkin lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajesh, Babu V; Lichtensztejn, Zelda; McManus, Kirk J


    Chromosome instability manifests as an abnormal chromosome complement and is a pathogenic event in cancer. Although a correlation between abnormal chromosome numbers and cancer exist, the underlying mechanisms that cause chromosome instability are poorly understood. Recent data suggests that aberrant sister chromatid cohesion causes chromosome instability and thus contributes to the development of cancer. Cohesion normally functions by tethering nascently synthesized chromatids together to prevent premature segregation and thus chromosome instability. Although the prevalence of aberrant cohesion has been reported for some solid tumors, its prevalence within liquid tumors is unknown. Consequently, the current study was undertaken to evaluate aberrant cohesion within Hodgkin lymphoma, a lymphoid malignancy that frequently exhibits chromosome instability. Using established cytogenetic techniques, the prevalence of chromosome instability and aberrant cohesion was examined within mitotic spreads generated from five commonly employed Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines (L-1236, KM-H2, L-428, L-540 and HDLM-2) and a lymphocyte control. Indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses were performed to evaluate the localization and expression of six critical proteins involved in the regulation of sister chromatid cohesion. We first confirmed that all five Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines exhibited chromosome instability relative to the lymphocyte control. We then determined that each Hodgkin lymphoma cell line exhibited cohesion defects that were subsequently classified into mild, moderate or severe categories. Surprisingly, ~50% of the mitotic spreads generated from L-540 and HDLM-2 harbored cohesion defects. To gain mechanistic insight into the underlying cause of the aberrant cohesion we examined the localization and expression of six critical proteins involved in cohesion. Although all proteins produced the expected nuclear localization pattern, striking differences in RAD21

  8. "New linguistic issues", by Pier Pasolini, is causing scandal among linguists, philologists, writers, critics and intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Negri


    Full Text Available Pasolini departs from the diagnosis of a problem: the critical quest stage in contemporary literature, centered on the 1950s; he points out the author´s inability to create the design for a national language. He goes on to analyze the deep mutation in Italian Society, which determineted a new socio-linguistic outlook; to wit, a language clearly marked by strong technicality and instrumentation. Drawing examples from newspapers, TV features, official political speeches and commercials, Pasolini demonstrates that factual communication takes precedence over formal expression. This is ascribed to one principle which sets both rules and approvals for all forms of national language. This fact, according to Pasolini, is the result of an industrial and technological transformation process, which would  permite advent of a new linguistic bourgeoisie. The linguistic unification caused by such approving  principle would, therefore, imply the social manifestation of the bourgeoisie.

  9. Flow Function of Pharmaceutical Powders Is Predominantly Governed by Cohesion, Not by Friction Coefficients. (United States)

    Leung, Lap Yin; Mao, Chen; Srivastava, Ishan; Du, Ping; Yang, Chia-Yi


    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the flow function (FFc) of pharmaceutical powders, as measured by rotational shear cell, is predominantly governed by cohesion but not friction coefficients. Driven by an earlier report showing an inverse correlation between FFc and the cohesion divided by the corresponding pre-consolidation stress (Wang et al. 2016. Powder Tech. 294:105-112), we performed analysis on a large data set containing 1130 measurements from a ring shear tester and identified a near-perfect inverse correlation between the FFc and cohesion. Conversely, no correlation was found between FFc and friction angles. We also conducted theoretical analysis and estimated such correlations based on Mohr-Coulomb failure model. We discovered that the correlation between FFc and cohesion can sustain as long as the angle of internal friction at incipient flow is not significantly larger than the angle of internal friction at steady-state flow, a condition covering almost all pharmaceutical powders. The outcome of this study bears significance in pharmaceutical development. Because the cohesion value is strongly influenced by the interparticle cohesive forces, this study effectively shows that it is more efficient to improve the pharmaceutical powder flow by lowering the interparticle cohesive forces than by lowering the interparticle frictions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of low energy electron beam irradiation technology. Application to cohesive and adhesive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisashi; Enomoto, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Mitsuaki


    The hightening of the cohesive and adhesive performances of rubber cohesive and adhesive agents, of which the main component is electron beam-cross-linked styrene-isoprene block copolymer (SIS), was tried. Cohesive and adhesive agents are cohesive agents at the time of use, but change to adhesive property by the lapse of time or the means using heat, light or radiation, and further, partially to separating property. This time, as a cohesion-giving agent, ARKON P-100 system was examined, and the heightening of adhesive performance including the improvement of the heat resistance and solvent endurance, which are the demerits of rubber, was investigated. Also the difference of the cohesive and adhesive performances due to the kinds of cohesion-giving agents was examined. The samples were prepared by irradiating the films on which the SIS was applied. The measurement of gel proportion, the holding force test at elevated temperature, the measurement of DSC and 180deg separation test were carried out. Respective testing methods and the results are reported. By electron beam irradiation, the heat resistance and solvent endurance were improved without affecting the separation force. (K.I.)

  11. Effect of cohesion on local compaction and granulation of sheared soft granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sudeshna


    Full Text Available This paper results from an ongoing investigation of the effect of cohesion on the compaction of sheared soft wet granular materials. We compare dry non-cohesive and wet moderately-to-strongly cohesive soft almost frictionless granular materials and report the effect of cohesion between the grains on the local volume fraction. We study this in a three dimensional, unconfined, slowly sheared split-bottom ring shear cell, where materials while sheared are subject to compression under the confining weight of the material above. Our results show that inter-particle cohesion has a considerable impact on the compaction of soft materials. Cohesion causes additional stresses, due to capillary forces between particles, leading to an increase in volume fraction due to higher compaction. This effect is not visible in a system of infinitely stiff particles. In addition, acting oppositely, we observe a general decrease in volume fraction due to increased cohesion for frictional particle, which we attribute to the role of contact friction that enhances dilation.

  12. Interrelations between Energy Security Economics and Social Cohesion: Analysis of a Lithuanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Genys


    Full Text Available Growing attention to sustainable development in academic discourse fosters discussions on how energy security affects society. In most cases the discussions consider the political and economic consequences, which affect or may affect the society. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania. To achieve this aim the interrelations between energy security, energy economics and social cohesion are discussed. The theoretical framework of social cohesion (introduced by J. Jenson and P. Bernard is presented and applied in empirical analysis. The operationalization of empirical variables is based on economic, political and socio-cultural - activity areas, which are analyzed to verify the dichotomies between public attitudes and the actual behavior of society. These dichotomies help to distinguish six analytical dimensions, on the basis of which we created 17 empirical indicators, which analysis allows for describing the impact of Lithuanian energy security economics on social cohesion in quantitative data. The statistical analyses showed that the impact of attitudinal dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has an almost neutral effect: 3.05 (1-very negative; 3-neutral, 5-very positive. Whereas, the impact of behavioural dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion has a negative effect: 2.47. The aggregated average of the overall impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has a negative effect: 2.76.

  13. Cohesion, leadership, mental health stigmatisation and perceived barriers to care in UK military personnel. (United States)

    Jones, Norman; Campion, Ben; Keeling, Mary; Greenberg, Neil


    Military research suggests a significant association between leadership, cohesion, mental health stigmatisation and perceived barriers to care (stigma/BTC). Most studies are cross sectional, therefore longitudinal data were used to examine the association of leadership and cohesion with stigma/BTC. Military personnel provided measures of leadership, cohesion, stigma/BTC, mental health awareness and willingness to discuss mental health following deployment (n = 2510) and 4-6 months later (n = 1636). At follow-up, baseline leadership and cohesion were significantly associated with stigma/BTC; baseline cohesion alone was significantly associated with awareness of and willingness to discuss mental health at follow-up. Over time, changes in perceived leadership and cohesion were significantly associated with corresponding changes in stigma/BTC levels. Stigma/BTC content was similar in both surveys; fear of being viewed as weak and being treated differently by leaders was most frequently endorsed while thinking less of a help-seeking team member and unawareness of potential help sources were least common. Effective leadership and cohesion building may help to reduce stigma/BTC in military personnel. Mental health awareness and promoting the discussion of mental health matters may represent core elements of supportive leader behaviour. Perceptions of weakness and fears of being treated differently represent a focus for stigma/BTC reduction.

  14. Family cohesion and posttraumatic intrusion and avoidance among war veterans: a 20-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava; Horesh, Danny; Ein-Dor, Tsachi


    The bi-directional relationships between combat-induced posttraumatic symptoms and family relations are yet to be understood. The present study assesses the longitudinal interrelationship of posttraumatic intrusion and avoidance and family cohesion among 208 Israeli combat veterans from the 1982 Lebanon War. Two groups of veterans were assessed with self-report questionnaires 1, 3 and 20 years after the war: a combat stress reaction (CSR) group and a matched non-CSR control group. Latent Trajectories Modeling showed that veterans of the CSR group reported higher intrusion and avoidance than non-CSR veterans at all three points of time. With time, there was a decline in these symptoms in both groups, but the decline was more salient among the CSR group. The latter also reported lower levels of family cohesion. Furthermore, an incline in family cohesion levels was found in both groups over the years. Most importantly, Autoregressive Cross-Lagged Modeling among CSR and non-CSR veterans revealed that CSR veterans' posttraumatic symptoms in 1983 predicted lower family cohesion in 1985, and lower family cohesion, in turn, predicted posttraumatic symptoms in 2002. The findings suggest that psychological breakdown on the battlefield is a marker for future family cohesion difficulties. Our results lend further support for the bi-directional mutual effects of posttraumatic symptoms and family cohesion over time.

  15. Mind the gap! Automated concept map feedback supports students in writing cohesive explanations. (United States)

    Lachner, Andreas; Burkhart, Christian; Nückles, Matthias


    Many students are challenged with the demand of writing cohesive explanations. To support students in writing cohesive explanations, we developed a computer-based feedback tool that visualizes cohesion deficits of students' explanations in a concept map. We conducted three studies to investigate the effectiveness of such feedback as well as the underlying cognitive processes. In Study 1, we found that the concept map helped students identify potential cohesion gaps in their drafts and plan remedial revisions. In Study 2, students with concept map feedback conducted revisions that resulted in more locally and globally cohesive, and also more comprehensible, explanations than the explanations of students who revised without concept map feedback. In Study 3, we replicated the findings of Study 2 by and large. More importantly, students who had received concept map feedback on a training explanation 1 week later wrote a transfer explanation without feedback that was more cohesive than the explanation of students who had received no feedback on their training explanation. The automated concept map feedback appears to particularly support the evaluation phase of the revision process. Furthermore, the feedback enabled novice writers to acquire sustainable skills in writing cohesive explanations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. [Effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children]. (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Xue, Hong-Li; Chen, Qian


    To investigate the effects of family cohesion and adaptability on behavioral problems in preschool children. The stratified cluster multistage sampling method was used to perform a questionnaire survey in the parents of 1 284 children aged 3-6 years in the urban area of Lanzhou, China. The general status questionnaire, Conners Child Behavior Checklist (Parent Symptom Question), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, Second edition, Chinese version (FACESII-CV) were used to investigate behavioral problems and family cohesion and adaptability. The overall detection rate of behavioral problems in preschool children was 17.13%. The children with different types of family cohesion had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with free-type family cohesion showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (40.2%). The children with different types of family adaptability also had different detection rates of behavioral problems, and those with stiffness type showed the highest detection rate of behavioral problems (25.1%). The behavioral problems in preschool children were negatively correlated with family cohesion and adaptability. During the growth of preschool children, family cohesion and adaptability have certain effects on the mental development of preschool children.

  17. Winnowing and Flocculation in Bio-physical Cohesive Substrate: A Flume Experimental and Estuarine Study (United States)

    Ye, L.; Parsons, D. R.; Manning, A. J.


    Cohesive sediment, or mud, is ubiquitously found in most aqueous environments, such as coasts and estuaries. The study of cohesive sediment behaviors requires the synchronous description of mutual interactions of grains (e.g., winnowing and flocculation), their physical properties (e.g., grain size) and also the ambient water. Herein, a series of flume experiments (14 runs) with different substrate mixtures of sand-clay-EPS (Extracellular Polymeric Substrates: secreted by aquatic microorganisms) are combined with an estuarine field survey (Dee estuary, NW England) to investigate the behavior of suspensions over bio-physical cohesive substrates. The experimental results indicate that winnowing and flocculation occur pervasively in bio-physical cohesive flow systems. Importantly however, the evolution of the bed and bedform dynamics and hence turbulence production can be lower when cohesivity is high. The estuarine survey also revealed that the bio-physical cohesion provided by both the clay and microorganism fractions in the bed, that pervasively exists in many natural estuarine systems, plays a significant role in controlling the interactions between bed substrate and sediment suspension and deposition, including controlling processes such as sediment winnowing, flocculation and re-deposition. Full understanding of these processes are essential in advancing sediment transport modelling and prediction studies across natural estuarine systems and the work will report on an improved conceptual model for sediment sorting deposition in bio-physical cohesive substrates.

  18. Channel Bank Cohesion and the Maintenance of Suspension Rivers (United States)

    Dunne, K. B. J.; Jerolmack, D. J.


    Gravel-bedded rivers organize their channel geometry and grain size such that transport is close to the threshold of motion at bankfull. Sand-bedded rivers, however, typically maintain bankfull fluid shear (or Shields) stresses far in excess of threshold; there is no widely accepted explanation for these "suspension rivers". We propose that all alluvial rivers are at the threshold of motion for their erosion-limiting material, i.e., the structural component of the river cross-section that is most difficult to mobilize. The entrainment threshold of gravel is large enough that bank cohesion has little influence on gravel-bed rivers. Sand, however, is the most easily entrained material; silt and clay can raise the entrainment threshold of sand by orders of magnitude. We examine a global dataset of river channel geometry and show that the shear stress range for sand-bedded channels is entirely within the range of entrainment thresholds for sand-mud mixtures - suggesting that rivers that suspend their sandy bed material are still threshold rivers in terms of bank material. We then present new findings from a New Jersey coastal-plain river examining if and how river-bank toe composition controls hydraulic geometry. We consider the toe because it is the foundation of the river bank, and its erosion leads to channel widening. Along a 20-km profile of the river we measure cross-section geometry, bed slope, and bed and bank composition, and we explore multiple methods of measuring the threshold shear stress of the the river-bank toe in-situ. As the composition of the river bed transitions from gravel to sand, we see preliminary evidence of a shift from bed-threshold to bank-threshold control on hydraulic geometry. We also observe that sub-bankfull flows are insufficient to erode (cohesive) bank materials, even though transport of sand is active at nearly all flows. Our findings highlight the importance of focusing on river-bank toe material, which in the studied stream is

  19. The Perilous Life of a Linguistic Genre Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchmann, Simon


    , the descriptions are more informative than the structures hitherto described by text linguistics. Secondly, as historical norms, they are a testimony to the development and change of language use. Thirdly, the descriptions contribute to language users’ awareness of the origin of standards, their understanding......The primary, theoretical aim of the article is to present a linguistic text analysis that differs from standard text linguistic approaches by being informative with regard to the linguistic choices and textual organisation that characterise a text as a social act. The analysis is exemplified...... by using texts of a relatively new Danish journalistic genre nyhedsanalyse (news analysis). The secondary, empirical aim of the article is to present a corpus-based, linguistic analysis of central elements of the genre nyhedsanalyse within the Danish system of newspaper genres. Text linguistics is based...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Kononenko


    Full Text Available The article highlights the principles of researching into text from the interdisciplinary linguistic and cultural perspective. Cognitological analysis of linguistic and extralinguistic cultural meanings reveals that there exist of specific linguistic and aesthetic formations best presented through the ‘language – culture – identity’ triad. One of the components of literary discourse is monocultural layer, which secures the continuity of national cultural tradition; researching into it, one should take into account mental and historical, psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic and other factors. Linguistic and aesthetic analysis helps to establish the system of linguistic and cultural means (metaphorization, imagery, verbal symbols, linguistic conceptualization, connotative meanings, which reveals its potential in literary texts. The lingual identity as a general notional category shows its nationally-oriented characteristics through the dichotomies of ‘addresser-addressee’ , ‘author-reader’, ‘narrator-narratee’ and is presented in the author’s idiolect.

  1. Words Get in the Way: Linguistic Effects on Talker Discrimination. (United States)

    Narayan, Chandan R; Mak, Lorinda; Bialystok, Ellen


    A speech perception experiment provides evidence that the linguistic relationship between words affects the discrimination of their talkers. Listeners discriminated two talkers' voices with various linguistic relationships between their spoken words. Listeners were asked whether two words were spoken by the same person or not. Word pairs varied with respect to the linguistic relationship between the component words, forming either: phonological rhymes, lexical compounds, reversed compounds, or unrelated pairs. The degree of linguistic relationship between the words affected talker discrimination in a graded fashion, revealing biases listeners have regarding the nature of words and the talkers that speak them. These results indicate that listeners expect a talker's words to be linguistically related, and more generally, indexical processing is affected by linguistic information in a top-down fashion even when listeners are not told to attend to it. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Differences by Sexual Orientation in Perceptions of Neighborhood Cohesion: Implications for Health. (United States)

    Henning-Smith, Carrie; Gonzales, Gilbert


    A large body of research documents the relationship between health and place, including the positive association between neighborhood cohesion and health. However, very little research has examined neighborhood cohesion by sexual orientation. This paper addresses that gap by examining differences in perceived neighborhood cohesion by sexual orientation. We use data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (n = 28,164 respondents aged 18 years and older) to examine bivariate differences by sexual orientation in four measures of neighborhood cohesion. We then use ordered logistic regression models to assess the relationship between sexual orientation and a scaled measure of neighborhood cohesion, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, living arrangements, health status, region, and neighborhood tenure. We find that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults are less likely to say that they live in a close-knit neighborhood (54.6 vs. 65.6%, p < 0.001), they can count on their neighbors (74.7 vs. 83.1%, p < 0.001), they trust their neighbors (75.5 vs. 83.7%, p < 0.001), or people in their neighborhood help each other out (72.9 vs. 83.1%, p < 0.001), compared to heterosexual adults. Even after controlling for socio-demographic factors, neighborhood cohesion scores are lower for LGB adults compared to heterosexual adults (odds ratio of better perceived neighborhood cohesion for sexual minorities: 0.70, p < 0.001). Overall, LGB adults report worse neighborhood cohesion across multiple measures, even after adjusting for individual characteristics and neighborhood tenure. Because living in a cohesive neighborhood is associated with better health outcomes, future research, community-level initiatives, and public policy efforts should focus on creating welcoming neighborhood environments for sexual minorities.

  3. Differences in neighborhood social cohesion and aerobic physical activity by Latino subgroup

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    Rosenda Murillo


    Full Text Available Previous research has examined the role of neighborhood social cohesion in physical activity outcomes; however, less is known about this relationship across Latino subgroups. The purpose of our study was to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and aerobic leisure-time physical activity (LTPA among Latino adults and to determine whether these associations differ by Latino subgroup. We used cross-sectional 2013–2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data on Latinos originating from 5 countries/regions (i.e., Latinos of Puerto Rican, Mexican/Mexican-American, Cuban/Cuban-American, Dominican and Central or South American origin aged ≥18 years (n=11,126. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between self-reported neighborhood social cohesion and meeting aerobic LTPA guidelines. Models were adjusted for age, sex, education, and acculturation. We also investigated whether associations varied by Latino subgroup. In adjusted models for all Latino adults, compared with those reporting low social cohesion, individuals who reported high social cohesion (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.33; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.17–1.52 were significantly more likely to meet the aerobic physical activity guideline. When stratified by Latino subgroups, among Mexican/Mexicans-Americans (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.66 and Cuban/Cuban Americans (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.97 high social cohesion was associated with meeting the aerobic activity guideline. Among Dominicans, those who reported medium social cohesion (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.93 were less likely to meet the aerobic activity guideline. When examining aerobic physical activity outcomes in the Latino population, the role of neighborhood social cohesion and the variability among Latino subgroups should be considered. Keywords: Neighborhood social cohesion, Physical activity, Latinos, subgroups

  4. Linguistic approaches to the study of Persian Literature


    محمد امین ناصح


    Since the start of the last century, along with those literary men who took a literary approach to the study of literary texts, there has been another group who has taken a linguistic approach. The ancient and ever flourishing tradition of literary studies of translation can no doubt take benefit from linguistic methods and tools in the investigations of literary texts. As a result of this we come across linguistic terms in three high school textbooks of Persian language and literature. In f...

  5. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia. (United States)

    Hunley, Keith; Dunn, Michael; Lindström, Eva; Reesink, Ger; Terrill, Angela; Healy, Meghan E; Koki, George; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Friedlaender, Jonathan S


    Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain). There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast, global patterns may

  6. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Hunley


    Full Text Available Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain. There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast

  7. Aspects of conversational style—linguistic versus behavioral analysis


    Hall, Genae A.


    Skinner's functional analysis of verbal behavior has been contrasted with formal linguistic analysis which studies the grammatical structure and “meaning” of verbal response-products, regardless of the circumstances under which they are produced. Nevertheless, it appears that certain areas of linguistic analysis are not entirely structural. In her recent books That's Not What I Meant (1986) and You Just Don't Understand (1990), the linguist Deborah Tannen purports to explain how people exhibi...

  8. A responsible agenda for applied linguistics: Confessions of a philosopher


    Albert Weideman


    When we undertake academic, disciplinary work, we rely on philosophical starting points. Several straightforward illustrations of this can be found in the history of applied linguistics. It is evident from the history of our field that various historically influential approaches to our discipline base themselves upon different academic confessions. This paper examines the effects of basing our applied linguistic work on the idea that applied linguistics is a discipline concerned with design. ...

  9. Interdependence and organizational citizenship behavior: exploring the mediating effect of group cohesion in multilevel analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hsi Vivian; Tang, Ya-Yun; Wang, Shih-Jon


    The authors investigated the mechanism of group cohesion in the relationship between (a) task interdependence and goal interdependence and (b) individuals' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The authors adopted a multilevel perspective to facilitate understanding of the complex relations among variables. They collected data from 53 supervisors and 270 employees from R&D departments in Taiwan. The authors found that group cohesion fully mediated the effects of task interdependence and goal interdependence on employees' OCB. In addition, task interdependence had a greater effect on group cohesion than did goal interdependence. The authors discuss implications and suggestions for future research.

  10. Determination of diffusion coefficients in cohesive and sandy sediment from the area of Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.


    The cohesive and sandy sediments stem from shaft driving at the Gorleben salt done. For the cohesive materials, HTD was used as a tracer substance, while I-131 - was used for the sandy materials. Diffusion coefficients of HTD in cohesive materials in their natural texture are in the range of 2x10 -6 to 5x10 -6 cm 2 /s, those of I-131 - in the investigated uniform fine and middle sands are approximately 3x10 -6 cm 2 /s. (DG) [de

  11. Spatially balanced topological interaction grants optimal cohesion in flocking models. (United States)

    Camperi, Marcelo; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Parisi, Giorgio; Silvestri, Edmondo


    Models of self-propelled particles (SPPs) are an indispensable tool to investigate collective animal behaviour. Originally, SPP models were proposed with metric interactions, where each individual coordinates with neighbours within a fixed metric radius. However, recent experiments on bird flocks indicate that interactions are topological: each individual interacts with a fixed number of neighbours, irrespective of their distance. It has been argued that topological interactions are more robust than metric ones against external perturbations, a significant evolutionary advantage for systems under constant predatory pressure. Here, we test this hypothesis by comparing the stability of metric versus topological SPP models in three dimensions. We show that topological models are more stable than metric ones. We also show that a significantly better stability is achieved when neighbours are selected according to a spatially balanced topological rule, namely when interacting neighbours are evenly distributed in angle around the focal individual. Finally, we find that the minimal number of interacting neighbours needed to achieve fully stable cohesion in a spatially balanced model is compatible with the value observed in field experiments on starling flocks.

  12. Social network cohesion in school classes promotes prosocial behavior (United States)

    Crone, Eveline A.; Meuwese, Rosa; Güroğlu, Berna


    Adolescence is a key period of social development at the end of which individuals are expected to take on adult social roles. The school class, as the most salient peer group, becomes the prime environment that impacts social development during adolescence. Using social network analyses, we investigated how individual and group level features are related to prosocial behavior and social capital (generalized trust). We mapped the social networks within 22 classrooms of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (N = 611), and collected data on social behaviors towards peers. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality show both higher levels of prosocial behavior and relational aggression. Importantly, greater social cohesion in the classroom was associated with (1) reduced levels of antisocial behavior towards peers and (2) increased generalized trust. These results provide novel insights in the relationship between social structure and social behavior, and stress the importance of the school environment in the development of not only intellectual but also social capital. PMID:29617405

  13. Psychological and Linguistic Portrait of Criminals. Introduction to Discussion

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    Jadwiga Stawnicka


    Full Text Available The article concerns one aspect of forensic linguistics, which concerns determination by the challenged statements. This is done in collaboration with linguist – creating a profile linguistic songwriter – and a psychologist – that creates a psychological profile. The cooperation of specialists can be used at the level of assessment, which is used for the purposes of investigation and legal proceedings. Expertise in the field of forensic linguistics (forensic linguistics, German. Forensische Linguistik include setting by/performance of speech based on the content of spoken or written (eg. The farewell letters, threatening letters, ransom demands; the possibility of setting texts by anonymous on the Internet, to determine the characteristics of linguistic stalkers and cyberstalkerów that can identify the sender of the message sender identification of the origin country, constructing linguistic profile anonymous author, the linguistic profile of the author of the well-known text. It should be added that the analysis of the content in content-language document contains emotional component, which is related to our knowledge about the determinants of language to express emotions, both negative and positive. An important element of the text is a matter of psychological portrait of the sender (author and / or performer of the text based on the identified linguistic features.

  14. An Analysis of Social Class Classification Based on Linguistic Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Xia-sha


    Since language is an influential tool in social interaction, the relationship of speech and social factors, such as social class, gender, even age is worth studying. People employ different linguistic variables to imply their social class, status and iden-tity in the social interaction. Thus the linguistic variation involves vocabulary, sounds, grammatical constructions, dialects and so on. As a result, a classification of social class draws people’s attention. Linguistic variable in speech interactions indicate the social relationship between people. This paper attempts to illustrate three main linguistic variables which influence the social class, and further sociolinguistic studies need to be more concerned about.

  15. Genre Analysis in the Frame of Systemic Functional Linguistics

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    Najih Imtihani


    Full Text Available Systemic Functional Linguistics is a linguistics approach which cop-siders not only the structure of the language but also its social context. In the Systemic Functional Linguistics the concept of genre is defined as a step-by-step activity to reach the goal. The concept of genre is used to describe the cultural context in a language. According to this view, text should be seen and observed in its interaction with the context and social background. For that, the genre analysis will constantly involve the linguistic social context in the forms of field, tenor, mode, schematic structure and its realization in the text.

  16. Linguistic Theory in the Practical Lexicography of the African Languages

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    Emmanuel Chabata


    Full Text Available Abstract: In this article, we look at the relationship between linguistics and lexicography. We specifically look at the relevance of data derived from theoretical linguistic investigations to the compilation of diction-aries in African languages. Our point of departure is that since it is language description that lies at the core of both lexicography and linguistic theory, lexicographers can improve their work by using insights from theoretically-guided linguistic investigations. Our view is that as long as lexicographers focus on words and their existence in the linguistic system, they cannot work effectively without referring to linguistic theory, consciously or unconsciously. Lexicography is not only concerned with dictionary creation, that is, with the collection of lexical units and their proper description in dictionary entries, but also with the theoretical aspects concerning the lexicon. It is necessary for dictionaries to capture all lexical interrelationships of a phonetic, morphological, syntactic or semantic nature. Drawing examples from a few dictionaries on African languages, we try to show how dictionary compilers have benefited from specific theoretical investigations in general linguistics. We look at how the different linguistic theories have contributed to the improvement in the quality of the contents of some dictionaries of African languages. Our conclusion is that there is a stronger bond between linguistic theory and lexicographic practice than is generally assumed. Ways must therefore be found to understand the various links between the two disciplines. There should be a deliberate move from mutual neglect to collaboration between the two disciplines.

  17. Linguistic and Social Constructions of Fragrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian


    them, except in terms of the other senses of sight, sound, touch and taste. Scents are communicated primarily through metaphors. What are these linguistic and visual metaphors, and what do they tell us about the societies and cultures in which they are used? How do we know what scents `mean'? Is smell...... a universal form of semiotic communication (as global advertising campaigns suggest), or does it vary in different social and cultural contexts (as anthropological and other literature asserts)? Are there specific `scent cultures'? If so, in what do they consist? And how do these affect the creation...

  18. The computational linguistics of biological sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searls, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. Protein sequences are analogous in many respects, particularly their folding behavior. Proteins have a much richer variety of interactions, but in theory the same linguistic principles could come to bear in describing dependencies between distant residues that arise by virtue of three-dimensional structure. This tutorial will concentrate on nucleic acid sequences.

  19. Philippine linguistic policy in the global context


    Donoso Jiménez, Isaac


    The Philippines suffers an enduring linguistic problem that is not identified as such. Through the 20th century the goal has been to study a foreign language hoping for economical competitiveness in an Asian context. At present, this very context has revealed the fallacy of abandoning the education of the citizens in its own setting, if not pointed out the problem—Diglossia. By using an alien means of communication in the schools, the whole education has been alienated, and the result is a so...

  20. Assigning Numerical Scores to Linguistic Expressions

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    María Jesús Campión


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study different methods of scoring linguistic expressions defined on a finite set, in the search for a linear order that ranks all those possible expressions. Among them, particular attention is paid to the canonical extension, and its representability through distances in a graph plus some suitable penalization of imprecision. The relationship between this setting and the classical problems of numerical representability of orderings, as well as extension of orderings from a set to a superset is also explored. Finally, aggregation procedures of qualitative rankings and scorings are also analyzed.