Sample records for lingua franca elf

  1. The Deceiving ELF? Can Englsh fulfil the role of a Lingua Franca?

    Richard Chapman


    Full Text Available Abstract – The debate which surrounds the role of English as a lingua franca has been lively and extensive over the last twenty years or so. Numerous conferences and specific publications in the field testify to the interest and importance that the question of the development of a possible international functional language has stimulated. The present article aims to critically reassess the claims made for ELF and, at the same time, highlight the profound significance of the issues the debate has raised. Discussion of ELF has touched upon the perception of linguistic diversity, (inaccuracy and variation, intelligibility and the potential functions of an international language. Other topics of profound importance that are part of the debate relate to the role of any language in creating and maintaining identity, enabling social mobility and empowering its users. Some criticisms of ELF proposals have been easily rebutted, but this paper aims to underline the serious linguistic and socio-linguistic aspects of the debate in order to emphasize the need for a theoretical underpinning to our understanding of how language can operate in the global environment. Clarification of what we can and cannot know about language change and behavior will also contribute to ideas as to future research in ELF but will also bring us to the conclusion that predictions of the future development of ELF are of little purpose beyond the curiosity value they may possess. Keywords: English1; lingua franca2; non-native speaker3.     Abstract– Il dibattito intorno al ruolo di inglese intesa come lingua franca è vivace e largo da almeno venti anni. Le conferenze e pubblicazioni specifiche sull’argomento sono numerose e sono testimone di quanto è interessante e importante la questione dello sviluppo di una lingua internazionale funzionale e utile. L’articolo qui presentato ha lo scopo di valutare a rivalutare le speranze che si sono formate per l’inglese come

  2. Akkadian as Lingua Franca

    Nett, Seraina

    In the later second millennium BC, the Akkadian language functions as lingua franca, the language of international communication and diplomacy, over a vast area, ranging from Egypt to Anatolia and from Cyprus to Iran. This dissertation investigates the form, function, and use of Akkadian dialects...

  3. English as a Lingua Franca: An Immanent Critique

    O'Regan, John P.


    Over the past 15 years or so there has developed a school of thought within English language education and applied linguistics globally which refers to the phenomenon and use of English as a lingua franca (ELF). The thinking of ELF movement researchers has placed their work at the centre of current debates about the form, function and legitimacy…

  4. Notes on English used as a lingua franca as an object of study

    Mortensen, Janus


    This article discusses how English used as a lingua franca (ELF) can be defined as an object of study. It offers a critical appraisal of a high-profile definition of ELF (the VOICE/Seidlhofer definition), and argues that definitions of this kind, whether purposely or not, in effect invite...... approach to the conceptualization of ELF where ELF is defined in straightforward functional terms as the use of English in a lingua franca language scenario. This definition underscores the complexity and breadth of ELF as an object of study, and highlights that researchers in the field of ELF studies need...

  5. English as a lingua franca in higher education

    Björkman, Beyza


    The last decade has brought a number of changes for higher education in continental Europe and elsewhere, a major one being the increasing use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) as the medium of instruction. With this change, EAP is faced with a new group of learners who will need to use...... it predominantly in ELF settings to communicate with speakers from other first language backgrounds. This overview paper first discusses the changes that have taken place in the field of EAP in terms of student body, followed by an outline of the main findings of research carried out on ELF. These changes...... and the results of recent ELF research have important implications for EAP instruction and testing. It is argued here that EAP needs to be modified accordingly to cater for the needs of this group. These revolve around the two major issues: norms and standards for spoken English and target use. If the aim of EAP...

  6. Business English as a Lingua Franca (BELF)

    Wu, Yan


    This paper examines BELF (Business English as a Lingua Franca) teaching and researching in China. A literature review is conducted using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database. This survey includes a cursory literature search on BELF and a thorough literature study of 12 Chinese major academic journals. From the data collected…

  7. Exploring solidarity and consensus in English as lingua franca interactions

    Kappa, Katherine


    The purpose of this paper is two-fold: (1) to problematise the overly affiliative interpretations of English as lingua franca (ELF) interactions across all contexts and combinations of people, and demonstrate instances where this is not the case; (2) to explore the role of laughables and laughter...... divergence in social norms is treated as if it were the case but not confirmed. These instances are dealt with through laughables and laughter sequences. Sequential analysis of these naturally occurring audio-recorded conversations indicate that participants make salient and orient to what...

  8. The use of English as a lingua franca in translation

    J. A. Foley


    Full Text Available In translation, not only two languages but two cultures come into contact which means that translators must consider who wrote the text, when, why, for whom and who is now reading it and for what purpose. In the wake of rapid technological advances and the need to spread information quickly and efficiently, translation has grown in importance in the globalized world. So has its reliance on English in its role as a global lingua franca. English is often being used for ‘interculturalizing’ native languages but it is also true that English texts are written by speakers who use English as a lingua franca (ELF with the additional consequence of local languages being incorporated into the texts. This is the linguistic hybridity used in constructing a wider view of the world. However, the prime aim of any lingua franca communication is mutual intelligibility. Saussure wrote about the contrasting principles of provincialism (ésprit de clocher and what he termed intercourse: the need for broader communication. We can see Saussure’s principles as two imperatives: the cooperative and territorial imperatives. That is to say that language change is brought about by the ‘cooperative imperative’ as we need to continually modify our language in order to communicate with other people. At the same time, there is the ‘territorial imperative’ to secure and protect our own space and sustain our separate social and individual identity. In this study, the translation of linguistic units can only be understood when considered together with the cultural contexts in which they arise, and in which they are used. Blogging in Singapore and the Philippines is part of the ‘cooperative and territorial imperatives’ where the use of English as a lingua franca is intertwined with translanguaging.

  9. When Five Words Are Not Enough: A Conceptual and Terminological Discussion of English as a Lingua Franca

    Friedrich, Patricia; Matsuda, Aya


    The goal of this article is to (re)define key terminology in the study of English as a lingua franca (ELF). Although the diverse perspectives and ideological standpoints represented in competing definitions of terms is appreciated, a critical conversation on definition and interpretation of ELF and other related concepts is crucial in providing a…

  10. The Corpus of English as Lingua Franca in Academic Settings.

    Mauranen, Anna


    Describes a project to make a corpus of English spoken as a lingua franca in university settings in Finland. This corpus is one of the first to address the need for corpora that show the target for English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners whose goal is not to speak with native speakers but to interact in communities where English is a lingua franca.…

  11. Pronunciation and Comprehension in English as a Lingua Franca Communication: Effect of L1 Influence in International Aviation Communication

    Kim, Hyejeong; Billington, Rosey


    This article explores the issues of pronunciation and comprehension in the English as a lingua franca (ELF) context of pilot--air traffic controller radiotelephony communication, and how these are handled in the proficiency rating scale globally used to assess pilots and air traffic controllers engaging in international flight and air traffic…

  12. English as an Academic Lingua Franca: The ELFA Project

    Mauranen, Anna; Hynninen, Niina; Ranta, Elina


    English is unquestionably the world language of academia--yet its most notable characteristic, being predominantly used by non-native speakers, has not seriously been taken on board in ESP descriptive studies. The project English as an academic lingua franca (ELFA) based at the University of Helsinki investigates academic discourses, branching out…

  13. A Lingua Franca for Africa. Esperanto Documents No. 36A.

    Farukuoye, Helga

    The actual possibilities for communication among Africans are unsatisfactory. While the north has adopted Arabic as its lingua franca, most African states south of the Sahara still use the language(s) of their former colonial masters as official languages, thereby neglecting their native languages. This situation excludes many people from higher…

  14. English as a "Lingua Franca" in International Business Contexts

    Nickerson, Catherine


    This article will provide an overview of current research focussing on the use of English as a "lingua franca" in international business contexts. It selectively reviews research investigating the role of written and spoken communication in English and the work that has been done on specific text genres used by the international business…

  15. English as a lingua franca used at international meetings

    Barančicová Jana


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the use of English as a lingua franca. It concentrates on the environment of international meetings where English is used as a lingua franca. The aim of the research conducted through a survey of members of a NATO working group is to find out how native and non-native speakers feel about English used as a lingua franca during international meetings and how these two groups of speakers see each other in multinational interaction from the point of view of linguistics. The sections dealing with non-native speakers concentrate on the level of knowledge of English and on how native speakers cope with the English used during the meetings. The sections dealing with the views of English native speakers should establish the approach they take towards mistakes made by non-native speakers, whether native speakers should adjust the way they speak at international meetings and how they generally view the fact that their mother tongue is used all around the world.

  16. Repertori retorici e negoziazione culturale nei racconti di vita di rifugiati: Lingua Franca e implicazioni ideologiche

    Paola Catenaccio


    Full Text Available Abstract – This chapter analyses the storytelling performance of an asylum seeker speaking in English for an international audience and recorded on a video released by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The primary purpose of the study is to investigate the rhetorical structuring of the narrative in an ethnopoetic perspective (Hymes 2003, and to identify the presence (or, even more significantly, marked absence of dialogic signs of intercultural negotiation deployed in the process of conveying to a culturally diverse audience a highly culturally situated story embedded in a personal narrative of displacement. At the same time, the study also intends to contribute to the current debate on English as a Lingua Franca (ELF by addressing the issue of the inherently situated nature of ELF, and of the political and ideological implications of an ELF approach to intercultural communication in both asymmetric and (programmatically symmetric power situations. The video selected for the analysis was retrieved from the UNHCR Youtube channel and is part of a series called Storytelling: through the eyes of Refugees designed to make refugees’ stories known to the wide public and to legitimise refugees as a category of people endowed with agentivity and self-determination, and with the power of contributing to the discursive construction of their own role and status. Because of their global outreach, these videos qualify as instances of ELF usage in a broad international context and are eminently suited to the investigation and discussion of ELF approaches to conventionally asymmetric institutional communication.

  17. Promoting lingua franca English in Europe

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    to multilingualism among exchange students coming to Scandinavia. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of factors influencing the local language learning and the improvement in English language proficiency among exchange students coming to Scandinavia. The study included four Scandinavian universities: two...... languages were German, Dutch, French, Spanish, Italian, Polish or Czech. The paper presents findings on the students' perceived patterns of interaction and language use while in Scandinavia and discusses some of the consequences of EU exchange programs on the use of ELF....

  18. English as a Lingua Franca: Applied Linguistics, Marxism, and Post-Marxist theory

    John Robert Schmitz


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper is motived by a reading of “English as a Lingua Franca: An Immanent Critique” (O’REGAN, 2014, who claims that ELF researchers place their work at the forefront of debates with regard to what function and form English should play in the lives of its numerous speakers worldwide. O’Regan questions the use of an epistemology based on a positivist and objectivist paradigm, connected to a postmodernist and poststructuralist ‘sensibility’. To attempt a fair analysis of O’Regan’s critique of ELF, I consider it essential to examine Marxist theory in the light of the analyses of Sim’s (2000 Post-Marxism and of the work published by Laclau and Mouffe (1985. My reading leads me to claim that traditional Marxist thinking is compromised by its association with authoritarian and totalitarian stances, as opposed to Post-Marxist views of pluralism, libertarianism, and openness to the cultural climate of postmodernism. Based on the disillusions of post-Marxist thinkers, I conclude that the views of classical Marxism are not applicable to ‘English as a Lingua Franca’

  19. Inteligibilidade da língua inglesa sob o paradigma de lingua franca

    Becker, Marcia Regina


    Resumo: No contexto de mundo globalizado, a língua inglesa se sobressai como a língua das interações. Como falantes que possuem o inglês como língua materna são já minoria, a grande maioria trará para o inglês características próprias de sua primeira língua. A expressão latina que tem sido usada e definida como a melhor para nomear esse inglês do novo milênio é "inglês como lingua franca", ELF, cujo objetivo principal é ser mutuamente inteligível entre seus falantes de diferentes nacionalida...

  20. Epistemic stance marking in the use of English as a lingua franca

    Mortensen, Janus

    A comparative study of the pragmatic functions of epistemic stance marking in problem-solving sequences at student project group meetings, with special emphasis on meetings where English is used as a lingua franca......A comparative study of the pragmatic functions of epistemic stance marking in problem-solving sequences at student project group meetings, with special emphasis on meetings where English is used as a lingua franca...

  1. The Use of Prepositions in English as Lingua Franca Interactions: Corpus IST-Erasmus

    Önen, Serap


    The growth of English into a lingua franca has inevitably created linguistic deviations and innovations in the use of English. These emerging uses that result from the needs and preferences of speakers whose mother tongues are all different can be broadly identified as lexico-grammatical and pronunciation features and they compose one of the main…

  2. The English as a Foreign Language / Lingua Franca Debate: Sensitising Teachers of English as a Foreign Language Towards Teaching English as a Lingua Franca

    Gillian Mansfield


    Full Text Available The function of English as a lingua franca for communication needs rethinking in the teaching of English as a foreign language classroom as a consequence of globalisation. The present contribution is an empirical study carried out in an Italian university environment which aims to show how teachers should take on board awareness raising activities in the recognition of other varieties of English which, albeit not exploited as benchmarks for language testing and certification, must nevertheless boast a relevant place in the global scenario. This can be achieved in practical terms by interrogating an expressly made corpus of Chinese English news texts and carrying out simple concordance activities.

  3. Incoming exchange students' learning and use of lingua franca English and local languages in Scandinavia

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    if they stayed for a second semester. Each interview concluded with two tests: a picture description test and a basic vocabulary test; all interviews were recorded. Findings relating to the interviewees' language goals, interaction with others and language use in such interaction will be presented and discussed...... in relation to the importance for students of developing skills in English as a lingua franca and the desire by the EU to promote multilingualism through student exchange....

  4. Turkish EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of English as a Lingua Franca

    Görsev İnceçay


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the perceptions of; (1 Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language teachers about ELF, (2 Turkish EFL teachers and teacher educators about the role of ELF on language teacher education. Data came from a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. A hundred Turkish EFL teachers working at two universities in Istanbul responded to the questionnaire. Ten randomly selected EFL teachers and 10 teacher educators working in language teacher education departments of two universities were interviewed to elicit their views about the role of ELF in language teacher education. Findings of the study revealed a number of important results and implications for the field

  5. Conceptualising English as a lingua franca (ELF) as a tertiary ...

    Department of English Studies, University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 2, Hof 8. 1090 Vienna .... warning tone on the use of English as medium of higher education as regards various concerns ... of monolingual English speakers will surely not work.

  6. O jazycích v roli lingua franca (se zvláštním zřetelem k angličtině)

    Sherman, Tamah


    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2013), s. 129-140 ISSN 0862-8459 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : English as a lingua franca * sociolinguistics * language management * Czech as a lingua franca * English in the Czech Republic Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  7. Business Process Management Notation (BPMN) as Lingua Franca in Virtual Communities

    Tambo, Torben


    processes are carried out through informal as well as formal VCs. In formal organizations, VCs are regarded as dynamic; people or work processes move back and forth between formal business processes and VCs. It is interesting to see how VCs in enterprise landscapes can execute using a common understanding......, a single language or an expression, a lingua franca to transform ideas into knowledge, sustain representation of knowledge, and exchange knowledge with the formal, non-virtual organization. Business Process Management Notation (BPMN) has become commonplace for describing and formalizing regular enterprise...

  8. Planning for a Global Lingua Franca: Challenges for Feminist Language Planning in English(es) around the World

    Pauwels, Anne


    In this paper I outline the challenges for feminist language planning in the context of a global lingua franca--English. Drawing upon the views of speakers of "World Englishes" I discuss their reactions as well as reported practices in relation to gender-inclusive language use. This reveals the complexities of managing the tension between the…

  9. English as a "Lingua Franca" in the Linguistic Landscape of the Multilingual Resort of S'Arenal in Mallorca

    Bruyel-Olmedo, Antonio; Juan-Garau, Maria


    English has become the "lingua franca" of international exchanges. This is reflected in sociolinguistic studies of linguistic landscape (LL) which tackle the coexistence of English with local languages (e.g. Backhaus, 2007; Cenoz & Gorter, 2006; Edelman, 2006), on occasion oppressed (e.g. Nino-Murcia, 2003). However, there is little…

  10. Dealing with Communicative Problems in English as a Lingua Franca | Traiter les problèmes communicatifs en anglais considéré comme lingua franca

    Agnieszka Nowicka


    Full Text Available De nos jours, l’anglais est l’une des langues les plus utilisées dans la communication internationale. Les locuteurs qui recourent à l’anglais en tant que lingua franca maîtrisent cette langue de façon inégale. Cependant, dans ce type d’échanges les locuteurs ne sont pas confrontés uniquement à des problèmes d’origine linguistique. Notre but, dans le présent article, est de réfléchir, tout d’abord, à la question de comment les différences socio-culturelles, au niveau des styles d’interaction, peuvent influencer la communication. Ensuite, on se focalisera sur les différentes façons dont les locuteurs réagissent aux problèmes de cette nature lorsqu’ils apparaissent dans l’interaction et, finalement, on démontrera comment ces problèmes sont négociés par les locuteurs. Nous recourrons à l’analyse conversationnelle afin d’analyser des extraits d’interactions en anglais qui serviront d’illustration.

  11. Expressing Disagreement in ELF Business Negotiations: Theory and Practice

    Bjorge, Anne Kari


    English spoken by those who do not share their first language is increasingly referred to as English lingua franca (ELF). For ELF speakers, it can be a challenge to express conflicting opinions, as a common language and/or cultural background cannot be taken for granted. This is recognized by writers of business English textbooks, who provide…

  12. Learning to Teach Intelligible Pronunciation for ASEAN English as a Lingua Franca: A Sociocultural Investigation of Cambodian Pre-Service Teacher Cognition and Practice

    Lim, Sovannarith


    English has been referred to as a lingua franca for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). As the region moves towards establishing the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), the diversity of pronunciation of the ASEAN member states is seen as a forefront issue for English language teaching (ELT). From a sociocultural perspective, this study…

  13. The Understanding of English Emotion Words by Chinese and Japanese Speakers of English as a Lingua Franca

    Mosekjær, Stine

    In this thesis I investigate the understanding and use of the English emotion words guilty, ashamed, and proud by Japanese and Chinese speakers of English as a lingua franca. By exploring empirical data I examine (1) how Japanese and Chinese participants understand and use the three stimulus words......, (2) if their understanding and use differ from that of native English speakers, and (3) if so, what these differences are. In the thesis 65 participants are investigated. The participants consist of 20 native Japanese and 23 native Chinese. For comparison, a group of 22 British native English....... The framework, which is based on the theoretical notion of the word as an image-idea pair as suggested by the theory of linguistic supertypes, consists of three tests each addressing three different aspects of the understanding and use of the stimulus words: the Free Association test (FA test), the Context...

  14. Conflict or Cooperation: The Use of Backchannelling in ELF Negotiations

    Bjorge, Anne Kari


    The international business community relies heavily on English Lingua Franca (ELF) as a shared means of communication, and English business language programmes thus feature prominently within the field of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Business ESP programmes, however, have little focus on active listening, which previous research has…

  15. An unwelcome guest: the Non-NNS at the lingua franca table

    Hazel, Spencer

    Firth & Wagner (1997) called for a reconceptualization of the research agenda within Second Language Acquisition (SLA), advocating “enhanced awareness of contextual and interactional dimensions of language use”, a more participant- relevant perspective, and a broadening of the database. ELF studies......-relevant, explication of ELF practices to be produced. Using recordings of naturally occurring interactions in multilingual, multicultural domestic settings, I will demonstrate how language users, including ENL speakers, orient to what have been described as ELF practices, with neither NS nor NNS orienting to ENL norms...... have done a great deal since to problematize the idealized native speaker (NS) as a target model for non-native speaker (NNS) language users. However, by excluding the NS from what are described as ELF interactions – where ELF is “a mediating language that is not a mother tongue [L1] for any...

  16. Bespoke Language Teaching (BLT): A Proposal for a Theoretical Framework. the Case of EFL/ELF for Italians

    Santipolo, Matteo


    This paper deals with the problems of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) and as a lingua franca (ELF) in the Italian educational system and, in particular, with introducing language variation in the English class. After briefly illustrating how English teaching has changed in the last few decades, an outline is drawn of what happens in…

  17. Italian as lingua franca, the law of connected vessels and the improvement of the results into the multilingual class. About a teaching experience

    Alessia Terrusi


    Full Text Available This contribution takes cue from a teaching experience of Italian L2 to A1-level immigrant students within the SPRAR project in Lucca from November 2015 to May 2016. During lessons, the class has been enriched with students from different places in the world and who talked very different languages. Multilingualism had only one underlying theme: the Italian language used during the lessons. It was the same Italian language which they got accustomed to by living in Italy since about a year. The experience started from the hard fact that the only common knowledge was this basic-level Italian language. So a new strategy was tested: to create couples or small groups made up with students linguistically different (like anglophones with francophones. They were forced to use Italian language and let other students understand through their previous knowledges due to the daily contact with the Italian reality. This brought very positive results such as the creation of discussions about the activities, the mutual correction of mistakes, the increase of communication skills through alternative strategies (like mime or drawing. Despite the different individual and initial levels, Italian language as lingua franca let them understand Italian language more efficiently.L’italiano come lingua franca, il principio dei vasi comunicanti e il miglioramento dei risultati nella classe plurilingue. Un’esperienza didatticaIl presente contributo trae spunto da un’esperienza di insegnamento di italiano L2, livello A1, a immigrati adulti all’interno del progetto SPRAR (Sistema di Protezione per Richiedenti Asilo e Rifugiati di Lucca svoltasi tra novembre 2015 e maggio 2016. Il gruppo di corsisti era formato da adulti provenienti da diverse zone del mondo e parlanti lingue distanti tra loro. Tutti vivevano in Italia da circa un anno e poiché l’unica conoscenza comune e di eguale livello era proprio quella – basilare – dell’italiano, si è sperimentata la

  18. Chinese English in as lingua franca in global business setting: A case study of ongoing emails of a foreign company in China

    Wang Wenpu


    Full Text Available With the process of globalization, English has been increasingly become the lingua franca for people speaking different languages to communicate with each other, among whom the number of non-native speakers of English far outnumbers those native speakers in traditional sense. Against this background, the principle of taking the rules of native English speakers as the norms is undergoing challenges. The non-native speakers are claiming the ownership and rights of norm-providing to the English language (Crystal, 2003. In business setting, this is especially true (Charles, 2007. This paper intends to explore the use of Chinese English as lingua franca in business setting. Taking a foreign enterprise based in China as the case, this paper investigates over 400 ongoing business e-mails written in English by its Chinese employees, including the management and other staff. Four most salient patterns of Chinese English structures are identified, i.e., punctuations, absence of inflectional markers in number and tense, serial verb construction, and zero articles, which are then analyzed cultural, linguistic and social-linguistic perspectives. The effectiveness of such language patterns are proved according to the principle of “understandability” proposed by Kachru and Nelson (2006 from both intra-cultural and inter-cultural aspects. Based on the afore-said analysis, this paper concludes that Chinese English, during the process of language contact, has become a legitimate English variation, and has been providing new norms for the other countries to follow. It is suggested that business English users in China need to use their Chinese English with a confident stance, while business partners from other countries need to get familiar with this English variation in order for them to communicate effectively with their Chinese partners.

  19. Multifaceted Dimensions of Telecollaboration through English as a Lingua Franca (ELF): Paris-Valladolid Intercultural Telecollaboration Project

    Castro, Paloma; Derivry-Plard, Martine


    Intercultural telecollaboration allows for a radical change in language education. New technologies enable learners of different languages and cultures to practice their intercultural skills. Teachers no longer need to design "fake" role-plays to develop interaction in the target language. Above all, teachers have the possibility to…

  20. Fostering awareness of the pedagogical implications of World Englishes and ELF in teacher education in Italy

    Paola Vettorel


    Full Text Available Teacher education represents an essential step to raise awareness of the sociolinguistic changes brought about by the current pluralization of English and by its lingua franca role. Within the pre-service teacher education programs run at the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Verona, Italy, part of the English language course focused on issues related to World Englishes (WE and English as a lingua franca (ELF, aiming at fostering awareness of and active reflection upon their pedagogical implications. After taking into consideration recent developments in WE- and ELF-aware teacher education, we will report on findings from a research study involving trainee teachers attending the aforementioned courses for English in academic years 2012-13 to 2014-15. The main aim of the study has been to investigate whether, how and to what extent trainee teachers’ pedagogical knowledge and reasoning about a WE and ELF-informed perspective in teaching practices may undergo a change after attending these courses. Drawing upon different sets of data (questionnaires, reflections in e-learning discussion forums, interviews and final reports, the trainees’ increased awareness of and readiness to include a WE- and ELF-informed didactic approach after attending the course will be discussed, together with implications for foreign language teacher education.

  1. Enhancing Comprehensibility among ELF users

    Wilang, Jeffrey Dawala; Teo, Adisa


    The predicted widespread use of English as a lingua franca following ASEAN's 2015 integration mushroomed intelligibility studies between and among Asean nationals including Bruneians, Burmese, Cambodians, Filipinos, Indonesians, Laotians, Malaysians, Singaporeans, Thais and Vietnamese. Previous studies regarding ASEAN nationals' intelligibility…

  2. All in a day’s work ... or, ELF in a day’s work: meeting the changing needs of learners and users of English in Higher Education

    Patricia Pullin


    Full Text Available English as a lingua franca (ELF has been described as “… the fastest-growing and at the same time the least recognised function of English in the world.” (Mauranen 2009. As a shared language used between speakers who do not have the same lingua cultural backgrounds, English has been the global language of business for some time (Charles 2008 and is increasingly used in academia, not only as the lingua franca of research, but also for teaching and administrative work. As a field of research, ELF focuses on language use in context, notably showing how flexible users of ELF are in negotiating meaning and achieving understanding, despite differences in cultural and linguistic backgrounds (Firth 1996, 2008. Yet, using English as a lingua franca can present challenges, and the research findings have implications not only for users of English in a range of contexts, but also for teachers and learners of English. The focus of this article is on the effect of change with regard to English on curriculum development and syllabus design at the University of Zurich and Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich Language Center. Drawing on Richards (2001, curriculum development refers here to an overall process of educational planning and implementation, comprising needs analysis, situation analysis, setting of aims and learning outcomes, course design, delivery and assessment. These elements are seen as a “network of interacting systems.” (Richards 2001:41. Syllabus design, on the other hand, deals with the specific content covered in a given course.

  3. Is there ELF in ELT coursebooks?

    Paola Vettorel


    Full Text Available This article aims to explore whether well-attested findings in the fields of World Englishes (WE and of English as a lingua franca (ELF have determined a shift in perspective in the overall approach to English language teaching (ELT, and how far this shift has permeated teaching materials and coursebooks. The research study was carried out in Italy, a country where ELT coursebooks have often played a relevant role in introducing innovations in language teaching methodology. The research design included a corpus of ten coursebooks that have been published and adopted in Italian secondary schools in the last 6 years. The coursebooks were evaluated in terms of the presence or absence of references to WE and/or ELF, of awareness-raising activities, of the promotion of using English outside the school environment and of the use of effective English communication and intercultural strategies among nonnative speakers. Findings show that there have been no significant changes in the inclusion of WE- and ELForiented materials and related tasks, apart from the area of promotion of cultural and intercultural awareness.

  4. English in Globalisation, a Lingua Franca or a Lingua Frankensteinia?

    Phillipson, Robert


    TESOL declares that it is a global organization. TESOL's expansionist ambitions dovetail with U.S. corporate and government global aims. This trend leads the author to conclude that even if U.S. TESOL were to more actively embrace the other languages of its emerging bilinguals, the languages of a more multilingual TESOL would still be…

  5. Cohesion as interaction in ELF spoken discourse

    T. Christiansen


    Full Text Available Hitherto, most research into cohesion has concentrated on texts (usually written only in standard Native Speaker English – e.g. Halliday and Hasan (1976. By contrast, following on the work in anaphora of such scholars as Reinhart (1983 and Cornish (1999, Christiansen (2011 describes cohesion as an interac­tive process focusing on the link between text cohesion and discourse coherence. Such a consideration of cohesion from the perspective of discourse (i.e. the process of which text is the product -- Widdowson 1984, p. 100 is especially relevant within a lingua franca context as the issue of different variations of ELF and inter-cultural concerns (Guido 2008 add extra dimensions to the complex multi-code interaction. In this case study, six extracts of transcripts (approximately 1000 words each, taken from the VOICE corpus (2011 of conference question and answer sessions (spoken interaction set in multicultural university con­texts are analysed in depth by means of a qualitative method.

  6. ELF in English language teaching: Researching attitudes of Serbian academic community

    Ošmjanski Vera B.


    Full Text Available The aim of the empirical part of the research was to explore the attitude of the Serbian academic community towards the English language used as lingua franca (ELF, i.e. neutral variety of the English language. The results might be a starting point in considering whether to include ELF in the language policy and, consequently, into English curricula in Serbia. The research included members of Serbian academic community, students of different departments, and English language teachers in the state owned and privately owned universities in Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis. After examining their attitudes towards key postulates of ELF the conclusions are that it is necessary to start discussions about the concepts of the variety and to reassess current deeply rooted ideas about the English language from the perspective of modern linguistic trends. The need for a more liberal approach to the variety is not generated only in the needs of the market, i.e. those people to whom English is a practical means of international communication, but also the need to adjust ELT (English Language Teaching to modern linguistic tendencies and the European Council recommendations.

  7. Ranunculus lingua

    Pedersen, Ole


    Vast areas of North America and Northern Europe were covered by ice during the last ice age and most present day lakes and streams were formed as the icecap melted some 10-15,000 years ago. New lakes and streams are constantly formed by natural processes, but also by human activities. Constructed...... these are often permanently waterfilled they also support a rich truly aquatic vegetation. The present article portraits the amphibious Ranunculus lingua from a gravel pit that was abandoned in 1974 when the construction of the nearby freeway was completed....

  8. Misunderstandings and Ensuring Understanding in Private ELF Talk

    Pietikäinen, Kaisa S.


    Although misunderstandings as such have been extensively studied, the ways in which problems of understanding are avoided--especially in cross-cultural communication--have so far received limited attention. This article examines over 24 h of private conversation data from seven established, intercultural couples who use lingua franca English as…

  9. Lingua franca in Central Europe after the Disappearance of German

    Snel, G.


    This chapter discusses a multilingual community of writers and intellectuals who gathered around the idea of a Central European culture in the 1980s, during the last decade of the Cold War. Czesław Miłosz, Danilo Kiš, Milan Kundera, György Konrád and others advocated the idea of a Central European

  10. Advice-giving in the English lingua franca classroom

    important pragmatic differences between the ways in which advice is given by native speakers and ... gender differences and that teacher modeling may have an effect on which available form of advice-giving a ... nation wishes to participate in global enterprises such as international finance, multi-national corporations, and ...

  11. Meta 2: Lingua Franca Design and Integration Language


    Banca Intesa/San Paolo. He was the founder and Scientific Director of the Project on Advanced Research on Architectures and Design of Electronic...34Platform-Based Design and Frameworks: Metropolis and Metro II" in Model-Based Design for Embedded Systems, Boca Raton, Fl: CRC Press , Taylor and

  12. Fostering Awareness of the Pedagogical Implications of World Englishes and ELF in Teacher Education in Italy

    Vettorel, Paola; Corrizzato, Sara


    Teacher education represents an essential step to raise awareness of the sociolinguistic changes brought about by the current pluralization of English and by its lingua franca role. Within the pre-service teacher education programs run at the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Verona, Italy, part of the English language…

  13. Conjunctions in ELF academic discourse: a corpus-based analysis

    Laura Centonze


    speaker, and how some of their properties have become ‘hybridized’ (e.g. and in multicultural contexts.Keywords: conjunctions; ELF; VOICE corpus; discourse; cohesion. Abstract – Le congiunzioni quali elementi fondamentali nella costruzione della coesione testuale rappresentano un’area di ricerca poco studiata, a causa della loro complessità e del numero di relazioni che le stesse possono avere a seconda del contesto (Halliday and Hasan 1976; Christiansen 2011. Inoltre, non sembra esservi una visione condivisa per quanto concerne la classificazione delle diverse tipologie di congiunzione (cf. Halliday and Hasan 1976; Vande Kopple 1985; Martin and Rose 2003; Hyland 2005b. La scelta di un tipo di congiunzione piuttosto di un’altra acquista maggiore importanza in quanto generalmente soggette a molteplici interpretazioni, soprattutto nel caso in cui i partecipanti all’atto comunicativo non condividono lo stesso background linguistico-culturale (cf. Guido 2007; Guido 2008; Cogo et al. 2011.Avvalendosi della tassonomia per le congiunzioni fornita da Halliday and Hasan (1976, questo studio analizza l’utilizzo delle congiunzioni da parte di parlanti di Inglese Lingua Franca in contesti specialistici. Considereremo dieci trascrizioni tratte dal VOICE Corpus (Seidlhofer et. al 2013, ovvero cinque interviste e cinque conversazioni in contesti accademici multiculturali (approssimativamente 4000 parole ciascuno e analizzeremo il numero di occorrenze per ogni congiunzione (additive, adversative, clausal, temporal e continuatives, adottando un metodo quantitative-qualitativo e utilizzando TextSTAT 2.9 (Huning 2012. Procederemo poi con l’analisi delle congiunzioni in base alle loro proprietà intrinseche/collocati e, infine, vedremo l’occorrenza delle stesse comparando le due tipologie di evento comunicativo oggetto dello studio, ossia interviste e conversazioni. Si mostrerà come il repertorio delle congiunzioni a disposizione del parlante di Inglese Lingua Franca sia


    Matilde Grünhage-Monetti


    Full Text Available L'articolo presenta e riesamina criticamente i risultati centrali di una ricerca di etnografia aziendale sulla comunicazione sul posto di lavoro condotta in Germania fra il 2007 e il 2009 allo scopo di individuare i requisiti linguistico-comunicativi richiesti da mansioni non necessariamente specializzate. Scopo ultimo dell’indagine è di fornire una base empirica per lo sviluppo dell’apprendimento e insegnamento della lingua due (in questo caso il tedesco ad adulti immigrati per un’inclusione sostenibile nel lavoro e nella società. La comunicazione è oggi parte integrante del lavoro per tutti i dipendenti, a tutti i livelli, in tutti i settori. La competenza linguistico-comunicativa è una componente di base della competenza professionale, necessaria per interagire adeguatamente per la produzione di prodotti e servizi nelle reti sociali in questione (colleghi, superiori, clienti, ecc.. Il lavoro offre possibilità non ancora sufficientemente sfruttate per l’apprendimento formale, non formale e informale della lingua due, che è al tempo stesso motivante, efficace ed efficiente. Language is work and work is language This article presents and critically reviews the main results of a study on corporate ethnography on communication in the workplace carried out in Germany between 2007 and 2009 in order to identify the linguistic and communicative requirements for not necessarily specialized tasks. The underlying aim of the study was to provide an empirical basis for the development of learning and teaching of the two languages (in this case German to adult immigrants for sustainable inclusion in the workplace and in society. Communication is an integral part of work for employees at all levels, in all areas. Linguistic and communicative competence is a basic professional skill, necessary to manufacture products and offer services in the social networks being examined (colleagues, superiors, clients, etc.. Work offers opportunities that


    Victor Carreao


    Full Text Available This article aims on reflecting on the teaching process of the English language in Brazil starting from a perspective that contemplates the sociocultural factors and also the linguistic factors that might influence the learning of a foreign language. Weinreich, Labov and Herzog (2006 [1968] see any linguistic changes as the result of a process of linguistic fit between variables internal to the linguistic system and those external to it (i.e. socioeconomic factors. Issues such as the Brazilian basic education system, proficiency evaluation, use of English with other speakers, and literacy issues can be considered as extralinguistic factors (external to the language, but which exert influence in it that along with linguistic system factors, such as Interlanguage, can lead Brazilian speakers to develop a "Brazilian English" (in comparison toterms known as "British English" or "American English", or to use this language as "lingua franca", to ensure that the purpose of any message is passed on

  16. Dimensioni cognitivo-semantiche, sintattiche e pragmatiche dei verbi in un corpus di inglese ‘lingua franca’ in contesti multiculturali di immigrazione

    Laura Centonze


    Full Text Available Abstract – English has been increasingly adopted as the Lingua Franca (ELF by people with different L1s (cf. Crystal 2003; McArthur 2003; Seidlhofer 2004 and diverse lingua-cultural backgrounds (Cogo et al. 2011. Previous research into its syntax (Mauranen and Ranta 2009 has undoubtedly shed light on some recurrent features of intercultural communication in immigration and asylum contexts (e.g. negation, question formulation, if-clauses, but little attention has been paid to the correlation between personal pronouns, semantic verb types and tense within the communicative process and, more specifically, the report of any traumatic event (Tuval-Mashiach et al. 2004 to which immigrants have been exposed over time and which constitutes what is generally referred to as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD; Friedman et al. 2007; Liotti and Farina 2011. This paper is based on the analysis of a corpus of transcripts published on the internet by the Minnesota Historical Society. The site, Becoming Minnesotan, collects excerpts from oral interviews conducted between 1967 and 2011 with recent immigrants to Minnesota usually fleeing civil war and strife, and their American-born children. By adopting the quantitative research methodology typical of corpus linguistics (Biber et al. 1999; Meyer 2002; Sinclair 1991, we searched for and extracted all the instances of semantic verbs types as well as personal pronouns and mapped their frequencies by means of Wordsmith Tools 6 (Scott 2012. Drawing on Halliday’s (1994 and Scheibman’s (2002 semantic verb type taxonomy, we can observe the frequency of certain semantic verb categories and tenses, and make some general considerations which seem to back up the ‘trance-like level of public re-enactment’ (Guido 2008, p. 105 that the interviewees experience during interviews: their physical and interior ‘displacement’ thus appears to be iconically represented by means of a tense usage being

  17. Inglês como língua franca: desenvolvimentos recentes

    Telma Gimenez

    Full Text Available Em face da atual posição do inglês como uma língua franca global, este artigo tem como principal objetivo discutir os desenvolvimentos recentes dessa área, tomando como base os trabalhos apresentados durante a 7th International Conference on English as a Lingua Franca, realizada em Atenas, Grécia, em setembro de 2014. As reflexões, aprofundadas nos tópicos i Teorizações sobre ILF; ii ILF e formação de professores; iii Desenvolvimentos futuros, trazem um olhar analítico sobre os temas discutidos no evento. Espera-se que as informações e reflexões aqui contempladas possam contribuir para o desenvolvimento de uma "curiosidade acadêmica" a respeito do paradigma ILF (inglês como língua franca e para o engajamento com suas questões e implicações.

  18. Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence in ELF Communication

    Lili Cavalheiro


    Full Text Available The traditional notion of English as a foreign language solely for communicating with native speakers can no longer be applied in a world that is constantly changing, hence paving the way for an alternative use of the language known as English as a lingua franca. As a result, instead of focusing only on grammatical correctness, research into language pedagogy has also come to recognize the importance of exploring bottom-up learning processes, and developing intercultural communicative competence (ICC and more communicative-based methods. Nowadays, it is essential to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and critical cultural awareness necessary to communicate successfully. To show the importance of integrating ICC in language pedagogy, a recording from the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English is analysed here to demonstrate the significance of developing critical awareness as well as several communicative strategies, so that language learners can afterwards have the necessary ICC to interact in today’s multi-lingual/cultural society.

  19. NAS investigates ELF

    Gledhill, M.


    A report published in October 1996 by a committee appointed by the US National Research Council has concluded that 'no conclusive and consistent evidence shows that exposures to residential electric and magnetic fields produce cancer, adverse neurobehavioural effects, or reproductive and developmental effects'. However, the committee also noted that 'an association between residential wiring configurations ... and childhood leukemia persists in multiple studies, although the causative factor responsible for that statistical association has not been identified.' The committee was set up in 1991 at the request of the US Congress, and asked to concentrate on extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic field exposures found in residential settings. The expertise of its 16 members covered the wide range of disciplines necessary to evaluate the extensive research literature. Research into the possible health effects of ELF magnetic fields has been driven largely by epidemiology, and a comprehensive meta-analysis of 11 childhood leukemia studies forms a key part of the report. These studies have used several metrics to define 'exposure' of the study subjects to ELF fields. The meta-analysis combined the studies in a number of ways to evaluate their consistency and sensitivity to individual study results. (author). 1 ref

  20. R as a Lingua Franca: Advantages of Using R for Quantitative Research in Applied Linguistics

    Mizumoto, Atsushi; Plonsky, Luke


    In this article, we suggest that using R, a statistical software environment, is advantageous for quantitative researchers in applied linguistics. We first provide a brief overview of the reasons why R is popular among researchers in other fields and why we recommend its use for analyses in applied linguistics. In order to illustrate these…

  1. Lecturing in one’s first language or in English as a lingua franca

    Preisler, Bent


    The demand for internationalization puts pressure on Danish universities to use English as the language of instruction instead of or in addition to the local language(s). The purpose of this study – though proceeding from the belief that true internationalization seeks to exploit all linguistic...... and multilingual classroom. This case study concerns Danish university teachers' spoken discourse and interaction with students in a Danish-language versus English-language classroom. The data are video recordings of classroom interaction at the University of Roskilde, Denmark. The focus is on the relationship...... between linguistic-pragmatic performance and academic authenticity for university teachers teaching courses in both English and Danish, based on recent sociolinguistic concepts such as “persona,” “stylization,” and “authenticity.” The analysis suggests that it is crucial for teachers' ability...

  2. Lingua franca of personality - Taxonomies and structures based on the psycholexical approach

    De Raad, B; Perugini, M; Hrebickova, M; Szarota, P

    Data sets from seven original trait taxonomies from different languages, American English, Dutch, German, Hungarian, Italian, Czech, and Polish, are used for a crosscultural study. The taxonomic procedures, involving culling trait terms from the various lexicons and the construction Of

  3. English as a Lingua Franca in Nordic Corporate Mergers: Two Case Companies

    Louhiala-Salminen, L.; Charles, M.; Kankaanranta, A.


    The article is based on findings from research into communication and language use in two international corporations, both formed as a result of a merger between a Swedish and a Finnish company. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of each case company, focusing on language use, communication practices, and cultural views. Using some of the…

  4. Exposure to Multiple Accents of English in the English Language Teaching Classroom: From Second Language Learners' Perspectives

    Sung, Chit Cheung Matthew


    As a result of the global presence of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), it has been argued that learners of English should be exposed to a range of varieties of English, rather than a single variety of English, so that they can be better prepared to communicate with other people in ELF communication. However, little is known about second language…

  5. Business Communication in BELF

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena


    The authors' business communication perspective is not in fact that of ESL but rather English as a foreign language (EFL) or, even more so, English as a lingua franca (ELF). To be more specific, they would like to add one more acronym to the list: They teach BELF, by which they refer to ELF for business communication purposes. The authors work as…

  6. I tu, què penses d'adoptar l'anglès com a llengua franca?

    Gregori-Signes, Carmen; Clavel Arroitia, Begoña


    Què volem dir amb multilingüisme? És beneficiós? Ens convé? Hauríem tots d'aprendre anglès? Aquestes són algunes de les preguntes que, com a estudiants, professors i futurs treballadors ens fem quan parlem d'adoptar l'anglès com a lingua franca, cosa que suposadament facilitarà la comunicació i fomentarà la mobilitat i ens acostarà al concepte tant repetit de la globalització. La Universitat de València, com la resta d'universitats europees, ha decidit oferir als estudiants la possibilitat de...

  7. On the significance of ELF basins


    to complement to chemical intuition (see, e.g., refs. 2, 3). In a mathematically more rigorous way, such regions, ELF basins,4 were defined following the spirit of Bader's Atoms in Molecules (AIM). All points in space which lead to the a given maximum of ELF, by following the gradient of ELF, belong to the same basin. Basins ...

  8. Transcript profiling of Elf5+/- mammary glands during pregnancy identifies novel targets of Elf5.

    Renee L Rogers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elf5, an epithelial specific Ets transcription factor, plays a crucial role in the pregnancy-associated development of the mouse mammary gland. Elf5(-/- embryos do not survive, however the Elf5(+/- mammary gland displays a severe pregnancy-associated developmental defect. While it is known that Elf5 is crucial for correct mammary development and lactation, the molecular mechanisms employed by Elf5 to exert its effects on the mammary gland are largely unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transcript profiling was used to investigate the transcriptional changes that occur as a result of Elf5 haploinsufficiency in the Elf5(+/- mouse model. We show that the development of the mouse Elf5(+/- mammary gland is delayed at a transcriptional and morphological level, due to the delayed increase in Elf5 protein in these glands. We also identify a number of potential Elf5 target genes, including Mucin 4, whose expression, is directly regulated by the binding of Elf5 to an Ets binding site within its promoter. CONCLUSION: We identify novel transcriptional targets of Elf5 and show that Muc4 is a direct target of Elf5, further elucidating the mechanisms through which Elf5 regulates proliferation and differentiation in the mammary gland.


    Daniela Finocchi


    Full Text Available Il Concorso letterario nazionale Lingua Madre, ideato nel 2005 da Daniela Finocchi, è un progetto permanente di Regione Piemonte e del Salone Internazionale del Libro di Torino diretto alle donne straniere (o di origine straniera con una sezione per le donne italiane. Nasce per creare relazione, scambio, confronto, per favorire la conoscenza reciproca e mettere in dialogo culture, identità, esperienze diverse. Tutto questo attraverso la scrittura in lingua italiana e tramite la fotografia. Una grande rete a disposizione delle donne, chiamate a raccontare e a raccontarsi in piena libertà e autonomia, a esprimersi al di fuori degli stereotipi, delle “norme” e delle “pre-iscrizioni” culturali e sociali, a giocare parti di sé tramite la parola. 
La lingua dà corpo a immaginari, desideri, mondi interiori e così si fa pensiero e diviene strumento indispensabile per conquistare il diritto a esistere e ad avere voce.   When language becomes thought The “Lingua Madre” national literary competition, founded in 2005 by Daniela Finocchi, is a permanent project of the Piedmont Region and the Turin International Book Fair aimed at foreign (born women, with a section for Italian women. It is aimed at developing relationships, exchanges, dialogues, promoting mutual knowledge and creating dialogue between different cultures, identities and experiences through writing in Italian and photography. A large network is available to women, so they can talk in full freedom and autonomy, express themselves outside stereotypes, “norms”, cultural and social prejudices and explore themselves through words. Language gives substance to ideas, desires, inner worlds, becoming thought, and is thus an indispensable tool to exist and have a voice.



    Sprache und Generationen/Lingua ed età. In: Holtus, G.; Metzeltin, M. e Schmitt,. C. (ed.) Lexiconder Romanistischen. Linguistik. Tübingen: MaxNiemeyerVerlag: 231-236. Culicchia, G. 2009. Brucia la città. Milano: Mondadori. Forconi A. 1988. La mala lingua. Dizionario dello. «slang» italiano. Milano: Sugarco. Edizioni.

  11. Your language or mine? or English as a lingua franca? Comparing effectiveness in English as a lingua franca and L1–L2 interactions: implications for corporate language policies

    Mulken, M.J.P. van; Hendriks, B.C.


    For multinational corporations, the need for efficiency and control has motivated the choice for a corporate language. However, increasing internationalisation has forced corporations to rethink their language policies to cater to the changing demands of the multicultural and multilingual workplace.


    Paola Luigia Cattoretti


    Full Text Available Acquisire una nuova lingua non è mai un percorso semplice. Il cammino che il migrante deve compiere per apprendere l'italiano è costellato di difficoltà e di ostacoli dovuti ad emozioni contrastanti, al  trauma causato dall'esperienza della migrazione, dalle condizioni, spesso di forte disagio, di lavoro, del contesto in cui si trova a svolgere una nuova vita, dalla qualità o meno dell'accoglienza, dalle possibilità reali, sul piano sociale, di integrazione. Lo scopo di questo articolo consiste nel mettere in evidenza il passaggio complesso dalla lingua madre alla cosiddetta lingua adottiva, mostrando come in taluni casi l'italiano, imparato nei corsi per stranieri o a scuola dai più giovani sia divenuto uno straordinario strumento grazie al quale poter evocare il paese d'origine e raccontare il proprio vissuto. Lo scrivere in una lingua diversa permette al migrante non solo di narrare fatti ed esperienze che magari preferirebbe non raccontare nella lingua madre, ma di diventare costruttore di cultura.   Learning a new language is never a simple task. The new-comer's experience of learning Italian is marked by difficulties and obstacles caused by contrasting emotions, the trauma from the experience of migration, the often difficult work conditions, the living conditions in the host country, the presence or absence of feeling welcomed, and the real chances for social integration. This paper aims at highlighting the complex passage from the mother tongue to the so-called adopted language, showing how in some cases learning Italian, thanks to courses for foreigners or as children at school, has become a wonderful tool for evoking the home country and telling about life there. Writing in another language allows migrants not only to recount facts and experiences that they might prefer not to tell in their own language, but it is a cultural building block as well.

  13. Migrants' Alternative Multi-Lingua Franca Spaces as Emergent Re-Producers of Exclusionary Monolingual Nation-State Regimes

    Sabaté Dalmau, Maria


    From a critical sociolinguistic perspective, this article investigates the written linguistic practices of 20 labor migrants from heterogeneous backgrounds who organized their life trajectories in an "ethnic" call shop in a marginal neighborhood near Barcelona. This was a late capitalist institution informally providing the undocumented…

  14. Evolving a lingua franca and associated software infrastructure for computational systems biology: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) project.

    Hucka, M; Finney, A; Bornstein, B J; Keating, S M; Shapiro, B E; Matthews, J; Kovitz, B L; Schilstra, M J; Funahashi, A; Doyle, J C; Kitano, H


    Biologists are increasingly recognising that computational modelling is crucial for making sense of the vast quantities of complex experimental data that are now being collected. The systems biology field needs agreed-upon information standards if models are to be shared, evaluated and developed cooperatively. Over the last four years, our team has been developing the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) in collaboration with an international community of modellers and software developers. SBML has become a de facto standard format for representing formal, quantitative and qualitative models at the level of biochemical reactions and regulatory networks. In this article, we summarise the current and upcoming versions of SBML and our efforts at developing software infrastructure for supporting and broadening its use. We also provide a brief overview of the many SBML-compatible software tools available today.

  15. The Death of the Non-Native Speaker? English as a Lingua Franca in Business Communication: A Research Agenda

    Nickerson, Catherine


    The impact of globalisation in the last 20 years has led to an overwhelming increase in the use of English as the medium through which many business people get their work done. As a result, the linguistic landscape within which we now operate as researchers and teachers has changed both rapidly and beyond all recognition. In the discussion below,…

  16. Effective Communication Modes in Multilingual Encounters: Comparing Alternatives in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)

    van Mulken, Margot; Hendriks, Berna


    This paper reports on an experimental study investigating alternative communication modes to English as a Lingua Franca. The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of different modes of communication and to gain insight in communication strategies used by interlocutors to solve referential conflicts. Findings show that ELF may not necessarily be…

  17. Which English? Whose English? An Investigation of "Non-Native" Teachers' Beliefs about Target Varieties

    Young, Tony Johnstone; Walsh, Steve


    This study explored the beliefs of "non-native English speaking" teachers about the usefulness and appropriacy of varieties such as English as an International Language (EIL) and English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), compared with native speaker varieties. The study therefore addresses the current theoretical debate concerning "appropriate" target…

  18. Teaching Email Politeness in the EFL/ESL Classroom

    Economidou-Kogetsidis, Maria


    Writing status-congruent emails is a skill that requires high pragmatic competence and awareness of the politeness conventions and email etiquette that need to be followed. Planning and composing such emails pose a greater challenge for EFL learners who use English in "lingua franca" communication (ELF), as they not only often struggle…

  19. Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities

    Björkman, Beyza


    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language…

  20. Particle motion in the ELF wiggler

    Wurtele, J.S.; Sessler, A.M.


    Particle motion in the ELF wiggler was investigated numerically and analytically. A transport system was designed using continuous quadrupole focusing in the wiggle plane and natural wiggle focusing in the non-wiggle plane

  1. Sottotitolazione intralinguistica e inglese ‘lingua franca’: strategie di mediazione audiovisiva

    Pietro Luigi Iaia


    Full Text Available Abstract – This chapter illustrates the results of a workshop held at the University of Salento, during an English-Italian Translation Course. A group of undergraduate students was asked to produce an intralingual translation for the subtitles of the video Capsized in Lampedusa – Fortress Italia, which deals with the situation in Lampedusa after a boat capsized in October 2013. The original video – available on YouTube – is subtitled into English for Vice News and, in a ‘role play’ exercise (Rosnow 1990, students were commissioned to adopt a type of English that could be directed at a wider international audience also including non-native English speakers. The contrastive analysis of the original and reformulated versions is designed to enquire into the influence and actualisation of the commissioner’s requests in the lexical, structural and functional features of target texts. The extent will also be explored, to which the type of English adopted in the alternative subtitles can be defined as a lingua-franca variation (Seidlhofer 2011, due to the inclusion of specific verb tenses and the selection of simplified syntactic structures (Seidlhofer 2004, aimed at facilitating the audience’s reception and accessibility to the semantic dimensions of the text. Finally, the analysis will also highlight the translators’ attempts to respect the temporal and spatial constraints of subtitles (Neves 2009, as well as the multimodal construction (Kress and van Leeuwen 2006 of audiovisual texts, which result in the use of condensation strategies (Gottlieb 2005; Pedersen 2011, thus proposing the new definition of audiovisual mediation.

  2. Lingua-Pedagogy as the Interdisciplinary Research Problem

    A. N. Yakovleva


    Full Text Available  The paper is devoted to lingua-pedagogy – one of the modern branches of pedagogy dealing with personal socialization in the process of foreign language learning. This interdisciplinary field of knowledge is related to linguistics, pedagogic psychology, development psychology and acmeology. Lingua-pedagogy undergoes the formation process; therefore, there still are a number of open questions concerning its place among the other sciences, and the final definitions of the main concepts and terms. The author recommends the systematic approach to developing the theoretical foundation of lingua- pedagogy. The paper outlines the subject and aims of the lingua-pedagogic research, its content and affecting means. The system in question is poly- functional, its main functions being the integral pedagogic effect in foreign language teaching, stimulating self-dependent learning, and arranging the in- tercultural integration. The linguistic faculties at universities can be taken as the key elements of the lingua-pedagogic system – the development centers, nurturing the value-oriented respectful attitude to the native and foreign cul- ture, providing intercultural competence acquisition, and training pedagogic staff capable of fulfilling the poly-cultural development tasks. Identification of the conformities of intercultural socialization makes it possible to organize the system of pedagogic facilitation for students learning foreign languages; and develop the perspective methods and technologies of language competence acquisition and consolidation. 


    Astafurova Tatyana Nikolaevna


    Full Text Available The article deals with lingua-semiotic representation of the power ritual as one of the symbolic forms of behavior that over time ceases to be spontaneous and becomes regular and repeated. Under discussion is the rite of coronation, which was becoming more complicated and acquired a final form throughout the history of Anglo-Saxon statehood. The process of defining parameters and characteristics of the power ritual is performed by chrono-, topo-, sound and language components of the ritual; it is established that in ritual communication the verbalization of the event is gradually becoming more complicated, clarifying its linguistic component, which largely ensures the success of the ritual; the non-verbal signs acquire additional meaning becoming dominant over simplified verbal signs. It is proved that within the ritual space of the Anglo-Saxon statehood an extensive and rigidly fixed system of signs and symbols has been formed, nominating the process of interaction between the sovereign and his subjects – three groups of signs characterizing the Anglo-Saxon power ritual communication: regulating, processing and classifying signs. Their content distinction is analyzed. Authority widely applies these signs as tools to influence the society through social stereotypes and ethnic psychological associations. Artifacts, as symbols of state power, and oaths, as discursive element of the coronation, are stated as the central elements of the ritual.

  4. Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves

    Pan, Weiyan


    This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).

  5. TOTAL FINA ELF. Annual report 2002


    This document is the annual report 2002 of Total-Fina-Elf society, great company on the hydrocarbons market. According to the company objective (set the standard not only with the financial performance, but also with stringent requirements in terms of social and environmental responsibility), it presents the Chairman message, the corporate governance, the social and environmental responsibility, the future of energy, the human resources policy, the investor relations, the overview of Total-Fina-Elf fiscal year with financial information and 2002 industrial events. (A.L.B.)

  6. Lingua patientis: new words for patient communication and history taking.

    Weaver, Donald F


    The English language sometimes fails in its ability to describe the severity or complexity of medical symptoms and complaints. In frustration, patients (or families) occasionally create new words to convey the subtleties of their medical history. Although medicine has created a comprehensive technical lexicon for physicians, we have failed to develop a corresponding patient-centric vocabulary (lingua patientis) that provides more accurate symptom description. The social networking of lingua patientis words might enhance history taking and afford improved appreciation of disease impact on individual patients. The English language is renowned for its capacity for flexibility and adaptability - we need to exploit this capacity for the benefit of our patients.


    Marina Tassara


    Full Text Available I libri di testo adottati nelle scuole contengono parole sconosciute e costruzioni sintattiche e testuali complesse che rappresentano dei veri e propri “muri linguistici” per gli alunni stranieri che non possiedono una buona conoscenza della lingua italiana. Ciò facilmente determina un divario di competenze tra l’apprendente straniero e i suoi compagni e ritardi scolastici molto spesso incolmabili con conseguente perdita di motivazione e di autostima, senso di frustrazione e isolamento che a volte sfocia in un disagio psico-sociale. Tra gli strumenti adottati dalla scuola italiana per far fronte a questo problema vi sono i testi disciplinari ad alta comprensibilità che, pur mantenendo la maggior parte delle informazioni, le veicolano in una forma più semplice dal punto di vista linguistico. L’articolo fornisce una bibliografia di manuali ad alta comprensibilità il più possibile aggiornata suddivisa per ordine e grado di scuola e per materia scolastica, con l’intento di fornire agli insegnanti un aiuto nella scelta e nel reperimento dei testi.     Language for study:  a bibliography   Textbooks used in schools contain unknown words and complex sentence constructions that create real “linguistic barriers” for foreign students who do not know Italian well.  This creates an abyss between the competence of the foreign learner and his or her classmates and unsuccessful school performance which is often not made up for and leads to a loss of self-esteem, frustration, isolation, and ultimately to psycho-social malaise.  Among the tools utilized in the Italian school system to address this problem are highly comprehensible textbooks which, while containing most of the information, express the content in simpler language.  This article offers an up-dated bibliography of textbooks which are easily understandable, divided according to order and grade of school, for teachers to use in choosing the textbooks for their classes.


    Marco Zeni


    Full Text Available L'Irlanda è recentemente divenuta un paese di immigrazione. Se la presenza di immigrati italiani non è significativa lo studio dell'italiano LS è invece discretamente diffuso, sebbene non ai livelli ben  maggiori del francese, del tedesco e dello spagnolo. L'articolo presenta un'analisi quantitativa dell'offerta e dello studio dell'italiano LS nelle scuole e nelle università irlandesi. L'analisi è stata condotta raccogliendo dati  da fonti istituzionali,  da siti internet, da materiale cartaceo, ma si fonda anche su esperienze dirette di insegnamento dell'italiano in Irlanda da parte dell'autore. Il risultato è il computo numerico degli studenti che studiano l'italiano come LS nelle scuole superiori e dell'offerta didattica delle maggiori università irlandesi e in particolare della National University of Ireland di Galway di cui si presentano i diversi corsi di lingua e di cultura italiana.    Ireland has recently attracted more and more immigration. Even if there are not many Italian immigrants living in Ireland, the study of Italian as a foreign language is quite wide-spread, although not quite as popular as French, German and Spanish. This paper is a quantitative analysis of the study of Italian as a foreign language in Irish schools and universities. The survey was carried out using data from institutional sources, internet sites, printed materials as well as the author's personal experience teaching Italian in Ireland. The results illustrate the number of students studying Italian as a foreign language in high schools and the courses offered in the main Irish universities, in particular at the National University of Ireland in Galway, which offers numerous courses on Italian language and culture. 

  9. ELFE at DESY, status of machine studies

    Tkatchenko, A.


    In this paper, the main outlines of the ELFE at DESY project are describes and the problems associated with the scenario proposed in july 1995 are reviewed. The results of the feasibility study recently carried out are presented and the achievable performances of the extracted beam in terms of emittance, energy spread and duty factor are given. (author).

  10. ELFE at DESY, status of machine studies

    Tkatchenko, A.


    In this paper, the main outlines of the ELFE at DESY project are describes and the problems associated with the scenario proposed in july 1995 are reviewed. The results of the feasibility study recently carried out are presented and the achievable performances of the extracted beam in terms of emittance, energy spread and duty factor are given. (author)

  11. Mind your languages: Lingua Receptiva in Estonian-Russian communication

    Bahtina, D


    This study was inspired by the idea that there is more diversity in the ways languages come into contact to create efficient and fair communication. The alternative mode explored in this study is called lingua receptiva (or, LaRa): here interlocutors speak their own language and have enough

  12. "Piedra Franca": the same name for many different natural stones.

    Pereira, Dolores; Navarro, Rafael; Baltuille, Jose Manuel


    The Spanish name "Piedra Franca" refers to all the stones of sedimentary origin that have uniform coloration and easeof cutting/carving in order to obtain dimensional blocks for construction. The first references to this denomination occurred during medieval times, when builders had to choose the best materials to construct magnificent cathedrals. The largest volume of such natural stones were extracted from Caen, northern France, and historic records use the English term, "freestone", ie stone easy to cut, and to work by the masons dedicated to build cathedrals ("freemasons") in contrast to the "roughstone", hard stones worked by the hard hewers or "rough masons". The original French name referred to the limestones extracted at Caen, but over time, the original meaning expanded to include other natural stones with similar coloration and ease to carve. Notably this included many sandstones that were used in adjacent countries such as Spain. In the latter, although the most popular for its importance in architectural heritage is the Villamayor sandstone from Salamanca, other historically important natural stones are also known as "Piedra Franca" including the calcarenite from Santa Pudia (Granada), the limestone from Alava, the sandstone from Jaen and the sandstone from Cádiz. All of them were used in the construction of Spanish architectonic heritage and share similar exterior characteristics. In fact, several are known as golden stones. However when conservation and restoration of architectonic heritage is involved, the correct and original material should be used. The existence of national networks (e.g. CONSTRUROCK) and international task groups (e.g. IUGS Heritage Stone Task Group) can help to properly characterize, document, and differentiate between the varieties of "Piedra Franca" and they should be consulted by builders, architects and any other stone professsionals involved in such activities. An error in choosing the natural stone can result in


    Marco Giardini


    Full Text Available L’articolo intende esaminare le caratteristiche principali dell’«italiano musicale» in alcune partiture del repertorio vocale classico giapponese del XIX e del XX secolo. Nella parte introduttiva vengono esaminati i tratti principali della storia e della cultura musicale giapponese, con particolare riferimento all’introduzione del sistema occidentale e alla sua fusione con il repertorio preesistente durante l’epoca Meiji; vengono successivamente presentati in traduzione alcuni brani particolarmente rappresentativi, con alcune indicazioni biografiche sui rispettivi autori.Nella seconda parte, viene esaminato più nel dettaglio il lessico musicale in alcune partiture, seguendo la seguente classificazione: 1 indicazioni sul genere e sul titolo delle composizioni; 2 indicazioni di carattere agogico e di espressione; 3 indicazione di carattere dinamico. Particolare attenzione è dedicata alle motivazioni che spingono i compositori giapponesi ad alternare la lingua italiana alla lingua nazionale, nonché alla capacità dell’«italiano musicale» di adattarsi alle peculiari esigenze espressive di un orizzonte artistico piuttosto lontano da quello europeo. Italian and Japanese language in some japanese music scoresThe article will examine the main features of Italian musical language in some scores of the Japanese classical vocal repertoire of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The introductory part reviews the main features of the history and culture of Japanese music, particularly in the context of the Western system and its merging with the existing repertoire during the Meiji era; some particularly significant translated excerpts are presented, with some biographical information about the authors.In the second part, the musical lexicon in some scores is examined in greater depth, classified in the following manner: 1 details of the type and title of the compositions; 2 agogic and expressive aspects; 3 indication of the dynamics


    Chiara De Battisti


    Full Text Available L’articolo ricostruisce brevemente, dal punto di vista storico, le vicende della comunità italiana in Istria per contestualizzarne i mutamenti di carattere linguistico e socioculturale che essa ha vissuto, in particolare dal secondo dopoguerra ad oggi. Sulla base di studi e indagini  recenti, vengono prese in esame le lingue e i dialetti parlati dalla comunità italiana, la realtà multilingue e multiculturale dell’Istria attuale,  le istituzioni italiane presenti nel territorio istriano e la loro attività finalizzata alla permanenza della lingua e cultura italiana nella regione. In particolare si ricostruisce la storia della scuola di lingua italiana, le sue origini, il suo declino dopo la cessione dell’Istria alla Yugolaslavia e durante i difficili e drammatici anni dell’esodo di molti italiano dalla regione, la sua rinascita ed evoluzione dal 1980 ad oggi. Delle scuole di lingua italiana, che attualmente operano sia nel territorio istriano che fa parte della Slovenia sia in quello che fa parte della Croazia, si analizza la loro distribuzione nella regione, la loro organizzazione, il ruolo della lingua italiana come materia, come lingua di scolarizzazione e come lingua straniera, i problemi, ancora aperti, della formazione degli insegnanti e dei libri di testo, e si valuta la loro possibilità di evoluzione e di sviluppo.     Italian language and Italian schools in the territory if Istria   This article briefly discusses, from the historical point of view, the Italian community in Istria to contextualize the linguistic and socio cultural changes that have taken place in the region, especially after WWII. Based on recent surveys and studies, languages and dialects spoken in the Italian community, the multilungual and multicultural reality of Istria are examined, as well as the Italian institutions in the Istrian territory and their efforts to conserve Italian language and culture in the area.  In particular, the history of

  15. LPG in the Totalfina-Elf merger; Le GPL dans la fusion Totalfina-Elf



    Elf Aquitaine's take-over by TotalFina was approved on February 9, by the European Commission, with substantial changes to the project initially submitted. One of the main changes involves the sale of Elf Antargaz and of a part of Elf's associated LPG logistics. Rumors say that a dozen of potential buyers were on the ranks in February to acquire this company which is the second French LPG marketer. The sale seems to question the LPG scheme set by TotalFina at the end of 1999. We published in our previous issue this scheme which was designed to give a larger span to the product, with its own management apart from other specialties. (authors)

  16. LinguaTag: an Emotional Speech Analysis Application

    Cullen, Charlie; Vaughan, Brian; Kousidis, Spyros


    The analysis of speech, particularly for emotional content, is an open area of current research. Ongoing work has developed an emotional speech corpus for analysis, and defined a vowel stress method by which this analysis may be performed. This paper documents the development of LinguaTag, an open source speech analysis software application which implements this vowel stress emotional speech analysis method developed as part of research into the acoustic and linguistic correlates of emotional...

  17. ELF radiation from the Tromsoe super heater facility

    Barr, R.; Stubbe, P.


    Direct comparisons have been made of the ionospheric ELF radiation produced by the new (1 GW ERP) and old (250 MW ERP) antennas of the Tromsoe heater system, but no significant differences in the ELF signal strength have been detected. This initially surprising result is shown to require a value of unity for the index relating the received ELF signal strength to HF power input to the antenna. A series of experiments performed solely to derive more accurate values for this power index provided values ranging from 0.74 to 0.97, dependent on the ELF frequencies generated. It has been suggested that ELF radiation from the normal Tromsoe heater facility should be limited by saturation effects, even when operating well below the maximum HF power density (3mW/m 2 in the D-region). No evidence for such saturation effects has been found even at power densities greater than 10mW/m 2

  18. TotalFinaElf Factbook 2002


    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2002. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  19. ELF magnetic therapy and oxidative balance.

    Raggi, Francesco; Vallesi, Giuseppe; Rufini, Stefano; Gizzi, Stefania; Ercolani, Enrico; Rossi, Ruggero


    Knowledge about the relationship between exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) EMF and formation (or neutralization) of free radicals in the living cells is limited. Studies performed on animals and plants have shown conflicting effects on the relation between EMF and oxidative stress. Very few experiments have been performed on humans. The present study reports on the effects of an ELF magnetic therapy device (Seqex) on oxidative scale in humans. This device supplies complex magnetic signals with specific choices of frequency, intensity, and shape that are based on Liboff's ion cyclotron resonance hypothesis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were treated using the Seqex cycle. A quantitative determination of oxidative stress was obtained at three time points by measuring Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in peripheral blood before and after the cycle and one month following completion of the cycle. A highly significant reduction in mean MDA (53.8%, p = 0.0002) was found at the end of the treatment. One month later the mean MDA had again risen, but there was still a significant overall reduction of 15.6% (p = 0.010) compared to original values.

  20. The ocean depths: Elf's target for 1997



    Elf has long since been aware of the potential of sedimentary basins in the ocean depths. For this reason, the group has been preparing to descend to these depths for many years. Today, it is setting itself the target of being ready to optimise as from 1997 a discovery made in the depth between 400 and 1500 m of water in Africa. In the Gulf of Guinea, most of the neighbouring countries have opened up their deep sea offshore areas, in order to try to renew their reserves on the verge of the third millennium. Indeed a great similarity can be seen between the West African and the Brazilian ocean depths. In the African offshore areas, Elf has acquired or renewed eight blocks, four of which are in Nigeria, one in the Congo, one in Gabon and two in Angola. The group is also interested in the ocean depths which are now accessible in the North Sea, whether in the Norwegian (Voring and More) of British (Western Shetlands) areas. (author). 1 fig


    Sara Faggiano


    Full Text Available L’articolo ha lo scopo di mostrare, attraverso esempi e proposte didattiche, come si possa, attraverso l’esperienza teatrale, sviluppare l’apprendimento della lingua italiana come LS  contemporaneamente alla consapevolezza interculturale degli apprendenti stranieri  e creare un contesto  di accoglienza e inclusione.  La “glottodidattica teatrale” è un metodo che non consente solo di agire sull’apprendimento della lingua straniera e sulle difficoltà linguistiche e comunicative che gli allievi possono incontrare in tale processo, ma anche di affrontare e cercare di superare problemi determinati dalla condizione di discriminazione linguistica, culturale, religiosa, relazionale e sociale in cui spesso si viene a trovare lo studente immigrato.  Fare teatro con finalità formative e per favorire il processo di inclusione degli apprendenti stranieri è una modalità didattica da proporre a scuola originale ed efficace. Grazie a questa esperienza l’immigrato raggiunge lo scopo di conoscere la lingua italiana attraverso il teatro coniugando formazione e divertimento.   Language and theater: italian, a drama? This article aims at showing through examples and didactic activities, how the theater can develop learning Italian as a foreign language together with the intercultural awareness of foreign learners and create contexts for inclusion and learning.  “Theatrical glottodidactics” is a method that does not only allow for  dealing with learning a foreign language and the linguistic and communicative  difficulties students may encounter, but also for dealing with and attempting to overcome these problems caused by the linguistic, cultural, religious, relational and social discrimination which foreign students may be subject to.  Doing theater in a didactic setting and to encourage the inclusion of foreign students is an original and effective method to employ in the school setting.  Thanks to this experience the foreigner can

  2. Creating medical terminology: from Latin and Greek influence to the influence of English as the current lingua franca of medical communication

    Dobrić, Katja


    The language of medicine is a broad research field, so broad that there ought to be a special field of linguistics called medical linguistics. its development, especially the development of medical terminology, is interesting both to medical historians and to linguists. Hippocratic writings dating from the 5th and the 4th century Bc contain many medical terms which were the foundation of the language of medicine in the greek era. At the beginning of the first century ad greek medical te...

  3. English as the Lingua Franca in Transnational Higher Education: Motives and Prospects of Institutions That Teach in Languages Other than English

    Wilkins, Stephen; Urbanovic, Jolanta


    Although there seems to be a wide held assumption that transnational higher education programs have to be taught in English to be legitimate "international" programs, there are a few examples globally of international branch campuses that teach in languages other than English. Using seven institutional case studies from around the world,…

  4. "Your Pronunciation and Your Accent is Very Excellent": Orientations of Identity during Compliment Sequences in English as a Lingua Franca Encounters

    Jenks, Christopher


    The widespread use of English has--for better or worse--shaped the social and communicative norms and practices of many people the world over, and the likelihood of this continuing for the foreseeable future raises questions concerning English ownership, linguistic imperialism, language attrition, and mutual intelligibility, to name a few. These…

  5. "Sorry Can You Speak It in English with Me?" Managing Routines in Lingua Franca Doctor--Patient Consultations in a Diabetes Clinic

    Martin, Gillian S.


    Research on the routines of doctor-patient consultations has been conducted in language and culture concordant dyads and in dyads where either doctor or patient uses a foreign language; yet there is an absence of scholarly engagement with consultations where both participants are using a foreign language. In seeking to address this gap, this…

  6. Erasmus Students Using English as a "Lingua Franca": Does Study Abroad in a Non-English-Speaking Country Improve L2 English?

    Llanes, Àngels; Arnó, Elisabet; Mancho-Barés, Guzman


    There is a lack of research on the impact of study abroad (SA) on the development of L2 English when students study in non-anglophone countries. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap by examining 39 Catalan/Spanish students who, as part of an Erasmus exchange, spent a term at universities in non-English-speaking European countries. In…

  7. Investigation of the radiation properties of magnetospheric ELF waves induced by modulated ionospheric heating

    Wang, Feng; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhao, Shufan; Zhao, Guangxin; Wang, Min


    Electromagnetic extremely low frequency (ELF) waves play an important role in modulating the Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics. High-frequency (HF) modulated heating of the ionosphere acts as a viable means to generate artificial ELF waves. The artificial ELF waves can reside in two different plasma regions in geo-space by propagating in the ionosphere and penetrating into the magnetosphere. As a consequence, the entire trajectory of ELF wave propagation should be considered to carefully analyze the wave radiation properties resulting from modulated ionospheric heating. We adopt a model of full wave solution to evaluate the Poynting vector of the ELF radiation field in the ionosphere, which can reflect the propagation characteristics of the radiated ELF waves along the background magnetic field and provide the initial condition of waves for ray tracing in the magnetosphere. The results indicate that the induced ELF wave energy forms a collimated beam and the center of the ELF radiation shifts obviously with respect to the ambient magnetic field with the radiation power inversely proportional to the wave frequency. The intensity of ELF wave radiation also shows a weak correlation with the size of the radiation source or its geographical location. Furthermore, the combination of ELF propagation in the ionosphere and magnetosphere is proposed on basis of the characteristics of the ELF radiation field from the upper ionospheric boundary and ray tracing simulations are implemented to reasonably calculate magnetospheric ray paths of ELF waves induced by modulated ionospheric heating.

  8. Multiflash whistlers in ELF-band observed at low latitude

    A. K. Singh


    Full Text Available Multiflash whistler-like event in the ELF-band, observed during March 1998 at low latitude station Jammu, is reported. The most prominent feature of these events is the multiflash nature along with the decrease in frequency within a very short span of time resembling similar to terrestrial whistlers. The events have a significantly smaller time duration (0.5–3.5 s than those reported earlier from high, mid and low latitudes and also display a diurnal maximum occurring around 09:30 h (IST. There have been similar reportings from other latitudes, but whistlers in the ELF-band with a multiflash nature along with a precursor emission have never been reported. Lightning seems to be the dominant source for the ELF whistlers reported here.

  9. ELF4 Regulates GIGANTEA Chromatin Access through Subnuclear Sequestration

    Yumi Kim


    Full Text Available Many organisms, including plants, use the circadian clock to measure the duration of day and night. Daily rhythms in the plant circadian system are generated by multiple interlocked transcriptional/translational loops and also by spatial regulations such as nuclear translocation. GIGANTEA (GI, one of the key clock components in Arabidopsis, makes distinctive nuclear bodies like other nuclear-localized circadian regulators. However, little is known about the dynamics or roles of GI subnuclear localization. Here, we characterize GI subnuclear compartmentalization and identify unexpected dynamic changes under diurnal conditions. We further identify EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4 as a regulator of GI nuclear distribution through a physical interaction. ELF4 sequesters GI from the nucleoplasm, where GI binds the promoter of CONSTANS (CO, to discrete nuclear bodies. We suggest that the subnuclear compartmentalization of GI by ELF4 contributes to the regulation of photoperiodic flowering.

  10. An active antenna for ELF magnetic fields

    Sutton, John F.; Spaniol, Craig


    The work of Nikola Tesla, especially that directed toward world-wide electrical energy distribution via excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances, has stimulated interest in the study of these resonances. Not only are they important for their potential use in the transmission of intelligence and electrical power, they are important because they are an integral part of our natural environment. This paper describes the design of a sensitive, untuned, low noise active antenna which is uniquely suited to modern earth-ionosphere cavity resonance measurements employing fast-Fourier transform techniques for near-real-time data analysis. It capitalizes on a little known field-antenna interaction mechanism. Recently, the authors made preliminary measurements of the magnetic fields in the earth-ionosphere cavity. During the course of this study, the problem of designing an optimized ELF magnetic field sensor presented itself. The sensor would have to be small, light weight (for portable use), and capable of detecting the 5-50 Hz picoTesla-level signals generated by the natural excitations of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances. A review of the literature revealed that past researchers had employed very large search coils, both tuned and untuned. Hill and Bostick, for example, used coils of 30,000 turns wound on high permeability cores of 1.83 m length, weighing 40 kg. Tuned coils are unsuitable for modern fast-Fourier transform data analysis techniques which require a broad spectrum input. 'Untuned' coils connected to high input impedance voltage amplifiers exhibit resonant responses at the resonant frequency determined by the coil inductance and the coil distributed winding capacitance. Also, considered as antennas, they have effective areas equal only to their geometrical areas.

  11. ELFE: New machine proposed for Europe



    Understanding the dynamics of non-perturbative QCD (the physics of quark and gluon interactions at large coupling) is one of the most challenging problems of modern physics. The two phenomena of quark confinement, which binds quarks permanently inside hadrons, and the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry, which gives us pion physics and more massive constituent quarks of low energy QCD, define the interface of nuclear and particle physics. The Electron Laboratory for Europe project - ELFE - is the European machine initiative proposed as the optimum experimental tool to study this ''Confinement Physics'', which is virgin territory for both particle and nuclear physicists. Until recently, lack of data in the confinement domain had led to slow theoretical progress in understanding the quark structure of nuclear and hadronic matter. This situation has improved considerably, with new discoveries in high energy deep inelastic scattering experiments together with important advances in large acceptance detector technology and continuous electron beams at low energies. At high energies, the CERN muon beam experiments in deep inelastic scattering (probing the remote interior of nucleons) opened an exciting new window on nucleon structure with the discovery of three unexpected effects: the EMC (European Muon Collaboration) nuclear and spin effects, and the observation of a surprisingly large difference between the the number of anti-up and anti-down quarks in nucleons. In 1983, the EMC nuclear effect showed that the quark structure of the free nucleon is modified in the nuclear environment. The EMC spin effect (or proton spin problem) is the discovery that it looks as though quark spin contributes only 22% of that of the nucleon (July 1994, page 19)


    Daniele Corradi


    Full Text Available In questo contributo si analizzano, in un contesto di insegnamento/apprendimento dell’italiano L2, esempi di parlato del docente, a cui è affidata la gestione della comunicazione didattica, ed esempi di parlato degli apprendenti, osservando, in particolare, in quale modo la loro produzione orale e il loro coinvolgimento nell’interazione verbale in classe sia previsto e guidato dalla forma della lezione e dalle strutture dialogiche a cui è correlato l’apprendimento della lingua. Nell’analisi di parlato e di interazioni verbali in classe si sono riscontrati due modelli fondamentali: la lingua della conversazione, macro-obiettivo comunicativo di lezioni svolte nell’ambito del progetto “Marco Polo” presso l’Università degli Studi di Milano, e la lingua dell’esposizione, perseguito nelle lezioni dei corsi sull’italiano disciplinare L2, sempre promossi dall’UniMi, e denominati “CALP” (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. La scelta metodologica di riportare la trascrizione e l’analisi di un’intera lezione del progetto “Marco Polo” è motivata dalla convinzione che la lezione è l’unità che riassume tutti gli elementi costitutivi del discorso didattico. A questa analisi segue l’esame di campioni audio-video registrati durante le lezioni dei corsi CALP, per mostrare come l’insegnamento/apprendimento dell’italiano L2/LS possa richiedere diverse tipologie di materiali e strumenti che supportano il parlato dell’insegnante e facilitano la comunicazione di contenuti didattici tra insegnante e apprendenti, se usati coerentemente con i micro-obiettivi e macro-obiettivi della lezione.  Language teacher in-class speech In this paper we analyze examples of in-class teacher speech, responsible for managing the teaching communication, and examples of learners' speech in an Italian L2 teaching/learning context. In particular we observe how the student’s speech and involvement in verbal interaction in the

  13. Italiano per Cinesi – Didael. Corso di lingua italiana online.

    Franca Bosc


    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Per gli apprendenti sinofoni la lingua italiana, con la sua complessità e fragilità morfologica, rappresenta  un ostacolo notevole. Il corso  pone attenzione alla lontananza tipologica delle due lingue con schede grammaticali in cinese e, soprattutto, i livelli A1 e A2 hanno una progressione molto controllata per fissare le basi della lingua italiana. Sono disponibili un Glossario, tre diversi tipi di dizionario (il dizionario automatico, il dizionario, visuale e il dizionario fraseologico e approfondimenti culturali. Si tratta di un corso completo che consente di sviluppare le competenze previste  dal Quadro Comune Europeo; il modello formativo è flessible e prevede varie opzioni di erogazione.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} For Chinese speakers Italian, in all its complexity and morphological fragility, represents a great obstacle.  This course takes into careful account the distance between the two language types, with grammar fact cards in Chinese and, above all, progression at levels A1 and A2 which is very carefully controlled in order to establish the bases of the Italian language.  A Glossary, three different types of dictionary (an automatic dictionary, a visual dictionary and a dictionary of phrases

  14. Assessment of ELF magnetic fields produced by independent power lines

    Lucca, G.


    In this paper, the problem of assessing the ELF (extremely low-frequency) magnetic fields produced, in a certain area characterised by the presence of more than one independent power line, is faced. The use of the incoherent summation of the single contributions, as an advantageous estimator of the total magnetic field, is proposed and justified by means of a heuristic procedure. This kind of approach can be seen as a useful and practical tool to be employed in environmental impact analysis and in assessing long-term human exposure to ELF magnetic fields. (authors)

  15. Photon tagging; considerations for an ELFE DESY proposal

    Mackenzie, J.A.


    Photon Tagging in the 5-15 GeV region is considered. The advantage of performing exclusive measurements in relation to obtainable photon flux in described. Finally some technical problems in relation to implementing a photon beam in the framework of the ELFE at DESY proposal are discussed. (author)

  16. Variazioni e negoziazioni di significato attraverso l’inglese ‘lingua franca’ in contesti migratori

    Maria Grazia Guido


    Full Text Available Abstract – ELF used in immigration domains typically reflects the different cognitive and communicative processes as well as the power/status asymmetries involved in cross-cultural situations of unequal encounters between non-western supplicants (i.e., African immigrants and asylum seekers and western (Italian experts in authority. Such situations will be here explored with reference to institutional contexts where the conditions for achieving successful communication through the use of ELF variations are biased against the participants’ different native linguacultural backgrounds from which they appropriate English without conforming to native speaker norms of usage. A number of case studies will illustrate the extent to which features of ELF usages may be perceived as formally deviating and socio-pragmatically inappropriate in intercultural communication – this being due to the participants’ lack of acknowledgement of each other’s ELF variations – thus giving rise to misunderstandings that often raise social and ethical issues about inequality and social justice. More specifically, the case studies will enquire, on the one hand, into the processes by which ELF users transfer typological, textual, lexical and logical features of their native languages and cultures to the domain-specific communication they are involved in, thus affecting their pragmalinguistic behaviours and interpretative strategies, leading ultimately to communication failure. On the other hand, some case studies will enquire into possible ‘hybridization strategies’ of written reformulation aimed at making ELF discourse conceptually accessible and socio-pragmatically acceptable to immigrants and refugees involved in the interaction, by making it conform to their different native linguacultural backgrounds, with the ultimate purpose of achieving a ‘mutual accommodation’ of ELF variations in order to promote the social inclusion of marginalized immigrants as

  17. Sources of Exposure to ELF Fields at Workplaces (invited paper)

    Vecchia, P.


    In most workplaces people are exposed to a variety of extremely low frequency (ELF) fields. So-called 'electric jobs' have been identified, where the exposure is likely to significantly exceed average residential and occupational levels. The classification is, however, questionable, and no reliable exposure data may in general be associated with different jobs. Most recent epidemiological studies have been focused on areas where ELF fields are quite intense, sources are clearly identified, and actual field levels can be measured. Such areas include electric power generation, transmission and distribution, electric transport, and arc welding. In this paper, typical values of magnetic fields in these workplaces are presented and discussed. The time-weighted magnetic field values for the same jobs are not very consistent across the studies. This indicates that not only job titles, but also measurements of the magnetic field, are poor surrogates for the actual exposure, which is best assessed by the use of dosemeters. (author)

  18. Artificial excitation of ELF waves with frequency of Schumann resonance

    Streltsov, A. V.; Guido, T.; Tulegenov, B.; Labenski, J.; Chang, C.-L.


    We report results from the experiment aimed at the artificial excitation of extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves with frequencies corresponding to the frequency of Schumann resonance. Electromagnetic waves with these frequencies can form a standing pattern inside the spherical cavity formed by the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere. In the experiment the ELF waves were excited by heating the ionosphere with X-mode HF electromagnetic waves generated at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. The experiment demonstrates that heating of the ionosphere can excite relatively large-amplitude electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range 7.8-8.0 Hz when the ionosphere has a strong F layer, the frequency of the HF radiation is in the range 3.20-4.57 MHz, and the electric field greater than 5 mV/m is present in the ionosphere.

  19. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Plan and Summary of 1982 Progress.


    Scientific studies were funded through a peer-reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982, and studies were initiated at the Wisconsin and Michigan ELF...Naval Electronic Systems Command (NESC) during and subsequent to the ELF Comunications Program environmental impact evaluation process, includ- ing the... scientific review of ELF electromagnetic field effects made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1977. This document generally describes the

  20. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés


    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  1. ULF/ELF Waves in Near-Moon Space

    Nakagawa, Tomoko


    The reflection of the solar wind protons is equivalent to a beam injection against the solar wind flow. It is expected to produce a ring beam with a 3D distribution function in many cases. The reflected protons are responsible for the generation of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves at ˜0.01 Hz and narrowband waves at ˜1 Hz in the extremely low frequency (ELF) range through resonant interaction with magnetohydrodynamic waves and whistler mode waves in the solar wind, respectively. This chapter discusses these commonly observed waves in the near-Moon space. The sinusoidal waveforms and sharp spectra of the monochromatic ELF waves are impressive, but commonly observed are non-monochromatic waves in the ELF range ˜0.03-10 Hz. Some of the solar wind protons reflected by the dayside lunar surface or crustal magnetic field gyrate around the solar wind magnetic field and can access the center of the wake owing to the large Larmour radius.

  2. Analysis of impulse signals with Hylaty ELF station

    Kulak, A.; Mlynarczyk, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Kubisz, J.; Michalec, A.


    Lighting discharges generate electromagnetic field pulses that propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. The attenuation in the ELF range is so small that the pulses originating from strong atmospheric discharges can be observed even several thousand kilometers away from the individual discharge. The recorded waveform depends on the discharge process, the Earth-ionosphere waveguide properties on the source-receiver path, and the transfer function of the receiver. If the distance from the source is known, an inverse method can be used for reconstructing the current moment waveform and the charge moment of the discharge. In order to reconstruct the source parameters from the recorded signal a reliable model of the radio wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide as well as practical signal processing techniques are necessary. We present two methods, both based on analytical formulas. The first method allows for fast calculation of the charge moment of relatively short atmospheric discharges. It is based on peak amplitude measurement of the recorded magnetic component of the ELF EM field and it takes into account the receiver characteristics. The second method, called "inverse channel method" allows reconstructing the complete current moment waveform of strong atmospheric discharges that exhibit the continuing current phase, such as Gigantic Jets and Sprites. The method makes it possible to fully remove from the observed waveform the distortions related to the receiver's impulse response as well as the influence of the Earth-ionosphere propagation channel. Our ELF station is equipped with two magnetic antennas for Bx and By components measurement in the 0.03 to 55 Hz frequency range. ELF Data recording is carried out since 1993, with continuous data acquisition since 2005. The station features low noise level and precise timing. It is battery powered and located in the sparsely populated area, far from major electric power lines, which results in high

  3. An Anthological Review of Research Utilizing MontyLingua: a Python-Based End-to-End Text Processor


    Full Text Available MontyLingua, an integral part of ConceptNet which is currently the largest commonsense knowledge base, is an English text processor developed using Python programming language in MIT Media Lab. The main feature of MontyLingua is the coverage for all aspects of English text processing from raw input text to semantic meanings and summary generation, yet each component in MontyLingua is loosely-coupled to each other at the architectural and code level, which enabled individual components to be used independently or substituted. However, there has been no review exploring the role of MontyLingua in recent research work utilizing it. This paper aims to review the use of and roles played by MontyLingua and its components in research work published in 19 articles between October 2004 and August 2006. We had observed a diversified use of MontyLingua in many different areas, both generic and domain-specific. Although the use of text summarizing component had not been observe, we are optimistic that it will have a crucial role in managing the current trend of information overload in future research.

  4. Aspectos geopolíticos en el desarrollo de la zona franca industrial de Ilo

    Cardenas Nuñez, Gilberto; Cardenas Nuñez, Gilberto


    El presente trabajo de Tesis enfatiza el aspecto geopolítico en el desarrollo de la Zona franca Industrial de Ilo (ZOFRI-IL0). La razón de tal énfasis es simple: por este aspecto específicamente es que se creó la ZOFRI-ILO. En consecuencia, el tratamiento del tema tiene que ver con la influencia geopolítica en las sucesivas etapas de su desarrollo, considerando sus posibilidades de desarrollo a futuro en el marco de las tendencias internacionales de la globalización de la economía mundial. ...

  5. ELF-MF exposure affects the robustness of epigenetic programming during granulopoiesis

    Manser, Melissa; Sater, Mohamad R. Abdul; Schmid, Christoph D.; Noreen, Faiza; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Schuermann, David; Schär, Primo


    Extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have been classified as “possibly carcinogenic” to humans on the grounds of an epidemiological association of ELF-MF exposure with an increased risk of childhood leukaemia. Yet, underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. Genome instability seems an unlikely reason as the energy transmitted by ELF-MF is too low to damage DNA and induce cancer-promoting mutations. ELF-MF, however, may perturb the epigenetic code of genomes, which is well-known to be sensitive to environmental conditions and generally deranged in cancers, including leukaemia. We examined the potential of ELF-MF to influence key epigenetic modifications in leukaemic Jurkat cells and in human CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells undergoing in vitro differentiation into the neutrophilic lineage. During granulopoiesis, sensitive genome-wide profiling of multiple replicate experiments did not reveal any statistically significant, ELF-MF-dependent alterations in the patterns of active (H3K4me2) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone marks nor in DNA methylation. However, ELF-MF exposure showed consistent effects on the reproducibility of these histone and DNA modification profiles (replicate variability), which appear to be of a stochastic nature but show preferences for the genomic context. The data indicate that ELF-MF exposure stabilizes active chromatin, particularly during the transition from a repressive to an active state during cell differentiation.

  6. La teoria dell’embodiment e il processo di apprendimento e insegnamento di una lingua

    Giovanni Buccino


    Full Text Available Questo articolo si compone di tre parti principali: nella prima parte vengono riportati in modo sintetico i risultati empirici di studi che sostengono la teoria del linguaggio incarnato, termine con il quale viene tradotto in lingua italiana il termine inglese embodied. Nella seconda parte vengono descritti alcuni aspetti di recenti approcci proposti per l’insegnamento e l’apprendimento di una lingua per sottolineare come, soprattutto a partire dalla seconda metà del secolo scorso, questi approcci hanno tentato di implementare nella didattica delle lingue dati empirici provenienti dalle neuroscienze di base. Infine, nella terza parte vengono suggerite alcune implicazioni per l’insegnamento delle lingue che trovano il loro fondamento nella prospettiva del linguaggio incarnato.

  7. Martina Franca donkey meat quality: Influence of slaughter age and suckling technique.

    De Palo, P; Tateo, A; Maggiolino, A; Marino, R; Ceci, E; Nisi, A; Lorenzo, J M


    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of suckling technique and slaughter age on Martina Franca donkey meat quality. Twenty Martina Franca male foals were involved in the trial. Foals naturally assumed colostrum within 4h from birth. Afterwards, 10 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS), and 10 foals were naturally suckled (NS). All the foals were weaned at 180d, then housed indoors and fed the same diet. Ten donkeys were slaughtered at 12months and the other 10 at the age of 18months. Samples of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) were taken from each foal for chemical analysis, then rheological parameters, oxidative profile, colorimetric parameters and fatty acid profile were assessed. Older donkeys (18months) fed with natural milk presented the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) and meat protein content. From a dietary view point, IMF acid composition showed a more favourable profile in meat from artificially-reared donkeys compared to naturally-suckled ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.




    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es comprender los procesos organizativos de 12 ferias francas de la provincia de Córdoba. Para ello se realizaron entrevistas a actores clave durante los años 2014 y 2015. Si bien las ferias francas son valoradas inicialmente como una solución apropiada tanto para los consumidores conscientes, como para los roductores familiares que buscan una alternativa de comercialización más sustentable, el análisis revela que las mismas son un campo social tensionado por relaciones de colaboración/competencia entre diversos actores que interactúan en el territorio. Los resultados permiten identifi car dos tendencias en disputa en la mayoría de los feriantes: i la asamblearia, que sostiene una posición individualista y confía en la regulación del proceso que realizan los consumidores y; ii la formalizante, que propicia la organización en comisiones internas que acuerden normas para el comportamiento de los feriantes.

  9. Generation of Elf5-Cre knockin mouse strain for trophoblast-specific gene manipulation.

    Kong, Shuangbo; Liang, Guixian; Tu, Zhaowei; Chen, Dunjin; Wang, Haibin; Lu, Jinhua


    Placental development is a complex and highly controlled process during which trophoblast stem cells differentiate to various trophoblast subtypes. The early embryonic death of systemic gene knockout models hampers the investigation of these genes that might play important roles during placentation. A trophoblast specific Cre mouse model would be of great help for dissecting out the potential roles of these genes during placental development. For this purpose, we generate a transgenic mouse with the Cre recombinase inserted into the endogenous locus of Elf5 gene that is expressed specifically in placental trophoblast cells. To analyze the specificity and efficiency of Cre recombinase activity in Elf5-Cre mice, we mated Elf5-Cre mice with Rosa26 mT/mG reporter mice, and found that Elf5-Cre transgene is expressed specifically in the trophoectoderm as early as embryonic day 4.5 (E4.5). By E12.5, the activity of Elf5-Cre transgene was detected exclusively in all derivatives of trophoblast lineages, including spongiotrophoblast, giant cells, and labyrinth trophoblasts. In addition, Elf5-Cre transgene was also active during spermatogenesis, from spermatids to mature sperms, which is consistent with the endogenous Elf5 expression in testis. Collectively, our results provide a unique tool to delete specific genes selectively and efficiently in trophoblast lineage during placentation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua

    Giuseppe Di Stefano


    Full Text Available Reseña de Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua, Commissione per i testi di lingua (Collezione di opere inedite o rare, 169, Bologna, 2012, x + 320 pp. ISBN: 9788898096152.

  11. Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua

    Di Stefano, Giuseppe


    Reseña de Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua, Commissione per i testi di lingua (Collezione di opere inedite o rare, 169), Bologna, 2012, x + 320 pp. ISBN: 9788898096152.

  12. Characterization of tannery sludge from the leather industry of Franca industrial district, SP, Brazil

    Chambi, M.M.; Toffoli, S.M.


    The industry of leather manufacture generates large quantities of solid leather waste with characteristics of high-polluting and hazardous conditions. Among these wastes, stands out the wet blue leather (chromed leather scraps), and the tanning sludge and secondary sludge generated in the processes of effluents treatment. These wastes contain Cr(III), which, under oxidizing conditions, can turn into Cr (VI), which is highly toxic. However, these wastes are a potential source of chromium oxide (traditional industrial pigment), which could be used by the glass and ceramic enamel industries. In this study, a preliminary characterization of a chromium sludge from the industrial district of Franca-SP was conducted. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA / TG) analyses were used to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of this solid waste. The potential of using this material as an available and cheap pigment for the manufacture of enamels and glass is discussed. (author)

  13. A presença feminina nas indústrias de lingerie na cidade de Franca

    Pereira, Mayara C. Freitas; Bueno, Cléria M. L. Bittar Pucci


    Dados recentes nos comprovam que as indústrias de lingerie têm apresentado considerável crescimento na cidade de Franca/SP, cuja história sempre se pautou pela indústria do calçado. Devido à crise no setor calçadista, sobretudo em razão da intensificação da concorrência com a indústria dos países asiáticos, muitas grandes fábricas de calçados foram fechadas e, com a dispensa de mão-de-obra, houve um processo de reorganização da estrutura fabril, protagonizado, em especial, por aqueles que bus...

  14. Artificial suckling in Martina Franca donkey foals: effect on in vivo performances and carcass composition.

    De Palo, Pasquale; Maggiolino, Aristide; Milella, Paola; Centoducati, Nicola; Papaleo, Alessandro; Tateo, Alessandra


    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest on donkey milk production, on its characteristics, and also on breeding techniques. Donkey milk is characterized by high economic value, although the productive level of jennies is poor. During the milking process, foals are usually separated from their dams, allowing the milk collection in the mammary gland of jennies before milking session. This takes 8 h per day of fastening period for lactating donkey foals. During this period, it could be possible to apply a partial artificial suckling system (artificial suckling during daytime and natural suckling during the night). The aim of the work is the evaluation of the effect of this innovative technique on in vivo performances and on meat production traits of Martina Franca donkey foals. Forty Martina Franca jennies with their foals were used for the trial. After colostrum assumption, 20 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS) during each day, and 20 foals were naturally suckled (NS). From 8.00 to 20.00, both groups were separated from their mothers in order to allow the milking procedures of the jennies. The AS group was in a stall equipped with an automatic calf-suckling machine. For each group, 10 foals were slaughtered at 12 months and 10 foals at 18 months. Artificial suckling system positively affected the growth rate of donkey foals, particularly in the first 6 months from birth, with higher weekly weight gain (P  0.05). Artificial suckling system permitted to extend the time of foal separation from their mothers increasing milk collection time per day, awarding fastening periods in foals.

  15. Anaphora in question-answer sessions in university ELF contexts.

    Thomas Wulstan Christiansen


    Full Text Available Abstract - Identity chains (Hasan 1984 ˗ strings of co-referential noun phrases ˗ constitute a lesser researched area in the field of ELF, as has the more general area of cohesion (but see Hüttner 2009, Christiansen 2011. Following on the work on anaphora of such scholars as Reinhart (1983 and Cornish (1999, and on cohesion (e.g. Halliday and Hasan 1976, Halliday 2004, Christiansen (2009a/b, 2011 focuses on the link between text cohesion and discourse coherence. The interactive perspective of discourse (seen as the process of which text is the product: see Widdowson 1984: 100 is especially relevant to an ELF context of spontaneous spoken interaction. As Guido (2008 evidences, different inter-cultural concerns constitute a crucial dimension to the complex multi-code interaction. Consequently, the diverse ways in which speakers from different L1 backgrounds employ anaphors and construct identity chains are key elements in the co-construction of a dialogic text. In this case study, six extracts of transcripts taken from the VOICE corpus (2011 of conference question and answer sessions set in multicultural contexts are analysed qualitatively. The different ways that participants construct identity chains (e.g. whether they use full forms of various kinds or anaphoric pro-forms are classified. The analysis focuses on both how individual anaphors are resolved and how relations between anaphors and antecedent triggers are encoded, and how identity chains are constructed and organized individually. The objective is to identify which kinds of noun phrase (various subtypes of full and pro-forms are used by diverse groups of EFL speakers both in relation to their own contributions and to those of other speakers (with a threefold distinction made between the same turn of the same speaker, a different turn of the same speaker, and a different turn by a different speaker.

  16. Excitation of the Magnetospheric Cavity by Space-Based ELF/VLF Transmitters

    Bell, Timothy F; Inan, Umran; Kulkarni, P


    During the period of performance Stanford University: 1. Developed an analytical model describing the distribution of current along a dipole antenna radiating ELF/VLF waves in the magnetospheric cavity...

  17. Penetration of ELF currents and electromagnetic fields into the Earth's equatorial ionosphere

    Eliasson, B.; Papadopoulos, K.


    The penetration of extremely low frequency (ELF) transient electromagnetic fields and associated currents in the Earth's equatorial E-region plasma is studied theoretically and numerically. In the low-frequency regime, the plasma dynamics of the E-region is characterized by helicon waves since the ions are viscously coupled to neutrals while the electrons remain mobile. For typical equatorial E-region parameters, the plasma is magnetically insulated from penetration of very long timescale magnetic fields by a thin diffusive sheath. Wave penetration driven by a vertically incident pulse localized in space and time leads to both vertical penetration and the triggering of ELF helicon/whistler waves that carry currents obliquely to the magnetic field lines. The study presented here may have relevance for ELF wave generation by lightning discharges and seismic activity and can lead to new concepts in ELF/ULF injection in the earth-ionosphere waveguide.

  18. Lingua italiana e immagini dell’Italia nella scrittura migrante di Concetta Coppolino

    Margherita Di Salvo


    Full Text Available Concetta Copolino, nata a Mazzarà Sant’Andrea (ME nel 1939, migrò a Cambridge (Inghilterra come donna delle pulizie. Quando arrivò in Inghilterra nel 1957, non conosceva l’inglese. Ma, dopo molti anni in Inghilterra e senza andare a scuola, è riuscita a imparare la lingua con cui ha scritto due romanzi, A Difficult Situation e A Volcanic Destiny. Al suo primo romanzo, A Difficult Situation, è dedicato il presente contributo, che si propone la sua analisi linguistica e culturale.

  19. Il concetto di storia della lingua nell'opera grammaticale di Benedetto Buommattei

    Gunver Skytte


    Full Text Available Che la storia della lingua sia una disciplina linguistica di data recente, fondata nell'800, soprattutto grazie alle ricerche pionieristiche di insigni filologi tedeschi, è un'opinione comunemente accettata, ed essa è probabilmente anche giustificata attraverso la classificazione datane di disciplina. A questo dato di fatto si deve senz'altro l'opinione altrettanto estesa che prima dell'800 non esistesse il concetto di linguistica diacronica o cambiamento linguistico in senso scientifico, come pure quella non meno erronea che la linguistica, come scienza, sia stata fondata solo nell'800.

  20. Il volgare e il principe. Politica culturale e questione della lingua alla corte di Cosimo

    Margherita Quaglino


    Full Text Available Il principato di Cosimo I rappresenta un periodo di snodo fondamentale per la questione della lingua italiana. Il contributo ripercorre la bibliografia degli ultimi vent’anni con l’intento di definirne le principali traiettorie e individuarne l’originalità e le prospettive future rispetto agli studi precedenti. Sono esaminati in particolare gli studi relativi all’opera di Benedetto Varchi e Vincenzio Borghini; ai volgarizzamenti di Giovan Battista Gelli e Cosimo Bartoli; alla redazione e all’edizione delle Vite di Vasari e al rapporto tra letterati e artisti nella celebrazione del potere.

  1. Phosphorylation of protein synthesis initiation factor 2 (elF-2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Romero, D.P.


    Initiation Factor 2 (elF-2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is comprised of 3 subunits. The control of protein synthesis in mammalian cells have been shown to involve the phosphorylation of the small (alpha) subunit by a specific protein kinase. Phosphorylation results in an inhibition of protein synthesis. In order to determine whether or not an analogous system is operative in yeast, the phosphorylation state of the alpha subunit of elF-2 in Saccharomyces was determined during various growth and nongrowth conditions. Cells were radiolabelled with 32 P and 35 S, and the whole cell lysates were analyzed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis. These experiments revealed that the smallest subunit (alpha, M/sub r/ = 31,000) is a phosphoprotein in vivo under a variety of growth and nongrowth conditions. This is in direct contrast to the pattern exhibited in mammalian cells. The fact that the small subunit of elF-2 in yeast is phosphorylated under a variety of physiological conditions indicates that such a covalent modification is important for some aspects of elF-2 function. In order to investigate this problem further, a protein kinase that specifically labels the alpha subunit of elF-2 in vitro was isolated. The kinase is not autophosphorylating, utilizes ATP as a phosphate donor, phosphorylates an exogenous protein, casein, modifies serine residues in elF-2, is cyclic nucleotide-independent, and is strongly inhibited by heparin

  2. DNA micro array analysis of yeast global genome expression in response to ELF-MF exposure

    Shimizu, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kyoh, B.


    There is wide spread public concern over the possible health risk of ELF-MF. Electromagnetic fields may produce a variety of effects in several biological systems, including the elevation of cancer risk and reduction of cell growth. Epidemiological studies have shown weak correlations between the exposure to ELF and the incidence of several cancers, but negative studies have also been reported. Moreover, there are some reports that basic biological events such as the cell cycle and DNA replication were affected by exposure to MF. However, to date the molecular mechanism of the MF effect on living organism is not clear. In this study, we used yeast DNA micro array to examine the transcriptional profile of all genes in response to ELF-MF. A few years ago it was difficult to carry out a global gene expression study to identify important genes regarding ELF-MF, however, today DNA micro arrays allow gene regulation in response to high density ELF-MF exposure. Thus we used micro array to analyze changes in mRNA abundance during ELF-MF exposure

  3. Use of C. Elegans as a model organism for sensing the effects of ELF-EMFs

    Lacchini, A H; Everington, M L; Augousti, A T; Walker, A J [School of Life Sciences, Kingston University London (United Kingdom)


    For the past two decades, there have been concerns and controversy about the effects on human health of the increased exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) resulting from electrification, in both residential and industrial settings. Several epidemiological studies have implicated ELF-EMFs averaging 0.4 {mu}mUTesla (T) or more in increased risk of cancer, especially childhood leukaemia [1,2]; there have also been many reports demonstrating effects of power-frequency EMFs on cells [outlined in 1,3]. Unfortunately, however, the precise mechanisms by which ELF-EMFs exert biological effects have proven difficult to define and results of various studies have often been hard to reproduce [1]. We believe that C. elegans offers an exciting opportunity to elucidate the effects of power-frequency EMFs on cell signalling pathways within the whole organism and are therefore investigating the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on MAPK signalling in intact worms and fertilized embryos. Through taking a targeted approach to studying the effects of ELF-EMF's on MAPK signalling in C. elegans we aim to gather data that is physiologically relevant. Presently, this research is at a preliminary stage of preparation, and more detailed results on the exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to ELF-EMF radiation will be presented at the conference itself.

  4. Registros de enredamentos de baleias-franca, Eubalaena australis (CETACEA, MISTICETI, na temporada reprodutiva de 2010, em Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Mônica Pontalti


    Full Text Available Baleias-francas (Eubalaena australis sofrem diferentes pressões antrópicas como poluição, tráfego de embarcações e emalhe em redes de pesca. Casos de enredamentos em baleias-francas são crescentes no litoral sul de Santa Catarina, podendo levar a encalhes e morte. Durante a temporada reprodutiva de 2010, foram registrados seis casos de emalhes em indivíduos juvenis e adultos. É necessária a criação de medidas de regulamentação da pesca durante a temporada reprodutiva de baleias-francas em Santa Catarina, considerando as peculiaridades da pesca na região com o objetivo de minimizar as injúrias causadas às baleias e evitar prejuízos às comunidades pesqueiras locais.

  5. Assessment of multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic field exposure

    Leitgeb, N


    Electromagnetic fields both in daily life and at workplaces exhibit increasingly complex frequency spectra. Present spectral assessment rules proved to be too conservative for health risk assessment. This is because they are based on the assumption that cells would react like linear systems in terms of responding to a sum of frequencies by a sum of independent responses to each individual frequency. Based on numerical investigations with the Hodgkin-Huxley and the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley nerve cell models, it could be shown that accounting for the nonlinear behaviour of cellular excitation processes avoids considerable overestimation of simultaneous exposures to multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic fields. Besides this, it could be shown that the role of phase relationships is less important than that assumed so far. The present assessment rules lead to non-compliances of marketed electric appliances. For general application, a nonlinear biology-based assessment (NBBA) rule has been proposed, validated and proven advantageous compared with ICNIRP's rule. While staying conservative it avoids unnecessary overestimation and demonstrates compliance even in cases of suspected non-conformities. It is up to responsible bodies to decide upon the adoption of this proposal and the potential need for implementing additional or reducing the already incorporated safety factors

  6. ELF-VLF communications through-the-Earth

    Buettner, H. M.; Burke, G. J.; Didwall, E. M.; Holladay, G.; Lytle, R. J.


    We use computer models and experiments to explore the feasibility of communication between points underground and on the Earth's surface. Emphasis is placed on ELF-VLF electromagnetic propagation through the Earth; nominally, we investigated propagation in the 200 Hz-30 kHz frequency range. The computer modeling included calculations of the fields of a point electric or magnetic source in a homogeneous half space or a stratified Earth. Initial results for an insulated antenna of finite length are also considered. The experiments involved through-the-Earth transmissions at two locations in Pennsylvania, both of which had large formations of limestone. Initial results indicate that information rates as high as kbits/s may be possible for subsurface depths of 300 m or less. Accuracy of these estimates depends on the electromagnetic propagation constants of the rock, the noise characteristics, and modulation scheme. Although a nuisance for evaluating through-the-Earth propagation, the existence of subsurface metal conductors can improve the transmission character of the site.

  7. Comparison of magnetic field meters used for Elf exposure measurement

    Magne, I.; Azoulay, A.; Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M.


    Objective The question of the biological effects of E.L.F. electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz) has lead to many experimental and epidemiological works, in occupational exposure and in residential exposure. One of the main difficulties is to integrate the maximum of information about the environmental exposures during the everyday life without limitation to the exposure of the home. The objective of this study is to analyse experimentally the metrology associated with human exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field, in the optic of a study of the French population exposure. Method 4 meters were tested: the E.M.D.E.X. II, currently used in epidemiological studies, the E.M.D.E.X. L.I.T.E., which is more recent, the H.T.300, an Italian meter, and the F.D.3, which is made by Combinova A calibration was performed with an Helmoltz coil. The immunity of these meters to GSM signal was also tested. The influence of the sample rate was evaluated. Results and conclusion The meter chosen for performing the measurements of the exposure study will be selected in function of the following criteria: - easiness of use - precision - low sample rate - memory size and reliability of data stocking - immunity to GSM perturbations. (authors)

  8. Influence of milking number and frequency on milk production in Martina Franca breed asses

    G. Martemucci


    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in Martina Franca asses in order to study milk yield and udder healthy conditions in relation to daily milking number and frequency. Experiment I - A total of 15 asses were subdivided into three groups (N.5 corresponding to: one milking per day, after a 3 hour interval from foal separation by dams (Group A; three milkings per day with 3 hour frequency (Group B; three milkings per day with 2 hour frequency (Group 3M. Experiment II - Evaluation was made of the effect of a schedule of 6 milkings per day with frequency of 2 hours on milk yield (Group 6M; N. 5, compared to Group 3M. Healthy udder conditions in relation to the number of milking per day was monitored in 3M and 6M Groups, by somatic cell count. Average yield per milking was highest (P<0.01 following 3 rather 1 milkings per day and with milking frequency of 3 hours rather than 2 hours (P<0.01. A schedule of six milkings per day did not improve mean milk yield and determined an increase in somatic cell count compared to 3 daily milkings regimen (63.2 vs 17.5 x 1000/mL; P<0.05.

  9. [Clinical characteristics and speech therapy of lingua-apical articulation disorder].

    Zhang, Feng-hua; Jin, Xing-ming; Zhang, Yi-wen; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiao-ming


    To explore the clinical characteristics and speech therapy of 62 children with lingua-apical articulation disorder. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Gesell development scales (Gesell), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Preschool Children (WPPSI) and speech test were performed for 62 children at the ages of 3 to 8 years with lingua-apical articulation disorder. PPVT was used to measure receptive vocabulary skills. GESELL and WPPSI were utilized to represent cognitive and non-verbal ability. The speech test was adopted to assess the speech development. The children received speech therapy and auxiliary oral-motor functional training once or twice a week. Firstly the target sound was identified according to the speech development milestone, then the method of speech localization was used to clarify the correct articulation placement and manner. It was needed to change food character and administer oral-motor functional training for children with oral motor dysfunction. The 62 cases with the apical articulation disorder were classified into four groups. The combined pattern of the articulation disorder was the most common (40 cases, 64.5%), the next was apico-dental disorder (15 cases, 24.2%). The third was palatal disorder (4 cases, 6.5%) and the last one was the linguo-alveolar disorder (3 cases, 4.8%). The substitution errors of velar were the most common (95.2%), the next was omission errors (30.6%) and the last was absence of aspiration (12.9%). Oral motor dysfunction was found in some children with problems such as disordered joint movement of tongue and head, unstable jaw, weak tongue strength and poor coordination of tongue movement. Some children had feeding problems such as preference of eating soft food, keeping food in mouths, eating slowly, and poor chewing. After 5 to 18 times of therapy, the effective rate of speech therapy reached 82.3%. The lingua-apical articulation disorders can be classified into four groups. The combined pattern of the

  10. A Novel Detection Method for Underwater Moving Targets by Measuring Their ELF Emissions with Inductive Sensors

    Jinhong Wang


    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a novel detection method for underwater moving targets by detecting their extremely low frequency (ELF emissions with inductive sensors. The ELF field source of the targets is modeled by a horizontal electric dipole at distances more than several times of the targets’ length. The formulas for the fields produced in air are derived with a three-layer model (air, seawater and seafloor and are evaluated with a complementary numerical integration technique. A proof of concept measurement is presented. The ELF emissions from a surface ship were detected by inductive electronic and magnetic sensors as the ship was leaving a harbor. ELF signals are of substantial strength and have typical characteristic of harmonic line spectrum, and the fundamental frequency has a direct relationship with the ship’s speed. Due to the high sensitivity and low noise level of our sensors, it is capable of resolving weak ELF signals at long distance. In our experiment, a detection distance of 1300 m from the surface ship above the sea surface was realized, which shows that this method would be an appealing complement to the usual acoustic detection and magnetic anomaly detection capability.

  11. ELF Transients and Q-bursts Detected Around the Globe: First results from Palmer Station, Antarctica

    Flint, Q. A.; Moore, R. C.


    We present the first analysis of data from the recently deployed broadband ELF (5-500 Hz) B-field receiver at Palmer Station, Antarctica together with observations at similar receivers located at Sondrestromfjord, Greenland and Arrival Heights, Antarctica. Such remote locations afford the unique opportunity to record signals that are essentially unperturbed by power line noise. As a result, using this multi-site global network of ELF/VLF receivers, we are able to easily detect a particular type of ELF transient that propagates around the world multiple times, known as the Q-burst. The Q-burst is characterized by a large increase in amplitude above the background at the Schumann Resonance modes and is believed to result from especially powerful cloud-to-ground lightning discharges. These powerful lightning discharges are likely responsible for a significant level of energetic coupling between the troposphere, the ionosphere, and the magnetosphere. The ELF and VLF waves excited by the lightning discharge propagate to great distances in the earth-ionosphere waveguide, and in fact propagate around the Earth multiple times. By measuring the received waveform at multiple distant sites around the globe, we can pinpoint the source lightning location, compare the changes in field strength and spectrum as a function of distance from the source, and evaluate modal propagation effects in the VLF range (that are not apparent in the ELF range).

  12. Chaos control and synchronization of two neurons exposed to ELF external electric field

    Wang Jiang; Zhang Ting; Che Yanqiu


    Chaos control and synchronization of two unidirectional coupled neurons exposed to ELF electrical field via nonlinear control technique is investigated. Based on results of space-time characteristics of trans-membrane voltage, the variation of cell trans-membrane voltage exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field is analyzed. The dynamical behaviors of the modified Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model are identified under the periodic ELF electric field using both analytical and numerical analysis. Then, using the results of the analysis, a nonlinear feedback linearization control scheme and a modified adaptive control strategy are designed to synchronize the two unidirectional coupled neurons and stabilize the chaotic trajectory of the slave system to desired periodic orbit of the master system. The simulation results demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed algorithms

  13. Exposure estimates based on broadband elf magnetic field measurements versus the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule

    Paniagua, Jesus M.; Rufo, Montana; Jimenez, Antonio; Pachon, Fernando T.; Carrero, Julian


    The evaluation of exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields using broadband measurement techniques gives satisfactory results when the field has essentially a single frequency. Nevertheless, magnetic fields are in most cases distorted by harmonic components. This work analyses the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field in an outdoor urban context and compares the evaluation of the exposure based on broadband measurements with that based on spectral analysis. The multiple frequency rule of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulatory guidelines was applied. With the 1998 ICNIRP guideline, harmonics dominated the exposure with a 55 % contribution. With the 2010 ICNIRP guideline, however, the primary frequency dominated the exposure with a 78 % contribution. Values of the exposure based on spectral analysis were significantly higher than those based on broadband measurements. Hence, it is clearly necessary to determine the harmonic components of the ELF magnetic field to assess exposure in urban contexts. (authors)

  14. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    Salines Georges


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year as well as medical interview (at 2 years and examination (at 6 years. Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development.

  15. Quantificação das classes de erosão por tipo de uso do solo no município de Franca - SP Measurement of the erosion classes and land use in Franca Municipality - SP, Brazil

    Paula F. Endres


    Full Text Available Impactos ambientais causados pelas atividades agropecuárias sobre o meio rural podem ser constatados quando são analisadas as paisagens da região. Vários estudos demonstraram que informações da paisagem obtidas a partir de imagens fotográficas são indispensáveis para o diagnóstico do processo erosivo do solo, aspecto indispensável no planejamento conservacionista. Neste trabalho, utilizando-se de técnicas de fotointerpretação, foi realizada a quantificação das classes de erosão acelerada no município de Franca - SP, relacionando-as com os tipos de cobertura vegetal. A coleção de fotografias aéreas empregadas foi produzida pela Base Aerofotogrametria e Projetos S.A., com escala aproximada 1:35.000, em outubro de 1990. Elaboraram-se cartas temáticas do uso/ocupação do solo e dos estados erosivos presentes em cada tipo de cobertura vegetal do solo, estabelecendo-se, em seguida, as relações entre a erosão acelerada e os tipos de comunidades vegetais do município de Franca. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, nesse município, o solo agrícola encontra-se relativamente conservado, apresentando 74,23% da área com erosão laminar ligeira/moderada. Os diferentes usos/ocupações do solo influenciaram de modos distintos na manifestação do processo erosivo.Environment impacts caused by farming activities on agricultural management can be evidenced when the land use is analyzed. Some studies had demonstrated that, the information of the land use from photographic images is essential for identifying the erosive process, indispensable aspect in planning for better land management. In this work, using photointerpretation techniques, the measurement of the erosion classes in Franca Municipality - SP, Brazil, was carried through, relating them with the land uses. The BASE - Aerofotogrametria e Projetos S.A. took the used air photograph collection, with the approach scale of 1:35.000, in October of 1990. The thematic map of land

  16. Fandom dan Konsumsi Media: Studi Etnografi Kelompok Penggemar Super Junior, ELF Jogja

    Sari, Ratna Permata


    Korean Wave (music, movie, and drama), recently, accept a lot of attention from Indonesian teenagers. Thanks to the power of mass media, Korean music, or we called it KPop, beginning to spread it virus throughout the world by the emerging of Fandom. Super Junior as one of the pioneer of Korean boy band become the group that has the largest fan club in the world named ELF. This research examines the private media consumption behavior by ELF Jogja and the interaction between its members in orga...

  17. Physics with a 15-30 GeV electron accelerator (ELFE)

    Frois, B.; Pire, B.


    Proposals for ELFE (Electron Laboratory For Europe), a 15-30 GeV high luminosity, continuous beam electron accelerator are discussed. These proposals form an extensive research program on exclusive reactions to probe the evolution of correlated quarks systems. Using the nucleus itself as a microscopic detector is one of the important ideas of this program. The same reaction is measured using nuclei of different sizes and thus the differences are observed in the evolution from quarks and gluons to hadrons in the nuclear medium. A brief overview of the physics with ELFE is presented. (R.P.) 1 tab

  18. Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields

    Anderson, L.E.; Kelman, B.J.; Weigel, R.J. (eds.)


    Although background levels of atmospheric electric and geomagnetic field levels are extremely low, over the past several decades, human beings and other life forms on this planet have been subjected to a dramatically changing electromagnetic milieu. An exponential increase in exposure to electromagnetic fields has occurred, largely because of such technological advances as the growth of electrical power generation and transmission systems, the increased use of wireless communications, and the use of radar. In addition, electromagnetic field generating devices have proliferated in industrial plants, office buildings, homes, public transportation systems, and elsewhere. Although significant increases have occurred in electromagnetic field strenghths spanning all frequency ranges, this symposium addresses only the impact of these fields at static and extremely low frequencies (ELF), primarily 50 and 60 Hz. This volume contains the proceedings of the symposium entitled /open quotes/Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields/close quotes/. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for discussions of all aspects of research on the interaction of static and ELF electromagnetic fields with biological systems. These systems include simple biophysical models, cell and organ preparations, whole animals, and man. Dosimetry, exposure system design, and artifacts in ELF bioeffects research were also addressed, along with current investigations that examine fundamental mechanisms of interactions between the fields and biological processes. Papers are indexed separately.

  19. Exposure of Extremely-Low Frequency (ELF magnetic field may cause human cancer

    Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei


    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic exposure of non-ionizing extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-EMF is considered as a health hazard due to its adverse effects on human body such as generation of any type of cancer. Stem cells are appropriate models to assess the effects of ELF-EMF on other cell lines and human beings. Materials and methods: Adipose tissue has been known as source of multi potent stromal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs which can be obtained in less invasive method and in large amounts; so adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs were used in this study. Effect of ELF-EMF (intensities of 0.5 and 1 mT and 50 Hz on proliferation rate of hADSCs was assessed in 20 and 40 min per day for 7 days. Trypan blue assay was performed to assess cell proliferation rate. Result: The results shown that 0.5 and 1 mT magnetic fields can promote the proliferation rate of adipose derived hMSCs according to the duration of exposure. Conclusion: These outcomes could approve the effect of ELF-EMF on cancer induction; although the effective mechanisms in this process are still unknown.

  20. A survey of ELF and VLF research on lightning-ionosphere interactions and causative discharges

    Inan, U. S.; Cummer, S. A.; Marshall, R. A.


    Extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) observations have formed the cornerstone of measurement and interpretation of effects of lightning discharges on the overlying upper atmospheric regions, as well as near-Earth space. ELF (0.3-3 kHz) and VLF (3-30 kHz) wave energy released by lightning discharges is often the agent of modification of the lower ionospheric medium that results in the conductivity changes and the excitation of optical emissions that constitute transient luminous events (TLEs). In addition, the resultant ionospheric changes are best (and often uniquely) observable as perturbations of subionospherically propagating VLF signals. In fact, some of the earliest evidence for direct disturbances of the lower ionosphere in association with lightning discharges was obtained in the course of the study of such VLF perturbations. Measurements of the detailed ELF and VLF waveforms of parent lightning discharges that produce TLEs and terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) have also been very fruitful, often revealing properties of such discharges that maximize ionospheric effects, such as generation of intense electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) or removal of large quantities of charge. In this paper, we provide a review of the development of ELF and VLF measurements, both from a historical point of view and from the point of view of their relationship to optical and other observations of ionospheric effects of lightning discharges.

  1. World map of ELF/VLF emissions as observed by a low-orbiting satellite

    Parrot, M.


    Statistical studies were performed of the intensities of the ELF/VLF emissions observed by the low-orbiting satellite AUREOL-3. Data were obtained from filterbanks and the frequency range of observations extends from a few tens of Hz up to 15 kHz. The most important phenomena observed are ELF hiss and VLF hiss. Electric and magnetic components are used. Thus, representation of the waves intensities in geographical coordinates was made at different frequencies. The relative ability of natural waves (whistler, hiss) and man-made waves, such as powerful VLF transmitters or powerline harmonic radiations (PLHR), to precipitate particles in the slot region, is studied. Using geomagnetical representation, it is shown that ELF hiss is maximum between 06 and 20 Magnetic Local Time and in the invariant latitude range 50 0 -70 0 as usual, but geographic representation indicates that the waves are intensified at the longitudes of VLF transmitters and near the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The SAA plays a dominant role in the localization of the strongest ELF hiss. Weakest intensities are observed to the east of the SAA. As to the VLF hiss, the maximum intensity is related to regions of enhanced thunderstorm activity, and may be influenced by powerline harmonic radiations (PLHR) over USA. Comparisons with past work, experimental as well as theoretical, are made

  2. Innovative use of ICT in schools based on the findings in ELFE project

    Frederiksson, Ulf; Jedeskog, Gunilla; Plomp, T.


    The European e-Learning Forum for Education (ELFE) is a project initiated by the ETUCE (European Trade Union Committee on Education). An important objective of the project has been to study good experiences with implementing the use of ICT in schools. This objective has been broken down in seven

  3. ELF and VLF signatures of sprites registered onboard the low altitude satellite DEMETER

    J. Błęcki


    Full Text Available We report the observation of ELF and VLF signature of sprites recorded on the low altitude satellite DEMETER during thunderstorm activity. At an altitude of ~700 km, waves observed on the E-field spectrograms at mid-to-low latitudes during night time are mainly dominated by up-going 0+ whistlers. During the night of 20 July 2007 two sprites have been observed around 20:10:08 UT from the observatory located on the top of the mountain Śnieżka in Poland (50°44'09" N, 15°44'21" E, 1603 m and, ELF and VLF data have been recorded by the satellite at about 1200 km from the region of thunderstorm activity. During this event, the DEMETER instruments were switched in the burst mode and it was possible to register the wave forms. It is shown that the two sprites have been triggered by two intense +CG lightning strokes (100 kA occurring during the same millisecond but not at the same location. Despite the distance DEMETER has recorded at the same time intense and unusual ELF and VLF emissions. It is shown that the whistler wave propagates from the thunderstorm regions in the Earth-ionosphere guide and enters in the ionosphere below the satellite. They last several tens of milliseconds and the intensity of the ELF waveform is close to 1 mV/m. A particularly intense proton whistler is also associated with these emissions.

  4. What advice to give when ELF is classified as a possible human carcinogen

    Repacholi, M.


    In 1996, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Project to address the health issues associated with exposure to EMF. This Project is intended to provide independent scientific assessment of health effects from exposure to EMF (0-300 GHz); identify gaps in knowledge requiring further research in order to improve health risk assessments; encourage focused, high quality research; and conduct formal WHO/IARC/ICNIRP health risk assessments after key research has been completed. The International EMF Project is currently reviewing research results and conducting risk assessments of exposure to static and extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. WHO will be conducting an evaluation of all health effects from ELF field exposure during 2002-3. This paper summarizes what is known about ELF exposure on childhood leukaemia, what the IARC classification means and how some national authorities have responded. In addition, WHO recommendations are given to provide guidance to national authorities wanting to protect their populations against EMF exposure. Whenever electricity is conducted through transmission lines, distribution lines or is used in appliances, both electric and magnetic fields exist close to the lines or appliances. The power frequency used is 50 or 60 Hz. Use of electric power has become part of everyday life. However, questions have been raised as to whether these and other ELF fields are carcinogenic or can produce any other effects on health

  5. Angola. Petroleum discovery by Elf on the block number 17 in deep water



    This article describes the petroleum discovery in deep water in Angola. The drilling was executed by 1365 meters deep and gave a petroleum of good quality. The Elf company emphasizes that it is its third discovery in deep water in the Guinea gulf after Nkossa and Moho in Congo. (N.C.)

  6. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    Anderson, L.E.


    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  7. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation produced by consumer products

    Roha Tukimin; Ahmad Fazli Ahmad Sanusi; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohamad Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari


    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ( ELF EMF) radiation falls under category of non-ionising radiation (NIR).ELF EMF consists of electric and magnetic fields. Excessive exposure to ELF EMF radiation may cause biological and health effects to human beings such as behavioral changes, stochastic and as initiator of cancer. In daily life, the main source of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation are consumer products in our home and office. Due to its ability to cause hazard, a study of ELF EMF radiation produced by consumer product was conducted. For this preliminary study, sample of 20 types electrical appliances were selected. The measurement was covered electric and magnetic field strength produced by the sample. PMM model EHP50A were used for measurement and data analysis. The results were compared with the permissible limits recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for members of public (1000 mGauss and 5000 V/m). The results showed that all tested sample produced magnetic and electric field but still under the permissible limit recommended by ICNIRP. Besides that we found that field strengths can be very high at closer distance to the sample. (Author)

  8. ELF exposure from mobile and cordless phones for the epidemiological MOBI-Kids study

    Calderón, Carolina; Ichikawa, Hiroki; Taki, Masao; Wake, Kanako; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Maslanyj, Myron; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae Kyoung; Sim, Malcolm R.; Wiart, Joe; Cardis, Elisabeth


    This paper describes measurements and computational modelling carried out in the MOBI-Kids case-control study to assess the extremely low frequency (ELF) exposure of the brain from use of mobile and cordless phones. Four different communication systems were investigated: Global System for Mobile

  9. Cytogenetic damage in adult and newborn mice exposed to Elf magnetic fields

    Ieradi, L.A.; Udroiu, I.; Chiuchiarelli, G.; Migliorini, D.; Cristaldi, M.; Tanzarella, C.


    Data obtained in newborn mice show that the chronic exposure during intra-uterine life to a 50 Hz, 650 μT E.L.F. magnetic field induce a genetic damage. Nevertheless, the increase of DNA strand break in brain and in micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood and liver disagree with the data obtained by Abramsson-Zetterberg and Grawe (13) which did not find any genetic alterations in mice exposed to extremely low frequency (E.L.F.) magnetic field. In any case, along with other dissimilarities in the experimental design, the intensity of the field (14 μT) and the time of sampling (35 days) were different. It is important to underline the four-fold increase in C.R.E.S.T.+ micronuclei frequency in circulating erythrocytes in the exposed group in comparison with the control group. Even though this value is quite low, it could indicate that E.L.F. magnetic fields may have different properties to damage the genome integrity. This stresses the need for further investigation on the possible link between electromagnetic fields and aneuploidy in order to elucidate the relationship with carcinogenesis. Preliminary data obtained with sperm abnormality assay show a significant increase of sperm abnormalities in mice exposed to E.L.F. magnetic fields and suggest a possible alteration to the spermatogenic process after exposure. This data agrees with data obtained by Tablado et al. (1998), in mice exposed continually for 35 days to a field of 1 T. Regarding the palatal ridges alterations assay, the results obtained show that the development of the secondary palate is not affected by E.L.F. magnetic field (50 Hz, 0,65 T). Nevertheless further studies at different frequency and intensity should be carried out to detect the possible epigenetic damage induced by E.L.F. exposure (Migliorini, 2005). With regard to the mechanism of action, it is generally believed that the damage induced by the magnetic field is an oxidative damage and that free radicals are involved. Some authors

  10. Cytogenetic damage in adult and newborn mice exposed to Elf magnetic fields

    Ieradi, L.A. [Istituto per lo Studio degli Ecosistemi, CNR, Rome (Italy); Udroiu, I.; Chiuchiarelli, G.; Migliorini, D.; Cristaldi, M. [Universite La Sapienza, Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell' Uomo, Rome (Italy); Tanzarella, C. [Roma Univ., Dipt. di Biologia (Italy)


    Data obtained in newborn mice show that the chronic exposure during intra-uterine life to a 50 Hz, 650 {mu}T E.L.F. magnetic field induce a genetic damage. Nevertheless, the increase of DNA strand break in brain and in micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood and liver disagree with the data obtained by Abramsson-Zetterberg and Grawe (13) which did not find any genetic alterations in mice exposed to extremely low frequency (E.L.F.) magnetic field. In any case, along with other dissimilarities in the experimental design, the intensity of the field (14 {mu}T) and the time of sampling (35 days) were different. It is important to underline the four-fold increase in C.R.E.S.T.+ micronuclei frequency in circulating erythrocytes in the exposed group in comparison with the control group. Even though this value is quite low, it could indicate that E.L.F. magnetic fields may have different properties to damage the genome integrity. This stresses the need for further investigation on the possible link between electromagnetic fields and aneuploidy in order to elucidate the relationship with carcinogenesis. Preliminary data obtained with sperm abnormality assay show a significant increase of sperm abnormalities in mice exposed to E.L.F. magnetic fields and suggest a possible alteration to the spermatogenic process after exposure. This data agrees with data obtained by Tablado et al. (1998), in mice exposed continually for 35 days to a field of 1 T. Regarding the palatal ridges alterations assay, the results obtained show that the development of the secondary palate is not affected by E.L.F. magnetic field (50 Hz, 0,65 T). Nevertheless further studies at different frequency and intensity should be carried out to detect the possible epigenetic damage induced by E.L.F. exposure (Migliorini, 2005). With regard to the mechanism of action, it is generally believed that the damage induced by the magnetic field is an oxidative damage and that free radicals are involved. Some authors

  11. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang


    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (Pepithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  12. Raccomandazione CM/ Rec(20145 del Comitato dei Ministri agli Stati membri sull’importanza delle competenze nella(e lingua(e di scolarizzazione per l’equità e la qualità nell’istruzione e per il successo scolastico

    (Adottata dal Comitato dei Ministri il 2 Raccomandazione C/M Rec(20145


    Full Text Available L’espressione “lingua di scolarizzazione” è usata per indicare la “lingua usata per fini di studio” e fa riferimento alla lingua (nazionale o maggioritaria nelle sue diverse varietà diafasiche ma anche diamesiche e comprende la lingua usata nella vita scolastica, la lingua usata dall’insegnante per esporre oralmente i contenuti disciplinari e per svolgere l’attività didattica, la lingua usata per l’assegnazione e lo svolgimento dei compiti e delle attività scolastiche, la lingua per la valutazione e/o la certificazione degli apprendimenti, la lingua interdisciplinare e metalinguistica trasversale alle diverse discipline di insegnamento, la lingua di ciascuna disciplina, la lingua dei materiali e dei testi (manuali, articoli, testi di divulgazione, enciclopedie, ecc, su stampa o su siti Internet per l’insegnamento/apprendimento disciplinare. È, insomma, la lingua attraverso la quale si costruiscono gli apprendimenti scolastici (saperi, nozioni, ragionamenti, comportamenti, ecc. quale che sia la lingua madre degli apprendenti.La Raccomandazione approvata dal Comitato dei Ministri del Consiglio d’Europa che qui si presenta sottolinea come la padronanza della lingua di scolarizzazione sia indispensabile per il successo scolastico degli apprendenti immigrati come degli apprendenti la cui lingua di scolarizzazione è anche la lingua madre usata nella comunicazione ordinaria e in particolare per gli apprendenti cosiddetti “vulnerabili” che provengono da ambienti socio-economicamente e culturalmente svantaggiati. Far acquisire tale padronanza è un compito e una responsabilità dei decisori politici così come di tutti gli insegnanti (tutti gli insegnanti sono insegnanti di lingua; il rapporto che accompagna la Raccomandazione suggerisce strategie e modalità da implementare nella definizione dei curricoli e nelle pratiche di insegnamento a scuola.  Recommendation CM/Rec(20145of the Committee of Ministers to member

  13. Raccomandazione CM/ Rec(20145 del Comitato dei Ministri agli Stati membri sull’importanza delle competenze nella(e lingua(e di scolarizzazione per l’equità e la qualità nell’istruzione e per il successo scolastico

    (Adottata dal Comitato dei Ministri il 2 aprile 2014 in occasione della riunione 1196 dei Delegati dei Ministri Raccomandazione C/M Rec(20145


    Full Text Available L’espressione “lingua di scolarizzazione” è usata per indicare la “lingua usata per fini di studio” e fa riferimento alla lingua (nazionale o maggioritaria nelle sue diverse varietà diafasiche ma anche diamesiche e comprende la lingua usata nella vita scolastica, la lingua usata dall’insegnante per esporre oralmente i contenuti disciplinari e per svolgere l’attività didattica, la lingua usata per l’assegnazione e lo svolgimento dei compiti e delle attività scolastiche, la lingua per la valutazione e/o la certificazione degli apprendimenti, la lingua interdisciplinare e metalinguistica trasversale alle diverse discipline di insegnamento, la lingua di ciascuna disciplina, la lingua dei materiali e dei testi (manuali, articoli, testi di divulgazione, enciclopedie, ecc, su stampa o su siti Internet per l’insegnamento/apprendimento disciplinare. È, insomma, la lingua attraverso la quale si costruiscono gli apprendimenti scolastici (saperi, nozioni, ragionamenti, comportamenti, ecc. quale che sia la lingua madre degli apprendenti.La Raccomandazione approvata dal Comitato dei Ministri del Consiglio d’Europa che qui si presenta sottolinea come la padronanza della lingua di scolarizzazione sia indispensabile per il successo scolastico degli apprendenti immigrati come degli apprendenti la cui lingua di scolarizzazione è anche la lingua madre usata nella comunicazione ordinaria e in particolare per gli apprendenti cosiddetti “vulnerabili” che provengono da ambienti socio-economicamente e culturalmente svantaggiati. Far acquisire tale padronanza è un compito e una responsabilità dei decisori politici così come di tutti gli insegnanti (tutti gli insegnanti sono insegnanti di lingua; il rapporto che accompagna la Raccomandazione suggerisce strategie e modalità da implementare nella definizione dei curricoli e nelle pratiche di insegnamento a scuola.  Recommendation CM/Rec(20145 of the Committee of Ministers to member States

  14. Transrectal ultrasonographic evaluation of combined utero-placental thickness during the last half of pregnancy in Martina Franca donkeys.

    Carluccio, A; Noto, F; Parrillo, S; Contri, A; De Amicis, I; Gloria, A; Robbe, D; Veronesi, M C


    In the recent years, the donkey population decreased dramatically so that many breeds are presently considered as endangered. In comparison to the horse, the donkey placenta still remains not completely studied. In the horse, one of the diagnostic tools useful to identify pregnant mares at risk of abortion or premature delivery, include the transrectal ultrasound examination of the uterus and its contents; and especially of the combined thickness of the uterus and of the placenta (CUPT). Since the CUPT was never investigated in donkeys, the present study was aimed to define the transrectal CUPT values during the last half of pregnancy in 20 Martina Franca jennies. Foalings times, foals characteristics and placental gross appearance, and measurements were also evaluated and values resulted always within normality. Differently to the mare, a continuous significant CUPT increase between the sixth to the 12 months of pregnancy, and a substantial increase from the ninth to the 12th month of pregnancy, was found. Although statistically not evaluable, the CUPT values recorded from three jennies with pregnancy loss did not show evidence of CUPT increases. In conclusion, normal CUPT values from the sixth to the 12th month of pregnancy in Martina Franca donkeys are provided, but further investigations are needed to define possible breed or body-size CUPT specific differences, as well as the CUPT values during pregnancy disturbances or placental abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Artificial neural networks to estimate the EMF ELF on car travelling near power transmission line

    Al-Sayegh, O.A.; Qabazard, A.M. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). advanced Systems Division of Environment and Urban


    An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to determine the electromagnetic field (EMF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) intensity on a vehicle body at different distances from a high tension power line and at varying power loads. EMF radiated emissions from ELF source power transmission lines can produce interference in the electric components in vehicles traveling at variable speed near the power lines. The passengers in the vehicle may also experience EMF-related health problems. Although EMF has been recently categorized as a new form of pollution, the situation has been largely ignored by the industry. Typically, electromagnetic fields at different frequencies show the fastest growing environmental influences. All populations are now exposed to varying degrees of EMF and the levels will continue to increase as technology advances. The purpose of this work was to promote discussion and help find design solutions to manufacture a new device for measuring the EMF at variable speed. In this study, a set of near field measurements outside the vehicle were used to train ANN. Estimations of the EMF ELF for various distances from the high tension power line were presented. It was determined that the most important factors affecting the electric field model include exposure conditions; size, shape and position of the exposed body in the field; and, surface charge density. The EMF ELF was found to increase near sagging areas of the overhead power transmission line. The EMF ELF was found to be proportional to the total amps flowing through the line at the time of measurement. 14 refs., 3 figs.


    Gioia Panzarella


    Full Text Available Può la traduzione facilitare la didattica delle lingue moderne? Questo articolo illustra i primi risultati di un progetto di ricerca in corso presso l’Università di Warwick, Regno Unito, (in collaborazione con l’Università di Monash, Australia che riguarda l’uso della traduzione collaborativa nell’insegnamento delle lingue a studenti universitari e a studenti Erasmus. Le autrici si sono concentrate sui vantaggi in termini di sensibilità linguistica e consapevolezza culturale derivanti da un particolare modello di traduzione collaborativa. Quando la proposta di “Collaborative Translation: A Model for Inclusion” si applica al particolare contesto della didattica delle lingue, infatti, l’insegnante e gli studenti esplorano insieme il processo di traduzione di un testo verso la lingua madre degli studenti. Il valore di questo approccio risiede nel privilegiare una messa in discussione della corrispondenza univoca tra due termini in due diverse lingue: l’insegnante è infatti un collaboratore della traduzione che agisce come facilitatore, chiedendo agli studenti-collaboratori di assumersi la responsabilità della traduzione. L’abilità linguistica in sé, di conseguenza, ha un ruolo secondario rispetto alla curiosità e alla riflessione linguistica nei confronti della propria lingua. I  workshop di inglese e di italiano sono stati rivolti rispettivamente a studenti principianti e a studenti avanzati. Focus on language sensitivity: collaborative translation in language class How can translation facilitate language learning? Reporting on the preliminary findings of an ongoing research project into the use of translation in language learning at the University of Warwick, UK (in collaboration with the University of Monash, Australia, the authors investigate the advantages of a specific translation model in terms of linguistic sensitivity and cultural awareness. The ‘Collaborative Translation: A Model for Inclusion’ prototype is

  17. A presença feminina nas indústrias de lingerie na cidade de Franca

    Mayara C. Freitas Pereira


    Full Text Available Dados recentes nos comprovam que as indústrias de lingerie têm apresentado considerável crescimento na cidade de Franca/SP, cuja história sempre se pautou pela indústria do calçado. Devido à crise no setor calçadista, sobretudo em razão da intensificação da concorrência com a indústria dos países asiáticos, muitas grandes fábricas de calçados foram fechadas e, com a dispensa de mão-de-obra, houve um processo de reorganização da estrutura fabril, protagonizado, em especial, por aqueles que buscavam nova inserção no mercado de trabalho. Diante deste quadro nasce uma nova vocação empresarial comandada basicamente por mulheres, e que está abrindo postos de trabalho para outras mulheres - a indústria de lingerie, que vem crescendo notoriamente. Partimos de um pressuposto inicial de que muitas destas mulheres, hoje à frente da incipiente indústria de lingerie, tiveram alguma experiência pregressa nas indústrias calçadistas, que empregam expressiva mão-de-obra feminina, sobretudo nos setores de apara e corte de couro, pintura e embalagem, sem contar os serviços do terceiro setor em que a presença feminina é, em qualquer circunstância, relevante. Já por estarem num ambiente econômico-industrial relacionado à moda, a transposição do calçado para a lingerie, em que pese as diferenças óbvias, representou para estas mulheres um reajuste em suas antigas qualificações como industriárias do calçado. Este estudo, em andamento, tem como fito levantar dados a respeito do histórico dessa incipiente indústria, e, através do relato dessas mulheres, conhecer suas trajetórias de vida e as experiências que trouxeram para essa nova realidade. Intenta também reconhecer quais foram as estratégias utilizadas para se reorganizarem nos espaços produtivos, que, em alguns casos é a própria casa, além de conhecer e identificar outras experiências que se articulam, no mundo do trabalho.

  18. Liberalism in Ergonomicon as a Threat to Lingua-Cultural Identity (the Case of Modern Kazan

    Marina Ivanovna Solnyshkina


    Full Text Available The article is written to identify lingua-cultural norms and axiological determinants of modern ergonomicon of Kazan implemented in borrowings from foreign languages, they serve markers of major changes in the linguistic landscape of the modern city viewed as a socio-linguistic category. The borrowed elements in the city ergonyms register synchronous state of axiological determinants of participants of interaction: individuals, organizations and companies that create public and commercial signs. The common significance of the language of this kind of phenomena is determined by the possibility of using them to predict the range and diversity of linguistic and axiological changes, including the partial loss of national and ethnic identity. To create a high perlocutionary effect of ergonyms nominators use a variety of creative mechanisms, changing the shape and functions of native lexems, by borrowing lexems from foreign languages, resorting to different methods of derivation such as contamination, transliteration, hybridization, pun, etc. Unfortunately, at present time these processes demonstrate fast increase. The majority of them are not followed by gradual and harmonious integration into the host (Russian and Tatar cultures, but the erosion of values or partial /complete loss of identity is noted. Most clearly this kind of phenomenon is explicated in preferred nominator names of urban sites, and advertising slogans, transmitting an alien principles and postulates to traditional Russian culture.

  19. Characterization of tannery sludge from the leather industry of Franca industrial district, SP, Brazil; Caracterizacao de um lodo de cromo proveniente da industria de couro do distrito industrial de Franca

    Chambi, M.M.; Toffoli, S.M., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica


    The industry of leather manufacture generates large quantities of solid leather waste with characteristics of high-polluting and hazardous conditions. Among these wastes, stands out the wet blue leather (chromed leather scraps), and the tanning sludge and secondary sludge generated in the processes of effluents treatment. These wastes contain Cr(III), which, under oxidizing conditions, can turn into Cr (VI), which is highly toxic. However, these wastes are a potential source of chromium oxide (traditional industrial pigment), which could be used by the glass and ceramic enamel industries. In this study, a preliminary characterization of a chromium sludge from the industrial district of Franca-SP was conducted. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA / TG) analyses were used to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of this solid waste. The potential of using this material as an available and cheap pigment for the manufacture of enamels and glass is discussed. (author)

  20. How TotalFinaElf will reinforce its downstream leadership; Comment TotalFinaElf entend renforcer son leadership en aval

    Legros, E.


    Invited by the 'para-petroleum industry club' of the French group of para-petroleum and para-gas companies (GEP) on April 2, 2002, J.P. Vettier, general director of the refining-marketing activity of TotalFinaElf company, described the new configuration of the downstream strategy of the French group, now the fourth biggest oil company in the world. This downstream activity seems to have profited from the different fusions that have led to the present day structure. (J.S.)

  1. Dunkerque`s refinery. Mobil-BP-Elf: matrimonial triangle with background anxiety; Raffinerie de Dunkerque. Mobil-BP-Elf: menage a trois sur fond d`inquietude

    Vogue, A. de


    The annual production of the Dunkerque`s refinery (France) represents 330000 t of lubricants, 16000 t of paraffins, 17000 t of wax, 34000 t of extracts, 304000 t of diesel fuel and 300000 t of bitumens. From the legal aspect, Mobil is operator of the unit which belongs to an independent company held by BP (60%) and Elf (40%). After the BP-Mobil agreement was signed, the Dunkerque`s refinery entered into new Mobil`s network of 6 lubricants refineries which represent an overall over-capacity of 400000 t/year. This over-capacity is a consequence of export limitations due to profits reduction. (J.S.)

  2. Utility of the ELF Test for Detecting Steatohepatitis in Morbid Obese Patients with Suspicion of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    López, Iria Cebreiros; Aroca, Florentina Guzmán; Bernal, Maria Dolores Frutos; Mompeán, Juan Antonio Luján; Bernal, Águeda Bas; Martínez, Antonio Miguel Hernández; Barba, Enrique Martínez; Velasco, Jose Antonio Noguera; Paricio, Pascual Parilla


    Morbid obese patients have a high rate of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is related to the progression and poor evolution of chronic hepatopathy in NAFLD, so that its detection makes it possible to identify the subjects who are most at risk in order to prioritize treatment. The ELF test (Enhanced Liver Fibrosis test; Siemens Diagnostics, NY, USA) has been assessed for its capacity to detect fibrosis in patients with NAFLD, but its capacity for diagnosing NASH has not been checked. Our objective is to determine the utility of the ELF test for detecting NASH in morbid obese patients with suspected NAFLD. ELF values were determined in a cohort of obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery with suspected NAFLD. Liver biopsy was used as the reference standard. The values of ELF were significantly higher in patients with NASH (p = 0.002) and in those who presented with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.047). An ELF cut-off point of 8.72 allows the detection of patients with NASH with a sensitivity of 71.4% and a specificity of 74.1% (AUC = 0.742, p = 0.002). The ELF test is efficient for the identification of obese patients with NAFLD and early signs of steatohepatitis and fibrosis.

  3. El proyecto neoliberal del rey Abdallah II. para Jordania: zonas francas y política exterior

    Rodríguez Mojica, Erika Liliana


    Esta monografía busca explicar los intereses y resultados parciales obtenidos por la monarquía del Reino Hachemí de Jordania en el proyecto neoliberal de apertura económica y creación de zonas francas bajo el gobierno de Abdallah II., especialmente la región fronteriza de Al-Karameh y la relación bilateral con Irak, como parte de su política económica nacional e internacional. Para el análisis se utilizarán dos teorías de Relaciones Internacionales; la teoría de interdependencia compleja de R...

  4. ELF waves and ion resonances produced by an electron beam emitting rocket in the ionosphere

    Winckler, J.R.; Abe, Y.; Erickson, K.N.


    Results are reported from the ECHO-6 electron-beam-injection experiment, performed in the auroral-zone ionosphere on March 30, 1983 using a sounding rocket equipped with two electron guns and a free-flying plasma-diagnostics instrument package. The data are presented in extensive graphs and diagrams and characterized in detail. Large ELF wave variations, superposed on the strong beam-sector-directed quasi-dc component, are observed in the 100-eV beam-induced plasma when the beam is injected in a transverse spiral, but not when it is injected upward parallel to the magnetic-field line. ELF activity is found to be suppressed whenever the rocket passed through field lines with auroral activity, suggesting that the waves are produced by the interaction of the beam potentials, plasma currents, and return currents neutralizing the accelerator payload. 12 references

  5. Registration of ELF waves in rocket-satellite experiment with plasma injection

    Korobeinikov, V. G.; Oraevskii, V. N.; Ruzhin, Iu. Ia.; Sobolev, Ia. P.; Skomarovskii, V. S.; Chmyrev, V. M.; Namazov, C. A.; Pokhunkov, A. A.; Nesmeianov, V. I.


    Two rocket KOMBI-SAMA experiments with plasma injection at height 100-240 km were performed in August 1987 in the region of Brazilian magnetic anomaly (L = 1.25). The launching time of the rocket was determined so that plasma injection was at the time when COSMOS 1809 satellite passed as close as possible to magnetic tube of injection. Caesium plasma jet was produced during not less than 300 s by an electric plasma generator separated from the payload. When the satellite passed the geomagnetic tube intersecting the injection region an enhancement of ELF emission at 140 Hz, 450 Hz by a factor of 2 was registered on board the satellite. An enhancement of energetic particle flux by a factor of 4-5 was registered on board the rocket. Observed ELF emission below 100 Hz is interpreted as the generation of oblique electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves due to drift plasma instability at the front of the plasma jet.

  6. On the efficiency of ELF/VLF generation using HF heating of the auroral electrojet

    Papadopoulos, K.; Milikh, G.M.; Wallace, T.; McCarrick, M.; Yang, X.


    Using experimental measurements and theoretical analysis, it is shown that the HF/ELF conversion efficiency is controlled by the timescale for electron temperature saturation. This is a function of the ERP and frequency of the heater and the ionospheric electron density profile. For the current HAARP parameters, this corresponds to frequencies between 2 and 4 kHz. Efficiency optimization techniques as applied to the projected upgrading of the HAARP heater to its design power of 3.6 MW are discussed

  7. Phytoplankton extracellular phosphatases: investigation using the ELF (Enzyme Labelled Fluorescence) technique

    Štrojsová, Alena; Vrba, Jaroslav


    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2006), s. 715-723 ISSN 1505-2249. [Symposium on European Freshwater Sciences /4./. Krakow, 22.08.2005-26.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6017202 Grant - others:FRVŠ(CZ) G4 1841 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : algae * cyanobacteria * ELF97 phosphate * cell-specific activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.306, year: 2006

  8. Rapporteur Report: Sources and Exposure Metrics for ELF Epidemiology (Part 1) (invited paper)

    Matthes, R.


    High quality epidemiological studies on the possible link between exposure to non-ionizing radiation and human health effects are of great importance for radiation protection in this area. The main sources of ELF fields are domestic appliances, different electrical energy distribution systems and all kinds of electrical machinery and devices at the workplace. In general, ELF fields present in the environment, show complex temporal patterns and spatial distributions, depending on the generating source. The complete characterisation of the different field sources often requires highly sophisticated instrumentation, and this is therefore not feasible within the scope of epidemiological studies. On average, individual exposure from ELF fields is low in both the working environment and in residential areas. Only at certain workplaces are people subject to significant ELF exposure with regard to biological effects. Different methods have been developed to determine levels of exposure received by study subjects, with the aim to rank exposed and non-exposed groups in epidemiological studies. These include spot measurements, calculations or modelling. The different methods used to estimate total exposure in epidemiological studies may result to a differing extent in a misclassification of the study subjects. Equally important for future studies is the selection of the appropriate exposure metric. The most widely used metric so far is the time-weighted average and thus represents a quasi standard metric for use in epidemiological studies. Beside, wire codes have been used for a long time in residential studies and job titles are often used in occupational studies. On the basis of the experience gained in previous studies, it would be desirable to develop standardised, state-of-the-art protocols to improve exposure assessment. New surrogates and metrics were proposed as the basis for further studies. But only few of these have recently undergone preliminary testing. A

  9. La lingua2 nel Web. Prospettive digitali per la didattica dell’italiano a stranieri

    Roberto Quaggia


    Full Text Available L'articolo si compone di due parti. Nella prima si espongono alcuni punti focali del dibattito sul rapporto tra glottodidattica e tecnologie digitali (dai dispositivi mobili ai software per la comunicazione, fino agli attuali socialnetwork. In particolare l’attenzione è rivolta sul fatto che la lingua della comunicazione digitale costituisce una varietà linguistica dal confronto con la quale l’insegnamento di una L2 non può ormai prescindere, e che le tecnologie digitali della comunicazione, se correttamente adottate fuori e dentro la classe, consentono di ridurre il confine tra apprendimento guidato e acquisizione spontanea di una lingua seconda. Filo conduttore della riflessione è il concetto di “competenza comunicativa digitale”, che si aggiunge alle componenti della competenza linguistico-comunicativa indicate dal Quadro Comune Europeo di Riferimento per le Lingue. Nella seconda parte del lavoro, dal taglio più didattico, si presenta una serie di strumenti e di esperienze di insegnamento/apprendimento della L2 con l’uso delle tecnologie digitali. In particolare ci si sofferma sulle opportunità offerte dal Web 2.0, simulando la creazione di una piattaforma per l’insegnamento/apprendimento dell’italiano L2 completamente online. Non si tratta di una semplice piattaforma per l’e-learning (o d-learning, ma di una vera e propria rete per l’insegnamento, l’apprendimento, la comunicazione e la formazione che trasforma il modo in cui si usa, si apprende e si insegna una L2. L2 on the Web. Digital perspectives for teaching italian to foreignersThe article consists of two parts. In the first we illustrate some focal points in the debate on the relationship between language teaching and digital technologies (from mobile devices to communication software and current social networks. In particular, we focus on the fact that the language of digital communication is a linguistic variety which L2 teaching can no longer ignore, and


    Elena Mauri


    Full Text Available Oggetto di questo articolo è il linguaggio orale delle guide turistiche, una produzione linguistica «speciale», difficilmente reperibile e scarsamente analizzata, e si pone come obbiettivo quello di evidenziarne alcuni dei tratti più tipici in relazione ad una delle figure professionali tra le più rappresentative di una comunicazione orale turistica tra esperto e pubblico: la guida turistica. La prima parte dell’articolo è dedicata alla definizione del linguaggio del turismo e, in particolare, alle caratteristiche dal discorso orale delle guide turistiche, esito della mediazione tra linguaggio di specialità e lingua comune. Nella seconda parte viene introdotta e sviluppata l’analisi linguaggio orale delle guide turistiche a partire da un corpus costituito da diciotto file di trascrizione di registrazioni di visite guidate, in lingua italiana, svolte da guide turistiche straniere all’estero. Dallo studio effettuato è emerso come le scelte linguistiche dell’operatore professionale si declinino in funzione delle esigenze e delle caratteristiche del destinatario: ad un turista desideroso di «vedere», «conoscere» e «identificare» nello spazio ciò di cui si parla, la guida turistica risponde con un ampio impiego del verbo «chiamarsi» e di componenti grammaticali e lessicali (verbi, avverbi e preposizioni di luogo, aggettivi dimostrativi con un forte valore locativo.   Tourist guide italian: a study of the oral language of tourism   Elena Mauri    The object of this article is the oral language of tourist guides, a “special”, hard to find and poorly analyzed type of language production. The objective is to highlight some of the most typical features in relation to one of the most representative professionals in oral tourist communication, between expert and public: tourist guides. The first part of the article is devoted to the definition of the language of tourism and, in particular, to the characteristics of the

  11. Residential exposure from extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation

    Parthasarathy, Shamesh Raj; Tukimin, Roha


    ELF EMF radiation have received considerable attention as a potential threat to the safety and health of people living in the vicinity of high voltage transmission lines, electric distribution substations, power stations and even in close proximity to electronics and electrical household appliances. The paper highlights the study on the ELF EMF safety assessment performed at residences comprising of an owner-occupied house, a completed vacant house and an under construction condominium. The objectives of this study were to determine the ELF EMF radiation exposure level from the high voltage transmission line, electric distribution substation, power station and electrical household appliances in the residences, and to assess the potential exposure received by the occupants at the assessed locations. The results were logged in the electric and magnetic field strength with the units of volt per meter (V/m) and miliGauss (mG) respectively. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard. The results were compared with the standards recommended in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines.

  12. L’apprendimento della lingua della medicina in L2: due manuali a confronto

    Maria Polita


    Full Text Available Insegnare la lingua speciale della medicina ad una classe di apprendenti L2 implica considerare diverse problematiche relative alle peculiarità del codice settoriale (variazioni diafasiche, particolarità del lessico, tecnicismi collaterali, ma anche relative al pubblico di apprendenti non italofono (tipologia, interessi, livello di apprendimento. Il panorama editoriale italiano offre pochi strumenti dedicati: tra questi Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33. Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 e Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma edizioni, 2004. Questo studio intende mettere a confronto i due testi sottolineandone le caratteristiche e l’impostazione glottodidattica ed evidenziando come il contenuto linguistico sia proposto, quali siano le abilità favorite, quali gli obiettivi di apprendimento e quali gli strumenti forniti. Particolare attenzione viene prestata al lessico registrato nei glossari dei volumi.  Learning the language of medicine in l2: a comparison of two textbooks Teaching the special language of medicine to a class of L2 learners implies considering various issues related to the peculiarities of the sector-specific jargon (diphasic variations, peculiarities of vocabulary, collateral technicalities, also related to non-Italian-speaking learners (type, interests, level of learning. Italian publishers offer few dedicated tools: these include Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33.Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 and Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma editions, 2004. This study aims to compare the two texts, highlighting their features and language teaching setting, showing how linguistic content is proposed, which skills are promoted, what the learning objectives are and what tools are provided. Particular attention is paid to the vocabulary in the glossaries.


    Marta Idini


    Full Text Available La lingua filmata appare oggi uno dei campi linguistici in cui il dialetto torna ad essere scelta registica e veicolo di nuove istanze comunicative, in stretta relazione con un nuovo modo di intendere e praticare il cinema. Il presente articolo introduce il lettore alla consuetudine cinematografica del dialetto, analizzandone la presenza e le funzioni che gli sono state attribuite nei decenni trascorsi e presenti, e guarda a L’Uomo che verrà quale espressione attuale di una nuova risorgenza dialettale all’interno delle pellicole nostrane. Attraverso un’analisi attenta dei fenomeni vernacolari in esso presenti, l’indagine si sofferma sulle motivazioni e l’efficacia comunicativa cui perviene l’uso del dialetto e si interroga su quale grado di realismo o mimesi linguistica Diritti abbia raggiunto. Language of film: "L’uomo che verrà" by Giorgio DirittiLanguage in films is one of the fields where dialect becomes a choice and a vehicle for new communicative demands, closely related the new way of understanding and practicing the cinema. This article introduces the reader to the use of dialect in films, analyzing the presence and functions that have been attributed to it in the past and present decades, and looks at L’Uomo che verrà as an expression of the new resurgence of dialect in Italian films. Through careful analysis of the vernacular, the paper focuses on the motivations and the communicative effectiveness of the use of dialect and questions the degree of realism or linguistic mimesis that Diritti was able to reach.

  14. Romulus’ adytum or asylum? A New Exegetical proposal for De lingua Latina 5, 8

    Federica Lazzerini


    Molto si è discusso sui quattro livelli progressivi secondo i quali Varrone struttura l’etimologia in ling. 5, 8; a ogni livello è associato un diverso tipo di analisi e si applica a una diversa categoria di parole. Una formulazione criptica ed ellittica, in un passo che nel manoscritto del testo è quasi certamente corrotto, avvolgono il quarto livello in una nube di incertezza e ambiguità. Se alcuni filologi hanno difeso il mantenimento del tradito Quartus, ubi est aditus et initia regis (“Il quarto livello è dove è l’ingresso e le origini del re”, la maggior parte delle interpretazioni moderne opta piuttosto per l’emendazione di aditus in adytum (“santuario” e legge il passo come un riferimento a vari tipi di culti misterici, collocando il quarto livello etimologico in un quadro di esoterismo. Nel presente contributo, si avanza la proposta che nel passo in questione non vi sia alcuna allusione ai misteri, ma un riferimento all’episodio storico-leggendario della fondazione, da parte di Romolo, di un “santuario” sul Campidoglio, destinato all’accoglienza di supplici provenienti da ogni popolo ed estrazione sociale. Questa istituzione portò alla formazione del primo nucleo abitativo di Roma e anche, di conseguenza, del sostrato vernacolare alle origini della lingua latina; come tale, tale episodio converge con gli interessi e le idee di Varrone. L’ipotesi che il quartus gradus etymologiae alluda al santuario di Romolo può essere difesa o dando una nuova interpretazione al termine adytum, o proponendo un’emendazione testuale (aditus > asylum, che produca il testo Quartus, ubi est asylum et initia regis.


    Arvi SEPP


    Full Text Available Victor Klemperers Tagebücher Ich will Zeugnis ablegen bis zum letzten: Tagebücher 1933-1945 haben nach ihrem Erscheinen Mitte der 1990er Jahre ein starkes Echo gefunden und gehören inzwischen zum Kanon der Tagebuchliteratur. Das zweibändige, während der nationalsozialistischen Diktatur entstandene Tagebuchwerk beschreibt die Lebenswelt eines deutsch-jüdischen Verfolgten im Dritten Reich. Der Antisemitismus zwang den Philologen zu einer Auseinandersetzung mit dem Relevanzverlust seiner Assimilationsbemühungen und seiner Kennzeichnung als Jude. Eine rekurrente Kompensationstaktik gegen seine erzwungene Randstellung besteht in der sprachkritischen Demontierung des Rassendenkens, um die Ungültigkeit des Antisemitismus nachzuweisen. Die Beobachtungen zur Lingua Tertii Imperii, die er in den Tagebuchblättern aufschrieb, wurden immer mehr zu seinem eigentlichen Werk. Das Tagebuch ist vor diesem Hintergrund in weiten Teilen zum Arbeitsjournal für die Sprachund Kulturanalysen Klemperers geworden. Der Interdependenz von Sprachkritik und Mentalitätsgeschichte in Klemperers Analyse der Sprache des Dritten Reiches gilt im vorliegenden Aufsatz das Hauptinteresse. Im ersten Teil wird der Frage nachgegangen, auf welche Art und Weise Victor Klemperer in seinen Notizen die Beziehung zwischen Sprache, Ideologie und Mentalität verstand. Im zweiten Teil wird unter Rückgriff auf Judith Butler und Louis Althusser in den Vordergrund gerückt, wie Victor Klemperer im Tagebuch vor Augen führt, dass das verletzende Sprechen gegen Juden im Nationalsozialismus eine subjektkonstituierende Wirkung hatte. Im letzten Teil des Aufsatzes gilt das Hauptaugenmerk der vom Tagebuchautor festgestellten diskursiven Einverleibung antisemitischer Rhetorik durch die verfolgte jüdische Bevölkerung.

  16. Influenze lunguistiche romanze nello sloveno letterario di Trieste. La lingua di Boris Pahor

    Mitja Skubic


    Full Text Available L'autore esamina la lingua dello scritto e t iestino Boris Pahor, urio de li eminenti creatori letterari in sloveno del secondo dopoguerra. Gli anni di scuola ed una  parte della giovinezza di Boris Pahor, nato nel 1913, appartengono ad un periodo nel quale lo sloveno a Trieste, e nelle province di Trieste       e di Gorizia, non godeva di uno  status pubblico ufficiale, salvo in chiesa. L influsso linguistico dell'italiano, normale in un territorio etnicamente e linguisticamente misto, spinto in una situazione anormale, creatasi nel primo  dopoguerra, non sorprende. Lo scrittore fu in  stretto contratto con l'italiano e il legame linguistico (e certo anche culturale è 'di doppia natura: esisstono, da una parte, influenze della parlata locale triestina -veneta, con qualche venatura tergestina, vale a dire friulana; dell'altra, lo scrittore ebbe a subire numerose influenze dell'italiano letterario. Non è facile scindere queste due fonti dei romanismi linguistici, che chiamiamo genericamente italianismi; il termine è fallace, perchè è fallace la grafia la quale rare volte palesa l'origine veneta: ščaveta, škojera, mandrijer, čožotska bragoca. L'interesse di questo contributo si concentra su prestiti, per lo più adattati al sistema fono-morfologico che vige per lo sloveno, e, soprattutto7 su calchi, quelli semantici e quelli sintattici. Una quantità non trascurabile di calchi ci convince della loro provenienza popolare, del fatto, cioe, che bisogna cer­ carne l'origine nel contatto linguistico diretto delle due etnie. Il materiale raccolto contraddice, dunaue. l'asserzione alquanto apodittica della provenienza popolare, immediata, dei soli presti­ ti e della provenienz letteraria, dotta, dei calchi. I calchi semantici sono parecchi: si tratta sempre dell'uso di un termine sloveno che in sloveno letterario e nei dialetti centrali esiste, ma che in Pahor viene usato con un significate sconosciuto allo sloveno centrale

  17. Global thunderstorm activity estimation based on number of transients in ELF-band

    Ondraskova, Adriena; Sevcik, Sebastian


    Schumann resonances (SR) are resonant electromagnetic oscillations in extremely low frequency band (ELF, 3 Hz - 3 kHz), which arise in the Earth-ionosphere cavity due to lightning activity in planetary range. The time records in the ELF-band consist of background signals and ELF transients/Q-bursts superimposed on the background exceeding it by a factor of 5 - 10. The former are produced by the common worldwide thunderstorm activity (100 - 150 events per second), the latter origin from individual intense distant lightning discharges (100 - 120 powerful strokes per hour). A Q-burst is produced by a combination of direct and antipodal pulses and the decisive factor for its shape follows from the source-to-observer distance. Diurnal/seasonal variations of global thunderstorm activity can be deduced from spectral amplitudes of SR modes. Here we focus on diurnal/seasonal variations of the number of ELF-transients assuming that it is another way of lightning activity estimation. To search for transients, our own code was applied to the SR vertical electric component measured in October 2004 - October 2008 at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory of FMPI CU, Slovakia. Criteria for the identification of the burst are chosen on the basis of the transient amplitudes and their morphological features. Monthly mean daily variations in number of transients showed that African focus dominates at 14 - 16 h UT and it is more active in comparison with Asian source, which dominates at 5 - 8 h UT in dependence on winter or summer month. American source had surprisingly slight response. Meteorological observations in South America aiming to determine lightning hotspots on the Earth indicate that flash rate in this region is greatest during nocturnal 0 h - 3 h local standard time. This fact may be interpreted that Asian and South American sources contribute together in the same UT. Cumulative spectral amplitude of the first three SR modes compared with number of ELF-transients in

  18. Detection of endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity in intact cells by flow cytometry using the fluorogenic ELF-97 phosphatase substrate

    Telford, W. G.; Cox, W. G.; Stiner, D.; Singer, V. L.; Doty, S. B.


    BACKGROUND: The alkaline phosphatase (AP) substrate 2-(5'-chloro-2'-phosphoryloxyphenyl)-6-chloro-4-(3H)-quinazolinone (ELF((R))-97 for enzyme-labeled fluorescence) has been found useful for the histochemical detection of endogenous AP activity and AP-tagged proteins and oligonucleotide probes. In this study, we evaluated its effectiveness at detecting endogenous AP activity by flow cytometry. METHODS: The ELF-97 phosphatase substrate was used to detect endogenous AP activity in UMR-106 rat osteosarcoma cells and primary cultures of chick chondrocytes. Cells were labeled with the ELF-97 reagent and analyzed by flow cytometry using an argon ultraviolet (UV) laser. For comparison purposes, cells were also assayed for AP using a Fast Red Violet LB azo dye assay previously described for use in detecting AP activity by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The ELF-97 phosphatase substrate effectively detected endogenous AP activity in UMR-106 cells, with over 95% of the resulting fluorescent signal resulting from AP-specific activity (as determined by levamisole inhibition of AP activity). In contrast, less than 70% of the fluorescent signal from the Fast Red Violet LB (FRV) assay was AP-dependent, reflecting the high intrinsic fluorescence of the unreacted components. The ELF-97 phosphatase assay was also able to detect very low AP activity in chick chondrocytes that was undetectable by the azo dye method. CONCLUSIONS: The ELF-97 phosphatase assay was able to detect endogenous AP activity in fixed mammalian and avian cells by flow cytometry with superior sensitivity to previously described assays. This work also shows the applicability of ELF-97 to flow cytometry, supplementing its previously demonstrated histochemical applications. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Promoting Language Learners' Cross-Cultural Awareness through Comparative Analyses of Asian Folktales

    Lwin, Soe Marlar


    With the global spread, the English language has become a lingua franca and a component of basic education in many Asian countries, making Asia one of the regions in the world with the largest number of English speakers. However, due to the rich cultural diversities of Asian societies, using English as a lingua franca in Asia implies that speakers…

  20. The Development of LinguaBytes : An Interactive Tangible Play and Learning System to Stimulate the Language Development of Toddlers with Multiple Disabilities

    Hengeveld, B.; Voort, R.; Hummels, C.; De Moor, J.; Van Balkom, H.; Overbeeke, K.; Van der Helm, A.


    Young children with multiple disabilities (e.g., both cognitive and motor disabilities) are confronted with severe limitations in language development from birth and later on. Stimulating the adult-child communication can decrease these limitations. Within LinguaBytes, a three-year research program,


    Daniela Bartalesi-Graf


    Full Text Available Questo articolo inizia con una discussione del contributo delle nuove tecnologie Web 2.0 alla creazione e alla condivisione di conoscenze, e di come queste tecnologie abbiamo influenzato il modo in cui i nostri studenti imparano, il modo in cui noi insegniamo e la missione dei nostri programmi, specialmente negli Stati Uniti dove insegno. Segue l’analisi di un’iniziativa del nostro Dipartimento di Italianistica al Wellesley College per rispondere a questi cambiamenti: la creazione di un corso online di lingua e cultura italiana offerto in vari contesti, vale a dire come corso estivo SPOC (Small Private Online Course; come corso “blended”a Wellesley College e al MIT, e come MOOC (Massive Open Online Course sulla piattaforma edX. L’articolo si conclude con alcune proposte concrete per rafforzare i nostri programmi: queste includono la creazione di una piattaforma per condividere il nostro materiale didattico (digitale e non, per valutare i nostri programmi e i risultati raggiunti dagli studenti. Teaching “blended” and online italian language and culture courses This article begins with a discussion of the contribution of new Web 2.0 technologies in the creation and sharing of knowledge, and how these technologies have affected the way in which our students learn, the way we teach and the mission of our programs, especially in the US where I teach. This is followed by analysis of an initiative of the Department of Italian Studies at Wellesley College in response to these changes: the creation of an online Italian culture and language course offered in various contexts, i.e. as a summer SPOC (Small Private Online Course course; as a “blended” course at Wellesley College and MIT, and as a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course on the EDX platform. The article concludes with some concrete proposals to strengthen these programs. These include the creation of a platform to share educational materials (digital and otherwise and to evaluate


    Giuseppe Sergio


    Full Text Available Nel dare alle stampe la sua parodia dei Promessi Sposi (1930, Guido da Verona non immaginava di compiere delitto di lesa maestà nei confronti del totem manzoniano né che sarebbe stato oscurato dal controllo igienico fascista. Nel saggio si sostiene infatti, anche sulla base di evidenze ricavate dall'analisi del manoscritto, che la sua intenzione non fosse satirica, bensì ludico-parodica. Il cuore del saggio si incentra sull'analisi comparativa tra la versione daveroniana e l'ipotesto manzoniano, con particolare attenzione alle scaturigini del comico. Oltre che mettere in evidenza i tratti caratterizzanti la prosa di da Verona, captante e alluvionata di wits  linguistici, il saggio descrive le strategie comiche usate dall'autore, quelle basate sul carattere e sulle situazioni e quelle del discorso vero e proprio. Nel corso dell'analisi  si evidenzia come sia il comico del significante sia l'infrazione dei legami logici e di successione cooperino a incrinare la visione ordinata del mondo e della lingua strenuamente voluta e ottenuta da Alessandro Manzoni.   When the parody of Promessi Sposi (1930 was sent to press, Guido da Verona did not imagine he was committing the crime of lese-majesty with regard to the Manzonian totem, nor that it would be blacklisted by the Fascist regime. This paper shows that, based on the analysis of the manuscript, the author's intention was not satirical, but a playful parody. It is a comparative analysis between the da Verona version and the Manzonian hypertext, with particular attention placed on the origin of the comic. Besides highlighting the traits that characterize the text brimming with linguistic wit by da Verona, the paper describes the comedic strategies used by the author based on the characters and situations, as well as in the discourse itself. The analysis shows how the comic meaning and the breaking of logical and temporal links crack the orderly vision of the world and the language carefully

  3. TotalFina+Elf, how to fight against the evidence?; TotalFina+Elf, comment lutter contre l'evidence?

    Marion, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 69 - Lyon (France)


    TotaIFina's successful bid for taking over Elf represents the victory of a certain type of 'discourse'. The strategist's ability to market his views resembles the marketer's ability to promote a product through packaging and advertising. Analyzing the publicity war between these two firms during the summer of 1999 sheds light on the strategist's ability to 'make strategy with words'. Out of the variety of explanatory factors and arguments for the success of such a takeover bid. 'managerial discourse' is not to be overlooked as a means for 'enacting' a strategy. (author)


    Judite de Azevedo do Carmo


    Full Text Available Objetiva-se, neste texto, a apresentação das dinâmicas da relação estabelecida entre comércio e indústria, na contemporaneidade, destacando as questões teóricas inerentes ao tema e o exemplo empírico do Arranjo Produtivo Local de Franca (SP especializado na produção de calçados masculinos. Para tanto recorreu-se à pesquisa bibliográfica para embasamento da reflexão teórica, e tomou-se como base para a análise empírica, os dados e informações levantados por Carmo (2012 em órgãos institucionais, como o Instituto de Estudos e Marketing Industrial (IEMI, o Sindicato das Indústrias de Calçados de Franca (Sindifranca, bem como por intermédio de entrevistas e questionários aplicados aos proprietários de estabelecimentos comercias e de indústrias locais. Os dados obtidos junto ao IEMI serviram para a análise quantitativa, em nível de APL, enquanto aqueles obtidos por meio de questionários, aplicados a 12 indústrias locais, foram a base da análise qualitativa, em nível de indústria. A análise aí proposta permitiu o entendimento de que as transformações ocorridas no processo produtivo, nas décadas finais do século XX, condicionaram o estreitamento das relações entre a indústria e o comércio, sendo que ambas as atividades são realizadas em dependência mútua e que no APL, em destaque, há pouca relação entre as indústrias e o comércio local, havendo um monopólio das primeiras sobre a comercialização de seus produtos.

  5. Inactivation of TGF-β signaling in lung cancer results in increased CDK4 activity that can be rescued by ELF

    Baek, Hye Jung; Kim, Sang Soo; Silva, Fabio May da; Volpe, Eugene A.; Evans, Stephen; Mishra, Bibhuti; Mishra, Lopa; Blair Marshall, M.


    Escape from TGF-β inhibition of proliferation is a hallmark of multiple cancers including lung cancer. We explored the role of ELF, crucial TGF-β adaptor protein identified from endodermal progenitor cells, in lung carcinogenesis and cell-cycle regulation. Interestingly, elf -/- mice develop multiple defects that include lung, liver, and cardiac abnormalities. Four out of 6 lung cancer and mesothelioma cell lines displayed deficiency of ELF expression with increased CDK4 expression. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of primary human lung cancers also showed decreased ELF expression and overexpression of CDK4. Moreover, rescue of ELF in ELF-deficient cell lines decreased the expression of CDK4 and resulted in accumulation of G1/S checkpoint arrested cells. These results suggest that disruption in TGF-β signaling mediated by loss of ELF in lung cancer leads to cell-cycle deregulation by modulating CDK4 and ELF highlights a key role of TGF-β adaptor protein in suppressing early lung cancer

  6. ELF-test less accurately identifies liver cirrhosis diagnosed by liver stiffness measurement in non-Asian women with chronic hepatitis B

    Harkisoen, S.; Boland, G. J.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; van Erpecum, K. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Arends, J. E.


    The enhanced liver fibrosis test (ELF-test) has been validated for several hepatic diseases. However, its performance in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infected patients is uncertain. This study investigates the diagnostic value of the ELF test for cirrhosis identified by liver stiffness

  7. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) reduces oxidative stress and improves functional and psychological status in ischemic stroke patients.

    Cichoń, Natalia; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Saluk, Joanna


    As a result of ischaemia/reperfusion, massive generation of reactive oxygen species occurs, followed by decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can modulate oxidative stress, but there are no clinical antioxidant studies in brain stroke patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ELF-EMF on clinical and antioxidant status in post-stroke patients. Fifty-seven patients were divided into two groups: ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF. Both groups underwent the same 4-week rehabilitation program. Additionally, the ELF-EMF group was exposed to an ELF-EMF field of 40 Hz, 7 mT for 15 min/day for 4 weeks (5 days a week). The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was measured in hemolysates, and total antioxidant status (TAS) determined in plasma. Functional status was assessed before and after the series of treatments using Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Applied ELF-EMF significantly increased enzymatic antioxidant activity; however, TAS levels did not change in either group. Results show that ELF-EMF induced a significant improvement in functional (ADL) and mental (MMSE, GDS) status. Clinical parameters had positive correlation with the level of enzymatic antioxidant protection. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:386-396, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. On the observations of unique low latitude whistler-triggered VLF/ELF emissions

    Altaf, M.; Singh, K. K.; Singh, A. K.; Lalmani

    A detailed analysis of the VLF/ELF wave data obtained during a whistler campaign under All India Coordinated Program of Ionosphere Thermosphere Studies (AICPITS) at our low latitude Indian ground station Jammu (geomag. lat. = 22° 26‧ N, L = 1.17) has yielded two types of unusual and unique whistler-triggered VLF/ELF emissions. These include (1) whistler-triggered hook emissions and (2) whistler-triggered long enduring discrete chorus riser emissions in VLF/ELF frequency range during night time. Such types of whistler-triggered emissions have not been reported earlier from any of the ground observations at low latitudes. In the present study, the observed characteristics of these emissions are described and interpreted. Dispersion analysis of these emissions show that the whistlers as well as emissions have propagated along a higher geomagnetic field line path with L-values lying ∼L = 4, suggesting that these triggered emissions are to be regarded as mid-latitude emissions. These waves could have propagated along the geomagnetic field lines either in a ducted mode or in a pro-longitudinal (PL) mode. The measured intensity of the triggered emissions is almost equal to that of the source waves and does not vary throughout the period of observation on that day. It is speculated that these emissions may have been generated through a process of resonant interaction of the whistler waves with energetic electrons. Parameters related to this interaction are computed for different values of L and wave amplitude. The proposed mechanism explains some aspects of the dynamic spectra.

  9. Extremely Low Frequency-Magnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure and natural killer activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Bargellini, Annalisa; Scaringi, Meri; Bravo, Giulia; Borella, Paola


    Extremely Low Frequency-Magnetic Fields (ELF-MF) are possible carcinogens to humans and some data suggest that they can act as promoters or progressors. Since NK cells play a major role in the control of cancer development, an adverse effect on ELF-MF on NK function has been hypothesized. We examined NK activity in 52 workers exposed to different levels of ELF-MF in various activities. Individual exposure was monitored during 3 complete work-shifts using personal dosimeters. Environmental exposure was also monitored. ELF-MF levels in the workers were expressed as Time-Weighted Average (TWA) values. NK activity was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In the whole group the median occupational TWA was 0.21 μT. According to the TWA levels, workers were classified as low exposed (26 subjects, TWA ≤ 0.2 μT) and higher exposed workers (26 subjects; TWA > 0.2 μT). In higher exposed workers, we observed a trend to reduce NK activity compared to low exposed, but the difference was not significant. Then we selected a subgroup of highest exposed workers (12 subjects; TWA > 1 μT); no difference was observed between low and highest exposed subjects in the main personal variables. Considering both E:T ratios from 12:1 to 50:1 and Lytic Units, a significant reduction in NK activity was observed in the highest exposed workers compared to the low exposed. Multivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation between exposure and LU, while no correlation was evidenced with other personal characteristics. ELF-MF are considered possible carcinogens, and existing data suggest that they can act as promoters. Due to the role of NK activity in host defence against cancer, the results obtained in this study in workers exposed to ELF-MF levels exceeding 1 μT are in agreement with this hypothesis, and support the need for further investigation in this field

  10. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF-EMF and childhood leukemia near transmission lines: a review

    P. A. Kokate


    Full Text Available This article presents a systematic review of most cited studies from developed countries those shed light on the potential relation between childhood leukemia and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF. All the findings of articles critically segregated as per some neglected parameters like number of samples, exposure duration, frequency range, distance from the radiation sources, and location during measurement of magnetic field density near power lines. Literature of major 50 studies are divided according to pooled analysis / meta-analysis, residential zone assessment and case-control studies.

  11. Similar Data Retrieval from Enormous Datasets on ELF/VLF Wave Spectrum Observed by Akebono

    Y Kasahara


    Full Text Available As the total amount of data measured by scientific spacecraft is drastically increasing, it is necessary for researchers to develop new computation methods for efficient analysis of these enormous datasets. In the present study, we propose a new algorithm for similar data retrieval. We first discuss key descriptors that represent characteristics of the VLF/ELF waves observed by the Akebono spacecraft. Second, an algorithm for similar data retrieval is introduced. Finally, we demonstrate that the developed algorithm works well for the retrieval of the VLF spectrum with a small amount of CPU load.

  12. Attenuation bands and cut-off frequencies for ELF electromagnetic waves

    Rauch, J.L.; Lefeuvre, F.; Cerisier, J.C.; Berthelier, J.J.; Boud'ko, N.; Michailova, G.; Kapustina, O.


    The propagation characteristic of ELF (10 Hz - 1500 Hz) electromagnetic waves observed on ARCAD 3, in three different zones: low L value (L 6). Unambiguous determinations of the wave normal directions are obtained from the interpretations of the measurements of four (3 magnetic, 1 electric) wave field components. The technique that is used, is based on the Means method in the cases of highly polarized waves and on the Storey and Lefeuvre WDF method in the other cases. A particular emphasis is put on the propagation characteristics of the waves, in a multiple ion plasma, and on the cut-off frequencies which appear at and below the local proton gyrofrequency

  13. O-GlcNAc inhibits interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors

    Lim, Kihong; Chang, Hyo-Ihl


    The novel protein modification, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), plays an important role in various aspects of cell regulation. Although most of nuclear transcription regulatory factors are modified by O-GlcNAc, O-GlcNAc effects on transcription remain largely undefined yet. In this study, we show that O-GlcNAc inhibits a physical interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors, and negatively regulates transcription of placenta and embryonic expression oncofetal protein gene (Pem). These findings suggest that O-GlcNAc inhibits Sp1-mediated gene transcription possibly by interrupting Sp1 interaction with its cooperative factor.

  14. ELF - An experimental programme to quantify the effects of load follow and perturbated power histories

    Bairiot, H.; Hass, D.; Stora, J.P.


    Most of the ramp tests performed in national or international programmes have as main objective to define the fuel rod failure/survival limits, as a function of various parameters. Only a few of these experiments are sufficiently instrumented. The main feature of the ELF programme, described in this paper, consists in continuously measuring the cladding diameter during irradiation in OSIRIS of pre-irradiated PWR fuel rods, in order to provide strain relaxation data under various operating conditions. Power fluctuations during these OSIRIS irradiations are defined in order to obtain the conditioning and deconditioning kinetics of the fuel rods. (author)


    Diego Santalucia


    Full Text Available L’articolo analizza il processo di sviluppo delle tecnologie finalizzate alla comunicazione in rete nel web 2.0 e alcune possibilità della loro utilizzazione a fini didattici. La prima parte illustra la situazione attuale del web, con le sue risorse in ambito tecnologico e le sue peculiarità rispetto a una didattica che dovrebbe tener conto, in maniera sempre maggiore, dei nuovi strumenti di comunicazione basati sulla percezione sociale della rete.  Nella sua parte centrale, l’articolo propone alcune possibilità d’uso di strumenti web in situazioni “non ideali” - dal punto di vista della disponibilità oggettiva delle nuove tecnologie in classe - e illustra alcuni esempi di utilizzo degli stessi in situazioni, invece, “ideali”.  Tra gli strumenti oggetto di questo lavoro c’è una piattaforma didattica utilizzata per attività di apprendimento assistito dell’Italiano per Stranieri con riferimenti ai suoi strumenti di amministrazione dei contenuti, con approfondimenti sulla presentazione di attività video, audio e scrittura attraverso software di gestione e presentazione dei materiali. Oltre a fornire un quadro, si spera, concreto e sintetico delle prospettive dell’uso di strumenti in continuo divenire, un altro obiettivo dell’articolo è quello di mostrare la possibilità di uno sviluppo ulteriore della già sostanziale funzione autoriale di un docente di lingua, attraverso la creazione di materiali specifici per un corso con strumenti che possano favorirne il riutilizzo e l’aggiornamento.     Online tools and technologies for teaching and learning languages This article analyzes the development of technologies aimed at online communication in the 2.0 web ambient and a few ways they can be used for teaching. The first part describes the current situation of the Internet, with its technological resources and peculiarities with respect to teaching.  It is more and more important to keep in mind the new communication

  16. ELFE{alpha}DESY: an electron laboratory for Europe at DESY

    Frois, B.; Brinkmann, R.; Kose, R.; Maidment, J.; Bruinsma, P.; Wu, Y.; Conto, J.M. de; Faure, J.; Gentner, M.; Husmann, D.; Tazzioli, F.


    ELFE is a project to develop a 15 to 30 GeV, high luminosity, continuous beam electron accelerator for scattering experiments from fixed nuclear targets. The goal is to explore the quark and gluon structure of matter by exclusive and semi-exclusive electron scattering from nuclei. The idea of integrating ELFE into TESLA facility is based on the fact that the superconducting linac is operated at a low duty cycle, about 0.4%, for the electron-positron collider mode and the machine is available for other tasks during the time between collider pulses. A fraction of the beam pulses produced by TESLA could be injected into the HERA ring until the ring is filled. The authors show that it is possible to extract the electrons from HERA used as a stretcher ring and produce a high luminosity quasi continuous beam suitable for nuclear physics experiments. The performances of the extracted beam in term of emittance, energy spread and duty factor have been evaluated. (N.T.).

  17. Situation and perspectives in refrigerating and air-conditioning. The point of view of Elf Atochem; Situation et perspectives en refrigeration et air conditionne. Point de vue d`Elf Atochem



    This paper is a series of transparencies which explains the engagements of Elf Atochem company in the replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): development of HFCs, production of FORANE, safety and environmental criteria, main refrigerants and their application in new installations, perspectives in reconversion, replacement of R-22, CFC-12 and R-502 fluids with respect to their applications. (J.S.)

  18. The Development of LinguaBytes: An Interactive Tangible Play and Learning System to Stimulate the Language Development of Toddlers with Multiple Disabilities

    Bart Hengeveld


    Full Text Available Young children with multiple disabilities (e.g., both cognitive and motor disabilities are confronted with severe limitations in language development from birth and later on. Stimulating the adult-child communication can decrease these limitations. Within LinguaBytes, a three-year research program, we try to stimulate language development by developing an interactive and adaptive play and learning environment, incorporating tangible objects and multimedia content, based on interactive storytelling and anchored instruction. The development of a product for such a heterogeneous user group presents substantial challenges. We use a Research-through-Design method, that is, an iterative process of developing subsequent experiential prototypes and then testing them in real-life settings, for example, a center for rehabilitation medicine. This article gives an outline of the development of the LinguaBytes play and learning environment from the earliest studies up to the current prototype, CLICK-IT.

  19. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on catalase, cytochrome P450 and nitric oxide synthase in erythro-leukemic cells.

    Patruno, Antonia; Tabrez, Shams; Pesce, Mirko; Shakil, Shazi; Kamal, Mohammad A; Reale, Marcella


    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) are widely employed in electrical appliances and different equipment such as television sets, mobile phones, computers and microwaves. The molecular mechanism through which ELF-EMFs can influence cellular behavior is still unclear. A hypothesis is that ELF-EMFs could interfere with chemical reactions involving free radical production. Under physiologic conditions, cells maintain redox balance through production of ROS/RNS and antioxidant molecules. The altered balance between ROS generation and elimination plays a critical role in a variety of pathologic conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, aging and cancer. Actually, there is a disagreement as to whether there is a causal or coincidental relationship between ELF-EMF exposure and leukemia development. Increased ROS levels have been observed in several hematopoietic malignancies including acute and chronic myeloid leukemias. In our study, the effect of ELF-EMF exposure on catalase, cytochrome P450 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and their expression by Western blot analysis in myelogenous leukemia cell line K562 was evaluated. A significant modulation of iNOS, CAT and Cyt P450 protein expression was recorded as a result of ELF-EMF exposure in both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and non-stimulated cell lines. Modulation in kinetic parameters of CAT, CYP-450 and iNOS enzymes in response to ELF-EMF indicates an interaction between the ELF-EMF and the enzymological system. These new insights might be important in establishing a mechanistic framework at the molecular level within which the possible effects of ELF-EMF on health can be understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the chromium contamination at Ribeirão dos Bagres, Franca (SP), Brazil, by the 210Pb method

    Matamet, F.R.M.; Bonotto, D.M.


    This paper presents a chronological study focusing the use of 210 Pb in four sediment cores collected at Ribeirão dos Bagres in the region of Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. When evaluating the sedimentation rate by using the 210 Pb method, it was possible to monitor historical changes occurring in the concentrations of chromium present in the sediments. In order to do so, several specific parameters were determined in sediments, as chromium concentration, major oxides, organic matter, grain size, and chemical and physical–chemical parameters of waters. The sediments possessed a Cr concentration range of 0.83–26.25 mg/kg that is below the world's average of shales. The sedimentation rates obtained from the 210 Pb analysis were between 0.07 and 0.77 g cm −2 year −1 , while the linear sedimentation rate was from 0.6 to 3.2 cm/year. The adoption of the CIC (Constant Initial Concentration) 210 Pb model allowed characterize older sediments, aged 177 years, and younger sediments, aged 4 years. The organic matter in the sediments was more abundant in the first few centimeters of practically all profiles, and the analysis of oxides showed that silica is the major constituent of the sediments, in which there is predominance of sand and silt. In addition, the analysis of the physical and chemical parameters of waters indicated that they are suitable for navigation and natural harmony landscape. - Highlights: • Application of natural radionuclides in an important industrial center devoted to the production of leather for manufacturing shoes. • Study of a well-known site of environmental Cr contamination. • Use of the Pb-210 chronological CIC model to provide an approach of the historical Cr contamination in the region

  1. ELF wave generation in the ionosphere using pulse modulated HF heating: initial tests of a technique for increasing ELF wave generation efficiency

    R. Barr


    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a preliminary study to determine the effective heating and cooling time constants of ionospheric currents in a simulated modulated HF heating, `beam painting' configuration. It has been found that even and odd harmonics of the fundamental ELF wave used to amplitude modulate the HF heater are sourced from different regions of the ionosphere which support significantly different heating and cooling time constants. The fundamental frequency and its odd harmonics are sourced in a region of the ionosphere where the heating and cooling time constants are about equal. The even harmonics on the other hand are sourced from regions of the ionosphere characterised by ratios of cooling to heating time constant greater than ten. It is thought that the even harmonics are sourced in the lower ionosphere (around 65 km where the currents are much smaller than at the higher altitudes around 78 km where the currents at the fundamental frequency and odd harmonics maximise.Key words. Electromagnetics (antennae · Ionosphere (active experiments · Radio science (non linear phenomena

  2. The peculiarities of power terrestrial ELF emission in the Earth's ionosphere

    Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Fedir; Pronenko, Vira; Chvach, Valery


    The near-Earth space is saturated with electromagnetic (EM) waves of terrestrial origin in a wide frequency range. The most powerful natural sources of EM emission are thunderstorms and triggered by them Schumann resonance (SR) radiation which is the narrowband EM noise that occurs due to the global thunderstorm activity in the Earth-ionosphere cavity in frequency range about 7-100 Hz. The considerable part of the terrestrial EM emission belongs to everyday human activity which increases year by year with unpredictable consequences. At the beginning of space exploration era it was considered that high frequency EM waves freely penetrate through the Earth's ionosphere, but the terrestrial EM emission below very low frequency range is limited by ionospheric F2 layer boundary due to great EM losses in plasma. About 40 years ago the power lines harmonic radiation (multiple of 50/60 Hz) was found at satellite observations in a few kilohertz range, nevertheless the ionosphere was considered fully opaque for extremely low frequency (ELF) EM emission. However recently, in spite of theoretical estimations, the SR harmonics and power line emission (PLE) 50/60 Hz were discovered during flights of low Earth orbiting satellites C/NOFS (Simões et al., 2011) and Chibis-M (Dudkin et al., 2015) at heights 400-800 km, i.e. over F2-layer. Last results are a great challenge to the theory of ELF EM emission propagation in the Earth's ionosphere as well as for study of long-term influence of constantly increasing electric energy consumption by human civilization in the Earth's environment. We present the analysis of the space and time distribution for observed PLE and SR harmonics, their connection with power terrestrial sources of ELF emission and possible relation between measured values and ionosphere conditions. Also some electromagnetic parameters have been estimated. Simões, F. A., R. F. Pfaff, and H. T. Freudenreich (2011), Satellite observations of Schumann resonances in the

  3. Enfants conçus avec une aide médicale dans la cohorte Elfe

    Poulalhon, Claire


    Objectif : étudier les conditions entourant la naissance des enfants conçus avec une aide médicale, et explorer le rôle des facteurs sociaux et médicaux dans la prématurité et l’hypotrophie.Méthodes : l'analyse porte sur 9495 enfants de la cohorte Elfe, de terme supérieur à 33 semaines d'aménorrhée, singletons ou jumeaux, répartis en trois groupes selon leur contexte de conception, "traitement", "infertiles non traités" et "fertiles" (790, 1044 et 7661 enfants). Cinq champs ont été décrits (c...

  4. Genotoxicity and ELF-magnetic fields: a review through the micronucleus assay

    Alcaraz, M.; Andreu-Galvez, M.; Sanchez-Villalobos, J. M.; Achel, D. G.; Olmos, E.; Martinez-Hernandez, C. M.


    Thirty for (34) published studies, conducted from 1994 to the present to evaluate the genotoxic effect of magnetic fields using ELF-EMF and diagnostic resonance on humans by the micronucleus assay have been reviewed. some characteristics of the assay methods, their significance to genotoxicity and basic interpretations of the results of these assays are discussed. of the studies analysed 70.5% implicated genotoxic effects induced by these magnetic fields: 52.9% were due to exposure to magnetic fields only and 17,6% by exposure to magnetic fields in combination with some treatment types, resulting in additive or synergistic effect. Evidence exist to support the notion that exposure of humans to magnetic fields stimulates genotoxic effects, although the actual mechanisms of action or even the true human health consequences resulting from these exposure still remain unclear. (Author) 80 refs.




    Full Text Available Zwei 'jahrhunderthochwasser' in elf jahren - ein vergleich der hochwasserereignisse von 2002 und 2013 (in Deutschland. Worldwide floods are among the most frequent and most momentous natural disasters. They occur in unpredictable intervals and dimensions and always bring particularly devastating or catastrophic impacts, if they get into contact with people or its uses. Within eleven years only Germany was affected of two so-called 'century-floods'. The expiry of extreme high water can be influenced by technical measures only up to a certain degree. It is therefore necessary to have a high protection from the effects of floods and to keep the impact as low as possible. Both being prepared as well as possible and being capable of acting for the case of emergency are corequisite. Flood protection is a longsome and s steadily continuing process. In dealing with the consequences of floods both political measures and the commitment and solidarity of the citizens were in demand.

  6. Background ELF magnetic fields in incubators: a factor of importance in cell culture work.

    Mild, Kjell Hansson; Wilén, Jonna; Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Simko, Myrtill


    Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields in cell culture incubators have been measured. Values of the order of tens of muT were found which is in sharp contrast to the values found in our normal environment (0.05-0.1microT). There are numerous examples of biological effects found after exposure to MF at these levels, such as changes in gene expression, blocked cell differentiation, inhibition of the effect of tamoxifen, effects on chick embryo development, etc. We therefore recommend that people working with cell culture incubators check for the background magnetic field and take this into account in performing their experiments, since this could be an unrecognised factor of importance contributing to the variability in the results from work with cell cultures.

  7. Synchronization control of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons exposed to ELF electric field

    Che Yanqiu; Wang Jiang; Zhou Sisi; Deng Bin


    This paper presents an adaptive neural network H ∞ control for unidirectional synchronization of modified Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field. The proposed modified HH neurons exhibit periodic and chaotic dynamics in response to sinusoidal electric field stimulation. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, we derive the updated laws of neural network for approximating the nonlinear uncertain functions of the error dynamical system. The H ∞ design technique makes the controller robust to unmodeled dynamics, disturbances and approximate errors. The proposed controller not only ensures closed-loop stability, but also guarantees an H ∞ performance for the synchronization error system. The states of the controlled slave system exponentially synchronize with that of the master one after control. The simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  8. On precursory ULF/ELF electromagnetic signatures for the Kobe earthquake on April 12, 2013

    Schekotov, A.; Izutsu, J.; Hayakawa, M.


    After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (EQ), there have been numerous aftershocks in the eastern and Pacific Ocean of Japan, but EQs are still rare in the western part of Japan. In this situation a relatively large (magnitude (M) ∼ 6) EQ happened on April 12 (UT), 2013 at a place close to the 1995 Kobe EQ (M ∼ 7), so we have tried to find whether there existed any electromagnetic precursors to this EQ. Two precursory signatures are detected: one is the depression of ULF (ultra-low-frequency, 0.01-0.02 Hz) geomagnetic variations on April 9, and the second is wideband ELF (extremely low frequency) electromagnetic radiation on April 11. These results for the 2013 Kobe EQ are compared with the corresponding results for the former 1995 Kobe EQ.

  9. A língua franca das antologias: entre a identidade e os pormenores de uma prática material

    Ana Porrúa


    Full Text Available Una antología siempre expone o encubre el gesto de creación de una lengua franca, en tanto idiomacomún. Nos proponemos revisar algunos modos históricos de construcción de esta lengua en antologías de la poesía hispánica, hispanoamericana o argentina: aquellas donde se lee el armado de un conjunto españollatinoamericano desde poéticas diversas y se pone en juego la cuestión de las jerarquías y de la paternidad, incluso idiomática; aquellas en las que se ejerce una tracción sobre lo diverso, borrando o evidenciando el elemento de inestabilidad. El abordaje de esta lengua franca se hará desde las nociones de soporte y cuadro a partir de las cuales Foucault piensa los distintos órdenes o taxonomías, situándonos en el espacio intermedio de la yuxtaposición, en el límite del montaje de voces que va diseñando el continuo o deja al descubierto la más pura diferencia, la heterogeneidad que pone en crisis las jerarquías (James Clifford

  10. Investigations of Relatively Easy To Construct Antennas With Efficiency in Receiving Schumann Resonances: Preparations for a Miniaturized Reconfigurable ELF Receiver

    Farmer, Brian W.; Hannan, Robert C.


    Relatively little is known about the cavity between the Earth and the ionosphere, which opens opportunities for technological advances and unique ideas. One effective means to study this cavity is with extremely low frequency (ELF) antennas. Possible applications of these antennas are global weather prediction, earthquake prediction, planetary exploration, communication, wireless transmission of power, or even a free energy source. The superconducting quantum interference device SQUID) and the coil antenna are the two most acceptable receivers discovered for picking up ELF magnetic fields. Both antennas have the potential for size reduction, allowing them to be portable enough for access to space and even for personal ware. With improvements of these antennas and signal processing, insightful analysis of Schumann resonance (SR) can give the science community a band of radio frequency (RF) signals for improving life here on Earth and exploring beyond.

  11. Prospects of hadron and quark physics with electromagnetic probes. Proceedings of the second ELFE workshop on Hadronic Physics

    D'Hose, N.; Frois, B.; Guichon, P.A.M.; Pire, B.; Van de Wiele, J.


    The last three days of the second ELFE workshop on confinement physics were devoted to the results of the work during the past year on the update and improvement of the physics case, the feasibility of the ELFE at DESY project (which combines the HERA ring used as a stretcher and a low duty factor 25 GeV electron linac which could be either a section of the TESLA collider or the injector of the foreseen short wave length free electron laser) as well as the development of the detectors. The participations have been decided into 5 copies: inclusive and semi-inclusive reactions; real photon physics, exclusive reactions; color transparency; detectors. (author)

  12. Prospects of hadron and quark physics with electromagnetic probes. Proceedings of the second ELFE workshop on Hadronic Physics

    D' Hose, N; Frois, B; Guichon, P A.M. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d' Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee; Pire, B [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Van de Wiele, J [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France). Division de Recherche Experimentale


    The last three days of the second ELFE workshop on confinement physics were devoted to the results of the work during the past year on the update and improvement of the physics case, the feasibility of the ELFE at DESY project(which combines the HERA ring used as a stretcher and a low duty factor 25 GeV electron linac which could be either a section of the TESLA collider or the injector of the foreseen short wave length free electron laser) as well as the development of the detectors. The participations have been decided into 5 copies: inclusive and semi-inclusive reactions; real photon physics, exclusive reactions; color transparency; detectors. (author)

  13. L2 and L3 integrated learning

    Hazel, Spencer; Wagner, Johannes


    This study offers an empirical account of the use of English in Danish-as-aforeign- language classroom settings. We will refer to English as the lingua franca – which in itself is a second language for the majority of the participants in the data – and to Danish as the target language. We conside...... implications of lingua franca interaction in target language classroom interactions, and show how in sequences where participants orient to linguistic issues in the target language, for example grammatical forms or lexical items, they often do this with reference to the lingua franca....

  14. Modulation of brassinosteroid-regulated gene expression by jumonji domain-containing proteins ELF6 and REF6 in Arabidopsis

    Yu, Xiaofei; Li, Li; Li, Lei; Guo, Michelle; Chory, Joanne; Yin, Yanhai


    Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), are of great importance for plant growth and development. BRs signal through a cell surface receptor kinase, BRI1, and a GSK3-like kinase, BIN2, to regulate the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which directly bind to target gene promoters to activate or repress gene expression and mediate BR responses. To understand how BES1 regulates target gene expression, we identified two BES1-interacting proteins, ELF6 (early flowering 6) and its ...

  15. ELF/VLF wave propagation at subauroral latitudes: Conjugate observation between the ground and Van Allen Probes

    Martinez‐Calderon, C.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Keika, K.; Ozaki, M.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Kletzing, C.; Hanzelka, Miroslav; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, W. S.


    Roč. 121, č. 6 (2016), s. 5384-5393 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : QP * conjugate event * VLF/ELF * propagation * time delay * ray tracing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016

  16. Evaluation of the effects of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF on survival of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus

    Ahmed Istiaque


    In summary, the growth rate of the irradiated S. aureus bacteria is affected by radiation of particular parameters, thus revealing resonant effects induced by the applied radiation. The decreased CFU values in all irradiated samples compared to control samples (non-exposed were observed. Findings provide important insight towards selecting the optimal parameters of ELF PEMF for possible treatment of infected tissue and thus, wound healing promotion.

  17. Elf measurements in Greece conducted by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission

    Karabetsos, E.; Filippopoulos, G.; Koutounidis, D.; Govari, Ch.; Skamnakis, N.


    The Greek Atomic Energy Commission (E.E.A.E.) is the competent national authority for the protection of the general public and the environment from artificially produced non-ionizing radiation. To this end, E.E.A.E. carries out measurements in the vicinity of all kinds of facilities emitting E.L.F. electric and magnetic fields (e.g. power lines, high voltage substations) and RF electromagnetic fields (e.g. audio, radio and television antennas, mobile phone base stations, radar and satellite earth stations and other microwave communication systems), in order to monitor whether the general public exposure limits are being adhered to. Regarding the electromagnetic fields emitted by antenna stations, the safety limits in Greek legislation were recently set to 70% of the I.C.N.I.R.P. values and to 60% of them if the antenna station is closer than 300 m from the perimeter of day nurseries, schools, hospitals or elder-care facilities, while in the case of extremely low frequency fields, the limit values are set exactly the same as the reference levels in I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines. Regarding the levels of E.L.F. electric and magnetic fields in Greece E.E.A.E. has conducted many measurements around the elements of the electric grid where the main interest of the public is focused. Theoretical estimations and typical values based on actual measurements of the fields in the vicinity of the power lines used in Greece are presented. Measurement results in the vicinity of substations are also presented. In general, the levels of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the power grid elements are well below the established safety limits; whereas the levels of the electric field may reach values comparable to the safety limits very close to extremely high voltage lines. However, there is no case where the measured values of elf electric or magnetic fields were higher than the safety limits. There are a few exceptional cases where measurements of RF fields conducted by E.E.A.E. in the

  18. Elf measurements in Greece conducted by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission

    Karabetsos, E.; Filippopoulos, G.; Koutounidis, D.; Govari, Ch.; Skamnakis, N. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Non Ionizing Radiation Office, (Greece)


    The Greek Atomic Energy Commission (E.E.A.E.) is the competent national authority for the protection of the general public and the environment from artificially produced non-ionizing radiation. To this end, E.E.A.E. carries out measurements in the vicinity of all kinds of facilities emitting E.L.F. electric and magnetic fields (e.g. power lines, high voltage substations) and RF electromagnetic fields (e.g. audio, radio and television antennas, mobile phone base stations, radar and satellite earth stations and other microwave communication systems), in order to monitor whether the general public exposure limits are being adhered to. Regarding the electromagnetic fields emitted by antenna stations, the safety limits in Greek legislation were recently set to 70% of the I.C.N.I.R.P. values and to 60% of them if the antenna station is closer than 300 m from the perimeter of day nurseries, schools, hospitals or elder-care facilities, while in the case of extremely low frequency fields, the limit values are set exactly the same as the reference levels in I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines. Regarding the levels of E.L.F. electric and magnetic fields in Greece E.E.A.E. has conducted many measurements around the elements of the electric grid where the main interest of the public is focused. Theoretical estimations and typical values based on actual measurements of the fields in the vicinity of the power lines used in Greece are presented. Measurement results in the vicinity of substations are also presented. In general, the levels of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the power grid elements are well below the established safety limits; whereas the levels of the electric field may reach values comparable to the safety limits very close to extremely high voltage lines. However, there is no case where the measured values of elf electric or magnetic fields were higher than the safety limits. There are a few exceptional cases where measurements of RF fields conducted by E.E.A.E. in the

  19. Um estudo sobre renúncia tributária e os benefícios gerados pela Zona Franca de Manaus

    Romina Batista de Lucena de Souza


    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo verificar se a criação da Zona Franca de Manaustrouxe benefícios líquidos positivos para a economia de Manaus e, em certa medida,para o Estado do Amazonas. No referencial teórico utilizou-se a teoria dos polos, ateoria da base e indicadores socioeconômicos. Abordaram-se diversos aspectos daZona Franca de Manaus, como legislação, evolução histórica, resultados edificuldades. Focou-se a arrecadação tributária Federal e Estadual no Amazonas e adesoneração tributária do Governo Federal. A pesquisa caracteriza-se comoexploratória, descritiva e explicativa. Os procedimentos técnicos utilizados foram apesquisa bibliográfica e documental. A coleta de dados foi realizada pelos sites daSuframa e da Receita Federal. Os resultados indicam que as desoneraçõestributárias foram expressivas, mas menores daquelas concedidas no Sul e noSudeste; apesar disso, a arrecadação tributária no Estado do Amazonas é elevada eos custos para a sociedade desses incentivos foram menores do que os benefíciosgerados pela Zona Franca e pelo polo industrial de Manaus.Abstract This paper aims to determine whether the creation of the Free Zone of Manausbrought positive benefits to the economy of Manaus and, to some extent, for theState of Amazonas. In the theoretical reference was used the theory of the poles, thetheory of the basic and socioeconomic indicators. It addressed to various aspects ofthe Free Zone of Manaus, as legislation, historical evolution, results and difficulties. Itfocused on the Federal and State tax collection in Amazonas and tax relief in FederalGovernment. The research is characterized as exploratory, descriptive andexplanatory. The technical procedures used were the bibliographic and documentaryresearch. The data collection was performed by sites of Suframa and the ReceitaFederal. The results indicate that the tax reliefs were significant, but smaller thosegranted in South and Southeast; nevertheless

  20. A Apa da Baleia Franca e o Turismo de Observação de Baleias Embarcado (Tobe: Sustentabilidade ou Exploração Animal?

    Fernanda Luiza Fontoura de Medeiros


    Full Text Available O Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação, regulado pela Lei 9985/2000, estabelece duas grandes categorias de Unidades de Conservação: as unidades de conservação de proteção integral e as unidades de conservação de uso sustentável. Entre as unidades de conservação de uso sustentável, as áreas de proteção ambiental caracterizam-se por serem áreas extensas, instituídas para a preservação dos processos naturais e da biodiversidade, bem como para regular as atividades humanas às características ambientais da área. Assim, no sul do estado de Santa Catarina foi instituída a Área de Proteção Ambiental da Baleia Franca (APABF, com o objetivo principal de proteger nas aguas brasileiras a baleia franca austral. Recentemente, a APABF esta sendo palco de um intenso conflito socioambiental em razão da Ação Civil Pública (ACP interposta pelo Instituto Sea Shepherd Brasil em face do Instituto Chico Mendes da Biodiversidade (ICMBIO, pedindo a condenação do ICMBIO a adotar de forma permanente, as medidas necessárias e eficazes para a proteção das baleias-francas, mediante a fiscalização das empresas que praticam a observação das baleias com uso de embarcações, com ou sem motor, a fim de impedir a violação da legislação. Este artigo consiste em um estudo de caso e visa contribuir para o conhecimento do caso do turismo de observação de baleias embarcado na APABF, através da analise da legislação aplicada, como dos atores envolvidos na controvérsia judicial e o seu reflexo para os direitos animais. A pesquisa é feita através da analise documental da legislação que caracteriza as unidades de conservação, da legislação especifica de proteção aos cetáceos, bem como dos argumentos utilizados pelas partes envolvidas na ACP.

  1. Lingua del calcio come una lingua settoriale

    Anna Szemberska


    Full Text Available The main motives of this article involve tecnical terms used by journalists in the Italian football press. The paper presents the Italian of football, its multiple aspects and its characteristics as a special language. The aim of this article, in which we also consider the popularity of football press in Italy, is to analyse its semantic, stylistic, syntactic and textual features.

  2. Giuseppe Patota, Grammatica di riferimento della lingua italiana per stranieri, Società Dante Alighieri; Firenze, Le Monnier, 2003; 424 pp.

    Pavao Tekavčić


    Full Text Available Fra le tante grammatiche della lingua italiana pubblicate finora quella che qui recensiamo occupa un posto particolare grazie a certe qualità che mettteremo in rilievo, naturalmente in modo succinto, date le dimensioni della recensione.L'autore, professore all'Atteneo di Siena, ha pubblicato ultimamente alcuni titoli di carattere divulgativo (si veda la copertina anteriore interna e l'opera presente continua quest'attività, tanto utile quanto importante per quanti si dedicano all'i­taliano.

  3. Oana Sălişteanu Cristea, Introduzione alla dialettologia italiana, Tra lingua e dia­ letto, Editura DAIM, Bucureşti 2002, 160 pagine

    Pavao Tekavčić


    Full Text Available La professoressa dall'Ateneo di Bucarest, in cui insegna lessicologia, filologia e dialettologia italiana, ci ha regalato due anni fa un primo volume dedicato all'italiano, Prestito latino - elemento ereditario nel lessico de/la lingua italiana. Doppioni e va­ rianti, Praga 2000. Adesso la studiosa ci offre un' altra opera, citata nel titolo della nos­ tra recensione. 11 libro, diciamolo subito, trascende i limiti della filologia italiana, essendo di notevole interesse e importanza per varie altre discipline linguistiche.


    Agnaldo Sousa Barbosa


    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate how, in the context of the restructuring process, under way since the early 1990’s, business strategies, guided by building corporation networks inside and outside the chain of production and the establishment of a system of shared governance between the links of that same chain, resulted in a dynamic, economic and social development significantly more robust in the productive territory where they were tried. For the discussion of this problem, it is relied on the study of the two major poles of shoes manufacturing in the State of São Paulo: Franca, specialized in men’s footwear, and Birigui, specialized in children’s shoes.

  5. [Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Prazeres, Taísa Junqueira; Navarro, Vera Lucia


    This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces.

  6. Produtividade e jornada de trabalho na indústria de calçados de Franca - quem fica com os ganhos?

    Corrêa, Lauro Henrique Guimarães


    O presente trabalho tem como eixo central a problematização das relações que permeiam a evolução e o desempenho de fatores econômicos tais como a produtividade, os níveis de emprego e a jornada de trabalho no contexto do modo de produção capitalista na particularidade da indústria calçadista de Franca (SP), o maior pólo brasileiro de fabricação de calçados masculinos. Inserindo-se no rol das formulações que advogam a necessidade, a importância e a justiça de se promover redu...

  7. A simplified theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line

    Booker, H.G.


    An approximate theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line is developed by combining the reflection theory of Booker and Lefeuvre with Greifinger and Greifinger's treatment of the effect of ionization below the level of reflection. The theory allows for the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, for reflection from the gradient on the under side of the D-region (or, at night, of a ledge below the E-region), for reflection from the gradient on the underside of the E-region and for reflection from the gradient on the topside of the E-region. The procedure is to compare local vertical gradient with local wavelength, thereby classifying altitude into intervals where the gradient is high and ones where it is low. Where the gradient is low, the phase-integral treatment is adequate. An interval where the gradient is high may, to a first approximation, be replaced by a discontinuity. The amount of the discontinuity is the difference between the refractive indices at the top and bottom of the interval of high gradient, judged in relation to local wavelength. It is then a matter of combining reflections from the several discontinuities. This requires calculation of the complex phase-changes between the discontinuities. But there are the intervals where the phase-integral treatment is available. To a better approximation, there is a non-zero phase change associated with an interval of high gradient. The method for incorporating this is described. (author)

  8. A health examination of railway high-voltage substation workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields.

    Baroncelli, P; Battisti, S; Checcucci, A; Comba, P; Grandolfo, M; Serio, A; Vecchia, P


    This is a cross-sectional survey on the health conditions of railways workers active in 258 interconnection and conversion substations all over Italy. Measurements performed in both kinds of substations operating at 220 kV have shown that maximum levels of the electric field strength and of the magnetic flux density at 50 Hz are of the order of 5 kV/m and 15 microT, respectively. Three subject groups, differently exposed (1, 10, 20 h/week), and an unexposed control group, for a total number of 627 workers, constitute the population at study. All subjects underwent a general medical examination, laboratory investigations, and a series of selected examinations relative to three systems (nervous, cardiovascular, and haematopoietic) considered at higher risk. No differences have been found between the exposed and the control groups. It is concluded that workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields of moderate strength do not show the presence of clear effects on their state of health.

  9. ELF-VLF communications through the Earth Project report for calendar year 1984, revision 1

    Buettner, H. M.; Burker, G. J.; Didwall, E. M.; Holladay, G.; Lytle, R. J.


    We use computer models and experiments to explore the feasibility of communication between points underground and on the Earth's surface. Emphasis is placed on ELF-VLF electromagnetic propagation through the Earth; nominally, we investigated propagation in the 200 Hz-30 kHz frequency range. The computer modeling included calculations of the fields of a point electric or magnetic source in a homogeneous half space or a stratified earth. Initial results for an insulated antenna of finite length are also considered. The experiments involved through-the-Earth transmissions at two locations in Pennsylvania, both of which had large formations of limestone. Initial results indicate that information rates as high as kbits/s may be possible for subsurface depths of 300 m or less. Accuracy of these estimates depends on the electromagnetic propagation constant of the rock, the noise characteristics, and the modulation scheme. Although a nuisance for evaluating through-the-Earth propagation, the existence of subsurface metal conductors can improve the transmission character of the site.

  10. ELF-VLF Communications through the Earth Project report for calendar year 1984. Revision 1

    Buettner, H.M.; Burke, G.J.; Didwall, E.M.; Holladay, G.; Lytle, R.J.


    We use computer models and experiments to explore the feasibility of communication between points underground and on the Earth's surface. Emphasis is placed on ELF-VLF electromagnetic propagation through the Earth; nominally, we investigated propagation in the 200 Hz-30 kHz frequency range. The computer modeling included calculations of the fields of a point electric or magnetic source in a homogeneous half space or a stratified earth. Initial results for an insulated antenna of finite length are also considered. The experiments involved through-the-earth transmissions at two locations in Pennsylvania, both of which had large formations of limestone. Initial results indicate that information rates as high as kbits/s may be possible for subsurface depths of 300 m or less. Accuracy of these estimates depends on the electromagnetic propagation constant of the rock, the noise characteristics, and the modulation scheme. Although a nuisance for evaluating through-the-Earth propagation, the existence of subsurface metal conductors can improve the transmission character of the site.

  11. Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on serum and liver lipid levels, in the rat

    Elias-Viñas David


    Full Text Available Abstract Backgound The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on the blood serum and liver lipid concentrations of male Wistar rats were assessed. Methods Animals were exposed to a single stimulation (2 h of ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 2.4 mT or sham-stimulated and thereafter sacrificed at different times (24, 48 or 96 h after beginning the exposure. Results Blood lipids showed, at 48 h stimulated animals, a significant increase of cholesterol associated to high density lipoproteins (HDL-C than those observed at any other studied time. Free fatty acid serum presented at 24 h significant increases in comparison with control group. The other serum lipids, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol did not show differences between groups, at any time evaluated. No statistical differences were shown on total lipids of the liver but total cholesterol was elevated at 24 h with a significant decrease at 96 h (p = 0.026. The ELF-EMF stimulation increased the liver content of lipoperoxides at 24 h. Conclusion Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation.

  12. Properties of ELF electromagnetic waves in and above the earth's ionosphere deduced from plasma wave experiments on the OV1-17 and Ogo 6 satellites

    Kelley, M.C.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Mozer, F.S.


    An analysis of ac electric field data obtained on board the OV1-17 satellite and ac magnetic field data obtained on board the Ogo 6 satellite has been made during the northern hemisphere spring and summer of 1969 with the purpose of studying extreme low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves above the earth's ionosphere. The results are in basic agreement with a number of previous ground-based and low-altitude satellite experiments in that the peak signal was observed at high latitudes outside the statistical location of the plasmapause on the day side of the earth, that ELF chorus was very often observed in conjunction with the steady ELF hiss emissions, that the winter hemisphere signal was considerably smaller than that observed in summer or in equinoctial months, and that the emission strength and region of occurrence are asymmetric about magnetic noon. Observations of such strong hiss signals outside the plasmasphere are somewhat surprising in light of Ogo 3 and Ogo 5 measurements which show steady ELF hiss to be closely confined to the plasmasphere at high altitudes during normal circumstances. The present study supports the hypothesis that hiss leaks out of the plasmasphere and refracts downward into the lower ionosphere; such a model predicts the observed summer-winter asymmetry and the poleward skewing of the ELF peak signal strength with decreasing altitude

  13. The macrophage activation marker sCD163 combined with markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) score predicts clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis

    Sandahl, T D; McGrail, R; Møller, H J


    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive identification of significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis is needed in hepatology practice. AIM: To investigate whether the combination of sCD163 as a hepatic inflammation marker and the fibrosis markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis score (ELF) can...... predict portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We measured sCD163 and the ELF components (hyaluronic acid, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and procollagen-III aminopeptide) in two separate cohorts of cirrhosis patients that underwent hepatic vein catheterisation. To test...... the predictive accuracy we developed a CD163-fibrosis portal hypertension score in an estimation cohort (n = 80) and validated the score in an independent cohort (n = 80). A HVPG ≥10 mmHg was considered clinically significant. RESULTS: Both sCD163 and the ELF components increased in a stepwise manner...

  14. Transculturalism: A Path to the Integration of the Multilingual/Multi ...


    government, communication, education and language of business. Though English is .... textbooks for teaching the target language. The child's culture is never ..... The ethics of identity. New Jersey: ... The case of English as a lingua franca.

  15. Studiar L'inglese dalle elementari--Problema europeo: Una proposta nuova della pedagogia cibernetica (Beginning the Study of English in the Elementary School Grades--A European Problem: A New Proposal from Cibernetic Education).

    Chiti-Batelli, Andrea


    Warns the European community of the dangers of accepting English as the international language and urges the adoption of Esperanto, a neutral language without its own cultural tradition, as the international lingua franca. (CFM)

  16. The promotion of Setswana through hip hop and motswakolistas ...

    , originate in Johannesburg and mainly use 'Jozi Sotho' or 'Jozi Zulu'. These two varieties are used as lingua francas in greater Johannesburg and thus reasonably have more ethno-linguistic vitality than other Southern Bantu languages ...

  17. Klucel™ EF and ELF polymers for immediate-release oral dosage forms prepared by melt extrusion technology.

    Mohammed, Noorullah Naqvi; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Singh, Abhilasha; Deng, Weibin; Murthy, Narasimha S; Pinto, Elanor; Tewari, Divya; Durig, Thomas; Repka, Michael A


    The objective of this research work was to evaluate Klucel™ hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) EF and ELF polymers, for solubility enhancement as well as to address some of the disadvantages associated with solid dispersions. Ketoprofen (KPR), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug with poor solubility, was utilized as a model compound. Preliminary thermal studies were performed to confirm formation of a solid solution/dispersion of KPR in HPC matrix and also to establish processing conditions for hot-melt extrusion. Extrudates pelletized and filled into capsules exhibited a carrier-dependent release with ELF polymer exhibiting a faster release. Tablets compressed from milled extrudates exhibited rapid release owing to the increased surface area of the milled extrudate. Addition of mannitol (MNT) further enhanced the release by forming micro-pores and increasing the porosity of the extrudates. An optimized tablet formulation constituting KPR, MNT, and ELF in a 1:1:1 ratio exhibited 90% release in 15 min similar to a commercial capsule formulation. HPC polymers are non-ionic hydrophilic polymers that undergo polymer-chain-length-dependent solubilization and can be used to enhance solubility or dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Dissolution/release rate could be tailored for rapid-release applications by selecting a suitable HPC polymer and altering the final dosage form. The release obtained from pellets was carrier-dependent and not drug-dependent, and hence, such a system can be effectively utilized to address solubility or precipitation issues with poorly soluble drugs in the gastrointestinal environment.

  18. Inhibition of Salmonella typhi growth using extremely low frequency electromagnetic (ELF-EM) waves at resonance frequency.

    Fadel, M A; Mohamed, S A; Abdelbacki, A M; El-Sharkawy, A H


    Typhoid is a serious disease difficult to be treated with conventional drugs. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a new method for the control of Salmonella typhi growth, through the interference with the bioelectric signals generated from the microbe during cell division by extremely low frequency electromagnetic waves (ELF-EMW-ELF-EM) at resonance frequency. Isolated Salmonella typhi was subjected to square amplitude modulated waves (QAMW) with different modulation frequencies from two generators with constant carrier frequency of 10 MHz, amplitude of 10 Vpp, modulating depth ± 2 Vpp and constant field strength of 200 V m(-1) at 37°C. Both the control and exposed samples were incubated at the same conditions during the experiment. The results showed that there was highly significant inhibition effect for Salm. typhi exposed to 0·8 Hz QAMW for a single exposure for 75 min. Dielectric relaxation, TEM and DNA results indicated highly significant changes in the molecular structure of the DNA and cellular membrane resulting from the exposure to the inhibiting EM waves. It was concluded that finding out the inhibiting resonance frequency of ELF-EM waves that deteriorates Salm. typhi growth will be promising method for the treatment of Salm. typhi infection either in vivo or in vitro. This new non-invasive technique for treatment of bacterial infections is of considerable interest for the use in medical and biotechnological applications. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Simultaneous observations of quasi-periodic ELF/VLF wave emissions and electron precipitation by DEMETER satellite: A case study

    Hayosh, Mykhaylo; Pasmanik, D. L.; Demekhov, A. G.; Santolík, Ondřej; Parrot, M.; Titova, E. E.


    Roč. 118, č. 7 (2013), s. 4523-4533 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2280; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : quasi-periodic ELF/VLF emission s in the magnetosphere * wave-particle interactions * demeter spacecraft measurements * whistler-mode waves Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013

  20. ELF/VLF signatures of sprite-producing lightning discharges observed during the 2005 EuroSprite campaign

    Greenberg, E.; Price, C.; Yair, Y.


    ) discharges had peak current intensities between +8 and +130 kA whereas their charge moment changes (CMC) ranged from 500 to 3500 C km. Furthermore, the peak current reported by the Météorage lightning network are well correlated with the amplitudes of the VLF bursts, while showing poor correlation......%) an ELF transient was not associated with sprite occurrence, suggesting that long continuing current of tens of ms may not always be a necessary condition for sprite production, a finding which influences the estimation of the global sprite rate based on Schumann resonance (SR) measurements....


    Viviana Solcia


    Full Text Available Come si organizza un corso di italiano L2 per donne migranti? Perché questi corsi si differenziano dalle altre proposte formative rivolte ad adulti immigrati? Basandosi sulle indicazioni del vademecum Tutte le mamme a scuola, il presente contributo cerca di rispondere a queste domande analizzando i bisogni linguistici delle donne migranti, interrogandosi su quale italiano insegnare, su quale metodo didattico adottare con particolare attenzione all’approccio autobiografico e all’“imparare facendo” e presentando i libri di testo rivolti a questa tipologia di apprendenti. Le tre interviste in appendice, raccolte in tre diversi centri che si occupano di corsi di italiano L2 per donne immigrate, raccontano come tutte queste indicazioni possano essere messe in pratica per cercare di soddisfare quel desiderio di integrazione e promozione sociale di cui le allieve si fanno portatrici,  che rende la classe di lingua non solo il luogo in cui si impara a parlare italiano, ma anche un laboratorio sociale in cui sperimentare modi diversi di approcciarsi e di considerare la diversità.     Not only language. Italian L2 for migrant women between linguistic needs and the desire for integration.   How is an Italian L2 course organized for migrant women? Why are these courses different from other classes designed for adult immigrants? Based on the indications in the handbook Tutte le mamme a scuola, this article tries to answer these questions analyzing the linguistic needs of migrant women, considering what Italian should be taught, what teaching method should be used with special attention placed on the autobiographical approach and “learning by doing”. The three interviews in the appendix, from three different centers which offer Italian L2 courses to immigrant women, tell about how these indications can be put into practice to satisfy the desire for the integration and social inclusion of these students, making the language class more than a

  2. Cultura e interazioni sociali: riflessioni sulla storia, sulla geografia e sulla lingua italiana per una didattica contemporanea interculturale

    Giorgio Rini


    Full Text Available Riassunto Volgendo lo sguardo verso la complessità sociale non possiamo non sentire la necessità di fare alcune riflessioni che riguardano i contatti con le altre culture sia sul piano didattico, nella scuola, sia sull’interazione sociale. Da questo punto di vista appare urgente una riflessione approfondita che vada a toccare i valori espressi dalla multiculturalità, se non altro per com-prendere meglio il contesto locale nel quale viviamo. Allo scopo vogliamo partire proprio da lontano nel tempo e partiamo dal concetto di mito e dalle narrazioni in esso contenute.A nostro avviso i concetti espressi dal mito si prestano molto bene per la costruzione di un percorso che questo lavoro vuole sviluppare e che toccherà da vicino alcune riflessioni sulla lingua italiana, sulla storia e sulla geografia. Si tratta di prendere le mosse dai risvolti che le vicende mitologiche assumono per farne una rilettura di carattere pedagogico, antropologico e psicologico. Parole chiave: interculturalità, interazione, storia, didattica, contesto locale, scuolaCultures and social interactions: reflections on history, geography and Italian lan-guage for a contemporary intercultural didactics AbstractIf you look towards the current social complexity we certainly feel the need to make some reflections concerning contacts with other cultures both in terms of teaching in the school, and on a social level. From this point of view, an in-depth reflection seems urgent which hits the values expressed by many cultures, even if only to better understand the local context we live in, and the necessary changes for a new structure intercultural learning. With this intent, we want to start from far away in time and we start from the concept of myth and the narratives contained in it. In our opinion, the concepts expressed by myth apply very well to the construction of a path that this work aims at developing and that will closely touch some reflections on the Italian language

  3. Assessing occupational and domestic ELF magnetic field exposure in the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study: Results of a feasibility study

    Van Tongeren, M.; Mee, T.; Whatmough, P.; Broad, L.; Mashlanyj, M.; Allen, S.; Muir, K.; McKinney, P.


    The feasibility of measuring exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) in the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study (UKABTS) was examined. During the study, 81 individuals and 30 companies were approached with 79 individuals and 25 companies agreeing to participate. Exposure data were collected using EMDEX II dosemeters worn by the participants for 3-4 consecutive days. Data were collected over a total of 321 d, including non-occupational periods. The results showed occupational exposure to be the main determinant of overall exposure. Moderate to strong correlations were found between arithmetic mean exposure and all other metrics with the possible exception of maximum exposure. Significant differences in exposure were found between job categories with large variability in certain categories. Highest average exposures were found for security officers (arithmetic mean, AM: 0.78 μT), secretaries (AM: 0.48 μT) and dentists (AM: 0.42 μT). Welding and working near high-voltage power lines were associated with elevated exposure. In summary, acceptably precise measures of ELF MF exposure are feasible at relatively moderate cost. The results were used to develop a protocol for data collection from subjects in the UKABTS. (authors)

  4. Indoor transformer stations and ELF magnetic field exposure: use of transformer structural characteristics to improve exposure assessment.

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Roivainen, Päivi; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor; Juutilainen, Jukka


    Previous studies have shown that populations of multiapartment buildings with indoor transformer stations may serve as a basis for improved epidemiological studies on the relationship between childhood leukaemia and extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs). This study investigated whether classification based on structural characteristics of the transformer stations would improve ELF MF exposure assessment. The data included MF measurements in apartments directly above transformer stations ("exposed" apartments) in 30 buildings in Finland, and reference apartments in the same buildings. Transformer structural characteristics (type and location of low-voltage conductors) were used to classify exposed apartments into high-exposure (HE) and intermediate-exposure (IE) categories. An exposure gradient was observed: both the time-average MF and time above a threshold (0.4 μT) were highest in the HE apartments and lowest in the reference apartments, showing a statistically significant trend. The differences between HE and IE apartments, however, were not statistically significant. A simulation exercise showed that the three-category classification did not perform better than a two-category classification (exposed and reference apartments) in detecting the existence of an increased risk. However, data on the structural characteristics of transformers is potentially useful for evaluating exposure-response relationship.

  5. Analise funcional das traduccións en linguas en proceso de normalización: o caso da traducción do comic en galego

    Sinner, Carsten


    Full Text Available In the case of the Galician language, the translation of comics is quite important, because it contributes to the normalization of use of the Galician language and allows young readers to become familiar with the norm. The article focusses on an analysis of the Galician translation with the French original and a Spanish version of the text.

    [gl] A traducción de comics, no caso do galego xoga un papel moi importante xa que o seu obxectivo é sobre todo normalizar o uso da lingua galega ñas xeracións novas e familiariza-la xuventude coa norma. A contribución pretende unha análise ben polo miúdo dunha traducción galega de Asterix comparándoa co orixinal francés e coa traducción española.

  6. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast.

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng


    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF.


    Paola Arrigoni


    Full Text Available La modalità plurilingue della comunicazione in classi di lingua straniera può rientrare tra le strategie pedagogiche a disposizione dell’insegnante per il raggiungimento di precisi scopi didattici e formativi. Partendo da una breve analisi sul significato di parlante plurilingue e plurilinguismo stesso, in questo articolo si è voluto esaminare come si attua una educazione al plurilinguismo in contesti formativi e, in particolare, se e come l’utilizzo della L1 può costituire uno strumento di supporto all’insegnamento e all’apprendimento di una lingua straniera. A questo scopo sono stati analizzati i dati raccolti presso l’Università di Coventry durante corsi di italiano L2 per studenti anglofoni. I fenomeni di contatto linguistico L1/L2 più frequenti e significativi sono stati suddivisi in base al parlante e alle loro funzioni.   The phenomena of l1/l2 alternation in the teaching of italian as a foreign language. analysis of a corpus of didactic interactions Multilingual communication in foreign language classrooms can be considered as one of the teacher’s pedagogical  strategies to achieve specific educational aims. Through a brief analysis of the meaning of multilingual speakers and multilingualism, this article examines how an education to multilingualism in teaching contexts is carried out and, in particular, if and how the use of the L1 can be a helpful tool for the foreign language teaching and learning. For this purpose the data collected at Coventry University during Italian (L2 classrooms for English students were examined. The more common and meaningful phenomena of linguistic contact between L1 and L2 were grouped according to the speaker and to their functions.


    Michela Dota


    Full Text Available Il titolo del presente contributo condensa da una parte le coordinate operative della legislazione scolastica elementare post-unitaria, in particolare riguardo all’ortoepia, e d’altra parte la ricezione di quelle coordinate nella pubblicistica scolastica elementare coeva. Il saggio considera entrambi i cardini della questione: dopo aver esposto brevemente le linee guida della legislazione circa il rapporto tra lingua e dialetti e sulla corretta pronuncia, si analizzano due strumenti didattici, concepiti per la duplice utenza dei maestri e degli alunni, nei quali si concretano due atteggiamenti sensibilmente diversi sulla questione ortoepica. Infine, dall’analisi di questi due sussidi si dedurrà il rapporto, raccomandato più o meno esplicitamente, che doveva intercorrere tra dialetto e lingua nelle aule scolastiche. «In help to the unit of language and against the mistakes coming from dialects». Spelling book and little vocabulary by Antonino TrainaThe title of this contribution epitomizes the praxis of the post-unification legislation concerning primary school, particularly about orthoepy, and the reception of that legislation by the authors of textbooksfor primary school. After having exposed the guidelines of the legislation about the relation between Italian and dialects and about correct pronunciation, this article analyzes two teaching tools (a spelling book and a vocabulary, that can be used by both teachers and students. It’s notable that the spelling book and the vocabulary have a different perspective on orthoepy. Finally, from their analysis it is deduced the model proposed for the relation between Italian and dialects in classrooms.

  9. Yield and quality of milk and udder health in Martina Franca ass: effects of daily interval and time of machine milking

    Giovanni Martemucci


    Full Text Available Twenty asses of Martina Franca breed, machine milked twice a day, were used to assess the influence of milking interval (3-h, 5-h, and 8-h; N=5 and time (700, 1200 and 1900 on milk yield and udder health. Individual milk samples were taken to determine fat, protein and lactose con- tent. Sensory analysis profile was also assessed. Milk’s total bacterial count (TBC, somatic cell con- tent (SCC and udder’s skin temperature were considered to assess udder health. Milk yield increases by 28.4% (P<0.01 with a milking interval from 3-h to 8-h and is higher (P<0.01 at morning milking. The maximum milk yield per milking corresponds to 700 milking (1416.9 mL thus indicating a circa- dian rhythm in milk secretion processes. Milking intervals of 5 and 8 hours cause a decrease (P<0.01 in milk fat and lactose content. The 8-h interval leads to an increase (P<0.01 in SCC but without any significance for the health udder. No alterations about CBT, clinical evaluation and temperature of ud- der were observed. Milk organoleptic characteristics were better in the 3-h interval milking.


    Antonietta Gobbis


    Full Text Available Il metodo, che si rifà alle teorie pedagogiche di Maria Montessori (1870-1952, è un esempio di lezione “aperta” fondato su pratiche che attivano la sfera emozionale, sensoriale e relazionale oltre a quella logico-razionale della mente. Nel processo di apprendimento di conoscenze acquisite non solo attraverso l’ascolto delle parole dell’insegnante, ma anche attraverso esperienze scelte autonomamente e consapevolmente da soli e in gruppo, l’ambiente delle stazioni didattiche offre tutto il materiale di sviluppo cognitivo in maniera che sia liberamente fruibile dal discente per favorirne la socializzazione e l’autonomia (secondo il motto di Maria Montessori ‘Aiutami a fare da solo’. A lezione esse non solo offrono varietà, comunicazione e divertimento ma, e in ciò è il loro massimo pregio, differenziazione interna al gruppo degli studenti, che possono, senza alcuna pressione da parte dei compagni, lavorare al proprio ritmo e livello scegliendogli esercizi secondo le preferenze individuali lungo un percorso aperto a canali diversi di apprendimento e orientato ad un vivace interscambio con gli altri.Il nostro contributo fa riferimento a tre esempi di stazioni didattiche legate alle feste che più richiamano l’attenzione degli studenti stranieri sul nostro paese: il Natale e il Carnevale. Tali tematiche mostrano come il modello della stazioni didattiche riesca a rapportarsi al vissuto degli studenti motivandoli al raffronto interculturale. Le abbiamo sperimentate in gruppi di studenti dell’Università delle Lingue Mondiali di Tashkent che frequentano il primo e secondo anno del corso di Italiano, studiato come seconda lingua.   Learning stations: didactic examples for a global teaching method This method, based on Maria Montessori’s educational theories, is an example of “open” lessons based on activities that activate emotions, senses and relationships, besides logic and reason. In the learning process knowledge is

  11. 2002 results: TotalFinaElf makes a ''much better performance'' than the overall international oil groups

    Salles, E.


    T. Desmarest, head of TotalFinaElf oil and gas company, has presented the 2002 results of his company in the particular context of a moving international oil situation (the Iraq crisis and the situation in Venezuela) with important consequences on markets. At the same time, the company decided to change its name into 'Total' and to adopt a new logo. The results show a 17% drop with respect to 2001 but a 10% increase of the production. The high rate of exploration successes has led to the discovery of about 1 billion of bpe with a 0.8 US$ cost per bpe, which represents the best performance of the 5 world oil majors. The rate of reserves renewal reached 151% (11.2 billions of bpe at the end of 2002). The downstream activities (refining/distribution and basic chemistry) encountered much more problems for various reasons: low economic growth, climate warmth, international instability etc.. (J.S.)

  12. Higher Order Analysis of Turbulent Changes Found in the ELF Range Electric Field Plasma Before Major Earthquakes

    Kosciesza, M.; Blecki, J. S.; Parrot, M.


    We report the structure function analysis of changes found in electric field in the ELF range plasma turbulence registered in the ionosphere over epicenter region of major earthquakes with depth less than 40 km that took place during 6.5 years of the scientific mission of the DEMETER satellite. We compare the data for the earthquakes for which we found turbulence with events without any turbulent changes. The structure functions were calculated also for the Polar CUSP region and equatorial spread F region. Basic studies of the turbulent processes were conducted with use of higher order spectra and higher order statistics. The structure function analysis was performed to locate and check if there are intermittent behaviors in the ionospheres plasma over epicenter region of the earthquakes. These registrations are correlated with the plasma parameters measured onboard DEMETER satellite and with geomagnetic indices.

  13. Evaluation of occupational exposure to ELF magnetic fields at power plants in Greece in the context of European directives

    Christopoulou, Maria; Govari, Chrysa; Tsaprouni, Panagiota; Karabetsos, Efthymios


    The scope of this paper is to comparatively present the extremely low-frequency (ELF) measurements performed at four power plants in Greece, focusing on: (a) the worst-case exposure conditions, (b) the existence of magnetic field harmonic components, (c) the technical similarities among the power plants and (d) comparison of the measured percentages of reference levels at typical working areas in the power plants. A detailed measurement methodology is proposed, including broadband on-site inspection of the working areas, weighted averaged root-mean-square and peak values of magnetic flux density, percentage of reference levels, according to 1998 ICNIRP guidelines and harmonic analysis of the multi-frequency magnetic fields. During the analysis of the occupational exposure in all power plants, the new Directive 2013/35/EU has been taken into account. The study concludes by proposing a mapping procedure of working areas into certain zones, in order to take measures for workers safety. (authors)

  14. LinguaKit: uma ferramenta multilingue para a análise linguística e a extração de informação

    Pablo Gamallo


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta LinguaKit, uma suite multilingue de ferramentas de análise, extração, anotação e correção linguísticas. LinguaKit permite realizar tarefas tão diversas como a lematização, a etiquetagem morfossintática ou a análise sintática (entre outras, incluindo também aplicações para a análise de sentimentos (ou minaria de opiniões, a extração de termos multipalavra, ou a anotação concetual e ligação a recursos enciclopédicos tais como a DBpedia. A maior parte dos módulos funcionam para quatro variedades linguísticas: português, espanhol, inglês e galego. A linguagem de programação de LinguaKit é Perl, e o código está disponível sob a licença livre GPLv3.

  15. The typical presentation of an atypical pathogen during an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in Vila Franca de Xira, Portugal, 2014

    A. Dias


    Full Text Available Background: An outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, with 403 cases was identified on the 7th November 2014 in Vila Franca de Xira, Portugal. Outbreak source was the wet cooling system of a local factory. Hospital Pulido Valente was one of the hospitals receiving patients with Legionnaires’ disease (LD. Methods: We describe the clinical findings and diagnostic methods used among the 43 confirmed or probable cases admitted to our department. Results: 60.5% were male, mean age was 56.1 ± 13.5 years and tobacco smoking was the most frequent risk factor (76.7%. All patients had fever, 62.8% ≥39.5 °C, 72.1% had chills and myalgia/arthralgia and 62.8% had dry cough. Extra pulmonary symptoms were frequent: confusion and headache occurred in 34.9% and gastrointestinal symptoms in 20.9%.High C-Reactive Protein (55.8% ≥30 mg/dL and hyponatremia (62.8% were the laboratorial abnormalities most commonly found. Hypoxemia occurred in 55.8% and hypocapnia in 93%. Urinary Antigen Test (UAT was positive in 83.7% of the cases. Conclusions: Although not specific, a combination of risk factors, symptoms and laboratory findings can be highly suggestive of LD, even in an outbreak. This should prompt diagnosis confirmation. Routine use of UAT in less severe cases of community acquired pneumonia might contribute to earlier diagnosis. Keywords: Legionnaires’ disease, Outbreak, Clinical presentation

  16. Dos pés à cabeça: a reestruturação produtiva e a atuação das mulheres nas indústrias no município de Franca/SP

    Moura, Lívia Marinho de [UNESP


    O presente trabalho incide sobre a realidade de algumas mulheres realmente corajosas e empreendedoras que resolveram deixar de lado os medos e as inseguranças introduzidas na sociedade pela realidade atual do mundo do trabalho. O município de Franca, conhecido mundialmente pela produção do calçado masculino, recebeu, de maneira impactante, todos os choques econômicos e sociais demandados das reestruturações produtivas e suas manifestações e conflitos trazidos à realidade da população. Foi rea...

  17. Measurement of electromagnetic waves in ELF and VLF bands to monitor lightning activity in the Maritime Continent

    Yamashita, Kozo; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Ohya, Hiroyo; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Sato, Mitsuteru; Matsumoto, Jun


    Data of lightning discharge has been focused on as an effective way for monitoring and nowcasting of thunderstorm activity which causes extreme weather. Spatial distribution of lightning discharge has been used as a proxy of the presence or absence of deep convection. Latest observation shows that there is extremely huge lightning whose scale is more than hundreds times bigger than that of averaged event. This result indicates that lightning observation should be carried out to estimate not only existence but also scale for quantitative evaluation of atmospheric convection. In this study, lightning observation network in the Maritime Continent is introduced. This network is consisted of the sensors which make possible to measure electromagnetic wave radiated from lightning discharges. Observation frequency is 0.1 - 40 kHz for the measurement of magnetic field and 1 - 40 kHz for that of electric field. Sampling frequency is 100 kHz. Waveform of electromagnetic wave is recorded by personal computer. We have already constructed observation stations at Tainan in Taiwan (23.1N, 121.1E), Saraburi in Thailand (14.5N, 101.0E), and Pontianak in Indonesia (0.0N, 109.4E). Furthermore, we plan to install the monitoring system at Los Banos in Philippines (14.18, 121.25E) and Hanoi in Viet Nam. Data obtained by multipoint observation is synchronized by GPS receiver installed at each station. By using data obtained by this network, location and scale of lightning discharge can be estimated. Location of lightning is determined based on time of arrival method. Accuracy of geolocation could be less than 10km. Furthermore, charge moment is evaluated as a scale of each lightning discharge. It is calculated from electromagnetic waveform in ELF range (3-30 kHz). At the presentation, we will show the initial result about geolocation for source of electromagnetic wave and derivation of charge moment value based on the measurement of ELF and VLF sferics.

  18. Study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission from overhead High-Voltage Transmission Lines

    Parthasarathy, S.R.; Roha Tukimin; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Zulkifli Yusof; Mohd Azizi Mohd Jali


    The paper highlights the study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission performed at an overhead 275-kV High-Voltage Transmission Lines. The study comprised of assessment at the transmission lines on 3 different cases and locations in Klang Valley, specifically on a vacant land near the transmission line, inside and around the house at the vicinity of the transmission line and the area directly under the transmission line. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard. The results were compared with the standards recommended in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results showed that the measured field strengths are within the safety limit with the highest measured exposure was 10.8 % and 1.8 % of the permissible exposure limit for the electric and magnetic field respectively. Both the field strengths were found to drop significantly against distance from the transmission lines where closer distances showed higher field strengths. Furthermore, the study revealed that buildings and other object such as trees and shrubs screen out the electric field, resulting in a lower value at indoor measurements and near the stated objects. In addition, higher value of electric and magnetic field strengths were recorded when assessment was being done directly under the transmission line compared to the lateral measurement. (author)

  19. An entropy regularization method applied to the identification of wave distribution function for an ELF hiss event

    Prot, Olivier; SantolíK, OndřEj; Trotignon, Jean-Gabriel; Deferaudy, Hervé


    An entropy regularization algorithm (ERA) has been developed to compute the wave-energy density from electromagnetic field measurements. It is based on the wave distribution function (WDF) concept. To assess its suitability and efficiency, the algorithm is applied to experimental data that has already been analyzed using other inversion techniques. The FREJA satellite data that is used consists of six spectral matrices corresponding to six time-frequency points of an ELF hiss-event spectrogram. The WDF analysis is performed on these six points and the results are compared with those obtained previously. A statistical stability analysis confirms the stability of the solutions. The WDF computation is fast and without any prespecified parameters. The regularization parameter has been chosen in accordance with the Morozov's discrepancy principle. The Generalized Cross Validation and L-curve criterions are then tentatively used to provide a fully data-driven method. However, these criterions fail to determine a suitable value of the regularization parameter. Although the entropy regularization leads to solutions that agree fairly well with those already published, some differences are observed, and these are discussed in detail. The main advantage of the ERA is to return the WDF that exhibits the largest entropy and to avoid the use of a priori models, which sometimes seem to be more accurate but without any justification.

  20. Amplitude variations of ELF radio waves in the Earth-ionosphere cavity with the day-night non-uniformity

    Galuk, Yu P.; Nickolaenko, A. P.; Hayakawa, M.


    The real structure of lower ionosphere should be taken into account when modeling the sub-ionospheric radio propagation in the extremely low frequency (ELF) band and studying the global electromagnetic (Schumann) resonance of the Earth-ionosphere cavity. In the present work we use the 2D (two dimensional) telegraph equations (2DTE) for evaluating the effect of the ionosphere day-night non-uniformity on the electromagnetic field amplitude at the Schumann resonance and higher frequencies. Properties of the cavity upper boundary were taken into account by the full wave solution technique for realistic vertical profiles of atmosphere conductivity in the ambient day and ambient night conditions. We solved the electromagnetic problem in a cavity with the day-night non-uniformity by using the 2DTE technique. Initially, the testing of the 2DTE solution was performed in the model of the sharp day-night interface. The further computations were carried out in the model of the smooth day-night transition. The major attention was directed to the effects at propagation paths "perpendicular" or "parallel" to the solar terminator line. Data were computed for a series of frequencies, the comparison of the results was made and interpretation was given to the observed effects.

  1. Assessment of every day extremely low frequency (Elf) electromagnetic fields (50-60 Hz) exposure: which metrics?

    Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souqes, M.; Lambrozo, J.


    Because electricity is encountered at every moment of the day, at home with household appliances, or in every type of transportation, people are most of the time exposed to extremely low frequency (E.L.F.) electromagnetic fields (50-60 Hz) in a various way. Due to a lack of knowledge about the biological mechanisms of 50 Hz magnetic fields, studies seeking to identify health effects of exposure use central tendency metrics. The objective of our study is to provide better information about these exposure measurements from three categories of metrics. We calculated metrics of exposure measurements from data series (79 very day exposed subjects), made up approximately 20,000 recordings of magnetic fields, measured every 30 seconds for 7 days with an E.M.D.E.X. II dosimeter. These indicators were divided into three categories : central tendency metrics, dispersion metrics and variability metrics.We use Principal Component Analysis, a multidimensional technique to examine the relations between different exposure metrics for a group of subjects. Principal component Analysis (P.C.A.) enabled us to identify from the foreground 71.7% of the variance. The first component (42.7%) was characterized by central tendency; the second (29.0%) was composed of dispersion characteristics. The third component (17.2%) was composed of variability characteristics. This study confirm the need to improve exposure measurements by using at least two dimensions intensity and dispersion. (authors)

  2. Sickness absence from 1978 to 1992 of Electricite de France (EDF) workers exposed to ELF-EMF: the substation group

    Souques, M.; Dab, W.; Lambrozo, J.; Chevalier, A.; Coing, F.


    Electromagnetic fields are suspected of many health effects, including cancers, immunity and fertility disorders, congenital malformations, suicides and depression.... Although the results of all studies are contradictory and no biological mechanism has been found, populations are concerned about this matter. This study analyzes the absence from work of some EDF employees who are a priori the most professionally exposed to ELF EMF. Absence from work is taken as an health indicator. Although it is not specific, it can be predictive of serious health problems. The specific context of EDF has made it possible to collect and analyze the medical aspect of absence from work, that is rare in France. We were interested with employees working with high voltage (over 90 kV). Three job categories have been selected: live line workers, substation maintenance workers and substation exploitation workers (called in the company the ATEX). The first group concerned the live linemen and the results were exposed previously. It appeared they had more accidents at work, but this was more related to the job of lineman rather than to the EMF exposure. Nevertheless, substation workers have an exposure less intensive but longer than live linemen. We present here the result about the absenteeism of the substation workers, maintenance and exploitation. (author)

  3. Adoção de Alianças Estratégicas por Empresas dos Pólos Calçadistas do Vale do Rio dos Sinos-RS e de Franca-SP: um estudo exploratórioAdoption of Strategic Alliances by Shoes Industries of the Vale do Rio dos Sinos-RS and Franca-SP clusters: an exploratory studyAdopción de Alianzas Estratégicas por Empresas de los Polos Calzadistas del Vale do Rio dos Sinos-RS y de Franca-SP: un estudio exploratorio

    ALMEIDA, Lauro Brito de


    Full Text Available RESUMOA nova configuração ambiental das empresas, fruto da relativa abertura de mercado provocada pela globalização, tem se constituído em mais um desafio para assegurar a continuidade dos negócios. Estratégias competitivas têm sido implementadas visando superar tal desafio e, dentre elas, as alianças estratégicas têm se revelado uma alternativa viável. Nesse contexto, este artigo tem como objetivo investigar o grau de utilização de alianças estratégicas por médias e grandes empresas que compõem os pólos calçadistas do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (RS e de Franca (SP. A pesquisa, classificada como exploratória e descritiva, teve a participação de 54 empresas, sendo 33 do Vale do Rio dos Sinos e 21 de Franca, as quais responderam a um questionário elaborado com perguntas em sua maioria fechadas. A análise dos dados deu-se através da estatística descritiva, aplicando-se freqüência percentual relativa, identificando-se a representativa das respostas obtidas em relação ao conjunto. Principais conclusões: a maioria das empresas tem atividades conjuntas; as empresas estão mais próximas das alianças transacionais do que das estratégicas; as alianças com concorrentes são inexpressivas – predominam fornecedores e clientes; o controle do resultado das alianças é insuficiente; confiança e parceiro adequado são fatores determinantes.ABSTRACTThe new environment of the companies, result of the relative opening of the market caused by the globalization has set a new challenge to assure the continuity of the businesses. Competitive strategies have been implemented aiming to overcome such challenge and, amongst them, strategic alliances have shown to be a viable alternative. In this context, this article has as objective to investigate the degree of use of strategic alliances by the medium and large companies of the shoes industries located in clusters of Vale do Rio dos Sinos (RS and Franca (SP. This exploratory and

  4. A modernização ecológica conquistando hegemonia nos discursos ambientais: o caso da Zona Franca de Manaus

    Thaís Brianezi


    Full Text Available A Zona Franca de Manaus (ZFM foi criada em 1967 pelo governo da ditadura militar brasileira, de acordo com um discurso nacionalista que apresentava a região amazônica como um território estratégico que era preciso ocupar e desenvolver. Apesar de a visão do grande vazio não ter sido apagada do imaginário popular, desde os anos de 1970 tem ganhado força a percepção da floresta como herança cultural e biológica a ser preservada. Estas mudanças nos discursos mais gerais sobre a Amazônia foram acompanhadas por um deslocamento do discurso de legitimação dos incentivos fiscais gozados pelas indústrias de Manaus, em um movimento relacionado ao processo de construção de hegemonia no campo ambiental, marcado pela emergência da chamada modernização ecológica. Utilizando a análise crítica do discurso, este artigo mostra como se constituiu o argumento de que as empresas em Manaus protegem a floresta, assentado em um roteiro de dupla ameaça: de desemprego e de desmatamento. As informações e dados foram levantados por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica, entrevistas semiestruturadas e observações diretas em reuniões e eventos corporativos. Fizeram parte do corpus, ainda, as transcrições oficiais de 64 pronunciamentos em plenário dos três senadores e oito deputados federais do Amazonas em 2007; 125 matérias publicadas no caderno de Economia do jornal A Crítica entre 1º de janeiro e 30 de junho, e quatro edições da revista institucional Suframa Hoje, no mesmo ano.La Zona Franca de Manaus (ZFM fue creada en 1967 por el gobierno de la dictadura militar brasileña, a partir de un discurso nacionalista que presentaba la región amazónica como un territorio estratégico que tenia que ser ocupado y desarrollado. A pesar de la imagen de un gran vacío no desaparecer del imaginario popular; desde los finales de los años 70 ha ganado fuerza la percepción de la floresta como herencia cultural e biológica que debe ser preservada

  5. Perfil das crianças atendidas no setor fonoaudiológico do ambulatório de crianças de alto risco da Prefeitura Municipal de Franca/SP Profile of children attended in the speech therapy department of the high risk children clinic in Franca/SP

    Laudicéia Katiuce Pinto


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o perfil das crianças atendidas no setor fonoaudiológico do ambulatório de crianças de alto risco da Prefeitura Municipal de Franca- SP. MÉTODO: trata-se de um estudo descritivo do tipo transversal e contemporâneo, realizado por meio da consulta de 62 prontuários de recém-nascidos atendidos no ano de 2010. RESULTADOS: os resultados revelaram que a maioria da amostra era composta por neonatos do gênero masculino; prematuros, com média de 32 semanas de idade gestacional; baixo peso ao nascer e crescimento intra-uterino adequado; peso médio de 1.774 gramas; fazendo uso de sondas para a alimentação, sendo a sonda parenteral a mais utilizada; ingestão de leite materno associado à fórmula; presença dos reflexos de busca, sucção, mordida e gap. O tempo médio que os bebês levaram para passar para a via oral exclusiva foi de três semanas. A frequência média de atendimentos fonoaudiológicos recebidos ficou em sete estimulações. Verificou-se que os aspectos que interferem na transição da via de alimentação do recém-nascido para via oral exclusiva são: prematuridade e a classificação do peso. CONCLUSÃO: os dados obtidos nessa pesquisa apontam a importância da intervenção fonoaudiológica com relação à estimulação precoce da sucção em recém-nascido pré-termo, estando relacionada com o desenvolvimento global do bebê. A estimulação precoce realizada pelos fonoaudiólogos nos recém-nascidos pré-termos é fundamental para uma alimentação adequada e nutritiva.PURPOSE: to define the profile of children attended in the speech therapy department of the high risk children clinic in Franca/SP. METHOD: it is a cross-sectional descriptive study and contemporary, performed by consulting the records of 62 infants treated during 2010. RESULTS: the results showed that the majority of the sample consisted of male newborns, premature infants, with an average of 32 weeks gestational age, low birth

  6. Perfil das crianças atendidas no setor fonoaudiológico do ambulatório de crianças de alto risco da prefeitura municipal de Franca/SP Profile of children attended in the speech therapy department of the high risk children clinic in Franca/SP

    Laudicéia Katiuce Pinto


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o perfil das crianças atendidas no setor fonoaudiológico do ambulatório de crianças de alto risco da Prefeitura Municipal de Franca- SP. MÉTODO: trata-se de um estudo descritivo do tipo transversal e contemporâneo, realizado por meio da consulta de 62 prontuários de recém-nascidos atendidos no ano de 2010. RESULTADOS: os resultados revelaram que a maioria da amostra era composta por neonatos do gênero masculino; prematuros, com média de 32 semanas de idade gestacional; baixo peso ao nascer e crescimento intra-uterino adequado; peso médio de 1.774 gramas; fazendo uso de sondas para a alimentação, sendo a sonda parenteral a mais utilizada; ingestão de leite materno associado à fórmula; presença dos reflexos de busca, sucção, mordida e gap. O tempo médio que os bebês levaram para passar para a via oral exclusiva foi de três semanas. A frequência média de atendimentos fonoaudiológicos recebidos ficou em sete estimulações. Verificou-se que os aspectos que interferem na transição da via de alimentação do recém-nascido para via oral exclusiva são: prematuridade e a classificação do peso. CONCLUSÃO: os dados obtidos nessa pesquisa apontam a importância da intervenção fonoaudiológica com relação à estimulação precoce da sucção em recém-nascido pré-termo, estando relacionada com o desenvolvimento global do bebê. A estimulação precoce realizada pelos fonoaudiólogos nos recém-nascidos pré-termos é fundamental para uma alimentação adequada e nutritiva.PURPOSE: to define the profile of children attended in the speech therapy department of the high risk children clinic in Franca/SP. METHOD: it is a cross-sectional descriptive study and contemporary, performed by consulting the records of 62 infants treated during 2010. RESULTS: the results showed that the majority of the sample consisted of male newborns, premature infants, with an average of 32 weeks gestational age, low birth

  7. Integração de processos na cadeia de suprimentos e desempenho do serviço ao cliente: um estudo na indústria calçadista de Franca Processes integration in supply chain and customer service performances: a study of a footwear industry in Franca, SP

    Wilson de Castro Hilsdorf


    Full Text Available O processo de globalização e a revolução digital têm trazido novos desafios de competitividade às empresas. Uma dessas novas necessidades é a mudança do foco do escopo gerencial para toda a cadeia de suprimentos. Gerenciar uma cadeia de suprimentos requer, entre outros aspectos, a integração dos "processos-chave" de negócios ao longo dessa cadeia. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar como é a relação entre a integração de processos ao longo da cadeia de suprimentos e o desempenho no serviço prestado ao cliente (customer service. Para tanto, a abordagem exploratória foi utilizada, tendo como objeto de estudo uma cadeia de suprimentos calçadista localizada na cidade de Franca, a qual se constitui em um bom exemplo de cadeia consolidada e já inserida no mercado internacional. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que o desempenho do serviço ao cliente na cadeia estudada está relacionado diretamente com a integração dos processos de atendimento de pedidos, gestão da demanda e desenvolvimento de produtos ao longo da cadeia, envolvendo não apenas a integração com clientes, mas também com os fornecedores-chave. Pode-se constatar ainda que esse desempenho está relacionado também com a existência de competências internas nos processos considerados, nas empresas estudadas.The globalization process and the digital revolution have brought new challenges for the companies' competitiveness. One of these new requirements is the change of the managerial scope of the entire supply chain. The management of a supply chain requires, among other aspects, integrating key-business processes along the chain. In this sense, this work has the main purpose of identifying the relationship between processes integration along the supply chain and its customer service performance. In order to achieve this aim, an exploratory research was conducted, focusing on a footwear supply chain located in the city of Franca

  8. Quando "falha a fala" e "fala a bala": lingua(gem e violência em Cidade de Deus, de Paulo Lins

    Rita Gabrielli Pereira


    Full Text Available Cidade de Deus traz em si a história da construção do conjunto habitacional, cujo nome intitula o romance, e de sua transformação em uma das favelas mais violentas do Rio de Janeiro, por meio do entrecruzamento das histórias de Cabeleira, Bené, Zé Pequeno e Busca-Pé. Concebendo o romance, nos atos da escrita e da leitura, como uma enunciação (BENVENISTE, 1989a; 1989b; 1995a; 1995b entre autor e leitor, constituída por outras enunciações — entre narrador e narratário e entre personagens — a partir do "ato ficcional" (ISER, 2002 do autor, vamos nos guiar por essa tessitura de/entre histórias para rastrear o modo como Lins relaciona linguagem e violência. Palavras-chave: Lingua(gem, Subjetividade, Violência ______________________________ Cidade de Deus tells the history of the construction of the housing complex that entitles the novel and its transformation process into one of the most violent slums of Rio de Janeiro. By treating the novel as an enunciation (BENVENISTE, 1989a; 1989b; 1995a; 1995b between author and reader, which is made of other enunciations − between narrator and narratee and between characters −, based on the author´s “fictional act”(ISER, 2002, we intend to analyze the way how Lins relates language and violence. Keywords: Language, Subjectivity, Violence.

  9. ETS transcription factor ELF5 induces lumen formation in a 3D model of mammary morphogenesis and its expression is inhibited by Jak2 inhibitor TG101348.

    Chean, Jennifer; Chen, Charng-Jui; Shively, John E


    The loss of expression of a single gene can revert normal tissue to a malignant phenotype. For example, while normal breast has high lumenal expression of CEACAM1, the majority of breast cancers exhibit the early loss of this gene with the concurrent loss of their lumenal phenotype. MCF7 cells that lack CEACAM1 expression and fail to form lumena in 3D culture, regain the normal phenotype when transfected with CEACAM1. In order to probe the mechanism of this gain of function, we treated these cells with the clinically relevant Jak2 inhibitor TG101348 (TG), expecting that disruption of the prolactin receptor signaling pathway would interfere with the positive effects of transfection of MCF7 cells with CEACAM1. Indeed, lumen formation was inhibited, resulting in the down regulation of a set of genes, likely involved in the complex process of lumen formation. As expected, inhibition of the expression of many of these genes also inhibited lumen formation, confirming their involvement in a single pathway. Among the genes identified by the inhibition assay, ETS transcription factor ELF5 stood out, since it has been identified as a master regulator of mammary morphogenesis, and is associated with prolactin receptor signaling. When ELF5 was transfected into the parental MCF7 cells that lack CEACAM1, lumen formation was restored, indicating that ELF5 can replace CEACAM1 in this model system of lumenogenesis. We conclude that the event(s) that led to the loss of expression of CEACAM1 is epistatic in that multiple genes associated with a critical pathway were affected, but that restoration of the normal phenotype can be achieved with reactivation of certain genes at various nodal points in tissue morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Zona Franca de Manaus : um estudo sobre a renúncia tributária dos entes federativos e os benefícios socioeconômicos gerados pelo modelo

    Jofre Luís da Costa Oliveira


    O presente trabalho avalia a renúncia tributária dos entes federativos e os benefícios socioeconômicos gerados pelo modelo da Zona Franca de Manaus (ZFM). Nosso objetivo foi mensurar os custos sociais do modelo por intermédio da desoneração tributária ou gastos tributários dos Entes e confrontá-los com os benefícios locais que foram medidos pelos diversos indicadores socioeconômicos. A plataforma teórica tem como sustentáculo a teoria dos pólos de Desenvolvimento e a Teoria da Base Exportador...

  11. Anônimas da história: relações de trabalho e atuação política de sapateiras entre as décadas de 1950 e 1980 (Franca-SP)

    Rezende, Vinícius Donizete de [UNESP


    A cidade de Franca tem na indústria calçadista sua principal atividade econômica, sendo um dos maiores centros produtores de calçados do país. A partir da década de 1950 ocorreu a intensificação do processo de industrialização do setor, com a implantação de modernas técnicas de produção, voltadas para o aumento da produtividade. Essas transformações acarretaram um significativo crescimento populacional, destacando-se a migração de mineiros, em grande parte ex-trabalhadores rurais. O parque in...

  12. ULF-ELF Electromagnetic Emissions Over the Fault in Kangra Valley of India and their Relation With Radon Emanation (Intercosmos 24 Satellite Data)

    Mikhailov, Yu.M.; Mikhailova, G.A.; Kapustina, O.V.


    Experimental investigations of space and spectral characteristics of the electric component of the electromagnetic waves in the outer ionosphere in the ULF (f < 30 Hz) and ELF (f < 1 kHz) ranges were carried out over north fault of the India - Australian plate. Records of the 10 narrow band filters in the frequency range from 8 to 970 Hz with NVK-receiver mounting on Intercosmos 24 satellite were used. In the day-time at sensitivity level near 2 μV/m emissions couldn't observe. In the night-time emissions, localized exactly in space above the fault, was observed in mentioned full frequency range. In spectral distribution of emission maximum in frequency range from 150 to 623 Hz allocated. In those days, when anomalous bursts of radon concentration in underground waters in Kangra Valley was observed the simultaneous amplification of electric component of field at frequency 8 Hz more on the factor more than ten and in frequency range from 150 to 623 Hz, where usually was maximum, on the factor two or three also was observed. This fact ensures statement, that the noises are generated by the lightning discharges, but amplification of their intensity on satellite heights was related with decreasing of ELF waves attenuation in the time of their penetration through lower ionosphere, modified by electric field in preparing phase of the earthquakes. (author)

  13. Design and fabrication of a microplatform for the proximity effect study of localized ELF-EMF on the growth of in vitro HeLa and PC-12 cells

    Chen, Y C; Chen, C C; Cheng, Y T; Tu, W; Tseng, F G


    This paper presents a platform technology with experimental results that show the scientists and biologists a way to rapidly investigate and analyze the biological effects of localized extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field (EMF) on living cells. The proximity effect of the localized ELF-EMF on living cells is revealed using the bio-compatible microplatform on which an on-glass inductive coil array, the source of the localized ELF-EMF in micro scale, is designed, fabricated and operated with a field strength of 1.2 ± 0.1 mT at 60 Hz for cell culturing study. After a 72 h ELF-EMF exposure, HeLa (human cervical cancer) and PC-12 (rat pheochromocytoma) cells exhibit about 18.4% and 12.9% cell proliferation rate reduction, respectively. Furthermore, according to the presented dynamic model, the reduction of the proliferation can be attributed to the interference of signal transduction processes due to the tangential currents induced around the cells


    Refa Lina Tiawati, M.Pd


    Full Text Available In the effort to introducing and consolidating Indonesian language to the world and ASEAN level, there are a few of options but teaching and mastering Bahasa Indonesia (BI. Through the teaching of Bahasa indonesia for foreign speaker (BIPA, it can be a media of language and culture diplomacy and brings indonesian language as lingua franca in ASEAN community, as happen in Thailand. Therefore, some efforts need to be done in order to realize that through the teaching of BIPA. to increase the interest in learning BI in abroad, to improve the image of the Indonesia as a nation and make BI as Lingua franca, which 1.System BIPA teaching abroad, 2 the material of BIPA, the BIPA learning is not always teach people about the language but also includes material about the culture and Indonesian literature. 3 the purposes of teaching BIPA, to prepare Indonesian language tobe lingua franca in the Asean community.

  15. Localized Elf Propagation Anomalies.


    the above three SPEs. Those important auxiliary data are used as inputs to air- chemistry codes to calculate the electron and ion density height...horizontal magnetic intensity H is H A ( ATAR ) 1 / 2 (9 d)- 1/2 exp(-’afL- d) e- d/ 8 " 7 coso A/m, (1) where A depends on the antenna moment, frequency...those rates are input to air- chemistry equations to obtain height profiles of electron and ion densities. Calculation of ion-pair production rates

  16. The physics of ELFE

    Pire, B.


    This paper presents an overview of the physics program of the 15-30 GeV continuous beam electron facility proposed by the European community of nuclear physicists to study the quark and gluon structure of hadrons. The goal of this new facility is to explore the quark structure of matter by exclusive and semi-inclusive electron scattering from nuclear targets. (author)

  17. Na costura do sapato, o desmanche das operárias: estudo das condições de trabalho e saúde das pespontadeiras da indústria de calçados de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Taísa Junqueira Prazeres


    Full Text Available Este artigo é fundamentado em pesquisa que teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre as condições de trabalho na indústria de calçados de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil, e os problemas de saúde relatados pelas trabalhadoras especializadas na atividade de pesponto (costura mecânica. A pesquisa de caráter qualitativo foi embasada teórica e metodologicamente no materialismo histórico-dialético e combinou técnicas de pesquisas sociológicas e etnográficas. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevistas gravadas, focadas na história de vida e trabalho, na observação sistematizada do processo de trabalho, na consulta a documentos históricos e na produção imagética. A análise dos dados permitiu compreender os efeitos do trabalho na saúde das trabalhadoras empregadas nas fábricas e no domicílio, que vivenciam processos laborais precários que se objetivam na intensificação e ampliação da jornada de trabalho, na cobrança por metas de produção, na insegurança do emprego e nos ambientes de trabalho insalubres.This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces.

  18. Anomalous ELF phenomena in the Schumann resonance band as observed at Moshiri (Japan in possible association with an earthquake in Taiwan

    M. Hayakawa


    Full Text Available The ELF observation at Moshiri (geographic coordinates: 44.29° N, 142.21° E in Hokkaido, Japan, was used to find anomalous phenomena in the Schumann resonance band, possibly associated with a large earthquake (magnitude of 7.8 in Taiwan on 26 December 2006. The Schumann resonance signal (fundamental (n=1, 8 Hz; 2nd harmonic, 14 Hz, 3rd harmonic, 20 Hz, 4th, 26 Hz etc. is known to be supported by electromagnetic radiation from the global thunderstorms, and the anomaly in this paper is characterized by an increase in intensity at frequencies from the third to fourth Schumann resonance modes mainly in the BEW component with a minor corresponding increase in the BNS component also. Spectral modification takes place only in the interval of 21:00 UT±1 h, which corresponds to the global lightning activity concentrated in America. While distortions were absent in other lightning-active UT intervals, in particular, around 08:00 UT±1 h (Asian thunderstorms and around 15±1 h (African lightning activity. The anomaly occurred on 23 December three days prior to the main shock. The results observed were explained in terms of ELF radio wave perturbation caused by the lower ionospheric depression around the earthquake epicenter. The difference in the path lengths between the direct radio wave from an active global thunderstorm center and the wave scattered from the non-uniformity above Taiwan causes interference at higher resonance modes, which is successful in explaining the observational data.

  19. Theoretical analysis of the binding of iron(III) protoporphyrin IX to 4-methoxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone via DFT-D3, MEP, QTAIM, NCI, ELF, and LOL studies.

    Nkungli, Nyiang Kennet; Ghogomu, Julius Numbonui


    Thiosemicarbazones display diverse pharmacological properties, including antimalarial activities. Their pharmacological activities have been studied in depth, but little of this research has focused on their antimalarial mode of action. To elucidate this antimalarial mechanism, we investigated the nature of the interactions between iron(III) protoporphyrin IX (Fe(III)PPIX) and the thione-thiol tautomers of 4-methoxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (MAPTSC). Dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D3), the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), the noncovalent interaction (NCI) index, the electron localization function (ELF), the localized orbital locator (LOL), and thermodynamic calculations were employed in this work. Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC binding is expected to inhibit hemozoin formation, thereby preventing Fe(III)PPIX detoxification in plasmodia. Preliminary studies geared toward the identification of atomic binding sites in the thione-thiol tautomers of MAPTSC were carried out using molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps and conceptual DFT-based local reactivity indices. The thionic sulfur and the 2 N-azomethine nitrogen/thiol sulfur of, respectively, the thione and thiol tautomers of MAPTSC were identified as the most favorable nucleophilic sites for electrophilic attack. The negative values of the computed Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC binding energies, enthalpies, and Gibbs free energies are indicative of the existence and stability of Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC complexes. MAPTSC-Fe(III) coordinate bonds and strong hydrogen bonds (N-H···O) between the NH 2 group in MAPTSC and the C=O group in one propionate side chain of Fe(III)PPIX are crucial to Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC binding. QTAIM, NCI, ELF, and LOL analyses revealed a subtle interplay of weak noncovalent interactions dominated by dispersive-like van der Waals interactions between Fe(III)PPIX and MAPTSC that stabilize the Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC complexes.

  20. Unha lingua de signos galega?

    Cristina González Abelaira


    Full Text Available The passage in 2007 of Law 27/2007 of October 23, which recognizes Spanish sign language and regulates the means of communication support for deaf, hearing-impaired or deaf and blind people, marked the beginning of official recognition for Spanish sign lan- guage (LSE and Catalan sign language (LSC, and the right to learn and use them alongside other oral media. Following a historical process of campaigning by the deaf community, the new legislation acknowledges two sign languages in Spain. LSC has also received offi- cial recognition within Catalonia in the Catalan Statute of Autonomy since 2006. In 2010, Law 17/2010 of June 3 was passed; this is also concerned with Catalan sign language. However, a Galician sign language (LSG has received no recognition at either regional or state level. Spain’s recognition of only two distinct sign languages seems to be based not on internal linguistic argu- ments but rather political and social ones. A historical and emic analysis of the language planning process in Galicia through ethnographic methods reveals how linguistic diversity was managed in the community, showing that following Spanish oralization of the deaf community, linguistic uniformity was sought, resulting in a lack of recognition for different variants, including a Galician one.

  1. Balzac e la lingua italiana

    Raffaele De Cesare


    Full Text Available Several years ago, René Guise and I embarked on the enterprise of showing Balzac’s knowledge of the Italian language, that is to say, both the quantity and the quality of his quotations in this language. Now, returning to the subject on my own, my aim is not to produce a complete catalogue of the Italian references occurring in Balzac but rather to reassemble a mosaic that, while lacking some tesserae, provides the reader with a clear idea of the features and dimensions of this literary aspect in one of the greatest eighteenth-century French authors.

  2. Un capítulo de la historia de las ideas sintácticas en Portugal: en torno a la teoría sintáctica del Ars grammaticae pro lingua lusitana addiscenda (Lyon, 1672 de Bento Pereira (S. I A Chapter in the History of Syntactic Ideas in Portugal: On the Syntactic Theory of Ars grammaticae pro lingua lusitana addiscenda (Lyon 1672 by Bento Pereira (S.I

    Rogelio Ponce de León Romeo


    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizan los presupuestos sintácticos del Ars grammaticae pro lingua lusitana addiscenda (Lyon, 1672 del jesuita portugués Bento Pereira. En primer lugar se reflexiona sobre el papel de la sintaxis en las artes gramaticales impresas durante los siglos XVI y XVII, no sólo portuguesas o castellanas, sino también latinas; a continuación, se pasa a estudiar las características principales de la gramática de Bento Pereira, encuadrándola adecuadamente en el contexto gramaticográfico de su tiempo. Por lo que se refiere a la sintaxis propiamente dicha, se estudia el enfoque del jesuita portugués sobre las relaciones entre los constituyentes, así como la descripción que propone de las cláusulas subordinadas. Finalmente, se analizan someramente las fuentes de las que se sirve Bento Pereira.This paper discusses the syntactic premises of Ars grammaticae pro lingua lusitana addiscenda (Lyon 1672 by Portuguese Jesuit Bento Pereira. First, the role of syntax during the 16th and 17th C. not only in Portuguese and Spanish, but also in Latin printed grammatical arts is discussed. Then, the main characteristics of Bento Pereira´s grammar are accurately presented within the grammatographic context of his time. As regards syntax proper, the Portuguese Jesuist´s approach concerning the relationships between constituents, as well as the description he proposes for subordinate clauses are discussed. Finally, a brief review of Bento Pereira´s sources is presented.

  3. Intercultural awareness and intercultural communication through English: an investigation of Thai English language users in higher education

    Baker, William


    Over the previous few decades there has been an increased emphasis on the cultural aspects of English language teaching. However, in settings where English is used as a global lingua franca the cultural associations of the language are complex and the role culture plays in successful communication has yet to be extensively investigated. To conduct such a study it is necessary to explicate the role and nature of English in global contexts and particularly how English functions as a lingua f...

  4. The preparation of particle beams for experiments of hadron physics: Slow extraction at ELFE rate at DESY and ELSA, as well as beam cooling at HERA

    Gentner, M.


    Various complementary experimental approaches are possible to study hadron physics, all of which require dedicated accelerator facilities. One approach, known as the ELFE rate at DESY project, makes use of a continuous electron beam with an energy of 15 to 25 GeV, a current of at least 30 μA and very small emittance, for fixed target experiments. The formation of such a beam by stretching a pulsed LINAC beam with the help of the HERA electron ring has been studied. At lower beam energies and currents this concept is already being used at the ELSA facility of Bonn University. Here the extraction process has been studied intensively and has been compared with measurements. Another approach to study hadron physics is the use of an electron - ion collider. To achieve high integrated luminosities cooling of the ion beam is necessary, especially in the case of heavy ions. For HERA high energy beam cooling with the help of an electron storage ring has been studied. (orig.)

  5. Making the Invisible Visible. On Participation and Communication in a Global, Web-Based Master's Programme

    Dahlgren, Madeleine Abrandt; Larsson, Staffan; Walters, Shirley


    This study focuses on the discourse of an intercontinental on-line Master's programme in adult learning, using English as the lingua franca of the programme and involving four collaborating universities in Sweden, South Africa, Canada and Australia. The programme is highly interactive, emphasising communication between students. Taking the…

  6. Das Konzept der "Verkehrssprache" und die frühen geographischen Berichte über Nordeuropa / Dieter Cherubim

    Cherubim, Dieter


    Keelest kui keeleteaduse objektist, keelekasutusest ja keelenormist. Esitatakse segakeele ehk lingua franca (Verkehrssprache) kontseptsioon. Samuti tutvustatakse 18. sajandil juurdunud ekspeditsioonide korraldamise tava võõraste keelte uurimiseks ja tundmaõppimiseks ning täpsemalt räägitakse varastest keeleuurimisreisidest Põhja-Euroopasse

  7. Blueprint of a Cross-Lingual Web Retrieval Collection

    Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.; van Zwol, R.


    The world wide web is a natural setting for cross-lingual information retrieval; web content is essentially multilingual, and web searchers are often polyglots. Even though English has emerged as the lingua franca of the web, planning for a business trip or holiday usually involves digesting pages

  8. The implications of rural-urban migration to the development of the ...

    ... but the language of the national majority; (2) Because of the economic significance of Amharic as the lingua franca and the privileged status that it has continued to hold, it has a competitive advantage over other languages. I argue thus that more “enabling conditions” need to be there to ensure genuine language equality.

  9. Swedish or English? Migrants' Experiences of the Exchangeability of Language Resources

    Henry, Alastair


    Patterns of transmigration emerging as a consequence of globalization are creating new and complex markets for communicative resources in which languages and language varieties are differently valued. In a Swedish context, where lingua franca English can facilitate communication but where monolingual norms prevail and Swedish is positioned as the…

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Lexical Bundles Used by Native and Non-Native Scholars

    Güngör, Fatih; Uysal, Hacer Hande


    In the recent years, globalization prepared a ground for English to be the lingua franca of the academia. Thus, most highly prestigious international journals have defined their medium of publications as English. However, even advanced language learners have difficulties in writing their research articles due to the lack of appropriate lexical…

  11. Theologia and the ideologia of language, nation and gender ...

    The following issues are critically discussed: homophobia regarding sexual minorities, a lack of sensitivity for the negative effects of male domination and the objection to English as the lingua franca for teaching. These aspects are assessed against the background of the Derridean notion of 'deconstruction' and the ...

  12. Cross-Cultural Teaching: Experiences of American Teachers in Thai Higher Education

    Mann, Varaporn Jamklai


    Globalization and the expansion of Western influences have made English the lingua franca of international connections. For this reason, the demand for native English speaking teachers, especially those from the U.S, has been escalating worldwide, especially, in Thailand, one of the major hubs of international travel and education in Southeast…

  13. Whose Culture and How Far? Culture Presentation in Current Business English Textbook Series

    Pashmforoosh, Roya; Babaii, Esmat


    International business communication is associated with cultural norms of both native and non-native business counterparts. It seems that the study of culture presentation from the perspective of English as a lingua franca in business English textbooks has been rather underexplored. To this end, cultural contents in two internationally distributed…

  14. Pour une politique de l'esperanto (Toward a Politics of Esperanto).

    Chiti-Batelli, Andrea

    Two dangers to linguistic and cultural pluralism are examined: (1) that the growing power of the major national languages threatens the very existence of less commonly spoken languages, and (2) that the spread of English as a universal lingua franca threatens even the major national languages. Much attention is given to the first issue, but less…

  15. Development of a Language for International Law: The Experience of Esperanto.

    Harry, Ralph L.


    Recounts the history of interest in developing Esperanto as a lingua franca for international law and diplomacy, beginning with Zamenhof's development of Esperanto and proceeding through the development of a lexicon for the language and through its application to legal issues. Prospects for the future of Esperanto are discussed. (DJD)

  16. Nonlinear Regression with R

    Ritz, Christian; Parmigiani, Giovanni


    R is a rapidly evolving lingua franca of graphical display and statistical analysis of experiments from the applied sciences. This book provides a coherent treatment of nonlinear regression with R by means of examples from a diversity of applied sciences such as biology, chemistry, engineering, medicine and toxicology.

  17. Perceived self-efficacy in English use on social media of tertiary ...

    English language is gradually becoming the world's lingua franca, and the social media has broken all barriers to human connections and divides. The world has indeed become an e-village with social media as the platform and English language as the medium. This study examined the use of perceived self-efficacy in the ...

  18. Factors Affecting the Quality of English Language Teaching in Preparatory Year, University of Jeddah

    Dakhiel, Maysoon A.


    Several Universities in Saudi Arabia have recently made it their priority to pursue excellence in effective EFL teaching-learning starting from the Preparatory Year Program (PYP). That is due to the rapid expansion of English as a lingua franca in tertiary education especially in science and technology, scientific and educational publication,…

  19. Navigating between a Monolingual Utopia and Translingual Realities: Experiences of American Learners of Yorùbá as an Additional Language

    Mori, Junko; Sanuth, Kazeem Ké?hìndé


    Translingualism advocates for the appreciation of multilingual speakers' fluid, flexible, and creative deployment of semiotic resources without regard to the ideological constructs of named languages. While this scholarship has been developed primarily in the contexts of world Englishes, English as a lingua franca, and bilingual education in…

  20. "English?--Oh, It's Just Work!": A Study of BELF Users' Perceptions

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena


    With the increasing number of business professionals operating globally, knowledge of successful English lingua franca in business contexts (BELF) has become an important element in overall business know-how. Here, we report on a research project focusing on everyday BELF communication at work. It consists of an extensive survey, and related…

  1. Not That Button but the Other: Misunderstanding and Non-understanding in Helpdesk Encounters Involving Nonnative English Speakers

    Beldad, Ardion Daroca; Steehouder, M.F.


    Purpose: The internationalization of “technical help over the phone“ is tied to the increasing usage of a lingua franca facilitating the interaction between a call center agent and a caller who are both linguistically different. Researchers have noted that interactions between two parties who are

  2. Pijin at School in Solomon Islands: Language Ideologies and the Nation

    Jourdan, Christine


    In this article, I analyze the reasons that have excluded Pijin, the lingua franca of Solomon Islands, South West Pacific, from being used as a medium of instruction, and why this may now become possible. Following a short sociolinguistic sketch, I present the colonial and post-colonial linguistic ideologies that shaped sociolinguistic…

  3. Face and identity management in negotiation

    Planken, Brigitte Chantal


    This dissertation reports on a comparative study of the verbal behaviour of experienced negotiators (professionals) and inexperienced negotiators (students), negotiating in a lingua franca (English). The study centred around two corpora of speech data generated in a series of intercultural sales

  4. An Exploration of Iranian EFL Teachers' Perceptions on the Globalization and Hegemony of English

    Safari, Parvin; Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah


    Globalization as an increasingly influencing force has led English language to become the lingua franca of the world. However, the global spread of English is considered as linguistic and cultural imperialism of English speaking countries to exert their dominance, power, culture, ideology and language over the periphery countries. The devastating…

  5. Neo-Liberalism, Globalization, Language Policy and Practice Issues in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Majhanovich, Suzanne


    By the beginning of the twenty-first century, the English language had become the de facto "lingua franca" of the modern world. It is the most popular second or foreign language studied, such that now there are more people who have learned English as a second language and speak it with some competence than there are native English…

  6. African languages and the identity question in the 21st century ...

    One of the features of this development is the de-ethicising of citizenship around the notion of an inclusive South-Africanship. An increased use of English as lingua franca in public domains raises questions about the position of African languages in the 21st century, given the likelihood that the developing scenario is not in ...

  7. „Kinyarwanda doesn‟t have a place in communication at our ...


    include, but not limited to, increasing the time for the English subject on school and ... learners‟ and most teachers‟ mother tongue, Kinyarwanda, in Rwandan schools. ... the extent of becoming a global lingua franca (Bhatt 2001; Altbach 2004). In ..... medium of instruction in a foreign language context is not an effective.

  8. Local Convergence and Global Diversity : The Robustness of Cultural Homophily

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.


    Introduction Cultural diversity is both persistent and precarious. People in different regions of the world are increasingly exposed to global influences from mass media, internet communication, interregional migration and mass tourism. English is rapidly becoming Earth’s Lingua Franca, and Western

  9. The International Status of English for Intercultural Understanding in Taiwan's High School EFL Textbooks

    Su, Ya-Chen


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate linguistic and cultural issues around the status of English as a lingua franca and intercultural understanding as presented in one set of Taiwan's (English as a Foreign Language (EFL) high school textbooks. The methodology centres on the analysis of textbook content as categorized in three central themes:…

  10. International Students' Linguistic Awareness of Malaysian English and Its Impact on Intercultural Communication Effectiveness

    Khojastehrad, Shadi; Sattarova, Madina


    With the rapid development of communication and transportation technology, globalization has brought people of diverse cultures, ethnicities, geographies, and religions together. English is now the primary lingua franca, which is used to communicate with speakers of different native languages throughout the world. However, today the world is faced…

  11. An Evaluation of the Global Orientation of English Textbooks in Germany

    Syrbe, Mona; Rose, Heath


    This article investigates textbooks used in English classes in German schools to evaluate their relevance to current trends of teaching English as an international language. For many European students, English is no longer just a foreign language, but an important European lingua franca. Thus, we argue it is essential for the language to be…

  12. Towards a More Appropriate University English Curriculum in China in the Context of English as an International Language

    Xiaoqiong, Betsy Hu; Jing, Xi


    The rapid and wide spread of English has given rise to its lingua franca status, which in turn, changes the nature of English and English teaching at the tertiary level. This paper, based on a survey, discusses some of the problems with the current English curriculum used in Chinese universities and proceeds to offer some suggestions for a more…

  13. An analysis of the language of attribution in university students ...

    Certificate in Education (PGCE) students at Rhodes University, as a microcosm of ... academic writing and publishing which derives from English's unrivalled status as a global lingua franca. ... (2003:32) note that at university level, “…disciplinary knowledge and ...... Chinese International Graduate Students' Views of English.

  14. Language Policies and Language Certificates in Spain--What's the Real Cost?

    Tabuenca-Cuevas, María


    The use of English as the "lingua franca" in the European Union has elevated the symbolic capital of the language. The symbolic capital has, in turn, heightened the demand for English language learning in the European Union, across all levels of education. These circumstances, in correlation with the idiosyncrasies of the role of Spain…

  15. L2 Learners' Assessments of Accentedness, Fluency, and Comprehensibility of Native and Nonnative German Speech

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham


    In early stages of classroom language learning, many adult second language (L2) learners communicate primarily with one another, yet we know little about which speech stream characteristics learners tune into or the extent to which they understand this lingua franca communication. In the current study, 25 native English speakers learning German as…

  16. A Corpus of Young Learners' English in the Baltic Region--Texts for Studies on Sustainable Development

    Sundh, Stellan


    In order to reach far in the work for sustainable development, communication in foreign languages prior to strategic decisions is required from international partners. In this communication English has become the lingua franca. Even though the use of EFL (English as a foreign language) is widely spread, it is clear that in some geographical…

  17. U.S. Spanish and Education: Global and Local Intersections

    García, Ofelia


    The author of this chapter argues that the failure of Spanish language education policies in the United States to educate both Latinos and non-Latinos has to do with the clash between three positions--(a) the English language, characterized by U.S. educational authorities as the unique and powerful lingua franca; (b) the Spanish language, as…

  18. Long-term convergence of speech rhythm in L1 and L2 English

    Quené, H; Orr, Rosemary


    When talkers from various language backgrounds use L2 English as a lingua franca, their accents of English are expected to converge, and talkers’ rhythmical patterns are predicted to converge too. Prosodic convergence was studied among talkers who lived in a community where L2 English is used

  19. Ewe (for Togo): Grammar Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    Kozelka, Paul R.

    This handbook is composed of: (1) 20 grammar lessons; (2) an introduction to the handbook and to the Ewe language; (3) an appendix presenting the most important differences between Ewe and Mina, the lingua franca in the capital and in markets, offices, and work-sites throughout Togo; (4) answers to written summary exercises; (5) an Ewe-English…

  20. Significance of Social Applications on a Mobile Phone for English Task-Based Language Learning

    Ahmad, Anmol; Farrukh, Fizza


    The utter importance of knowing the English language cannot be denied today. Despite the existence of traditional methods for teaching a language in schools, a big number of children are left without the requisite knowledge of English as a result of which they fail to compete in the modern world. With English being a Lingua Franca, more efforts…

  1. Augmenting Research, Education, and Outreach with Client-Side Web Programming.

    Abriata, Luciano A; Rodrigues, João P G L M; Salathé, Marcel; Patiny, Luc


    The evolution of computing and web technologies over the past decade has enabled the development of fully fledged scientific applications that run directly on web browsers. Powered by JavaScript, the lingua franca of web programming, these 'web apps' are starting to revolutionize and democratize scientific research, education, and outreach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From Multilingualism to Bilingualism: Changes in Language Use, Language Value, and Social Mobility among Engdewu Speakers in the Solomon Islands

    Emerine Hicks, Rachel


    On the island of Santa Cruz in the Solomon Islands, the Engdewu language is facing imminent language shift because of the increasing use of the lingua franca Solomon Islands Pijin in the community. In this article, I argue that this language shift is occurring because of changes to the social structure in Baemawz, one of the villages where Engdewu…

  3. Identity Transition and Career Development of Chinese BE Teachers under the Context of BELF

    Guihang, Guo; Dan, Li


    Business English as a lingua franca (BELF) has aroused increasing research interest in the fields of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and business communication. In China, Business English as an undergraduate program was approved by the Ministry of Education in 2006 and Business English Studies as a discipline and postgraduate program was…

  4. Learning English as an L2 in the Global Context: Changing English, Changing Motivation

    Sung, Chit Cheung Matthew


    As the English language has become a global lingua franca today, it is not surprising that changes in attitudes and perceptions towards learning English in the international context have taken place at the same time. In this paper, I critically examine the notion of "integrative motivation" in the literature of second language (L2)…

  5. "And Then We Summarise in English for the Others": The Lived Experience of the Multilingual Workplace

    Angouri, Jo; Miglbauer, Marlene


    In multinational corporate companies, multilingualism is often a daily reality for employees and the negotiation of language practices for work and social purposes, a routine. Despite the role of English as a lingua franca, the linguistic ecology of modern workplaces is dynamic, rich and diverse. While English is often used for communication…

  6. Singapore Education Sector Analysis: Improvement and Challenges in Academic Performance of Four Ethnic Groups in Singapore.

    Yamashita, Mika

    Singapore is a multi-ethnic nation-state with the following ethnic groups: Chinese (76.8%), Malay (13.9%), Indian (7.9%), and Others (1.4%) such as Eurasians, Europeans, Arabs, Jews, and Japanese. A bilingual policy, which takes English as a lingua franca and Mandarin, Malay, and Tamil as mother tongue for each ethnic group, reflects this…

  7. Language Politics and Global City

    Wee, Lionel


    The state in Singapore has long insisted that Singaporeans be bilingual in English and an officially assigned ethnic mother tongue. English is to serve as the inter-ethnic lingua franca and facilitate economic competitiveness. The official mother tongue (Mandarin for the Chinese, Malay for the Malays, and Tamil for the Indians) is to serve as a…

  8. Cognitive Contributions to Plurilithic Views of English and Other Languages

    Hall, Christopher J.


    Monolithic views of languages predominate in linguistics, applied linguistics, and everyday discourse. The World Englishes, English as a Lingua Franca, and Critical Applied Linguistics frameworks have gone some way to counter the myth, highlighting the iniquities it gives rise to for global users and learners of English. Here, I propose that…

  9. English and Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin English) in Papua New Guinea.

    Romaine, Suzanne


    Tok Pisin, New Guinea Pidgin English, is becoming increasingly important as a "lingua franca" in Papua New Guinea, even though English is the country's official language. Urban versus rural and spoken versus written varieties of the pidgin are examined, and the influence of English on Tok Pisin is investigated. 73 references. (Author/CB)

  10. Assessment of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields in Hamedan High Electrical Power Stations and their Effects on Workers

    Farshid Ghorbani Shahna


    Full Text Available Introduction: Public and occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF electric and magnetic fields induced by electrical equipment is a significant issue in the environment and at the workplace due to their potential health effects on public health. The purpose of this study was assessment of the electric and magnetic fields intensities and determination of mental and psychological effects of occupational exposure in the high voltage electric power stations in the city of Hamadan, Iran. Material and Methods: The intensities of the magnetic and electric fields were measured at eight high voltage electric power stations at three different intervals of sources using an HI-3604 instrument. A two-part questionnaire was used to assess mental and psychological effects of the exposure to these fields. Two groups of control and case workers including 30 samples were selected to determine the exposure effects. Results: The results of field measurements showed the highest average electric field intensity was related to the CVT unit with 3110 V/m at a 2 m distance from the source and the lowest average was related to the control room with 1.35 V/m next to the source. Also, the highest and lowest magnetic field intensities were close to the transformator 2 and the battery room (50.42 and 1.31 mG, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: The intensities of electric and magnetic fields in the selected stations are lower than the ACGIH and ICNIRP standard levels for occupational exposures. The results obtained indicate that the distribution of these fields was nonlinear around the sources and the effects observed on exposed workers were non-thermal.

  11. Study of interaction of ELF-ULF range (0.1-200 Hz) electromagnetic waves with the earth's crust and the ionosphere in the field of industrial power transmission lines (FENICS experiment)

    Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Velikhov, E. P.; Skorokhodov, A. A.; Kolesnikov, V. E.; Korotkova, T. G.; Ryazantsev, P. A.; Efimov, B. V.; Kolobov, V. V.; Barannik, M. B.; Prokopchuk, P. I.; Selivanov, V. N.; Kopytenko, Yu. A.; Kopytenko, E. A.; Ismagilov, V. S.; Petrishchev, M. S.; Sergushin, P. A.; Tereshchenko, P. E.; Samsonov, B. V.; Birulya, M. A.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Korja, T.; Yampolski, Yu. M.; Koloskov, A. V.; Baru, N. A.; Poljakov, S. V.; Shchennikov, A. V.; Druzhin, G. I.; Jozwiak, W.; Reda, J.; Shchors, Yu. G.


    This article is devoted to describing the theory, technique, and first experimental results of a control source electromagnetic (CSEM) study of the Earth's crust and ionosphere with the use of two mutually orthogonal industrial transmission lines 109 and 120 km in length in the frame of FENICS (Fennoscandian Electrical Conductivity from Natural and Induction Control Source Soundings) experiment. The main part of the measurements is executed on the territory of the Fennoscandian shield at distances from the first hundreds kilometers up to 856 km from the source with the purpose of the deep electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. According to the results of these studies clarifying the parameters of "normal" (standard) geoelectric section of the lithosphere to a depth of 60-70 km, the anisotropy parameters are evaluated and a geothermal and rheological interpretation in conjunction with the analysis of the seismic data is executed. Furthermore, to study the propagation of ELF-LLF waves (0.1-200 Hz) in an "Earth-Ionosphere" waveguide, the measurements are carried out apart from Fennoscandian shield at distances up to 5600 km from the source (in Ukraine, Spitsbergen, Poland, Kamchatka, and other areas). According to the results of these studies, the experimental estimates of the influence of the ionosphere and of the displacement currents on the propagation of ELF-ULF waves in the upper half-space at the different azimuths generation of the primary field are obtained.

  12. Curly arrows meet electron density transfers in chemical reaction mechanisms: from electron localization function (ELF) analysis to valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) inspired interpretation.

    Andrés, Juan; Berski, Sławomir; Silvi, Bernard


    Probing the electron density transfers during a chemical reaction can provide important insights, making possible to understand and control chemical reactions. This aim has required extensions of the relationships between the traditional chemical concepts and the quantum mechanical ones. The present work examines the detailed chemical insights that have been generated through 100 years of work worldwide on G. N. Lewis's ground breaking paper on The Atom and the Molecule (Lewis, G. N. The Atom and the Molecule, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1916, 38, 762-785), with a focus on how the determination of reaction mechanisms can be reached applying the bonding evolution theory (BET), emphasizing how curly arrows meet electron density transfers in chemical reaction mechanisms and how the Lewis structure can be recovered. BET that combines the topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool providing insight into molecular mechanisms of chemical rearrangements. In agreement with physical laws and quantum theoretical insights, BET can be considered as an appropriate tool to tackle chemical reactivity with a wide range of possible applications. Likewise, the present approach retrieves the classical curly arrows used to describe the rearrangements of chemical bonds for a given reaction mechanism, providing detailed physical grounds for this type of representation. The ideas underlying the valence-shell-electron pair-repulsion (VSEPR) model applied to non-equilibrium geometries provide simple chemical explanations of density transfers. For a given geometry around a central atom, the arrangement of the electronic domain may comply or not with the VSEPR rules according with the valence shell population of the considered atom. A deformation yields arrangements which are either VSEPR defective (at least a domain is missing to match the VSEPR arrangement corresponding to the geometry of the ligands), VSEPR compliant


    Valentina Zenoni


    Full Text Available La formazione rappresenta uno strumento basilare nella promozione della lingua e della cultura italiana. L’argomento è articolato e complesso perché abbraccia diverse questioni. Da un lato va sostenuto l’utilizzo di mezzi adeguati, come quello telematico, che favoriscono e facilitano la diffusione all’estero. Dall’altro la proposta didattica di università e scuole deve essere riorganizzata alla luce delle nuove esigenze formative. Il ruolo degli atenei italiani potrebbe diventare più incisivo se si adeguassero maggiormente agli standard esteri, in modo da favorire la circolazione di studenti anche verso e non soltanto dall’Italia. Per quanto riguarda, invece, il tipo di formazione da sostenere, va riqualificata quella umanistica e tradizionale, non perché rappresenti la cultura nella sua totalità ma perché costituisce un patrimonio che caratterizza il nostro paese e non deve andare perso. Abbiamo parlato di queste tematiche con il Professor Roberto Greci, Preside della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia dell’Università di Parma e Presidente del Consiglio scientifico e didattico del Consorzio Interuniversitario ICoN, Italian Culture On the Net.     The role of training in the promotion of Italian language and culture. An interview with Professor Roberto Greci, Dean of the Literature and Philosophy Faculty at the University of Parma   Training represents a basic tool in promoting Italian language and culture.  The topic is complex because it encompasses diverse issues.  On the one hand appropriate means are needed, like telematic resources, which encourage and facilitate spreading abroad.  On the other, university and school courses need to be reorganized in light of the new training needs.  The role of Italian universities could to be stronger if they met foreign standards, to promote the circulation of students towards and not just away from Italy.  As far as regards the type of training to be undertaken, the humanistic

  14. ELF: the Electronic Learning Facilitator

    J. T. Mayes


    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an unprecedented increase in the use of the Internet and other 69 global networks of computers. We have seen estimates of between 100,000 and 1,000,000 new users each month joining the Internet. Predominantly these are information seekers, but the figures do also represent a significant increase in the number of information providers. For learners, we now have a significant set of information sources, albeit obscured by a lot of noise.

  15. La mediazione linguistica come pratica di negoziazione, resistenza, attivismo e ospitalità sulle sponde del Mediterraneo

    Annarita Taronna


    Full Text Available Abstract – The huge increase in migration flows through the Afro-Mediterranean routes during recent decades has shaped previously homogeneous populations into linguistically and culturally diverse ethnoscapes. Migration has therefore made a notable contribution to the acquisition and the use of English as a first, second and foreign language and to the burgeoning of new Englishes all over the world (Crystal 1997; Trudgill et al. 2002; Jenkins, 2003 thus questioning our traditional knowledge of language as a social projection of territorial unity held together by shared behavioral norms, beliefs and values. Specifically, by examining the communicative and translation processes which twelve interviewed interpreters, translators and language mediators were involved in during their interaction with newly-arrived migrants in Southern Italy, this paper addresses three main research issues concerning: a the use of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF in the practice of language and cultural mediation and the extent to which this language may be perceived either as a barrier or as a bridge, thus affecting the relationship between the mediator and the migrant and the shaping of the politics of hospitality in the Mediterranean; b the different linguistic and extra-linguistic strategies which mediators can adopt in the field of migration emergencies not only to serve communicative purposes, but also to humanize the migrants’ transfer to, and stay at the different camps across Italy; c the interviewed language mediators’ narratives as a testimony of negotiation, activism and resistance to the strict institutionalized protocols of Italian immigration policies. Finally, in this chapter, we also intend to investigate the extent to which the interviewed mediators form not a mere aggregation of individuals achieving the task of translation as a mere linguistic transfer, but a community of practice held together by a conscious and critical sense of the

  16. Nature of the bonding in the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules. Topological study on electron density and the electron localization function (ELF).

    Makarewicz, Emilia; Gordon, Agnieszka J; Berski, Slawomir


    Topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) has been carried out for the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules using the wave function approximated by the CCSD, MP2, and DFT(B3LYP, M062X) methods including zero-order regular approximation (ZORA). In the Ng-F bond, the bonding disynaptic attractor V(Ng,F) is missing; therefore, there are no signs of the covalent binding. The nature of the Au-Ng bond depends on the computational method used. Analysis of the ELF carried out for the AuArF and AuXeF molecules, with the wave function approximated by the CCSD and MP2 methods, shows the V(Au,Ng) attractor possibly corresponding to a partially covalent binding between the gold and noble gas atom. However, its very small basin population (<1e) and a very large value of the variance of the basin population suggest that the Au-Ng bond has a very delocalized character. Such bond nature may be related to the charge shift concept with a resonance of the Au(-+)NgX, Au(+-)NgX hybrids. The weakest Au-Ng bond, in terms of the smallest amount of electron density for the V(Au,Ng) basin, is found for the AuKrF molecule with the CCSD method (0.13e). The MP2 method, however, does not yield any V(Au, Ng) population; hence, the covalent Au-Kr bond is not confirmed. Because the V(Au,Ng) attractor is also not observed with the DFT method, the proper characterization of the Au-Ng bond requires proper description of correlation effects. Additional studies on the Au2 and [AuXe](+) molecules, performed at the CCSD and B3LYP levels, exhibit no V(Au,Au) and V(Au,Xe) bonding basins either.

  17. Dai suoni alla lingua in uso

    Pierucci, Giulia

    Being able to understand and produce the sound system of the target language is a building block in the process of language learning. In spite of this, pronunciation is often neglected in FL/SL curricula and teaching practice. This project’s goal is to contribute to the field of FLT by designing...... on the whole process of FL learning, this project will integrate intensive training in pronunciation with activities aimed at a range of language components, from grammar to comprehension to pragmatic competence, always based on authentic material. The project’s methodology is based on design research...

  18. Lingua and Erasmus: Circumventing the Constraints.

    Chambers, Gary


    Discusses the development and implementation of a student exchange program between the University of Leeds in England and the Institut fur Praxis der Theorie der Schule in Kiel, Germany. Ten Leeds students participated in the program, which was designed to give students an appreciation of German culture, language, and vocational teaching methods.…

  19. Incorporating Authentic Models into Business Letter Writing within the ESP course at Kazakhstani Universities



    Today English serves as a lingua franca in international business communication between local and foreign professionals in Kazakhstan. Many Kazakhstani business people write business documents in English. However, non-native speakers may continue to use the rhetorical patterns of their native languages. At the same time English native speaker may expect writers using a second language to have a similar fluency in culture and customs. Therefore, this paper explores the rhetorical and pragmalin...

  20. The Swahilization of Kenya`s socio-political culture

    King`ei, Geoffrey Kitula


    Although it has spread mainly as a lingua franca, Kiswahili, Kenya`s national language, is increasingly becoming the language of intercultural communication. Most interestingly, Kiswahili is catching up as the medium of intra-group conversation in many rural up-country areas in Kenya. Not only do most Kenyan women wear lesos and kangas bearing Kiswahili proverbial sayings but the youth form different language communication almost invariably converse and interact through the medium of share or...

  1. International Students’ Linguistic Awareness of Malaysian English and its Impact on Intercultural Communication Effectiveness

    Shadi Khojastehrad; Madina Sattarova


    With the rapid development of communication and transportation technology, globalization has brought people of diverse cultures, ethnicities, geographies, and religions together. English is now the primary lingua franca, which is used to communicate with speakers of different native languages throughout the world. However, today the world is faced with the rapid emergence of many new Englishes with their own specific features and markers. Thus, learning only standard British and American Engl...

  2. An Assistive Technology Design Framework for ADHD

    Sonne, Tobias; Marshall, Paul; Obel, Carsten


    In this paper, we present a design framework for ADHD assistive technologies that aims to give researchers grounding in the background research on the condition, to provide a lingua franca, and to highlight potential research directions for HCI researchers within assistive technology. The design ...... map existing assistive technologies and potential new research efforts to the framework concepts. This way we show how it is used to support and advance the research and development of novel assistive technologies for the ADHD domain....

  3. Why Should We Prevent a Global Anglo-American Life-World? A Democratic-Deliberative Answer

    Morales-Gálvez Sergi


    Full Text Available Should English be promoted as a worldwide lingua franca for justice-related reasons? Philippe Van Parijs answers affirmatively in order to promote global distributive justice. In contrast, I argue that a rapid expansion of English could lead to one undesirable consequence that ought to be prevented: the globalization of an Anglo-American life-world that impoverishes democratic-deliberative debates. Inspired by John Stuart Mill, I will defend the idea that the more dominant the Anglo-American life-world is, the less diversity of life-worlds and, therefore, the less diversity of substantial voices in the global democratic-deliberative process there will be. It might be that more voices could be heard (because of the lingua franca, but with less substantial diversity of opinions. In that sense, the life-worlds (and language as an access key to them have an instrumental value that enables plurality and better deliberative discussion. For that reason, I contend that there is a pro tanto reason to prevent the expansion of English as a lingua franca.

  4. Infestação pelo Ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae em Operárias Adultas e em Células de Cria de Abelhas Africanizadas Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae na Região de Franca-SP

    Aline Turcatto


    Abstract. The mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman, has been, until now, one of the pest that causes more damage to the beekeeping worldwide, alone or associated with another bee diseases. Several factors affects the variation of the indexes of infestation and reproduction, such as climate, bee breed, development time, hygienic behavior; being that temperature is a environmental variable that acts on the variation of these indexes: the infestation increases in the colder months and decrease in warmer months, so in the months of autumn and winter occurs the biggest infestation by varroa in the beehives. Were evaluated the indexes of infestation by V. destructor on adult worker and brood cells to ascertain how these indexes rates, in months of autumn, in an africanized bees apiary located in region of Cerrado, surrounded by plantations of sugar cane, with a tropical climate and food in nature. The sample was collected in two years, in the months of May and June 2005 and April and June 2007 in the Experimental Apiary of Franca University-UNIFRAN, located in the municipality of Restiga-SP. The medium indexes of infestation in broods were higher in May/2005 (12.44% than June/2005 (7.78%, were also higher in April/2007 (3% than in June/2007 (0%; all the differences weren’t statistically significant. The medium indexes of infestation in adult workers were lesser in May/2005 (0.95% than June/2005 (1.90% and lesser in April/2007 (0.90% than in June/2007 (4.43%; the difference observed in 2005 was not statistically significant, unlike that observed in 2007 (P=0.031.

  5. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  6. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program


    transmission lines, Effects to bee orientation from fluctuations in the earth’s magnetic field due to solar events 0 and magnetic anomalies have also been...embryo: developmental stage, brain, eye, ear and branchial arches, heart, spinal cord arid somites, limb buds, and extra-embryonic membranes, as well as

  7. Assessment of inhomogeneous ELF magnetic field exposures

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.


    In daily life as well as at workplaces, exposures to inhomogeneous magnetic fields become very frequent. This makes easily applicable compliance assessment methods increasingly important. Reference levels have been defined linking basic restrictions to levels of homogeneous fields at worst-case exposure conditions. If reference levels are met, compliance with basic restrictions can be assumed. If not, further investigations could still prove compliance. Because of the lower induction efficiency, inhomogeneous magnetic fields such as from electric appliances could be allowed exceeding reference levels. To easily assess inhomogeneous magnetic fields, a quick and flexible multi-step assessment procedure is proposed. On the basis of simulations with numerical, anatomical human models reference factors were calculated elevating reference levels to link hot-spot values measured at source surfaces to basic limits and allowing accounting for different source distance, size, orientation and position. Compliance rules are proposed minimising assessment efforts. (authors)

  8. ELFE: an electron laboratory for Europe

    Cavata, C.


    This paper presents a brief overview of the physics with the 15-30 GeV continuous beam electron facility proposed by the European community of nuclear physicists to study the quark and gluon structure of hadrons. (authors). 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Noore looduskaitsja aunimetus Renno Nellisele / ELF


    Eestimaa Looduse Fondi žürii otsustas Noore looduskaitsja auhinna anda Tartu ülikooli ökoloogia ja maateaduste instituudi loomaökoloogia õppetooli looduskaitsebioloogia spetsialistile Renno Nellisele

  10. Preschool Children Differentiation According to the Lingua- Grammatical Categories Development

    Z. V. Polivara


    Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A. A. Leontyev’s study, the parallel acquiring of two languages often results in insufficient development of socio-linguistic speech standards. The research is devoted to the phenomenon of the two language systems coexistence in a bilingual person’s consciousness, both of them functioning and encoding the same subjects and phenomena. The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects. Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development. It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. 

  11. Etimologia in una lingua pianificata (Etymology in a Planned Language).

    Minnaja, Carlo


    Discusses the fifth volume of the "Etimologia Vortaro de Esperanto" (Etymological Dictionary of Esperanto). The dictionary provides not only the etynom of each Esperanto term, but also the etymology of the ethnic language words from which the editor derived the terms in question. (Author/VWL)

  12. Polilinguismo nella scrittura murale urbana: Note sulla lingua spagnola

    ELena Landone


    Full Text Available Abstract – In this paper I focus on the polylinguistic and polycultural landscape of Milan on the theoretical basis of daily life studies, the sociolinguistics of globalization, and intercultural pragmatics. The relevance of this field is determined by the need for urban anthropology to semiotize the urban spaces as an interpretative bridge between the microsystem (the individual level and the macrosystem (the social level. More concretely, I investigate the presence of the Spanish language in the superdiversity of Milan and, methodologically, I collect ethnographically and interpret qualitatively a corpus of 700 daily life texts of various types of street writing. The results show the significant presence of Spanish in the urban landscape and a high level of hybridism which is, nevertheless, totally functional in communication. I also detect the emergence of linguistic, pragmatic and intercultural awareness in the writers. Finally, with some precautions, I confirm the scientific potential of the daily life documents to investigate complex urban dynamics.Resumen – El tema de este estudio es el panorama polilingüe y policultural de Milán y se plantea a partir de las bases teóricas de los everyday life studies, de la sociolingüistica de la globalización y de la pragmática intercultural. La relevancia del estudio descansa en la necesidad de la antropología urbana de elaborar una interpretación semiótica de los espacios urbanos, puesto que pueden constituir un puente interpretativo entre el microsistema (individuo y el macrosistema (sociedad. Concretamente, el objetivo es investigar el papel del idioma español en la supediversidad milanesa; la metodología es de etnografía urbana con la formación e interpretación cualitativa de un corpus fotográfico de setecientos textos cotidianos de escritura callejera (pintadas, avisos, grafiti, ecc.. Los datos relevan una presencia significativa del español en el landscape milanés, con un alto nivel de hibridismo que, de todas formas, es funcionalmente adecuado y denota el emerger de la conciencia  lingüística, pragmática e intercultural de los hablantes-escritores. Además, se confirma, con alguna precaución, el aporte científico de los documentos de la cotidianidad para interpretar la complejidad urbana. 

  13. apprendere una lingua straniera: tempo e spazio nella cultura italiana


    partecipazione al programma Erasmus/Socrates, 1 che prevede programmi integrati di insegnamento tra le Università partecipanti e un sistema di riconoscimento reciproco delle attività svolte attraverso l'assegnazione di crediti. Dall'altra, hanno il compito di coordinare maggiormente la formazione universitaria in relazione ...

  14. Lingua(gem sob duas perspectivas teóricas

    Lidiomar José Mascarello


    Destacaremos nesse breve percurso teórico dois olhares possíveis para esse fenômeno, a língua(gem, que é tão natural e ao mesmo tempo tão complexo de ser explicado e entendido. De um lado, questões psíquicas individuais, como um processo evolutivo que opera em escala de tempo e que depende da maturação dos processos neurais e de toda rede neuronial e da capacidade inata do sujeito, ou seja, uma visão com tendências mais cognitivista, e por outro, da exposição à interação sócio-ambiental, de cunho interacionista, pois, acreditamos que são complementares e não restritivas ou excludentes.

  15. La codificazione della lingua montenegrina. Storia di un’idea

    Andrea Trovesi


    Full Text Available Andrea Trovesi The Codification of Montenegrin. The History of an Idea On July 30th, 2009 in the Republic of Montenegro the Pravopis crnogorskoga jezika [Orthography of the Montenegrin language] and the Rječnik crnogorskoga jezika (pravopisni rječnik [Dictionary of the Montenegrin language (orthographic dictionary] came into being. This fact sanctioned the offi cial birth, not only nominal, of the Montenegrin language which differs from Bosnian/Bosniak, Croatian and Serbian. The aim of the article is to illustrate the new orthography of the Montenegrin language and to delineate how the idea of an independent Montenegrin language came alive. Firstly, the main stages of the discussion in favour of a Montenegrin language are illustrated. Secondly, a recapitulation of the arguments deployed in order to demonstrate the diversity of the Montenegrin language from Serbo(Croatian is offered. Finally, a description of the innovations introduced by the orthographic reform is presented.

  16. "O Mundo da Lingua Portuguesa," a Supplementary Cultural Lesson.

    Kennedy, James H.

    The text of a classroom lesson on the distribution and use of the Portuguese language in African countries, written in Portuguese and containing an explanation of and practice in using the definite article with African place names, is presented. The lesson is accompanied by vocabulary notes in the margin, a list of questions on the text, and a mpa…

  17. Il teatro di lingua tedesca tra Restaurazione e Naturalismo

    Rita Svandrlik


    Full Text Available This article outlines the development of nineteenth-century theatre from a sociological viewpoint, in particular, focusing on the coming of age of the Wiener Volkstheater under the direction of Raimund and Nestroy, as well as with the staging of works by playwrights as different from each other as Grabbe, Grillparzer and Büchner. All three of them, from different angles, tackled the historical genre as well as the problem of theatre seen in a new light. However, it was not their plays that were successful during the period of the Restoration but rather grand scale historical dramas on familiar themes by mostly forgotten playwrights, often translations and adaptations of French and Classical works. In the decades that followed the Revolution of 1848, in which fiction was the dominant literary genre, Hebbel renovated tragedy as form, whereas Wagner went on to reform theatre at all levels.

  18. La lingua letteraria in Ucraina: ieri e oggi

    Giovanna Brogi Bercoff


    Full Text Available The Question of Literary Language in Ukraine in Past and Present In the last few years the “language question” has gained momentum in the scholarly debate and social life in Ukraine. The Author suggests that multilingualism, as an expression of multiculturalism, is a distinctive feature of Ukraine through all its historical developement. On the basis of evidence drawn from texts of the 17th-18th centuries (epistolography, panegyric literature the Author aims at showing that multilingualism was one of the main characters distiguishing Ukraine from the Russian tradition; multilingualism testified to the close ties between Ukrainian culture and western Renaissance and Baroque, at the same time contributing to the creation of original literary forms with peculiar features. For the 19th century it is impossible to consider Kyiv’s culture without taking into account the contribution given by writers and intellectuals who used Russian language. While Kyiv was certainly a Ukrainian city, its culture exhibited different linguistic and cultural layers (Ukrainian, Russian, Jewish, Polish, German that coexisted both in parallel streams and in reciprocal contacts. To reconstruct the peculiar and very complicated “Kyivan text” of culture in the 19th-beginning 20th century is one of the main desiderata for future research. The multilingual tradition – with its positive and negative characteristics – cannot be ignored in contemporary civil and scientific work. However, in our days Ukrainian language has reached such a high level of developement and perfect modern functionality that its use and universal diffusion in public and private life is a priority for the future developement of Ukraine and its culture. The existence of an extremely interesting literature and a lively cultural life makes Ukrainian a prestigious literary language, a perfect means of communication for private and state life. The Ukrainian government should give its strongest support for the consolidation of Ukrainian language, for the developement of Ukrainian-language literature, press and mass-media, and for the diffusion of knowledge about Ukrainian language and culture in European countries. The prestige of a nation is increased also by the image a country succeeds in transmitting to other countries, a fact which – in its turn – contributes to the strengthening of internal stability and self-consciousness.


    Santxo-Zabala, Usua


    La competencia para usar bien el idioma resulta indispensable a la hora de adquirir conocimientos básicos en cualquier disciplina. Los idiomas son medios para la enseñanza. El plurilingüismo es la situación habitual, y al ser el idioma inglés, lingua franca, es muy necesario su conocimiento. Así mismo, la diversidad y la regionalidad hace que los centros educativos sigan tendencias de modelos plurilingües (idioma local y extranjero). Hoy en día, la mayoría de las publicaciones científic...

  20. Static Analysis of Dynamic Languages

    Madsen, Magnus

    Dynamic programming languages are highly popular and widely used. Java- Script is often called the lingua franca of the web and it is the de facto standard for client-side web programming. On the server-side the PHP, Python and Ruby languages are prevalent. What these languages have in common...... with static type systems, such as Java and C# , but the same features are rarely available for dynamic languages such as JavaScript. The aim of this thesis is to investigate techniques for improving the tool- support for dynamic programming languages without imposing any artificial restrictions...... of new dataflow analysis techniques to tackle the nature of dynamic programming languages....

  1. French, English or Kanak Languages? Can Traditional Languages and Cultures Be Sustained in New Caledonia?

    Anu Bissoonauth


    Preliminary results from the study show a difference in the language habits between older and younger generations on New Caledonians of Melanesian descent. Although French is perceived as the lingua franca by all, English is more valued than ancestral Melanesian languages by the younger generations. In terms of cultural representations and links with family history, there seems to be a discrepancy between the younger and the older generations. Whilst the older generations perceive the Centre Culturel Tjibaou as a traditional space for Melanesian art and culture their younger counterparts on the contrary view it as a place associated with contemporary art and music performances.

  2. English in the Chinese foreign language classroom

    Wang, Danping


    Chinese is an ancient language, but the present scope of its global study is unprecedented. Comprehending the impacts of worldwide linguistic realities on 'Chinese as a Foreign Language' (CFL) teachers and students will be critical to its long-term success. The most important phenomenon has been the establishment of English as a lingua franca, especially in the expanding marketplaces of Asia. This book examines the role of English as a medium of instruction in CFL classrooms. It begins by integrating existing studies on the global spread of English with research on English as a medium of secon

  3. Checking the effectiveness of Quizlet® as a tool for vocabulary learning

    Barr, Blair


    Inspired by the need to aid low-proficiency English users to increase their knowledgeof vocabulary, this preliminary study measures the success of digital-flashcard usersby comparing their vocabulary test scores to those of non-users in the same class.Thirty-two, low-level, first year students in Tamagawa University’s English as aLingua Franca program were asked to use Quizlet® to prepare for tests that wouldrecycle fill-in-the-blank contents from the flashcards available on this Web 2.0appli...

  4. Learner attitudes of L2-engaged extensivewatching versus extensive reading

    Saunders, Thomas; Ishimaki, Kensaku


    Inspired by the need to aid low-proficiency English users to increase their knowledgeof vocabulary, this preliminary study measures the success of digital-flashcard usersby comparing their vocabulary test scores to those of non-users in the same class.Thirty-two, low-level, first year students in Tamagawa University’s English as aLingua Franca program were asked to use Quizlet? to prepare for tests that wouldrecycle fill-in-the-blank contents from the flashcards available on this Web 2.0appli...

  5. Differential geometry bundles, connections, metrics and curvature

    Taubes, Clifford Henry


    Bundles, connections, metrics and curvature are the 'lingua franca' of modern differential geometry and theoretical physics. This book will supply a graduate student in mathematics or theoretical physics with the fundamentals of these objects. Many of the tools used in differential topology are introduced and the basic results about differentiable manifolds, smooth maps, differential forms, vector fields, Lie groups, and Grassmanians are all presented here. Other material covered includes the basic theorems about geodesics and Jacobi fields, the classification theorem for flat connections, the

  6. Unity in Diversity. The Language Policy of the European Union


    Full Text Available This paper explores the connections between the law and language in the European Union. The paper concerns the language policy of the European Union (EU and English language priority. The EU faces challenges of finding a common ground for respecting the diversity of its members. So many different states are gathered in one organisation which establishes the law for diversified legal orders. The research question is - which language(s is or should be used in the EU? Does English become lingua franca of the EU?

  7. Thou Shalt Be Reproducible! A Technology Perspective

    Patrick Mair


    Full Text Available This article elaborates on reproducibility in psychology from a technological viewpoint. Modernopen source computational environments are shown and explained that foster reproducibilitythroughout the whole research life cycle, and to which emerging psychology researchers shouldbe sensitized, are shown and explained. First, data archiving platforms that make datasets publiclyavailable are presented. Second, R is advocated as the data-analytic lingua franca in psychologyfor achieving reproducible statistical analysis. Third, dynamic report generation environments forwriting reproducible manuscripts that integrate text, data analysis, and statistical outputs such asfigures and tables in a single document are described. Supplementary materials are provided inorder to get the reader started with these technologies.

  8. Playing the 'Silence' Card

    Pantelli, Niki; Lee, Joyce y. H.; Bülow, Anne Marie


    In this paper, we argue that the international business (IB) literature has given only limited attention to the technologymediated context of language. We find, through a case study of an international inter-organizational partnership where the use of English language was the lingua franca......, that email not only had a dominant role but also created several possibilities for interaction. The findings show the relevance of email affordances to inter-cultural studies. Further, the study makes a contribution by repositioning communication technology within the language stream of IB research....

  9. Myths and Realities of ‘Global’ English

    Phillipson, Robert


    The expansion of English worldwide tends to be both seen and marketed uncritically, as a universally relevant lingua franca and medium of education. The post-1945 expansion of English was a deliberate policy of the US and UK governments, foreseen in a speech by Churchill. Elsewhere Churchill...... endorsed university academic freedom and autonomy, which neoliberal forces currently constrain. Imperial languages are promoted by means of linguicism, which many contemporary policies exemplify. Increased use of English results in a macro-sociolinguistic tension between national linguistic capital...

  10. Italiano a São Paulo: lingua materna, etnica, o lingua straniera da imparare e da insegnare? Come insegnarla?

    Loredana Caprara


    Full Text Available O italiano no Brasil, de língua materna e étnica, torna-se cada vez mais língua estrangeira a ser aprendida em cursos formais, escolas e universidades. Coloca-se o problema da formação adequada, cultural e lingüística dos professores, à qual os cursos universitários atuais reservam, a nosso ver, um número insuficiente de horas aula. Pensa-se na possibilidade de ampliar informalmente a oferta de aulas complementares para proporcionar uma melhor assimilação lingüística e cultural, mediante conversação e leitura, e chegar, assim, a um ensino mais amplo e rico.

  11. The dynamics of accounting terms in a globalized environment

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Nielsen, Sandro


    European accounting terminology is dynamic as term creation occurs on national, European Union and international levels. English is the lingua franca of accounting, which influences terminologies in other languages, usually through the work of translators, e.g. the translation of existing interna...... into Spanish; and the presence of novel metaphors in Spanish accounting. The data used in the discussion are taken from the accounting dictionaries, a collection of online dictionaries in three languages: Danish, English and Spanish.......European accounting terminology is dynamic as term creation occurs on national, European Union and international levels. English is the lingua franca of accounting, which influences terminologies in other languages, usually through the work of translators, e.g. the translation of existing...... international accounting standards. The combined influence of these forces is discussed in this chapter that explains the existence of a globalized trend towards a kind of cultural uniformity. This manifests itself in many ways, two of which are: the translation of English multiword accounting terms...

  12. Students’ attitudes to lecturers' English in English-medium higher education in Denmark

    Jensen, Christian; Denver, Louise; Mees, Inger M.


    This study examines the evaluative reactions of university students to their non-native lecturers’ English skills in English-medium instruction, i.e. when English is used as a lingua franca in an academic context. In particular, we examine the relationship between perceptions of English language ....... This effect should be addressed when universities use student ratings to evaluate teaching in English-medium content courses.......This study examines the evaluative reactions of university students to their non-native lecturers’ English skills in English-medium instruction, i.e. when English is used as a lingua franca in an academic context. In particular, we examine the relationship between perceptions of English language...... proficiency and perceptions of general lecturing competence (defined here as knowledge of subject and teaching skills). Statistical analyses of 1,700 student responses to 31 non-native English-speaking lecturers at a major business school in Denmark revealed that the students’ perceptions of the lecturers...

  13. Agora Energiewende (2016). What do Germany's climate protection goals mean for the brown coal regions? An analysis based on the eleven key points for a coal consensus; Agora Energiewende (2016). Was bedeuten Deutschlands Klimaschutzziele fuer die Braunkohleregionen? Eine Analyse auf Basis der elf Eckpunkte fuer einen Kohlekonsens

    Graichen, Patrick; Praetorius, Barbara; Rosenkranz, Gerd; Litz, Philipp


    Since Paris's historical climate agreement, it has become clear that from now on energy supply will be discussed worldwide on the premise of decarbonisation. Germany as a traditional coal country and as a land of energy transition can no longer avoid this debate. After all, the climate targets that have been adopted several times for 2030, 2040 and 2050 will ultimately mean the end of coal-fired power generation. In January 2016, Agora Energiewende presented a proposal with the eleven cornerstones for a coal consensus on how such an exit from coal-fired power generation could look like. We are concerned with a cross-party consensus that is broadly anchored in society, which gives all parties involved planning security and reliability and at the same time paves the way for a socially balanced and fairly structured transition to the new energy system. The impacts are particularly relevant for the brown coal regions concerned. In order to make the gradual phasing out of coal-fired power generation socially and economically compatible, special attention must be paid to open-cast brown coal mines and power plants as well as to regional structural change. This publication therefore takes a closer look at precisely these aspects. [German] Seit dem historischen Klimaabkommen von Paris ist klar: Die Energieversorgung wird von nun an weltweit unter der Praemisse der Dekarbonisierung diskutiert. Deutschland als traditionelles Kohleland und als Land der Energiewende kann dieser Debatte nicht laenger ausweichen. Denn die fuer 2030, 2040 und 2050 mehrfach beschlossenen Klimaziele bedeuten letztlich den Ausstieg aus der Kohleverstromung. Agora Energiewende hat im Januar 2016 mit den Elf Eckpunkten fuer einen Kohlekonsens einen Vorschlag vorgelegt, wie ein solcher Ausstieg aus der Kohleverstromung aussehen koennte. Uns geht es um einen parteiuebergreifenden, gesellschaftlich breit verankerten Konsens, der allen Beteiligten Planungssicherheit und Verlaesslichkeit gibt und

  14. ELF Scattering in the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide


    165506486442835 ez/ezu(deg)- 1.681470061692652 hy/ hyu (db)- -3.94426540952422E-002 * hy/ hyu (deg)- 2.882621844622661 * hr/hru(db)= - .583301884765237 hr/hru...1321.703655468501400 xO- 6S7.9992l0l73l44320y0= 927.111139424167960 scoord- -1100.0 ez/ezu(db)- - .252368993800051 ez/ezu(deg)- 2.274333107647623 hy/ hyu ...db)- -6.70531978625971E-002 23 fSW rF hy/ hyu (deg)- 3.439969724323339 hr/hru(db)- -.939223897961050 hr/hru(deg)- -3.454996754144538 nt- 17nr- 17 chi

  15. Fuzzy logic based ELF magnetic field estimation in substations

    Kosalay, I.


    This paper examines estimation of the extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MF) in the power substation. First, the results of the previous relevant research studies and the MF measurements in a sample power substation are presented. Then, a fuzzy logic model based on the geometric definitions in order to estimate the MF distribution is explained. Visual software, which has a three-dimensional screening unit, based on the fuzzy logic technique, has been developed. (authors)

  16. Saving turtles: Talisman, Elf and BHP make room for reptiles

    Lorenz, A.


    Cooperation between Australia`s BHP Petroleum, Canada`s Talisman Energy and France`s El Aquitaine to help the Trinidadian government and conservation groups to save the nesting grounds of the Carribean sea turtle is described. The nesting ground is located near one of the projects the three companies are working on. The giant turtle, also called the leatherback, can weigh as much as a tonne and have a 2.4 metre flipper span, have their nesting places on Trinidad`s northeastern shore. The three companies are working in 36 metres of water opposite two of the turtles` last nesting places. Had the companies proceeded as planned, the project could have destroyed their nesting place. Instead, the companies put up $90,000 for a three-month research project to monitor the movement of the turtles with satellite telemetry. In order to assess the turtles` hearing, tiny wires were inserted in the the turtles` brain to measure brain wave patterns - a method similar to that used on human neo-natals. When it was discovered that the turtles did not adapt well to captivity, they were fitted with earphones and transmitter during 10-minute period when they were in the quiescent state of egg-laying. The companies proceeded with a seismic program that used cables on the sea floor. Rather than use a large and noisy survey vessel to lay long streamers on a wide area, they laid shorter strips on a grid with smaller, quieter boats. That was sufficient for the turtles to continue normal activity as females arrived on the beach in the usual numbers to nest and to lay eggs. The documentation provided to the Trinidadian government was well received and plans are afoot to use it as a benchmark in assessing future exploratory applications within Trinidadian jurisdiction.



  18. ELF Magnetic Fields, Transients and TWA Metrics (invited paper)

    Kavet, R


    Residential measurements of ambient power frequency magnetic fields may serve as surrogates for personal exposures. There are few data available, however, to determine how far back in time this surrogacy holds. A limited amount of research on residential transients suggests that, all other factors being equivalent, larger transients may propagate within VHCC neighbourhoods than within LCC neighbourhoods. However, the presence of a conductive residential ground pathway also appears to be a potentially important factor associated with residential transient activity. The use of the TWA metric was prompted by the need for an exposure score simple enough to summarise an individual's exposure over a prior interval, yet specific to the agent of concern, namely the power frequency magnetic field. To the extent that the TWA exposure is associated with health outcomes in the absence of bias, including confounding, the TWA metric is important. (author)

  19. ELF Magnetic Fields, Transients and TWA Metrics (invited paper)

    Kavet, R.


    Residential measurements of ambient power frequency magnetic fields may serve as surrogates for personal exposures. There are few data available, however, to determine how far back in time this surrogacy holds. A limited amount of research on residential transients suggests that, all other factors being equivalent, larger transients may propagate within VHCC neighbourhoods than within LCC neighbourhoods. However, the presence of a conductive residential ground pathway also appears to be a potentially important factor associated with residential transient activity. The use of the TWA metric was prompted by the need for an exposure score simple enough to summarise an individual's exposure over a prior interval, yet specific to the agent of concern, namely the power frequency magnetic field. To the extent that the TWA exposure is associated with health outcomes in the absence of bias, including confounding, the TWA metric is important. (author)

  20. Effects of ELF-EMF on brain proteins in mice

    Strašák, Luděk; Bártová, Eva; Krejčí, Jana; Fojt, Lukáš; Vetterl, Vladimír


    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2009), s. 96-104 ISSN 1536-8378 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/06/0978 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP310/07/P480; GA MŠk(CZ) 1MO528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemisorption * IR spectroscopy * electrochemistry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2009

  1. Cellular ELF signals as a possible tool in informative medicine.

    Foletti, Alberto; Lisi, Antonella; Ledda, Mario; de Carlo, Flavia; Grimaldi, Settimio


    According to Quantum Electro-Dynamical Theory by G. Preparata, liquid water can be viewed as an equilibrium between of two components: coherent and incoherent ones. The coherent component is contained within spherical so called "coherence domains" (CDs) where all molecules synchronously oscillate with the same phase. CDs are surrounded by the incoherent component where molecules oscillate with casual phases regarding each other. The existence of coherent domain in water has been demonstrated in a set of experiments on pure water exposed to high voltage, under this condition the electric field concentrates inside the water, arranging the water molecules to form high ordered structure. Recently has been studied the influence of combined static and alternating parallel magnetic fields on the current through the aqueous solution of glutamic acid; outlining the relevance of low frequency electro-magnetic field in interacting with biological target. Additional results demonstrate that at combined static and alternating parallel, magnetic fields matching the ion cyclotron energy resonance of a particular charged molecule into biological tissue an intrinsic weak magnetic field is generated by ion currents in the cell. These results should increase the reliability and the clinical feasibility of the use of electromagnetic field, tuned at ion cyclotron resonance of charged molecules, as a biophysical approach to interfere with biological mechanisms. We demonstrate that Exposure of human epithelial cell to ion cyclotron energy resonance generated by a commercial electromedical device (Vega select 719) tuned to calcium ion at 7 Hz act as a differentiation factor, thus opening up the possibility to use particular extremely low frequency electro magnetic field protocols, in informative medicine.

  2. ELF magnetic fields in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles.

    Tell, R A; Sias, G; Smith, J; Sahl, J; Kavet, R


    We conducted a pilot study to assess magnetic field levels in electric compared to gasoline-powered vehicles, and established a methodology that would provide valid data for further assessments. The sample consisted of 14 vehicles, all manufactured between January 2000 and April 2009; 6 were gasoline-powered vehicles and 8 were electric vehicles of various types. Of the eight models available, three were represented by a gasoline-powered vehicle and at least one electric vehicle, enabling intra-model comparisons. Vehicles were driven over a 16.3 km test route. Each vehicle was equipped with six EMDEX Lite broadband meters with a 40-1,000 Hz bandwidth programmed to sample every 4 s. Standard statistical testing was based on the fact that the autocorrelation statistic damped quickly with time. For seven electric cars, the geometric mean (GM) of all measurements (N = 18,318) was 0.095 µT with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.66, compared to 0.051 µT (N = 9,301; GSD = 2.11) for four gasoline-powered cars (P electric vehicles covered the same range as personal exposure levels recorded in that study. All fields measured in all vehicles were much less than the exposure limits published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Future studies should include larger sample sizes representative of a greater cross-section of electric-type vehicles. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Rotifer digestive enzymes: direct detection using the ELF technique

    Štrojsová, M.; Vrba, Jaroslav


    Roč. 593, č. 1 (2007), s. 159-165 ISSN 0018-8158. [International Symposium on Rotifers /11./. Mexiko City, 08.03.2006-13.03.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6017202; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600170602; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : rotifers * enzyme localization * phosphatase * lipase * .beta.-N-acetylhexosaminidase Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.201, year: 2007

  4. Design of exposure systems for ELF electric field bioeffects research

    Kaune, W.T.; Decker, J.R.; Phillips, R.D.; Gillis, M.F.


    Two systems for exposure and sham-exposure of large numbers of rats and mice to uniform, vertical, 60-Hz electric fields have been constructed. The rat system contains four racks of four rectangular 1.0m x 2.2m exposure-electrodes that are stacked vertically with a separation between adjacent electrodes of 0.41 m. Any two of the four exposure racks may be energized to a maximum field strength of 150 kV/m. Each exposure electrode is equipped with 24 Lexan cages, each of which holds a single rat. The cage floor is a stainless steel screen that serves as one electrode. The system for watering animals is contained entirely within the electrode and does not protrude above the cage's floor, thereby preventing distortion of the exposure field and electrical shock or discharge as the animal drinks. The total capacity of the system is 288 rats. A similar system of two racks of five electrodes each is used to expose as many as 450 mice to fields at a maximum strength of 150 kV/m while sham exposing an equal number. Measurements of the electric field reveal an overall uniformity within 4% over the area to be occupied by experimental animals. The field inside a Lexan cage is reduced by about 3%. No corona-discharge has been detected. Measurements of ozone concentration in the rat and mouse exposure systems show no difference from background levels. Harmonic distortion has been eliminated by damping and filtering the high-voltage supply. Animals housed in close proximity are partially shielded from the electric field; the total body current in a rat model is reduced by 35 ± 5% when rats are placed in adjacent cages. (author)

  5. Effects of Strong Local Sporadic E on ELF Propagation.


    Huygens diffraction model (e.g., Marcuse , 1972). The model is similar to that used by Crombie. Unlike Crombie’s work however , the Fresnel approximation...40. Marcuse , D., “Light transmission optics ,” Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York , 1972. Papper t , R. A. & Moler , W. F., “A theoretica’ study of...ATTN Donald Dubbert O1 CY ATTN Herbert Rend University of IllinoisDepartment of Electrical Engineering Develco Urbana , IL 61803 530 Logue Avenue O2CY

  6. Extremely intense ELF magnetosonic waves: A survey of polar observations

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Santolík, Ondřej; Lakhina, G. S.


    Roč. 119, č. 2 (2014), s. 964-977 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Magneotosonic waves * plasmaspheric hiss * plasmasphere * substorm protons * mode conversion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014

  7. Two types of magnetospheric ELF chorus and their substorm dependences

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Smith, E.J.


    Extremely low frequency (10--1500 Hz) magnetospheric chorus has been analyzed to investigate a possible dependence on substorms. Care was taken to separate effects from temporal effects by analyzing an entire year of data acquired by the Ogo 5 search coil magnetometer. A major finding of the study of spatial dependences is that chorus occurs principally in two magnetic latitude regions. Equatorial chorus is detected near the equator, and high-latitude chorus is found at magnetic latitudes above 15 0 . When chorus in these two regions is analyzed separately, substorm dependences become apparent. Comparisons with AE indicate that equatorial chorus occurs primarily during substorms. High-latitude chorus is not strongly dependent on AE and often occurs during intervals of prolonged quiet with AE 0 , a region where cyclotron resonance is most efficient. The L value of maximum chorus occurrence increases from 5--8 postmidnight to 7--11 postdawn, a dependence which is consistent with generation by electrons which have undergone drift shell splitting. Delay times between substorms and the onset of equatorial chorus are consistent with a gradient drift of approx.25-keV electrons. Equatorial postmidnight chorus and postdawn chorus have similar occurrence rates and wave intensities. The maximum chorus ocurrence rates are 54% postmidnight and 56% postdawn

  8. African literacies: Which of them matter, and why?

    Kate Parry


    Full Text Available This paper draws on data collected at the Kitengesa Community Library in Masaka District of Uganda to discuss some of the different literacies that are important in African environments. First, the literacies associated with different languages are analysed, these being classified assupralanguages (English in Uganda, lingua francas (such as Kiswahili, and local languages (Luganda in Kitengesa. Literacies also vary with social context, and the paper considers the cases of school, family, peer group, and private literacies. Work at Kitengesa has shown that although literacy is generally thought of as part of school life, other literacies are developing in response to the opportunities provided by the library. Supralanguage and school literacies remain dominant, but it is argued that they will become much more productive if supported by other literacies and that it is a major function of a community library to help such other literacies to develop

  9. John Lennon, autograph hound: The fan-musician community in Hamburg's early rock-and-roll scene, 1960–65

    Julia Sneeringer


    Full Text Available This article explores the Beat music scene in Hamburg, West Germany, in the early 1960s. This scene became famous for its role in incubating the Beatles, who played over 250 nights there in 1960–62, but this article focuses on the prominent role of fans in this scene. Here fans were welcomed by bands and club owners as cocreators of a scene that offered respite from the prevailing conformism of West Germany during the Economic Miracle. This scene, born at the confluence of commercial and subcultural impulses, was also instrumental in transforming rock and roll from a working-class niche product to a cross-class lingua franca for youth. It was also a key element in West Germany's broader processes of democratization during the 1960s, opening up social space in which the meanings of authority, respectability, and democracy itself could be questioned and reworked.

  10. The Language Environments of Exchange Students at Scandinavian Universities

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip


    it is widely believed that many of them live in a lingua-franca English-speaking environment, so that Erasmus contributes to linguistic homogenisation rather than new This paper reports results of a study of the language environment and language learning experiences of some hundred Erasmus exchange students...... three times over the course of a term on which languages they used with whom, and how they perceived their English and Swedish as developing, and their language was also tested informally. A striking result was that a number of well-motivated students in certain subjects were able to attend lectures...... in Swedish after only a few weeks of courses. Nevertheless, most subjects spoke English most of the time, and mother-tongue use decreased as social groups came to be more integrated across national boundaries. Contact with Swedes was limited , but strongly associated with sport participation, which once...

  11. An investigation of how 100 articles in the Journal of Pragmatics treat transcripts of English and non-English languages

    Egbert, Maria; Yufu, Mamiko; Hirataka, Fumiya


    of Pragmatics. The study shows a differential treatment of English and non-English data. 45% of the articles which handle only English data do not refer to the studied language at all. In contrast, 94% of the authors publishing on non-English data signify the language. There is great variety in the degree...... to which non-English data is accessible, and there are almost as many different types of transcripts of non-English data as there are articles. Much of the real-life variety of non-English language use is lost in the data displays, and the original is not sufficiently accessible to allow for independent......In pragmatics, as in all sciences, English has become the lingua franca of international publication. The impacts of this state on pragmatics research are examined based on a meta-study of 100 recent articles with transcripts of audio- or video-taped social interaction, published in the Journal...

  12. The Language Environments of Exchange Students at some Scandinavian Universities

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    Language Environments of Exchange Students at Scandinavian Universities One aspect of, and one reason for, the internationalisation of Scandinavian universities is the increasing number of exchange students and postgraduates from outside Scandinavia attending courses here. Few of these students...... are primarily motivated by a desire to learn the local language. In fact it is widely believed that many of them live in a lingua-franca English-speaking environment, so that Erasmus contributes to linguistic homogenisation rather than plurilingualism. This paper reports results of an ongoing study...... of the language environment and language learning experiences of some hundred (so far) Erasmus exchange students in two institutions in Sweden and two in Denmark. Subjects had French, German and Spanish as mother tongues. This design is intended to enable the identification of language/culturespecific factors...

  13. The Dynamics of Terms in Accounting

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Nielsen, Sandro


    . However, an analysis of online dictionaries shows that these cannot cope with the dynamic nature of accounting terminology. We discuss a network of internet dictionaries in English, Danish, and Spanish that was compiled using the functional approach to specialised lexicography. We show how terminologists...... can work in subject fields where culture and context play a key role in the development of nationally accepted and internationally recommended terms, and propose ways to remedy deficiencies identified in the dictionaries examined. Finally, we discuss strategies for translating English metaphorical......European accounting terminology is dynamic as term creation and formation occurs on national, European Union and international levels. Although English is the lingua franca of accounting, international accounting standards in English exist on a par with their translations into other languages...

  14. Global Citizenship Education

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund


    published after 2000 was written by researchers based in the US and if you add other English-speaking countries such as Canada, England, Australia and New Zealand, the proportion is even higher. English in the field of education research often serves as the international lingua franca. Since there is also......Global citizenship as an idea has become an increasingly important issue on the educational agenda since the late 1970’s. The importance allotted to this issue is clear in the attention given to it by for example UNESCO where global citizenship education (GCED) is an area of strategic focus....... Increasingly schools all over the world are attempting to or expected to educate the global citizen, but how exactly do you educate the global citizen? What does this global citizenship consist of? While surely the type of training and education needed to train a global citizen will vary greatly depending...

  15. Hybridity and complexity

    Lønsmann, Dorte; Haberland, Hartmut


    -speaking but multilingual in practice. The book assesses the factors common to successful bilingual learners, and provides university administrators, policy makers and teachers around the world with a much-needed commentary on the challenges they face in increasingly multilingual surroundings characterized......Reflecting the increased use of English as lingua franca in today’s university education, this volume maps the interplay and competition between English and other tongues in a learning community that in practice is not only bilingual but multilingual. The volume includes case studies from Japan......, Australia, South Africa, Germany, Catalonia, China, Denmark and Sweden, analysing a range of issues such as the conflict between the students’ native languages and English, the reality of parallel teaching in English as well as in the local language, and classrooms that are nominally English...

  16. A dimensão afetiva na interação plurilingue: Dinâmicas de negociação de imagens e estereótipos na interação romanófona em chat

    Sílvia Melo-Pfeifer


    Full Text Available Given the importance of the Internet as a contact tool at an intercultural and multilingual level, and considering a definition of communication spaces as places where images about the Other emerge and are negotiated, we will analyze a corpus of plurilingual interactions in chat conversations (in Romance Languages, in order to study the dynamics of the images and stereotypes in this communication situation. We will attempt to uncover barriers to intercultural communication, expose some utopias about it (like the use of a lingua franca as a solution to communication problems and discover the possibilities propelling interaction, such as an affective relationship with the languages, the speakers and the communication situation. Data discussion will allow us to demonstrate how crossed images and stereotypes of the speakers towards others, their languages and cultures emerge in the interaction, how they feed and stimulate conversation and how they trigger ‘happy’ moments of plurilingual communication.

  17. Othering practice in a right-wing extremist online forum

    Baumgarten, Nicole


    This article investigates the linguistic-discursive construction of others in one international right-wing extremist online discussion forum. By means of a positioning analysis and an appraisal analysis, the article shows how reference to absent third parties is used to establish others...... as outgroups in forum posts aimed at an international audience. The analysis reveals an othering practice that links the online extremist discourse world with international and local as well as with political, social, and personal concerns, providing various opportunities for user affiliation. The results...... of this investigation contribute to understanding of the linguistic-discursive construction of online hate speech in multicultural virtual (rhetorical) communities; the study also highlights how social media and the use of English as a lingua franca combine to connect geographically and linguistically separate...

  18. The decline and fall of Esperanto: lessons for standards committees.

    Patterson, R; Huff, S M


    In 1887, Polish physician Ludovic Zamenhof introduced Esperanto, a simple, easy-to-learn planned language. His goal was to erase communication barriers between ethnic groups by providing them with a politically neutral, culturally free standard language. His ideas received both praise and condemnation from the leaders of his time. Interest in Esperanto peaked in the 1970s but has since faded somewhat. Despite the logical concept and intellectual appeal of a standard language, Esperanto has not evolved into a dominant worldwide language. Instead, English, with all its idiosyncrasies, is closest to an international lingua franca. Like Zamenhof, standards committees in medical informatics have recognized communication chaos and have tried to establish working models, with mixed results. In some cases, previously shunned proprietary systems have become the standard. A proposed standard, no matter how simple, logical, and well designed, may have difficulty displacing an imperfect but functional "real life" system.

  19. The Decline and Fall of Esperanto

    Patterson, Robert; Huff, Stanley M.


    In 1887, Polish physician Ludovic Zamenhof introduced Esperanto, a simple, easy-to-learn planned language. His goal was to erase communication barriers between ethnic groups by providing them with a politically neutral, culturally free standard language. His ideas received both praise and condemnation from the leaders of his time. Interest in Esperanto peaked in the 1970s but has since faded somewhat. Despite the logical concept and intellectual appeal of a standard language, Esperanto has not evolved into a dominant worldwide language. Instead, English, with all its idiosyncrasies, is closest to an international lingua franca. Like Zamenhof, standards committees in medical informatics have recognized communication chaos and have tried to establish working models, with mixed results. In some cases, previously shunned proprietary systems have become the standard. A proposed standard, no matter how simple, logical, and well designed, may have difficulty displacing an imperfect but functional “real life” system. PMID:10579602


    Minodora Otilia Simion


    Full Text Available As English is considered the lingua franca of the twenty-first century, everyone needs to have a good command of English today and the importance of teaching English for professional uses and particularly in the field of tourism is undeniable. English proficiency is required in all professional areas but it becomes essential in the tourist industry because of its specific characteristics.. English Language has played an important role in the development of tourism and in this field, English is used widely for travel as well as in client contact and is of outmost interest at the tertiary level. But its interest should not be restricted to tourism students: English for tourism is one of the most attractive areas of English for Specific Purposes(ESP because, after all, all of us are tourists on various occasions nowadays.

  1. The current challenges of teaching ESP

    Fălăuş, A.


    Although the status of lingua franca can easily be claimed by English nowadays, there are always plenty of challenges involved in the process of teaching a foreign language. The simple mastering of the four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking) and the acquisition of general grammar and vocabulary may not be enough in some circumstances. ESP focuses on the specific needs of the learners, concentrating more on language in context and on the students’ need to acquire a set of professional skills and particular job-related functions. This paper, consequently, focuses on identifying the current challenges that teachers and students may encounter in the process of teaching and learning English for Specific Purposes.

  2. The Moral Reasoning of U.S. Evangelical and Mainline Protestant Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Cultural-Developmental Study.

    Jensen, Lene Arnett; McKenzie, Jessica


    This cultural-developmental interview study examined moral reasoning in relation to religious culture (evangelical, mainline Protestants), age (children, adolescents, adults), and moral issue (public, private; N = 120). Compared to adolescents and adults, children used more Ethic of Autonomy and less Ethic of Community reasoning. With age, differences between religious cultures became pronounced. Mainline adults invoked an Ethic of Divinity for private issues. Evangelical adolescents and adults used this ethic frequently, but more for public than private issues. These and other findings indicate that evangelical and mainline Protestants diverge on what should be society's moral lingua franca, and cast new and nuanced light on America's "culture wars." Results furthermore highlight comodulation of development and culture that requires life course research on moral reasoning. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. English with Flying Colors: The Aviation English and the International Civil Aviation Organization

    Kraśnicka Izabela


    Full Text Available There are several reasons for the English language to become lingua franca of aviation including some historical turning points for the world aviation and some specific linguistic features of the language itself. This paper aims to firstly present a short, yet interesting history of implementation of English as standardized language for aviation. It will provide introductory historical background, establishment of arguments necessary for standardization and leading to the implementation of the Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs within the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. It will then provide an overview of the ICAO’s actions to support its members states in implementation of the English language standards for aviation and try to evaluate the effects based on the powers granted to the Organization. Such evaluation will be presented in the comparative perspective with the powers and instruments used within the European Union to achieve the same goal - standardization of the aviation English.

  4. What is a pickaxe in Danish? Danish children’s engagement in English-language media

    Jensen, Signe Hannibal

    collected recently, it has not yet been coded an analyzed. However, results from the LDs show that many Danish children engage in English language mediated activities, that there are significant gender differences and that gaming and YouTube are related to language learning.......In an increasingly globalized and mediatized world, children’s spare time engagement in media may not be mediated in Danish; rather with English as the leading lingua franca, many children engage in activities mediated in English.    The present paper investigates the English-language media habits...... of seven Danish children between the ages of 7 and 10: four girls and three boys.  The children were interviewed in groups while showing the researcher which English-language media activities they engage in in their spare time. One child was interviewed on her own. The main focus of the interviews...

  5. Language policy from below:

    Mortensen, Janus


    . Not only is it at odds with the available empirical evidence, it also puts unnecessary constraints on the potential that transnational education holds for cultural and linguistic exchange and development. The article is based on a case study where the patterns of language choice of three student project......, to varying degrees, developed practice-based language policies ‘from below’ that allow for alternating and sometimes syncretic use of English and Danish....... internationalisation, and English is accordingly promoted as the ‘obvious’ language of instruction for international education in many university policies. This article argues that the idea that university internationalisation should equal the exclusive use of English as a lingua franca is essentially misguided...

  6. English as a medium of instruction at Danish universities

    Lueg, Klarissa


    This paper discusses possible policies to handle English as a medium of instruction for higher education (HE) in Denmark. It summarizes the de-facto status of the institutionalization of English as a lingua franca and EMI in Europe and relates the findings to the status quo of the academic......: the ‘cautiously progressive perspective’. This perspective supports further introduction of EMI, on condition that careful attention must be given to the way EMI is implemented. Possible lines of reactions, implications, and recommendations are introduced. These are relevant for university teachers that wish...... to encourage their students to participate in EMI classes and for university management and administration in order to provide the necessary conditions for a reasonable EMI use. They could further provide value for potential employers that support EMI education, especially in the field of communication....

  7. Going on exchange to Scandinavia to improve language skills

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    Most exchange students now come to Scandinavian countries not because they are students of the languages of the countries concerned, but because they wish to experience study abroad and can do so in Scandinavia through the medium of English used as a lingua franca. This paper reports on a three......-year study (2005-2007) of the language experiences and language-related attitudes of exchange students in Sweden and Denmark. The study includes some 240 subjects who were interviewed individually three times each during their stay in Scandinavia and who all, at the end of each interview, completed a simple...... vocabulary test and a picture description test. On this basis, the paper addresses issues such as the following: Though the incoming exchange students' studies are to be in the medium of English rather than Swedish/Danish, does language learning nevertheless still play a role in their motivation for going...

  8. Korbinian Brodmann (1868-1918) and his contributions to mapping the cerebral cortex.

    Loukas, Marios; Pennell, Christopher; Groat, Christopher; Tubbs, R Shane; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A


    Korbinian Brodmann is best remembered for his classification of cortical areas based on cytoarchitecture. He was influenced by such greats as Alzheimer, Vogt, Edinger, Nissl, and Weigert. Although first presented in 1903, Brodmann's "mapping" continues to be the lingua franca of cortical localization and his writings on this topic have become neurological classics. Many of his areas have gone on to be associated with various nervous functions such as hearing (areas 41 and 42) and vision (areas 17 and 18). Few textbooks of neurology, neuroanatomy, or neurosurgery fail to mention the important maps produced by Brodmann that are still used today. The present article discusses the life and influence of Korbinian Brodmann on our understanding of the human brain.

  9. Standing in the gap: ref lections on translating the Jung-Neumann correspondence.

    McCartney, Heather


    This paper considers the experience of translating the correspondence between C.G. Jung and Erich Neumann as part of the Philemon series. The translator explores the similarities between analytical work and the task of translation by means of the concepts of the dialectical third and the interactional field. The history and politics of the translation of analytic writing and their consequences for the lingua franca of analysis are discussed. Key themes within the correspondence are outlined, including Jung and Neumann's pre-war exploration of Judaism and the unconscious, the post-war difficulties around the publication of Neumann's Depth Psychology and a New Ethic set against the early years of the C.G. Jung Institute in Zurich, and the development of the correspondents' relationship over time. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  10. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Grafen, Alan


    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  11. Accentedness and intelligibility of Mandarin-accented English for Chinese, Koreans and Americans

    Hardman, Jocelyn


    English is used as a lingua franca not only throughout Asia, but also in Inner Circle countries for academic purposes. Due to wide variation in L2 English speech, however, mutual intelligibility is an increasing concern. Since accentedness does not necessarily correlate with intelligibility...... and results have been mixed as to the benefit of interlanguage match, a study focused on the academic context investigated the extent to which Mandarin-accented English was intelligible to L1 Mandarin listeners, as compared to Koreans and Americans, and whether intelligibility varied by talker segmental...... revealed that listener L1 and word familiarity were significant predictors of intelligibility, but that talker segmental production accuracy was not. A clear benefit for interlanguage match was found for the Mandarin L1 listeners with Mandarin-accented English as compared to the Korean listeners, however...

  12. Massive Predictive Modeling using Oracle R Enterprise

    CERN. Geneva


    R is fast becoming the lingua franca for analyzing data via statistics, visualization, and predictive analytics. For enterprise-scale data, R users have three main concerns: scalability, performance, and production deployment. Oracle's R-based technologies - Oracle R Distribution, Oracle R Enterprise, Oracle R Connector for Hadoop, and the R package ROracle - address these concerns. In this talk, we introduce Oracle's R technologies, highlighting how each enables R users to achieve scalability and performance while making production deployment of R results a natural outcome of the data analyst/scientist efforts. The focus then turns to Oracle R Enterprise with code examples using the transparency layer and embedded R execution, targeting massive predictive modeling. One goal behind massive predictive modeling is to build models per entity, such as customers, zip codes, simulations, in an effort to understand behavior and tailor predictions at the entity level. Predictions...

  13. Pronunciation Assessment in the Context of World Englishes

    Dimova, Slobodanka


    The globalization of English has initiated a debate of acceptability of competing norms, be they endonormative or exonormative (Davies, 1999; Gill, 1999). In WE’s view, exonormative orientations towards the native-speaker may be discriminatory against non-native speakers (NNS) of English, so...... it recommends a pluralized and pluricentric notion of world Englishes (Kachru, 1992). ELF’s standpoint, conversely, rejects native speaker norms in favor of endonormative realizations of lingua franca varieties. These normative issues are exacerbated, both theoretically and practically, in the context...... the Expanding Circle users, for which “phonological intelligibility” is the most important criterion (Jenkins, 2006a). The chapter will continue with a discussion of criticism of the current practices in language testing and assessment that claim that the field has failed to adopt the WE perspective...

  14. “When I speak English, I feel international”. Exchange students’ construction of social identity in Denmark

    Cancino, Rita

    “When I speak English, I feel international”. Exchange students’ construction of social identity in Denmark. Students from various countries participate in the English courses for Ph.D. and Master students at Aalborg University, Denmark. Here they try to achieve a fluency in English that permits...... them to participate in classes and to pass their exams in English, write their thesis in English, etc. The students have different nationalities and identities. While learning English, they try to adapt to Denmark and the Danish culture and language. English plays the role as the lingua franca per se...... in the globalized world and in Denmark aswell. Studies show that language influence a person’s social identity. In this paper I will present the case of a group of foreign students and the construction of identity while participating in English courses. Particularly interesting is the ‘international identity...

  15. Visual analysis of geocoded twin data puts nature and nurture on the map.

    Davis, O S P; Haworth, C M A; Lewis, C M; Plomin, R


    Twin studies allow us to estimate the relative contributions of nature and nurture to human phenotypes by comparing the resemblance of identical and fraternal twins. Variation in complex traits is a balance of genetic and environmental influences; these influences are typically estimated at a population level. However, what if the balance of nature and nurture varies depending on where we grow up? Here we use statistical and visual analysis of geocoded data from over 6700 families to show that genetic and environmental contributions to 45 childhood cognitive and behavioral phenotypes vary geographically in the United Kingdom. This has implications for detecting environmental exposures that may interact with the genetic influences on complex traits, and for the statistical power of samples recruited for genetic association studies. More broadly, our experience demonstrates the potential for collaborative exploratory visualization to act as a lingua franca for large-scale interdisciplinary research.

  16. Universitäten zwischen Mehrsprachigkeit und „international English“ – Sprachideologien und Einstellungen des Personals finnischer Universitäten zu Mehrsprachigkeit und Deutsch

    Sabine Ylönen


    Traditionally, multilingualism is valued in Finland. However, in an age of globalisation and internationalisation, with English as a lingua franca, it is worth asking what value languages other than English have. The aim of this study was to gauge the attitudes of Finnish university personnel towards the use of languages other than English, particularly German, thus revealing widespread language ideologies. The data for this study was comprised of approximately 2000 open-ended responses to a survey on the role of languages amongst Finnish university personnel in 2009. Content analysis was used to analyse the responses. The findings of this analysis showed that an ideology of multilingualism was clearly more widespread than an English-only ideology, and that the image of German has not as rapidly declined as the knowledge and use of the language. Despite this, the ideology of language use being connected to disciplines strongly persists.

  17. Intercomprehension - When Everyone Speaks Their Own Language and Understands Others

    Nataša Pirih Svetina


    Full Text Available Intercomprehension is a communication practice where two persons speak their mother tongue and are able to understand each other without being taught the language of their adressee. It is a usual practice between languages that belong to the same linguistic family, for example Slavic, Romance or Germanic languages. In the article, the authors present the notion of intercomprehension as an alternative to communication in English as a lingua franca. That kind of communication was known among Scandinavians, whereas the first teaching method was developped for Romance languages (EuRomCom at the beginning of the 21st century. Today, more methods exist including German and Slavic languages. In the article, the authors are enumerating some of them and also give a short outline of existing practices.

  18. Language attitudes and the ideology of the Nordic

    Thøgersen, Jacob Martin; Östman, Jan Ola


    This article discusses the rise and the current standing of “Norden” (the Nordic societies) as an imagined community (Anderson, Imagined communities, Verso, 1991). The ideology of Norden as a coherent community rests on the one hand on the perceived mutual intelligibility of the Scandinavian...... languages, used as mother tongue or as lingua franca. On the other hand the ideology of Norden rests on a sense of historical unity. Historically, the ideology of the Nordic grew out of the era of national romanticism. The present study therefore addresses the pertinent question of how the ideology...... of the Nordic fares in late modernity where ideology is under threat from more “rational”, e.g., financial lines of thinking....

  19. Unscrambling jumbled sentences: An authentic task for English language assessment?

    Betty Lanteigne


    Full Text Available Jumbled sentence items in language assessment have been criticized by some authors as inauthentic. However, unscrambling jumbled sentences is a common occurrence in real-world communication in English as a lingua franca. Naturalistic inquiry identified 54 instances of jumbled sentence use in daily life in Dubai/Sharjah, where English is widely used as a lingua franca. Thus it is seen that jumbled sentence test items can reflect real-world language use. To evaluate scrambled sentence test items, eight test item types developed from one jumbled sentence instance (“Want taxi Dubai you?” were analyzed in terms of interactivity and authenticity. Items ranged from being completely decontextualized, non-interactive, and inauthentic to being fully contextualized, interactive, and authentic. To determine appropriate assessment standards for English tests in schools in this region, the English language standards for schools and English language requirements for university admission in the UAE were analyzed. Schools in Dubai/Sharjah use Inner Circle English varieties of English (e.g., British or American English as the standard for evaluation, as well as non-native-English-speaker varieties (e.g., Indian English(es. Also, students applying to English-medium universities in the UAE must meet the required scores on standardized English tests including the IELTS and TOEFL. Standards for evaluation of communication in English involving tasks of jumbled sentences in classroom tests must reflect the language learning goals of the school and community. Thus standards for classroom assessment of English in Dubai/Sharjah are determined by local schools’ and universities’ policies.

  20. Designing LinguaBytes : a tangible language learning system for non- or hardly speaking toddlers

    Hengeveld, B.J.


    Technological advances are moving the field of industrial design towards intelligent products, systems and services. Today we, designers, have the possibility to create environments that are aware of, and responsive to our actions, needs and wishes. As such we are getting closer to what is commonly

  1. Il latino come lingua di comunicazione tra le case religiose nelle Terre Ceche

    Bobková, Kateřina


    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2017), s. 321-331 ISSN 0515-3190 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05167S Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : religious orders * narrative sources * communication * spoken Latin * vernacular languages * 17th–18th century * Czech Lands Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  2. Percezione della città di Palermo: quartieri, giovani, identità, lingua e dialetto

    Christoffersen, Andreas W


    Italiensk, Palermo, Sicilien, perceptual dialectology, sociolingvistik, dialekt, sprogholdning, sprog, identitet, unge......Italiensk, Palermo, Sicilien, perceptual dialectology, sociolingvistik, dialekt, sprogholdning, sprog, identitet, unge...


    Gleice Sousa


    Full Text Available A atividade proposta é uma introdução a coquetelaria, considerando um evento que já é realizada no IFG – Campus Goiânia, uma parceria entre as professoras de Operações de Bebidas e Língua Inglesa. As professoras desenvolvem uma atividade com alunos do curso de hotelaria quando estão no quarto período. O objetivo da aula é que os docentes vivenciem o uso da língua inglesa na produção de coquetéis, sendo na “mise en place”, organização do material que vai ser utilizado, ou na preparação e montagem das bebidas. No projeto, é analisado o uso do conhecimento teórico na execução da apresentação dos coquetéis em inglês .

  4. “Le parole che vengono da fuori”: i forestierismi nella lingua cinese contemporanea

    Alessandro Tosco


    Full Text Available This article explores how the words of foreign origin (loanwords, in Chinese wailaici are integrated in the modern and contemporary Chinese language. The phenomenon of the introduction of the loanwords in Chinese has become more and more productive, specially in the last thirty years. Over the time the Chinese language has devised many strategies to integrate foreign words; most of the words of Japanese origin are introduced as graphic loans, while the words introduced by Western languages (specially English are integrated as phonemic loans, loan-translations, semantic loans, or hybrid words. In recent years, many loanwords and neologisms have been created by using the language of the network, as the acronyms written in Latin letters.


    Giuseppe Sergio


    Full Text Available L’articolo prende in considerazione i diari della poetessa e fotografa Antonia Pozzi, nata nel 1912 e morta suicida nel 1938. Essi si presentano come particolarmente eterogenei, certo per la tipica “cavità” della forma diaristica, ma anche in ragione delle tre distinte tranches in cui vengono stesi: il Quaderno dal ’25 al ’27; le Note di viaggio nel 1933; il Diario intimo vero e proprio fra il ’35 e l’anno della morte. L’analisi si concentra sulle diverse fisionomie linguistiche dei diari e sulla funzione che Antonia Pozzi affida loro, funzione che è sia esistenziale che poetica. Nel Diario intimo, in particolare, la scrittura infatti si configura da un lato come pharmacon, pur elevandosi volentieri dalle contingenze a questioni filosofiche e letterarie, dall’altro come luogo in cui fissare immagini, riflessioni e impressioni in vista di una futura rielaborazione poetica, come dimostrano precise rispondenze fra gli uni e l’altra.  “Throbbing, laughing, nostalgic, passionate”language in the diaries of Antonia Pozzi The article studies the diaries of the poet and photographer Antonia Pozzi, born in 1912 and who committed suicide in 1938. They seem very heterogeneous due to their typical “cavity” form, but also because of their division into three separate sections: there are her notebooks from ’25 to ’27, travel notes from 1933, the intimate diary written between the '35 and the year of her death. The analysis focuses on the different language of the diaries and the functions that Antonia Pozzi gives them, functions that are both existential and poetic. In the intimate diary, in particular, the writing is on the one hand configured as a pharmacon, rising above contingencies to address philosophical and literary issues, but it is also a place to fix images, reflections and impressions in view of a future poetic revision, as shown by the precise correspondences present between them. 

  6. La città scrive: "détournements" nella cultura contemporanea di lingua francese

    Silvia Riva


    Full Text Available The marks of the events on the urban landscape are a city's writing. More than writings on a city - amongst which are the memorable work of Baudelaire, the ";flâneur";, and Apollinaire's Lettre-Océan -  they represent the analysis of the city that writes on its own texture. This phenomenon relies on a procedure of diversion and estrangement which turns famous places into uncommon areas and it finds amongst its founding models the cinematographic production of Francois Truffaut (Fahrenheit 451. A similar approach allows us to capture the significance of the work of Dominique Fourcade, one of the most important contemporary French poets. In MW Chute, a  poem dated 5th October 2001, he describes the horror of the collapse of New York City's twin towers. In this piece, Fourcade describes what happened to him on 9/11 not much from a man's perspective but rather from . a poetic standpoint. Ground Zero allows his writing to jump forward, and turn into a verbal city and labyrynth. His reflections on the urban landscape  which, collapses under the explosion become a map of dispersed images made of innumerabile détournements (detour aheads, of endless variants and deviations. The event becomes the model and shape of his writing.

  7. Linguaggio e corpo delle emozioni. Dewey, Nussbaum e la lingua di Saba

    Roberta Dreon


    Full Text Available The essay aims at drawing a comparison between Dewey’s theory of emotions and Nussbaum’s one, focusing the role of «corporeity» in human experience of emotions. Both the theories  are empirical verified by examinig a short story by Umberto Saba, Ernesto, wich the Roberta Dreon assumes as pertinent example of a narrative, literary way to express emotions.

  8. Anglofonia globale, subalternità culturale e progetti di dissoluzione della lingua nel sistema formativo italiano

    Generali, Dario


    Full Text Available Global anglophony, cultural subordination and projects of language dissolution in the Italian education system. This article points out the risks associated with the proliferation of courses taught in English language in the Italian universities and high schools. This policy, argues the author, is not adequate to solve the problem of the lack of knowledge of foreign languages by Italian students and, on the other hand, it threatens to de-qualify the teaching of non-linguistic disciplines. A further deterioration of higher education in Italy seems to be the predictable outcome.

  9. Eesti keeleuuenduse ja itaalia "questione della lingua" paralleelid ja põimumised / Daniele Monticelli

    Monticelli, Daniele, 1970-


    Itaalia keele korraldamisel ja uuendamisel osalenud teadlaste ja kirjanike retoorikast, argumenteerimise strateegiatest ja keelekorralduse teoreetilistest alustest, kõrvutades neid eesti keeleuuenduse analoogsete aspektidega


    Graziella Favaro


    Full Text Available Si assiste nella scuola italiana  ad un cambiamento  importante che riguarda i bambini e i ragazzi stranieri inseriti: aumentano di anno in anno  coloro che sono nati in Italia e che entrano nel sistema scolastico  nei tempi e modi comuni ai coetanei autoctoni  mentre  diminuisce il numero di  coloro che arrivano qui dal paese d’origine per ricongiungersi ai famigliari. Ma come parlano i bambini stranieri nati in Italia ? Quali caratteristiche interlinguistiche ha l’italiano dei “futuri cittadini”? Una ricerca osservativa  ha coinvolto alcuni  bambini stranieri di cinque anni inseriti nella scuola dell'infanzia  e ha  cercato di  descrivere l’italiano delle  seconde generazioni, tra esitazioni, silenzi, conquiste e  creatività linguistica.     A “second and adopted” language. Second generation Italian speakers.   In Italian schools there is an important change which regards foreign children enrolled: every year there are more and more of them who were born in Italy and they enter the school system following the same rhythms as their native classmates while fewer and fewer foreigners arrive from their home countries to reunite with their families.  How do foreign children, born in Italy, speak?  What interlinguistic characteristics does the Italian spoken by these “future citizens” have?  This observational study focused on some foreign 5-year-old children in Italian preschools and attempted to describe the language used by these second-generation speakers, between hesitations, silences, achievements and linguistic creativity.

  11. Lo spazio della ricerca nell'area kushi (Nigeria: lingua, comunità e documentazione

    Gian Claudio Batic


    Full Text Available There are two questions that fieldwork researchers committed to the documentation and description of a minority language ask themselves before venturing into the depth of their projects: 'Whom am I dealing with?', immediately followed by 'Where am I?'. As trivial as they might appear, these two questions require a minimum of research to produce an answer able to define - without necessarily framing it - the target community and the role a researcher can play in it. This paper focuses on the case study of the Kushi, a Chadic speaking group of north-eastern Nigeria. 'People' and 'space' are analysed from a sociology-of-language perspective as well as in terms of a more general dynamics of migrations and composite societal formations.

  12. Importanza della diversità diatopica nell’insegnamento della lingua spagnola come L2

    Silvia Lafuente


    Full Text Available The syncretic cultural identity, in which the Spanish language and its linguistic hegemony are grounded and have reflected its political hegemony, led Spain to take on a predominant role in standardization over the centuries. However, the present situation of the Spanish language is characterized by pluricentrism covering the vast territory in which the language is spoken. This means that a number of cen- ters have set up prestigious standard models providing norms for a country or region. Therefore, a fair enactment of this polycentrism requires national norms, different ways of codification of the Spanish language, answers to geographical and social forms which have split after a common departure and the idea that the varieties of the Spanish language fulfill speakers’ different expressive requirements and help to enhance national identities, in the face of the domination of the peninsular model. This point of view must guide linguistic research, methodology in lexicography, school grammar, translation of foreign languages and especially the teaching of Spanish as L2.

  13. Instrumentos em Lingua Brasileira de Sinais para avaliacao da qualidade de vida da populacao surda

    Neuma Chaveiro


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir a versão em Língua Brasileira de Sinais dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para avaliar a qualidade de vida da população surda brasileira. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para a construção dos instrumentos adaptados para população surda em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. A pesquisa para execução do instrumento consistiu de 13 etapas: 1 criação do sinal qualidade de vida; 2 desenvolvimento das escalas de respostas em Libras; 3 tradução por um grupo bilíngue; 4 versão reconciliadora; 5 primeira retrotradução; 6 produção da versão em Libras a ser disponibilizada aos grupos focais; 7 realização dos grupos focais; 8 revisão por um grupo monolíngue; 9 revisão pelo grupo bilíngue; 10 análise sintática/semântica e segunda retrotradução; 11 reavaliação da retrotradução pelo grupo bilíngue; 12 filmagem da versão para o software; 13 desenvolvimento do software WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. RESULTADOS: Características peculiares da cultura da população surda apontaram a necessidade de adaptações na metodologia de aplicação de grupos focais quando compostos por pessoas surdas. As convenções ortográficas da escrita das línguas sinalizadas não estão consolidadas, o que trouxe dificuldades em registrar graficamente as etapas de tradução. As estruturas linguísticas que causaram maiores problemas de tradução foram as que incluíram expressões idiomáticas do português, muitas sem conceitos equivalentes entre o português e a Libras. Foi possível construir um software do WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. CONCLUSÕES: O WHOQOL-BREF e o WHOQOL-DIS em Libras possibilitarão que os surdos se expressem autonomamente quanto a sua qualidade de vida, o que permitirá investigar com maior precisão essas questões.

  14. Dalla grammatica alla pratica della lingua. Approcci linguistici medievali e umanistici

    Minne Gerben de Boer


    Full Text Available Recensione diLa pratica e la grammatica. Problemi, modelli e percorsi di formazione linguistica tra Duecento e Cinquecento, a cura di Franco Pierno e Giuseppe Polimeni, Paris, Classiques Garnier, 2014 (numero speciale di Cahiers de recherches médiévales et humanistes-Journal of Medieval and Humanistic Studies, 2/28, pp. 13-234, ISBN: 9782812445675.

  15. Lingua, memoria e identità nei racconti dei migranti ispanoamericani

    Maria Vittoria Calvi


    Full Text Available In a wide-ranging theoretical framework, principally based upon discourse analysis and the studies on language and identity, this article explores the construction of identity in a corpus of oral narratives collected among the Spanish speaking communities in Milan, by means of sociolinguistic and biographic interviews, seen as a complex event in which both parties act as active participant-observers. The study focuses on the features of these life stories, taking into account the ways in which the immigrants compare the two worlds an collocates themselves between the two cultures, the function of code-switching, the linguistic expression of ‘agency’ (Giddens 1979 and the use of deictics.

  16. Asimmetrie L1/L2: una sfida nella didattica di “lingua e traduzione”.

    Laura Salmon


    Full Text Available Asymmetries Between L1 and L2: a Challenge in the Teaching of "Language and Translation" Language teaching is deeply connected to the cognitive and brain sciences. The attribution of meaning of linguistic messages depends on the interaction between the communicant’s brain and the external world. The interaction is based on the cognitive and emotional experience shared by a L-community. Competence in L2 is acquired by the development of an internal data base of contextualised .units of living speech. (Lurija 1976. L2 teaching is particularly successful when the L2 units are inscribed in memory by means of the functionally equivalent L1 units. Selection of the L1/L2 correspondent units is due to the principle of markedness: each unit of L1 has a functional equivalent in one and only one unit of the L2. Because of the interlingual asymmetries (a set of Italian/Russian examples is given, functional equivalence differs from morphosyntactic and lexical equivalence. The competency in ascribing a degree of markedness to each linguistic unit needs the regular implicit acquisition of the L2 intonational and prosodic system; the processes of the metalinguistic conscious reflection are instead a .hindrance. to the procedural acting of a “living speaker”.

  17. Temel Söz Varlığı Bağlamında Türkçe Ve Almancada En Sık Kullanılan Elli Eylemin Söz-Eylem Kuramı Çerçevesinde Dil-Yapısal Ve Kültürel Açıdan Karşılaştırılması Basic Vocabulury In Context Comparison Of Perspective Lingua-Structure And Culture Most Frequently Used Fifty Actions In Turkish And German In The Frame Of Statement-Action Theory

    Faik KANATLI


    Full Text Available It is a common point linguists and language trainers agree on thatbasic vocabulary plays a determinant role in both native and secondlanguage acquisition and teaching. Another point on which thosescientists agree is that language acquisition and teaching is also anacquisition and teaching of culture. By leading aforementionedassumptions, in this study, most frequently used fifty verbs in Turkishand German will be classified according to statement-action theory andcompared in terms of lingua-structure and culture. Through thecomparison based on frequency and statement-action theory, this studyaims to make inferences that will probably contribute to both teachingGerman to Turkish speaker as a foreign language and teaching Turkishto German speaker as a foreign language. The study will be built ondata from Tschirner 2008 and Ozkan 2012. Correspondence and noncorrespondencebetween Turkish and German will be interpreted andjustified in most frequently used first fifty verbs.Main thesis of the study is that determination and comparison ofmost frequently used fifty verbs in native and foreign language will beeffective in teaching basic vocabulary gradually through action focusedgrammar (Valanzgrammatik. Another emphasis of the study is thatsequencing of first fifty verbs reflects the cultural priority of nativespeakers. Findings and inference of the study Turkish education,Turkish education as a foreign language and foreign language educationis expected to contribute. Findings and inference will be based onprogressive teaching of the word. In this regard, this study may resolvesome of the shortcomings in the literature. Gerek birinci gerek ikinci dil edinimi ve öğretiminde temel söz varlığının belirleyici bir rol oynadığı dilbilimci ve dil eğitimcilerinin ortaklaştığı noktadır. Söz konusu bilimcilerin görüş birliği içinde olduğu bir başka nokta, dil edinimi ve öğretiminin aynı zamanda bir kültür edinimi ve öğretimi oldu

  18. Trabalho infantil em Franca: um laboratório das lutas sociais em defesa da criança e do adolescente Child labour in Franca: a laboratory of the lute social in defensibility of the children and adolescents

    Elisiane Sartori


    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre o processo de conscientização e mobilização em torno do tema trabalho da criança, as lutas sociais no combate à sua eliminação e o processo de implementação de um dos programas mais atuantes na área - o IPEC (Programa Internacional de Eliminação do Trabalho Infantil. Através de um breve retrospecto histórico sobre a entrada do tema trabalho da criança na agenda nacional e internacional, descrevo a atuação dos atores sociais que fizeram parte da discussão e da criação de projetos e de programas de erradicação do trabalho infantil, discutindo a consolidação dos movimentos sociais em defesa das crianças e dos adolescentes. A análise das representações do trabalho infantil na família e no cotidiano das crianças e dos adolescentes está atravessada pela questão de gênero, observada nas falas das crianças e adolescentes, bem como de suas famílias.This paper proposes a reflection on the process of awareness gain and mobilization around the theme of child labor, the social struggles against the elimination of this practice, and the process of implementation of one of the most active programs in the area - the IPEC (International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour. Through a brief retrospective history of the inclusion of the theme of child labor on both the national and international agendas, this work describes the performance of the social actors participating in the process of discussion and preparation of projects and programs for eradicating child labor. It also discusses the consolidation of the social movements engaged in defending (the rights of children and adolescents. The analysis of the representations of child labor inside the family and in the daily routine of both children and adolescents is permeated by the gender issue, which is verified in the words of children, adolescents, and their families.

  19. Prevalence of sport injuries during the 53th Regional Games in Franca (SP, Brazil Prevalência de lesões esportivas durante os 53os Jogos Regionais em Franca (SP, Brasil

    Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform a survey about the prevalence, type and location of the injuries occurred in athletes of different modalities during the 53th Regional Games held in 2009. A total of 182 injured athletes being treated at the physical therapy clinic were included. Physical Therapy evaluation was performed to determine the anatomic location and type of injury, as well the sport modality. The results showed that mean age, height, weight and BMI were 23 years (±5.9, 1.73 m (±0.11, 71 kg (±14.22 and 24 kg/m² (±4 respectively. Proportionality to the number of athletes, handball athletes presented with higher number of injuries (4.25%, followed by indoor soccer players (3.7%, basketball (2.48%, volleyball (1.72% and soccer (1.63%. The most common type of injury were sprains with 29.7% of cases (n=54 and mostly from soccer players; followed by contracture - 26.9% (n=49, mostly from basketball players; and contusion -25.8% (n=47, mostly from handball and indoor soccer players. The type of injury showed a significant association with the sports modality (p=0.0016. The lower limbs accounted for 71.4% of all injuries including knee (23.1%, ankle (18.1%, thigh (17.0%, leg (10.4% and spine (9.9%. Preventive actions to avoid athletes' injury should be implemented in order to reduce the number of injuries in sports competitions such as in the Regional Games.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a prevalência, tipo e localização anatômica das lesões nos atletas durante os 53os Jogos Regionais de 2009. No total, 182 atletas participaram do estudo. A avaliação fisioterápica incluiu dados como local e tipo de lesão e modalidade esportiva. Os resultados mostraram que a média de idade, altura, peso e IMC foram respectivamente 23 anos (±5,9, 1,73 m (±0,11, 71 kg (±14,22 e 24 kg/m² (±4. Proporcionalmente ao número de atletas, o handball foi a modalidade esportiva que apresentou maior número de lesões (4,25%, seguidos pelos atletas de futsal (3,70%, de basquete (2,48%, de voleibol (1,72% e de futebol (1,63%. O tipo de lesão mais comum foi entorse com 29,7% dos casos (n=54, ocorridos com maior frequência em jogadores de futebol; seguido de contratura - 26,9% (n=49, ocorridos com maior frequência em jogadores de basquete; e contusão - 25,8% (n=47, ocorridos com maior frequência em jogadores de handball e futsal. O tipo de lesão mostrou significativa associação com o tipo de esporte praticado pelo atleta (p=0,0016. Os membros inferiores representaram 71,4% de todas as lesões, sendo o joelho o local mais acometido, com 23,1% dos casos, seguido do tornozelo - 18,1%, coxa - 17%, perna - 10,4% e coluna vertebral - 9,9%. Programas de prevenção para os atletas devem ser desenvolvidos e implantados a fim de reduzir o número de lesões em competições esportivas como os Jogos Regionais.

  20. Assessments and Viewpoints on the Biological and Human Health Effects of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Fields. Compilation of Commissioned Papers for the ELF Literature Review Project.


    E. Johnson. 1981. The effect of electromagnetic fields on alkaline phosphatase in clonal osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. Rogers, L. E., J. L. Warren...F. von Recum, and J. B. Park. 1979. Effect of electrical stimulation of canine skin, and percutaneous device-skin interface healing. In Electrical


    José Paulo da Silva


    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo apresentar a resistência da língua veicular do império Inca frente à cultura dominante europeia, considerando que a língua Quéchua foi adotada como a língua oficial, usada como comunicação entre a elite administrativa Inca, na capital do Império, em Cusco, como forma de domínio aos povos anexados ao império, e, também, utilizada como língua geral na conquista espanhola. Os dados apontam que, mesmo com a colonização marcante europeia e a imposição e continuidade da língua castelhana, atualmente a língua Quéchua é considerada como a língua nativa mais falada na América Espanhola; ela sobreviveu e se preservou até os dias de hoje por meio da promulgação de leis de sua preservação. Ela é reconhecida em mídias impressas e televisivas, e no contexto educacional e político. Esse processo de preservação e conhecimento da língua dos seus ancestrais proporcionou uma integração dos povos de origem inca com suas raízes culturais.

  2. WE-D-204-00: Session in Memory of Franca Kuchnir: Excellence in Medical Physics Residency Education


    Speakers in this session will present overview and details of a specific rotation or feature of their Medical Physics Residency Program that is particularly exceptional and noteworthy. The featured rotations include foundational topics executed with exceptional acumen and innovative educational rotations perhaps not commonly found in Medical Physics Residency Programs. A site-specific clinical rotation will be described, where the medical physics resident follows the physician and medical resident for two weeks into patient consultations, simulation sessions, target contouring sessions, planning meetings with dosimetry, patient follow up visits, and tumor boards, to gain insight into the thought processes of the radiation oncologist. An incident learning rotation will be described where the residents learns about and practices evaluating clinical errors and investigates process improvements for the clinic. The residency environment at a Canadian medical physics residency program will be described, where the training and interactions with radiation oncology residents is integrated. And the first month rotation will be described, where the medical physics resident rotates through the clinical areas including simulation, dosimetry, and treatment units, gaining an overview of the clinical flow and meeting all the clinical staff to begin the residency program. This session will be of particular interest to residency programs who are interested in adopting or adapting these curricular ideas into their programs and to residency candidates who want to learn about programs already employing innovative practices. Learning Objectives: To learn about exceptional and innovative clinical rotations or program features within existing Medical Physics Residency Programs. To understand how to adopt/adapt innovative curricular designs into your own Medical Physics Residency Program, if appropriate.


    Heloísa Helena Corrêa da Silva


    Full Text Available The first corresponding analyses considering the new dimensions of the social worker s work between 1995 and 2008 are presented in this article. These data point out the changes occurred in the social workers work market considering curricular formularizations, the dynamism of the projects of the profession and the identification of these with the social projects. This paper also points out the relation between the profession and the market as well as the relation between the work market world changes. lt is atso emphasized how these transformations occurred in the social workers practice within the industrial park of Manaus. The discussion that rises this issue is "the Work in the transformations contemporaries in the Amazon region and the particutarities of the professional work of the Social Worker.

  4. WE-D-204-00: Session in Memory of Franca Kuchnir: Excellence in Medical Physics Residency Education



    Speakers in this session will present overview and details of a specific rotation or feature of their Medical Physics Residency Program that is particularly exceptional and noteworthy. The featured rotations include foundational topics executed with exceptional acumen and innovative educational rotations perhaps not commonly found in Medical Physics Residency Programs. A site-specific clinical rotation will be described, where the medical physics resident follows the physician and medical resident for two weeks into patient consultations, simulation sessions, target contouring sessions, planning meetings with dosimetry, patient follow up visits, and tumor boards, to gain insight into the thought processes of the radiation oncologist. An incident learning rotation will be described where the residents learns about and practices evaluating clinical errors and investigates process improvements for the clinic. The residency environment at a Canadian medical physics residency program will be described, where the training and interactions with radiation oncology residents is integrated. And the first month rotation will be described, where the medical physics resident rotates through the clinical areas including simulation, dosimetry, and treatment units, gaining an overview of the clinical flow and meeting all the clinical staff to begin the residency program. This session will be of particular interest to residency programs who are interested in adopting or adapting these curricular ideas into their programs and to residency candidates who want to learn about programs already employing innovative practices. Learning Objectives: To learn about exceptional and innovative clinical rotations or program features within existing Medical Physics Residency Programs. To understand how to adopt/adapt innovative curricular designs into your own Medical Physics Residency Program, if appropriate.

  5. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: A Summary Report for 1982-1992


    fields is tied directly to the uniformity of soil conductivity and is further affected by the presence of anomalies such as rocks, tree roots, pools of...consistent when anomalies are avoided. Measurements made over time at the same location can also vary significantly because soil conductivity in turn is...following in each embryo was assessed: developmental stage, brain, eye, ear and branchial arches, heart, spinal cord and somites, limb buds, extraembryonic

  6. Training ELF Teachers to Create a Blended Learning Environment: Encouraging CMS Adoption and Implementation

    Cote, Travis; Milliner, Brett


    E-learning has become a crucial component of most tertiary institution's education initiatives (Park, Lee, & Cheong, 2007) and core to most e-learning strategies is the institution's Content Management System (CMS). A CMS has the potential to enhance language courses by facilitating engagement with class content, providing students with…

  7. ULF/ELF electromagnetic waves associated with the quasi-perpendicular earth's bow shock crossings

    Nozdrachev, M.N.; Petrukovich, A.A.


    The present paper is dedicated to the analysis of electromagnetic turbulence in the frequency range 0.1-75 Hz, associated with crossing of Earth's Bow Shock recorded by the Prognoz-8 and -10 satellites. The quasimonochromatic waves are identified in the shock transition region. Their frequencies, laying in the range from 2 Hz to 6 Hz upstream the shock ramp shift to the values less than 1 Hz in the downstream region. The amplitudes of these narrow emissions are high enough to provide the dissipation in the flow of the solar wind plasma. It is argued that spectra shapes in this frequency range 0.1-75 Hz are strongly affected by the Doppler shift

  8. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System Bio-Effects Library Development.


    44 0 I" " I II - I-I -~i it I it LI S oit ’II La S LLa ..5 I it° it L I itS CD L C La .L- 4.-,, .-.5 c i I- i F6 ’n 1-5 ., , -j -! i h- m. it C...aII a - ma U, a"I o aao a - co 9111 aa "L . ’ * Ia a- I’ c a - ,n a , • lit a w a i a l: * -I a". a aa nC-aa a i Li a IM * a;a -a O~~c acca aZ 31 a a a

  9. Exposure of Primates for One Year to Electric and Magnetic Fields Associated with ELF Communications Systems.


    row of A cages. Direct light reached the animal after passing through two layers of plexiglass that were designed to pass the full spectrum. The...the serum PHI activity. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Urease converted urea Into ammonia and carbon dioxide. Glutamic dehydrogenase catalyzed the

  10. Current densities in a pregnant woman model induced by simultaneous ELF electric and magnetic field exposure

    Cech, R; Leitgeb, N; Pediaditis, M


    The pregnant woman model SILVY was studied to ascertain to what extent the electric current densities induced by 50 Hz homogeneous electric and magnetic fields increase in the case of simultaneous exposure. By vectorial addition of the electric current densities, it could be shown that under worst case conditions the basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) guidelines are exceeded within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother, whereas in sole field exposure they are not. However, within the foetus the induced current densities do not comply with basic restrictions, either from single reference-level electric fields or from simultaneous exposure to electric and magnetic fields. Basic limits were considerably exceeded

  11. Electromagnetic field measurements in ULF-ELF-VLF [0.001 Hz─100 KHz] bands

    C. Di Lorenzo


    Full Text Available We are reporting the technological and scientific objectives of the MEM project. The MEM project has been activated in the INGV Observatory of L'Aquila to create in Central Italy a network of observatories in order to monitoring the electromagnetic signals in the frequency band [0.001 Hz–100 kHz]. Some examples of the instrumentation developed in the frame of the project are reported. An innovative technique, based on the wide band interferometry is proposed to obtain detailed information concerning the several detected electromagnetic sources. Moreover, data from each station will be elaborated to investigate different sectors as the structure of ground electric conductibility, the electromagnetic phenomena connected with seismic activity, the separation of the electromagnetic fields originated in the Earth's interior and the electromagnetic phenomena originated in the magnetosphere, in the ionosphere and in the Earth-ionosphere cavity.

  12. ELF whistler events with a reduced intensity observed by the DEMETER spacecraft

    Zahlava, J.; Nemec, F.; Santolik, O.; Kolmasova, I.; Parrot, M.


    A survey of VLF frequency-time spectrograms obtained by the DEMETER spacecraft (2004-2010, altitude about 700 km) revealed that the intensity of fractional hop whistlers is sometimes significantly reduced at specific frequencies. These frequencies are typically above about 3.4 kHz (second cutoff frequency of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide), and they vary smoothly in time. The events were explained by the wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, and a resulting interference of the first few waveguide modes. We analyze the events whose frequency-time structure is rather similar, but at frequencies below 1 kHz. Altogether, 284 events are identified during the periods with active Burst mode, when high resolution data are measured by DEMETER. The vast majority of events (93%) occurs during the nighttime. All six electromagnetic field components are available, which allows us to perform a detailed wave analysis. An overview of the properties of these events is presented, and their possible origin is discussed.

  13. ELF field in the proximity of complex power line configuration measurement procedures

    Benes, M.; Comelli, M.; Villalta, R.


    The issue of how to measure magnetic induction fields generated by various power line configurations, when there are several power lines that run across the same exposure area, has become a matter of interest and study within the Regional Environment Protection Agency of Friuli Venezia Giulia. In classifying the various power line typologies the definition of double circuit line was given: in this instance the magnetic field is determined by knowing the electrical and geometric parameters of the line. In the case of independent lines instead, the field is undetermined. It is therefore pointed out how, in the latter case, extracting projected information from a set of measurements of the magnetic field alone is impossible. Making measurements throughout the territory of service has in several cases offered the opportunity to define standard operational procedures. (authors)

  14. ULF/Lower-ELF Electromagnetic Field Measurements in the Polar Caps


    motion sensitive and the ice stations are subject to noisy motion from I ordinary ice movements (the bumping, scraping, and so on of ice floes) 56 ,zp and...the earth", Geomag. Aeron. USSR, English Transl., 17, 760-762, 1977. Cagniard, L., "Basic theory of the magneto- telluric method of geo- physical...1967. Nishida, A., Geomagnetic Diagnosis of the Magnetosphere, 256 pp., Springer, New York, 1978. Novysh, V.V., and G.A. Fonarev, " Telluric currents

  15. Assaying the Mutagenic Potential of ELF Radiation through Reverse Mutagenesis via the Ames Test

    Moga, Paul


    ...) on certain strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The strain of S-typhimurium used in the Ames test has a mutation on one gene of the histidine operon which prevents it from growing and replicating without the presence of histidine in the media...

  16. Translation initiation factor elF3 promotes programmed stop codon readthrough

    Beznosková, Petra; Wagner, Susan; Jansen, Myrte Esmeralda; von der Haar, T.; Valášek, Leoš


    Roč. 43, č. 10 (2015), s. 5099-5111 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05394S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : EUKARYOTIC RELEASE FACTOR-1 * RNA RECOGNITION MOTIF * TICK FEVER VIRUS Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.202, year: 2015

  17. DEMETER Observations of ELF Waves Injected With the HAARP HF Transmitter


    de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orléans, France. 3Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. E. J. Kennedy, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375, USA. M. Parrot, Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie

  18. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Vertical Electric Field Exposure of Rats: Irradiation Facility


    altered inside an animal cage even with wet or dry litter and full food and water containers. Rats weighing approximately 300 g in adjacent cages caused...with guard circuit Field inside empty cage Field inside complete cage ( litter (wet or dry) + food + water) Field variations caused by 300 g rat...blanket 250 Iron 60 Broiler 130 Hair dryer 40 Vaporizer 40 Refrigerator 60 Color TV 30 Stereo 90 Coffee pot 30 Vacuum cleaner 16 Clock radio

  19. Preliminary study : Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) effects on the growth of plant

    Roha Tukimin; Wan Norsuhaila Wan Aziz; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdulah


    A research has been done to study the effects of magnetic fields on the growth of plants.Two samples of maize seedlings and green beans have been studied. Helmholtz coil systems were used as magnetic field source at frequency 50 Hz with 440 mGauss field strength. Sample characteristics such height, leaf, colour and length of roots were observed. The results show that the magnetic field influenced the growth of the sample. The sample that were exposed to the magnetic field show faster growth compared to the controlled sample. (author)

  20. Compilation of 1993 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program


    boundary consists of the smallest possible number of straight line segments (each S 20 a long) which connect or enclose the largest possible number of...killed and six heavily damaged by a severe windstorm (Mroz et al. 1993). This mortality appears to have reduced the amount of foliage in the canopy...In August, 1992, there was a severe windstorm at the control site with damage to a number of banded trees on the study plots. Most of the damage was

  1. Compilation of 1991 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications Systems Ecological Monitoring Program


    crowned Kinglet 46 36 48 31 49 40 7 12 15 11 Reaulus satraoaa I Ruby-crowned Kinglet 19 9 4 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 Regulus calendula I Eastern Bluebird 0 0 3 2 0 0...determinations was done at 1250X magnification on a Zeiss microscope equipped with phase contrast illumination and an oil immersion 10OX Neofluar phase

  2. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Intercultural Awareness and the Iowa Air National Guard Elf One.


    IL Sleraes Editor . j .: Briefing on Saudi Arabia for 133rd Oil-rich Saudi Arabia, which will also warned against having porno - Air Force Base, Okla...Pornography (Playboy, Oui, etc., are cons;idered porno ). (d) Ficearms. (e) Pork or Pork by-products. (5) Return address must be included and clearly

  3. Rojas Zorrilla y otros dramaturgos españoles en la biblioteca de un sefardí de Gibraltar del siglo XVIII

    Díaz-Mas, Paloma


    Full Text Available The manuscript Ms 22090 preserved in the National Library in Madrid is the Cancionero de Abraham Israel, a collection of poems and songs in Spanish, English and lingua franca collected by a Sephardic Jew of Gibraltar from 1761 to 1770. The manuscript also included under the title «Notta de las comedias que tengo en libros» (‘list of the plays I have in books’, a small list of 36 titles of 17th Century Spanish plays, one of whose is Rojas Zorrilla’s Progne y Filomena. The aim of this article is to identify the plays cited in that list, paying special attention to the editions along the 18th century, and to analize how Jews of Gibraltar become from early times a link between Spanish modern culture and Sephardic Jews settled in Morocco, and contributed to the re-hispanization of Morrocan Sephardic language and culture that reach its highest point in the 20th century.El manuscrito Ms 22090 de la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid es el Cancionero de Abraham Israel, una colección de poemas y canciones en español, inglés y lingua franca recogidos por un sefardí de Gibraltar desde 1761 hasta 1770. En el manuscrito se incluye también, bajo el título «Notta de las comedias que tengo en libros» una breve lista de 36 titulos de obras teatrales españolas del siglo XVII, entre ellas Progne y Filomena, de Rojas Zorrilla. En este artículo identificamos las obras mencionadas en esa lista, con especial atención a las ediciones sueltas impresas en el siglo XVIII, y analizamos cómo los judíos de Gibraltar se convirtieron desde época temprana en un puente entre la cultura española peninsular moderna y la de los sefardíes de Marruecos, lo cual contribuyó a la rehispanización de la lengua y la cultura de los sefardíes marroquíes, que culminó en el siglo XX.

  4. Thirty Years After Bill 101: A Contemporary Perspective on Attitudes Towards English and French in Montreal

    Ruth Kircher


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a 2007 study that was conducted amongst 147 young anglophone, francophone and allophone Montrealers in order to shed light on their attitudes towards English and French in terms of status and solidarity. The study made use of both a questionnaire and a matched-guise experiment. The findings indicate that while a certain amount of status was attributed to French, most likely as a result of language policy and planning measures such as Bill 101, significantly more status was attributed to English—most likely a result of the utilitarian value that the language holds as the global lingua franca. Regarding the solidarity dimension, it appears that while the respondents recognised the social desirability of having an affective attachment to the French language, at a more private level, they held more positive attitudes towards English. These can tentatively be explained in terms of the respondents’ social identity. Résumé L’article ci-dessous présente une recherche menée en 2007 parmi 147 étudiants montréalais (anglophones, francophones et allophones qui eut pour objectif d’examiner leurs attitudes envers l’anglais comparé au français en terme de statut et de solidarité. Un questionnaire et une étude des faux-couples furent utilisés comme méthodes de recherche. Les résultats indiquent qu’un certain statut est attribué au français, ce qui est probablement une conséquence des lois langagières comme la Loi 101. Néanmoins, un statut plus important est attribué à l’anglais, ce qui est probablement une conséquence de sa valeur utilitaire comme lingua franca globale. En ce qui concerne la dimension de la solidarité, bien que les jeunes montréalais semblent conscients de l’importance sociale de se sentir attachés à la langue française, lorsque l’on considère un aspect plus personnel, ils tendent à manifester des attitudes plus positives envers l’anglais. Ces attitudes plus positives

  5. La globalización de la lengua inglesa y los estudios postcoloniales



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo parte de la premisa de que la expansión de la lengua inglesa por el mundo y su aceptación actual como lingua franca se deben, por una parte, al impacto del Imperio Británico en todos los continentes a partir del siglo XVI y hasta comienzos del XX, y, por otra, al dominio económico, cultural y militar de los Estados Unidos a lo largo del siglo XX y hasta nuestros días. Así pues, la lengua inglesa aparece estrechamente unida al fenómeno colonial e imperialista. Este artículo tratará de exponer, desde un punto de vista literario, el debate abierto dentro de los estudios postcoloniales en torno al uso y cualidad de la lengua inglesa como herramienta literaria y política utilizada por los colonizadores para imponer su autoridad sobre el mundo colonizado y, posteriormente, apropiada y/o rechazada por las culturas postcoloniales en su afán por subvertir la autoridad occidental y reafirmarse en su propia identidad nacional.ABSTRACT: This article is based on the assumption that the expansion of the English language across the world, as well as its current acceptance as a lingua franca, can be traced back both to the impact of the British Empire on all continents since the sixteenth century, and to the economic, military and cultural supremacy of the United States during the twentieth century and up to the present. Hence, a link between the English language and the colonial and imperialist processes is firmly established. This article aims at presenting, from a literary vantage point, the debate originated within the discipline of postcolonial studies concerning the use of the English language as a literary and a political tool, firstly used by the colonizers to impose their authority on the colonized world, and eventually either accepted or rejected by the different postcolonial cultures on their way to self-affirmation and in the search for an authentic national identity.

  6. Alcune osservazioni sui fenomeni dell'ansia nell'apprendimento di una lingua straniera / Vittoriano Renó

    Renó, Vittoriano


    Võõrkeeleõpingutega seotud ängist. Artiklis püstitatakse hüpotees, et õppejõu informaalne suhtumine võib aidata õpilastel teadmisi omandada, sest kõrvaldaks ängitekitavad faktorid, mis on seotud õppejõu ja õpilase vahelise sotsiaalse distantsiga

  7. Student-Teacher Dialogue Journals as a Tool for Developing Interactional Ability. Tesi di Laurea in Lingua Inglese.

    Morini, Emanuela

    A study investigated the features of discourse in the written student-teacher interaction in dialogue journals. It was assumed that such an activity would encourage the negotiation of meaning and roles, and that the data would provide evidence of that negotiation. Data were drawn from 32 journals written by 16-to-18-year-old students in an Italian…

  8. Do experimentum ao collapsus linguae: interseções sobre a crítica em Agamben e Carlito Azevedo

    Carolina Anglada de Rezende


    Full Text Available Partindo da antiga querela entre poesia e filosofia, presente já nos diálogos platônicos, objetiva-se investigar a maneira como a poesia crítica de Carlito Azevedo, na esteira do que Giorgio Agamben conceitua como crítica, mantém-se no limiar entre a mais fundamental experiência, que é a da linguagem poética, e a sua única possibilidade de experimentá-la de forma não cindida, que é criticamente.

  9. Manuais de ensino de lingua portuguesa na Província da Bahia no século XIX

    Emília Helena Portella Monteiro de Souza


    Full Text Available Este artigo se insere no campo de pesquisa sobre a língua portuguesa e a escolarização em perspectiva histórica. Dialoga-se com os estudos da história da cultura escrita no Brasil e com a constituição histórica do português brasileiro na formação das normas cultas. Tem-se, como objetivos, apresentar os manuais didáticos que circularam nas escolas baianas, em especial nas primárias, na segunda metade do século XIX, e proceder a considerações sobre duas gramáticas dirigidas à escola primária, na Bahia: a de Bernardino Martagão, (1880, e a de Hilário Ribeiro (1907 [1882]. Essas considerações devem evidenciar como a escola se relacionou com os padrões normativos em voga no século XIX. Do ponto de vista metodológico, parte-se de um corpus já constituído, como parte do projeto de pesquisa. Os manuais didáticos, objetos de investigação, foram inventariados em bibliotecas de Salvador-Ba, e em documentos oficiais da época.

  10. Bases psicolingüísticas determinantes no proceso de aprendizaxe de segundas linguas : estudos de caso

    Muradas Sanroman, Macarena


    El objetivo del presente estudio de caso es conocer en profundidad la frecuencia de uso de estrategias de aprendizaje por parte de un grupo de alumnos de inglés como L2 (nivel C1) de una EOI española, así como las percepciones de un grupo de docentes de este mismo centro en relación tanto con esta cuestión como con otras tales como el grado de conocimiento de las estrategias de aprendizaje, su utilidad o la atención que reciben en el ámbito educativo. Para ello, se toma como punto de parti...

  11. Margherita Maria Di Nino, I Fiori campestri di Posidippo. Ricerche sulla lingua e lo stile di Posidippo di Pella

    Yannick Durbec


    Full Text Available L’édition du papyrus P. Mil. Vogl. VIII 309 par Guido Bastianini et Claudio Gallazzi fut pour les spécialistes de l’Antiquité un événement majeur. Les centaines de publications qui s’ensuivirent ont ouvert de multiples pistes de réflexion, préparant la voie pour des travaux de synthèse. Le présent ouvrage de Margherita Maria Di Nino, qui est le fruit de la réélaboration de sa thèse soutenue à l’université de Bologne, est plus que cela. En effet, ce volume o...

  12. O galego como lingua de contacto co castelán riopratense: unha relación esquecida

    Carsten Sinner


    Full Text Available Unlike contact between Spanish and other languages such as Catalan, contact between Galician and Spanish, two closely related Ibero-Romance languages, has hardly been studied at all. Studies of contact between Galician and American Spanish are rarer still. While contact between Spanish and immigrant languages such as Italian, French, German or even Danish in the Rio de la Plata area and Argentina in particular has been the topic of numerous studies, Spanish-Galician contact is generally ignored. The main focus of the present article is the curious fact that the Galician language has never attracted the attention of Argentinian linguists and scholars in Hispanic Linguistics, not even in the area within the latter dedicated specifically to Argentina’s national language. This fact seems to be related to gen- eral cultural prejudice against Galicians in the Rio de la Plata area. Examples are presented of the influence of Galician on Argentinian Spanish. The article is based on a detailed study of the existing linguistic literature and a number of recent empirical studies in the framework of a research project on language contact among Ibero- -Romance Languages in the Department for Applied Linguistics and Translation Studies at Leipzig University.

  13. Communicative intercultural competence in Medical Postgraduate Education in Cuba

    Adela Hernández Díaz


    Full Text Available This article describes the results of the investigation “Developing Communicative Intercultural Competence in Medical Postgraduate Education in Cuba through English”, a master´s degree thesis whose aim was to design a postgraduate course of English for Specific Purposes which would focus on the development of the communicative competence of doctors going to health missions in English-speaking countries or where English is spoken as a lingua franca.This course is based on Developmental Pedagogy, the Communicative Approach and Task-Based Learning. It emphasizes cultural and important intercultural issues to be kept in mind during doctor-patient interviews, doctor-doctor relationships and doctor-family exchanges in a professional context so as to make it possible to establish cultural differences and similarities between the students´ culture and the foreign country´s culture.This is an exploratory investigation with a fundamentally quantitative focus using resources of the qualitative one. This design is a curricular document with all its didactic components, aimed at the development of intercultural communicative competence that responds to the current needs of the participants. 


    Marsudi Marsudi


    Full Text Available Bahasa Indonesia lahir dari Bahasa Melayu yang pada zaman dulu menjadi bahasa lingua franca, yakni bagasa perdagangan antarpulau di nusantara. Kemudian dikukuhkan menjadi bahasa persatuan melalui momen Sumpah Pemuda. Bahasa Melayu menjadi dominan di kala itu dikarenakan fleksibelitasnya akan bahasa-bahasa lain. Dengan fakta tersebut, tepatnya 28 Oktober 1928, bahasa Melayu diangkat sebagai bahasa persatuan dan tahun 1945 diresmikan sebagai bahasa negara. Permasalahan yang muncul dalam eksistensi bahasa Indonesia adalah bagaimanakah cara mempertahankan eksistensi bahasa Indonesia? Tidak hanya masalah eksistensi saja, tetapi sanggupkah bahasa-bahasa daerah di negeri ini memperkaya kosa kata dan istilah bahasa Indonesia? Selain itu, bagaimanakah potensi bahasa Indonesia di era globalisasi? Eksistensi bahasa Indonesia, selain dipengaruhi kekonsistenan penggunaanya, juga didukung oleh kemampuan bahasa tersebut dalam mengungkapkan fenomena baru yang berkembang. Oleh karena itu, perkembangan bahasa Indonesia sangat tergantung pada tingkat keberhasilan menciptakan kosa kata dan istilah-istilah baru. Bahasa Indonesia sudah mulai mengglobal karena bahasa Indonesia memiliki sifat terbuka dan demokratis. Perkembangan yang terjadi sekarang dan yang datang tidak hanya menyangkut masalah struktur dan bahasa, tetapi lebih jauh mengungkapkan permasalahan manusia baru yang dialami manusia di dalam sebuah proses perubahan dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan

  15. Linguistic Justice for which Demos? The Democratic Legitimacy of Language Regime Choices

    Garcia Núria


    Full Text Available In the European Union language regime debate, theorists of multiculturalism and cosmopolitanism have framed their arguments in reference to different theories of justice and democracy. Philippe Van Parijs advocates the diffusion of a lingua franca, namely English, as means of changing the scale of the justificatory community to the European level and allowing the creation of a transnational demos. Paradoxically, one key dimension of democracy has hardly been addressed in this discussion: the question of the democratic legitimacy of language regime choices and citizens’ preferences on the different language regime scenarios. Addressing the question of the congruence of language policy choices operated by national and European elites and ordinary citizens’ preferences, this paper argues first that the dimension of democratic legitimacy is crucial and needs to be taken into account in discussions around linguistic justice. Criticizing the assumption of a direct correspondence between individuals’ language learning choices and citizens’ language regime preferences made by different authors, the analysis shows the ambivalence of citizens’ preferences measured by survey data. The article secondly raises the question of the boundaries of the political community at which the expression of citizens’ preferences should be measured and demonstrates that the outcome and the fairness of territorial linguistic regimes may vary significantly according to the level at which this democratic legitimacy is taken into account.

  16. Theologia and the ideologia of language, nation and gender – Gateway to the future from a deconstructed past

    Andries G. van Aarde


    Full Text Available The article is a contribution to the centennial celebration of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria. It forms part of the section in the programme titled ‘Ethos – Critical perspectives on our past and a gateway to our future’ and is dedicated to Yolanda Dreyer who was the first female professor appointed in the Faculty of Theology of the University of Pretoria. The article reflects on aspects of the present-day populist discourse in South Africa and globally, which is enhanced by neonationalistic separatism. The following issues are critically discussed: homophobia regarding sexual minorities, a lack of sensitivity for the negative effects of male domination and the objection to English as the lingua franca for teaching. These aspects are assessed against the background of the Derridean notion of ‘deconstruction’ and the contributions of the first professors employed in the Faculty of Theology since its inception in 2017.

  17. Technological Devices Improving System of Translating Languages: What About their Usefulness on the Applicability in Medicine and Health Sciences?

    Adilia Maria Pires Sciarra


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. OBJECTIVE: To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. METHODS: A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. RESULTS: As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. CONCLUSION: Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.

  18. Requests for Help in a Multilingual Professional Environment Testimonies and Actantial Models

    Lejot Eve


    Full Text Available Professional multilingual environments using English as a lingua franca are prone to imbalances in communication, linguistic insecurity and rising tension. Non-native English speakers develop avoidance strategies in order to lessen their apprehension. To overcome these imbalances, this research aims to understand the relationships formed around languages focusing on the dynamics of integration and the requests for help. Guided by the actantial models of Greimas (1966, this qualitative study employs semiolinguistics and discourse analysis, including 19 narrative interviews with employees of Airbus and UNESCO in Hamburg, Germany in 2013. This methodology draws on actors connected through relationships of power and/or collaboration. The actantial models applied seek linguistic input through designational paradigms, shifters and modal occurrences. The actantial models illustrate how a good language competence provides a better understanding of one’s direct as well as passive environment. The learning process is shown to be a conduit to integration. The actantial model and discourse analysis shed light on the complex situation of multilingual communication settings by highlighting the influence of individuals’ linguistic skills. As a matter of fact, depending on the role of each individual in a given situation, lending a helping hand sometimes equates to upsetting the balance.




    Full Text Available This paper deals with an analysis of the English language, as lingua franca of the Internet, mainly online business environment. If a business has already developed a Web site, it is important to translate the site into the target language of a particular foreign market. It sounds easy, but is a literal translation all that's required for a different culture? We shall see in the next parts of this paper. Indeed, nowadays, the whole humanity has at its disposal an exceptional, very powerful medium. The new communications technology is causing a revolution in many aspects of our lives, and its future effects are still unforeseeable English is an integral part of business communication, job opportunities and globalization. Cultural translation goes beyond mere linguistic translation, since it involves designing a Web site that is sensitive to the cultural differences, between the originated country and the target country. If you ask any search marketer what the main issue is when trying to optimize website(s for Europe he will tell you: language.

  20. Promoting reading skills or wasting time? Students’ perceived benefits of reading in an intermediary programme at the Vaal University of Technology

    Linda Scott


    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the substantial transformation of education in South Africa in the last 20 years, specifically to redress the past inequalities, the challenges are ongoing. These challenges include tertiary institutions having to accommodate a culturally and linguistically diverse group of students, often second-language (L2 English speakers, in an English lingua franca classroom. This study investigated the reading attitudes and habits of students in an intermediary programme of a tertiary institution and any perceived changes to these attitudes or habits, as well as their perceptions of the promotion of reading by the programme. On successful completion of the intermediary programme, students register for the compulsory first-year English distance learning course and are required to complete a placement test. Results for students who attended the intermediary programme were compared with those of students who did not attend the intermediary programme but registered directly for mainstream. The teaching of reading appeared invaluable at the tertiary level with the indication that students’ attitudes and behaviour changed and that they inter alia realised the academic value thereof, made decisions to take up reading as a hobby and discovered new genres. Keywords: Reading; Linguistically diverse