WorldWideScience

Sample records for lingonberry vaccinium vitis-idaea

  1. Characterization of phenolic compounds from lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Sari; Kartimo, Heikki; Mattila, Sampo; Tolonen, Ari

    2006-12-27

    Phenolic compounds from the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were identified using LC-TOFMS, LC-MS/MS, and NMR experiments. The compounds were extracted from the plant material using methanol in an ultrasonicator and further isolated and purified using solid-phase extraction and preparative liquid chromatographic techniques. A total of 28 phenolic compounds were at least tentatively identified, including flavonols, anthocyanidins, catechins and their glycosides, and different caffeoyl and ferulic acid conjugates. This is apparently the first report of coumaroyl-hexose-hydroxyphenol, caffeoyl-hexose-hydroxyphenol, coumaroyl-hexose-hydroxyphenol, quercetin-3-O-alpha-arabinofuranoside, kaempferol-pentoside, and kaempferol-deoxyhexoside in the plant, and the flavonol acylglycosides quercetin-3-O-[4' '-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl)]-alpha-rhamnose and kaempferol-3-O-[4' '-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl)]-alpha-rhamnose are presented here for the first time ever. In addition, more detailed structure in comparison to earlier reports is described for some compounds previously known to exist in lingonberry.

  2. Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Exhibits Antidiabetic Activities in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda M. Eid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium vitis-idaea, commonly known as lingonberry, has been identified among species used by the Cree of Eeyou Istchee of northern Quebec to treat symptoms of diabetes. In a previous study, the ethanol extract of berries of V. vitis-idaea enhanced glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK pathway. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of plant extract in a dietary mouse model of mild type 2 diabetes. C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, ∼35% lipids for 8 weeks that become obese and insulin-resistant (diet-induced obesity, DIO were used. Treatment began by adding V. vitis-idaea extract to HFD at 3 different concentrations (125, 250, and 500 mg/Kg for a subsequent period of 8 weeks (total HFD, 16 weeks. The plant extract significantly decreased glycemia and strongly tended to decrease insulin levels in this model. This was correlated with a significant increase in GLUT4 content and activation of the AMPK and Akt pathways in skeletal muscle. V. vitis-idaea treatment also improved hepatic steatosis by decreasing hepatic triglyceride levels and significantly activated liver AMPK and Akt pathways. The results of the present study confirm that V. vitis-idaea represents a culturally relevant treatment option for Cree diabetics and pave the way to clinical studies.

  3. Identification of phenolic compounds from lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and hybrid bilberry (Vaccinium x intermedium Ruthe L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkanen, Juho; Mattila, Sampo; Jaakola, Laura; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tolonen, Ari

    2009-10-28

    Phenolic compounds from leaves of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and the natural hybrid of bilberry and lingonberry (Vaccinium x intermedium Ruthe L., hybrid bilberry) were identified using LC/TOF-MS and LC/MS/MS after extraction from the plant material in methanol in an ultrasonicator. The phenolic profiles in the plants were compared using the LC/TOF-MS responses. This is the first thorough report of phenolic compounds in hybrid bilberry. In total, 51 different phenolic compounds were identified, including flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, flavonols and their glycosides, and various phenolic acid conjugates. Of the identified compounds, 35 were detected in bilberry, 36 in lingonberry, and 46 in the hybrid. To our knowledge, seven compounds were previously unreported in Vaccinium genus and many of the compounds are reported for the first time from bilberry and lingonberry.

  4. Total Phenol Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. from Several Areas in the Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva LASLO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and the total phenol content of Vaccinium vitis idaea L. berry fruit from five different localities with distinct growth sites in the Eastern Carpathians. The antibacterial effect of lingonberry was studied on nine selected Gram-positive and negative, foodborne, illness causing and spoilage bacteria. The total phenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The present results showed stronger antibacterial effect of lingonberry on Gram-negative bacteria, especially on Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total phenol content varied between 3.72 and 2.1 mM GAE/ml. As data suggested, Vaccinium vitis-idaea fruits originating from different geographic regions and environment, differ from each other in terms of bioactive compound quantity and activity. In the selection of new perspective cultivars of lingonberry, the geographical origin of fruits must be considered. Two Step Cluster analysis detected relatively well supported relationship between samples provided from similar growth sites. Correlation analysis showed no correlation between altitude, phenol content and antimicrobial activity.

  5. Hydrophilic carboxylic acids and iridoid glycosides in the juice of American and European cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. oxycoccos), lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea), and blueberries (V. myrtillus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Krogfelt, Karen A; Cornett, Claus;

    2002-01-01

    iridoid glucosides were shown to be monotropein and 6,7-dihydromonotropein by MS and NMR spectroscopy. A fast reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of the hydrophilic carboxylic acids was developed and used for analyses of cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry juices. The level of hydrophilic...... carboxylic acids in cranberries was 2.67-3.57% (w/v), in lingonberries 2.27-3.05%, and in blueberries 0.35-0.75%. In lingonberries both iridoid glucosides were present, whereas only monotropein was present in blueberries.......Analysis of the hydrophilic fraction of cranberry juice by reversed-phase HPLC using an Aqua LUNA column with diode array or MS detection revealed the presence of quinic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid, and citric acid. For the first time, two iridoid glucosides were found in the juice. The two...

  6. Characterization of in vitro antifungal activities of small and American cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos L. and V. macrocarpon Aiton) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) concentrates in sugar reduced fruit spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermis, Ertan; Hertel, Christian; Schneider, Christin; Carle, Reinhold; Stintzing, Florian; Schmidt, Herbert

    2015-07-02

    In this study, cranberry and lingonberry concentrates were added to commercial sugar-reduced fruit spreads (raspberry-Aloe vera, strawberry-guava, and strawberry-lime), and tested for their antifungal activities. Selected strains of the species Absidia glauca, Penicillium brevicompactum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, as well as xerophilic environmental isolates of the genera Penicillium and Eurotium were used for challenge testing. Initially, varying concentrations of synthetic antifungal agents, such as sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate were tested against these fungi on wort agar containing 31% fructose at different pH values. Subsequently, the experiments were conducted in fruit spreads containing different concentrations of cranberry and lingonberry concentrates. The results of this study demonstrate that these concentrates were able to inhibit growth of visible colonies of xerophilic and non-xerophilic fungi. Cranberry and lingonberry concentrates are interesting candidates for natural preservation against fungal growth in sugar reduced fruit spreads.

  7. Persistent history of the bird-dispersed arctic-alpine plant Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Ericaceae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hajime; Yoneta, Yusuke; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Barkalov, Viachenslav; Yakubov, Valentin; Brochmann, Christian; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-05-01

    Arctic-alpine plants have expanded and contracted their ranges in response to the Pleistocene climate oscillations. Today, many arctic-alpine plants have vast distributions in the circumarctic region as well as marginal, isolated occurrences in high mountains at lower latitudes. These marginal populations may represent relict, long-standing populations that have persisted for several cycles of cold and warm climate during the Pleistocene, or recent occurrences that either result from southward step-wise migration during the last glacial period or from recent long-distance dispersal. In light of these hypotheses, we investigated the biogeographic history of the marginal Japanese populations of the widespread arctic-alpine plant Vaccinium vitis-idaea (Ericaceae), which is bird-dispersed, potentially over long distances. We sequenced three nuclear loci and one plastid DNA region in 130 individuals from 65 localities covering its entire geographic range, with a focus on its marginal populations in Japan. We found a homogenous genetic pattern across its enormous range based on the loci analysed, in contrast to the geographically structured variation found in a previous study of amplified fragment length polymorphisms in this species. However, we found several unique haplotypes in the Japanese populations, excluding the possibility that these marginal populations result from recent southward migration. Thus, even though V. vitis-idaea is efficiently dispersed via berries, our study suggests that its isolated populations in Japan have persisted during several cycles of cold and warm climate during the Pleistocene.

  8. Application of fungistatics in soil reduces N uptake by an arctic ericoid shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F.; Johnson, L.; Simpson, N.B.; Bill, M.; Jumpponen, A.

    2009-11-01

    In arctic tundra soil N is highly limiting, N mineralization is slow and organic N greatly exceeds inorganic N. We studied the effects of fungistatics (azoxystrobin [Quadris{reg_sign}] or propiconazole [Tilt{reg_sign}]) on the fungi isolated from ericaceous plant roots in vitro. In addition to testing the phytotoxicity of the two fungistatics we also tested their effects on growth and nitrogen uptake of an ericaceous plant (Vaccinium uliginosum) in a closed Petri plate system without root-associated fungi. Finally, to evaluate the fungistatic effects in an in vivo experiment we applied fungistatics and nitrogen isotopes to intact tundra soil cores from Toolik Lake, Alaska, and examined the ammonium-N and glycine-N use by Vaccinium vitis-idaea with and without fungistatics. The experiments on fungal pure cultures showed that Tilt{reg_sign} was more effective in reducing fungal colony growth in vitro than Quadris{reg_sign}, which was highly variable among the fungal strains. Laboratory experiments aiming to test the fungistatic effects on plant performance in vitro showed that neither Quadris{reg_sign} nor Tilt{reg_sign} affected V. uliginosum growth or N uptake. In this experiment V. uliginosum assimilated more than an order of magnitude more ammonium-N than glycine-N. The intact tundra core experiment provided contrasting results. After 10 wk of fungistatic application in the growth chamber V. vitis-idaea leaf %N was 10% lower and the amount of leaf {sup 15}N acquired was reduced from labeled ammonium (33%) and glycine (40%) during the 4 d isotope treatment. In contrast to the in vitro experiment leaf {sup 15}N assimilation from glycine was three times higher than from {sup 15}NH{sub 4} in the treatments that received no-fungistatics. We conclude that the function of the fungal communities is essential to the acquisition of N from organic sources and speculate that N acquisition from inorganic sources is mainly inhibited by competition with complex soil microbial

  9. Effects of two sources of tannins (Quercus L. and Vaccinium vitis idaea L. on rumen microbial fermentation: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Cieslak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of different sources of tannins on the in vitro rumen fermentation with focus on methane production. In the experiment, a rumen simulation system (RUSITEC equipped with 4 fermenters (1 L was used in three replicated runs (6 d of adaptation and 4 d of sampling to study the effects of Quercus cortex extract (QC, Vaccinium vitis idaea (VVI dried leaf extract and a mixture of VVI/QC on rumen microbial fermentation. Fermenters were fed 10.9 g/d of dry matter (DM of a 600:400 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were control, QC (2.725 mL, VVI leaves 0.080 g and mixture of QC/VVI (1.362 mL+0.040 g and were randomly assigned to fermenters within periods. The equivalent of 2.5 g of tannins/kg dietary DM from three sources of tannins was evaluated. All tannin sources decreased CH4 and ammonia concentrations, as well as protozoa and methanogen counts (P<0.001. Vaccinium vitis idaea and QC/VVI tended (P=0.005 to reduce the acetate to propionate ratio. There were no changes in nutrient digestion. Results suggest that these sources of tannins, especially VVI have the potential to reduce rumen CH4 production and ammonia concentration without negative effects on in vitro DM digestibility, total volatile fatty acids and pH.

  10. Micropropagation of Vaccinium sp. by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwińczuk, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The Vaccinium genus contains several valuable fruit and ornamental species, among others: highbush blueberry (Vaccinium × corymbosum L.), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). In some most popular and valuable cultivars, the conventional propagation methods, exploiting hard or soft wood cuttings, are inefficient. The demand for nursery plants could be fulfilled only by micropropagation. In principle cultivars are propagated in vitro through similar three-stage method, based on subculture of shoot explants on different culture media supplemented with IAA (0-4 mg/L) and 2iP (5-10 mg/L), and rooting shoots in vivo. The obtained plantlets are transferred to peat substrate and grown in the glasshouse until the end of growing period. The development of adventitious shoots should be monitored and controlled during in vitro stages. Many clones have specific requirements for growing conditions and/or are recalcitrant.

  11. Comparing procyanidins in selected Vaccinium species by UHPLC-MS(2) with regard to authenticity and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungfer, Elvira; Zimmermann, Benno F; Ruttkat, Axel; Galensa, Rudolf

    2012-09-26

    Cranberry procyanidins have been associated with an effect against urinary tract infections (UTI) for decades, and European health claims are requested. This study compares the procyanidin profiles and concentrations of American cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), European cranberry ( Vaccinium oxycoccus L.), and lingonberry ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) analyzed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatoraphy coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray interface (UHPLC-MS(2)). Concentrations of A-type trimers, procyanidin A2, catechin, epicatechin, and B-type dimers and trimers have been evaluated and compared for the first time in the three berries. The data clearly show remarkable differences in the procyanidin profiles and concentrations, especially the lack of A-type trimers in V. oxycoccus; thus, the effectiveness against UTI may vary among the Vaccinium species. These differences can be used to prove authenticity.

  12. Anatomía de leño de Maytenus vitis-idaea y M. viscifolia (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Giménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Es objetivo del trabajo describir el leño de Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. y M. viscifolia Griseb. (Celastraceae y determinar rasgos ecoanatómicos. Las muestras fueron recolectadas del bosque natural en la localidad Guampacha, Sierras de Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (distrito chaqueño serrano. Cinco individuos de cada especie fueron seleccionados al azar, obteniéndose una rodaja a 0.3 m. En las descripciones del leño se usó la terminología del Comité de Nomenclatura de IAWA. Los rasgos fundamentales del leño de Maytenus se resumen en: poros pequeños, numerosos, vasos pequeños, miembros de vasos cortos y anillos de crecimiento angostos. El leño de las dos especies estudiadas se caracteriza por presentar porosidad difusa a semicircular, anillos de crecimiento tipo 5b; poros numerosos y pequeños, parénquima axial de distribución apotraqueal en bandas discontinuas de una sola hilera de células, con tendencia a reticulado; escaso paratraqueal unilateral y difuso en agregados, radios heterogéneos; presencia de fibrotraqueidas. Las principales diferencias anatómicas radican en el tipo de poros, fundamentalmente solitarios en M. vitis-idaea y la presencia de radios de mayor longitud en M. viscifolia. Ambas maderas presentan rasgos xerofiticos notorios.Wood anatomy of Maytenus vitis-idaea. y M. viscifolia (Celastraceae. Is objective of this study to describe the wood anatomy of Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. and M. viscifolia Griseb. (Celastraceae and to determine ecoanatomy features. The samples were collected from natural forest in Guampacha, Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (Chaco Serrano district. Five individuals were randomly selected; being obtained a track to 0.3 m. IAWA Committee on Nomenclature terminology was used in wood descriptions. Xylem features of Maytenus be summarized as: numerous small pores, short vessel members and growth rings narrow. The wood of the two species were characterized by diffuse to

  13. Environ: E00483 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00483 Vaccinium vitis-idaea leaf Vitis-idaea Crude drug Arbutin [CPD:C06186], Meth...id [DR:D01959] Vaccinium vitis-idaea [TAX:180772] Ericaceae (heath family) Vaccinium vitis...-idaea leaf (heated, dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Ericaceae (heath family) E00483 Vaccinium vitis-idaea leaf ...

  14. Protective effects of bilberry and lingonberry extracts against blue light-emitting diode light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kenjirou; Kuse, Yoshiki; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Saori; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2014-04-02

    Blue light is a high-energy or short-wavelength visible light, which induces retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) contain high amounts of polyphenols (anthocyanins, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins) and thus confer health benefits. This study aimed to determine the protective effects and mechanism of action of bilberry extract (B-ext) and lingonberry extract (L-ext) and their active components against blue light-emitting diode (LED) light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage. Cultured murine photoreceptor (661 W) cells were exposed to blue LED light following treatment with B-ext, L-ext, or their constituents (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, trans-resveratrol, and procyanidin B2). 661 W cell viability was assessed using a tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined using CM-H2DCFDA after blue LED light exposure. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and LC3, an ubiquitin-like protein that is necessary for the formation of autophagosomes, were analyzed using Western blotting. Caspase-3/7 activation caused by blue LED light exposure in 661 W cells was determined using a caspase-3/7 assay kit. B-ext, L-ext, NAC, and their active components improved the viability of 661 W cells and inhibited the generation of intracellular ROS induced by blue LED light irradiation. Furthermore, B-ext and L-ext inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB induced by blue LED light exposure. Finally, B-ext, L-ext, and NAC inhibited caspase-3/7 activation and autophagy. These findings suggest that B-ext and L-ext containing high amounts of polyphenols exert protective effects against blue LED light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage mainly through inhibition of ROS production and activation of

  15. Environ: E00334 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00334 Cowberry leaf Crude drug Vaccinium vitis-idaea [TAX:180772] Ericaceae (heath... family) Vaccinium vitis-idaea leaf Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Ericaceae (heath family) E00334 Cowberry leaf ...

  16. Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, Agnes M; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Magee, James B; Dewey, Jim; Ballington, James R

    2004-07-28

    A study was conducted to determine the presence of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in Vaccinium berries. Samples representing selections and cultivars of 10 species from Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, and Canada were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Resveratrol was found in Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry), Vaccinium arboretum (sparkleberry), Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry), Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry), Vaccinium elliottii (Elliott's blueberry), Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry), Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry), Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. vitis-ideae (lingonberry), and Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. minor (partridgeberry) at levels between 7 and 5884 ng/g dry sample. Lingonberry was found to have the highest content, 5884 ng/g dry sample, comparable to that found in grapes, 6471 ng/g dry sample. Pterostilbene was found in two cultivars of V. ashei and in V. stamineum at levels of 99-520 ng/g dry sample. Piceatannol was found in V. corymbosum and V. stamineum at levels of 138-422 ng/g dry sample. These naturally occurring stilbenes, known to be strong antioxidants and to have cancer chemopreventive activities, will add to the purported health benefits derived from the consumption of these small fruits. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  17. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinium consists of approximately 450 species, of which highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is one of the three major Vaccinium fruit crops (i.e., blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry) domesticated in the twentieth century. In blueberry the adventitious shoot regeneration using leaf explants has been the most desirable regeneration system to date; Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is the major gene delivery method and effective selection has been reported using either the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (nptII) or the bialaphos resistance (bar) gene as selectable markers. The A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol described in this chapter is based on combining the optimal conditions for efficient plant regeneration, reliable gene delivery, and effective selection. The protocol has led to successful regeneration of transgenic plants from leaf explants of four commercially important highbush blueberry cultivars for multiple purposes, providing a powerful approach to supplement conventional breeding methods for blueberry by introducing genes of interest.

  18. Effect of Vaccinium vitis-idaea-Pinus pumila Elfin Forest on Pine-nut Yield%经营对越桔-偃松矮曲林松籽产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文海; 朱万昌

    2007-01-01

    通过对越枯-偃松矮曲林经营试验和进行松籽产量调查,进行了经营对其松籽产量影响的分析.结果表明:疏伐经营可有效促进偃松的开花结实,提高松籽的产量和质量;保留木的覆盖度与单位面积的松籽产量关系密切;疏伐经营促进结实的主要影响因子是光照,其次是地面温度等因子;越桔-偃松矮曲林经营最佳的保留木覆盖度为60%.

  19. Ontogenetic niche shifts in three Vaccinium species on a sub-alpine mountain side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auffret, Alistair G.; Meineri, Eric; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    . uliginosum and V. vitis-idaea on a mountain slope in northern Sweden in relation to current adult occurrence. Methods: We combined a seed-sowing experiment in seven community types with adult occurrence observations and species distribution mapping. Results: Emergence of V. myrtillus and V. vitis...

  20. 黑加仑等浆果资源开发(四)%Development of Resource of Black Currant and Qther Berries (IV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白超

    2015-01-01

    相当详细的介绍了黑加仑等浆果浓缩果汁生产的工艺流程、设备选型、操作规程、生产效果;越桔红豆、蓝莓浓缩果汁及系列产品开发;果汁加工的新技术及发展趋势和对浆果开发现状的看法。%Process, equipment selection, operating procedure, production effects of concentrated juice of black currant and other berries were introduced in detail. The development of concentrated juice of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), blueberry and a series of products, the novel technology and trends in fruit juice process, and the view of the current development in berries were also described.

  1. Children's hedonic response to berry products: Effect of chemical composition of berries and hTAS2R38 genotype on liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Vaarno, Jenni; Sandell, Mari; Lehtonen, Henna-Maria; Tahvonen, Raija; Viikari, Jorma; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    The hedonic response of 104 healthy children, recruited from day-care centres and schools, to 12 different berry products with varying content of added sugar was studied. The berries used as ingredients were blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum), sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). Another aim of the study was to study the effects of the chemical composition of berries as well as children's hTAS2R38 taste receptor genotypes on liking. The most liked product was bilberry with yoghurt, followed by bilberry juice, dried bilberries, and lingonberry rye bread. The most disliked products were sea buckthorn juice, sea buckthorn berries with yoghurt, and oatmeal with blackcurrant powder and berry oil. High total organic acid concentration was strongly related with a poor average liking score of the berries/berry products. A total of four different alleles of hTAS2R38 gene were observed in the study. Of the genotyped children, 45% were bitter taste insensitive individuals of the genotype AVI/AVI, and 40% were of the genotype PAV/AVI. Children of the genotype PAV/AVI were reported using more vegetables, but not berries, than the AVI/AVI children. The results also show that the liking scores of the children of the AVI/AVI, PAV/AVI, and PAV/PAV genotypes differed from each other, and that the familiarity of a berry product is likely to be an important factor in liking.

  2. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  3. Cutin composition of five finnish berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Heikki; Nieminen, Riikka; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Hakala, Mari

    2006-01-25

    The raw cutin (i.e., extractive-free isolated cuticular membrane) fraction from Finnish berries, sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides), black currant (Ribes nigrum), cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), was depolymerized by NaOMe-catalyzed methanolysis. The composition of cutin monomers was determined by GC-(EI)MS analysis either as methyl esters or as TMSi esters, with OH groups derivatized to TMSi ethers. There was a notable difference in the degree of depolymerization, ranging from 6 to 47%. The extractive-free berry cuticle, that is, raw cutin, thus contains cutin. The predominant cutin monomers were C(16) and C(18) omega-hydroxy acids with midchain functionalities, mainly epoxy and hydroxyl groups. Typically, the major compounds were 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid. The amount of epoxyacids was rather high in sea buckthorn ( approximately 70%) and cranberry ( approximately 60%), compared with the other berries. The black currant cutin differed from that of the other berries with a significant portion of hydroxyoxohexadecanoic acid ( approximately 12% of total monomers). This investigation of the cuticular hydroxy acids of five Finnish berries is part of the exploitation of the northern natural resources related to the chemical composition, nutritional value, and sensory properties.

  4. Mapping resource use over a Russian landscape: an integrated look at harvesting of a non-timber forest product in central Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitztaler, Stephanie K.; Bergen, Kathleen M.

    2013-12-01

    Small-scale resource use became an important adaptive mechanism in remote logging communities in Russia at the onset of the post-Soviet period in 1991. We focused on harvesting of a non-timber forest product, lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), in the forests of the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Far East). We employed an integrated geographical approach to make quantifiable connections between harvesting and the landscape, and to interpret these relationships in their broader contexts. Landsat TM images were used for a new classification; the resulting land-cover map was the basis for linking non-spatial data on harvesters’ gathering behaviors to spatial data within delineated lingonberry gathering sites. Several significant relationships emerged: (1) mature forests negatively affected harvesters’ initial choice to gather in a site, while young forests had a positive effect; (2) land-cover type was critical in determining how and why gathering occurred: post-disturbance young and maturing forests were significantly associated with higher gathering intensity and with the choice to market harvests; and (3) distance from gathering sites to villages and main roads also mattered: longer distances were significantly correlated to more time spent gathering and to increased marketing of harvests. We further considered our findings in light of the larger ecological and social dynamics at play in central Kamchatka. This unique study is an important starting point for conservation- and sustainable development-based work, and for additional research into the drivers of human-landscape interactions in the Russian Far East.

  5. Long-term experimental warming, shading and nutrient addition affect the concentration of phenolic compounds in arctic-alpine deciduous and evergreen dwarf shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anja Hoff; Jonasson, Sven Evert; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    -arctic, alpine ecosystem, we investigated the effects on carbon based secondary compounds (CBSC) and nitrogen in one dominant deciduous dwarf shrub, Salix herbacea × polaris and two dominant evergreen dwarf shrubs, Cassiope tetragona and Vaccinium vitis-idaea throughout one growing season. The main aims were...

  6. Phylogeny and taxonomy of root-inhabiting Cryptosporiopsis species, and C. rhizophila sp. nov., a fungus inhabiting roots of several Ericaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkley, G.J.M.; Zijlstra, J.D.; Summerbell, R.; Berendse, F.

    2003-01-01

    Three Cryptosporiopsis species have thus far been isolated from roots of woody plants. A fourth species, which was recently isolated from roots of Calluna vulgaris, Erica tetralix, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, and V. myrtillus in The Netherlands, is described here as new. Sporulation on the natural substr

  7. Characterisation of two unique unifloral honeys from the boreal coniferous zone: lingonberry and mire honeys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anneli Salonen; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto

    2012-01-01

    .... In our study lingonberry and mire were characterized. The physico-chemical, organoleptic and melissopalynological properties and phenolic composition of the honeys were analysed and the floral origin of the mire honey was considered...

  8. Characterisation of two unique unifloral honeys from the boreal coniferous zone: lingonberry and mire honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Salonen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of unifloral honeys are rare in Finland, and thus there are no common traits accepted for their characterization. In our study lingonberry and mire were characterized. The physico-chemical, organoleptic and melissopalynological properties and phenolic composition of the honeys were analysed and the floral origin of the mire honey was considered. Lingonberry honey is reddish and has a flavour of toffee, whereas mire honey has very strong aroma and reddish colour. Both honeys have high electrical conductivity and pH when compared to Finnish polyfloral honeys. They are both rich in fructose, while the number of disaccharides in lingonberry honey is four and in mire honey six. Lingonberry honey has three unifloral specific phenolic compounds. Mire honey has no unifloral-specific phenolic compounds, and its floral origin is not clearly defined.

  9. Above- and belowground fluxes of CH4 from boreal shrubs and Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Santalahti, Minna; Putkinen, Anuliina; Fritze, Hannu; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-04-01

    Boreal upland forests are considered as an important sink for the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) due to CH4 oxidizing microbes in the soil. However, recent evidence suggests that vegetation can act as a significant source of CH4. Also, preliminary measurements indicate occasional emissions of CH4 above the tree canopies of a boreal forest. Nevertheless, the sources and the mechanisms of the observed CH4 emissions are still mostly unknown. Furthermore, the majority of CH4 flux studies have been conducted with the soil chamber method, thus not considering the role of the vegetation itself. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study separately the above- and belowground CH4 fluxes of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), which were grown in microcosms. The above- and belowground fluxes of the plants were measured separately, and these fluxes were compared to fluxes of microcosms containing only humus soil. In addition to the flux measurements, we analysed the CH4 producing archaea (methanogens) and the CH4 consuming bacteria (methanotrophs) with the qPCR method to discover whether these microbes contribute to the CH4 exchange from the plant material and the soil. The results of the flux measurements indicate that the humus soil with roots of lingonberry, heather, and Scots pine consume CH4 compared to bare humus soil. Simultaneously, the shoots of heather and Scots pine emit small amounts of CH4. We did not find detectable amounts of methanogens from any of the samples, suggesting the produced CH4 could be of non-microbial origin, or produced by very small population of methanogens. Based on the first preliminary results, methanotrophs were present in all the studied plant species, and especially in high amounts in the rooted soils, thus implying that the methanotrophs could be responsible of the CH4 uptake in the root-soil systems.

  10. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  11. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro digestion on polyphenol composition in lingonberries: potential impact on colonic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma M; Nitecki, Sonja; Pereira-Caro, Gema; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polyphenols in ileal fluid samples obtained from an ileostomy subject after lingonberry intake was compared with lingonberry extracts obtained after simulated in vitro digestion (IVDL) and subsequent faecal fermentation (IVFL). HPLC-PDA-MS/MS analysis confirmed similar patterns of lingonberry (poly)phenolic metabolism after the in vivo and in vitro digestion, with reduced recovery of anthocyanins and a similar pattern of recovery for proanthocyanidins observed for both methods of digestion. On the other hand, the IVFL sample contained none of the original (poly)phenolic components but was enriched in simple aromatic components. Digested and fermented extracts exhibited significant (P digestion and fermentation, lingonberry extracts retained their bioactivity in vitro. This reinforces the need for studies to consider the impact of digestion when investigating bioactivity of dietary phytochemicals.

  12. Chemical Analysis of Extracts from Newfoundland Berries and Potential Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. Hossain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V. angustifolium, lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea and black currant (Ribes lacustre. Anthocyanin and flavonol glycosides in powdered extracts from Ribes lacustre and the Vaccinium species were identified using the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC separation method with mass spectrometric (MS detection. The identified compounds were extracted from dried berries by various solvents via ultrasonication followed by centrifugation. A reverse-phase analytical column was employed to identify the retention time of each chemical component before submission for LC–MS analysis. A total of 21 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the three species. Further, we tested the effects of the lingonberry extract for its ability to protect neurons and glia from trauma utilizing an in vitro model of cell injury. Surprisingly, these extracts provided complete protection from cell death in this model. These findings indicate the presence of a wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols in berries that grow natively in Newfoundland. These powdered extracts maintain these compounds intact despite being processed from berry fruit, indicating their potential use as dietary supplements. In addition, these recent findings and previous data from our lab demonstrate the ability of compounds in berries to protect the nervous system from traumatic insults.

  13. Lingonberries alter the gut microbiota and prevent low-grade inflammation in high-fat diet fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman-Lindén

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of obesity and obesity-associated impairments such as low-grade inflammation. Lingonberries have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether the effect of lingonberry supplementation is related to modifications of the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to describe whether consumption of different batches of lingonberries alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which could be relevant for the protective effect against high fat (HF-induced metabolic alterations. Methods: Three groups of C57BL/6J mice were fed HF diet with or without a supplement of 20% lingonberries from two different batches (Lingon1 and Lingon2 during 11 weeks. The composition and functionality of the cecal microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PICRUSt. In addition, parameters related to obesity, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and gut barrier function were examined. Results: HF-induced obesity was only prevented by the Lingon1 diet, whereas both batches of lingonberries reduced plasma levels of markers of inflammation and endotoxemia (SAA and LBP as well as modified the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, compared to the HF control group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium, genera associated with healthy gut mucosa and anti-inflammation, was found to increase in response to lingonberry intake. Conclusions: Our results show that supplementation with lingonberries to an HF diet prevents low-grade inflammation and is associated with significant changes of the microbiota composition. Notably, the anti-inflammatory properties of lingonberries seem to be independent of effects on body weight gain.

  14. Distribution of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa, E-mail: Kaisa.Vaaramaa@Helsinki.fi [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Solatie, Dina [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, FI-96500 Rovaniemi (Finland); Aro, Lasse [Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA), Parkano Research Unit, FI-39700 Parkano (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    The activity concentrations and distribution of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems > leaves > berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and especially {sup 210}Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w.). The {sup 210}Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were higher than those of {sup 210}Pb. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl fallout.

  15. Protective Effect of Anthocyanins from Lingonberry on Radiation-induced Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Qi Tian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05 enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs. These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation.

  16. Microsatellite Markers Assess Genetic Diversity of Wild Southeastern American Vaccinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS)-National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, USA preserves genetic resources of many temperate fruit crops, including blueberry. This genebank contains > 1,750 Vaccinium accessions from 39 cou...

  17. Diaporthe species associated with Vaccinium, with specific reference to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Leeuwen, van G.C.M.; Guarnaccia, V.; Polizzi, G.; Rijswick, van P.C.J.; Rosendahl, K.C.H.M.; Gabler, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Vaccinium are commercially cultivated in Europe for their berries, which are highly valued for dietary and pharmaceutical properties. Cultivation is severely limited due to a range of fungal diseases, especially those caused by species of Diaporthe. A number of Diaporthe

  18. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  19. Proceedings of the Ninth International Vaccinium Symposium Vol.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ISHS 9th International Vaccinium Symposium had 51 oral and 86 poster presentations. Scientists from 35 countries participated in the meeting. From these 120 manuscripts were published in this book. This book contains the state of blueberry research and breeding from a global view. Volume 2 conta...

  20. Proceedings of the Ninth International Vaccinium Symposium Vol. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ISHS 9th International Vaccinium Symposium had 51 oral and 86 poster presentations. Scientists from 35 countries participated in the meeting. From these 120 manuscripts were published in this book. This book contains the state of blueberry research and breeding from a global view. Volume 1 conta...

  1. Impacts of extreme winter warming events on plant physiology in a sub-Arctic heath community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W; Davey, Matthew P; Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Laine, Kari; Callaghan, Terry V; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2010-10-01

    Insulation provided by snow cover and tolerance of freezing by physiological acclimation allows Arctic plants to survive cold winter temperatures. However, both the protection mechanisms may be lost with winter climate change, especially during extreme winter warming events where loss of snow cover from snow melt results in exposure of plants to warm temperatures and then returning extreme cold in the absence of insulating snow. These events cause considerable damage to Arctic plants, but physiological responses behind such damage remain unknown. Here, we report simulations of extreme winter warming events using infrared heating lamps and soil warming cables in a sub-Arctic heathland. During these events, we measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), photosynthesis, respiration, bud swelling and associated bud carbohydrate changes and lipid peroxidation to identify physiological responses during and after the winter warming events in three dwarf shrub species: Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus. Winter warming increased maximum quantum yield of PSII, and photosynthesis was initiated for E. hermaphroditum and V. vitis-idaea. Bud swelling, bud carbohydrate decreases and lipid peroxidation were largest for E. hermaphroditum, whereas V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea showed no or less strong responses. Increased physiological activity and bud swelling suggest that sub-Arctic plants can initiate spring-like development in response to a short winter warming event. Lipid peroxidation suggests that plants experience increased winter stress. The observed differences between species in physiological responses are broadly consistent with interspecific differences in damage seen in previous studies, with E. hermaphroditum and V. myrtillus tending to be most sensitive. This suggests that initiation of spring-like development may be a major driver in the damage caused by winter warming events that are predicted to become more

  2. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Wild Blueberries (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. with Cultivated Blueberry Varieties (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in Artvin Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Saral

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. which are found naturally in most part of Blacksea Region, and Artvin are generally called bear grape, Trabzon tea, and likapa. In addition, different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. have been cultivated in Artvin region for 5 or 6 years. Blueberries contain appreciable levels of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonols that have high biological activity. V. arctostaphylos and V. myrtillus show that natural distrubition with received V. corymbosum of different cultured species in Artvin region will be determined antioxidant activity in this study. In this study showed that wild species had a higher antioxidant effect than cultivated species. V. myrtillus had high total polyphenols (11.539-20.742 mg GAE/g dry sample, flavonoids (1.182-2.676 mg QE/g dry sample and anthocyanins (3.305-11.473 mg Cyn/g dry sample than V. corymbosum species. In addition, wild species had high CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH values. The antioxidant activities found with CUPRAC, expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.143 to 0.297 mmol TEAC/g dry sample. Those determined with DPPH expressed as IC50 ranged from 0.229 to 1.178 mg/ml. Those determined with FRAP expressed as FeSO4.7H2O equivalent were in 130.719–346.115 µmol Fe/g dry sample range.

  3. Alterations in the plasma metabolite profile associated with improved hepatic function and glycemia in mice fed lingonberry supplemented high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hamimi, Said; Heyman-Lindén, Lovisa; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta; Berger, Karin; Spégel, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Lingonberries have been shown to reduce the detrimental effects of high-fat diet (HFD) on weight gain, plasma glucose, and inflammation. However, the extent of effects was recently shown to vary between different batches of berries. Here, we examine the metabolic response to two independent batches of lingonberries. Alterations in the phenotype and circulating metabolome elicited by three matched HFDs, two of which containing lingonberries (L1D and L2D) from different sources, were investigated. Glycemia was improved only in mice fed L1D, whereas liver function was improved and inflammation reduced in mice fed both L1D and L2D, compared to mice fed HFD. The unique improvement in glycemia elicited by L1D was associated with a 21% increase in circulating levels of fatty acids. Increased levels of phosphatidylcholines (62%) and lysophosphatidylcholines (28%) and decreased levels of serine (-13%) and sphingomyelins (-26%) were observed in mice fed L1D and L2D, as compared to HFD. The unique improvement in glycemia in mice fed L1D was associated with a normal metabolic control with an altered set point. Moreover, the batch-independent reduction in liver steatosis and inflammation, was associated with an altered sphingomyelin metabolism. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. AOAC SMPR 2014.007: Authentication of selected Vaccinium species (Anthocyanins) in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for authentication of selected Vaccinium species in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements containing a single Vaccinium species using anthocyanin profiles. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to be used...

  5. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  6. Comparative study of anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdulis, Deividas; Sarkinas, Antanas; Jasutiené, Ina; Stackevicené, Elicija; Nikolajevas, Laurynas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous comparison of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) fruits for their anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity is reported. The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in bilberry and blueberry fruits and their skins. The investigations revealed that the highest amount of total anthocyanins was observed in fruits skins of blueberry cultivars. The results, obtained by chromatographic analysis, indicated that cyanidin is a dominant anthocyanidin in bilberry and malvidin in blueberry samples. Extracts of "Herbert", "Coville", "Toro" blueberry cultivars and bilberry fruits revealed antimicrobial properties. Citrobacter freundii (ATCC 8090) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212) were the most sensitive among eight tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Significant differences between berry and skin extracts were not established. Studies with fruits showed that the strongest antioxidant activity possesses blueberry cultivar "Berkeley" (82.13 +/- 0.51%). Meanwhile, the amount of quenched free radicals in bilberry samples was 63.72 +/- 1.11%, respectively. The lowest antioxidant activity was estimated in blueberry cultivar "Coville". Accordingly, the strongest antiradical properties were estimated in blueberry cultivar "Ama" fruit skins. Bilberry fruit skin samples possess strong antiradical activity as well (82.69 +/- 0.37%).

  7. Identification and nutritional value of some wild materials of blueberry (Vaccinium spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Vilma; Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The blueberry is a shrub of the family Ericaceae, genus Vaccinium. Its fruits are berries of dark, bluish or reddish coloration. Presents nutritional qualities and antioxidants which make it a fruit of high nutritional and medicinal value. During this study several wild materials identified as Vaccinium consanguinium were located, collected, identified and analyzed by the method of ORAC (antioxidant total capacity).  Chemical analysis showed high levels of antioxidants in the fruits ((Las Tor...

  8. Estudo do mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade) no processamento de produtos alimentícios Study of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) in the process of food products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaqueline Oliveira de Moraes; Paula Becker Pertuzatti; Fernanda Villar Corrêa; Myriam de Las Mercedes Salas-Mellado

    2007-01-01

    ... fenólicos, poder antioxidante e caracterizar diferentes cultivares de mirtilo da espécie Vaccinium ashei Reade que foram cedidos pela EMBRAPA - Clima Temperado/Pelotas - RS, assim como, elaborar produtos alimentícios e avaliá...

  9. IN VITRO ACTIVITY OF VACCINIUM MACROCARPON (CRANBERRY) ON URINARY TRACT PATHOGENS IN UNCOMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Saima; Chiragh, Sadia; Tariq, Sumbal; Alam, Muhammad Adeel; Wazir, Muhammad Salim; Suleman, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection in the community, mainly caused by Escherichia coli (E coli). Due to its high incidence and recurrence, problems are faced in the treatment with antibiotics. Cranberry being herbal remedy have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. This study was conducted to analyse in vitro activity of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on uropathogenic E coli in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. In this laboratory based single group experimental study, anti-bacterial activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate on urinary tract E coli was investigated, in vitro. Ninety-six culture positive cases of different uropathogens were identified. Vaccinium macrocarpon concentrate at different concentrations was prepared in distilled water and put in wells punched in nutrient agar. E coli isolates were inoculated on the plates and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. A citric acid solution of the same pH as that of Vaccinium macrocarpon was used and put in a well on the same plate to exclude the effect of pH. A total of 35 isolates of E coli were identified out of 96 culture positive specimens of urine and found sensitive to Vaccinium macrocarpon (purinary tract infection caused by E coli.

  10. The ex vitro rooting of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacholczak Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing demand for blueberry fruit has necessitated the development of an efficient propagation method of this species that would provide large quantities of planting material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 50 mg dm−3, the commercial rooting powder Rhizopon containing 1% IBA, and salicylic acid (50 mg dm−3 on the in vivo rooting of microcuttings of Vaccinium corymbosum ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’. The contents of chlorophyll a + b, soluble proteins, free amino acids, as well as total soluble and reducing sugars were determined in rooted cuttings. All of the treatments increased the degree and percentage of rooting in the cuttings of both cultivars. While improving rhizogenesis in blueberry, salicylic acid did not perform as a cofactor of the auxin IBA. Foliar applications of IBA or salicylic acid (SA increased the contents of soluble proteins, free amino acids and sugars, but no effects on chlorophyll levels were observed.

  11. Mechanism of tolerance of blueberry (Vaccinium sp) to hexazinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-trazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) was applied as a soil drench to 1-year-old rooted hardwood cuttings of highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) blueberry plants. No differences in susceptibility to hexazinone were detected among 10 highbush and 3 rabbiteye cultivars grown in a fine sandy soil. The tolerance of two highbush and two rabbiteye cultivars to hexazinone were studied in low, medium, and high organic matter soils. Hexazinone at 1 or 2 kg/ha had no inhibitory effect on blueberry growth in the high organic matter soil, inhibited growth slightly on the medium organic matter soil, and caused severe injury in the low organic matter soil. Hexazinone toxicity, absorption, translocation, metabolism, and effect on photosynthesis were investigated with highbush and rabbiteye blueberry and goldenrod (Solidago fistulosa Miller), which were growing in hydroponic culture. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberry plants were three times more tolerant to root applications of hexazinone than was goldenrod. Blueberry plants absorbed an average of 7.9% of the root applied /sup 14/C-hexazinone and the goldenrod absorbed an average of 10.1%. An average of 6.8% of the root absorbed hexazinone (/sup 14/C-label) was translocated from the root system of the blueberry plants to stem and leaves. Radioactivity in the goldenrod plants was equally distributed between the roots and shoots. The majority of the radioactivity in blueberry and goldenrod plants was recovered in the form of hexazinone. Root absorbed hexazinone caused a rapid inhibition of photosynthesis in intact goldenrod leaves at rates of 10 ..mu..M. Root absorbed hexazinone inhibited photosynthesis in intact blueberry leaves at hexazinone concentrations of 100 ..mu..M.

  12. Evaluating the relationship between diploid and tetraploid Vaccinium oxycoccos (Ericaceae) in eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium oxycoccos s. l. is a complex of diploid and polyploid plants. The evolutionary relationship between the cytotypes is uncertain, with conflicting treatments in recent taxonomic studies. To clarify this situation, we investigated the relationships among ploidy, morphology and genetic diversi...

  13. Antioxidant capacities vary substantially among cultivars of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit from forty-two blueberry cultivars, including thirty-six rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei Reade), three V. ashei hybrid derivatives and three northern highbush (V. corymbosum L.) were evaluated for their antioxidant activities against peroxyl free radicals, hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, supe...

  14. Cutting type affects rooting percentage of asexually propagated Sparkleberry (Vaccinium arborem)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial blueberries, particularly Vaccinium corymbosum, have very specific needs for optimum growth; hence, growing sites are limited. They require acidic soil (pH 4.0-5.5), good drainage, thorough aeration, and a constant moderate amount of moisture. To overcome these restrictions, they could be...

  15. Analysis of ontogenetic spectra of populations of plants and lichens via ordinal regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronov, G. Yu.; Glotov, N. V.; Ivanov, S. M.

    2015-03-01

    Ontogenetic spectra of plants and lichens tend to vary across the populations. This means that if several subsamples within a sample (or a population) were collected, then the subsamples would not be homogeneous. Consequently, the statistical analysis of the aggregated data would not be correct, which could potentially lead to false biological conclusions. In order to take into account the heterogeneity of the subsamples, we propose to use ordinal regression, which is a type of generalized linear regression. In this paper, we study the populations of cowberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. We obtain estimates for the proportions of between-sample variability in the total variability of the ontogenetic spectra of the populations.

  16. Studies on the occurrence and colonisation of plants by Phytophthora ramorum in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Orlikowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Phytophthora ramorum on Rhododendron, Vaccinium, Viburnum and Quercus species in ornamental nurseris and fores stands in 2001-2002 and necrosis spead on plant parts and seedlings wewe studied. Only P. citricola was isolated from Rhododendron spp. and V.vitis-idaea. Shoot necrosis and dieback symptoms were not observed on Viburnum species in surveyed nurseries. From diseased Quercus trunks among others Armillaria spp. and Fusarium spp. were isolated. Inoculation of leaves and stem parts of Rhododendron cultivars and other ericaceous plants with P. ramorum resulted in the development of leaf and stem rot. The species caused stem necrosis of Fagus sylvatica, Q. rubra and Pseudotsuga menziesii but symptoms developed slowly.

  17. Long-term 15N tracking from biological N fixation across different plant and humus components of the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroniz-Crespo, Maria; Jones, David L.; Zackrisson, Olle; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; DeLuca, Thomas H.

    2014-05-01

    Biological N2 fixation by cyanobacteria associated with feather mosses is an important cog in the nitrogen (N) cycle of boreal forests; still, our understanding of the turnover and fate of N fixed by this association remains greatly incomplete. The 15N signature of plants and soil serves as a powerful tool to explore N dynamics in forest ecosystems. In particular, in the present study we aimed to investigate the contribution of N2 fixation to δ15N signatures of plants and humus component of the boreal forest. Here we present results from a long-term (7 years) tacking of labelled 15N2 across the humus layer, seedlings of the tree species Pinus sylvestris, two common dwarf shrub species (Empetrum hermaphroditum and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the feather moss Pleurozium schreibery. The enriched experiment was conducted in 2005 in a natural boreal forest in northern Sweden. Two different treatments (10% 15N2 headspace enrichment and control) were setup in nine different plots (0.5 x 0.5 m) within the forest. We observed a significant reduction of δ15N signature of the 15N-enriched moss that could be explained by a growth dilution effect. Nevertheless, after 5 years since 15N2 enrichment some of the label 15N was still detected on the moss and in particular in the dead tissue. We could not detect a clear transfer of the labelled 15N2 from the moss-cyanobacteria system to other components of the ecosystem. However, we found consistence relationship through time between increments of δ15N signature of some of the forest components in plots which exhibited higher N fixation rates in the moss. In particular, changes in natural abundance δ15N that could be associated with N fixation were more apparent in the humus layer, the dwarf shrub Vaccinium vitis-idaea and the pine seedlings when comparing across plots and years.

  18. Antimicrobial effect of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts against the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the antimicrobial effects of berry extracts obtained from four cultivars (Elliott, Darrow, Bluecrop and Duke) of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal conc...

  19. Distinguishing Vaccinium species by chemical fingerprinting based on NMR spectra, validated with spectra collected in different laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Michelle A; Ferrier, Jonathan; Luchsinger, Sarah M; Yuk, Jimmy; Cuerrier, Alain; Balick, Michael J; Hicks, Joshua M; Killday, K Brian; Kirby, Christopher W; Berrue, Fabrice; Kerr, Russell G; Knagge, Kevin; Gödecke, Tanja; Ramirez, Benjamin E; Lankin, David C; Pauli, Guido F; Burton, Ian; Karakach, Tobias K; Arnason, John T; Colson, Kimberly L

    2014-06-01

    A method was developed to distinguish Vaccinium species based on leaf extracts using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reference spectra were measured on leaf extracts from several species, including lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), oval leaf huckleberry (Vaccinium ovalifolium), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Using principal component analysis, these leaf extracts were resolved in the scores plot. Analysis of variance statistical tests demonstrated that the three groups differ significantly on PC2, establishing that the three species can be distinguished by nuclear magnetic resonance. Soft independent modeling of class analogies models for each species also showed discrimination between species. To demonstrate the robustness of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for botanical identification, spectra of a sample of lowbush blueberry leaf extract were measured at five different sites, with different field strengths (600 versus 700 MHz), different probe types (cryogenic versus room temperature probes), different sample diameters (1.7 mm versus 5 mm), and different consoles (Avance I versus Avance III). Each laboratory independently demonstrated the linearity of their NMR measurements by acquiring a standard curve for chlorogenic acid (R(2) = 0.9782 to 0.9998). Spectra acquired on different spectrometers at different sites classifed into the expected group for the Vaccinium spp., confirming the utility of the method to distinguish Vaccinium species and demonstrating nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting for material validation of a natural health product. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. [Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and urinary tract infections: study model and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Bourg, G; Botto, Henri; Sotto, Albert

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. Among cranberry compounds, a group of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with A-type linkages were isolated which exhibit bacterial anti-adhesion activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. These PAC inhibit P-fimbriae synthesis and induce a bacterial deformation. This activity was demonstrated on both antibiotic susceptible a...

  1. Characterizing Vaccinium berry Standard Reference Materials by GC-MS using NIST spectral libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Mark S; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Stein, Stephen E; Phinney, Karen W

    2013-05-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method was developed for qualitative characterization of metabolites found in Vaccinium fruit (berry) dietary supplement Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Definitive identifications are provided for 98 unique metabolites determined among six Vaccinium-related SRMs. Metabolites were enriched using an organic liquid/liquid extraction, and derivatized prior to GC-MS analysis. Electron ionization (EI) fragmentation spectra were searched against EI spectra of authentic standards compiled in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's mass spectral libraries, as well as spectra selected from the literature. Metabolite identifications were further validated using a retention index match along with prior probabilities and were compared with results obtained in a previous effort using collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS datasets from liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry experiments. This manuscript describes a nontargeted metabolite profile of Vaccinium materials, compares results among related materials and from orthogonal experimental platforms, and discusses the feasibility and development of using mass spectral library matching for nontargeted metabolite identification.

  2. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Padilla, Alexis; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia Estela; Rivero Barrios, Diana Marsela; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments. PMID:28773640

  3. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis López-Padilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry. In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3 and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa and temperatures (313 and 343 K were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3 was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

  4. ESTABILIDAD DE ANTOCIANINAS EN JUGO Y CONCENTRADO DE AGRAZ (VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS IN JUICE AND CONCENTRATE OF AGRAZ(VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jobanny Martínez Zambrano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la cinética de la estabilidad térmica y de almacenamiento de las antocianinas en jugo y concentrado de agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. siguiendo una cinética de primer orden. La degradación de las antocianinas con la temperatura fue modelada adecuadamente con la ecuación de Arrhenius. El efecto del pH en la estabilidad térmica de las antocianinas en los concentrados de agraz se estudió a seis diferentes valores (3,0 - 8,0 en buffer citrato-fosfato. La degradación de las antocianinas fue mayor para el jugo que para el concentrado. Una disminución significante en la estabilidad de las antocianinas del concentrado se observó a pH cercano a 5,0.The kinetics of thermal and storage stabilities of anthocyanins in agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. juice and concentrate were studied with first-order reaction kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled on the Arrhenius equation. The effect of pH on thermal stability of anthocyanins in concentrate of agraz was studied at six different pHs (3.0 - 8.0 in citrate-phosphate buffer solutions. The results indicated that anthocyanins degradation was higher in juice than concentrate. A significant decrease in anthocyanin stability was observed at pHs above 5.0.

  5. Identificación y valor nutricional de algunos materiales nativos de arándano (Vaccinium spp) Identification and nutritional value of some wild materials of blueberry (Vaccinium spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Vilma Jiménez-Bonilla; Ana Abdelnour-Esquivel

    2013-01-01

    El arándano es un arbusto de la familia de las ericáceas del género Vaccinium. Sus frutos son bayas de color oscuro, azuladas o rojizas. Presenta cualidades nutricionales y antioxidantes que lo hace un fruto de alto valor medicinal y nutricional. En el curso de este estudio se localizaron, recolectaron, identificaron y analizaron por el método de ORAC (capacidad antioxidante total) varios materiales silvestres identificados como Vaccinium consanguinium. Los análisis químicos mostraron los alt...

  6. Identificación y Valor nutricional de algunas especies nativas de arándano (Vaccinium spp).

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Vilma; Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Proyecto Investigación El arándano es un arbusto de la familia de las Ericáceas del género Vaccinium. Sus frutos son bayas de color oscuro, azuladas o rojizas. Presenta cualidades nutricionales y antioxidantes lo hace un fruto de alto valor medicinal y nutricional. Durante este estudio se localizaron, colectaron, identificaron y analizaron por el método de ORAC (capacidad antioxidante total), varios materiales silvestres identificados como Vaccinium consanguinium. Los análisis químicos mos...

  7. Mycorrhizal Formation and Diversity of Endophytic Fungi in Hair Roots of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Takashi; Hirose, Dai; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Watanabe, Naoaki; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurashige, Yuji; Karimi, Fraidoon; Ban, Takuya

    2016-06-25

    The root diameters as well as colonization and diversity of the root-associating fungi of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. were investigated in order to obtain information on their mycorrhizal properties. The distal regions of roots had typical hair roots with diameters of less than 100 μm. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ErMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) were frequently observed in the roots. Ascomycetes, particularly helotialean fungi, appeared to be dominant among the endophytic fungi of V. oldhamii roots. Furthermore, Rhizoscyphus ericae (Read) Zhuang & Korf and Oidiodendron maius Barron known as ErMF were detected more frequently than other fungal species.

  8. Effects of Reducing the Ambient UV-B Radiation in the High Arctic on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2005-01-01

    Effects of reducing the ambient UV-B radiation on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluores-cence of two dwarf shrub species, Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum, was studied in a high arctic heath in North East Greenland during two growing seasons. Films (Mylar, transmitting ¿ > 320 nm, and Lexan...

  9. Effects of reducing the ambient UV-B radiation in the high Arctic on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, K.R.; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2005-01-01

    Effects of reducing the ambient UV-B radiation on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluores-cence of two dwarf shrub species, Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum, was studied in a high arctic heath in North East Greenland during two growing seasons. Films (Mylar, transmitting λ > 320 nm, and Lexan...

  10. Potential global and regional geographic distribution of Phomopsis vaccinii on Vaccinium species projected by two species distribution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narouei-Khandan, H.A.; Harmon, C.L.; Harmon, P.; Olmstead, J.; Zelenev, V.V.; Werf, van der W.; Worner, S.P.; Senay, S.D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccinium twig blight (caused by Phomopsis vaccinii, teleomorph Diaporthe vaccinii) is a major endemic disease on blueberries and cranberries in the Eastern and Northwestern USA and Canada. It has also been found in Europe, Chile and China. Publications on its occurrence in the USA and Canada ind

  11. Potential global and regional geographic distribution of Phomopsis vaccinii on Vaccinium species projected by two species distribution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narouei-Khandan, H.A.; Harmon, C.L.; Harmon, P.; Olmstead, J.; Zelenev, V.V.; Werf, van der W.; Worner, S.P.; Senay, S.D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccinium twig blight (caused by Phomopsis vaccinii, teleomorph Diaporthe vaccinii) is a major endemic disease on blueberries and cranberries in the Eastern and Northwestern USA and Canada. It has also been found in Europe, Chile and China. Publications on its occurrence in the USA and Canada

  12. Construction of a high-density American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) composite map using genotyping-by-sequencing for multi-pedigree linkage mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a recently domesticated, but economically important, fruit crop with limited molecular resources. New genetic resources could accelerate genetic gain in cranberry through characterization of its genomic structure and by enabling molecular-assist...

  13. Influence of Different Fermentation Strategies on the Phenolic Profile of Bilberry Wine (Vaccinium myrtillus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Annika; Weber, Fabian

    2017-08-30

    Polyphenol rich and especially anthocyanin rich berries like bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and derived products such as wine have enjoyed increasing popularity. During winemaking and aging, the phenolic profile undergoes distinct changes, a phenomenon that has been well investigated in grape wine but not in bilberry wine. The present study determined the influence of different fermentation strategies including various pre- and postfermentative heating and cooling concepts on the phenolic profile of bilberry wine. Besides significant differences in total anthocyanin and tannin concentrations, the different fermentation strategies resulted in distinguishable anthocyanin profiles. A very fast aging manifested by a rapid decrease in monomeric anthocyanins of up to 98% during a 12 week storage and a coincident formation of polymeric pigments and pyranoanthocyanins was observed. Several well-known processes associated with production and aging of wine were much more pronounced in bilberry wine compared to grape wine.

  14. Profound hypoglycemia-ınduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes.

  15. Correlation between species-specific metabolite profiles and bioactivities of blueberries (Vaccinium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah; Jung, Eun Sung; Do, Seon-Gil; Jung, Ga-Young; Song, Gwanpil; Song, Jung-Min; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2014-03-05

    Metabolite profiling of three blueberry species (Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb., V. oldhamii Miquel., and V. corymbosum L.) was performed using gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) combined multivariate analysis. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly showed metabolic differences among species. GC-TOF-MS analysis revealed significant differences in amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, sugars, and phenolic acids among the three blueberry species. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis indicated that anthocyanins were the major metabolites distinguishing V. bracteatum from V. oldhamii. The contents of anthocyanins such as glycosides of cyanidin were high in V. bracteatum, while glycosides of delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin were high in V. oldhamii. Antioxidant activities assessed using ABTS and DPPH assays showed the greatest activity in V. oldhamii and revealed the highest correlation with total phenolic, total flavonoid, and total anthocyanin contents and their metabolites.

  16. Additional description of Vaccinium podocarpoideum%罗汉松叶乌饭补充记载

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林亲众

    1999-01-01

    @@ 罗汉松叶乌饭 Vaccinium podocarpoideum Fang et Z. H. Pan in Act. Phytotax. Sin. 19: 107. 1981. Racemi ex axillis supeioribus orti, 2.5~3.5 cm longi, (5) 7-11-flori, rachidibus et pedicellis glabris, bracteae deciduae; pedicelli 5 mm longi. Calycis tubus glaber, lobis 5, deltoideis, 1.5~1.8 mm longis glabris; corolla alba campanulata, utrinque glabra, limbo 5-lobo, lobis ovato-deltoideis, 1~1.2 mm longis; Stamina 10, 5.5?~6 mm longa, filamentis 1 mm longis puberulis, antheris dorso minute bicalcaratis, apice 2-tubiformibus, tubuli thecis dupol longi (tubuli 3 mm longi, theci 1.5 mm longi), ouarium et stylus glaber, stylis 5.5 mm longis.

  17. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaf infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piljac-Zegarac, J; Belscak, A; Piljac, A

    2009-06-01

    Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of leaf infusions prepared from six highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), one wild lowbush blueberry cultivar (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and one commercially available mix of genotypes were determined. In order to simulate household tea preparation conditions, infusions were prepared in water heated to 95 degrees C. The dynamics of extraction of polyphenolic antioxidants were monitored over the course of 30 minutes. Extraction efficiency, quantified in terms of the total phenol (TP) content, and antioxidant capacity of infusions, evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays, were compared with cultivar type and extraction time. The 30-minute infusions exhibited the highest TP content and antioxidant capacity according to all three assays. Wild blueberry infusion had the highest TP content (1,879 mg/L gallic acid equivalents [GAE]) and FRAP values (20,050 microM). The range of TP values for 30-minute infusions was 394-1,879 mg/L GAE with a mean of 986 mg/L GAE across cultivars; FRAP values fell between 3,015 and 20,050 microM with a mean of 11,234 microM across cultivars. All 30-minute infusions exhibited significant scavenging capacity for DPPH(*) and ABTS(*+) radicals, comparable to different concentrations of catechin, gallic acid, and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid. Overall, tested infusions showed significant reducing capacity as well as radical scavenging potential, which places blueberry leaf tea high on the list of dietary sources of antioxidants.

  18. Identificación y valor nutricional de algunos materiales nativos de arándano (Vaccinium spp Identification and nutritional value of some wild materials of blueberry (Vaccinium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Jiménez-Bonilla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El arándano es un arbusto de la familia de las ericáceas del género Vaccinium. Sus frutos son bayas de color oscuro, azuladas o rojizas. Presenta cualidades nutricionales y antioxidantes que lo hace un fruto de alto valor medicinal y nutricional. En el curso de este estudio se localizaron, recolectaron, identificaron y analizaron por el método de ORAC (capacidad antioxidante total varios materiales silvestres identificados como Vaccinium consanguinium. Los análisis químicos mostraron los altos índices de antioxidantes presentes en los frutos (Las Torres 1, 131,58; Las Torres 2, 156,20; Villa Mills 112,84 y Quetzales 112,84 μM de Trolox equivalente/g muestra fresca, valores mayores a los indicados en la literatura para alimentos reconocidos por su potencial antioxidante.  Debido al alto valor nutricional de los arándanos silvestres mostrado en este estudio, se recomienda incentivar y apoyar los esfuerzos nacionales para su domesticación y posterior siembra comercial.The blueberry is a shrub of the family Ericaceae, genus Vaccinium. Its fruits are berries of dark, bluish or reddish coloration. Presents nutritional qualities and antioxidants which make it a fruit of high nutritional and medicinal value. During this study several wild materials identified as Vaccinium consanguinium were located, collected, identified and analyzed by the method of ORAC (antioxidant total capacity.  Chemical analysis showed high levels of antioxidants in the fruits ((Las Torres1 131.58, Las Torres2 156.20, Villa Mills 112.84 and Quetzales 112.84 μM Trolox equivalent/g fresh fruits, values greater than those specified in the literature for food recognized by its antioxidant potential. Due to high nutritional value of wild blueberry showed on this study, it is recommended to encourage and support national efforts for their domestication and subsequent commercial planting.

  19. Biological availability of (238)U, (234)U and (226)Ra for wild berries and meadow grasses in natural ecosystems of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolik, G A; Ovsiannikova, S V; Voinikava, K V; Ivanova, T G; Papenia, M V

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of behavior of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra by determining the soil to plant transfer under different natural conditions such as forest or swamped areas and meadow lands with different soil types. The paper summarizes the data on investigation of uranium and radium uptake by wild berries and natural meadow grasses in the typical conditions of Belarus. Parameters characterizing the biological availability of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium viti-idaea), blueberry (Vaccinium iliginosum) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus palustris) as well as for widely occurring mixed meadow vegetation, which belongs to the sedge-grass or grass-sedge associations and forbs, have been established. In the sites under investigation, the deposition levels of (238+239+240)Pu were less than 0.37 kBq m(-2) and (137)Cs deposition ranged between less than 0.37 and 37 kBq m(-2). It was found that activity concentrations of radionuclides in berries varied in the ranges of 0.037-0.11 for (234)U, 0.036-0.10 for (238)U and 0.11-0.43 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, but in the mixed meadow grasses they were 0.32-4.4, 0.24-3.9 and 0.14-6.9 Bq kg(-1) accordingly. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were 1.02 ± 0.01 for wild berries, 1.20 ± 0.09 for underground meadow grasses and 1.02 ± 0.02 for proper soils. The concentration ratios (CRs, dry weight basis) of (234)U and (238)U for mixed meadow grasses were 0.036-0.42 and 0.041-0.46 respectively. The correspondent geometric means (GM) were 0.13 and 0.15 with geometric standard deviations (GSD) of 2.4. The CRs of (226)Ra for meadow grasses were 0.031-1.0 with GM 0.20 and GSD 2.6. The CRs of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra for wild berries ranged within 0.0018-0.008 (GM is 0.0034, GSD is 1.8), 0.0018-0.008 (GM is 0.0035, GSD is 1.8) and 0.005-0.033 (GM is 0.016, GSD is 2.1) accordingly. The highest CR values of uranium for mixed meadow grasses were found in the

  20. Utilization of peatlands as possible land resource for low-input agriculture: cultivation of Vaccinium species as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Rodima, Ako; Rannik, Kaire; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2013-04-01

    The best way of soil protection is its sustainable and expedient use, which secures soils ecological functioning. Recent years, by exploitation of peat soils for their different use, has raised important issues concerning their input to global climate change as important source of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitters. The dynamics of GHG are determined by different factors as: site specific conditions including hydrology, soil type, vegetation, area management, including meteorological and climatic conditions. Therefore, in this current paper we are presenting the study results were we estimated CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from exhausted cultivated peatland with Vaccinium species and determined the soil chemical composition. For comparision a virgin state peatland was observed. The main goals of the paper are: (1) to present the experimental results of greenhouse gases generation and peat chemical composition (antioxidant activity of peat, C/N ratio, fiber content, water extractable phenolics) relationships on different microsites either on natural plant cover or Vaccinium species cultivation area on exhausted milled peat area; (2) to discuss how peat soil quality contributes to greenhouse gases emission; (3) and what kind of relationship reveals between low input agricultural system in which Vaccinium species are cultivated on exhausted milled peat area. The study are is located in nearby Ilmatsalu (58°23'N, 26°31'E) in South Estonia, inside of which the three microsites are determined. Microsites are different from each other by exploitation and plant cover type. 1). Natural plant cover, 2). Cultivated area with Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum, 3). Cultivated area with Vaccinium angustifolium. The determined soil type according to WRB was Fibri Dystric Histosol. The main part of study focuses on the analyses of greenhouse gases. For this purpose the closed chamber method was used. The greenhouse gas samples were collected from spring to autumn 2011 throughout

  1. The Abundance and Pollen Foraging Behaviour of Bumble Bees in Relation to Population Size of Whortleberry (Vaccinium uliginosum)

    OpenAIRE

    Carolin Mayer; Denis Michez; Alban Chyzy; Elise Brédat; Anne-Laure Jacquemart

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation can have severe effects on plant pollinator interactions, for example changing the foraging behaviour of pollinators. To date, the impact of plant population size on pollen collection by pollinators has not yet been investigated. From 2008 to 2010, we monitored nine bumble bee species (Bombus campestris, Bombus hortorum s.l., Bombus hypnorum, Bombus lapidarius, Bombus pascuorum, Bombus pratorum, Bombus soroensis, Bombus terrestris s.l., Bombus vestalis s.l.) on Vaccinium...

  2. THE PERFORMANCE OF SOME NORTHERN HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) VARIETIES IN NORTH EASTERN PART OF ANATOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to find out performance of some northern highbush blueberries in northeastern part of Turkey. Two years old plants of Berkeley, Ivanhoe, Jersey, Northland and Rekord blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) varieties planted in Ikizdere, Rize. Their phonological, morphological and yield properties were determined. Among cultivars ‘Ivanhoe’ had the highest (146.44 cm) and most extremely vigor bushes. ‘Berkeley’ gave shorter plants with short bushes (82.72 cm) but had bigger...

  3. Propagación in vitro de plantas adultas de Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae In vitro propagation of mature plants of Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Yanira Rache Cardenal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un procedimiento de micropropagación de plantas adultas de Vaccinium meridionale utilizando como explantes primarios ápices caulinares. Durante la fase de establecimiento in vitro de explantes se estudió el efecto de los medios MS/3, WPM, AND y el propuesto por Kyte para Blueberry, suplementados con 2-iP más AIA ó BA más AIA. Durante la proliferación de microtallos se evaluó el efecto del medio MS/3 líquido, sólido y en doble fase (una fase líquida sobre una fase solidificada con agar, suplementados con 2-iP más AIA. El enraizamiento in vitro y ex vitro de microtallos y macollas se indujo utilizando auxinas y/o carbón activado y para el desarrollo de raíces se utilizó un sustrato enriquecido con materia orgánica. El endurecimiento de plántulas se realizó de manera simultánea con el proceso de desarrollo radical. Después de la fase de establecimiento, la media más alta, 4.5, yemas axilares desarrolladas por explante viable, se cuantificó en MS/3 suplementado con 59.05 µM de 2-iP más 17.13 µM de AIA. Durante la fase de proliferación de microtallos la media más alta, 7.25, se cuantificó en MS/3 en doble fase. Después de 60 días de endurecimiento el 88-100% de los microtallos enraizaron y reactivaron su crecimiento.Using stem apex as primary explants, a micropropagation protocol of Vaccinium meridionale was established. During establishment phase the effect of the MS/3, WPM, AND and Kyte media, supplemented with 2-iP plus IAA or BA plus IAA was studied. During microshoot proliferation the effect of MS/3 liquid, solid and double phase (the liquid phase in a solidified phase with agar supplemented with 2-iP plus IAA was evaluated. In vitro and ex vitro rooting of microshoots and microshoots was accomplished using auxines and/or activated charcoal; for root development a substratum with abundant organic matter was utilized. Plantlet hardening was achived simultaneously with the radical development process

  4. Research on dynamics of tundra ecosystems and their potential response to energy resource development. Progress report, May 1, 1978-April 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    The ecological effects (costs and benefits) of impacts that can be expected from the development and utilization of energy resources in the arctic. The impacts selected for study are: altered nutrient availability (nitrogen and phosphorus); altered patterns of soil water drainage; and vehicle tracks. The general ecosystem characteristics chosen to provide integrative measures of the possible ecological effects include annual primary production and the relative aboveground growth of the different species or growth forms comprising the vegetation. Plant growth forms are defined by height, leaf longevity, position of the perennating bud, and rooting pattern. The growth forms and species selected are: erect deciduous shrubs (Betula nana, Vaccinium uliginosum, Salix pulchra); erect evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre); prostrate evergreen shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea); tussock graminoid (Eriophorum vaginatum); rhizomatous graminoid (Carex bigelowii, Carex aquatilis, Eriophorum angustifolium); forb (Artemisia arctica); grass (Calamagrostis or Arctagrostis); cushion moss (Dicranum sp.); Sphagnum sp.; and Polytrichum commune. Progress is reported in field and laboratory studies. The main conclusion of the research is that species respond individually in terms of nutrient and total nonstructural carbohydrates accumulation to fertilization, and that the growth forms studied are not distinctive from each other on the basis of plant nutrition or growth. The explicit mechanism for integrating and guiding this research and for extrapolating the existing data base to make quantitative predictions of the effects of perturbations is a simulation model of arctic tundra vegetation and soil processes called ARTUS (Arctic Tundra Simulator). (JGB)

  5. Influence of Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction on the Anthocyanin Profile of Different Vaccinium Species in the Context of Statistical Models for Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffels, Peter; Weber, Fabian; Schieber, Andreas

    2015-09-02

    Anthocyanins are frequently discussed as marker compounds for fruit product authenticity. Proper analysis including sample preparation for the determination of anthocyanin concentrations is crucial for the comparability of authenticity data. The present study determined the influence of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using two different solvent compositions on the anthocyanin profile of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), and American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Besides differences in total anthocyanin concentrations in the extracts, significant deviations (p ≤ 0.05) in the individual anthocyanin concentration were observed, resulting in differing anthocyanin proportions. Linear discriminant analysis comparing the differences caused by the extraction method to the natural differences within a set of 26 bilberry and lowbush blueberry samples of different origins was conducted. It revealed that profile variations induced by the extraction methods are in a similar scale to profile variations as a result of geographic and climatic differences.

  6. Volatiles released from Vaccinium corymbosum were attractive to Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an olfactometric bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Ceballos, Ricardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of host volatiles in the relationship between a blueberry plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. and the raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the principal pest of blueberry in the south of Chile. Volatiles from the aerial part of different phenological stages of the host were collected on Porapak Q and analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several chemical groups were identified including green leaf volatiles, aromatic compounds, and terpenes. The olfactometric responses of A. superciliosus toward different odor sources were studied in a four-arm olfactometer. Blueberry shoots at the phenological stages of fruit set, and blue-pink fruit color elicited the greatest behavioral responses from weevils. Five compounds (2-nonanone, eucalyptol, R- and S-limonene, and 4-ethyl benzaldehyde) elicited an attractant behavioral response from A. superciliosus. The results suggest the host location behavior of A. superciliosus could be mediated by volatiles derived from V. corymbosum. This work has identified a number of compounds with which it is possible to develop a lure for the principal pest of blueberry in southern Chile.

  7. The protective effect and action mechanism of Vaccinium myrtillus L. on gastric ulcer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kenjirou; Oyagi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Junji; Kobayashi, Saori; Hara, Hideaki

    2011-08-01

    Vaccinium myrtillus L. anthocyanoside (VMA) is used as a folk medicine to treat diseases related to gastric ulcers in northern Europe. However, the effects of VMA and its detailed mechanism on gastric ulcer have not been investigated sufficiently. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of VMA on gastric mucosal damage in a murine gastric ulcer model. First the effects of VMA on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice were investigated. Then, the levels of lipid peroxide in murine stomach homogenates were measured to investigate the antioxidative effects of VMA. In addition, the free radical scavenging activity of VMA and its main anthocyanidins were evaluated by electron spin resonance measurement. Oral administration of VMA (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) significantly protected gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Furthermore, VMA inhibited lipid peroxide levels in a concentration-dependent manner and showed high scavenging activity against the superoxide anion radical (·O(2) (-) ) and the hydroxyl radical (·OH). Anthocyanidins also showed scavenging activity against the ·O(2) (-) , while only delphinidin showed high scavenging activity against the ·OH. These findings indicate that the protective effects of VMA on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury may be partially due to the antiperoxidative effects of anthocyanidins.

  8. Biochemical and molecular changes in response to aluminium-stress in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Aquea, Felipe; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) stress is an important factor limiting crop yields in acid soils. Despite this, very little is known about the mechanisms of resistance to this stress in woody plants. To understand the mechanisms of Al-toxicity and response in blueberries, we compared the impact of Al-stress in Al-resistant and Al-sensitive genotypes using Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) as a plant model. We investigated the effect of Al-stress on the physiological performance, oxidative metabolism and expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes in two V. corymbosum cultivars maintained hydroponically with AlCl(3) (0 and 100 μM). Microscopic analyses of Al-treated root tips suggested a higher degree of Al-induced morphological injury in Bluegold (sensitive genotype) compared to Brigitta (resistant genotype). Furthermore, the results indicated that Brigitta had a greater ability to control oxidative stress under Al-toxicity, as reflected by enhancement of several antioxidative and physiological properties (radical scavenging activity: RSA, superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase: CAT; maximum quantum yield: Fv/Fm, effective quantum yield: ФPSII, electron transport rate: ETR and non-photochemical quenching: NPQ). Finally, we analyzed the expression of genes homologous to GST and ALDH, which were identified in a global expression analysis. In the resistant genotype, the expression of these genes in response to Al-stress was greater in leaves than in roots.

  9. Methyl jasmonate affects phenolic metabolism and gene expression in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocetta, Giacomo; Rossoni, Mara; Gardana, Claudio; Mignani, Ilaria; Ferrante, Antonio; Spinardi, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a fruit very much appreciated by consumers for its antioxidant potential and health-promoting traits. Its beneficial potential properties are mainly due to a high content of anthocyanins and their amount can change after elicitation with methyl jasmonate. The aim of this work is to evaluate the changes in expression of several genes, accumulation of phenolic compounds and alterations in antioxidant potential in two different blueberry cultivars ('Duke' and 'Blueray') in response to methyl jasmonate (0.1 mM). Results showed that 9 h after treatment, the expression of phenylalanine ammonium lyase, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase genes was stimulated more in the 'Blueray' variety. Among the phenols measured an increase was recorded also for epicatechin and anthocyanin concentrations. 'Duke' is a richer sourche of anthocyanins compared to 'Blueray', treatment with methyl jasmonate promoted in 'Blueray' an increase in pigments as well as in the antioxidant potential, especially in fully ripe berries, but treated 'Duke' berries had greater levels, which were not induced by methyl jasmonate treatment. In conclusion, methyl jasmonate was, in some cases, an effective elicitor of phenolic metabolism and gene expression in blueberry, though with different intensity between cultivars. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Early-acting inbreeding depression and reproductive success in the highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, S L; Hancock, J F

    1990-06-01

    Tetraploid Vaccinium corymbosum genotypes exhibit wide variability in seed set following self- and cross-pollinations. In this paper, a post-zygotic mechanism (seed abortion) under polygenic control is proposed as the basis for fertility differences in this species. A pollen chase experiment indicated that self-pollen tubes fertilize ovules, but are also 'outcompeted' by foreign male gametes in pollen mixtures. Matings among cultivars derived from a pedigree showed a linear decrease in seed number per fruit, and increase in seed abortion, with increasing relatedness among parents. Selfed (S1) progeny from self-fertile parents were largely self-sterile. At zygotic levels of inbreeding of F>0.3 there was little or no fertility, suggesting that an inbreeding threshold regulates reproductive success in V. corymbosum matings. Individuals below the threshold are facultative selfers, while those above it are obligate outcrossers. Inbreeding also caused a decrease in pollen viability, and reduced female fertility more rapidly than male fertility. These phenomena are discussed in terms of two models of genetic load: (1) mutational load - homozygosity for recessive embryolethal or sub-lethal mutations and (2) segregational load - loss of allelic interactions essential for embryonic vigor. Self-infertility in highbush blueberries is placed in the context of 'late-acting' self-incompatibility versus 'early-acting' inbreeding depression in angiosperms.

  11. Preliminary studies on the antinociceptive activity of Vaccinium ashei berry in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria Rosana; Guterres, Leandra; Dickel, Odila E; de Castro, Micheli R; Henriques, Amelia T; de Souza, Márcia M; Barros, Daniela Martí

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out pharmacological screening in order to evaluate the potential effects of lyophilized fruits of different cultivars of Vaccinium ashei Reade (Family Ericaceae) berries, commonly known as rabbiteye blueberries, on nociception. This was achieved using the formalin, hot plate, tail-flick, and writhing tests in mice. During this experiment the mice consumed approximately 3.2-6.4 mg/kg/day (p.o.) of the anthocyanins. The extract was administered for 21 days or 60 minutes before test. Morphine and diclofenac (10 mg/kg, p.o.) as the standard drug (positive control) and water (via oral gavage) as the negative control were administered before all tests. The blueberry extract produced a significant decrease in constrictions induced by acetic acid and caused graded inhibition of the second phase of formalin-induced pain. Moreover, in both the hot plate and tail-flick tests, it significantly increased the threshold. These data suggest that the extract from V. ashei produced antinociceptive effects, as demonstrated in the experimental models of nociception in mice. Additional experiments are necessary in order to clarify the true target for the antinociceptive effects of rabbiteye blueberry extract.

  12. Ambient UV-B radiation decreases photosynthesis in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, K.R.; Ro-Poulsen, H. (Univ. of Copenhagen, Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology, Copenhagen (DK)); Mikkelsen, T.N. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (DK))

    2008-06-15

    An UV-B-exclusion experiment was established in high arctic Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, to investigate the possible effects of ambient UV-B on plant performance. During almost a whole growing season, canopy gas exchange and Chl fluorescence were measured on Vaccinium uliginosum (bog blueberry). Leaf area, biomass, carbon, nitrogen and UV-B-absorbing compounds were determined from a late season harvest. Compared with the reduced UV-B treatment, the plants in ambient UV-B were found to have a higher content of UV-B-absorbing compounds, and canopy net photosynthesis was as an average 23% lower during the season. By means of the JIP-test, it was found that the potential of processing light energy through the photosynthetic machinery was slightly reduced in ambient UV-B. This indicates that not only the UV-B effects on PSII may be responsible for some of the observed reduction of photosynthesis but also the effects on other parts of the photosynthetic machinery, e.g. the Calvin cycle, might be important. The 60% reduction of the UV-B irradiance used in this study implies a higher relative change in the UV-B load than many of the supplemental experiments do, but the substantial effect on photosynthesis clearly indicates that V. uliginosum is negatively affected by the current level of UV-B. (au)

  13. Quality and marketable characteristics of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corym- bosum L. under the Kyiv region conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. О. Сіленко

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors present the results of the study biometric and qualitative characteristics of berries highbush blueberry varieties (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in a specific soil and climatic conditions Forest-steppe of Ukraine (Kiev. Investigations were carried out on 11 varieties of American highbush blueberry. Phenological observations, biometric surveys, tasting score and biochemical analysis of the berries have been conducted during the growing season. By results of researches the group of early-ripening varieties includes Bluestar, Earliblue, Patriot, the middle-ripening – Jonne, Atlantis, Bluegold, Bluecrop, Chyk and late-ripening varieties – Amanda, Darrow, Toro. Duration of collecting period of ripe berries was lower (16 days in varieties Bluestar, Earliblue, Jonne and Darrow. Berries were large sizes in the varieties of Darrow, Amanda, Jonne, in other varieties berries were medium size. By tasting score the berry of varieties Toro, Earliblue, Jonne and Darrow were the best. For biochemical parameters the better varieties were Amanda, Jonne and Earliblue.

  14. Propagation of the neotropical fruit Vaccinium meridionale Swartz by air layering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto-Moreno

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale Swartz has its natural distribution in the tropics of the New World, from 2,100 to 4,000 m a.s.l.; and is a keystone species in habitat conservation, with 3 m high shrubs when pruned. The aim of this study was to evaluate stem rooting using naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and Aloe vera as rooting promoters with a farm propagation system. For this purpose, a natural population of plants was selected in San Miguel de Sema (Boyaca, Colombia, 5°31'15'' N and 73°43'39'' W, at 2,615 m a.s.l., with an average temperature of 13°C and an average annual precipitation of 1,000-1,300 mm. The results showed that the studied rooting promoters stimulated the appearance and development of roots; however, the NAA treatments had greater root growth over time. Developing air layers allowed for their separation from the mother plants and transplant 6 months after the application of the rooting promoters started

  15. Phenotypic plasticity of Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae) in wild populations of mountain forests in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligarreto, Gustavo A; Patiño, Maria del Pilar; Magnitskiy, Stanislav V

    2011-06-01

    Vaccinium meridionale is a promising crop for the Andean region of South America and is currently available only in the wild. Spontaneous populations of this plant are found across the Colombian mountains, but very few published records on this plant morphology are available. A zonification study of V. meridionale was conducted in four principal areas of a low mountain forest of Colombia (Provinces of Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander and Nariño) in 2007. A total of 20 populations and 100 plants of V. meridionale were individually characterized and surveyed, using a list of 26 characters of morphological variables (9 quantitative and 17 qualitative characters). Our results indicated that natural populations of V. meridionale might be found in the tropical forest under a highly heterogeneous climate and microclimate conditions, at different mountain regions between 2 357 and 3 168masl. The shrubs of V. meridionale exhibited a high level of intra-population variation in several quantitative (plant height, stem diameter) and qualitative (growth habit, ramification density, presence of anthocyanins in stems) morphological characters, suggesting an environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity. Plant height, stem diameter and foliar density were the most variable morphological traits, with coefficients of variation higher than 50%. However, several quantitative characters of its reproductive potential, such as berry dimensions, rachis length and number of flowers per inflorescence, resulted with low plasticity with coefficients of variation lower than 30.2%, indicating that these characters were genetically determined. The highest correlation coefficients (p mountain forests of Colombia.

  16. Mining and validation of pyrosequenced simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H; Senalik, D; McCown, B H; Zeldin, E L; Speers, J; Hyman, J; Bassil, N; Hummer, K; Simon, P W; Zalapa, J E

    2012-01-01

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a major commercial fruit crop in North America, but limited genetic resources have been developed for the species. Furthermore, the paucity of codominant DNA markers has hampered the advance of genetic research in cranberry and the Ericaceae family in general. Therefore, we used Roche 454 sequencing technology to perform low-coverage whole genome shotgun sequencing of the cranberry cultivar 'HyRed'. After de novo assembly, the obtained sequence covered 266.3 Mb of the estimated 540-590 Mb in cranberry genome. A total of 107,244 SSR loci were detected with an overall density across the genome of 403 SSR/Mb. The AG repeat was the most frequent motif in cranberry accounting for 35% of all SSRs and together with AAG and AAAT accounted for 46% of all loci discovered. To validate the SSR loci, we designed 96 primer-pairs using contig sequence data containing perfect SSR repeats, and studied the genetic diversity of 25 cranberry genotypes. We identified 48 polymorphic SSR loci with 2-15 alleles per locus for a total of 323 alleles in the 25 cranberry genotypes. Genetic clustering by principal coordinates and genetic structure analyzes confirmed the heterogeneous nature of cranberries. The parentage composition of several hybrid cultivars was evident from the structure analyzes. Whole genome shotgun 454 sequencing was a cost-effective and efficient way to identify numerous SSR repeats in the cranberry sequence for marker development.

  17. Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery

  18. Vascular plant removal effects on biological N fixation vary across a boreal forest island gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundale, Michael J; Wardle, David A; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2010-06-01

    There is currently much interest in understanding how biodiversity loss affects the functioning of ecosystems, but few studies have evaluated how ecosystem processes change in response to one another following biodiversity loss. We focused on a well-described gradient of 30 forested lake islands in northern Sweden, where island size determines the occurrence of lightning-ignited wildfire, which in turn determines successional stage, plant species composition, and productivity. We investigated the effect of biodiversity loss on biological nitrogen fixation by feathermosses through an experiment consisting of factorial removals of three understory shrub species (Vaccinium myrtillis, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, and Empetrum hermaphroditum) and two plant functional groups (shrubs and tree roots). We tested the hypothesis that, following vascular plant species loss, N fixation rates would be impaired by changes in pools or processes that increase extractable soil N, because changes in the supply rate of N to feathermosses should influence their demand for newly fixed N. Further, we hypothesized that the effects of removals on N fixation would depend on environmental context (i.e., island size), because it has been previously demonstrated that the effect of vascular plant species removal on N recycling pools and processes was strongest on productive islands. The data demonstrated that removal of two shrub species (V. vitis-idaea and E. hermaphroditum) negatively aflected the N fixation of Hylocomium splendens, but positively affected Pleurozium schreberi, resulting in unchanged areal N fixation rates. In the functional removal experiment, tree root removal resulted in a significant negative effect on N fixation. The effects of shrub and root removals on N fixation occurred only on small islands and thus were context dependent. This pattern did not correspond to the effect of shrub and root removal treatments on N-recycling pools or processes, which only occurred in response

  19. Anthocyanins extracted from Chinese blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) and its anticancer effects on DLD-1 and COLO205 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZU Xiao-yan; ZHANG Zhen-ya; ZHANG Xiao-wen; YOSHIOKA Masahiro; YANG Ying-nan; LI Ji

    2010-01-01

    Background Vaccinium uliginosum L. is a type of blueberry found in the Chinese Changbai Mountains. We extracted Vaccinium uliginosurn Anthocyanins (Av.uli) to investigate its bioactivity on suppressing cancer cells.Methods Av.uli was extracted under different conditions of temperature (10℃-35℃), pH 1.0-3.0, and diatomaceous earth (1.0 g-3.0 g), followed by a HPLC analysis for the determination of the ingredients. Its anticancer bioactivities on human colon and colorectal cancer cells (DLD-1 and COLO205) were compared with those on Lonicera caerulea Anthocyanins (AL.cae) and Vaccinium myrtillus Anthocyanins (Av.myr), using cell viability assays, DNA electrophoresis and nuclear morphology assays.Results The optimum process of Av.uliextraction involved conditions of temperature 20℃, pH 2.0, and diatomaceous earth 1.0 g/50 g of fruit weight. Av.uli contained 5 main components: delphinidin (40.70±1.72)%, cyanidin (3.40±0.68)%,petunidin (17.70±0.54)%, peonidin (2.90±0.63)% and malvidin (35.50±1.11)%. The malvidin percentage was significantly higher (P <0.05) than it in Av.myr. Av.uli complied with a dose-dependent repression of cancer cell proliferation with an IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value of 50 μg/ml, and showed greater anticancer efficiency than AL. cae and Av. myr under the same cell treatment conditions. These observations were further supported by the results of nuclear assays.Conclusions The extraction protocol and conditions we used were effective for anthocyanin extraction. Av.uli could be a feasible practical research tool and a promising therapeutic source to suppress human colon or colorectal cancers.

  20. Tipificación de Diferentes Estados de Madurez del Fruto de Agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz / Classification of Different Maturity Stages of Agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Buitrago Guacaneme

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La planta de agraz o mortiño es un arbusto que perteneceal género Vaccinium, conocido hoy en día por ser fuente de altoscontenidos de antioxidantes en sus frutos, por consiguiente sirvepara inhibir la oxidación de las grasas y es usado como nutracéuticoen la prevención de enfermedades degenerativas en el humano,aspectos que han favorecido sus posibilidades de transformacióny comercialización. En el mercado se observan frutos en diferentesgrados de madurez, en detrimento de la calidad final; en partepor carecer de una caracterización fisicoquímica y de un criteriodefinido para la recolección del fruto. Por lo tanto, se establecieronestados de madurez basados en el color de la epidermis, por mediode los cuales se caracterizó el fruto. En cada estado de madurez,se evaluó el peso promedio, diámetro, pH, sólidos solubles totales(SST, acidez total titulable (ATT, relación de madurez (SST/ATTy porcentaje de germinación de las semillas. De acuerdo al colordel fruto se establecieron seis estados de madurez (0-5, diámetrode 0,8 a 1 cm y peso aproximado de 0,5 g. Los SST presentaronvalores de 7,3 a 13,8 ºBrix con un comportamiento ascendentedurante la maduración, contrario a la tendencia descendente queexhibió la firmeza y el pH con valores de 5,8 a 0,54 y 2,32 a 2,1respectivamente; por su parte la ATT presentó una variación de2,2 a 3. Se observó un incremento en la relación de madurez de2,56 en el estado 0 a 6,17 en el estado 5. / Abstract. Colombian blueberry is a bush from the Vacciniumgenus, known nowadays for the high antioxidants levels of itsfruits known as berries, that is why they are very useful for inhibitthe fat oxidation and also used as a nutraceutic for prevention ofdegenerative diseases in humans, facts which have enhanced thetransformation and marketing possibilities. In the market thereare fruits in different maturity grades, affecting the final qualityobtained, partly because of the lack of a chemical

  1. Where are you sucking from? Using Stable Isotopes to understand Host Specificity in two Hemiparasitic plants above the tree line in Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Sevde, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    By Alejandro Macias, Erik Hobbie, Ruth Varner, Kaitlyn Steele Hemiparasites are known to suck nutrients from nearby plants but their host specificity is not well understood. Hemiparasites are ecosystem engineers, limiting surrounding plant's growth, and decreasing local biodiversity. To better understand this phenomenon, the host specificities of two hemiparasitic angiosperms, Bartsia alpina , and Pedicularis lapponica were studied above the tree line along an elevational gradient in Sweden. B. alpina specialized in wetter environments, as indicated by their higher δ13C signature, and their growth among Salixsp.Betula nana, Bistorta vivipara, Viola biflora, Geranium sp., and Trollious europaeus. P. lapponica was common in drier, less species rich environments, known as heaths, where B. nana, Empetrum negrum, Phyllodoce coeruela, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are the most common species. P. lapponica had higher foliage δ13C due to its better water-use efficiency in a dry environment. Field survey data and δN15 values of both the foliage of the parasitic plants and their potential hosts were used to determine host specificity. Since the δN15 value of the hemiparasitic plant and its host are similar due to parasitism, it was determined that P. lapponica had a preference for plants with an ericoid mycorrhizal association, such as Vaccinium sp, and E. negrum, but not for the common P. coeruela. This does not support the idea found in the literature that P. lapponica has a preference for grasses. B. alpina was less host specific, associating with non-mycorrhizal, ericoid, and ectomycorhizal plants, such as Carex sp, Vaccinium sp., and S. lapponum. The ectomycorrhizal species, Salix sp., and B. nana, were both potential hosts for B. alpina and P. lapponica due to their presence among them. However, the isotopic data revealed that B. alpina had a preference for Salix sp., and P. lapponica had a preference for B. nana.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiulcer properties of Vaccinium leschenaultii Wight: A therapeutic supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Nagulsamy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In folklore systems of medicine, bilberry fruit and leaf extracts have been used for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, inflammation, and ulcer. The present study was to determine antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiulcerogenic activities of Vaccinium leschenaultii Wight leaf and fruit. The phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid contents of V. leschenaultii leaf and fruit were quantified and were subjected to assess their antioxidant potential using various in vitro systems such as 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, and ferric reducing antioxidant power reduction activities. Based on the antioxidant potential, acetone and methanol extracts of leaf and fruit were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage in a rat model. The quantification of secondary metabolites shows that the phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents are higher in methanol extracts of fruit and leaf. The results of antioxidant assays exhibited that the methanol extracts of leaf possesses better 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activity. Oral administration of the acetone fruit and leaf extracts of V. leschenaultii were capable of reducing the edema formation in rats against carrageenan and egg albumin induced inflammation. Moreover, leaf and fruit acetone extracts at the dose of 400 mg/kg highly inhibited ulcer formation. The study concluded that the plant substances such as total phenols, flavonoids along with appreciable antioxidant potential could be the supportive evidence to prove both the anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities of V. leschenaultii. The traditional importance of this plant will help to reveal the potential of plant to provide alternative phytotherapeutics for human health.

  3. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean blueberry(Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadira; Binte; Samad; Trishna; Debnath; Michael; Ye; Md.Abul; Hasnat; Beong; Ou; Lim

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean blueberry(Vaccinium corymbosum L.).Methods:Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Korean blueberry water and ethanol extracts were determined before determining the potential of the extracts as antioxidant.Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by following some well established methods for free radical scavenging such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate,1,2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid),free radical induced DNA damage,superoxide dismutaselike and catalase assay etc.Furthermore,1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan and nitric oxide assay were performed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts.Results:Total phenolic contents were found(115.0±3.0) and(4.2±3.0) mg GAE/100 g fresh mass for both extracts,respectively and flavonoid contents were(1 942.8±7.0) and(1 292.1±6.0) mg CE/100 g fresh mass for water and ethonal extracts,respectively.Both the extracts displayed significant scavenging activity of some radicals such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate(IC50 at 1.8 mg/mL and 2.05 mg/mL,respectively),l,2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)(IC50 at1.5 mg/mL and 1.6 mg/mL,respectively) and nitrite(IC50 at 1.7 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/mL,respectively)etc.The extracts were found to prevent inflammation as well by reducing nitric oxide production and cytotoxicity in cell.Conclusions:The findings suggest that the fresh Korean blueberry could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents.

  4. Effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Del Bo', Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Wild blueberries (WB) (Vaccinium angustifolium) are rich sources of polyphenols, such as flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins (ACNs), reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of regular consumption of a WB or a placebo (PL...

  5. Effect Of Fertilization And Mycorrhization On Growth And Nutritional Status Of Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon Ait. In The Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michałojć Zenia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. is a species that is becoming increasingly popular due to the health value and taste qualities of fruits. Studies on cranberry ‘Pilgrim’ were carried out in 2012-2013 in the nursery farm. Plants were grown in containers in open space. The effect of method of fertilization and application of mycorrhizal vaccine on the growth, development and nutritional status of plants during the first two years of cultivation in the nursery was evaluated. Fertilizer characterized by a controlled release of nutrients (CRF – Osmocote 6M, agent with sustained-releasing components (SRF – Hortiform pH, fertigation and fertilization using Hortiform pH combined with fertigation, were applied. The vaccine contained fungi of Hymenoscyphus sp. genus that are characteristic for Vaccinium genus. Significantly greater weight of plant shoots as well as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium contents were recorded in plants supplied with the mycorrhizal vaccine. A positive effect of slow-releasing fertilizers on plant weight and their chemical composition has been demonstrated, whereas plants fertigated developed lower mass of shoots and contained less nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium.

  6. Variability of procyanidin type A- and -B trimers content in aerial parts of some Vaccinium species and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomik, Peeter; Püssa, Tõnu; Raal, Ain

    2014-06-01

    Based on the ethnopharmacological data showing that either wild bilberry leaves or whole aerial parts of the plants have been used as antidiabetic drugs, it can be hypothesized that the controversial results of various clinical and animal investigations may be caused by different contents of the active principles in different aerial parts of the bilberry/blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) plants, as well as by their geographical and seasonal variability. The aim of this study was to compare the content of procyanidin type A- and -B trimers in different parts of wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and northern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.) cultivars. Stems (60 samples) and leaves (30 samples) of wild bilberries and northern highbush blueberry cultivars 'Ama' and 'North Blue' were collected at different locations in Estonia around the year, and analyzed for the concentration of the target polyphenols by HPLC-MS/MS. The highest content of type A doubly linked trimer, a known antidiabetic substance, was established in the stems of V. myrtillus. These contained up to 100 times more of the active substance than the leaves of V. myrtillus and at least 1000 times more than the leaves of V. corymbosum, whereas the seasonal/geographical variation was nearly tenfold. We suggest using stems of V. myrtillus for future animal and clinical investigations of bilberry preparations against diabetes.

  7. Development and Validation of 697 Novel Polymorphic Genomic and EST-SSR Markers in the American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Schlautman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., is an economically important North American fruit crop that is consumed because of its unique flavor and potential health benefits. However, a lack of abundant, genome-wide molecular markers has limited the adoption of modern molecular assisted selection approaches in cranberry breeding programs. To increase the number of available markers in the species, this study identified, tested, and validated microsatellite markers from existing nuclear and transcriptome sequencing data. In total, new primers were designed, synthesized, and tested for 979 SSR loci; 697 of the markers amplified allele patterns consistent with single locus segregation in a diploid organism and were considered polymorphic. Of the 697 polymorphic loci, 507 were selected for additional genetic diversity and segregation analyses in 29 cranberry genotypes. More than 95% of the 507 loci did not display segregation distortion at the p < 0.05 level, and contained moderate to high levels of polymorphism with a polymorphic information content >0.25. This comprehensive collection of developed and validated microsatellite loci represents a substantial addition to the molecular tools available for geneticists, genomicists, and breeders in cranberry and Vaccinium.

  8. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum and its relationship to BRD warrants further investigation. PMID:23833323

  9. Evaluation of the effect of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. fruit extract on serum inflammatory biomarkers in adult hyperlipidemic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Soltani, Rasool; Mirvakili, Saeide; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition. Many pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) are expressed in atherosclerotic lesions. The plants of genus Vaccinium are rich in anthocyanins with anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos fruit extract on the serum level of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in adult patients with mild hyperlipidemia to detect its possible inhibitory effects on progression of atherosclerosis. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, eligible hyperlipidemic patients were randomly and equally divided in to two groups of study drug or placebo control to receive either the Vaccinium extract or placebo capsules, respectively, twice daily for four consecutive weeks. Each drug capsule contained 0.8 mg of anthocyanins. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured before and after the interventions and finally were compared.A total of 8 men and 12 women in drug group as well as 11 men and 9 women in placebo group completed the study (P = 0.527). The use of Vaccinium extract significantly reduced only the IL-6 level (P = 0.037); however, this reduction was not significant compared to placebo (P = 0.062). Consumption of Vaccinium arctostaphylos fruit extract with the dose of 500 mg twice daily did not show any significant effect on serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in adult hyperlipidemic patients. However, considering slight decrease in the level of IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, the use of higher doses with longer duration might have significant effects on these factors. PMID:27651815

  10. Phenotypic plasticity of Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae in wild populations of mountain forests in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Ligarreto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale is a promising crop for the Andean region of South America and is currently available only in the wild. Spontaneous populations of this plant are found across the Colombian mountains, but very few published records on this plant morphology are available. A zonification study of V. meridionale was conducted in four principal areas of a low mountain forest of Colombia (Provinces of Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander and Nariño in 2007. A total of 20 populations and 100 plants of V. meridionale were individually characterized and surveyed, using a list of 26 characters of morphological variables (9 quantitative and 17 qualitative characters. Our results indicated that natural populations of V. meridionale might be found in the tropical forest under a highly heterogeneous climate and microclimate conditions, at different mountain regions between 2 357 and 3 168masl. The shrubs of V. meridionale exhibited a high level of intra-population variation in several quantitative (plant height, stem diameter and qualitative (growth habit, ramification density, presence of anthocyanins in stems morphological characters, suggesting an environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity. Plant height, stem diameter and foliar density were the most variable morphological traits, with coefficients of variation higher than 50%. However, several quantitative characters of its reproductive potential, such as berry dimensions, rachis length and number of flowers per inflorescence, resulted with low plasticity with coefficients of variation lower than 30.2%, indicating that these characters were genetically determined. The highest correlation coefficients (p<0.05 resulted to be between fruit length and fruit width (0.90, leaf length and leaf width (0.78, plant height and stem diameter (0.60, and inflorescence length and flowers number per inflorescence (0.57. The results suggest that an important genetic resource exists for this species in the wild. Low

  11. Phenotypic plasticity of Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae in wild populations of mountain forests in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Ligarreto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale is a promising crop for the Andean region of South America and is currently available only in the wild. Spontaneous populations of this plant are found across the Colombian mountains, but very few published records on this plant morphology are available. A zonification study of V. meridionale was conducted in four principal areas of a low mountain forest of Colombia (Provinces of Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander and Nariño in 2007. A total of 20 populations and 100 plants of V. meridionale were individually characterized and surveyed, using a list of 26 characters of morphological variables (9 quantitative and 17 qualitative characters. Our results indicated that natural populations of V. meridionale might be found in the tropical forest under a highly heterogeneous climate and microclimate conditions, at different mountain regions between 2 357 and 3 168masl. The shrubs of V. meridionale exhibited a high level of intra-population variation in several quantitative (plant height, stem diameter and qualitative (growth habit, ramification density, presence of anthocyanins in stems morphological characters, suggesting an environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity. Plant height, stem diameter and foliar density were the most variable morphological traits, with coefficients of variation higher than 50%. However, several quantitative characters of its reproductive potential, such as berry dimensions, rachis length and number of flowers per inflorescence, resulted with low plasticity with coefficients of variation lower than 30.2%, indicating that these characters were genetically determined. The highest correlation coefficients (pVaccinium meridionale es una planta promisoria para la región Andina de Sudamérica y está disponible actualmente sólo en forma silvestre. Las poblaciones espontáneas de esta planta se encuentran en las montañas colombianas y existen muy pocos reportes publicados respecto a su morfología. Se

  12. Influence of variety and type of shoot on rooting ability of green stem cuttings of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Пиж’янова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article provides results of studying the output percentage of green stem cuttings of seven varieties of Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. subject to the dates of cutting preparation, type of shoot and its metamerism in agroecological conditions of the Rightbank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. It is found that green stem cuttings of Highbush blueberry varieties under review display low regenerative ability and are characterized with medium rooting ability. The optimal procuring and planting for rooting dates for the shoots fall within the stage of their intensive growth, which lasts from the first decade of June till the second decade of July. The level of regenerative capacity for the cuttings is determined by the type of cutting and its metamerism. Basal three-node cuttings have displayed essentially improved rooting ability as compared to the apical and medial cuttings.

  13. HPLC simultaneous determination of arbutin, chlorogenic acid and 6'-O-caffeoylarbutin in different parts of Vaccinium dunalianum Wight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xu-Lu; Li, Na; Xu, Min; Zhu, Hong-Tao; He, Peng; Ding, Yong; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Arbutin (1), chlorogenic acid (2) and 6'-O-caffeoylarbutin (3) are three major components in Vaccinium dunalianum Wight with various promising bioactivities. A reliable, reproducible and accurate method for simultaneous and quantitative determination of 1-3 is developed by RP-HPLC analysis. This method should be appropriate for the quality assurance of unprocessed and processed materials of V. dunalianum. The contents of 1-3 in different parts of V. dunalianum from different origins were analysed. The content of 3 was much higher than those of 1 and 2, accounting for up to 31.76% in the dried leaf buds. Moreover, the leaf buds, flower buds and leaves showed a tendency towards higher contents of 1-3 than the other plant parts.

  14. Testing and design of a passive container for the optimisation of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cold chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beghi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to test a passive cooling system (PCS on highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. to verify cooling performances soon after harvest. Based on experimental results the cooling trend was modelled and a dedicated system was designed for the optimisation of blueberries cold chain. The evolution of qualitative characteristics of stored fruits was evaluated analysing the percentage of damaged berries, the weight loss, the texture, the titratable acidity and the total soluble solids content. The analysis of temperature profiles during transport using PCS shows how this device is not fast enough in tearing down the blueberries field heat. A computer simulation, using finite elements method modelling, considering the thermo-physical properties of materials used and the boundary conditions arising from experimental data collected was carried out. Computer modelling has provided the characteristics of geometry, thickness, type and density of the material to obtain the desired cooling performance.

  15. Effect of forest clear cuts on plant–pollinator interactions: the case of three ericaceous subshrubs in Lithuanian pine forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigijus Daubaras

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Managed boreal pine forests are subject to regular clear cuts causing significant disturbances to these ecosystems. It is believed that, to some extent, they resemble natural cycles of forest growth, decline, and regeneration and can benefit, e.g., mutualistic relations among plants and pollinators. To study the impact of forest management (clear cuts on pollinator visitation, we focused on three ericaceous plant species, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, and Calluna vulgaris, common elements of pine forest understory. Our observations, conducted in Lithuania, showed that there are no differences among control mature stands and clear cut areas in terms of visitation frequency for all three studied species. However, at least for C. vulgaris, a shift toward fly visits was observed in the clear cut site, showing that open areas are preferred habitats for these insects. Ants constituted an important share of visitors to flowers of V. myrtillus and C. vulgaris, suggesting their important role in reproduction of these plant species.

  16. Non-destructive methods for peat layer assessment in oligotrophic peat bogs: a case study from Poiana Ştampei, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana F. Gheorghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Practices currently employed in the investigation and characterisation of peat deposits are destructive and may irremediable perturb peat bog development even in cases when exploitation is not carried out. We investigated the correlation between vegetation characteristics in the active area of Poiana Ştampei peat bog, Romania, and the underlying peat layer depth, aiming at establishing a non-destructive method of peat layer depth estimation. The presence of the Sphagneto-Eriophoretum vaginati association, dominated by Sphagnum fimbriatum, Eriophorum vaginatum, Andromeda polifolia, Vaccinium oxycoccos, V. myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Polytrichum commune, Picea excelsa, Pinus sylvestris and Betula verrucosa was found to predict the existence of the peat layer but not its depth. Out of the seven identified vegetation types, one type was associated with a very thin or no peat layer, one type was characterised by the presence of a thick (over 100 cm peat layer and five types indicated the presence of variable average depths of the peat layer. pH values correlated with peat layer depth only within the vegetation type associated with thick peat layers.

  17. Responses to ammonium and nitrate additions by boreal plants and their natural enemies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, Annika [Umeaa Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: annika.nordin@genfys.slu.se; Strengbom, Joachim [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: joachim.strengbom@ebc.uu.se; Ericson, Lars [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: lars.ericson@eg.umu.se

    2006-05-15

    Separate effects of ammonium (NH{sub 4} {sup +}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3} {sup -}) on boreal forest understorey vegetation were investigated in an experiment where 12.5 and 50.0 kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} was added to 2 m{sup 2} sized plots during 4 years. The dwarf-shrubs dominating the plant community, Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea, took up little of the added N independent of the chemical form, and their growth did not respond to the N treatments. The grass Deschampsia flexuosa increased from the N additions and most so in response to NO{sub 3} {sup -}. Bryophytes took up predominately NH{sub 4} {sup +} and there was a negative correlation between moss N concentration and abundance. Plant pathogenic fungi increased from the N additions, but showed no differences in response to the two N forms. Because the relative contribution of NH{sub 4} {sup +} and NO{sub 3} {sup -} to the total N deposition on a regional scale can vary substantially, the N load a habitat can sustain without substantial changes in the biota should be set considering specific vegetation responses to the predominant N form in deposition. - Biota will respond to nitrogen deposition depending on the form of nitrogen.

  18. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq., Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb. and Blueberry Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotoshi Tsuda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.. The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract.

  19. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirotoshi; Kunitake, Hisato; Kawasaki-Takaki, Ryoko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao; Komatsu, Haruki; Yukizaki, Chizuko

    2013-02-15

    Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.). The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract.

  20. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hirotoshi; Kunitake, Hisato; Kawasaki-Takaki, Ryoko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao; Komatsu, Haruki; Yukizaki, Chizuko

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.). The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract. PMID:27137366

  1. ANDEAN BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium Meridionale Swartz SEED STORAGE BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERIZATION UNDER LOW TEMPERATURE CONSERVATION CATEGORIZACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO DE LAS SEMILLAS DE MORTIÑO (Vaccinium Meridionale Swartz EN ALMACENAMIENTO A BAJA TEMPERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Hernández Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A study was conducted to categorize harvest stage, maximun dry weigth and tolerance to desiccation at low temperature storage of seeds of the promising species "andean blueberry", Vaccinium meridionale Swartz. The aim was to determine the long term conservation possibility of a duplicate of the current Colombian Andean Highland field collection in cool storage rooms, as well as that of newly collected local populations from the mentioned highland region, which are in danger of genetic erosion due to human intervention and the ongoing global climate change. Both maximum dry weight and the highest germination percentages were observed to be associated in seeds extracted from deep purple (fully ripe berries. The seeds exhibited orthodox storage behavior, which indicates the possibility for long-term cold storage of a duplicate of the current metapopulation of the species in the country.Resumen. Se realizó un estudio para categorizar el estado de cosecha, máximo peso seco de la semilla y la tolerancia de ésta a la desecación y almacenamiento a bajas temperaturas, en la especie promisoria mortiño, Vaccinium meridionale Swartz. El objetivo fue establecer el potencial de conservar un duplicado de la colección de campo y rescatar y almacenar poblaciones espontáneas de la zona alto andina colombiana, en peligro de pérdida por intervención humana y el cambio climático, que pueden causar erosión de la diversidad genética de la especie. El máximo peso seco se logró a partir de semillas extraídas de bayas de color morado oscuro, con obtención de germinación superior en éstas y una relación directa entre el peso seco y el porcentaje de germinación. La semilla exhibió comportamiento ortodoxo, lo cual indica la posibilidad de almacenamiento a largo plazo de un duplicado de la metapoblación de la especie, existente en el país.

  2. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Improves Amyloid β Protein-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hee; Kwon, Hyuck-Se; Shin, Se-Gye; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Vaccinium uliginosum L. (bilberry) on the learning and memory impairments induced by amyloid-β protein (AβP) 1-42. ICR Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups: the control (Aβ40-1A), control with 5% bilberry group (Aβ40-1B), amyloid β protein 1-42 treated group (Aβ1-42A), and Aβ1-42 with 5% bilberry group (Aβ1-42B). The control was treated with amyloid β-protein 40-1 for placebo effect, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) group was treated with amyloid β-protein 1-42. Amyloid β-protein 1-42 was intracerebroventricular (ICV) micro injected into the hippocampus in 35% acetonitrile and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. Although bilberry added groups tended to decrease the finding time of hidden platform, no statistical significance was found. On the other hand, escape latencies of AβP injected mice were extended compared to that of Aβ40-1. In the Probe test, bilberry added Aβ1-42B group showed a significant (Pmemory compared to Aβ40-1 control group. In passive avoidance test, bilberry significantly (Pimprove memory and learning capability in chemically induced Alzheimer's disease in experimental animal models.

  3. Evaluation of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Blueberry Cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Grown in the Northwest Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Dragović-Uzelac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: total phenols (TPC, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA, flavan-3-ols (TF3ols, as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC and reducing power (RP in four blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L. introduced in the Northwest Croatian climate conditions. Phenolic compounds were measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH and ABTS assays and RP by FRAP assay. All cultivars contained high mass fraction of TPC, TF, TA and lower mass fraction of TF3ols. Among the researched fruits, Sierra cultivar contained the highest amounts of all groups of phenolics, followed by Elliott>Bluecrop≥Duke. Significant differences were observed in phenolic mass fraction among different cultivars and growing seasons (p<0.05, and phenolic compounds were significantly higher in growing season 2006. Examined cultivars possess high antioxidant capacity and reducing power, and all phenolics were highly correlated with TAC and RP (R=0.46 to 0.99. The study indicated that growing and climate conditions in Northwest Croatia are convenient for introducing blueberry cultivars. Generally, blueberry fruits are a rich source of phenolics, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  4. THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN FRUIT OF HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM L. RELATING TO DIFFERENT FERTILIZER APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Medvecký

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Six varieties of high blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. grown on a plantation of research station in Krivá, that is located in the northern part of Slovakia, was examined to determine the content of polyphenols in the fruit depending on the three variants of fertilization. The first variant was realized with the application of organic fertilization, second one with mineral fertilizers and third variant was left without fertilization. The content of total polyphenols (TP was determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. The total polyphenol content ranged from 2522.90 mg.kg-1 to 4960.20 mg.kg-1 in the variant with organic fertilization. In the variant with mineral fertilization the total polyphenol content ranged from 2278.25 mg.kg-1 to 3350.23 mg.kg-1. In the variant without fertilization was concentration of total polyphenols from 2503.63 mg.kg-1 to 3790.48 mg.kg-1. Statistical evaluation of the results confirmed a very weak correlation between polyphenols and one variety of different fertilization on the level of significance (p <0.05. Statistically significant effect on the level of significance (p <0.05 in Tukey's test was confirmed at the Patriot variety of organic and mineral fertilization and the mineral fertilization and control variant.

  5. Black Currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) Fruit Juices Inhibit Adhesion of Asaia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of high-polyphenolic black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) juices against bacterial strains Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis isolated as spoilage of commercial soft drinks. The composition of fruit juices was evaluated using chromatographic techniques HPLC and LC-MS. The adhesion to glass, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate in two different culture media was evaluated by luminometry and the plate count method. The major anthocyanins in the V. myrtillus were petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-glucoside, while in R. nigrum delphinidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were detected. The LC-MS analysis showed presence of anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives), phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids), flavonols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside), and flavanols (procyanidin B2 and procyanidin type A2). Additionally, in the bilberry juice A type procyanidin trimer was detected. The adhesion of Asaia spp. cells depended on the type of medium, carbon sources, and the type of abiotic surfaces. We noted that the adhesion was significantly stronger in minimal medium containing sucrose. The addition of bilberry and black currant juices notably reduced bacterial growth as well as cell adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate surfaces. PMID:27747228

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Cardioprotective Effect of a Nonalcoholic Extract of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz during Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin E. Lopera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to assess the antioxidant properties and the effects against the reperfusion injury of a nonalcoholic extract obtained by fermentation from the Colombian blueberry, mortiño (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz, Ericaceae. Antioxidant properties were assessed by in vitro systems. To examine the postischemic myocardial function, isolated rat hearts were treated 10 min before ischemia and during the first 10 min of reperfusion with the extract. To analyze the participation of nitric oxide (NO, other experiments were performed in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. In cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS concentration, reduced glutathione (GSH content, endothelial NOS (eNOS, and Akt expression were also measured. The blueberry extract showed higher total phenols and anthocyanins contents, scavenging activity of superoxide radical and systolic and diastolic function was improved, TBARS diminished, GSH was partially preserved, and both NOS and Akt expression increased in hearts treated with the extract. These beneficial effects were lost when eNOS was inhibited. In resume, these data show that the increase of eNOS expression via Akt and the scavenging activity contribute to the cardioprotection afforded by acute treatment with Colombian blueberry extract against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  7. Black Currant (Ribes nigrum L. and Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. Fruit Juices Inhibit Adhesion of Asaia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Antolak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of high-polyphenolic black currant (Ribes nigrum L. and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. juices against bacterial strains Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis isolated as spoilage of commercial soft drinks. The composition of fruit juices was evaluated using chromatographic techniques HPLC and LC-MS. The adhesion to glass, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate in two different culture media was evaluated by luminometry and the plate count method. The major anthocyanins in the V. myrtillus were petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-glucoside, while in R. nigrum delphinidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were detected. The LC-MS analysis showed presence of anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives, phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, flavonols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and flavanols (procyanidin B2 and procyanidin type A2. Additionally, in the bilberry juice A type procyanidin trimer was detected. The adhesion of Asaia spp. cells depended on the type of medium, carbon sources, and the type of abiotic surfaces. We noted that the adhesion was significantly stronger in minimal medium containing sucrose. The addition of bilberry and black currant juices notably reduced bacterial growth as well as cell adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate surfaces.

  8. Effect of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment on the thermal, pasting, and textural properties and microstructure characterization of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Fan, Mingcong; Zhou, Sumei; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the thermal, pasting and gel textural properties of japonica rice starch (JRS) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) fortified with Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment (VBTLP) were investigated. The results showed that VBTLP facilitated the gelatinization of JRS and GRS with earlier onsets of onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), conclusion temperature (Tc), and lower values of gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHg), and retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHr), as the VBTLP level increased. For JRS, VBTLP increased the peak viscosity and breakdown, reduced the final viscosity and setback, but for GRS it increased the peak viscosity, final viscosity, breakdown and setback. VBTLP also reduced the hardness and adhesiveness of the JRS gel. The values of lightness (L(∗)) for JRS and GRS with VBTLP decreased by 47.60 and 49.56%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that VBTLP caused looser matrices in dried JRS and GRS gels which had lower crystallinities compared with the control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of consumers and mutualists of Vaccinium membranaceum at Mount St. Helens: dependence on successional context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suann Yang

    Full Text Available In contrast to secondary succession, studies of terrestrial primary succession largely ignore the role of biotic interactions, other than plant facilitation and competition, despite the expectation that simplified interaction webs and propagule-dependent demographics may amplify the effects of consumers and mutualists. We investigated whether successional context determined the impact of consumers and mutualists by quantifying their effects on reproduction by the shrub Vaccinium membranaceum in primary and secondary successional sites at Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA, and used simulations to explore the effects of these interactions on colonization. Species interactions differed substantially between sites, and the combined effect of consumers and mutualists was much more strongly negative for primary successional plants. Because greater local control of propagule pressure is expected to increase successional rates, we evaluated the role of dispersal in the context of these interactions. Our simulations showed that even a small local seed source greatly increases population growth rates, thereby balancing strong consumer pressure. The prevalence of strong negative interactions in the primary successional site is a reminder that successional communities will not exhibit the distribution of interaction strengths characteristic of stable communities, and suggests the potential utility of modeling succession as the consequence of interaction strengths.

  10. Isolation and Identification of Intestinal CYP3A Inhibitors from Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using Human Intestinal Microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyung; Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N.; Brantley, Scott J.; Paine, Mary F.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2010-01-01

    Cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, a cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC50) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study. PMID:20717876

  11. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimisation of Simultaneous UHPLC-PDA Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids and Standardisation of Ericaceae Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Owczarek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A fast and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UHPLC-PDA method for simultaneous quantification of oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA in plant materials was developed. A central composite design combined with a response surface methodology was utilized to establish optimal separation conditions. The final separation was accomplished on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (1.8 μm, 100 mm × 3 mm I.D., Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA using a mixture 90:10 (v/v of methanol and 1% (w/v aqueous orthophosporic acid as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.44 mL/min and temperature of 18 °C. The analysis was completed in 6.2 min with satisfactory resolution of 1.5 between the target analytes. The developed method proved to be precise (relative standard deviations below 3.2%, accurate (recoveries in the range of 95.27%–98.60%, and sensitive (limits of detection (LODs in the range of 0.047–0.051 mg/mL. The method was then successfully applied to evaluate OA and UA content in real samples of selected Ericaceae plant materials (leaves of Arctostaphylos uva ursi, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis idaea, Gaultheria procumbens. The content of OA and UA in investigated samples varied in the range of 0.74–4.47 mg/g dry weight (dw and 1.30–18.61 mg/g dw, respectively.

  12. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascu, Mihaela, E-mail: mihhaela_neagu@yahoo.com [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Pascu, Daniela-Elena [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Cozea, Andreea [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Food and Tourism, 148 Castle Street, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Bunaciu, Andrei A. [SCIENT – Research Center for Instrumental Analysis, S.C. CROMATEC-PLUS S.R.L., 18 Sos. Cotroceni, Bucharest 060114 (Romania); Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  13. Kinetic Study of Convective Drying of Blueberry Variety O’neil (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Estudio de la Cinética del Secado Convectivo de Arándano Variedad O’Neil (Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vega-Gálvez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study and to model the drying kinetics of the blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum L. at three temperatures (60, 70 and 80 ºC with an airflow of 2.0 ± 0.2 m s-1. Modeling of the desorption isotherm was carried out with the GAB (Guggenheim, Anderson and de Boer equation, showing a good fit to experimental moisture data, giving as a result a monolayer moisture level of 0.084 g water g-1 dm. Newton, Henderson-Pabis, Page, Modified Page and Logarithmic mathematical models were applied in the study and in the modeling of the drying kinetics of this fruit. Kinetic parameters k of each model showed dependence on temperature, and were evaluated by an Arrhenius-type equation, with an activation energy of between 36.2 and 54.5 kJ mol-1. Logarithmic and Modified Page models gave the best fits for each drying curve, based on the statistical test determination coefficient, sum square error, root mean sum errors and Chi-square. In consequence, both models are excellent tools for estimating the drying time of this product.El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar y modelar la cinética de secado del arándano ( Vaccinium corymbosum L. a tres temperaturas (60, 70 y 80 ºC con un flujo de aire de 2,0 ± 0,2 m s-1. El modelado de la isoterma de desorción se llevó a cabo con la ecuación de GAB (Guggenheim, Anderson y de Boer, mostrando un buen ajuste sobre los datos experimentales de humedad, dando como resultado una humedad de la monocapa de 0,084 g de agua g-1 ms. Se aplicaron los modelos matemáticos de Newton, Henderson-Pabis, Page, Page modificado y Logarítmico para el modelado de la cinética de secado de esta fruta. Los parámetros cinéticos k de cada modelo presentaron dependencia con la temperatura, evaluadas por una ecuación de tipo Arrhenius, con una energía de activación entre 36,2-54,5 kJ mol-1. Los modelos Logarítmico y Page modificado obtuvieron el mejor ajuste para cada curva de secado, basado en las

  14. Producción de vinagre a partir de Mortiño (Vaccinium meridionale) mediante procesos fermentativos y seguimiento de su actividad antioxidante

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa Agudelo, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Resumen: La fruta de Mortiño (Vaccinium meridionale) presenta características nutricionales por su alto contenido en compuestos fenólicos, antocianinas y alta capacidad antioxidante. El consumo de esta fruta, o los productos que surgen a partir de su procesamiento controlado, presenta múltiples beneficios para la salud humana, lo cual motiva la búsqueda de su transformación con mayor valor agregado. En este orden de ideas este estudio tiene como propósito la producción de vinagre a partir de...

  15. The abundance and pollen foraging behaviour of bumble bees in relation to population size of whortleberry (Vaccinium uliginosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Mayer

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation can have severe effects on plant pollinator interactions, for example changing the foraging behaviour of pollinators. To date, the impact of plant population size on pollen collection by pollinators has not yet been investigated. From 2008 to 2010, we monitored nine bumble bee species (Bombus campestris, Bombus hortorum s.l., Bombus hypnorum, Bombus lapidarius, Bombus pascuorum, Bombus pratorum, Bombus soroensis, Bombus terrestris s.l., Bombus vestalis s.l. on Vaccinium uliginosum (Ericaceae in up to nine populations in Belgium ranging in size from 80 m(2 to over 3.1 ha. Bumble bee abundance declined with decreasing plant population size, and especially the proportion of individuals of large bumble bee species diminished in smaller populations. The most remarkable and novel observation was that bumble bees seemed to switch foraging behaviour according to population size: while they collected both pollen and nectar in large populations, they largely neglected pollen collection in small populations. This pattern was due to large bumble bee species, which seem thus to be more likely to suffer from pollen shortages in smaller habitat fragments. Comparing pollen loads of bumble bees we found that fidelity to V. uliginosum pollen did not depend on plant population size but rather on the extent shrub cover and/or openness of the site. Bumble bees collected pollen only from three plant species (V.uliginosum, Sorbus aucuparia and Cytisus scoparius. We also did not discover any pollination limitation of V. uliginosum in small populations. We conclude that habitat fragmentation might not immediately threaten the pollination of V. uliginosum, nevertheless, it provides important nectar and pollen resources for bumble bees and declining populations of this plant could have negative effects for its pollinators. The finding that large bumble bee species abandon pollen collection when plant populations become small is of interest when

  16. The abundance and pollen foraging behaviour of bumble bees in relation to population size of whortleberry (Vaccinium uliginosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Carolin; Michez, Denis; Chyzy, Alban; Brédat, Elise; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation can have severe effects on plant pollinator interactions, for example changing the foraging behaviour of pollinators. To date, the impact of plant population size on pollen collection by pollinators has not yet been investigated. From 2008 to 2010, we monitored nine bumble bee species (Bombus campestris, Bombus hortorum s.l., Bombus hypnorum, Bombus lapidarius, Bombus pascuorum, Bombus pratorum, Bombus soroensis, Bombus terrestris s.l., Bombus vestalis s.l.) on Vaccinium uliginosum (Ericaceae) in up to nine populations in Belgium ranging in size from 80 m(2) to over 3.1 ha. Bumble bee abundance declined with decreasing plant population size, and especially the proportion of individuals of large bumble bee species diminished in smaller populations. The most remarkable and novel observation was that bumble bees seemed to switch foraging behaviour according to population size: while they collected both pollen and nectar in large populations, they largely neglected pollen collection in small populations. This pattern was due to large bumble bee species, which seem thus to be more likely to suffer from pollen shortages in smaller habitat fragments. Comparing pollen loads of bumble bees we found that fidelity to V. uliginosum pollen did not depend on plant population size but rather on the extent shrub cover and/or openness of the site. Bumble bees collected pollen only from three plant species (V.uliginosum, Sorbus aucuparia and Cytisus scoparius). We also did not discover any pollination limitation of V. uliginosum in small populations. We conclude that habitat fragmentation might not immediately threaten the pollination of V. uliginosum, nevertheless, it provides important nectar and pollen resources for bumble bees and declining populations of this plant could have negative effects for its pollinators. The finding that large bumble bee species abandon pollen collection when plant populations become small is of interest when considering plant and

  17. Jasmonate-Mediated Induced Volatiles in the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: From Gene Expression to Organismal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.; Polashock, James; Malo, Edi A.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants’ interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emission of volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, at different levels of biological organization from gene expression to organismal interactions. At the molecular level, four genes (BCS, LLS, NER1, and TPS21) responded significantly to gypsy moth larval feeding, MeJA, and mechanical wounding, but to different degrees. The most dramatic changes in expression of BCS and TPS21 (genes in the sesquiterpenoid pathway) were when treated with MeJA. Gypsy moth-damaged and MeJA-treated plants also had significantly elevated expression of LLS and NER1 (genes in the monoterpene and homoterpene biosynthesis pathways, respectively). At the biochemical level, MeJA induced a complex blend of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds that differed from gypsy moth and mechanical damage, and followed a diurnal pattern of emission. At the organismal level, numbers of Sparganothis sulfureana moths were lower while numbers of parasitic wasps were higher on sticky traps near MeJA-treated cranberry plants than those near untreated plants. Out of 11 leaf volatiles tested, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and linalool oxide elicited strong antennal (EAG) responses from S. sulfureana, whereas sesquiterpenes elicited weak EAG responses. In addition, mortality of S. sulfureana larvae increased by about 43% in JA treated cranberry plants as compared with untreated plants, indicating a relationship among adult preference, antennal sensitivity to plant odors, and offspring performance. This study highlights the role of the jasmonate-dependent defensive pathway in the emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in cranberries and its importance in multi-trophic level interactions. PMID

  18. Xylem anatomical responses of Vaccinium myrtillus exposed to air CO2 enrichment and soil warming at treeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadon-Rosell, Alba; Fonti, Patrick; Dawes, Melissa; von Arx, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Plant life at treeline is limited by harsh growth conditions. In this study we used nine years of free air CO2 enrichment (+200 ppm from 2001 to 2009) and six years of soil warming (+4 °C from 2007 to 2012) at a treeline experimental site in the Swiss Alps to investigate xylem anatomical responses of Vaccinium myrtillus, a co-dominant dwarf shrub in many treeline communities. Our aim was to identify whether the release from limiting growth conditions induced adjustments of the water conductive and storage tissues. High-resolution images of wood anatomical microsections from the stem base of 40 individuals were captured with a digital camera mounted on a microscope. We used the specialized image analysis tool ROXAS to quantify size, density, grouping patterns, and potential hydraulic conductivity of vessels. In addition, we measured the abundance and distribution of ray parenchyma. Our preliminary results show that CO2 enrichment and soil warming induced contrasting anatomical responses. In the last years of the CO2 enhancement vessels were larger, whereas soil warming induced an immediate reduction of vessel size. Moreover, larger vessels were found when V. myrtillus was in cohabitation with pine as opposed to larch. Results for ray parenchyma measurements did not show clear trends, although warming seemed to have a slightly positive effect on the fraction of uniseriate vs. multiseriate rays. These results suggest that release from the growth limiting factors can result in contrasting and partially lagged responses in the hydraulic system with little impact on the storage tissues. In addition, the overstory species seem to play a key role on the anatomy of V. myrtillus at treeline.

  19. Screening of Rooting Medium for Vaccinium uliginosum Seedlings in Vitro%笃斯越橘茎段生根培养基配方筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the micropropagation speed of tissue culture of V accinium uligino-sum ,Vaccinium uliginosum seedlings in vitro were used as materials and transferred to different medium with different hormone combination after cut to pieces .The effect of different concentra-tion of added IAA and activated carbon on the rooting of Vaccinium uliginosum seedlings in vitro was studied .The results gave the ideal rooting medium of 1/2MS with 1 .0 mg/L IAA and 0 .3 g/L activated carbon .On this medium ,the rootting rate reached 99 .8% ,the rooting number averaged 4 .98 per plant ,and the average root length reached 2 .98 cm .%为了加快笃斯越橘组培苗快繁速度,以其组培苗茎段为试验材料,研究基本培养基、IA A及活性炭质量浓度对笃斯越橘组培苗生根的影响。结果表明,笃斯越橘茎段的生根培养基配方为1/2MS+IAA 1.0 mg/L+活性炭0.3 g/L ,生根率达99.8%,平均生根数达4.98条/株,根平均长度达2.98 cm。

  20. Extraction Technology of Arbutin from Vaccinium uliginosumPomace%蓝莓果渣中熊果苷提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉洁; 陈敏; 张扬; 贾琢; 赵玉红

    2012-01-01

    以蓝莓果渣为原料,研究熊果苷的适宜提取条件。试验采用超声波辅助提取法从蓝莓果渣中提取熊果苷,采用正交试验确定适宜的提取工艺条件。试验结果表明,熊果苷提取的适宜工艺条件是乙醇浓度60%,料液比1∶20g/mL,超声时间40min,超声功率400W,在此条件下,熊果苷提取效果较好。%The objective of the present study was to investigate optimum extraction condition of arbutin from Vaccinium uliginosum pomace.Arbutin was extracted from Vaccinium uliginosum pomace by ultrasonic wave assisted method and orthogonal experiment was designed to study the optimum extraction conditions.The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions include: ethanol concentration was 60%,material to liquid ratio was 1∶20,ultrasonic power was 400w and ultrasonic time was 40 min.Extraction efficiency of arbutin was superior under these conditions.

  1. The effect of Vaccinium uliginosum extract on tablet computer-induced asthenopia: randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choul Yong; Gu, Namyi; Lim, Chi-Yeon; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Chang, Minwook; Kim, Martha; Rhee, Moo-Yong

    2016-08-18

    To investigate the alleviation effect of Vaccinium uliginosum extract (DA9301) on tablet computer-induced asthenopia. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind and parallel study (Trial registration number: 2013-95). A total 60 volunteers were randomized into DA9301 (n = 30) and control (n = 30) groups. The DA9301 group received DA9301 oral pill (1000 mg/day) for 4 weeks and the control group received placebo. Asthenopia was evaluated by administering a questionnaire containing 10 questions (responses were scored on a scales of 0-6; total score: 60) regarding ocular symptoms before (baseline) and 4 weeks after receiving pills (DA9301 or placebo). The participants completed the questionnaire before and after tablet computer (iPad Air, Apple Inc.) watching at each visit. The change in total asthenopia score (TAS) was calculated and compared between the groups TAS increased significantly after tablet computer watching at baseline in DA9301 group. (from 20.35 to 23.88; p = 0.031) However, after receiving DA9301 for 4 weeks, TAS remained stable after tablet computer watching. In the control group, TAS changes induced by tablet computer watching were not significant both at baseline and at 4 weeks after receiving placebo. Further analysis revealed the scores for "tired eyes" (p = 0.001), "sore/aching eyes" (p = 0.038), "irritated eyes" (p = 0.010), "watery eyes" (p = 0.005), "dry eyes" (p = 0.003), "eye strain" (p = 0.006), "blurred vision" (p = 0.034), and "visual discomfort" (p = 0.018) significantly improved in the DA9301 group. We found that oral intake of DA9301 (1000 mg/day for 4 weeks) was effective in alleviating asthenopia symptoms induced by tablet computer watching. The study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (registration number: NCT02641470, date of registration December 30, 2015).

  2. On Tetraploid Induction of Vaccinium L.by Colchicine%秋水仙素诱导越橘四倍体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石佳; 郑文娟; 任广炼; 李政; 李凌

    2012-01-01

    In order to breed Vaccinium L. resource, which is agreeable to the climate of southwest China, and to provide basic research data for polyploid breeding, colchicine is used in the experiment to induce "3 # " australe Vaccinium L. tetraploid with the immersion method and the method of adding colchicine into medium. The result illustrates that: the immersion method is superior to that of adding colchicine into medium, and most of the mutagenesis plants are chimeras. The best mutagenesis condition is to soak shoot tip for 24h with 0. 1% of colchicine. The survival rate is 70% , the variation rate 13. 33%, and the rate of tetraploid plants 6.67%. Significant changes have been found between tetraploid and diploid by detecting morphological and physiological indicators in stems, leaves, stomatal, guard cells, the number of chromosomes and chlorophyll contents.%用秋水仙素浸渍法及培养基添加法对南高丛越橘组培苗“3#”进行了四倍体诱导,结果表明:浸渍法诱变效果优于培养基添加法,获得的变异株系多为嵌合体,0.1%的秋水仙素茎尖浸泡24h为最佳诱变组合,存活率为70%,变异率为13.33%,四倍体植株率为6.67%.通过对茎、叶、气孔、保卫细胞、染色体数目以及叶绿素含量等形态生理指标的检测,证明四倍体较二倍体发生了显著变化.

  3. IMPACT OF CONVENTIONAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON THE CONTENT OF MACRO- AND MICROELEMENTS IN THE FRUIT OF HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Medvecký

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide information on the content of micro- and macroelements in fruits of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cultivated using of different fertilizer application in conditions of northern Slovakia. The study was realised in the experimental station Kriva in Orava region. Six cultivars (Bluejay, Nelson, Bluecrop, Patriot, Berkeley and Brigitta of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. were studied. Three variants of blueberry cultivation were investigated. The first one was the cultivation with mineral fertilizers application (30 kg N, 10 kg P and 30 kg K.ha -1, the second variant was realised with application of Hosticke organic fertilizer and the third (control variant of blueberry cultivation was realised without any fertilization. The content of macro- and microelements after previous microwave decomposition was in blueberries samples determined by AAS method (AAS Varian AA Spectr DUO 240FS/240Z/UltrAA . In our study the highest content of macroelements (Mg – 104.72 mg.kg-1, P – 156.24 mg.kg-1, Ca – 646.,79 mg.kg-1, Na – 320.32 mg.kg-1 and K – 1416.78 mg.kg-1 was determined in cv. Patriot in the control variant without any treatment and the lowest one in cv. Bluecrop in the variant with the mineral fertilization. The highest content of microelements (Fe – 156.60 mg.kg-1, Mn – 8.68 mg.kg-1, Zn – 1.081 mg.kg-1, Cu – 0.507 mg.kg-1 was detected in cv. Nelson in the variant with the mineral fertilization and the lowest one in cv. Bluecrop in the control variant without any treatment.

  4. Flavonol-enriched fraction from Vaccinium macrocarpon fruit inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in human prostate cancer cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James MacPhee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer, amongst other cancer types has a genetic and environmental component, which can contribute to prostate cancer development and progression. Vaccinum macrocarpon (American cranberry is a botanical that contains several phytochemicals which have been suggested to play a role in preventing cardiovascular disease, cancer, and urinary tract infections as well as in the maintenance of oral health. Context and purpose of this study: This investigation evaluated the effects of a flavonolenriched fraction (FL from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon containing quercetin and myricetin glycosides on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA activities and their associated regulatory proteins in DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Results: A flavonol-enriched fraction (FL was prepared from Vaccinium macrocarpon berries and the effect of this fraction on prostate cancer cell behaviour was assessed using biochemical and molecular approaches including cytotoxicity assays and Western blot analysis to determine protein expression. Cranberry FL decreased cellular viability of DU145 cells at a concentration of 25 ug/ml by 20% after 6 hours of treatment. Further investigations determined that associated with this cytotoxicity, cranberry FL decreases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP ( specifically MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA activity through effects on specific temporal MMP regulators and uPA regulators and by affecting either the phosphorylation status and/or expression of specific MAP kinase, PI-3 kinase, NF-kB and AP-1 pathway associated proteins. Conclusion: This study demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of Vaccinium macrocarpon flavonols to modulate cellular pathways associated with migration, invasion, and proliferation, suggesting that cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon is a viable candidate for further research as a natural product that

  5. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  6. Shrub encroachment in Arctic tundra: Betula nana effects on above- and below-ground litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Jennie R; Buckeridge, Kate M; van de Weg, Martine J; Shaver, Gaius R; Schimel, Joshua P; Gough, Laura

    2017-03-06

    Rapid arctic vegetation change as a result of global warming includes an increase in the cover and biomass of deciduous shrubs. Increases in shrub abundance will result in a proportional increase of shrub litter in the litter community, potentially affecting carbon turnover rates in arctic ecosystems. We investigated the effects of leaf and root litter of a deciduous shrub, Betula nana, on decomposition, by examining species-specific decomposition patterns, as well as effects of Betula litter on the decomposition of other species. We conducted a two-year decomposition experiment in moist acidic tundra in northern Alaska, where we decomposed three tundra species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Rhododendron palustre, and Eriophorum vaginatum) alone and in combination with Betula litter. Decomposition patterns for leaf and root litter were determined using three different measures of decomposition (mass loss, respiration, extracellular enzyme activity). We report faster decomposition of Betula leaf litter compared to other species, with support for species differences coming from all three measures of decomposition. Mixing effects were less consistent among the measures, with negative mixing effects shown only for mass loss. In contrast, there were few species differences or mixing effects for root decomposition. Overall, we attribute longer-term litter mass loss patterns in to patterns created by early decomposition processes in the first winter. We note numerous differences for species patterns between leaf and root decomposition, indicating that conclusions from leaf litter experiments should not be extrapolated to below-ground decomposition. The high decomposition rates of Betula leaf litter aboveground, and relatively similar decomposition rates of multiple species below, suggest a potential for increases in turnover in the fast-decomposing carbon pool of leaves and fine roots as the dominance of deciduous shrubs in the Arctic increases, but this outcome may be tempered

  7. The use of wild plants as food in pre-industrial Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the actual gathering and use of wild edible plants in the 18th and 19th centuries, with a brief concluding discussion on the present day use of wild plants as food within Sweden. The peasants and the nomads in pre-industrial Sweden utilised very few wild plant taxa as food. Many even despised the wild fruits and green plants. Some plants and fruits were earlier mostly eaten fresh on the spot, or gathered for consumption in bread, gruel or soup. Other fruits were dried or preserved in other ways. In times of food shortages the amount of wild plants increased in the diet, but still the peasantry and nomads were often able to use fish and game to provide enough nutrients. With access to cheap sugar in the early 20th century wild fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. vitis-idaea L., and Rubus chamaemorus L. increased in importance, especially among urban-dwellers and within food industry. In the last few decades fungi have also become part of the urban diet. Fifty years ago working class people gathered only Cantharellus cibarius (Fr. and occasionally Boletus edulis Bull. Nowadays more taxa are utilised within the Swedish households, and especially the easy to pick Cantharellus tubaeformis (Pers. has become very popular recently. Harvesting fruits and mushrooms in the forests is a popular pastime for many urban people, but also a source of income for immigrants and especially foreign seasonal labour. The only traditional green wild food plant that is regularly eaten in contemporary Sweden is Urtica dioica L.

  8. Plant species dominance shifts across erosion edge-meadow transects in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Corinne; Körner, Christian; Hiltbrunner, Erika

    2013-03-01

    While exerting no obvious function under "average" environmental conditions, the presence of certain plant specialists becomes crucial in the event of a complete failure of a community due to severe disturbance such as landslides. Plants capable of growing at erosion edges may act as potential edge-engineers by coping with unstable ground and stabilizing the soil with their roots. We hypothesized that life conditions at erosion edges select for a particular set of specialists or species with specific traits, the identification of which was the aim of the study. Across 17 small-scale transects (0.40 × 1.60 m) from intact meadows to landslide edges (Ursern Valley, Swiss Alps, c. 1,600 m a.s.l.), we quantified plant species abundance by the point intercept method and characterized growth conditions based on Landolt's indicator values, leaf δ(13)C, and volumetric soil moisture in the uppermost soil layers. We observed a clear change of plant species composition and relative abundance from the meadow to the edge, presumably induced by the 25 % lower soil moisture and microclimatic exposure. Species richness at the edge was two-thirds of that in the meadow, but was positively correlated with species richness of the adjacent meadow. Species with "edge-preference" had either (1) rolled or festucoid leaves like Festuca spp., Avenella flexuosa and Nardus stricta, or (2) small, scleromorphic leaves like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris and Thymus ssp. Graminoids with rolled/festucoid leaves were found to be the most dominant edge-specialists. The grass Festuca valesiaca s.l. emerged as the most dominant plant species at the edge, having an 11-times higher cover at the edge than in the meadow. In this montane grassland, a single species contributes to the stabilization of erosion edges and may be regarded as a potential keystone species for slope stability and regeneration after landslides even its role has not so far been established.

  9. Fire, grazing history, lichen abundance, and winter distribution of caribou in Alaska's taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W.B.; Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; McElwain, D.E.; Joly, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s the Nelchina Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Herd (NCH) began a dramatic shift to its current winter range, migrating at least an additional 100 km beyond its historic range. We evaluated the impacts of fire and grazing history on lichen abundance and subsequent use and distribution by the NCH. Historic (prior to 1990) and current (2002) winter ranges of the NCH had similar vascular vegetation, lichen cover (P = 0.491), and fire histories (P = 0.535), but the former range had significantly less forage lichen biomass as a result of grazing by caribou. Biomass of forage lichens was twice as great overall (P = 0.031) and 4 times greater in caribou selected sites on the current range than in the historic range, greatly increasing availability to caribou. Caribou on the current range selected for stands with >20% lichen cover (P lichen biomass and stands older than 80 yr postfire (P fires, forage lichen cover and biomass seldom recovered sufficiently to attract caribou grazing until after ???60 yr, and, as a group, primary forage lichen species did not reach maximum abundance until 180 yr postfire. Recovery following overgrazing can occur much more quickly because lichen cover, albeit mostly fragments, and organic substrates remain present. Our results provide benchmarks for wildlife managers assessing condition of caribou winter range and predicting effects of fires on lichen abundance and caribou distribution. Of our measurements of cover and biomass by species, densities and heights of trees, elevation, slope and aspect, only percentage cover by Cladonia amaurocraea, Cladina rangiferina, Flavocetraria cuculata, and lowbush cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were necessary for predicting caribou use of winter range. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  10. 乌饭树叶黄酮苷类成分研究%Studies on the Flavonoid Glycosides from the Leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 李宝国; 付红伟; 李增亮; 田景奎

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究乌饭树叶中黄酮苷类化学成分.方法 运用多种色谱技术分离乌饭树叶中黄酮苷类成分,采用波谱技术和理化性质确定化合物的结构.结果 分离得到12个化合物,分别鉴定为:柯伊利素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(1),欧槲寄生苷乙(2),柯伊利素-7-O-(6"-O-对羟基肉桂酰)-β-D-葡萄糖苷(3),槲皮素-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸甲酯苷(4),异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(5),槲皮素-3-O-a-L-鼠李糖苷(6),槲皮素-3-O-a-L-阿拉伯糖苷(7),牡荆素(8),槲皮素-3-O-β-D-半乳糖苷(9),荭草素(10),异荭草素(11),槲皮素-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸苷(12).结论 化合物1~4为首次从越橘属植物中分离得到,化合物5~12首次从该植物中分离得到.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the flavonoid glycosides from the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. METHODS Flavonoid glycosides were isolated using various column chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidences. RESULTS Twelve compounds were obtained from V. Bracteatum Thunb, and they were identified as chrysoeriol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(l), flavogadorinin(2), chrysoeriol-7-O-(6"-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-D- glucopyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), quercetin-3- O-a-L-rhamnoside (6), quercetin-3-O-a-L-arabinopyranoside (7), vitexin (8), quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (9), orientin (10), isoorientin (11), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (12). CONCLUSION Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4 were isolated from the Vaccinium for the first time, compounds 5, 6, 7,8,9,10,12 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  11. The variability of phenol compounds based on karyological studies of taxa of the genus Vaccinium L., subgenus Oxycoccus (Hill A. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Gugnacka-Fiedor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 52 population samples from Poland and several European countries were subjected to karyological and chemotaxonomic studies. Two diploid species (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. and V. microcarpum (Turcz, ex Rupr. Schmalh. with chromosome number 2n = 24 were found, differing essentially in the chemical composition of their phenol fractions. Besides diploid species, a tetraploid V. oxycoccos L., with the chromosome number 2n = 48 was distinguished. It is, characterized by a high chemical variability. Its chromatograms show spots of compounds characteristic of both subspecies distinguished. No hexaploid V. hagerupii (Löve et Löve Rothm. with chromosome number 2n = 72 was in the karyologically studied material. Chemical studies of a herbarium sample do not confirm the distinctness of this taxon in relation to V. oxycoccos. The karyological studies, which, however, need replication, have also revealed the presence of a presumed hybrid, V. pseudonanum Keller, with chromosome number 2n = 36. The chromatogram of that taxon is very similar to that of V. oxycoccos L. subsp. microphyllus (Lange Löve et Löve.

  12. Simulated moose (Alces alces L.) browsing increases accumulation of secondary metabolites in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) along gradients of habitat productivity and solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Inga-Lill; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Bergström, Roger; Wallgren, Märtha; Suominen, Otso; Danell, Kjell

    2012-10-01

    We have addressed the impact of moose (Alces alces L.) on accumulation of secondary metabolites, lignin, and nitrogen in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) along gradients of habitat productivity and solar radiation. The study was conducted within a long-term research project on direct and indirect impacts of moose on the ecosystem. In the experiment, browsing, defecation, and urination corresponding to four different moose densities were simulated for eight years before bilberry tissue was collected and analyzed. Some quantitatively dominant flavonoids were affected by the simulated moose browsing and by habitat productivity and light. The content of flavonoids increased with increasing moose density and light, and decreased with increasing habitat productivity. The higher concentration of secondary metabolites in bilberry from nutrient-poor sites may have resulted from the increased photosynthesis relative to growth, which facilitated secondary metabolism. The higher concentration of secondary metabolites in plants subjected to simulated moose- herbivory might have been caused in part by loss of biomass. In addition, in areas with high biomass loss, i.e., high moose density, a more open canopy was created and more solar radiation could have induced secondary metabolism.

  13. Intraspecies differences in cold hardiness, carbohydrate content and β-amylase gene expression of Vaccinium corymbosum during cold acclimation and deacclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; Yu, Duk Jun; Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Doil; Lee, Hee Jae

    2012-12-01

    Changes in cold hardiness, carbohydrate content and β-amylase gene expression were monitored in the shoots of the highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars 'Sharpblue' and 'Jersey' during cold acclimation (CA) and deacclimation (DA). The seasonal patterns were similar in both cultivars, but the levels of cold hardiness determined by electrolyte leakage analysis were significantly different; 'Jersey' was hardier than 'Sharpblue'. Cold hardiness was closely related to total soluble sugar content (r = -0.98** and -0.99** for 'Sharpblue' and 'Jersey', respectively). In 'Jersey', more soluble sugars accumulated during CA. Of the detected soluble sugars, glucose, fructose and raffinose contents were significantly associated with cold hardiness in both cultivars. Sucrose was abundant in both cultivars, and stachyose content changed significantly during CA and DA. However, they were not associated with cold hardiness. A sharp decrease in starch contents in the middle of CA coincided with β-amylase gene (VcBMY) expression, indicating the conversion of starch into soluble sugars. During CA, VcBMY was expressed up to twofold higher in 'Jersey' than in 'Sharpblue'. These results suggest that intraspecies differences in the cold hardiness of highbush blueberries are associated with total soluble sugar content, which is driven partly by differential expression of VcBMY.

  14. An innovative approach to the safety evaluation of natural products: cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) leaf aqueous extract as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Nancy L; Kruger, Claire L; Wallace Hayes, A; Clemens, Roger

    2012-09-01

    Assessment of safety for a food or dietary ingredient requires determination of a safe level of ingestion compared to the estimated daily intake from its proposed uses. The nature of the assessment may require the use of different approaches, determined on a case-by-case basis. Natural products are chemically complex and challenging to characterize for the purpose of carrying out a safety evaluation. For example, a botanical extract contains numerous compounds, many of which vary across batches due to changes in environmental conditions and handling. Key components integral to the safety evaluation must be identified and their variability established to assure that specifications are representative of a commercial product over time and protective of the consumer; one can then extrapolate the results of safety studies on a single batch of product to other batches that are produced under similar conditions. Safety of a well-characterized extract may be established based on the safety of its various components. When sufficient information is available from the public literature, additional toxicology testing is not necessary for a safety determination on the food or dietary ingredient. This approach is demonstrated in a case study of an aqueous extract of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) leaves. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Blanching improves anthocyanin absorption from highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) purée in healthy human volunteers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Brambilla, Ada; Gardana, Claudio; Rizzolo, Anna; Simonetti, Paolo; Bertolo, Gianni; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Porrini, Marisa

    2012-09-12

    Blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are rich sources of phenolics and anthocyanins (ACNs). We investigated the absorption of ACNs after consumption of one portion (300 g) of minimally processed blueberry purée (P) obtained from blanched (BL) or unblanched (NB) berries. A repeated-measures, crossover design study was conducted on healthy human volunteers. Blood was drawn between baseline and 24 h after BL-P or NB-P consumption, while urine were collected from the day before the experiment up to 48 h. Total plasma ACN content was not significantly different, while phenolics content was higher in BL-P with respect to NB-P. The maximum ACN absorption in plasma was observed after 1.5 h from the intake of the purées and was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) after the intake of BL-P. Both products increased the excretion of hippuric acid in urine. In conclusion, blanching had no significant effect on total ACN content and enhanced their absorption from minimally processed purées.

  16. Effect of cadmium on phenolic compounds, antioxidant enzyme activity and oxidative stress in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plantlets grown in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manquián-Cerda, K; Escudey, M; Zúñiga, G; Arancibia-Miranda, N; Molina, M; Cruces, E

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) can affect plant growth due to its mobility and toxicity. We evaluated the effects of Cd(2+) on the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant response of Vaccinium corymbosum L. Plantlets were exposed to Cd(2+) at 50 and 100µM for 7, 14 and 21 days. Accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the antioxidant enzyme SOD was determined. The profile of phenolic compounds was evaluated using LC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test (FRAP). Cd(2+) increased the content of MDA, with the highest increase at 14 days. The presence of Cd(2+) resulted in changes in phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compound found in blueberry plantlets was chlorogenic acid, whose abundance increased with the addition of Cd(2+) to the medium. The changes in the composition of phenolic compounds showed a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity measured using FRAP. Our results suggest that blueberry plantlets produced phenolic compounds with reducing capacity as a selective mechanism triggered by the highest activity of Cd(2+).

  17. 乌鸦果根甲醇提取物的抑真菌作用研究%Antifungal Activity of Methanol Extract from Root of Vaccinium Fragile Franch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴玉; 李兴奎; 林鑫; 李晓翔

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinium fragile Franch belongs to Vaccinium L. of Ericaceae. Whole plant aqueous extract or alcohol extract has bactericidal or insecticidal effect and its root is toxic. In this study, antifungal activity of methanol extract from root of Vaccinium fragile Franch has been researched. The root is soaked with 70% methanol at 65℃ under reflux. Methanol extract is separated with petroleum ether and evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure. The antifungal activity is studied with double-layer culture technique,and the MIC and MBC are determined by the serial two-fold agar dilution method using potato dextrose agar media for plant pathogens. Methanol extract can inhibit growth of plant pathogens at concentration of 1000 mg·mL-1 respectively. The MIC and MBC are round 31. 2~250 mg·mL-1. Methanol extract from root of Vaccinium fragile Franch has a large potential of development because of its broad antifungal activity spectrum, which is well worth furthur researching for acting as botanical pesticide.%乌鸦果根经甲醇回流提取、石油醚脱脂得到乌鸦果根甲醇提取物,采用双层培养基法测定其抑真菌活性、琼脂梯度稀释法测定最小抑菌浓度和最小杀菌浓度.结果表明,乌鸦果根甲醇提取物(1000mg·mL-1)对供试的21种真菌均有不同程度的抑菌活性,最小抑菌浓度和最小杀菌浓度均为31.2~250 mg·mL-1;且提取物抑菌能力与其浓度呈正相关关系.表明乌鸦果根甲醇提取物具有广谱抑制真菌作用,可以作为植物源农药进一步深入研究,具有潜在的开发利用价值.

  18. Cultivar evaluation and effect of fermentation on antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corombosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle H; Lucius, Anita; Meyer, Tessa; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2011-08-24

    The berry fruits of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) contain bioactive compounds with potential health benefits. The objective was to evaluate blueberries grown in southern Illinois as well as the effect of fermentation, at two different temperatures, on chemical and physical parameters. Fruits from fifteen blueberry cultivars were analyzed. Fruit diameter ranged from 12.8 mm to 18.7 mm, pH from 2.6 to 3.7, reducing sugars from 6.4% to 15.2%, total sugars from 13.9% to 21.6%, total polyphenols from 0.39 to 1.00 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g blueberry and antioxidant capacity from 5.8 to 10.9 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g. In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory capacity relative to the positive control acarbose, a known anti-diabetic drug, showed a range from 91.8 to 103.3% for α-amylase and from 103.2% to 190.8% for α-glucosidase. Wines prepared from several of these blueberry cultivars were analyzed throughout fermentation and compared at room temperature and cold temperature fermentation for pH (3.5 to 6.3), °Brix (13.6 to 29.7), total polyphenols (375.4 to 657.1 μg GAE/mL wine), and antioxidant capacity (4.5 to 25.1 mM TE). The wines were also tested for their in vitro capacity to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase and maintained similar inhibitory action as the berries. Highbush blueberry cultivars and their fermented beverages are good natural sources of antioxidants and starch-degrading enzyme inhibitors important for type 2 diabetes management.

  19. Effect of explant density and volume of cultivation medium on in-vitro multiplication of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. varieties "Brigitta" and "Legacy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rodríguez Beraud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the in-vitro multiplication of two varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., “Brigitta” and “Legacy” in response to five explants densities (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 and four flask volumes (10, 20, 30 and 40 mL for cultivation. For both varieties the cultivation medium WPM (Woody Plant Medium was used. The experiment was completely randomized with 20 treatments and 12 repetitions per treatment. After 45 days of cultivation we evaluated the height of shoots, number of shoots/explant, number of nodes/shoot and number of shoots/flask. Variety “Brigitta” had highest shoots at higher densities and flask volumes, while variety “Legacy” had the highest average shoot height with intermediate densities and high volumes. Regarding the number of shoots/explant, the volume of the medium had no influence on “Brigitta”, however, higher plant densities affected this parameter. With variety “Legacy” the maximum number of shoots was achieved with lower plant densities and intermediate culture volumes per flask. In relation to the number of nodes per explant "Brigitta had lower numbers as compared to “Legacy”, but with both varieties the number of nodes decresed with smaller volumes of medium in the flasks. For the number of shoots per flask, “Brigitta” responsed best at higher densities exceeding 40 shoots per flask. In contrast, “Legacy” produced maximum results at density of 25 explants in 30 mL of medium. It is concluded that for the optimum multiplication of both varieties the correct selection of both, the planting density and the volume of multiplication medium are important.

  20. American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract affects human prostate cancer cell growth via cell cycle arrest by modulating expression of cell cycle regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déziel, Bob; MacPhee, James; Patel, Kunal; Catalli, Adriana; Kulka, Marianna; Neto, Catherine; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine; Hurta, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and its prevalence is expected to increase appreciably in the coming decades. As such, more research is necessary to understand the etiology, progression and possible preventative measures to delay or to stop the development of this disease. Recently, there has been interest in examining the effects of whole extracts from commonly harvested crops on the behaviour and progression of cancer. Here, we describe the effects of whole cranberry extract (WCE) on the behaviour of DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Following treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells with 10, 25 and 50 μg ml⁻¹ of WCE, respectively for 6 h, WCE significantly decreased the cellular viability of DU145 cells. WCE also decreased the proportion of cells in the G2-M phase of the cell cycle and increased the proportion of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle following treatment of cells with 25 and 50 μg ml⁻¹ treatment of WCE for 6 h. These alterations in cell cycle were associated with changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins and other cell cycle associated proteins. WCE decreased the expression of CDK4, cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and increased the expression of p27. Changes in p16(INK4a) and pRBp107 protein expression levels also were evident, however, the changes noted in p16(INK4a) and pRBp107 protein expression levels were not statistically significant. These findings demonstrate that phytochemical extracts from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can affect the behaviour of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and further support the potential health benefits associated with cranberries.

  1. The Habitat Characteristics of Vaccinium uliginosum Communities Under the Larch Forests in Changbai Mountain%长白山东坡落叶松林下笃斯越桔群落的生境特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李根柱; 王贺新; 陈英敏; 张自川; 乌凤章; 苗迎秋; 徐国辉

    2013-01-01

    为深入了解长白山笃斯越桔群落的生态习性,对长白山东坡笃斯越桔群落的生长环境进行了调查研究.结果表明:长白山东坡于海拔1317m处首次开始出现笃斯越桔群落,其立木环境是杂木林,林地叶面积指数约1.7,样地的立木径级分布大多都在<10 cm之内,最大径级出现在24~26 cm内.高度级分布大多出现在2~12m,最大高度出现在16~18 m.落叶松-笃斯越桔群落样地立木主要为落叶松,偶有白桦,样地叶面积指数在0.85~2.04之间,10~12 cm径级树木最多,14~16 cm径级树次之.14~16 m高度级树分布最多,其次是6~8m树.笃斯越桔数量与叶面积指数呈反比率关系,适宜具有一定光照的环境.长白山东坡落叶松林下笃斯越桔的生长基质是以苔藓和凋落物为主的土壤基质,基质垂直结构自上而下依次分为4层,即活苔藓层、死苔藓层、泥炭层和火山灰层.死苔藓层平均厚度6.0 cm,笃斯越桔根系的分布最多.落叶松林下笃斯越桔群落中,笃斯越桔的平均基径在(2.61±1.40)~(4.57±1.49) mm之间,笃斯越桔均高在(33.36±10.16)~(59.50±13.54) cm之间,笃斯越桔是群落优势种.%In order to deeply understand the ecological habit of Vaccinium uliginosum communities in Changbai Mountain, the growth environment was investigated. The results showed that: Vaccinium uliginosum community firstly appeared at altitude 1317 m in Changbai Mountain. Its growth environment was weed forest, and the leaf area index was about 1.7, the distribution of DBH classes were mostly under 10 cm and the biggest DBH class was from 24 cm to 26 cm, the distribution of the height class was from 2 m to 12 m and the maximum height was from 16 m to 18 m. The trees of larch forest- Vaccinium uliginosum communities were mainly larches, sometimes were white birches, the leaf area index was from 0.85 to 2.04, the number of DBH class from 10 cm to 12 cm was the most, from 14 cm to 16 cm was

  2. Evaluation of the Effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Fruit Extract on Serum Lipids and hs-CRP Levels and Oxidative Stress in Adult Patients with Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Rasool; Hakimi, Mustafa; Asgary, Sedigheh; Ghanadian, Syed Mustafa; Keshvari, Mahtab; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia produces atherosclerosis, which in turn results in coronary artery disease (CAD). Atherosclerosis is being considered as an inflammatory disease. Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. is a plant with fruits rich in anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fruit extract of this plant on serum levels of lipids, hs-CRP, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress, in hyperlipidemic adult patients. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 50 hyperlipidemic adult patients were randomly and equally assigned to receive either medicinal (V. arctostaphylos fruit extract) or placebo capsules twice daily for 4 weeks. Each medicinal capsule contained 45 ± 2 mg of anthocyanins. Fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, hs-CRP, and MDA were obtained before and after the intervention and compared. Results. V. arctostaphylos fruit extract significantly reduced total cholesterol (P hs-CRP (P = 0.190). Conclusion. Fruit extract of Vaccinium arctostaphylos has beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic adult patients. Therefore, it could be considered as a supplement for treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of atherosclerosis development.

  3. Effect of wood ash and K-fertilization on {sup 137}Cs uptake by selected forest plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandro, Yrii N. [Zhytomyr State Technological University, P.O. Box 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Rosen, Klas [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7070 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Vinichuk, Mykhailo M. [Zhytomyr State Technological University, P.O. Box 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7070 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation {sup 137}Cs by different forest plants and trees after fertilization of soil with potassium and wood ash ({sup 137}Cs-contaminated and non-contaminated) in forest ecosystems of Ukraine contaminated by radionuclides after Chernobyl accident in 1986 was studied. Experiment is performed in Bazar forestry, Zhytomyr region, Ukraine, located about 70 km (51 deg. 5'35'' N, 29 deg. 18'56'' E) from Chernobyl NPP. Potassium fertilizer (KCl, wooden ash (Ash), and {sup 137}Cs-contaminated ash ({sup 137}CsAsh) in different combinations) were spread on the forest floor in April 2012 at a rate corresponding 100 kg/ha potassium. The experiment layout was as follows: 1- Control (no fertilizers were applied), 2- KCl, 3- Ash + KCl, 4- Ash + {sup 137}CsAsh, 5- Ash, 6- {sup 137}CsAsh + KCl. Samples (leaves and annual shoots) of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), birch (Betula), buckthorn (Frangula) and oak (Quercus robur) and also mushrooms (fruit bodies of Russula, Lactarius, Cantharellus, Collybia etc.) and berries (blueberry and cowberry) were taken monthly from each treatment. Samples were measured for {sup 137}Cs with calibrated HPGe detectors. The results of the first year studies show variation of Transfer Factors (TF) for different plants and for the same plants on different treatments. The effect of fertilization was found for blueberry on Ash-applicated (TF = 0.0085 ± 0.0025), {sup 137}CsAsh + KCl-applicated (TF = 0.0105 ± 0.0060) and Ash + KCl-applicated (TF = 0.0123 ± 0.0058) treatments compared to Control (TF = 0.0163 ± 0.0092). Also good effect for rowan on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment (TF = 0.0067 ± 0.0024) compared to Control (TF = 0.0100 ± 0.0064). Effect was less obvious for birch on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment and for cowberry on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment. There was not found an obvious effect of fertilization for buckthorn. Positive effect of

  4. Preventive effect of a pectic polysaccharide of the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergey V Popov; Pavel A Markov; Ida R Nikitina; Sergey Petrishev; Vasily Smirnov; Yury S Ovodov

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study isolation and chemical characterization of pectin derived from the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. (oxycoccusan OP) and the testing of its preventive effect on experimental colitis.METHODS: Mice were administrated orally with OP two days prior to a rectal injection of 5% acetic acid and examined for colonic damage 24 h later. Colonic inflammation was characterized by macroscopical injury and enhanced levels of myeloperoxidase activity measured spectrophotometrically with o-phenylene diamine as the substrate. The mucus contents of the colon were determined by the Alcian blue dye binding method. Vascular permeability was estimated using 4%Evans blue passage after i.p. injection of 0.05 mol/L acetic acid.RESULTS: In the mice treated with OP, colonic macroscopic scores (1.1 ± 0.4 vs 2.7, P < 0.01) and the total square area of damage (10 ± 2 vs 21 ± 7, P < 0.01)were significantly reduced when compared with the vehicle-treated colitis group. OP was shown to decrease the tissue myeloperoxidase activity in colons (42 ± 11 vs 112 ± 40, P < 0.01) and enhance the amount of mucus of colitis mice (0.9 ± 0.1 vs 0.4 ± 0.1, P < 0.01). The level of colonic malondialdehyde was noted to decrease in OP-pretreated mice (3.6 ± 0.7 vs 5.1 ± 0.8, P < 0.01).OP was found to decrease the inflammatory status of mice as was determined by reduction of vascular permeability (161 ± 34 vs 241 ± 21, P < 0.01). Adhesion of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages was also shown to decrease after administration of OP (141 ± 50vs 235 ± 37, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Thus, a preventive effect of pectin from the common cranberry, namely oxycoccusan OP,on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice was detected.A reduction of neutrophil infiltration and antioxidant action may be implicated in the protective effect of oxycoccusan.

  5. Ecological impacts of the N-viro biosolids land-application for wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium. Ait) production in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Aitazaz A; Zaman, Qamar U; Madani, Ali; Abbas, Farhat; Percival, David C; Esau, Travis J

    2011-01-01

    Land application of biosolids from processed sewage sludge may deteriorate soil, water, and plants. We investigated the impact of the N-Viro biosolids land-application on the quality of the soil water that moved through Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols soil of Nova Scotia (NS) at the Wild Blueberry Research Institute, Debert, NS Canada. In addition, the response of major soilproperties and crop yield was also studied. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium. Ait) was grown under irrigated and rainfed conditions in 2008 and 2009. Four experimental treatments including (i) NI: N-Viro irrigated, (ii) NR: N-Viro rainfed, (iii) FI: inorganic fertilizer irrigated, and (iv) FR: inorganic fertilizer rainfed (control) were replicated 4 times under randomized complete block design. Soil samples were collected at the end of each year and analyzed for changes in cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), and pH.Soil water samples were collected four times during the study period from the suction cup lysimeters installed within and below crop root zone at 20 and 40 cm depths, respectively. The samples were analyzed for a range of water quality parameters including conductance, hardness, pH, macro- and micronutrients, and the infectious pathogens Escherichia coli (E. coli) and salmonella. Berries were harvested for fruit yield estimates. Irrigation significantly increased CEC during 2008 and the soil pH decreased from 4.93 (2008) to 4.79 (2009). There were significant influences of irrigation, fertilizer, and their interaction, in some cases, on most of the soil water quality parameters except on the infectious bacteria. No presence of E. coli or salmonella were observed in soil and water samples, reflecting the absence of these bacteria in biosolids used in this experiment. Nutrient concentration in the soil water samples collected from the four treatments were higher in the sequence NI > NR > FI > FR. The irrigation treatment had significant effect on the unripe

  6. Cambios en la Actividad Antioxidante en Frutos de Mortiño (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. durante su Desarrollo y Maduración Changes in the Antioxidant Activity in Mortiño Fruits (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. during Development and Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gaviria Montoya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Los frutos de mortiño (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. han atraído el interés de los consumidores debido a su alto contenido de compuestos polifenólicos y actividad antioxidante; sin embargo, no se ha realizado ninguna evaluación sobre los cambios durante su crecimiento y maduración. En este estudio se evaluó la variación en el contenido de fenoles y antocianinas totales y de la actividad antioxidante por las metodologías TEAC-ABTS, TEAC-DPPH, FRAP y ORAC. El fruto de mortiño presentó una curva de desarrollo doble sigmoide con tres estados de desarrollo diferenciables. La actividad antioxidante y el contenido de fenoles totales presentaron los valores máximos los días 17 para ORAC (27.116 TEAC/ 100 g FF y 36 para TEAC-ABTS (16.794 TEAC/ 100 g FF, TEAC-DPPH (5.502 TEAC/ 100 g FF, FRAP (1.289 AEAC/ 100 g FF y fenoles totales (4.804 mg ácido gálico/ 100 g FF. Los valores finales fueron 6.446, 5.688, 1.763 TEAC/ 100 g FF para ORAC, ABTS, DPPH, 375 AEAC/ 100 g FF para FRAP y 1.373 mg ácido gálico/ 100 g FF. El contenido de antocianinas varió desde 4,2 mg eq cianidin-3-glucosido/ 100 g FF hasta 271,9 mg eq cianidin-3-glucosido/ 100 g FF al final de la maduraciónAbstract. The mortiño fruits (Vaccinium meridionale Sw have attracted the interest of consumers due to its high content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity; however, there has been no assessment of changes during maturation and ripening. In this study, the changes in content of total polyphenols and total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were evaluated by TEAC-ABTS, TEAC-DPPH, FRAP and ORAC methods. The mortiño fruit exhibit a double sigmoid growth curve with three differentiable stages of growth. The antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content presented maximum the 17 day for ORAC (27,116 TEAC/ 100 g FW and 36 day for TEAC-ABTS (16,794 TEAC/ 100 g FW, TEAC-DPPH (5,502 TEAC/ 100 g FW, FRAP (1,289 AEAC/ 100 g FW and total polyphenols (4,804 mg

  7. A single supplement of a standardised bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract (36 % wet weight anthocyanins) modifies glycaemic response in individuals with type 2 diabetes controlled by diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoggard, Nigel; Cruickshank, Morven; Moar, Kim-Marie

    2013-01-01

    in T2D. Male volunteers with T2D (n 8; BMI 30 (sd 4) kg/m(2)) controlling their diabetes by diet and lifestyle alone were given a single oral capsule of either 0·47 g standardised bilberry extract (36 % (w/w) anthocyanins) which equates to about 50 g of fresh bilberries or placebo followed......Dietary strategies for alleviating health complications associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are being pursued as alternatives to pharmaceutical interventions. Berries such as bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) that are rich in polyphenols may influence carbohydrate digestion and absorption...... and thus postprandial glycaemia. In addition, berries have been reported to alter incretins as well as to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may also affect postprandial glycaemia. The present study investigated the acute effect of a standardised bilberry extract on glucose metabolism...

  8. 越橘花色苷对宫颈癌Hela细胞凋亡及抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of Anthocyanin from Vaccinium uliginosum on cell apoptosis and antioxidation in cervical Hela cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜艳霞; 芦晓静; 徐俊杰; 吕士杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To research the mechanisms of Anthocyanin from Vaccinium uliginosum on proliferation of cervical cancer Hela cells. Methods Different concentrations of Anthocyanin from Vaccinium uliginosum on Hela cells was done for 48 hours to observe its inhibiting cervical cancer Hela cells and the change of cell tnorpholoy by Gimsa dying was used to observe cell apoptosis by flow cytometry ( Annexin V FITC/PI) and to detect P53 expression by RT-PCR, and detect SOD, GSH and MDA in Hela cells. Results Increasing concentration of anthocyanin from Vaccinium made Hela cell counts lower and rare; cells became small and pyknosis nucleolus by Gimsa staining; with Anthocyanin concentration increasing, apoptosis rate increased by fluorescent dye and P53 expression increase was of significant difference in comparison with control group( P <0.05). 30mg/ml and 40mg/ml of anthocyanin could increase SOD and GSH in the Hela cells, with a significant difference in comparison with control group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Anthocyanin from Vaccinium uliginosum can inhibit the growth of cervical cancer Hela cells by promoting cell apoptosis and increasing P53 expression and antioxidation.%目的 探讨越橘花色苷对宫颈癌Hela细胞的作用机制.方法 以不同浓度的越橘花色苷作用于宫颈癌Hela细胞48h后,通过Gimsa染色观察越橘花色苷抑制Hela细胞的形态学改变,通过流式双染观察Hela细胞凋亡情况,通过RT-PCR观察Hela内P53的表达,并测定Hela细胞内的SOD、GSH、MDA值.结果 Gimsa染色可见越橘花色苷可使Hela细胞光泽度下降,细胞数减少,稀疏,细胞变小、核固缩.流式双染可见,随着橘花色苷浓度升高,凋亡率升高.与对照组比较,越橘花色苷浓度达到30mg/ml时,P53的表达量最高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).与对照组比较,30mg/ml和40mg/ml的越橘花色苷组SOD和GSH含量升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论越橘花色苷可通过上调抑癌基因P53的表

  9. 笃斯越橘果实中黄酮类化合物的分离鉴定%Separation and Identification of the Flavoniods in the Fruit of Vaccinium uliginosum L. Blueberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂霞; 范海林; 郑毅男; 李亚东

    2005-01-01

    采用柱色谱技术对笃斯越橘(Vaccinium uliginosum L.)果实中黄酮类化合物进行分离、提纯.分离提纯出3种黄酮类化合物,并通过1H-NMR、13C-NMR等表征了结构.结果表明:这3种化合物分别为二甲花翠素-3-O-葡糖苷(Ⅰ),矢车菊-3-O-半乳糖苷(Ⅱ),杨梅黄素(Ⅲ),均为首次从该果实中分离得到.

  10. Effects of four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on tolerance of Vaccinium corymbosum to drought stress%4种丛枝菌根真菌对南高丛蓝莓抗旱性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆龙; 刘晓敏; 徐小兵; 李晴晴; 张红; 肖家欣

    2016-01-01

    采用盆栽试验研究摩西球囊霉(Glomus mosseae)、地表球囊霉(G.versiforme)、根内球囊霉(G. intraradices)和幼套球囊霉(G.etunicatum)4种丛枝菌根(arbuscular mycorrhizal,AM)真菌接种南高丛蓝莓(Vaccinium corymbosum)品种薄雾对干旱胁迫的生理生化反应.结果表明:干旱胁迫降低了叶片相对含水量与叶绿素含量,增加了可溶性糖含量、超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)活性与丙二醛(malondialdehyde, MDA)含量,但对菌根侵染率的影响较小;在干旱胁迫下,4种 AM 真菌尤其是摩西球囊霉接种株相对含水量、叶绿素和可溶性糖含量、叶片 SOD 活性均显著高于未接种株,而接种株叶片 MDA 含量相对低于未接种株;另外, AM 真菌接种处理能够提高蓝莓植株根、茎、叶的磷和钾含量以及根围土壤酸性磷酸酶、脲酶和过氧化氢酶活性,尤以摩西球囊霉处理最为明显.总之,4种 AM 真菌接种处理提高了蓝莓品种薄雾植株的抗旱性,以摩西球囊霉的效果最好.%Summary Blueberry(Vaccinium spp.)is well known for its rich anthocyanins and other bioactive compounds, which helps preventing from cardiovascular disease and other chronic illnesses.Over the past decades,blueberry has been cultured in many areas of China,thus became the fastest-growing species in fruit production,potentially making China one of the largest blueberry-producing countries in the world.However,blueberry growth and production were severely affected by drought events in areas of Yangtze River.Vaccinium plants preferred acidic soils and spontaneously formed mutualistic symbiotic associations mainly with soil fungi of the phylum Ascomycota,called ‘ericoid mycorrhizae”.However,some reports have indicated that the absence of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi inoculum may allowVaccinium plants to associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM)fungi,and AM fungi inoculation significantly enhanced growth of Vaccinium plants

  11. 兔眼蓝莓组织培养与快繁技术研究%Tissue Culture and Micropropagation of Vaccinium ashei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂俊凡; 秦仲麒; 李先明; 杨夫臣; 朱红艳; 伍涛

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究兔眼蓝莓的组织培养与快繁技术.[方法]以蓝莓品种的幼嫩茎段为试材,研究不同取材时间、不同品种对茎段诱导效果及不同培养基及激素组合对灿烂继代增殖及生长的影响,并开展瓶外驯化生根试验.[结果]4月下旬到6月上旬为蓝莓茎段最佳取材时期,萌芽率为62.2%;灿烂品种在改良WPM+ 2.0 mg/L ZT+ 0.05 mg/L IBA+ 30 g/L蔗糖+6.5 g/L琼脂培养基中生长最好,茎段增殖率可达3.21;继代40 ~50 d的茎段用1 000 mg/L ABT快速浸蘸处理后扦插于装有苔癣的穴盘上,生根率达85.33%;生根组培苗在草炭∶园土∶珍珠岩=2∶1∶0.5的基质中移栽成活率为85.67%.[结论]为蓝莓的南方造栽品种的繁殖提供了技术支持.%[ Objective ] To study the tissue culture and micropropagation of Vaccinium ashei Reade. [ Method ] With the young stem segments of blueberry varieties as explants, the induced effect of different sampling time and different species stem segments were studied. And the effect of different medium and hormone combinations on the proliferation and growth of stem were studied. Then the domestication rooting test in the spray greenhouse was carried out. [Result] The best period for sampling was from late April to early June. The budding rate was 62.2%. The best medium for Bright growth was WPM +2.0 mg/L ZT +0.05 mg/L IBA + 30 g/L sucrose + 6.5 g/L agar. The stem proliferation rate was 3. 21. The stems which were subcultured for 40 -50 d were dipped in 1 000 mg/L ABT, cutting in the plug filled with the moss. The rooting rate was 85.33%. The survival rate of the rooting young plants transplanted in peat: soil: perlite (2:1:0.5) mixture was 85. 67% . [ Conclusion] The study provided technical support for the propagation of south blueberry transplants.

  12. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański Wojciech M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. Methods 42 ethnographic and botanical sources documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analyzed. Results The use of 112 species (3.7% of the flora has been recorded. Only half of them have been used since the 1960s. Three species: Cirsium rivulare, Euphorbia peplus and Scirpus sylvaticus have never before been reported as edible by ethnobotanical literature. The list of wild edible plants which are still commonly gathered includes only two green vegetables (Rumex acetosa leaves for soups and Oxalis acetosella as children's snack, 15 folk species of fruits and seeds (Crataegus spp., Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fragaria vesca, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus, Rubus sect. Rubus, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. oxycoccos, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea and four taxa used for seasoning or as preservatives (Armoracia rusticana root and leaves, Carum carvi seeds, Juniperus communis pseudo-fruits and Quercus spp. leaves. The use of other species is either forgotten or very rare. In the past, several species were used for food in times of scarcity, most commonly Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica, U. urens, Elymus repens, Oxalis acetosella and Cirsium spp., but now the use of wild plants is mainly restricted to raw consumption or making juices, jams, wines and other preserves. The history of the gradual disappearance of the original barszcz, Heracleum sphondylium soup, from Polish cuisine has been researched in detail and two, previously unpublished, instances of its use in the 20th century have been found in the Carpathians. An increase in the culinary use of some wild plants due to media publications can be observed. Conclusion Poland can be characterized as a country where the traditions of culinary

  13. 乌饭树果实大小的地理变异研究%Study on geographic variation of fruit sizes in Vaccinium bracteatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁林; 胡明娇; 李江; 刘江华

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinium bracteatum distributes widely in subtropical hilly and low mountains areas of China. Berry in V. bracteatum is a nutrition-rich and healthful food, and is most commonly used to eat as a traditional food in Chinese folks. In order to provide some scientific basis for selecting an breeding in V. bracteatum, fruits were collected from Jiangxi province (Huichang, Longnan, Ruijin, Jinggang Mountain, Pingxiang), Hunan province (Liuyang), and Jiangsu province (Yixing), fruit sizes and mass were determined, and the law of geographic variation was analyzed. The results showed that the fruit was of a type of small berry, average diameter of fruits was 0.790 2 cm, average mass of 1 000 seeds was 0.698 g. Diameter (y) and mass (x) of the fruit had significant relation of linear regression, and the equation was y = 0.603x -0.241. The results of variance analysis showed that sizes of the mixed fruits had no obvious differences among the areas at different latitudes, and fruit sizes from superior trees had significant differences among the areas at different latitudes, which indicated individual plant in V. bracteatum had a independent inheritance background. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that sizes of the mixed fruits collected from different latitudes had no significant linear regression relation with environment factors, and fruit sizes from superior trees had significant multiple linear regression relation with environment factors, for example, annual average temperature (x2) and frost free period (x4), and the linear regression equation was y = - 0.038x2 + 0.004x4 + 0.674. In a word, selecting and breeding of V. bracteatum plants with large fruit type should paid attention to the areas of Jinggang Mountain, Longnan and Pingxiang.%乌饭树广泛分布于我国亚热带丘陵—低山地区,是中国民间传统的健康食品“乌饭”的原料,其浆果酸甜可口,营养丰富,含有多种有益于人体健康的成分。为

  14. 长白山野生笃斯越橘根系内生菌资源调查%Survey on Root Endophytic Fungi Resources of Vaccinium uliginosum Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤红; 程显好; 顾亮; 冯培勇; 邵小环; 赵庆

    2015-01-01

    The mycorrhizal morphology and distribution of endophytic fungi in wild Vaccinium uliginosum Linn.in Changbai Mountain were studied through tabletting method.The endophytic fungi were isolated through root segment culturing method and grinding method, and were identified and analyzed based on fungal morphology and molecular biology technique.The results showed that the mycorrhizal infection rate was as high as 75%.According to the morphology of hyphae, the wild Vaccinium uliginosum Linn.contained at least three kinds of endophytic fungi, among which, thick hyphae formed dense hypha body, loose thick hyphae ran through the cell and thin hyphae formed loose hypha body.A total of 175 strains of endophytic fungi were iso-lated.Through morphology and molecular identification, 150 strains were divided into 8 species in 5 genera, among which, Phialocephala spp.was the dominant genera with the frequency of 68.57%.The amount of en-dophytic fungi isolated by root segment grinding method was larger than that of root segment culturing method, and that isolated from thin mycorrhiza was larger than that from thick mycorrhiza.The isolation of plentiful en-dophytic fungi laid foundations for further screening, development and utilization of bio-control strains.%为探讨长白山野生笃斯越橘菌根的形态结构和内生真菌的分布特征及种类,通过压片法对野生笃斯越橘菌根形态和内生真菌的分布进行了研究,并采用根段组织直接培养分离法和根段组织研磨培养分离法对根系内生真菌进行了分离培养,结合真菌形态和分子生物学方法对分离菌株进行了鉴定和多样性分析。结果表明,野生笃斯越橘菌根侵染率高达75%;对菌丝的形态观察得出,至少3类不同形态的内生真菌参与菌根的形成,粗菌丝形成致密的菌丝团,细菌丝形成疏松的菌丝团,疏松的粗菌丝贯穿细胞。两种分离方法共分离得到175株内生真菌,其中150

  15. 北高丛越桔芽器官离体培养与快繁体系的建立%Rapid Propagation of Plantlets from Sprout of Vaccinium corymbosum in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建萍; 柏新富; 蒋小满; 张萍; Bi Kehua

    2007-01-01

    越桔为杜鹃花科(Ericaceae)越桔属(Vaccinium)灌木类小浆果果树。其果实为蓝色或红色,酸甜适中,具有极高的营养价值和医疗保健作用,特别是抗氧化能力为所有果品蔬菜之首,对防止人体细胞衰老,预防老年性疾病(心脏病、白内障、癌症、记忆力衰退等)具有特殊功效,因而被国际粮农组织列为五大健康食品之一(顾姻等,2001),被美国最有影响的健康杂志《Prevention》誉为”神奇果”(於虹等,2003),是近年来发展最为迅速的集营养、保健于一身的第3代果树新品。北高丛越桔(Vaccinium corymbosum)是越桔属中经济价值最高的1个种(顾姻等,2001),因其果实大、品质佳、口感好,深受人们青睐,已成为国际鲜果市场销售的主要品种。近年来鲁东大学生命科学学院将部分优质北高丛越桔引进国内,但常规繁殖方法不能满足快速发展的需要。

  16. In Vivo Consumption of Cranberry Exerts ex Vivo Antiadhesive Activity against FimH-Dominated Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: A Combined in Vivo, ex Vivo, and in Vitro Study of an Extract from Vaccinium macrocarpon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjany, Nasli; Senker, Jandirk; Brandt, Simone; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-10-14

    For investigation of the molecular interaction of cranberry extract with adhesins of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), urine from four volunteers consuming standardized cranberry extract (proanthocyanidin content = 1.24%) was analyzed within ex vivo experiments, indicating time-dependent significant inhibition of 40-50% of bacterial adhesion of UPEC strain NU14 to human T24 bladder cells. Under in vitro conditions a dose-dependent increase in bacterial adhesion was observed with proanthocyanidin-enriched cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon extract (proanthocyanidin content = 21%). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy proved that V.m. extract led to the formation of bacterial clusters on the outer plasma membrane of the host cells without subsequent internalization. This agglomerating activity was not observed when a PAC-depleted extract (V.m. extract(≠PAC)) was used, which showed significant inhibition of bacterial adhesion in cases where type 1 fimbriae dominated and mannose-sensitive UPEC strain NU14 was used. V.m. extract(≠PAC) had no inhibitory activity against P- and F1C-fimbriae dominated strain 2980. Quantitative gene expression analysis indicated that PAC-containing as well as PAC-depleted cranberry extracts increased the fimH expression in NU14 as part of a feedback mechanism after blocking FimH. For strain 2980 the PAC-containing extract led to up-regulation of P- and F1C-fimbriae, whereas the PAC-depleted extract had no influence on gene expression. V.m. and V.m. extract(≠PAC) did not influence biofilm and curli formation in UPEC strains NU14 and 2980. These data lead to the conclusion that also proanthocyanidin-free cranberry extracts exert antiadhesive activity by interaction with mannose-sensitive type 1 fimbriae of UPEC.

  17. Extração alcoólica de fenólicos e flavonóides totais de mirtilo "Rabbiteye" (Vaccinium ashey e sua atividade antioxidante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina Spagolla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma infinidade de produtos de cosmetologia tem utilizado mirtilo, uma pequena fruta com inúmeras alegações de propriedades biológicas, na formulação de uma variedade de produtos como cremes hidratantes, esfoliantes, protetores da radiação ultravioleta, entre outros. Neste sentido, a composição química desta pequena fruta é associada a estas propriedades biológicas, no entanto, poucos relatos científicos são encontrados na literatura. Desta forma, o presente estudo avaliou os teores de compostos fenólicos e de flavonóides, bem como a relação destes compostos com a atividade antioxidante de extratos hidroalcoólicos preparados a partir de frutas de mirtilo cv. "Rabbiteye" (Vaccinium ashei. Diferentes proporções de álcool (etanol ou metanol em água deionizada (ou seja, 40:60, 60:40 e 80:20 (v/v foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de extração de fenólicos totais e de flavonóides de amostras de mirtilo em duas condições: frescas (frutas in natura e secas (após secagem a 105°C por 15 h. Todas as extrações alcoólicas foram realizadas à temperatura ambiente e sob agitação. Dentre as proporções utilizadas para a extração dos compostos fenólicos foi verificado que, em geral, a mistura metanol/água 80:20 (v/v e a mistura etanol/água 60:40 (v/v foram os que apresentaram maiores teores de fenólicos e flavonóides totais, e que houve uma correlação positiva forte entre as concentrações de fenólicos e de flavonóides com a atividade antioxidante daqueles extratos hidroalcoólicos de mirtilo, segundo análise do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. Palavras-chave: Mirtilo. Extração. Fenólicos. Flavonóides. Antioxidante.

  18. A Dyeing Experiment of Pure Silk Fabric Using Leaf Pigment of Vaccinium bracteatum as a Natural Dye%乌饭树叶色素作为天然染料用于真丝织物的染色试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田恬; 陈国强

    2011-01-01

    为开发适合于真丝织物染色的天然染料及其染色工艺,以乌饭树叶色素作为染料,研究其用于真丝织物染色的性能及染色工艺条件.测试结果表明,乌饭树叶色素的提取液具有良好的热稳定性,在30~ 100℃范围内的色光稳定性均较好;在酸性至弱酸性条件下具有稳定的颜色,而在中性至碱性条件下随pH值变化溶液显示不同的颜色.通过单因素试验确定最佳染色工艺条件为:染液pH 2 ~6或7~8,染色温度98℃,染色时间60 min,染液质量浓度60 ~80 g/L,染色次数1次.采用以上工艺以乌饭树叶色素提取液对真丝织物染色,不需添加其它化学助剂和金属盐,染色方法简单,在染液的2个pH值范围可分别将织物染成固定的颜色,染色后的真丝织物皂洗色牢度均可达到5级,日晒色牢度可达到3~4级,且保持了真丝织物特有的光泽度,因此认为乌饭树叶色素适用于高档真丝内衣的染色.%For the purpose of exploiting a natural dye and its dyeing technology for pure silk fabric, the leaf pigment of Vaccinium bracteatum was used to test its dyeing capability and dyeing technological condition. The experimental results showed that the leaf pigment extract of Vaccinium bracteatum had good thermal stability, which had good hue stability within the range of 30 -100 ℃. The extract had stable color under acid to weak acid condition, but showed different colors with the change of pH value under neutral to alkaline condition. Through single factor experiments, the best dyeing technological condition was set as follows: dye solution's pH value 2 -6 or 7 -8, dyeing temperature 98 ℃, dyeing duration 60 min, dye concentration 60-80 g/L, and dyeing times one. Under this technological condition, dyeing of pure silk fabric with leaf pigment extract of Vaccinium bracteatum did not need other chemical auxiliary agents or metallic salts. Nevertheless, the method of dyeing was simple. The fabric

  19. Efecto del momento y tipo de poda sobre el rendimiento y calidad del fruto en arándano altos del sur (Vaccinium corymbosum var. O´Neal en la provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PESCIE, M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa poda es una práctica que beneficia no sólo la calidad y cantidad de los frutos, sino también favorece la preservación de la planta como unidad productiva. Tiene distintos objetivos dependiendo de su intensidad y del momento de realización. En la Argentina, no se conoce cuál es el tipo de poda más beneficiosa para el arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum en las diferentes zonas de producción y variedades utilizadas. Para estudiar su efecto, durante dos años consecutivos (2007 y 2008, se implementaron cuatro tratamientos de poda en plantas adultas de arándano de la var. O´Neal en el norte de la Provincia de Buenos Aires: 1 en invierno (PI, 2 en invierno y despunte de verano (PIDV, 3 intensa en verano (PIV y 4 testigo sin podar (testigo. Como resultado, se observó que las plantas testigo y PIDV no mostraron diferencia significativa entre sí en cuanto a rendimiento (5,58 y 4,94 kg/planta, respectivamente, pero las PIDV mostraron un tamaño promedio de fruto significativamente mayor (>0.21 g/fruto y precocidad en la cosecha. Se requirieron 64 minutos menos por año para cosechar las plantas PIDV, comparadas con las plantas testigo. El tamaño de fruto mejoró significativamente con la poda, independientemente del momento o de la intensidad. Sin embargo, las plantas PIV mostraron una reducción significativa del rendimiento de 3,6 kg/planta con respecto al control en el promedio de los 2 años, con una caída del 23% en el rendimiento de 2008 comparado con 2007.AbstractPruning is a beneficial practice to improve yield and fruit quality, used in most of fruit trees. It has different goals depending on intensity and whether it takes place in winter or summer. Which type of pruning is better for blueberry production in local climatic conditions, management and cultivars has not been investigated. Hence, four pruning treatments were studied in mature O’Neal plants during two consecutive years, 2007 and 2008, in Buenos Aires northeast

  20. 笃斯越桔花色苷抗禽白血病病毒A亚群活性的试验研究%Study on the Effect of Anthocyanin from Vaccinium uliginosum L.Resistance Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup A Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 雷用东; 盖丽丽; 赵晓燕; 童军茂; 王丹; 马越; 张超

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the anthocyanins from Vaccinium uliginosum L.( AVU) could inhibit Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup A ( ALV-A) on the DF-1 cell by in vitro studies .The anthocyanins structure of sample was i-dentified by HPLC-MS.The DF-1 cells were pretreated with the ALV-A for 1 hour and then exposed to the low dose of the extracts of the anthocyanins for an additional 24 to 96 hours.The cell viability was determined by MTT assay .The DF-1 morphological changes were observed .We found that the extracts of Vaccinium uliginosum L.contained six major anthocyanins ,the one of the main component was cyaniding-3-glucoside .The 40 to 80μg/mL AVU resulted in inhibi-tion of Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup A infection and reduction of apoptosis compared with control .Moreover , we found that 60μg/mL AVU was significantly inhibited the activity of the ALV-A and increased the growth of DF-1 cells.%为探讨笃斯越桔花色苷( Anthocyanin from Vaccinium uliginosum L.,AVU)抑制禽白血病病毒A亚群( Avian leukosis virus subgroup A ,ALV-A)的生物活性作用。以笃斯越桔花色苷粉为试验材料,采用高效液相色谱仪与质谱仪联机( HPLC-MS)方法鉴定其花色苷主要活性成分,将AVU作用于感染ALV-A的DF-1鸡胚成纤维细胞( DF-1细胞)单层表面,通过检测AVU对感染ALV-A的DF-1细胞形态学变化及采用MTT法测定细胞存活情况来研究AVU的抗病毒作用。结果表明,笃斯越桔花色苷粉中含6种花色苷活性成分,其中主要为矢车菊色素-3-葡萄糖苷;AVU对DF-1细胞的最大安全质量浓度为80μg/mL;AVU在40~80μg/mL安全浓度范围内能抑制ALV-A的增殖,且抑制程度与剂量呈一定相关性;AVU质量浓度为60μg/mL能够显著抑制ALV-A对DF-1细胞感染。

  1. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties and Aromatic Profile During Maturation of The Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth and The Bilberry (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz / Evaluación las Propiedades Antioxidantes y el Perfil Aromático Durante la Maduración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Juana Bernal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth and thebilberry (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz are natural sourcesof antioxidants; they are known for their preventive role against degenerative diseases. In this study, the aromatic profile was evaluated using an electronic nose, including the antioxidant properties and the vitamin C, phenolic and anthocyanin contents during three stages of blackberry and bilberry ripening. A completely random statistical design was followed and the results presented differences in the aromatic profile: a higher anthocyanin content (1.59 mg of cyn-3-glu g-1 in the bilberry and 0.26 mg of cyn-3-glu g-1 in the blackberry and total phenols (5.57 mg of caffeic acid g-1 bilberry and 2.68 mg caffeic acid g-1 blackberry. The behavior of the evaluated properties was independent in each of the fruits. / Los frutos como la mora (Rubus glaucus Benth y el agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz son fuentes naturales de sustancias antioxidantes reconocidas por su papel preventivo en el desarrollo de enfermedades degenerativas. En este estudio se evaluó el perfil aromático por medio de nariz electrónica, las propiedades antioxidantes y el contenido de vitamina C, fenoles y antocianinas totales, durante tres estados de maduración de mora y agraz. El diseño estadístico que se siguió fue completamente aleatorio y los resultados muestran que las frutas en el último estado de madurez evaluado se diferencian por su perfil aromático, un contenido mayor de antocianinas (1,59 y 0,26 mg cyn-3-glu g-1 en agraz y mora, respectivamente y fenoles totales (5,57 y 2,68 mg ácido caféico g-1 en agraz y mora, respectivamente. El comportamiento de las propiedades evaluadas es independiente en cada una de las frutas.

  2. Increasing shrub abundance and N addition in Arctic tundra affect leaf and root litter decomposition differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, J.; van de Weg, M. J.; Shaver, G. R.; Gough, L.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in global climate have resulted in a ';greening' of the Arctic as the abundance of deciduous shrub species increases. Consequently, not only the living plant community, but also the litter composition changes, which in turn can affect carbon turnover patterns in the Arctic. We examined effects of changing litter composition (both root and leaf litter) on decomposition rates with a litter bag study, and specifically focused on the impact of deciduous shrub Betula nana litter on litter decomposition from two evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and one graminoid (Eriophorum vaginatum) species. Additionally, we investigated how decomposition was affected by nutrient availability by placing the litterbags in an ambient and a fertilized moist acidic tundra environment. Measurements were carried out seasonally over 2 years (after snow melt, mid-growing season, end growing season). We measured litter mass loss over time, as well as the respiration rates (standardized for temperature and moisture) and temperature sensitivity of litter respiration at the time of harvesting the litter bags. For leaves, Betula litter decomposed faster than the other three species, with Eriophorum leaves decomposing the slowest. This pattern was observed for both mass loss and litter respiration rates, although the differences in respiration became smaller over time. Surprisingly, combining Betula with any other species resulted in slower overall weight loss rates than would be predicted based on monoculture weight loss rates. This contrasted with litter respiration at the time of sampling, which showed a positive mixing effect of adding Betula leaf liter to the other species. Apparently, during the first winter months (September - May) Betula litter decomposition is negatively affected by mixing the species and this legacy can still be observed in the total mass loss results later in the year. For root litter there were fewer effects of species identity on root

  3. 乌饭树树叶水提取物改善糖尿病小鼠血糖和血脂水平的研究%Effect of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.leaves aqueous extract on blood glucose and plasma lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立; 张雪彤; 章海燕; 程素娇; 钱海峰; 张晖; 张英

    2012-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.leaves(VBTL) aqueous extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice was studied.The aqueous extract of VBTL showed obviously hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects,but the effects were weaker than those of dimethylbiguanide.Compared with diabetic mice in model control group,body weights of aqueous extract group(AEG,diabetic mice treated with VBTL aqueous extract) were partly recovered.The BG levels of AEG were reduced 14.2%,and body weights were increased 61.0%.AEG had significantly lower(p0.05) TC or TG levels and similar HDL-cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol levels.In conclusion,research clearly indicated that the aqueous extract of VBTL possess a potential hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.%以链脲佐菌素造模糖尿病小鼠为研究对象,对乌饭树树叶水提取物的降血糖和血脂作用进行了研究,并与二甲双胍的效果进行了比较。结果表明,虽然效果没有二甲双胍明显,但水提物对糖尿病小鼠的血糖和血脂有明显的改善作用。相对模型对照组,灌胃四周水提物后糖尿病小鼠的体重增加了61.0%,血糖降低了14.2%,血脂水平也得到了明显的改善。

  4. 长白山落叶松林下笃斯越桔群落土壤的主要矿质养分构成特征%Characteristics of soil mineral nutrient composition in Vaccinium uliginosum community under Larix olgensis forest in Changbai Mountains of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英敏; 王贺新; 李根柱; 徐国辉; 于冬梅; 苗迎秋; 牛丽华

    2013-01-01

    以长白山落叶松(Larix olgensis)林下笃斯越桔(Vaccinium uliginosum)群落为对象,调查了构成群落土壤各层次的主要矿质养分N、P、K、Ca、Mg、S含量及其构成特征.结果表明:长白山区落叶松林下笃斯越桔群落的根系主要生长在由苔藓、落叶松和笃斯越桔凋落物等积累形成的上层基质内,而在由火山灰构成的下层矿质土壤层内几乎没有根系生长.主要构成成分苔藓(泥炭藓Sphagnum spp.和金发藓Plytrichum spp.)的全N、全P和全K含量均明显大于落叶松针叶,全Ca含量略小于落叶松针叶,全Mg和全S含量与落叶松针叶相近,说明苔藓枯死体是群落N、P、K养分的重要来源之一;笃斯越桔枯落叶在凋落物内的构成比例虽较少,但N、P、Ca、S含量均较高,也是群落养分的重要来源之一.按照土壤层次,从上至下依次划分为活苔藓层L、死苔藓层F、半分解层A1、泥炭层A2和火山灰层C.全N含量呈F>L>A1>A2>C的趋势,除F层略高一点外,基本上呈自上而下递减的趋势;全P含量为L≈F≈A1>A2>C;全K含量为L≈F<A1<A2<C;全S含量为L≈F≈A1>A2>C;全Ca含量为L≈F>A1;全Mg含量为L<F<A1.在具有矿质土壤的A2层和C层,除有效S以外,C层的N、P、K、Ca、Mg等可利用矿质营养均明显低于A2层,加之C层pH值较高,限制了笃斯越桔根系的生长.%Taking the Vaccinium uliginosum community under Larix olgensis forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, an investigation was conducted on the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S and their composition characteristics in various soil layers. The root system of the V. uligi-nosum community was mainly distributed in the surface soil which was covered by moss and by the litters from Larix and Vaccinium, and few were in the mineral soil layer which was developed from pozzuolana. As compared with those in larch litter, the total N, P, and K contents in two moss taxa, Sphagnum and

  5. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Qing; Sink, K C

    2004-12-01

    Transient expression studies using blueberry leaf explants and monitored by beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assays indicated Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 was more effective than LBA4404 or GV3101; and the use of acetosyringone (AS) at 100 microM for inoculation and 6 days co-cultivation was optimum compared to 2, 4, 8, 10 or 12 days. Subsequently, explants of the cultivars Aurora, Bluecrop, Brigitta, and Legacy were inoculated with strain EHA105 containing the binary vector pBISN1 with the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and an intron-interrupted GUS gene directed by the chimeric super promoter (Aocs)3AmasPmas. Co-cultivation was for 6 days on modified woody plant medium (WPM) plus 100 microM AS. Explants were then placed on modified WPM supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) thidiazuron, 0.5 mg l(-1) alpha-naphthaleneacetic, 10 mg l(-1) kanamycin (Km), and 250 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. Selection for Km-resistant shoots was carried out in the dark for 2 weeks followed by culture in the light at 30 microE m(-2) s(-1) at 25 degrees C. After 12 weeks, selected shoots that were both Km resistant and GUS positive were obtained from 15.3% of the inoculated leaf explants of cultivar Aurora. Sixty-eight independent clones derived from such shoots all tested positive by the polymerase chain reaction using a nptII primer. Eight of eight among these 68 clones tested positive by Southern hybridization using a gusA gene derived probe. The transformation protocol also yielded Km-resistant, GUS-positive shoots that were also PCR positive at frequencies of 5.0% for Bluecrop, 10.0% for Brigitta and 5.6% for Legacy.

  6. Nutrient signature of Quebec (Canada cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Marchand

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer recommendations for cranberry crops are guided by plant and soil tests. However, critical tissue concentration ranges used for diagnostic purposes are inherently biased by nutrient interactions and physiological age. Compositional data analysis using isometric log ratios (ilr of nutrients as well as time detrending can avoid numerical biases. The objective was to derive unbiased nutrient signature standards for cranberry in Quebec and compare those standards to literature data. Field trials were conducted during 3 consecutive years with varying P treatments at six commercial sites in Quebec. Leaf tissues were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. The analytical results were transformed into ilr nutrient balances of parts and groups of parts. High-yield reference ilr values were computed for cranberry yielding greater than 35 Mg ha-1. Many cranberry fields appeared to be over-supplied with K and either under-supplied with Mn or over-supplied with Fe as shown by their imbalanced [K | Ca, Mg] and [Mn | Fe] ratios. Nutrient concentration ranges from Maine and Wisconsin, USA, were combined into ilr values to generate ranges of balances. It was found that these nutrient ranges were much too broad for application in Quebec or outside the Quebec ranges for the [Ca | Mg] and the [Mn | Fe] balances, that were lower compared to those of high yielding cranberry crops in Quebec.

  7. Pollen Viability and Pollen Tube Attrition in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The content of mature seed in a cranberry fruit increases with stigmatic pollen load. On average, however, only two seeds result for every tetrad of pollen deposited. What then is the fate of the two remaining pollen grains fused in each tetrad? Germination in vitro revealed that most of the grains ...

  8. MARCADORES POLÍNICOS EN MIELES DEL NOROESTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio melisopalinológico de 49 muestras de miel provenientes del noroeste de la provincia de Córdoba. Prosopis spp., Larrea divaricata , Schinopsis spp., Condalia microphylla , Sarcomphalus mistol , Cercidium praecox , Geoffroea decorticans , Capparis atamisquea , Aloysia gratissima , Mimosa spp. y Schinus spp. fueron los tipos polínicos de mayor importancia y frecuencia de aparición, todos representantes de la flora nativa. Cuatro grupos de mieles se diferenciaron por análisis discriminante: Traslasierra, Perisalina, Chaco Árido y Chaco Serrano; algunas especies permitieron diferenciarlos entre sí: Schinus areira , Maytenus vitis-idaea , Cantinoa mutabilis y Schinopsis spp., respectivamente. Los tipos polínicos con mayor índice de importancia de especie y frecuencia se proponen como marcadores útiles para la Denominación de Origen.

  9. The potential of utilizing wood ash and peat ash on organic soils in Sweden; Arealer foer skogsgoedsling med traeaska och torvaska paa organogena jordar i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haanell, Bjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    2004-01-01

    . Additional calculations were made concerning the area of abandoned peat fields ready for after-use by afforestation. The main part of the site selection was made in five steps. First, the non-productive sites (which produce less than 1 m{sup 3}/ha/yr) were rejected. Also sites with peat cover shallower than 30 cm were excluded. In the next step it was decided to restrict the ash fertilization to areas with drains in good condition, and to sites where the field vegetation was dominated by 'better shrubs' (Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis idaea, Equisetum silvaticum, and tall sedges) or 'low sedge' (Eriophorum vaginatum, Scirpus caespitosus, and other low Cyperaceae plants). Finally, open areas, seedling stands, and young forests were rejected in favour of un-thinned and thinned mid-rotation, and mature and old stands. According to these selection criteria the most suitable sites for ash fertilization are drained, productive peatlands characterized by thinning stands or older stands where the field vegetation is dominated by better shrubs or low sedge plants. The selection comprises 190,000 ha. Most of these areas are located in North Sweden (90,000 ha), whereas Central and South Sweden accounted for 30,000 ha and 70,000 ha, respectively. In addition to this, 2,000-3,000 ha of abandoned peat fields ready for afforestation should be added within a period of about 5 years. The requirement for phosphorus when peatland forests are fertilized is 40-50 kg/ha. From this, and from studies on the variation of phosphorus content and bulk density of wood ash of various origins, it can be calculated that a proper ash fertilization dose would be 3-5 t/ha. The nutrient content in the ash may however often prove lower than in the reported studies, in which case larger doses than 5 t/ha would be required. The present annual production of bio-ash in Sweden is about 250,000-300,000 tonnes. If it were desired to amend all sites (190,000 ha) identified in this study by using 5

  10. Nutrient signature of Quebec (Canada cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. Perfil nutritivo de atocas (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. - cranberry cultivadas no Québec, Canadá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Marchand

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer recommendations for cranberry crops are guided by plant and soil tests. However, critical tissue concentration ranges used for diagnostic purposes are inherently biased by nutrient interactions and physiological age. Compositional data analysis using isometric log ratios (ilr of nutrients as well as time detrending can avoid numerical biases. The objective was to derive unbiased nutrient signature standards for cranberry in Quebec and compare those standards to literature data. Field trials were conducted during 3 consecutive years with varying P treatments at six commercial sites in Quebec. Leaf tissues were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. The analytical results were transformed into ilr nutrient balances of parts and groups of parts. High-yield reference ilr values were computed for cranberry yielding greater than 35 Mg ha-1. Many cranberry fields appeared to be over-supplied with K and either under-supplied with Mn or over-supplied with Fe as shown by their imbalanced [K | Ca, Mg] and [Mn | Fe] ratios. Nutrient concentration ranges from Maine and Wisconsin, USA, were combined into ilr values to generate ranges of balances. It was found that these nutrient ranges were much too broad for application in Quebec or outside the Quebec ranges for the [Ca | Mg] and the [Mn | Fe] balances, that were lower compared to those of high yielding cranberry crops in Quebec.As recommendações de fertilizantes da cultura atoca são determinadas a partir de análises de planta e solo. No entanto, as faixas críticas de concentração nos tecidos utilizados para fins de diagnóstico são influenciadas por interações de nutrientes e pela idade fisiológica. A análise de dados composicionais log isométricas (ilr de nutrientes, bem como a idade fisiológica podem ser removidas numéricamente na interpretação dos dados analíticos dos tecidos. Nosso objetivo foi obter padrões imparciais para o perfil nutrivo da atóca, cultivada no Québec, Canadá, e comparar esses padrões com os dados da literatura. Os testes de campo foram realizadas durante 3 anos consecutivos com diferentes tratamentos com fósforo, em seis áreas comerciais do Québec. Os tecidos foliares foram analisados para N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Zn, Mn e Fe. Os resultados analíticos foram transformados em nove ilr. Os valores de referência ilr foram computados a partir de rendimentos de atóca ≥ 35 Mg ha-1. Muitas áreas de atóca parecem ser mais adubadas com K, Mg ou Fe ou sub-adubadas com Mn, como mostrado pelo desequilíbrio [K | Ca, Mg] e [Mn | Fe]. Faixas de concentração de nutrientes do Maine e Wisconsin foram combinadas em valores ilr para obter faixas de equilíbrio. As faixas de nutrientes foram mais amplas no Quebec que em outras regiões para os balanços [Ca | Mg] e [Mn | Fe], comparando-se a cultira de atoca de alta produtividade no Québec.

  11. Isolation of high quality RNA from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakola, L; Pirttilä, A M; Halonen, M; Hohtola, A

    2001-10-01

    A simple and efficient method is described for isolating high quality RNA from bilberry fruit. The procedure is based on the use of hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and beta-mercaptoethanol in an extraction buffer in order to eliminate the polysaccharides and prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. This method is a modification of the one described for pine trees, and yields high-quality RNA suitable for cDNA based methodologies. This method is applicable for a variety of plant tissues.

  12. Ambient UV-B radiation decreases photosynthesis in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    but also the effects on other parts of the photosynthetic machinery, e.g. the Calvin cycle, might be important. The 60% reduction of the UV-B irradiance used in this study implies a higher relative change in the UV-B load than many of the supplemental experiments do, but the substantial effect...

  13. Ambient UV-B radiation decreases photosynthesis in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    ). Leaf area, biomass, carbon, nitrogen and UV-B-absorbing compounds were determined from a late season harvest. Compared with the reduced UV-B treatment, the plants in ambient UV-B were found to have a higher content of UV-B-absorbing compounds, and canopy net photosynthesis was as an average 23% lower...... during the season. By means of the JIP-test, it was found that the potential of processing light energy through the photosynthetic machinery was slightly reduced in ambient UV-B. This indicates that not only the UV-B effects on PSII may be responsible for some of the observed reduction of photosynthesis...... on photosynthesis clearly indicates that V. uliginosum is negatively affected by the current level of UV-B....

  14. Fruit quality parameters of some southern high bush blueberries (Vaccinium xcorymbosum L.) grown in Andalusia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J. M.; Calvo, D.; Medina, J. J.; Barrau, C.; Romero, E.

    2008-07-01

    Physical and chemical parameters of fresh berries from three southern high bush (ONeal, Sharp blue and Misty) blueberry cultivars grown in Huelva (Southwestern Spain) under two production systems were measured and evaluated. ANOVA applied to data yielded significant differences between production systems for mean fruit size and mean fruit fresh weight (P<0.05), although main effects on physical and chemical characteristics of fruit were due to cultivar. All three cultivars showed significantly different means (P<0.05) for fruit fresh weight, and all chemical characteristics. Stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) for classification and identification of the cultivars based on physico-chemical properties of samples of fruits was performed. The model obtained gave high percentages of correct classification and prediction (81.1% and 78.4%, respectively). The variables with higher discriminating power were fruit titratable acidity, fruit size and fruit sugar content. (Author)

  15. Chemical variability and antioxidant activity of the leaves of chosen highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Janiuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of two highbush blueberry varieties: ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Northland’. The study revealed differences in the content of the analyzed components. Leaves of cv. ‘Bluecrop’ were characterized by a higher content of chlorophyll, flavonoids and anthocyanins, while the leaves of cv. ‘Northland’ contained more reducing sugars and total phenolic acids, tannins, and essential oils. Capacity of neutralizing the free radicals (DPPH in leaves of both tested cultivars was found at comparable levels.

  16. Composition and morphology of cuticular wax in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Cao, Shifeng; Fang, Xiangjun; Chen, Hangjun; Xiao, Shangyue

    2017-03-15

    The chemical composition and morphology of cuticular wax in mature fruit of nine blueberry cultivars were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Triterpenoids and β-diketones were the most prominent compounds, accounting for on average 64.2% and 16.4% of the total wax, respectively. Ursolic or oleanolic acid was identified as the most abundant triterpenoids differing in cultivars. Two β-diketones, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione, were detected in cuticular wax of blueberry fruits for the first time. Notably, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione were only detected in highbush (V. corymbosum) and rabbiteye (V. ashei) blueberries, respectively. The results of SEM showed that a large amount of tubular wax deposited on the surface of blueberry fruits. There was no apparent difference in wax morphology among the nine cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective effects of bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract against endotoxin-induced uveitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nan; Lan, Fang; He, Rong-Rong; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2010-04-28

    Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU), a useful animal model of ocular inflammation, is induced by injection of lipopolysacharide (LPS). These experiments showed that the nitric oxide (NO) level significantly increased in the whole eye homogenate of BALB/C mice 24 h after footpad injection of LPS at a dosage of 100 mg/mouse. However, the elevated NO level was significantly reduced by oral administration of bilberry extract (containing 42.04% anthocyanins) at dosages of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day for 5 days before the LPS injection. In addition, bilberry extract decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) level, glutathione (GSH) level, vitamin C level, and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Moreover, bilberry extract increased expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and GPx mRNA. Taken together, bilberry extract showed protective effects against EIU, whereas the effects of bilberry extract (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, 5 days) were dose-dependent. In conclusion, these results provide new evidence to elucidate the beneficial effects of bilberry extract on eye health.

  18. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts.

  19. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Contreras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH• scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (ESI-QqQ. All ethanolic extracts from in vitro blueberry cultivars displayed antioxidant activity, with Legacy, Elliott and Bluegold cultivars being the most active. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the extracts is related to the content of chlorogenic acid myricetin, syringic acid and rutin, and tissue culture of blueberry seedlings is a good tool to obtain antioxidant extracts with reproducible profile of compounds.

  20. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Rodrigo A; Köhler, Hans; Pizarro, Marisol; Zúiga, Gustavo E

    2015-04-09

    The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH•) scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP) and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (ESI-QqQ)). All ethanolic extracts from in vitro blueberry cultivars displayed antioxidant activity, with Legacy, Elliott and Bluegold cultivars being the most active. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the extracts is related to the content of chlorogenic acid myricetin, syringic acid and rutin, and tissue culture of blueberry seedlings is a good tool to obtain antioxidant extracts with reproducible profile of compounds.

  1. Development of a soilless growing system for blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum): nutrient demand and nutrient solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Dijk, van P.; Douven, F.; Maas, van der M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of blueberries in The Netherlands are soil grown, interest in soilless culture has increased recently. Modern cultivation with high yield and fruit quality needs maximum control of growth and crop development, which is expected to be achieved with irrigation and nutrient

  2. Development of a soilless growing system for blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum): nutrient demand and nutrient solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Dijk, van P.; Douven, F.; Maas, van der M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of blueberries in The Netherlands are soil grown, interest in soilless culture has increased recently. Modern cultivation with high yield and fruit quality needs maximum control of growth and crop development, which is expected to be achieved with irrigation and nutrient manage

  3. Comparative transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of Vaccinium corymbosum during fruit and color development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lingli; Zhang, Hehua; Liu, Zhongshuai; Cui, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yanfang; Zhang, Lingyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Blueberry is an economically important fruit crop in Ericaceae family. The substantial quantities of flavonoids in blueberry have been implicated in a broad range of health benefits. However, the information regarding fruit development and flavonoid metabolites based on the transcriptome level is still limited. In the present study, the transcriptome and gene expression profiling over berry development, especially during color development were initiated. Results A total of approxim...

  4. An evidence-based systematic review of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Basch, Ethan; Basch, Samuel; Bent, Steve; Boon, Heather; Burke, Dilys; Costa, Dawn; Falkson, Carla; Giese, Nicole; Goble, Michael; Hashmi, Sadaf; Mukarjee, Siddhartta; Papaliodis, George; Seamon, Erica; Tanguay-Colucci, Shaina; Weissner, Wendy; Woods, Jen

    2009-01-01

    An evidence-based systematic review including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  5. Stability and biological activity of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) polyphenols during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Betanzo, J; Allen-Vercoe, E; McDonald, J; Schroeter, K; Corredig, M; Paliyath, G

    2014-12-15

    Wild blueberries are rich in polyphenols and have several potential health benefits. Understanding the factors that affect the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of polyphenols is important for evaluating their biological significance and efficacy as functional food ingredients. Since the bioavailability of polyphenols such as anthocyanins is generally low, it has been proposed that metabolites resulting during colonic fermentation may be the components that exert health benefits. In this study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model comprising sequential chemostat fermentation steps that simulate digestive conditions in the stomach, small intestine and colon was used to investigate the breakdown of blueberry polyphenols. The catabolic products were isolated and biological effects tested using a normal human colonic epithelial cell line (CRL 1790) and a human colorectal cancer cell line (HT 29). The results showed a high stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins during simulated gastric digestion step with approximately 93% and 99% of recovery, respectively. Intestinal digestion decreased polyphenol- and anthocyanin- contents by 49% and 15%, respectively, by comparison to the non-digested samples. During chemostat fermentation that simulates colonic digestion, the complex polyphenol mixture was degraded to a limited number of phenolic compounds such as syringic, cinnamic, caffeic, and protocatechuic acids. Only acetylated anthocyanins were detected in low amounts after chemostat fermentation. The catabolites showed lowered antioxidant activity and cell growth inhibition potential. Results suggest that colonic fermentation may alter the biological activity of blueberry polyphenols.

  6. ‘Kilauea’ and ‘Red Button’, Ohelo, Vaccinium reticulatum, cultivars from Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new ohelo cultivars were selected from an open pollinated seedling population and released by USDA/ARS. ‘Kilauea’ has a low spreading canopy with light green leaves, bright crimson shoots and buds, and orange to salmon berries. Average monthly berry production of ‘Kilauea’ was 14 grams per pla...

  7. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) oligosaccharides decrease biofilm formation by uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jiadong; Marais, Jannie P J; Khoo, Christina

    2015-01-01

    . In antimicrobial assays, cranf1b-F2 (at 1.25 mg/mL concentration) reduced biofilm production by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 strain by over 50% but did not inhibit bacterial growth. Cranf1b-F2 (ranging from 0.625 - 10 mg/mL) also inhibited biofilm formation of the non-pathogenic E. coli MG1655 strain...

  8. Breeding highbush blueberry cultivars adapted to machine harvest for the fresh market

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, world blueberry production has been split evenly between processing and fresh fruit markets. Machine harvest of highbush blueberry [northern highbush (NHB, Vaccinium corymbosum L.), southern highbush (SHB, Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids), and rabbiteye (RE, Vaccinium vi...

  9. Formulación de una Pasta Gelificada a Partir del Descarte de Arándanos (Vaccinium corymbosum Formulation of a Gelling Paste from the remainders of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Stückrath

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio para formular una pasta gelificada de bajas calorías que permita aumentar su valor añadido de descartes de arándanos. Se realizaron ocho formulaciones después de efectuar la caracterización del fruto, la que muestra una adecuada relación entre calcio y pectina, de gran importancia en el mecanismo de gelificación. Los resultados muestran tres formulaciones sin diferencias significativas en su vida útil de alrededor de 40 días. De ellas se eligió la formulación 8 (pH 4.3, 1 g/kg de sorbato de potasio y 2% de glicerol, que presenta la mejor condición de pH para la gelificación de los iones calcio. Esta formulación presenta una curva típica en el análisis de perfil de textura (TPA con una elevada dureza. Además presenta un contenido calorífico de 26.04 kcal/100g que indica características hipocalóricas. El estudio muestra que es posible obtener formulaciones con una razonable vida útil y distinta consistencia que permite su uso en diversas preparaciones alimentarias según los requerimientos.A study was developed to formulate a low calorie gelling paste that allows giving aggregate value to discarding blueberries. Eight formulations were done after the characterization of the fruit that shows a high proportion of calcium/pectin, of great importance in the gelation capacity. The results show three formulations without significant differences in their shelf life of around forty days, From them, the formulation 8 (pH 4.3, 1 g/kg of potassium sorbate and 2% of glycerol presents the best condition of pH for calcium gelation. This formulation presents a typical curve of the texture profile analysis (TPA with a high hardness and a caloric content of 26.04 kcal/100g that indicates that its hypocaloric characteristics. The study shows that it is possible to obtain formulations with a reasonable shelf life and different consistency to be used in diverse alimentary preparations according to requirements.

  10. Micropropagação como técnica de rejuvenescimento em mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade cultivar climax Micropropagation as a rejuvenation technique in rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade cultivar climax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Wulff Schuch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar o rejuvenescimento do material vegetal através da técnica de micropropagação na produção de mudas de mirtilo, cv. Climax. Os tratamentos aplicados constituíram-se de dois tipos de citocininas (zeatina e 2iP, em quatro concentrações (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5 mg.L-1 e duas fontes de explantes (plantas micropropagadas e plantas obtidas através da germinação de sementes in vitro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x4x2. Aos 60 dias após a instalação do experimento avaliou-se o número médio de brotos e de gemas por explante, o comprimento médio dos brotos e a taxa de multiplicação. Concluiu-se que plantas de mirtilo, micropropagadas na presença de citocinina e submetidas a sucessivas repicagens, demonstram elevada habilidade de rejuvenescimento in vitro do material adulto, podendo ser comparadas às plantas obtidas de semente, tanto na capacidade de emitir novas brotações, quanto no número de gemas e taxa de multiplicação.This experiment was installed aiming to evaluate the plant rejuvenation capacity of rabbiteye blueberry seedlings cultivar Climax by using micropropagation technique. The treatments consisted of two cytokinin types (zeatin and 2iP, in four concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5 mg.L-1 and two sources of explants (micropropagated plants and plants from in vitro seeds germination. The experiment was carried out in a 2x4x2 factorial arranged in a randomized complete design. After 60 days from experiment installation it was assessed the shoots average number and shoots average length, buds average number and the multiplication rate. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the micropropagated rabbiteye blueberry plants in the presence of cytokinin and submitted at successive cuttings showed a high in vitro rejuvenation ability of the adult material, which might be compared to the plants germinated in vitro, in the capacity of emitting new shoots as well as in the buds number and multiplication rate.

  11. CARACTERIZACIÓN FISICOQUÍMICA Y ORGANOLÉPTICA DEL FRUTO DE AGRAZ (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ANDEAN BLUEBERRY FRUIT (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz STORED AT 2ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Guillermo Ávila Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de hallar algunas características fisicoquímicas del fruto del agraz, del cual existen pocos conocimientos sobre su calidad, se recolectaron frutos provenientes de Chiquinquirá (Boyacá los cuales fueron empacados en cajas plásticas de 125 g y almacenados durante 9 días en un cuarto frío a una temperatura de 2ºC, con una humedad relativa del 90 %. Cada 3 días fueron medidas las variables sólidos solubles totales (SST, pH, acidez total titulable (ATT, ácidos cítrico, málico y ascórbico, diámetro del fruto y pérdida de peso. La mayoría de los cambios fisicoquímicos fueron de muy poca magnitud, las siguientes mediciones presentaron una tendencia permanente a la disminución: el peso fresco (de 0,58 a 0,55 g, el diámetro del fruto (de 0,99 a 0,93 cm y el pH (de 3,12 a 3,05, mientras que aumentaron la ATT (de 1,44 a 1,52 % y los SST (de 14,13 a 14,73 ºBrix. Los análisis con HPLC arrojaron que el ácido predominante fue el acido cítrico, seguido por el acido málico (1.899 mg y 1.396 mg/100 g fruto, respectivamente los cuales aumentaron a partir del día 6 de almacenamiento. El ácido ascórbico (8 mg/100 g presentó una leve disminución durante los días 3 a 6 del almacenamiento. Es posible que el aumento de los SST, la ATT y los ácidos orgánicos hacía el día 9 del almacenamiento haya sido debido a un efecto de concentración. En el análisis sensorial, se identificó que los frutos frescos obtuvieron una buena aceptación tanto en apariencia, aroma, sabor y en textura, mientras que los almacenados durante 9 días aún calificaron en aroma y sabor.With the purpose to find out some physiochemical characteristics of Andean blueberry fruits from which exist few knowledge about its quality, fruits were collected from Chiquinquirá (Boyacá, and packed in plastic boxes of 125 g and stored during 9 days (at 2ºC and 90% relative humidity. Each 3 days variables as total soluble solids (TSS, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, citric, malic and ascorbic acids, fruit diameter and its weight loss were measured. The majority of physiochemical changes in fruits were lowest. A permanent decreasing tendency presented: fresh weight (from 0,58 to 0,55 g, diameter (from 0,.99 to 0,93 cm, and the pH (from 3,12 to 3,05, with a peak at 6 days up to 3.16, while TTA increased slightly (from 1,44 to 1,52%, with a peak at 3 days up to 1,64 and TSS from 14,13 to 14,73 ºBrix. The HPLC analysis showed that citric acid was the predominant organic acid in fruits, followed by the malic acid (1.899 mg and 1.396 mg/100 g respectively, which increased from the 6th day of storage. The ascorbic acid (8 mg/100 g presented a slowly decrease between day 3 and 6 of storage. It is supposed that the TSS, TTA and organic acids increased up to the ninth day of storage due to a concentration effect. In the sensorial analysis it was found that fresh fruits had a good acceptation in all evaluated parameters (appearance, aroma, flavor and texture while the 9 days stored fruits only presented good qualifications in aroma and flavor.

  12. COMPORTAMIENTO DEL FRUTO DE AGRAZ (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz COSECHADO EN DIFERENTES ESTADOS DE MADUREZ Y ALMACENADO EN REFRIGERACIÓN BEHAVIOR OF AGRAZ FRUIT (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz HARVESTED IN DIFFERENT MATURITY STAGES AND STORED UNDER REFRIGERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Rincón Soledad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El agraz o mortiño es un frutal promisorio, considerado como un alimento funcional por su contenido de antocianinas, antioxidantes y vitaminas; no obstante, es un fruto altamente perecedero que pierde rápidamente su calidad comercial y nutricional. El objetivo fue evaluar el comportamiento de frutos de agraz cosechados en tres estados de madurez y almacenados en condiciones de refrigeración. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 3x3, donde el primer factor fue la temperatura de almacenamiento: 1, 8 y 20 °C; el segundo factor correspondió al estado de madurez: 3, 4 y 5, el cual se estableció de acuerdo al color de la epidermis del fruto. Se realizaron mediciones de calidad del fruto. Los resultados indicaron que los frutos almacenados a 8 °C en estado de madurez 3 y 4 conservaron las características de calidad comercial hasta los 45 días y para el estado 5 sólo hasta los 25 días. Mientras que a temperatura ambiente los frutos conservaron su vida útil hasta los 21 días en los diferente estados de madurez evaluados. Los frutos del estado 3 y almacenados a 1 °C tuvieron mayor firmeza y acidez total titulable, un alto contenido de sólidos solubles totales y la menor relación de madurez. Para mantener la calidad del fruto de agraz por largo tiempo, se recomienda refrigerar los frutos, en el estado 3 de madurez, a 1 °C.Abstract. The Ericaceae agraz or mortiño is a promising fruit, is considered as a functional food for its high content of anthocyanins, antioxidants and vitamins. It is a highly perishable fruit that quickly loses its commercial and nutritional quality. The objective was to evaluate the behavior of unripe fruits harvested at three maturity stages and stored under refrigeration. It was used a completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial arrangement, where the first factor was the storage temperature: 1, 8 and 20 °C; the second factor corresponded to maturity: 3, 4 and 5, which was established according to the color of the fruit skin; it was made measurements of fruit quality. The results indicated that the fruits stored at 8 °C in maturity stages 3 and 4 retained characteristics commercial grade to 45 days and only state 5 to 25 days. While the fruit at room temperature retained life to 21 days in different maturity stages evaluated. The state 3 fruits stored at 1 °C had higher firmness and total titratable acidity, high total soluble solids content and lower maturity ratio. To maintain the agraz fruit quality for longer time, it is recommended to harvest at state 3 and then be stored at 1 °C.

  13. Effects of Reducing the Ambient UV-B Radiation in the High Arctic on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2005-01-01

    , transmitting ¿ > 400 nm) were used to reduce UV-B radiation and UV-B+A respectively. A UV transparent film (Teflon, transmitting ¿ > 280 nm) and no film were used as controls. Field measurements showed that the plants under Teflon, Mylar and Lexan received app. 91%, 39% and 17% of the ambient UV-B irradiance...

  14. Distinct physiological and metabolic reprogramming by highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivars revealed during long-term UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo Escobar, Ana; Alberdi, Miren; Acevedo, Patricio; Machado, Mariana; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2017-05-01

    Despite the Montreal protocol and the eventual recovery of the ozone layer over Antarctica, there are still concerns about increased levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation in the Southern Hemisphere. UV-B induces physiological, biochemical and morphological stress responses in plants, which are species-specific and different even for closely related cultivars. In woody plant species, understanding of long-term mechanisms to cope with UV-B-induced stress is limited. Therefore, a greenhouse UV-B daily course simulation was performed for 21 days with two blueberry cultivars (Legacy and Bluegold) under UV-BBE irradiance doses of 0, 0.07 and 0.19 W m(-2) . Morphological changes, photosynthetic performance, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and metabolic features were evaluated. We found that both cultivars behaved differently under UV-B exposure, with Legacy being a UV-B-resistant cultivar. Interestingly, Legacy used a combined strategy: initially, in the first week of exposure its photoprotective compounds increased, coping with the intake of UV-B radiation (avoidance strategy), and then, increasing its antioxidant capacity. These strategies proved to be UV-B radiation dose dependent. The avoidance strategy is triggered early under high UV-B radiation in Legacy. Moreover, the rapid metabolic reprogramming capacity of this cultivar, in contrast to Bluegold, seems to be the most relevant contribution to its UV-B stress-coping strategy. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Flowering and fruit set of six cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in the conditions of the Lublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bożek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results presented in this paper relate to the time and duration of flowering of highbush blueberry as well as fruit set in the conditions of flower isolation and free visitation by pollinating insects. Observations were carried out in the years 2001- 2004 at a plantation located in Niemce near the city of Lublin. Six cultivars: 'Bluecrop', 'Bluejay', 'Croatan', 'Darrow', 'Northland' and 'Spartan', were covered by the study. The flowering period of the studied highbush blueberry cultivars was in May in three years of study, whereas in 2004 in May and June. Depending on the year, it lasted from 14 up to 21 days, on the average. Significant differences were found in the life span of a single flower which, depending on the cultivar and conditions prevailing during flowering, bloomed from 5 up to 10 days (the average for all the years for all the cultivars. With free access of pollinating insects, highbush blueberry set an average of 92 false-berries per 100 flowers, whereas only 40 during spontaneous self-pollination under the isolating cover. In each year of study, irrespective of atmospheric conditions prevailing during flowering as well as the time and duration of flowering, fruit set of the investigated cultivars in flowers freely accessible to pollinating insects should be considered to be good or very good.

  16. Steam-blanched highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) juice: phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Ada; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Bertolo, Gianni; Torreggiani, Danila

    2008-04-23

    High-quality standards in blueberry juice can be obtained only taking into account fruit compositional variability and its preservation along the processing chain. In this work, five highbush blueberry cultivars from the same environmental growing conditions were individually processed into juice after an initial blanching step and the influence was studied of the cultivar on juice phenolic content, distribution and relative antioxidant activity, measured as scavenging capacity on the artificial free-radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). A chromatographic protocol was developed to separate all main phenolic compounds in berries. A total of 15 glycosylated anthocyanins, catechin, galactoside, glucoside, and rhamnoside quercetin 3-derivatives, and main benzoic and cinnamic acids were identified. The total content and relative distribution in anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin of each juice were dependent upon cultivar, and the total content was highly correlated (rxy=0.97) to the antioxidant capacity. A selective protective effect of berry blanching in juice processing can be observed on more labile anthocyanin compounds.

  17. Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and crisp-texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Olmstead, James W

    2014-10-01

    Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. Sensory and instrumental characteristics were measured in 36 and 49 genotypes in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A trained sensory panel evaluated fresh fruit based on five common textural attributes in 2010 and 2011: bursting energy, flesh firmness, skin toughness, juiciness and mealiness. Instrumental measures of compression and bioyield forces were significantly different among cultivars and correlated with sensory scores for bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness (R > 0.7, except skin toughness in 2011), but correlations with sensory scores for juiciness and mealiness were low (R < 0.4). The results of sensory and instrumental measures supported the use of both compression and bioyield force measures in distinguishing crisp from standard-texture genotypes, and suggest that crisp texture in SHB is related to the sensory perception of bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Variation of anthocyanins and other major phenolic compounds throughout the ripening of four Portuguese blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sara; Costa, Eduardo M; Coelho, Marta C; Morais, Rui M; Pintado, Manuela E

    2017-01-01

    Blueberries are widely recognised as one of the richest sources of bioactive compounds, among which are anthocyanins, though the ripeness of berries has been reported as affecting the phytochemical composition of fruits. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate the variation of anthocyanins, and other major phenolics, throughout five ripening stages in four blueberry cultivars. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content increased during ripening, reaching the highest values when the blueberries are collected from bunches comprised of 75% ripe blueberries. Antagonistically, the amount of phenolic acid decreases, while the quercetin-3-glucoside levels remain stable. Furthermore, Goldtraube blueberries appear to possess, systematically, higher amounts of phenolic compounds than the other cultivars studied. Thus, when seeking the highest yield of anthocyanins, the preferred harvest should occur in bunches that contain ca 75% of ripe blueberries and, considering the cultivars assayed, the Goldtraube cultivar appears to be the richest in phenolic compounds.

  19. Genetic relatedness among rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) cultivars determined by DNA amplification using single primers of arbitrary sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, M; Ozias-Akins, P; Austin, M E; Kochert, G

    1993-10-01

    Most improved cultivars of commercially important hexaploid rabbiteye blueberry were developed from only four native selections collected from the wild; thus, many cultivars are closely related by lineage. The consanguinity among major cultivars is a potential problem, as the rabbiteye blueberries are highly self-incompatible natural outcrossers with potential inbreeding depression. We investigated the extent of genetic relatedness among 15 improved cultivars and four wild selections by the technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA, also referred to as arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction. Single decanucleotides of arbitrary sequence revealed polymorphism among cultivars and wild selections. Genetic distances were estimated based on the amount of band sharing. Cluster analysis of genetic distance estimates tended to group siblings with each other and with one or both parents. The average genetic distance between improved cultivars decreased relative to the four wild parental selections, which might indicate progression towards inbreeding. The significance of increased genetic relatedness among the improved cultivars of rabbiteye blueberry and the application of molecular methods in breeding and commercial cultivation is discussed.

  20. Computational identification of conserved microRNAs and their targets from expression sequence tags of blueberry (Vaccinium corybosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuyan; Hou, Yanming; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wenhao; Quan, Chen; Cui, Yuhai; Bian, Shaomin

    2014-06-06

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, approximately 21nt in length, non-coding RNA, which mediate the expression of target genes primarily at post-transcriptional levels. miRNAs play critical roles in almost all plant cellular and metabolic processes. Although numerous miRNAs have been identified in the plant kingdom, the miRNAs in blueberry, which is an economically important small fruit crop, still remain totally unknown. In this study, we reported a computational identification of miRNAs and their targets in blueberry. By conducting an EST-based comparative genomics approach, 9 potential vco-miRNAs were discovered from 22,402 blueberry ESTs according to a series of filtering criteria, designated as vco-miR156-5p, vco-miR156-3p, vco-miR1436, vco-miR1522, vco-miR4495, vco-miR5120, vco-miR5658, vco-miR5783, and vco-miR5986. Based on sequence complementarity between miRNA and its target transcript, 34 target ESTs from blueberry and 70 targets from other species were identified for the vco-miRNAs. The targets were found to be involved in transcription, RNA splicing and binding, DNA duplication, signal transduction, transport and trafficking, stress response, as well as synthesis and metabolic process. These findings will greatly contribute to future research in regard to functions and regulatory mechanisms of blueberry miRNAs.

  1. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality.

  2. Determining Rooting Ability of Ennobled Blueberry Wood Pieces (Vaccinium corymbosum L. with Presence of Growth Regulators IBA and NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABRI BRAHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ennobled blueberry (V. Corymbosum L. has many specific requirements for optimal growth, therefore, the increase of cultivated areas is limited. It requires acidic soils (pH 4,3-4,8, well drained, with full aeration and a constant moderate amount of moisture. The successful technique of asexual propagation will be necessary for rapid clonal propagation of selected cultivars. The objective of this experiment was to identify an efficient way to improve rooting with the help of growth regulators in the ‘Bluecrop’ cultivar using well-lignified one-year old wood pieces, collected at the end of winter, end of March prior to bud swelling. Treatments with various concentrations (1500, 3000, 4500 mg/l, show that treatment with IBA at 3000 mg/l has the highest rooting percentage in comparison to NAA. Whilst the torf-perlite substrate (at a 2:1 ratio, has produced a higher rooting percentage compared to the torf-only substrate, and the crucial factor for successful rooting is the time of collecting wood pieces. Treatment results have promoted higher rooting of wooden pieces compared to the control (untreated wooden pieces. The most efficient promotor in all concentrations was IBA.

  3. The influence of microwave-assisted drying techniques on the rehydration behavior of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Markowski, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: (a) different drying methods, (b) hot air temperature in a convection oven, and (c) the moisture content of fruits dehydrated by multi-stage drying which involves a transition between different stages of drying, on the rehydration kinetics of dry blueberries. Models describing rehydration kinetics were also studied. Blueberries dehydrated by multi-stage microwave-assisted drying, which involved a hot air pre-drying step at 80 °C until the achievement of a moisture content of 1.95 kg H2O kg(-1)DM, were characterized by significantly higher rates of initial and successive rehydration as well as smaller initial loss of soluble solids in comparison with the samples dried by other methods. The highest initial rehydration rate and the smallest loss of soluble solids after 30 min of soaking were determined at 0.46 min(-1) and 0.29 kg DM kg(-1)DM, respectively. The Peleg model and the first-order-kinetic model fit the experimental data well.

  4. Native bee diversity and pollen foraging specificity in cultivated highbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum) in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Zachary; Ginsberg, Howard; Alm, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A. carolina Viereck (90%), and Colletes validus Cresson (87%). The largest mean total pollen grain loads were carried by B. griseocollis (549,844), B. impatiens (389,558), X. virginica (233,500), and B. bimaculatus (193,132). Xylocopa virginica was the fourth and fifth most commonly collected bee species in 2014 and 2015, respectively. They exhibit nectar robbing and females carried relatively low blueberry pollen loads (mean 33%). Overall, we found 10 species of bees to be the primary pollinators of blueberries in Rhode Island.

  5. Health effects of Vaccinium myrtillus L.: evaluation of efficacy and technological strategies for preservation of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Monteleone, Domenico; Trombetta, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Bilberries are a rich dietary source of various phytonutrients, including anthocyanins which contribute greatly to their antioxidant capacity and have demonstrated a broad spectrum of biomedical functions. These include protection against cardiovascular disorders, age-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and several degenerative diseases. Berry anthocyanins also improve neuronal and cognitive brain functions, ocular health as well as protecting genomic DNA integrity. In recent years, sales of many dietary supplements/pharmaceutical products containing anthocyanins in various dosages and formulations have been made by advertising their wide range of beneficial effects. However, there is a heightened risk of distributing deteriorated formulations to consumers due to lax regulations, in particular those applicable to phytochemical characterization and extract standardization, and in terms of quality regarding the stability of anthocyanins. Anthocyanin pigments readily degrade during industrial processing and this can have a dramatic impact on color quality and may also affect nutritional/pharmaceutical properties. This review aims to summarize the main health effects of bilberry extract used in several food supplements/pharmaceutical formulations focusing on some important aspects of anthocyanin degradation during processing and storage. It will also describe the main technological strategies which can give active ingredients greater stability, solubility and dispersibility in order to enhance formulation quality which is of great interest to the consumer and industry due to its direct and indirect impact on consumer health.

  6. In vitro attempts to overcome the cross-incompatibility between Vaccinium corymbosum L. and V. elliottii Chapm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, C E; Lyrene, P M

    1985-03-01

    Seed was readily obtained from V. corymbosum zygotes using embryo rescue techniques, even when embryos were cultured at proembryonic stages. Best in vitro seed development was obtained when ovules were cultured attached to placental tissues. Successful fruit and seed development in culture occurred only when the fruit was cut longitudinally or when the basal portion of the fruit was removed previous to plating. Addition of various vitamins, amino acids, and growth regulators to the nutrient medium did not increase seed production. Attempts to rescue hybrid embryos from V. croymbosum (tetraploid) x V. elliottii (diploid) crosses by in ovulo and in ovary culture gave a few presumably hybrid seed, but at a rate no greater than when normal crossing procedures are used.

  7. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) wine pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhang, Ling-Li; Yue, Xue-Yang; Liang, Jin; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Xue-Ling; Yue, Peng-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) of total anthocyanins (TA) and phenolics (TP) from Blueberry Wine Pomace (BWP) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was used to predict that the optimized conditions were an extraction temperature of 61.03°C, a liquid-solid ratio of 21.70mL/g and a sonication time of 23.67min. Using the modeled optimized conditions, the predicted and experimental yields of TA and TP were within a 2% difference. The yields of TA and TP obtained through the optimized UAE method were higher than those using a Conventional Solvent Extraction (CSE) method. Seven anthocyanins, namely delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, delphindin-3-O-arabinoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-arabinoside, were found in the BWP extract from both the UAE and CSE methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Initial growth and yield structure of selected cultivars of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. cultivated on mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwonek Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils and to assess the influence of vegetative biomass development, generative growth and yield components on the yielding of three cranberry cultivars originating in the USA (Stevens, Pilgrim and Ben Lear at two locations in Poland. The key biometrical traits involved in yield formation were taken into account, and the soil and plant chemical conditions were evaluated. All of the measured biometrical characteristics were strongly influenced by the location and the year of cultivation, and varietal differences were also noted. The most important determinants that explained yield variation were: the number of uprights per square meter, floral induction and berry set. However, the participation of each component in yield variation was strongly affected by the location, age of plantation and to a minor extent by the cultivar. The study confirmed the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils with a low pH. The biggest average yield of the three years was collected from cv. Stevens as cultivated on sandy soil in contrast to the same cultivar grown on sandy loam soil. In the case of sandy loam soil after acidification, cv. Pilgrim appeared to be a relatively better yielding cultivar.

  9. ITS Sequence Used as DNA Barcode Applied in Chinese Herb Abrus can-toniensis%ITS 序列作为 DNA 条形码在中药鸡骨草中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 牛宪立; 魏妮娜; 姬可平

    2012-01-01

      以广西和广东的九种中药鸡骨草(Abrus cantoniensis)为材料,利用改良的 CTAB 法进行总 DNA 的提取,应用通用引物对其 rDNA 的内转录间隔区(ITS)序列进行 PCR 扩增,得到9种植物的 ITS 序列,对所得序列进行分析并申请登录到 GenBank,已获得登录号。结果表明,序列的全长为692~702 bp,其中 ITS2为211~212 bp;中药鸡骨草的混淆品小叶黑面神(Breynia vitis-idaea)和其同科同属植物相思子(Abrus precato-rius)的 ITS2序列与中药鸡骨草差异很大;用遗传距离和建立邻接树这两种方法对序列进行分析,都证明了ITS2序列可以作为豆科植物的 DNA 条形码序列;ITS2序列的种间差异为豆科植物的种间鉴别和建立比较合理的 DNA 条形码体系提供较好的依据。%10.3969/gab.031.000001

  10. Can lemmings control the expansion of woody plants on tundra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Olofsson, Johan; Virtanen, Risto; Hoset, Katrine; Tuomi, Maria; Kyrö, Kukka

    2013-04-01

    results show that edibility plays a relatively small role for the vulnerability of woody plants to lemming impacts. As long as the plants are relatively small, like the evergreens were on our plots (the dominating species was the lingonberry, Vaccinium vitis-ideaea), they are mowed down by lemmings in outbreak years. The potential of lemmings to control the expansion of woody plants is thus likely to depend on the size of the seedlings of trees and shrubs and, therefore, on the frequency of lemming outbreaks

  11. Evaluation of Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Berries in High-Fat Fed C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20% with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders.

  12. Caracterización fisicoquímica y organoléptica del fruto de agraz (vaccinium meridionale swartz) almacenado1 a 2ºC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernán Guillermo Ávila Rodríguez; Julián Andrés Cuspoca Riveros; Gerhard Fischer; Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto Moreno; Martha Cecilia Quicazán de Cuenca

    2007-01-01

      Con el propósito de hallar algunas características fisicoquímicas del fruto del agraz, del cual existen pocos conocimientos sobre su calidad, se recolectaron frutos provenientes de Chiquinquirá (Boyacá...

  13. Long-term structural canopy changes sustain net photosynthesis per ground area in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum exposed to changes in near-ambient UV-B levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Albert, Kristian Rost; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Full recovery of the ozone layer is not expected for several decades and consequently, the incoming level of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) will only slowly be reduced. Therefore to investigate the structural and photosynthetic responses to changes in solar UV-B we conducted a 5-year UV-B exclusion...

  14. Metal and PAH concentrations in fruit of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (Lowbush Blueberry) : a comparison among Whitney Pier, North Sydney and supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science

    2004-07-01

    The concentration of various metals in the fruit harvested from Lowbush blueberry plants in Whitney Pier, Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS), North Sydney (NS) and supermarket were quantified in this report. The concentrations were compared among the 3 sources to determine whether the metal and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the blueberries from Whitney Pier were higher or lower compared to the reference blueberries from North Sydney and the supermarket. Mean values for each of the analytes were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study determined whether washed berries have lower concentrations of contaminants than unwashed berries. The risk to human health of exposure to metals and PAHs through consumption of blueberry samples was also calculated. It was concluded that concentrations of selenium and zinc are elevated in blueberries from Whitney Pier compared to berries from North Sydney and the supermarket, but are well within safe levels. Other elements such as arsenic, titanium, vanadium, lead, copper and molybdenum were similar, and only thallium was elevated in supermarket berries relative to those from Whitney Pier and North Sydney. Chromium was not detected in any samples. It was determined that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the metals analyzed, regardless of whether they were Whitney Pier samples or reference samples. Only 2 PAHs were detected in one of the unwashed samples from Whitney Pier. No PAHs were found in washed berries or unwashed berries from the supermarket or North Sydney. It was concluded that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the PAHs. Washed and unwashed samples had similar metal concentrations, indicating that surface contamination did not occur. A full methodology of the testing program was provided. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Different effects of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) on monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells in a TNF-α stimulated proinflammatory environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Roursgaard, Martin; Porrini, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Scope: Monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium is a crucial step in the early stagesof atherogenesis. This study aims to investigate the capacity of an anthocyanin (ACN) andphenolic acid (PA) rich fraction (RF) of a wild blueberry, single ACNs (cyanidin, malvidin,delphinidin) and related...... µg/mL) of the compounds for 24 h. Labeled monocytic THP-1 cells were added to HUVECsand their adhesion was induced by TNF-␣ (100 ng/mL). ACN-RF reduced THP-1 adhesionto HUVECs with a maximum effect at 10 µg/mL (−33%). PA-RF counteracted THP-1 adhe-sion at 0.01, 0.1, and 1 µg/mL (−45, −48.7, and −27...... that ACNs/PA-RF may prevent atherogenesis while theeffects of the single ACNs and metabolites are controversial and merit further exploration....

  16. Anthocyanins and phenolic acids from a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) powder counteract lipid accumulation in THP-1-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) and phenolic acids (PA), which are hypothesized to protect against development of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of an ACN- and PA-rich fractions, obtained from a wild blueberry powder, on the capacity...... to counteract lipid accumulation in macrophages derived from monocytic THP-1 cells. In addition, we tested the capacity of pure ACNs and their metabolites to alter lipid accumulation. METHODS: THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with fatty acids (500 μM oleic/palmitic acid, 2:1 ratio) and different...... concentrations (from 0.05 to 10 μg mL(-1)) of ACN- and PA-rich fractions, pure ACN standards (malvidin, delphinidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside), and metabolites (syringic, gallic and protocatechuic acids). Lipid accumulation was quantified with the fluorescent dye Nile red. RESULTS: Lipid accumulation was reduced...

  17. Efficient quantification of the health-relevant anthocyanin and phenolic acid profiles in commercial cultivars and breeding selections of blueberries ( Vaccinium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Gad G; Brown, Allan F; Funakoshi, Yayoi; Mbeunkui, Flaubert; Grace, Mary H; Ballington, James R; Loraine, Ann; Lila, Mary A

    2013-05-22

    Anthocyanins and phenolic acids are major secondary metabolites in blueberry with important implications for human health maintenance. An improved protocol was developed for the accurate, efficient, and rapid comparative screening for large blueberry sample sets. Triplicates of six commercial cultivars and four breeding selections were analyzed using the new method. The compound recoveries ranged from 94.2 to 97.5 ± 5.3% when samples were spiked with commercial standards prior to extraction. Eighteen anthocyanins and 4 phenolic acids were quantified in frozen and freeze-dried fruits. Large variations for individual and total anthocyanins, ranging from 201.4 to 402.8 mg/100 g, were assayed in frozen fruits. The total phenolic acid content ranged from 23.6 to 61.7 mg/100 g in frozen fruits. Across all genotypes, freeze-drying resulted in minor reductions in anthocyanin concentration (3.9%) compared to anthocyanins in frozen fruits. However, phenolic acids increased by an average of 1.9-fold (±0.3) in the freeze-dried fruit. Different genotypes frequently had comparable overall levels of total anthocyanins and phenolic acids, but differed dramatically in individual profiles of compounds. Three of the genotypes contained markedly higher concentrations of delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside, which have previously been implicated as bioactive principles in this fruit. The implications of these findings for human health benefits are discussed.

  18. Seed set, berry weight, and yield interactions in highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yields and berry weights of two widely grown, commercial, highbush blueberry cultivars, ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’, were evaluated for 3 or more harvests every season over ten years, and seed set was determined at each harvest over the last four. Across 10 years, yield and berry weight had no significant...

  19. Use of Early Ripening Cultivars to Avoid Infestation and Mass Trapping to Manage Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericales: Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Emily; Koski, Carissa; Barsoian, Olivia; Faubert, Heather; Cowles, Richard S; Alm, Steven R

    2014-10-01

    Use of early ripening highbush blueberry cultivars to avoid infestation and mass trapping were evaluated for managing spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Fourteen highbush blueberry cultivars were sampled for spotted wing drosophila infestation. Most 'Earliblue', 'Bluetta', and 'Collins' fruit were harvested before spotted wing drosophila oviposition commenced, and so escaped injury. Most fruit from 'Bluejay', 'Blueray', and 'Bluehaven' were also harvested before the first week of August, after which spotted wing drosophila activity led to high levels of blueberry infestation. In a separate experiment, damage to cultivars was related to the week in which fruit were harvested, with greater damage to fruit observed as the season progressed. Attractant traps placed within blueberry bushes increased nearby berry infestation by 5%, irrespective of cultivar and harvest date. The significant linear reduction in infestation with increasing distance from the attractant trap suggests that traps are influencing fly behavior to at least 5.5 m. Insecticides applied to the exterior of traps, compared with untreated traps, revealed that only 10-30% of flies visiting traps enter the traps and drown. Low trap efficiency may jeopardize surrounding fruits by increasing local spotted wing drosophila activity. To protect crops, traps for mass trapping should be placed in a perimeter outside fruit fields and insecticides need to be applied to the surface of traps or on nearby fruit to function as an attract-and-kill strategy. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  20. Firmness at Harvest Impacts Postharvest Fruit Softening and Internal Browning Development in Mechanically Damaged and Non-damaged Highbush Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Claudia; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel; González, Guillermina; Lobos, Gustavo A

    2017-01-01

    Fresh blueberries are very susceptible to mechanical damage, which limits postharvest life and firmness. Softening and susceptibility of cultivars "Duke" and "Brigitta" to developing internal browning (IB) after mechanical impact and subsequent storage was evaluated during a 2-year study (2011/2012, 2012/2013). On each season fruit were carefully hand-picked, segregated into soft (cultivar or season, high variability in fruit firmness was observed within each commercial harvest, and significant differences in IB and softening rates were found. "Duke" exhibited high softening rates, as well as high and significant r(2) between firmness and IB, but little differences for dropped vs. non-dropped fruit. "Brigitta," having lesser firmness rates, exhibited almost no relationships between firmness and IB (especially for non-dropped fruit), but marked differences between dropping treatments. Firmness loss and IB development were related to firmness at harvest, soft and firm fruit being the most and least damaged, respectively. Soft fruit were characterized by greater IB development during storage along with high soluble solids/acid ratio, which could be used together with firmness to estimate harvest date and storage potential of fruit. Results of this work suggest that the differences in fruit quality traits at harvest could be related to the time that fruit stay on the plant after turning blue, soft fruit being more advanced in maturity. Finally, the observed differences between segregated categories reinforce the importance of analyzing fruit condition for each sorted group separately.

  1. Effect of Microencapsulation by Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying Technique on the Antioxidant Properties of Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus Juice Polyphenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkowska Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry juice with high polyphenol concentration was spray- or freeze-dried using different coating materials: HP-β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin. The quality of the obtained powders was characterised by their anthocyanin content, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. SEM was used for monitoring structures and size (2–20 μm of the microparticles. The losses of total phenolic compounds during spray-drying reached 76–78% on average, while these of anthocyanins about 57%. Freeze-dried powders showed better retention values of anthocyanins, which was about 1.5-fold higher than for the spray-dried counterparts. All blueberry preparations studied were characterised by very high radical scavenging activity.

  2. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative...... stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral...... arterial tone and plasma nitric oxide levels) in male subjects. In a randomized cross-over design, separated by a wash out period ten young volunteers received one portion of blueberries ground by blender or one portion of a control jelly. Before and after consumption (at 1, 2, and 24 hours), blood samples...

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2013-05-13

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  4. Characterization of the Key Aroma Volatile Compounds in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O) and Odor Activity Value (OAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2016-06-22

    The volatile compounds of cranberries obtained from four cultivars (Early Black, Y1; Howes, Y2; Searles, Y3; and McFarlin, Y4) were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). The result presented that a total of thirty-three, thirty-four, thirty-four, and thirty-six odor-active compounds were identified by GC-O in the Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. In addition, twenty-two, twenty-two, thirty, and twenty-seven quantified compounds were demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs > 1). Among these compounds, hexanal (OAV: 27-60), pentanal (OAV: 31-51), (E)-2-heptenal (OAV: 17-66), (E)-2-hexenal (OAV: 18-63), (E)-2-octenal (OAV: 10-28), (E)-2-nonenal (OAV: 8-77), ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (OAV: 10-33), β-ionone (OAV: 8-73), 2-methylbutyric acid (OAV: 18-37), and octanal (OAV: 4-24) contributed greatly to the aroma of cranberry. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to process the mean data accumulated from sensory evaluation by the panelists, odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1), and samples. Sample Y3 was highly correlated with the sensory descriptors "floral" and "fruity". Sample Y4 was greatly related to the sensory descriptors "mellow" and "green and grass". Finally, an aroma reconstitution (Model A) was prepared by mixing the odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1) based on their measured concentrations in the Y1 sample, indicating that the aroma profile of the reconstitution was pretty similar to that of the original sample.

  5. Parameterization of the InVEST Crop Pollination Model to spatially predict abundance of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) native bee pollinators in Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Shannon C.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Drummond, Frank; Bushmann, Sara; McGill, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native honeybees historically have been managed for crop pollination, however, recent population declines draw attention to pollination services provided by native bees. We applied the InVEST Crop Pollination model, developed to predict native bee abundance from habitat resources, in Maine's wild blueberry crop landscape. We evaluated model performance with parameters informed by four approaches: 1) expert opinion; 2) sensitivity analysis; 3) sensitivity analysis informed model optimization; and, 4) simulated annealing (uninformed) model optimization. Uninformed optimization improved model performance by 29% compared to expert opinion-informed model, while sensitivity-analysis informed optimization improved model performance by 54%. This suggests that expert opinion may not result in the best parameter values for the InVEST model. The proportion of deciduous/mixed forest within 2000 m of a blueberry field also reliably predicted native bee abundance in blueberry fields, however, the InVEST model provides an efficient tool to estimate bee abundance beyond the field perimeter.

  6. Firmness at Harvest Impacts Postharvest Fruit Softening and Internal Browning Development in Mechanically Damaged and Non-damaged Highbush Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Claudia; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel; González, Guillermina; Lobos, Gustavo A.

    2017-01-01

    Fresh blueberries are very susceptible to mechanical damage, which limits postharvest life and firmness. Softening and susceptibility of cultivars “Duke” and “Brigitta” to developing internal browning (IB) after mechanical impact and subsequent storage was evaluated during a 2-year study (2011/2012, 2012/2013). On each season fruit were carefully hand-picked, segregated into soft (<1.60 N), medium (1.61–1.80 N), and firm (1.81–2.00 N) categories, and then either were dropped (32 cm) onto a hard plastic surface or remained non-dropped. All fruit were kept under refrigerated storage (0°C and 85–88% relative humidity) to assess firmness loss and IB after 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. In general, regardless of cultivar or season, high variability in fruit firmness was observed within each commercial harvest, and significant differences in IB and softening rates were found. “Duke” exhibited high softening rates, as well as high and significant r2 between firmness and IB, but little differences for dropped vs. non-dropped fruit. “Brigitta,” having lesser firmness rates, exhibited almost no relationships between firmness and IB (especially for non-dropped fruit), but marked differences between dropping treatments. Firmness loss and IB development were related to firmness at harvest, soft and firm fruit being the most and least damaged, respectively. Soft fruit were characterized by greater IB development during storage along with high soluble solids/acid ratio, which could be used together with firmness to estimate harvest date and storage potential of fruit. Results of this work suggest that the differences in fruit quality traits at harvest could be related to the time that fruit stay on the plant after turning blue, soft fruit being more advanced in maturity. Finally, the observed differences between segregated categories reinforce the importance of analyzing fruit condition for each sorted group separately. PMID:28443123

  7. Pharmacopeial HPLC identification methods are not sufficient to detect adulterations in commercial bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) extracts. Anthocyanin profile provides additional clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraghavan, Suresh

    2014-12-01

    Current pharmacopeias provide HPLC anthocyanin profiles to identify commercial bilberry extracts. However, the pharmacopeial identification protocols may not be sufficient enough to distinguish genuine bilberry extracts from adulterated material. This is primarily due to the non-inclusion of literature-reported anthocyanin profile and compositional variations in bilberry when sourced from different geographical regions. Using anthocyanin profiles of both authentic bilberry extracts and literature reports, we attempted to provide appropriate identification protocol for genuine bilberry extracts. We compared HPLC anthocyanin profiles of selected 'suspected' adulterant species and adulterant-spiked bilberry extracts to decipher clues to infer adulteration. The clues include appearance of new anthocyanin peaks and changes in compositional ratios of anthocyanins. In addition, we attempted to provide likely adulterants based on 'economic motivation' and market place information and appropriate clues to identify them in adulterated commercial bilberry extracts.

  8. El efecto de auxinas sobre el enraizamiento de las estacas de agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz en diferentes sustratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrillón Juan Carlos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El agraz es una baya de la familia la Ericaceae que crece de forma espontánea en la zona alto andina de Colombia y presenta un alto potencial de exportación, aunque es difícil su propagación por medio de estacas. El presente trabajo tuvo el objetivo de caracterizar viabilidad y potencial de enraizamiento de estacas de agraz en dos diferentes sustratos bajo invernadero utilizando auxinas AIB (ácido indolbutírico, ANA (ácido naftalenacético y AIA (ácido indolacético en diferentes concentraciones. El estudio se dividió en dos fases, la primera tenía el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de tres auxinas AIA, AIB y ANA en diferentes concentraciones (1, 10, 20 mg·L-1 de ANA, 50, 200 y 500 mg·L-1 de ANA y AIB, sobre la viabilidad y enraizamiento de agraz en dos sustratos (suelo + turba en relación 1:1 y turba. La segunda fase tenía como objetivo evaluar AIB en distintas concentraciones (0, 50, 100, 500, 1.000 y 2.000 mg·L-1, sobre un solo sustrato (escoria + suelo en relación 1:1, para analizar el potencial de enraizamiento de la especie. Los resultados de investigación mostraron que los tratamientos con AIB y AIA aumentan la viabilidad de las estacas de agraz. Las estacas jóvenes de agraz demuestran actividad rizogénica y el uso de hormonas es viable para inducir el desarrollo de las raíces adventicias en esta especie. Los resultados sugieren que el mejor tratamiento para enraizar las estacas fue AIB 200 mg·L-1 aplicado a la base de las estacas mezclado con talco, el porcentaje de enraizamiento del tratamiento después de dos meses de aplicación fue 18,7% y, a su vez, presentó el mayor número de raíces por planta, con un promedio de 3,3.

  9. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract treatment improves triglyceridemia, liver cholesterol, liver steatosis, oxidative damage and corticosteronemia in rats rendered obese by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Thamara C; Moura, Egberto G; de Oliveira, Elaine; Soares, Patrícia N; Guarda, Deysla S; Bernardino, Dayse N; Ai, Xu Xue; Rodrigues, Vanessa da S T; de Souza, Gabriela Rodrigues; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Figueiredo, Mariana S; Manhães, Alex C; Lisboa, Patrícia C

    2017-05-13

    Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. We hypothesize that cranberry extract (CE) can improve this dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in rats since it has an important antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of CE in food intake, adiposity, biochemical and hormonal parameters, lipogenic and adipogenic factors, hepatic morphology and oxidative balance in a HFD model. At postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44.5% (35.2% from lard) energy from fat. At PN150, 12 animals from SD and HFD groups were killed while the others were subdivided into four groups (n = 12/group): animals that received 200 mg/kg cranberry extract (SD CE, HFD CE) gavage/daily/30 days or water (SD, HFD). At PN180, animals were killed. HFD group showed higher body mass and visceral fat, hypercorticosteronemia, higher liver glucocorticoid sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride contents and microsteatosis. Also, HFD group had higher lipid peroxidation (plasma and tissues) and higher protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) compared to SD group. HFD CE group showed lower body mass gain, hypotrygliceridemia, hypocorticosteronemia, and lower hepatic cholesterol and fatty acid synthase contents. HFD CE group displayed lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) and accumulation of liver fat compared to HFD group. Although adiposity was not completely reversed, cranberry extract improved the metabolic profile and reduced oxidative damage and steatosis in HFD-fed rats, which suggests that it can help manage obesity-related disorders.

  10. Identification of aluminum-regulated genes by cDNA-AFLP analysis of roots in two contrasting genotypes of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Aquea, Felipe; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Al(3+)-stress in blueberry, a cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis was employed to identify Al-regulated genes in roots of contrasting genotypes of highbush blueberry (Brigitta, Al(3+)-resistant and Bluegold, Al(3+)-sensitive). Plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with 0 and 100 μM Al(3+) and collected at different times over 48 h. Seventy transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified as being Al(3+) responsive, 31 of which showed significant homology to genes with known or putative functions. Twelve TDFs were homologous to uncharacterized genes and 27 did not have significant matches. The expression pattern of several of the genes with known functions in other species was confirmed by quantitative relative real-time RT-PCR. Twelve genes of known or putative function were related to cellular metabolism, nine associated to stress responses and other transcription and transport facilitation processes. Genes involved in signal transduction, photosynthetic and energy processes were also identified, suggesting that a multitude of processes are implicated in the Al(3+)-stress response as reported previously for other species. The Al(3+)-stress response genes identified in this study could be involved in Al(3+)-resistance in woody plants.

  11. Recovery of anthocyanins from residues of Rubus fruticosus, Vaccinium myrtillus and Eugenia brasiliensis by ultrasound assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Paula Da Fonseca; Pereira, Ana Luiza Duarte; Barbero, Gerardo Fernández; Martínez, Julian

    2017-09-15

    This work investigated the extraction efficiency of polyphenols (anthocyanins) from blackberry, blueberry and grumixama residues using combined ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (UAE+PLE). The performance of UAE+PLE was compared to those achieved by the isolated PLE and UAE methods and conventional Soxhlet extraction. The effects of the extraction methods and solvents (acidified water pH 2.0, ethanol+water 50% v/v and ethanol+water 70% ethanol v/v) on total phenolics content, anthocyanin composition and antioxidant capacity of extracts were investigated by a full factorial design. The extraction efficiency for total phenolics and antioxidant capacity in decreasing order was: UAE+PLE>PLE≈Soxhlet>UAE, and for anthocyanins it was: Soxhlet≈UAE>UAE+PLE>PLE, using hydroethanolic mixtures as solvents. Extractions with acidified water and ultrasound were not effective to recover phenolics. Two, four and fourteen anthocyanins were identified in the extracts from grumixama, blackberry and blueberry, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Low Temperature Enzyme Maceration Techniques on Volatile Compounds of Semi-dry Wine Made with cv. Premier of Rabbiteye Blueberries (Vaccinium ashei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A low temperature enzyme maceration treatment was conducted during fermentation process of semi-dry cv. Premier blueberry wine. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maceration conditions on the wine aroma. As a pre-treatment, blueberry must was divided into 6 samples which were respectively treated by pectinase with 6 different maceration conditions at 6°C 1day, 6°C 2 days, 6°C 3 days, 16°C 1 day, 16°C 2 days and 16°C 3 days. After that wines were obtained by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Volatile compounds of wines were analyzed by GC-MS. Overall, the typical aroma compounds of semi-dry cv. Premier wines were constituted by three groups of organic compounds including esters, alcohols and fatty acids. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl decanoate, 2-phenethanol and 3-methylbutanoic acid, which occupied 60% of the typical volatile aromatic compounds, all had higher Odor Activity Values (OAVs in 6°C 3 days than other conditions. Maceration temperature and time had a significant effect on concentration and varieties of wines aroma substances. The results presented will help to better understand the aroma winemaking potential of this variety.

  13. Nutritional profile and productivity of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) in different habitats of a protected area of the eastern Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisabetta, Barizza; Flavia, Guzzo; Paolo, Fanton; Giorgio, Lucchini; Attilio, Sacchi G; Fiorella, Lo Schiavo; Juri, Nascimbene

    2013-05-01

    Plant productivity and fruit quality in terms of occurrence of mineral elements and metabolites were determined on wild bilberry growing in open and forest stands in a protected area of N-Italy. Plant productivity was significantly higher in open stands (3 ± 2.5 compared with 0.03 ± 0.05 fruits per plant) suggesting that both collections in the wild and semi-wild cultivation should be planned in open habitats. Results obtained by ionomic and metabolomic analyses indicated that high quality fruits can be collected in the analyzed area and their nutritional profile did not differ between open and forest stands. Cyanidin and delphinidin proportion of bilberries from our study area was respectively 23.8% and 43.9% of total antocyanin and it is similar to that previously considered peculiar to bilberry fruits of high latitude regions of Europe and indicative of high quality food properties. A comparison between wild bilberry collected in the protected area and commercial blueberry was also performed and relevant differences between them detected, confirming the concept that wild bilberry has a better nutritional profile than blueberry.

  14. Soil Nutrient Availability, Plant Nutrient Uptake, and Wild Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Yield in Response to N-Viro Biosolids and Irrigation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitazaz A. Farooque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the impact of surface broadcasted N-Viro biosolids and inorganic fertilizer (16.5% Ammonium sulphate, 34.5% Diammonium phosphate, 4.5% Potash, and 44.5% s and/or clay filler applications on soil properties and nutrients, leaf nutrient concentration, and the fruit yield of lowbush blueberry under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions during 2008-2009 at Debert, NS, Canada. Application rates of N-Viro biosolids were more than double of inorganic fertilizer applied at a recommended N rate of 32 kg ha−1. The experimental treatments NI: N-Viro with irrigation, FI: inorganic fertilizer with irrigation, N: N-Viro without irrigation, and F: inorganic fertilizer without irrigation (control were replicated four times under a randomized complete block design. The NI treatment had the highest OM (6.68% followed by FI (6.32%, N (6.18%, and F (4.43% treatments during the year 2008. Similar trends were observed during 2009 with the highest soil OM values (5.50% for NI treatment. Supplemental irrigation resulted in a 21% increase in the ripe fruit yield. Nonsignificant effect of fertilizer treatments on most of the nutrient concentrations in soil and plant leaves, and on ripe fruits yield reflects that the performance of N-Viro was comparable with that of the inorganic fertilizer used in this study.

  15. Atividade antibacteriana e efeito interativo in vitro de um produto a base de cranberry sobre Escherichia coli

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raïssa Mayer Ramalho Catão; Luanne Eugênia Nunes; Anna Paula Porto Viana; Wilma Raianny Vieira da Rocha; Ana Cláudia Dantas de Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    ... substâncias com atividades antimicrobianas, principalmente, em decorrência do aumento da resistência bacteriana aos antimicrobianos, Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton, conhecido como cranberry, é...

  16. Determination of Indicators of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    ARARB Aronia arbutifolia QUMA Quercus margaretta ASHE Fraxinus pennsylvanica QUPO Quercus stellata AZAL Rhododendron sp. QUSE Quercus sp BLBE...Quercus incana UNTR Unknown tree OPUN Opuntia sp. UT1 Unknown tree 1 OXAR Oxydendrum arboreum VAAR Vaccinium arborum PAPA Asimina parviflora VAC2... arboreum vaar 0.8 10 1.2 11 2.1 10 2.8 18 Vaccinium elliottii vael 0.1 3 0.3 5 0.2 2 0.2 6 Vaccinium myrsinites vamy 0 0 0.3 1 0.8 7 0.6 3 Vaccinium

  17. Influence of domestic processing and storage on flavonol contents in berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, S H; Kärenlampi, S O; Mykkänen, H M; Törrönen, A R

    2000-07-01

    Effects of domestic processing and storage on the flavonols quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol in five berries were studied using an optimized RP-HPLC method with UV and diode array detection after an acid hydrolysis of the corresponding glycosides. In fresh berries, the total content of flavonols was highest in lingonberry (169 mg/kg) and black currant (157 mg/kg), intermediate in bilberry (41 mg/kg) and strawberry (17 mg/kg), and lowest in red raspberry (9.5 mg/kg). Cooking strawberries with sugar to make jam resulted in minor losses (quercetin 15%, kaempferol 18%). During cooking of bilberries with water and sugar to make soup, 40% of quercetin was lost. Traditional preservation of crushed lingonberries in their own juice caused a considerable (40%) loss of quercetin. Only 15% of quercetin and 30% of myricetin present in unprocessed berries were retained in juices made by common domestic methods (steam-extracted black currant juice, unpasteurized lingonberry juice). Cold-pressing was superior to steam-extraction in extracting flavonols from black currants. During 9 months of storage at 20 C, quercetin content decreased markedly (40%) in bilberries and lingonberries, but not in black currants or red raspberries. Myricetin and kaempferol were more susceptible than quercetin to losses during storage.

  18. 78 FR 25396 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ....2 ppm to fruit, pome, group 11- 10 at 0.2 ppm; cranberry, grape, juneberry, kiwifruit, lingonberry... and existing commodities. iii. Cancer. Based on the data summarized in Unit III.A., EPA has concluded that glyphosate does not pose a cancer risk to humans. Therefore, a dietary exposure assessment for the...

  19. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.40 Horse, meat 0.15 Horse, meat byproducts 6.0 Juneberry 0.10 Lingonberry 0.10 Milk 0.15 Nut, tree... Sheep, fat 0.40 Sheep, meat 0.15 Sheep, meat byproducts 6.0 Soybean 2.0 Soybean, hulls 5.0 (b)...

  20. The Breeding and Cultivation Techniques of Good Varieties "Amethyst" of Vaccinium Uliginosum%笃斯越橘优良品种“紫水晶”的选育与栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁海龙; 王福德; 王鑫; 田新华; 王峰; 石德山

    2015-01-01

    利用乡土种质资源选育的笃斯越橘优良品种“紫水晶”,于2014年通过黑龙汪省国有林区林木良种审定.其树高0.5~0.8 m,高生长20 cm/a;结实量1 200 kg/hm2,产量超过天然林对照166%;树体高大,根系发达,适应性强,适合露地栽培;与北美同类品种相比,在抗旱、抗寒方面具有显著优势.该品种适应大田栽培和林下栽培2种模式,大田栽培最大栽植密度为40 000株/hm2.

  1. Changes in Microstructure and Physiological-Biochemical Characteristics of Hyperhydric Shoots of Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) in Vitro%蓝莓玻璃化试管苗的显微结构及生理生化特性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕敏; 夏秀英; 徐品三; 李波; 郭照东

    2014-01-01

    研究了蓝莓试管苗玻璃化的显微结构、超微结构以及生理生化特性的影响。与正常试管苗相比,蓝莓玻璃化苗的茎、叶显微结构发生了明显的改变:叶片表皮细胞松散、不连续;气孔结构难以辨认;叶片增厚;缺少栅栏组织,海绵组织细胞间隙变大,部分细胞解体;茎的维管组织发育不良;亚显微结构观察发现,玻璃化苗叶肉细胞体积增大,细胞壁变薄;部分细胞缺少细胞核及线粒体;叶绿体数目减少,类囊体解体,缺乏淀粉体。玻璃化试管苗的生理生化特性也发生了显著的改变:玻璃化苗组织含水量显著增加;叶绿素、可溶性糖及可溶性蛋白含量显著降低; O2·ˉ产生速率、H2O2积累量、MDA含量及相对电导率显著升高;活性氧清除酶系中POD活性显著升高, SOD和CAT活性显著降低;PAL活性下降。蓝莓玻璃化苗的形态结构异常,水分及物质代谢紊乱,活性氧清除能力降低,表明玻璃化与氧化胁迫相关。%This research was performed to investigate the effects of hyperhydricity on morphology, subcellular ultrastructure and physiology of leaves during micro-propagation of blueberry plants. The results showed that compared with healthy leaves, hyperhydric leaves showed abnormal microstructure. The development of the epidermis was often discontinuous and the intercellular space was large. Stomata were dififcult to identify. The leaf lamina appeared thickened and was characterized by the absence of palisade mesophyll tissue and the mal-formation of spongy mesophyll tissue. Vascular tissue of stem developed poorly. On the aspect of ultrastructure, the size of mesophyll cell and the thickness of cell wall increased, the nucleus and mitochondria were missed in some mesophyll cells in the hyperhydric leaves. Hyperhydric leaves had a signiifcantly lower chloroplast num-ber per cell and chloroplasts showed collapsed thylakoid stacking compared with healthy leaves. Hyperhydrici-ty resulted in a dramatic change about physiological and biochemical characteristics of leaves, such as a general increase of water content and decreases in the contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar and protein. The produc-tion efifciency of O2·ˉ, the level of H2O2, MDA and the relative conductivity in hyperhydric leaves were in-creased efifciently. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were lower while superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher in hyperhydric leaves than in healthy leaves. The activi-ties of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) in hyperhydric leaves reduced. These results relfected an abnormal in morphology, a disorder in metabolic activity and a reduction in the ability of reactive oxygen removing, indi-cating that hyperhydricity was associated with oxidative stress.

  2. 蓝莓叶多酚与蓝莓果渣多酚提取物抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidant activity of polyphenolics extracted from the leaves and pomace of Rabbiteye blueberry(Vaccinium ashei reade)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春阳; 冯进

    2013-01-01

    通过7种方法比较了蓝莓叶多酚(Blueberry leaves polyphenols,BBLP)提取物、蓝莓果渣多酚(Blueberry pomace polyphenols,BBPP)提取物以及对照品Rutin的抗氧化活性.在ABTS+清除能力、还原力、亚硝酸盐清除能力、FRAP值、ORAC值方面,BBLP与BBPP均高于Rutin或者与其相当.而三种样品DPPH·清除能力顺序为BBLP> Rutin>BBPP,·OH清除能力顺序为Rutin> BBLP> BBPP.除亚硝酸盐清除能力和ORAC值与BBPP相当、·OH清除能力弱于BBPP外,BBLP在其余4种方法中表现出的抗氧化活性均强于BBPP.结果表明,BBLP与BBPP具有较强的抗氧化作用,可用于开发天然抗氧化剂.%7 methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Blueberry Leaves Polyphenols( BBLP)extract, Blueberry Pomace Polyphenols(BBPP)extracts and Rutin.The ABTS+ scavenging activity,reducing power,nitrite scavenging activity,FRAP value,ORAC value of BBLP and BBPP extracts were higher than or equal with that of Rutin.However,the DPPH · scavenging acticity decreased in the order of BBLP > Rutin > BBPP, and the · OH activity scavenging activity decreased in the order of Rutin > BBLP > BBPP. The nitrite scavenging activity and ORAC value of BBLP was equal with that of BBPP, and the · OH scavenging activity of BBLP was weaker than that of BBPP. But BBLP exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than BBPP significantly (p < 0.05) using other four methods.Results showed that both BBLP and BBPP possessed strong antioxidant activity,which could be used to develop natural antioxidants.

  3. Preliminary Study and Antioxidant Capacity of Polyphenol Extracts from Leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb%乌饭叶多酚提取物抗氧化能力初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余清

    2012-01-01

    通过对乌饭叶多酚粗提物清除DPPH自由基能力与还原力的测定,初步研究乌饭叶多酚的抗氧化能力.结果表明,乌饭叶多酚粗提取物具有一定的清除自由基能力与还原力,但是清除自由基的能力略低于VE,还原力较Vc弱.

  4. Comportamiento de la germinación y categorización de la latencia en semillas de mortiño (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández P. María Isabel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se categorizaron la germinación y latencia de semillas de mortiño y se desarrolló un protocolo de remoción de esta última, aspectos que son básicos para procesos de conservación, siembra y fitomejoramiento de la especie. No se detectó latencia exógena, con imbibición de agua, por parte de las semillas en un sustrato húmedo. Las simientes exhibieron una respuesta fotoblástica positiva a la luz. Se determinó, mediante la aplicación de tetrazolio, que 15,8% de las semillas eran no viables, con 63,0% de semillas con germinación y 21,2% viables latentes. La germinación y remoción de la latencia fueron significativamente superiores a 20°C que a 25°C. La latencia de la semilla fue eliminada, casi por completo, bajo un régimen de luz blanca constante, a 20°C, con aplicación de GA3 en concentraciones de 500, 1.000 y 2.000 mg L-1. El bloqueo de la germinación se clasifcó como latencia fsiológica no profunda.

  5. Folin-Ciocalteu比色法测定乌饭树叶中多酚含量%Determination of Polyphenols Content in Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb Leaves by Folin-Ciocalteu Colorimetric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞娇

    2016-01-01

    以没食子酸为标准品,采用Folin-Ciocalteu比色法测定乌饭树叶中的多酚含量.结果表明,没食子酸质量浓度在0~0.10 mg/mL范围内与其吸光度呈良好的线性关系,回归方程为y=9.755 7x+0.003 4,R=0.999 3,测定方法的平均回收率为102.85%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为1.03%.该方法精密度高,重复性及稳定性好,可用于乌饭树叶中多酚含量的测定.按照本方法测定乌饭树叶中多酚的平均含量为79.47 mg/g(RSD =1.13%).

  6. Manna in winter: indigenous Americans, huckleberries, and blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 35 species of blueberries (Vaccinium L.) and huckleberries (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia Kunth.) are indigenous to North America. The indigenous North American peoples, wise in the ways of survival, recognized the quality of these edible fruits and revered these plants. Beyond food needs, the...

  7. Desiccation Tolerance and Cryopreservation of In-Vitro Grown Blueberry and Cranberry Shoot Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-vitro grown shoot tips of two cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) cultivars, Wilcox (PI 614079) and Franklin (PI 554998) and three blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivars, Berkeley (PI 554883), O’Neal (PI 554944) and Brigitta (PI 618166) from the tissue culture collections of the USDA-ARS Nation...

  8. 40 CFR 180.495 - Spinosad; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., seed screenings 2.0 Almond, hulls 19 Amaranth, grain, grain 1.0 Amaranth, grain, stover 10 Animal feed, nongrass, group, 18 0.02 Animal feed, nongrass, group, 18, forage 35.0 Animal feed, nongrass, group, 18... Juneberry 0.25 Lingonberry 0.250 Longan 0.3 Lychee 0.3 Mango 0.3 Milk 7.0 Milk, fat 85 Nut, tree, group 14...

  9. 40 CFR 180.516 - Fludioxonil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., gin byproducts 0.05 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.05 Flax, seed 0.05 Fruit, citrus, group 10 10 Fruit... subgroup 4A, except spinach 30 Lingonberry 2.0 Longan 1.0 Lychee 1.0 Mango 0.45 Melon subgroup 9A 0.03....0 Pulasan 1.0 Rambutan 1.0 Rapeseed, forage 0.01 Rapeseed, seed 0.01 Safflower, seed 0.01 Salal...

  10. Nonstructural carbohydrates and return bloom potential differ among cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    explain low fruit set and biennial bearing tendencies of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Yet, comparisons of nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations during critical phenological stages across cultivars that differ in biennial bearing tendencies and return bloom potential are lacking, particular...

  11. Archaeological Investigations in the Upper Tombigbee Valley, Mississippi: Phase I. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    badstraw (Gal ium) blackberries (Rubus) black walnut (Jaglans nigra ) blueberry (Vaccinium-) bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) butternut (Juglans...americana) post oad (Quercus stel lata) pine (Pinus) purselane (Portulaca oleracea) ragweed (Ambrosia) red mulberries ( Morus rubra) sassafras (Sassafras

  12. Botryosphaeria Stem Blight of Southern Blueberries: Cultivar Susceptibility and Effect of Chemical Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botryosphaeria stem blight, caused by the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea, is a destructive disease of rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei) and highbush (V. corymbosum) blueberries in the southeastern United States. The susceptibility of 21 southern highbush and seven rabbiteye blueberry cultivars was compar...

  13. Environ: E00804 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onoid [CPD:C01579], Pectin [CPD:C00714] Vaccinium myrtillus [TAX:180763] Ericaceae (heath family) Bilberry f...ruit Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: asterids Ericaceae (heath family) E00804 Bilberry ...

  14. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Berry Fruits in Mice Model of Inflammation is Based on Oxidative Stress Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nardi,Geisson Marcos; Farias Januario, Adriana Graziele; Freire, Cassio Geremia; Megiolaro, Fernanda; Schneider, Kétlin; Perazzoli, Marlene Raimunda Andreola; Do Nascimento, Scheley Raap; Gon, Ana Cristina; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Wagner, Glauber; Niero, Rivaldo; Locatelli, Claudriana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many fruits have been used as nutraceuticals because the presence of bioactive molecules that play biological activities. Objective: The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of methanolic extracts of Lycium barbarum (GOJI), Vaccinium macrocarpon (CRAN) and Vaccinium myrtillus (BLUE). Materials and Methods: Mices were treated with extracts (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day through 10 days. Phytochemical analysis was performed by hi...

  15. Differential iridoid production as revealed by a diversity panel of 84 cultivated and wild blueberry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Kamileen, Mohamed O; Conway, Megan E; O'Connor, Sarah E; Buell, C Robin

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium darrowii, and Vaccinium virgatum) is an economically important fruit crop native to North America and a member of the Ericaceae family. Several species in the Ericaceae family including cranberry, lignonberry, bilberry, and neotropical blueberry species have been shown to produce iridoids, a class of pharmacologically important compounds present in over 15 plant families demonstrated to have a wide range of biological activities in humans including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory. While the antioxidant capacity of cultivated blueberry has been well studied, surveys of iridoid production in blueberry have been restricted to fruit of a very limited number of accessions of V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium and V. virgatum; none of these analyses have detected iridoids. To provide a broader survey of iridoid biosynthesis in cultivated blueberry, we constructed a panel of 84 accessions representing a wide range of cultivated market classes, as well as wild blueberry species, and surveyed these for the presence of iridoids. We identified the iridoid glycoside monotropein in fruits and leaves of all 13 wild Vaccinium species, yet only five of the 71 cultivars. Monotropein positive cultivars all had recent introgressions from wild species, suggesting that iridoid production can be targeted through breeding efforts that incorporate wild germplasm. A series of diverse developmental tissues was also surveyed in the diversity panel, demonstrating a wide range in iridoid content across tissues. Taken together, this data provides the foundation to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of iridoid production in blueberry.

  16. Mycorrhizal colonisation of highbush blueberry and its native relatives in central Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KASURINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmission electromicroscopy, trypan blue staining in combination with stereomicroscope analysis and biochemical ergosterol assay were used to study the mycorrhizal symbionts in wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus, bog whortleberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum roots. TEM-analysis showed that in all species ericoid mycorrhizas formed hyphae coil inside the epidermal root cells. In stereomicroscopic viewing the highest mycorrhizal colonisation was observed in the roots of wild bilberries (51%, whereas according to the ergosterol assay the highest total fungal biomass of roots was found in bog whortleberries (209 mg g-1 of root d. wt. Both ergosterol and microscopical method showed that the mycorrhizal associations in blueberry cultivars and their wild relatives growing on natural soil medium are frequent, although ericoid mycorrhiza formation of highbush blueberries was somewhat weaker than that of wild bilberries and bog whortleberries.

  17. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  18. USE OF EST-PCR MARKERS TO ANSWER THE QUESTION: DOES GENETIC RELATIONSHIP MATTER IN CROSSES BETWEEN LOWBUSH BLUEBERRY CLONES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) is a tetraploid hybrid (2n = 4x = 48) and is an economically important fruit crop of the northeast regions of North America. It is cultivated from wild stands and requires bees for pollination. The overall variation among individuals is very high wi...

  19. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  20. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  1. Discrimination of American cranberry cultivars and assessment of clonal heterogeneity using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) are an economically important fruit crop derived from a North American native species. We report the application of 12 simple sequence repeats (SSR) or microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity of cranberry cultivars. We studied 164 samples of 21...

  2. Dicty_cDB: SFJ540 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ato pollen Lycopersicon pennellii cDNA clonecLPP11A1 5' sequence, mRNA sequence. 66 8e-10 2 CF811515 |CF811515.1 NA716 cDNA non accli...mated Bluecrop library Vaccinium corymbosum cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 68 2e-08 2 AF35

  3. Dicty_cDB: CFB889 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available llii cDNA clone cLPP11A1 5' sequence, mRNA sequence. 66 9e-10 2 CF811515 |CF811515.2 NA716 cDNA non acclim...ated Bluecrop library Vaccinium corymbosum cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 70 7e-09 2 AF352

  4. Dicty_cDB: SHE451 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available evipalpis DNA, complete genome. 34 0.015 17 CV091260 |CV091260.1 NA1759 cDNA non acclimated Bluecrop library... Vaccinium corymbosum cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 46 0.036 2 CV091166 |CV091166.1 NA1661 cDNA non acclimated Blu

  5. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  6. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  7. Association of Xylella fastidiosa with Yield Loss and Altered Fruit Quality in a Naturally Infected Rabbiteye Blueberry Orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a number of plants in the southeastern United States, including southern highbush blueberry, but little was known concerning its potential impact in rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum). In a naturally infected orchard in Louisiana, mean yields of X. fastidi...

  8. Toxicity of chelated iron (Fe-DTPA) in American cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is naturally adapted to environments with high concentrations of soluble iron. Yet, there is a need to further explore iron nutrition in cranberry given concerns of toxicity problems from irrigation with iron-rich water. This study investigated the threat o...

  9. "Pearl" southern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  10. Susceptibility of highbush blueberry cultivars to Phytophthora root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  11. Minimal Microsatellite Marker Panel for Fingerprinting Blueberry Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are now cultivated in countries far from their origin in North America. In Chile, they were introduced about two decades ago, and have become the number one exported berry. Accelerated multiplication of plants by local nurseries was needed to cope with the increasing dem...

  12. 'Pearl' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  13. Potential new rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberry cultivars for the Southeastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of new small fruit germplasm and cultivars, in particular blueberries, has been among the major objectives of the USDA ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory since the early 1970’s. Three elite blueberry strains including two rabbiteye (Vaccinium asheii) and one southern hig...

  14. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  15. Construction of a SNP and SSR linkage map in autotetraploid blueberry using genotyping by sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mapping population developed from a cross between two key highbush blueberry cultivars, Draper × Jewel (Vaccinium corymbosum), segregating for a number of important phenotypic traits, has been utilized to produce a genetic linkage map. Data on 233 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 1794 sing...

  16. Dicty_cDB: SHF403 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E12 Sugar Beet inflorescence cDNA library (subtracted) Betasequence. 56 0.001 1 CV190095 |CV190095.1 vco01-3...ms1-h11 Vco01 Vaccinium corymbosum cDNA clone vco01-3ms1-h11 5', mRNA sequence. 5

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHQ364 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L04 Switchgrass callus cDNA library Panicum virgatum cDNA clone 5236_F02_L04 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.37 1 CV190124 |CV190124.1 vco...01-2ms3-a02 Vco01 Vaccinium corymbosum cDNA clone vco01-2ms

  18. Development of educational tools to connect public audiences with cranberry researchers and growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., is a native fruit crop of North America and a member of the Ericaceae family. The delicious tangy cranberry is associated with health benefits due to its abundant phytochemicals, including vitamin C, manganese, and anti-oxidants. Cranberries are major cash crop...

  19. Environ: E00775 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :C00072] [DR:D00018] Vaccinium macrocarpon [TAX:13750] Ericaceae (heath family) Cranberry fruit Major compon...ent: Ascorbate [CPD:C00072] [DR:D00018] Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: asterids Ericaceae (heath family) E00775 Cranberry ...

  20. Managed bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) caged with blueberry bushes at high density did not increase fruit set or fruit weight compared to open pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Campbell; J. O' Brien; J. H. Irvin; C. B. Kimmel; J. C. Daniels; J. D. Ellis

    2017-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of...

  1. Disruption the Outer Membrane of Enteropathogenic and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli using Proanthocyanidins

    Science.gov (United States)

    American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins (PACs) have been reported as a natural antibacterial agent to suppress the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins on destabilizing the outer...

  2. Fighting phytophthora in blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  3. Effect of trap color and height on captures of blunt-nosed and sharp-nosed leafhoppers (hemiptera: cicadellidae) and non-target arthropods in cranberry bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of field experiments were conducted in cranberry bogs in 2006-2010 to determine adult attraction of the two most economically important leafhopper pests of cultivated Vaccinium spp. in the northeast USA, the blunt-nosed leafhopper, Limotettix vaccinii, and sharp-nosed leafhopper, Scaphytopi...

  4. The American cranberry mitochondrial genome reveals the presence of selenocysteine (tRNA-Sec and SECIS) insertion machinery in land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) mitochondrial genome was assembled and reconstructed from whole genome 454 Roche GS-FLX and Illumina shotgun sequences. Compared with other Asterids, the reconstruction of the genome revealed an average size mitochondrion (459,678 nt) with comparat...

  5. Huckleberry abundance, stand conditions, and use in western Oregon: evaluating the role of forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K Kerns; Susan J. Alexander; John D. Bailey

    2004-01-01

    Huckleberries are major components of the understory vegetation in coniferous Pacific Northwest forests of the United States. Vaccinium species also have a long history of human use. However, little research has been done to ascertain how they respond to common forest management practices. We used data obtained from old-growth, young thinned, and...

  6. Restoration ecology: aiding and abetting secondary succession on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Vander Kloet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using vegetative clumps derived from seeds with a variety of origins to establish nuclei for regeneration of bog vegetation on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (Canada was tested using seeds within scats (excrement and seeds from berries, various techniques for creating clumps, and different clump sizes. Direct placement of scat pieces on peat in the field did not produce successful colonisation. Vegetative clumps begun in a greenhouse, whether from seeds extracted from scats or berries, were 60–100 % successful when transplanted into abandoned peat mines depending on the initial size of the transplant. Based on annual growth rate, Vaccinium oxycoccos has the greatest capacity to quickly colonise abandoned peat mines. Other promising taxa were Vaccinium vitis-ideae and the genus Empetrum.

  7. Oviposition efficacy of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on different cultivars of blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hirotoshi; Kunimi, Yasuhisa; Ban, Takuya; Nakai, Madoka

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an important pest of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, and cherry. Blueberry was introduced into Japan in the 1950s, and severe economic losses attributable to D. suzukii were first reported in 2002. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether oviposition behavior varies among blueberry cultivars having different firmness of fruit. Fruit firmness in 12 cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) was determined using a rheometer. More eggs tended to be laid in berries of cultivars possessing softer fruits than in those having firmer fruits. Choice tests, where one female was allowed to oviposit on blueberry fruits with different firmness, showed that softer fruits were more vulnerable to D. suzukii females than firmer fruits.

  8. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet

    2016-06-15

    Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries.

  9. Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1. Proposed High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Picea mariana Bog blueberry Vaccinium Labrador tea Ledwn groenlandicum Sedges Cyperaceae Sphagnum moss Sphagnum sp. Tamarack Larix laricina White...of 25 to 60%. A wet herbaceous vegetation association occurs in wet areas with grasses and sedges and is analogous to Cowardin et al.’s (1979...wetlands dominated by sedges and rushes. Minimal amounts of palustrine aquatic bed are present. Forested wetlands (equivalent to palustrine forested

  10. Archaeological Salvage Excavations at the Tibbee Creek Site (22Lo600) Lowndes County, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    white oak (Quercus alba), swamp chestnut oak ( . prinus), willow oak (Q. 2.i]lo), water oak (Q. nigra ), elms (Ulmus sp.), beech (Fagus grandifolia...contain- ing numerous species of oaks and i,.ckories as well as walnut (Juglans nigra ), elm, maple, sweetgum, boxelder (Acer negundo) and cypress. Dense...virginiana), paw paw (Asimina triloba), red mulberry ( Morus rubra), crab apple (Malus angustifolia), huckleberry (Vaccinium vacillans), blackberry (Rubus sp

  11. Untersuchungen zur Beeinflussung der α-Amylase-Aktivität durch Pflanzenextrakte und polyphenolische Reinstoffe unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Einflusses von Cynara cardunculus L. ssp. flavescens Wikl. und seiner Inhaltsstoffe

    OpenAIRE

    Funke, Ines

    2010-01-01

    The creation of a microplate-reader-based kinetic assay led to a rapid screening of plant extracts and pure compounds. Plant extracts were found to be able to inhibit the α-amylase activity. Cynara cardunculus L. ssp. flavescens Wikl., Melissa officinalis L., Pyrus communis L., Vaccinium myrtillus L., Malus domestica Borkh., Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Tamarindus indica L. were found to be active in the used in vitro test model. A performed bioguided extraction showed that the active...

  12. Improved UV-B screening capacity does not prevent negative effects of ambient UV irradiance on PSII performance in High Arctic plants. Results from a six year UV exclusion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term responses of ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum in a High Arctic heath ecosystem in Zackenberg, northeast Greenland. Over a period of six years, UV exclusion was conducted in the growing season by means of filters: 60% UV......, exposing the vegetation to high spring UV-B, and to be present in the future to the degree the ozone layer is not fully recovered....

  13. Dicty_cDB: SHK485 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available end, expressed in cambium and surrounding tissues. 50 0.090 1 CV190095 |CV190095.1 vco01-3ms1-h11 Vco01 Vacc...inium corymbosum cDNA clone vco01-3ms1-h11 5', mRNA sequence. 50 0.090 1 CO978855 |CO978855.1 GM89003A1B05.r

  14. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Diaporthe vaccinii Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to perform a pest categorisation of Diaporthe vaccinii Shear, the fungal agent responsible for twig blight, canker, viscid rot, fruit rot and storage rot of several Vaccinium species. The pest is listed in Annex IIAI of Directive 2000/29EC. D. vaccinii is a single taxonomic entity and methods exist for its discriminative detection. The host is restricted to Vaccinium species, the main cultivated hosts being blueberries and cranberries. Hosts are cultivated throughout Europe, and wild Vaccinium species are common components of forests. Conditions are conducive to disease development in most areas of Europe, but not in all Member States (MSs. The disease is currently present in Latvia with restricted distribution and the pest is under surveillance in The Netherlands. In the one Latvian report, storage losses were observed on cranberry, but these losses were caused by a complex of pathogens, including D. vaccinii, which was isolated with a low incidence. Detection methods are available but cultural and morphological identifications should be confirmed with molecular tools owing to the presence of other Phomopsis species on Vaccinium in Europe. The pathogen can spread via the movement of (asymptomatic infected or contaminated host plants for planting. No information exists on any methods applied for the control of D. vaccinii in the EU. D. vaccinii does not have the potential to be a quarantine pest as it does not fulfil one of the pest categorisation criteria defined in International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures No 11, that of having a severe impact. Data are not sufficient to conclude on pest categorisation of D. vaccinii based on the criteria of the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures No 21 because there is no information about the level of potential consequences as a result of the use of infected host plants for planting.

  15. Plant frequency and distribution on high-lead soil near Leadhills, Lanarkshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxbrow, A.; Moffat, J.

    1979-06-01

    The mean frequency of plants along a transect descending Wanlock Dod, near Leadhills, Lanarkshire, Scotland was determined by quadrat analysis. The results obtained strongly suggested that lead tolerant ecotypes of Agrostis tenuis, Nardus stricta and Potentialla erecta were present above known lead veins. The evidence for Vaccinium myrtillus was less certain. Other species appeared to be affected by soil moisture content, grazing pressure and climatic factors. The areas above known lead veins exhibited a larger diversity of species than the areas between veins.

  16. Myo-Inositol content determined by myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation in blueberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fangyuan; Su, Hongyan; Yang, Nan; Zhu, Luying; Cheng, Jieshan; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Xianhao

    2016-11-01

    Myo-inositol metabolism in plant edible organs has become the focus of many recent studies because of its benefits to human health and unique functions in plant development. In this study, myo-inositol contents were analyzed during the development of two blueberry cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop'. Furthermore, two VcMIPS 1/2 (Vaccinium corymbosum MIPS) genes, one VcIMP (Vaccinium corymbosum IMP) gene and one VcMIOX (Vaccinium corymbosum MIOX) gene were isolated for the first time from blueberry. The expression patterns of VcMIPS2, VcIMP and VcMIOX genes showed a relationship with the change profiles of myo-inositol content during fruit ripening. The results were further confirmed by the analyses of the enzyme activity. Results indicated that both myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation played important roles in determining of myo-inositol levels during the development of blueberry. To our knowledge, this report is the first to discuss myo-inositol levels in fruits in terms of biosynthesis and catabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and plants of the tundra zone under the impact of coal-mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, E. V.; Gabov, D. N.; Beznosikov, V. A.; Kondratenok, B. M.

    2016-11-01

    Thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were identified in organic horizons of tundra surface-gleyed soils ( Histic Stagnosols (Gelistagnic) and plants. The total content of PAHs in contaminated soils exceeded the background values by three times. Concentrations of low-molecular weight hydrocarbons in soils at different distances from the coalmines were relatively stable. Concentrations of highmolecular weight hydrocarbons had a distinct maximum at a distance of about 0.5 km from the source of emission. The increased values of correlation coefficients were found between PAH concentrations in organic soil horizons, plants, and coal of the Vorkutinskaya mine. Mostly low-molecular weight structures predominated in the organic soil horizons and in the studied plant species. The maximum capacity for the biological accumulation of PAHs was displayed by Pleurozium schreberi and the minimum capacity was displayed by Vaccinium myrtillus. Mosses and lichens actively absorbed polyarenes from the surface; most of the PAHs were transported into the plants. This phenomenon was not observed for Vaccinium myrtillus Concentrations of PAHs on the surface and in plant tissues decreased with an increase in the distance from the mine. Distribution of polyarenes in plant organs was nonuniform. Insignificant excess of concentration of polyarenes was found in dead part of Pleurozium schreberi in comparison with its living part. The accumulation of polyarenes in the leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus was higher than that in its stems and roots.

  18. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  19. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark.

  20. Análise química e avaliação das atividades biológicas e comportamentais de extratos de frutas ricas em compostos fenólicos (mirtilo e amora-preta)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rosana Ramirez

    2008-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivos: determinar o teor dos polifenóis: flavonóides e antocianos totais presentes nos extratos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei) e amora preta (Rubus sp) por espectrofotometria; desenvolver e validar uma metodologia analítica para a caracterização dos extratos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE), identificar, isolar e quantificar os principais compostos; avaliar a atividade anticolinesterásica, antioxidante frente à difenilpicrilhidrazol (DPPH) e an...

  1. Registro de Cyclocephala flavipennis Arrow, 1914 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae danificando plantas de mirtileiro no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Inés Diez-Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de Cyclocephala flavipennis Arrow, 1914, são comumente encontradas em cereais de inverno (trigo, cevada, aveia e triticale, milho e soja, no Rio Grande do Sul. Em março de 2012, larvas desta espécie foram detectadas em plantas de mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei Reade, cultivar 'O´Neal', no município de Pelotas, RS. Os insetos alimentaram-se de raízes em áreas restritas do pomar. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência do coró-pequeno, C. flavipennis, em plantas de mirtileiro

  2. Identification of anthocyanins in berries by narrow-bore high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugo, P; Mondello, L; Errante, G; Zappia, G; Dugo, G

    2001-08-01

    Qualitative determination of anthocyanins in extracts of red fruits by narrow-bore HPLC/ESI-MS was carried out. This method was used to investigate anthocyanin contents of black bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), blackberry (Rubus sp.), and mulberry (Morus nigra). An ultraviolet diode array and a mass spectrometer with ESI source were used for detection. Anthocyanin identifications were made by using retention time data and UV-vis and mass spectra and comparing them with those of commercially available standard compounds. The method allowed the identification of fourteen anthocyanins in black bilberry extract, six anthocyanins in blackberry extract, and five anthocyanins in mulberry extract.

  3. Blueberry pollination in southern Brazil and their influence on fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Madruga Telesca da Silveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium ashei is a relatively new crop in cultivation under Southern Brazil conditions. The first collection introduced in the area was formed by rabbiteye cultivars which need insect pollinators and also pollinizers. The aim of this work was to observe if there were differences between pollinizers on fruit quality of the commercial cultivar and also to observe the most effective and frequent insect pollinators, under natural conditions. It was concluded that pollen source has an effect on quality of blueberry fruits. Bumblebees are the most efficient pollinators; however the species found in southern Brazil are different from the ones mentioned in the U.S. literature.

  4. Phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotto, G; Boffa, L; Genzini, L; Garella, D

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate and summarize the available scientific information on the commonest plant extracts marketed in Western countries. In view of the intense, ongoing search for new plant extracts with powerful anti-inflammatory activity, we paid particular attention to this topic. The aim is to provide broad coverage of as many potentially useful plants as possible and then to focus on those with the greatest therapeutic potential. Our bibliographic sources were the SciFinder databases: CAPLUS, MEDLINE, REGISTRY, CASREACT, CHEMLIST, CHEMCATS (update to October 2007). In order to assess the value of clinical trials, we focused a specific search on clinical investigations concerning nine plants with the most trial data, viz., Althaea officinalis, Calendula officinalis, Centella asiatica, Echinacea purpurea, Passiflora incarnata, Punica granatum, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Valeriana officinalis. This was carried out in several databases (update to June 2008): ISI Web of Knowledge(SM) (ISI WoK), SciFinder (CAPLUS, MEDLINE, REGISTRY, CASREACT, CHEMLIST, CHEMCATS) and PubMed (indexed for MEDLINE). Our survey covers roughly a 1000 plants, although clinical trials have been published only for 156 plants supporting specific pharmacological activities and therapeutic applications. However, for about half of the plants, in vitro and in vivo studies provide some support for therapeutic use. For one-fifth of the plants included in our search, only phytochemical studies were found. Their properties and indications were often attributed to the presence of certain compounds, but no evidence concerning the activities of the whole extracts was presented. We found that for about 12% of the plants, currently available on the Western market, no substantial studies on their properties had been published, while there was strong evidence that 1 in 200 were toxic or allergenic, so that their use ought to be discouraged or forbidden. Nine plants had

  5. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  6. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia-Varvara Ferlemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Influence of processing and cooking of carrots in mixed meals on satiety, glucose and hormonal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, K; Asp, N G; Hagander, B; Nyman, M; Schweizer, T

    1995-02-01

    The influence of processing and cooking on the metabolic response to carrots in mixed meals was explored in two consecutive harvest years. The contribution of dietary fibre (4.4 g 1989 and 6.6 g 1990) from carrots was chosen to be different in order to compare effects with varying doses. The meals, composed of carrots, creamed potatoes, meat balls, lingonberry jam, white bread and light beer, were served in the morning after an overnight fast to 10 healthy male volunteers. Carrots were investigated raw, processed (blanched and frozen) and variously cooked (thawed, boiled and microwaved). The amount of dietary fibre from the vegetable, and the content of energy, digestible carbohydrates, fat and protein were similar in the meals compared. Significantly lower glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses and higher satiety scores were elicited with raw carrots than with microwaved ones, harvest year 1989. The next year, with a higher dietary fibre intake from carrots, there were significant effects of processing only on the glucose response. Plasma beta-carotene levels tended to be higher postprandially with raw carrots than with microwaved ones. Hence, ordinary processing and cooking of vegetables can affect the metabolic response to a mixed meal. However, the influence seems to be varying and of minor importance in ordinary meals. Increasing vegetable portions entailing a higher soluble fibre content and a higher viscosity could further reduce the influence of processing.

  8. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-06-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  9. [Medical and biological basis of the recipe of cultured milk products-containing rehydrating beverage for the athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokshanova, A L; Ozhiganova, E V

    2013-01-01

    According to the results of the physic-chemical research the composition of new isotonic rehydrating beverage has been presented and its nutritional and energy value has been calculated. As opposed to other sport drinks of this kind, a part of water in the new product is substituted by whey. From the physic-chemical standpoint whey is a complicated dispersed system in which hydrated proteins are in the form of colloidal solution, lipids are finely emulsified lipoprotein particles, carbohydrate and mineral components are close to the composition in the whole milk. Natural milk whey complex of macro- and trace elements (phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, iodine, zinc, copper, selenium, etc.), most of which are in chelated form, have high biological value and bioavailability for humans. The content of vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids of whey increases the nutritional value of the beverage. Natural sugar syrups--containing of lingonberry, cranberry and rosehip were used to flavor the drink. The new beverage osmolarity is in the limits of 280-350 mmole/l, which allows classifying it as an isotonic sport drink. Natural ingredients and moderate carbohydrate, lipid content, and relatively low energy value enable to recommend this beverage to the athletes of any specialization without any restrictions.

  10. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Essential and non-essential elements in natural vegetation in southern Norway: Contribution from different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordløkken, Marit, E-mail: marit.nordlokken@ntnu.no; Berg, Torunn; Flaten, Trond Peder; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of essential and non-essential elements in five widespread species of natural boreal vegetation were studied with respect to seasonal variation and contribution from different sources. The plant species included in the study were Betula pubescens, Sorbus aucuparia, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum, Calluna vulgaris and Deschampsia flexuosa. Concentrations of elements essential to plants remained essentially constant or decreased slightly throughout the growing season. Concentrations of most non-essential elements increased or tended to increase on a dry mass basis from June to July as well as from July to September. The increasing trend for these elements was observed for all species except C. vulgaris. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the material indicated a common source for many of the non-essential elements; Sc, Ti, V, Ga, As, Y, Sb, lanthanides, Pb, Bi, and U, i.e. both elements presumably of geogenic origin and elements associated with trans-boundary air pollution. Uptake by plant roots appeared to be the main source of nutrient elements as well as some non-essential elements. - Highlights: • Concentrations of elements in different plant species were studied. • Changes in concentrations during a growing season were identified. • PCA indicated a common source for many of the non-essential elements. • Uptake by roots appeared to be the plant’s main source of nutrient elements.

  12. Effects of southern highbush blueberry cultivar and treatment threshold on flower thrips populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E; England, Gary K

    2012-04-01

    In Florida, southern highbush (SHB) blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. x Vaccinium darrowi Camp) are grown for a highly profitable early season fresh market. Flower thrips are the key pest of SHB blueberries, and Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) is the most common species found. Flower thrips injure blueberry flowers by feeding and ovipositing in all developing tissues. These injuries can lead to scarring of developing fruit. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between thrips and yield in different SHB blueberry cultivars and to determine an action threshold. Experiments were conducted during early spring 2007 and 2008 on four farms; a research farm in Citra, FL; and three commercial farms, two in Hernando Co., FL., and one in Lake Co., FL. At the Citra farm, 'Emerald', 'Jewel', 'Millennia', and 'Star' blueberries were compared in 2007, and all but Star were compared in 2008. On the Hernando and Lake Co. farms, two treatment thresholds (100 and 200 thrips per trap) and an untreated control and four cultivars (Emerald, Jewel, Millennia, and 'Windsor') were compared. Emerald consistently had more thrips per trap and per flower than the other cultivars on all four farms. However, this did not always lead to an increase in fruit injury. Thrips numbers exceeded the threshold on only one farm in 2007, and there was a significantly lower proportion of injured and malformed fruit in the 100 thrips per trap threshold treatment compared with the control on this farm.

  13. Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with three types of blueberries in arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J R; Robbins, R T

    1994-12-01

    Research and commercial blueberry plantings were sampled in October 1991 to determine the population densities and species of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei), southern highbush (Vaccinium sp.), and highbusb (V. corymbosum) blueberry cultivars and the sod middles between the blueberry rows. In the research planting at Clarksville, Arkansas, samples from the highbush cv. Bluecrop, the southern highbush cv. Cooper and Gulf Coast, and the sod middles had similar numbers of total vermiform phytoparasitic nematodes (125-451/250 cm(3) soil), whereas the samples from rabbiteye cv. Climax and Tifblue had significantly lower numbers (4/250 cm(3)). The major nematode species associated with blueberries and sod was Xiphinema americanum. In a research planting at Bald Knob, Arkansas, which contained Bluecrop and rabbiteye cultivars only, samples from Bluecrop and the sod had similar numbers (288 and 334/250 cm(3)), and the rabbiteye samples had significantly lower numbers (6-14/250 cm(3)). Xiphinema americanum was the major species found in the blueberry samples, whereas Mesocriconema ornata was the major species in the sod. Nematode population densities and species distribution in commercial rabbiteye plantings in nine counties in central and southwestern Arkansas varied greatly. The average population density for rabbiteye samples was 129/250 cm(3) and for sod was 577/250 cm(3). Weed infestations in the blueberry rows in the commercial plantings probably increased the population size and species distribution.

  14. Red Fruits: Extraction of Antioxidants, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Determination: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gádor-Indra Hidalgo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic. As the amount of data available is overwhelming, only results referring to berries are included, leaving aside other plant parts such as roots, stems, or even buds and flowers. Several researchers have drawn attention to the efficacy of non-conventional extraction methods, accomplishing similar or even better results using these new techniques. Some pilot-scale trials have been performed, corroborating the applicability of green alternative methods to the industrial scale. Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L. emerge as the berries with the highest antioxidant content and capacity. However, several new up and coming berries are gaining attention due to global availability and elevated anthocyanin content.

  15. 贵州植物的新记录种%New Record Species of Plants in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成华; 安明态; 戴晓勇; 罗扬

    2010-01-01

    通过对贵州境内采集的植物标本鉴定和相关文献检索,报道了贵州的10个新记录种,其中1个新记录种为新记录属.它们是勿忘草Myosotis silvatica Ehrh.ex Hoffm.、短小蛇根草Ophiorrhiza pumila Champ.ex Benth.、细叶亚婆潮Hedyotis auricularia L.var.mina W.C.Ko、多刺山黄皮Fagerlindia depauperata(Drake)Tirveng、短梗乌饭Vaccinium brevipedicellatum C.Y.Wu ex Fang et Z.H.Pan、林生越橘Vaccinium sciaphilum C.Y.Wu、变叶树参Dendropanax proteus(Champ.)Benth.、滇赤杨叶Alniphyllum eberhardtii Guill、滇黄堇Corydalis yunnanensis Franch.、矮小山麦冬Liriope minor(Maxim.)Makino,新记录属为勿忘草属.

  16. PLANT COMMUNITIES WITH ARNICA MONTANA IN NATURAL HABITATS FROM THE CENTRAL REGION OF ROMANIAN EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MARDARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arnica montana is a species of European Union interest, whose harvest from the wild and exploitation should be made under certain management measures. In Romania it is a vulnerable species due to excessive collection. It is a species with European areal occuring in pastures, meadows, forest glades, shrubs communities of mountain to the subalpine regions and, isolated, up to the alpine belt. Most of the plant communities with Arnica montana are semi-natural, with a floristic composition in which there are numerous rare or threatened species also supporting the need of their conservation. Our study was focused on a numerical classification (hierarchical, using Flexible ß algorithm and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity based on 48 plots, of the plant communities with Arnica montana from the central region of Romanian Eastern Carpathians and on the investigation of the effect of some environmental variables (Ellenberg indicator values, altitude, heat load index on their floristic composition (100 m2 scale. Vegetation – environment relationship was assessed via detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis with Monte Carlo test. Six plant communities with Arnica montana were identified (communities of Festuca rubra with Agrostis capillaris, Festuca nigrescens, Vaccinium myrtillus, Nardus stricta, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Juniperus sibirica with a floristic composition mainly shaped by altitude, temperature and soil nitrogen content. Details related to location and sites characteristics, diagnostic species, floristic composition, presence of other rare or threatened species and Arnica montana abundance were presented for all these plant communities.

  17. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  18. Natural colourant plant and the use of traditionally by tribe of Marori Men-Gey in Wasur National Park, Merauke Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIUS ETUS HARBELUBUN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to know the plant species which used as a natural colorant and its exploiting traditionally by Tribe of Marori Men-Gey. This Research was executed at area of Wasur National Park in Merauke regency. Method used was descriptive method with the direct observation technique in field. Result of research indicate that the natural colorant plant exploited by tribe of Marori Men-Gey as much 7 species included in 6 family that was Vaccinium sp. (Cacinaceae, Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae, Curcuma domestica Val. (Zingiberaceae, Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae, Ziziplus sp. (Myrtaceae, Gmelina sp. (Verbenaceae and Zyzygium sp (Myrtaceae. Part of plant exploited cover the root, rhizome, bark, rubber, leaf and fruit. From 7 the colorant plant species, 4 species yielding color yellow that was Vaccinium sp., C. domestica, M. citrifolia and M. indica, 2 species yield the riddling that was Ziziplus sp. and Gmelina sp. and also 1 species yielding black color that was Zyzygium sp. Colorant plant exploited by tribe of Marori Men-Gey as traditional equipments colorant, food colorant and body colorant.

  19. Red Fruits: Extraction of Antioxidants, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Determination: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Gádor-Indra; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic. As the amount of data available is overwhelming, only results referring to berries are included, leaving aside other plant parts such as roots, stems, or even buds and flowers. Several researchers have drawn attention to the efficacy of non-conventional extraction methods, accomplishing similar or even better results using these new techniques. Some pilot-scale trials have been performed, corroborating the applicability of green alternative methods to the industrial scale. Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) emerge as the berries with the highest antioxidant content and capacity. However, several new up and coming berries are gaining attention due to global availability and elevated anthocyanin content. PMID:28106822

  20. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Farneti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium spp. fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry. The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars (“Biloxi,” “Brigitta Blue,” “Centurion,” “Chandler,” and “Ozark Blue” harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V. corymbosum L. (“Brigitta,” “Chandler,” “Liberty,” and “Ozark Blue”, V. virgatum Aiton (“Centurion,” “Powder Blue,” and “Sky Blue”, V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations, and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide

  1. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruit consumption has increased over the last 5 years, becoming the second most important soft fruit species after strawberry. Despite the possible economic and sensory impact, the blueberry volatile organic compound (VOC) composition has been poorly investigated. Thus, the great impact of the aroma on fruit marketability stimulates the need to step forward in the understanding of this quality trait. Beside the strong effect of ripening, blueberry aroma profile also varies due to the broad genetic differences among Vaccinium species that have been differently introgressed in modern commercial cultivars through breeding activity. In the present study, divided into two different activities, the complexity of blueberry aroma was explored by an exhaustive untargeted VOC analysis, performed by two complementary methods: SPME-GC-MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and PTR-ToF-MS (proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry). The first experiment was aimed at determining the VOC modifications during blueberry ripening for five commercially representative cultivars ("Biloxi," "Brigitta Blue," "Centurion," "Chandler," and "Ozark Blue") harvested at four ripening stages (green, pink, ripe, and over-ripe) to outline VOCs dynamic during fruit development. The objective of the second experiment was to confirm the analytical capability of PTR-ToF-MS to profile blueberry genotypes and to identify the most characterizing VOCs. In this case, 11 accessions belonging to different Vaccinium species were employed: V. corymbosum L. ("Brigitta," "Chandler," "Liberty," and "Ozark Blue"), V. virgatum Aiton ("Centurion," "Powder Blue," and "Sky Blue"), V. myrtillus L. (three wild genotypes of different mountain locations), and one accession of V. cylindraceum Smith. This comprehensive characterization of blueberry aroma allowed the identification of a wide pull of VOCs, for the most aldehydes, alcohols, terpenoids

  2. Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodushkin, Ilia [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: ilia.rodushkin@alsglobal.com; Engstroem, Emma [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Soerlin, Dieke; Ponter, Christer; Baxter, Douglas C. [ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Lulea, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic {sup 187}Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) {<=} spruce needles {<=} mushrooms {<=} tree leaves {<=} pine needles < mosses << lichens. The concentrations found in three different species of plant were used to provide the first estimates of gaseous osmium tetroxide (OsO{sub 4}) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO{sub 4} concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only

  3. Anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts of berries in food supplements--analysis with problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F

    2007-11-01

    The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Cs-137 in biofuel and reuse of the ash; Radiocesium i biobraenslen och aateranvaendning av askan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, K. J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1999-07-01

    The activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs in sheep fescue grown in pots where ashes had been added to forest soil were studied. The added ash corresponded to 3000 kg per hectare and were either mixed into the forest soil or spread above the soil. The results were expressed as percentage of control value from sheep fescue grown on the same forest soil but without adding ash. In the first harvest the {sup 137}Cs were 60 and 33 % of the control value in the pots where fly ash respectively wet ash was mixed with the forest soil before starting the experiment. In the pots where the ash was spread on the soil 80 and 76 % of control values were found in fly ash respectively wet ash pots. In the second harvest 87 and 10 % of control values were found in fly ash respectively wet ash in the pots where ash were mixed with soil. The corresponding values in pots where the ash was spread on the soil were 31 respectively 42 %. The results show that we probably can expect at least a 50 % decrease in the {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations after adding ash particularly if the ash is spread on the soil. There will take a certain time before the optimal reduction occur and after spreading in the forest there will probably take one year before maximum reduction is obtained. In a field experiment using potassium fertilization we obtained about the same reduction in {sup 137}Cs levels in bilberry, lingonberry and heather and also in some fungal species. The reduction could be seen even after 7 vegetation periods. It thus seems that the adding of ash to forest soil should be a rather effective counter measure with expected reduction of {sup 137}Cs levels of about 50 %.

  5. The impact of temperature regimes on development, dormancy breaking and germination of dwarf shrub seeds from arctic, alpine and boreal sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graae, Bente Jessen; Alsos, Inger Greve; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    species. We examined whether recruitment of Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum and Vaccinium uliginosum (hereafter E. nigrum and V. uliginosum) was affected by temperature during three reproductive stages: seed development, dormancy breakage and germination. Seeds were collected from an arctic, an alpine...... (only E. nigrum) and a boreal site with different climates; stored at different winter temperatures and incubated for germination at different temperatures. Seeds of V. uliginosum developed in the boreal region had a higher percentage germination than did seeds developed in the Arctic. In contrast......, seeds of E. nigrum from the arctic site had a higher or similar percentage germination than did seeds from the alpine and boreal sites. Increased winter temperatures had no significant effect on resulting germination percentage of E. nigrum. However, V. uliginosum seeds from the arctic site suffered...

  6. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P....... as a realistic plant community with an attractive, low habit and beautiful colors. Phyteuma spicatum is an attractive, novel species for a shady garden site.......Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P....... maritima were found suitable for cultivation in wholesale-containers and applicable for dry, sunny conditions in gardens. On the other hand, Narthecium ossifragum, Pulsatilla palustris, Drosera rotundifolia, Vaccinium oxycoccos, Eriophorum angustifolium and Sphagnum sp. were cultivated and planted...

  7. Study of the effects of 1-MCP to blueberry under cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shenchen; Chu, Huailiang; Chen, Xiaomin; Yuan, Huwei; Qiu, Lingling; Zhao, Liang; Yan, Daoliang; Zheng, Bingsong

    2017-04-01

    Blueberry is one of the thinnest exocarp fruits in the world, which is difficult to keep fresh due to the special structure of its skin. 1-Methlcyclopropene (1-MCP) is able to combine with ethylene(ETH) receptor. In this study we investigated the effect of 1-MCP on rotting rate, weight loss ratio, soluble sugar content, titratable acid content, antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosun ‘O Neal’ and ‘North Road’) under cold storage. 1-MCP reduced the rotting rate, weight loss ratio and MDA content, while keeping high-leveled stability in antioxidant enzyme activities, soluble sugar content and titratable acid content. These results showed the role of 1-MCP in alleviating the negative effects of blueberry and suggested that 1-MCP could be used as a preservative for keeping thin exocarp fruit in fresh.

  8. Responses of vegetation and soil microbial communities to warming and simulated herbivory in a subarctic heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Stark, Sari; Tolvanen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Climate warming increases the cover of deciduous shrubs in arctic ecosystems and herbivory is also known to have a strong influence on the biomass and composition of vegetation. However, research combining herbivory with warming is largely lacking. Our study describes how warming and simulated he...... on microbial N immobilization. Our study demonstrates that effects of warming on soil microorganisms are likely to differ in the presence and absence of herbivores....... herbivory affect vegetation, soil nutrient concentrations and soil microbial communities after 10-13 years of exposure. 2 We established a factorial warming and herbivory-simulation experiment at a subarctic tundra heath in Kilpisj rvi, Finland, in 1994. Warming was carried out using the open-top chamber...... setup of the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX). Wounding of the dominant deciduous dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus L. to simulate herbivory was carried out annually. We measured vegetation cover in 2003 and 2007, soil nutrient concentrations in 2003 and 2006, soil microbial respiration in 2003...

  9. Antioxidant activity of wild edible plants in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozen, T.

    2010-07-01

    The anti oxidative activity of the 80% ethanol extract obtained from eleven commonly consumed wild edible plants was determined according to the phospho molybdenum method, reducing power, metal chelating, superoxide anion and free radical scavenging activity and compared to standard compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and trolox. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins in the extracts were also measured. Trachystemon orientalis, Vaccinium mrytillus, Rumex acetosella Polygonum amphibium, Beta vulgaris, and Similax Excelsa had the highest antioxidant capacities. Overall results showed that these plants can serve as good sources of bioactive polyphenols in the human diet and can be regarded as good candidates for nutritional supplement formulations due to their high concentrations of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins as well as their strong antioxidant activity. (Author) 42 refs.

  10. Tipo de ramo e efeito do ácido indal acético (AIA no estabelecimento in vitro de três cultivares de mirtilo Branch type and the effect of Indole acetic acid (IAA on in vitro establishment of three blueberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Couto da Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O mirtilo é uma promissora alternativa econômica que se adapta muito bem a pequenas propriedades. No entanto, o preço e a disponibilidades das mudas é o principal entrave desta atividade. A micropropagação é a técnica que vem sendo utilizada com sucesso para propagação de mudas de mirtilo. Com o objetivo de estabelecer in vitro cultivares de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade para a micropropagação, foram realizados dois experimentos. No experimento I, testou-se a fonte de explante, (segmentos nodais retirados de ramos herbáceos lenhosos em três cultivares de mirtilo. No experimento II verificou-se o comportamento dos explantes originados de ramos herbáceos na presença e ausência do regulador de crescimento AIA adicionado ao meio de cultivo, dentre sete cultivares. Aos 7, 14 e 21 dias de cultivo avaliou-se a percentagem de contaminação fúngica e bacteriana, além da percentagem de explantes oxidados. Aos 30 e 45 dias de cultivo, além das variáveis analisadas anteriormente, foi avaliado a sobrevivência e o estabelecimento dos explantes. Os resultados permitiram concluir que explantes originados de ramos herbáceos apresentaram menor oxidação fenólica e baixa percentagem de contaminação fúngica e bacteriana, proporcionando um elevado índice de estabelecimento para as cultivares testadas. A adição do regulador de crescimento AIA no meio de cultivo favoreceu o estabelecimento in vitro de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade.Blueberry is a promising economic alternative that adapts very well in small farms. Nevertheless, the seedlings price and availability are the major obstacles of this field. Micropropagation is the more successful used technique for blueberry propagation. Therefore, two trials were carried aiming to establish in vitro some cultivars of 'blueberry' (Vaccinium ashei Reade for further micropropagation. In the first trial, the source of explant of three cultivars was tested (nodal segments from herbaceous and

  11. New and Emerging Viruses of Blueberry and Cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Polashock

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world.

  12. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity after fresh storage of blueberry treated with edible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrando, Valentina; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2015-05-01

    The influence of different edible coatings on total phenolic content, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Berkeley and O'Neal) was investigated, mainly for industrial applications. Also titratable acidity, soluble solids content, firmness and weight loss of berries were determined at harvest and at 15-day intervals during 45 storage days at 0 °C, in order to optimize coating composition. Application of chitosan coating delayed the decrease in anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Coating samples showed no significant reduction in the weight loss during storage period. In cv Berkeley, the use of alginate coating showed a positive effect on firmness, titratable acidity and maintained surface lightness of treated berries. In cv O'Neal, no significant differences in total soluble solids content were found, and the chitosan-coated berries showed the minimum firmness losses. In both cultivars, the addition of chitosan to coatings decreases the microbial growth rate.

  13. Antioxidant activity of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Brazilian blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertuzatti, Paula Becker; Barcia, Milene Teixeira; Rodrigues, Daniele; da Cruz, Pollyanna Nogueira; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Smith, Robert; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of ten cultivars of Highbush and Rabbiteye Brazilian blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and Vacciniumashei Reade, respectively) that are used for commercial production were analysed for antioxidant activity by the FRAP, ORAC, ABTS and β-carotene-linoleate methods. Results were correlated to the amounts of carotenoids, total phenolics and anthocyanins. Brazilian blueberries had relatively high concentration of total phenolics (1,622-3,457 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g DW) and total anthocyanins (140-318 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g DW), as well as being a good source of carotenoids. There was a higher positive correlation between the amounts of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic compared to lipophilic extracts. There were also significant differences in the level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities between different cultivars, production location and year of cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Description of the Blueberry Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne carolinensis n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenback, J D

    1982-07-01

    Meloidogyne carolinensis n. sp. is described from cultivated highbush blueberry (cultivars derived from hybrids of Vaccinium corymbosum L. and V. lamarckii Camp) in North Carolina. The perineal pattern of the female has a large cuticular ridge that surrounds the perivulval area, and the excretory pore is near the level of the base of the stylet. The stylet is 15.9 mum long and the knobs gradually merge with the shaft. The head shape and stylet morphology of the male are quite variable. The typical head and four variants, as well as the typical stylet and two variants, are described. The labial disc, medial lips, and lateral lips of second-stage juveniles are fused and in the same contour. The head region is not annulated. Mean juvenile length is 463.7 mum, stylet length is 11.9 mum, and tail length is 42.5 mum.

  16. New and emerging viruses of blueberry and cranberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert R; Polashock, James J; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2012-11-06

    Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world.

  17. The antibiofilm effect of blueberry fruit cultivars against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Karine Rigon; Blum-Silva, Carlos H; Souza, André Luiz Kulkamp; Wulffschuch, Márcia; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Pereira, Cláudio Martin P; Macedo, Alexandre José; Lencina, Claiton Leonetti

    2014-03-01

    The antibiofilm and antibacterial properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis and chemical characterization of six hydroethanolic blueberry extracts (blueberry rabbiteye-Vaccinium virgatum) from different cultivars and means of propagation were investigated. The total flavonoid, anthocyanin, and phenolic contents were determined by specific and well-established methods. Among the cultivars, Briteblue showed the lowest content of all metabolites analyzed, while Bluegem showed the highest concentrations of these compounds. All the micropropagated cultivars presented the highest amounts of chlorogenic acid. The blueberry fruit extracts showed strong activity against S. epidermidis biofilm (up to 84% inhibition) without inhibiting bacterial growth. Likewise, Bluegem micropropagated extract, which had the highest anthocyanin, flavonoids, and phenolic compound content, demonstrated the highest S. epidermidis biofilm inhibitory effect. Finally, a linear correlation between the total phenolic content and the percentage of biofilm inhibition was observed.

  18. Nature?s Weapon against Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEETHA R.V ANITHA ROY

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common disease. Continued allopathic treatment with various antibiotics may cause side effects. It is also known that the bacteria causing infection can develop resistance to the existing antibiotics that have been prescribed, if the medication is used for a long time. These issues have led to a continuous exploration of different modes of treatment and alternate therapies. Herbs have a long history and proven to be very effective in preventing and treating urinary tract infections. This review article is about some commonly accepted herbs like Vaccinium macrocarpon [Cranberry], Hydrastis Canadensis [Goldenseal], Agathosma betulina [Buchu], Arctostaphylos uva-ursi [Bearberry], Echinaceae purpurea[Cone flower] and Equisetum arvense [Horse tail] that have been clinically proven for urinary tract infection cure as well as bladder infection treatment

  19. Em busca da sustentabilidade: células solares sensibilizadas por extratos naturais Toward sustainability: solar cells sensitized by natural extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Otávio T. Patrocínio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the use of anthocyanins extracted from mulberry (Morus Alba L., raspberry (Rubus Idaeus L. and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. The conversion efficiency of these devices is dependent on the extracts employed and can be rationalized in terms of their composition and spectral properties. Solar cells sensitized by the mulberry extract showed the highest efficiency among the fruits investigated. Moreover, a 16 cm² active area solar cell with the mulberry extract has presented fair good efficiency of conversion for natural dye-based solar cells, besides stability over twenty weeks, showing perspectives for developing these low cost devices with a commercial viability.

  20. Natural cures for breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Munazza; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Sarfraz, Maliha

    2016-05-01

    For centuries, herbs and plants have been used for medicinal purposes and as food as well. This review concerns about different types of plants that retain the immune stimulating and anti-tumor properties. Large variety of active phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, ligands, polyphenolics, terpenoids, sulfides, lignans and plant sterols has been identified in different types of herbs. These phytochemicals have different mechanisms of action. They either stimulate the protective enzyme like glutathione transferase or prevent the cell proliferation. This review has centered on the biochemical properties of Allium sativum, Echinacea, Curcuma longa, Arctium lappa, Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng and Flax seed. Extracts and juices of Withania somnifera, Amoora rohituka, Dysoxylum binectariferum and Vaccinium macrocarpon, respectively also used as anti-breast cancer. The volatile oils and extracts of these herbs and plants inhibit the synthesis of mevalonate that lessen the tumor growth and cholesterol synthesis.

  1. Potential health benefits and quality of dried fruits: Goji fruits, cranberries and raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Stanisz, Ewa; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2017-04-15

    Dried fruits are important snacks and additives to other foods due to their taste and nutritional advantages. Therefore there is an important goal to control the quality of the food on the market for consumer's safety. Antioxidant activity of goji fruits (Lycium barbarum), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and oxycoccus) and raisins (Vitis vinifera) were studied using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. Cu, Mn and Ge influencing antioxidant activity were determined together with selected toxic metals (Cd, Ni and Pb). Contamination with fungi was studied by quantification of their marker - ergosterol and important mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, and ochratoxin A) were also determined. Antioxidant activity of all tested dried fruits was confirmed with goji fruits being the most profitable for consumers. Contamination of the tested fruits with toxic metals and mycotoxins was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavior of the natural and cultivated flora in the presence of air pollutant report. Etude du comportement de la flore sauvage ou cultivee a l'egard des pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossavy, J.

    1971-01-01

    A complex study of the effects of air pollution by fluorine compounds on the vegetation in the Vallee de l Arc, Vallee de la Romanche, and Vallee de la Durance regions in France is presented. Iris, Veratrum, album, Picea excelsa, Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Polygonatum vulgare, Silene inflata. Gentiana lutea, Hypericum species, and Vaccinium myrtillus were the most sensitive species. Coniferous needles which tend to accumulate fluorine were most susceptible to fluorine which caused necrosis, premature loss of needles, and reduced growth. Vast expanses of dead coniferous forests were detected. The fluorine concentrations in the air, determined by means of exposed, calcium hydroxide-impregnated filter paper, ranged from 2.77 to 2.82 g/sq cm/day.

  3. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the overstory and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp. but were negatively associated with the abundance of hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia. In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  4. Influence of soil type on half-highbush blueberry productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Tasa

    2012-12-01

    Vaccinium spp. cultivars (five- and six-year-old plants were used in the experiment: ‘Aino’, ‘Alvar’, ‘Arne’, and ‘Northblue’. Environmental conditions exercised a considerable influence on biological processes of half-highbush blueberry, at the same time, a genotype-based variation was observed. Cultivar ‘Northblue’ had a higher yield in mineral soil and ‘Aino’ had the highest yield in peat soil considering the average of two years. The peat soil condition in the harvested peat field provided a better supply of nutrients for blueberry bushes compared to mineral soil and this, in its turn, secured better growth and a higher yield of blueberry bushes.

  5. The impact of size and shape of particles of undergrowth and herbs mixtures on aerodynamic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Panasiewicz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the size and shape of a selected group of herbs (dried juniper berries Juniperus communis, dry blueberries Vaccinium myrtillus, petals of cornflower Centaurea cyanus on the value of the volatility coefficient, the coefficient of sphericity and the critical speed was analysed in the presented research. A laboratory anemometer to measure the speed of air was used. The determination of the volatility coefficient of particular size fractions was conducted on the basis of critical speed values, calculated as an average established after five measurements. The established aerodynamic properties of particular mixtures allow the determination and the assessment of differences among fractions of valuable resources and different impurities. The presented data might constitute a basis to determine the scope of differences among them and establish interrelations which allow the application of proper parameters for the pneumatic separation process in practice.

  6. The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Obón, C

    1995-05-01

    The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259 species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica, Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic, haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic.

  7. Applied bioinformatics: Genome annotation and transcriptome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Vikas

    and dhurrin, which have not previously been characterized in blueberries. There are more than 44,500 spider species with distinct habitats and unique characteristics. Spiders are masters of producing silk webs to catch prey and using venom to neutralize. The exploration of the genetics behind these properties...... japonicus (Lotus), Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry), Stegodyphus mimosarum (spider) and Trifolium occidentale (clover). From a bioinformatics data analysis perspective, my work can be divided into three parts; genome annotation, small RNA, and gene expression analysis. Lotus is a legume of significant...... has just started. We have assembled and annotated the first two spider genomes to facilitate our understanding of spiders at the molecular level. The need for analyzing the large and increasing amount of sequencing data has increased the demand for efficient, user friendly, and broadly applicable...

  8. Assessing the sensitivity of Melanoplus frigidus (Orthoptera:Acrididae) to different weather conditions: A modeling approach focussing on development times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver-D. Finch; J(o)rg L(o)ffler; Roland Pape

    2008-01-01

    The temperature and soil moisture conditions as well as vegetation patterns were studied to describe the habitat and to model the life cycle of Melanoplusfrigidus, a true alpine grasshopper of the Scandes. In the low alpine belt of the Norwegian Scandes the species colonizes only the warmest microhabitats with maximum soil surface temperatures of 31℃. Vegetation of these habitats consists of shrub-rich heath dominated by Vaccinium myrtillus and Calluna vulgaris. Using continuously measured temperature data, the development times for four different seasons were modeled and related to field observations. The maximum delay of adult molt was estimated to amount to 3 weeks, the delay being determined by the variation in spring temperature conditions between different years. The possibilities of using M. frigidus as an indicator organism of climate change effects on alpine zoo-coenoses of the Scandes are discussed.

  9. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  10. 波兰的越橘产业%Blueberry Production in Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林

    2001-01-01

    @@ 越橘属于杜鹃花科(Ericaceae)越橘属(Vaccinium)植物,为一多年生灌木小浆果果树.其果实营养丰富,除含有糖、酸、VC外,还含有丰富的氨基酸及Ca、P、Fe、Zn等微量元素,以及SOD、VE、VA、熊果甙、黄酮类化合物等其他果品中少有的特殊成分.据研究越橘果实具有强心、延缓大脑衰老和抗癌的功效.

  11. The impact of temperature regimes on development, dormancy breaking and germination of dwarf shrub seeds from arctic, alpine and boreal sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graae, Bente Jessen; Alsos, Inger Greve; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    species. We examined whether recruitment of Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum and Vaccinium uliginosum (hereafter E. nigrum and V. uliginosum) was affected by temperature during three reproductive stages: seed development, dormancy breakage and germination. Seeds were collected from an arctic, an alpine...... (only E. nigrum) and a boreal site with different climates; stored at different winter temperatures and incubated for germination at different temperatures. Seeds of V. uliginosum developed in the boreal region had a higher percentage germination than did seeds developed in the Arctic. In contrast......, seeds of E. nigrum from the arctic site had a higher or similar percentage germination than did seeds from the alpine and boreal sites. Increased winter temperatures had no significant effect on resulting germination percentage of E. nigrum. However, V. uliginosum seeds from the arctic site suffered...

  12. Exploration of High elevation liana colonies on Mt. Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WS Hoover

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty–five individual lianas were distributed on 2 East facing ridges on the second highest mountain on Java, Mt. Slamet (3418 m., Central Java, Indonesia. Twenty one colonies were observed on small flat areas on ridges. The liana species observed include: Embelia pergamacea, Toddalia asiatica, Elaeagnus latifolia, Schefflera lucida, Vaccinium laurifolium and Lonicera javanica. Diameter of each liana was measured and liana density/flat area calculated. Floristic collecting was under- taken within the elevational gradient of liana distribution. Data suggest an ecotone transition from lower to upper mon- tane forest is observed between 2200 and 2300 m, though forest types are difficult to determine due to disturbance caused by fire at the upper elevations. Observing lianas at these unusuall high elevations with near pluvial rainfall, con- tradict established scientific theory concerning global distribution and abundance of lianas.  

  13. Natural Mongolian Pine Forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiqiang; Liu Tong; Zhou Lin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon 134 reléves, the vegetation of the forests with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) of the Great Xing'an Mountains in the northeast China was classified into 3 communities, 7 types and 4 subtypes by numerical cluster analysis. 1) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Populus davidiana-community was found on relatively dry sites. It was subdivided into a Quercus mongolica-type, consisting of a Adenophora tetraphylla subtype, a Pulsatilla dahurica subtype, and a pure type; 2) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Rhododendron dauricum-community occurred on medium dry sites. It included a Calamagrostis angustifolia type, consisting of a Cladonia arbuscula subtype, a pure subtype, and a Rubus idaeus-type; 3) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Ledum palustre-community was found on periodically wet sites. It included a Picea koraiensis type, a Vaccinium uliginosum type, and a pure type.

  14. Natural cures for breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munazza Shareef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, herbs and plants have been used for medicinal purposes and as food as well. This review concerns about different types of plants that retain the immune stimulating and anti-tumor properties. Large variety of active phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, ligands, polyphenolics, terpenoids, sulfides, lignans and plant sterols has been identified in different types of herbs. These phytochemicals have different mechanisms of action. They either stimulate the protective enzyme like glutathione transferase or prevent the cell proliferation. This review has centered on the biochemical properties of Allium sativum, Echinacea, Curcuma longa, Arctium lappa, Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng and Flax seed. Extracts and juices of Withania somnifera, Amoora rohituka, Dysoxylum binectariferum and Vaccinium macrocarpon, respectively also used as anti-breast cancer. The volatile oils and extracts of these herbs and plants inhibit the synthesis of mevalonate that lessen the tumor growth and cholesterol synthesis.

  15. Antioxidant activity of wild edible plants in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özen, Tevfik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidative activity of the 80% ethanol extract obtained from eleven commonly consumed wild edible plants was determined according to the phosphomolybdenum method, reducing power, metal chelating, superoxide anion and free radical scavenging activity and compared to standard compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and trolox. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins in the extracts were also measured. Trachystemon orientalis, Vaccinium mrytillus, Rumex acetosella Polygonum amphibium, Beta vulgaris, and Similax Excelsa had the highest antioxidant capacities. Overall results showed that these plants can serve as good sources of bioactive polyphenols in the human diet and can be regarded as good candidates for nutritional supplement formulations due to their high concentrations of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins as well as their strong antioxidant activity.La actividad antioxidante de extractos etanólicos al 80%, obtenidos de once plantas salvajes comúnmente consumidas, fue determinada por el método del fosfomolibdeno, poder reductor, actividad quelatante de metales, actividad captadora de aniones superóxidos y actividad captadora de radicales libres, y comparada con compuestos patrones tales como el butil hidroxianisol (BHA, butil hidroxitolueno (BHT y Trolox. El contenido de fenoles totales, flavonoides y antocianinas en el extracto fue también determinado. Trachystemon orientalis, Vaccinium mrytillus, Rumex acetosella Polygonum amphibium, Beta vulgaris, y Similax Excelsa tienen las capacidades antioxidantes más altas. En general, los resultados muestran que estas plantas pueden servir como una buena fuente de polifenoles bioactivos en la dieta humana, y pueden ser considerados como buenos candidatos para su uso como suplemento nutricional en formulaciones debido a su alta concentración en fenoles, flavonoides y antocinainas y a su fuerte actividad

  16. Efeito da época de poda na produção e qualidade de frutos de mirtileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Radünz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As pequenas frutas, como o mirtilo (Vaccinium spp., apresentam propriedades nutricionais e alto potencial antioxidante. Práticas de manejo como a época de poda podem provocar diferentes respostas nas plantas, devido a alterações nas condições climáticas a que as plantas estarão expostas durante seu período reprodutivo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da poda seca sobre a produção e atributos de qualidade dos frutos de mirtileiro, cultivares Clímax, Bluegem e Powderblue, nas condições da mesorregião de Pelotas, RS. Foram utilizadas plantas adultas de mirtileiro (Vaccinium spp. de pomar comercial, localizado no município de Morro Redondo, RS. Plantas em diferentes parcelas foram submetidas a podas em duas datas: poda 1 em 10 de julho de 2012 e a poda 2 em 10 de agosto de 2012. Frutos colhidos no estadio de maturação completa foram avaliados quanto a produção, teor de sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez total titulável (ATT, pH, cor (ºHue, teor de compostos fenólicos totais, teor de antocianinas totais e potencial antioxidante. A época da poda seca influenciou de forma significativa a produção e os atributos de qualidade dos frutos de mirtilo. A poda, quando realizada na época 1, ocasionou maior produção, entretanto foi na época de poda 2 que as cultivares apresentaram maior teor de compostos fenólicos. As cultivares Bluegem e Powderblue apresentaram ainda maior potencial antioxidante e maior teor de antocianinas.

  17. Major differences observed in transcript profiles of blueberry during cold acclimation under field and cold room conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanaraj, Anik L; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Beard, Hunter S; Chouikha, Imed B; Matthews, Benjamin F; Wei, Hui; Arora, Rajeev; Rowland, Lisa J

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has been working toward increasing our understanding of the genetic control of cold hardiness in blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) to ultimately use this information to develop more cold hardy cultivars for the industry. Here, we report using cDNA microarrays to monitor changes in gene expression at multiple times during cold acclimation under field and cold room conditions. Microarrays contained over 2,500 cDNA inserts, approximately half of which had been picked and single-pass sequenced from each of two cDNA libraries that were constructed from cold acclimated floral buds and non-acclimated floral buds of the fairly cold hardy cv. Bluecrop (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Two biological samples were examined at each time point. Microarray data were analyzed statistically using t tests, ANOVA, clustering algorithms, and online analytical processing (OLAP). Interestingly, more transcripts were found to be upregulated under cold room conditions than under field conditions. Many of the genes induced only under cold room conditions could be divided into three major types: (1) genes associated with stress tolerance; (2) those that encode glycolytic and TCA cycle enzymes, and (3) those associated with protein synthesis machinery. A few of the genes induced only under field conditions appear to be related to light stress. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed in physiological context. Although many similarities exist in how plants respond during cold acclimation in the cold room and in the field environment, there are major differences suggesting caution should be taken in interpreting results based only on artificial, cold room conditions.

  18. Blueberry pollination in southern Brazil and their influence on fruit quality Polinização em mirtilo no sul do Brasil e sua influência na qualidade do fruto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Madruga Telesca da Silveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium ashei is a relatively new crop in cultivation under Southern Brazil conditions. The first collection introduced in the area was formed by rabbiteye cultivars which need insect pollinators and also pollinizers. The aim of this work was to observe if there were differences between pollinizers on fruit quality of the commercial cultivar and also to observe the most effective and frequent insect pollinators, under natural conditions. It was concluded that pollen source has an effect on quality of blueberry fruits. Bumblebees are the most efficient pollinators; however the species found in southern Brazil are different from the ones mentioned in the U.S. literature.O mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei é uma espécie relativamente nova em cultivo, nas condições do Sul do Brasil, Pelotas. A primeira coleção introduzida na área era formada por cultivares rabbiteye, que necessitam de insetos polinizadores e também plantas polinizadoras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi observar se havia diferenças entre as polinizadoras na qualidade dos frutos da cultivar comercial e também observar os mais eficazes e frequentes insetos polinizadores, em condições naturais. Concluiu-se que a fonte de pólen tem efeito na qualidade de frutos de mirtilo. As mamangavas são os polinizadores mais eficientes, contudo a espécies encontradas no Sul do Brasil são diferentes dos mencionados na literatura dos Estados Unidos.

  19. The American cranberry: first insights into the whole genome of a species adapted to bog habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is one of only three widely-cultivated fruit crops native to North America- the other two are blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and native grape (Vitis spp.). In terms of taxonomy, cranberries are in the core Ericales, an order for which genome sequence data are currently lacking. In addition, cranberries produce a host of important polyphenolic secondary compounds, some of which are beneficial to human health. Whereas next-generation sequencing technology is allowing the advancement of whole-genome sequencing, one major obstacle to the successful assembly from short-read sequence data of complex diploid (and higher ploidy) organisms is heterozygosity. Cranberry has the advantage of being diploid (2n = 2x = 24) and self-fertile. To minimize the issue of heterozygosity, we sequenced the genome of a fifth-generation inbred genotype (F ≥ 0.97) derived from five generations of selfing originating from the cultivar Ben Lear. Results The genome size of V. macrocarpon has been estimated to be about 470 Mb. Genomic sequences were assembled into 229,745 scaffolds representing 420 Mbp (N50 = 4,237 bp) with 20X average coverage. The number of predicted genes was 36,364 and represents 17.7% of the assembled genome. Of the predicted genes, 30,090 were assigned to candidate genes based on homology. Genes supported by transcriptome data totaled 13,170 (36%). Conclusions Shotgun sequencing of the cranberry genome, with an average sequencing coverage of 20X, allowed efficient assembly and gene calling. The candidate genes identified represent a useful collection to further study important biochemical pathways and cellular processes and to use for marker development for breeding and the study of horticultural characteristics, such as disease resistance. PMID:24927653

  20. Functionality of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when used in migratory beekeeping for crop pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danka, Robert G; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Sylvester, H Allen; Wagener, Christine M; Bourgeois, A Lelania; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2012-04-01

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated for performance when used in migratory crop pollination. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed bees with Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) were managed without miticide treatments and compared with colonies of Italian honey bees that served as controls. Control colonies were managed as groups which either were treated twice each year against V. destructor (CT) or kept untreated (CU). Totals of 240 and 247 colonies were established initially for trials in 2008 and 2009, respectively. RHB and VSH colonies generally had adult and brood populations similar to those of the standard CT group regarding pollination requirements. For pollination of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb] in February, percentages of colonies meeting the required six or more frames of adult bees were 57% (VSH), 56% (CT), 39% (RHB), and 34% (CU). RHB are known to have small colonies in early spring, but this can be overcome with appropriate feeding. For later pollination requirements in May to July, 94-100% of colonies in the four groups met pollination size requirements for apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). Infestations with V. destructor usually were lowest in CT colonies and tended to be lower in VSH colonies than in RHB and CU colonies. This study demonstrates that bees with the VSH trait and pure RHB offer alternatives for beekeepers to use for commercial crop pollination while reducing reliance on miticides. The high frequency of queen loss (only approximately one fourth of original queens survived each year) suggests that frequent requeening is necessary to maintain desired genetics.

  1. The multifunctionality of berries toward blood platelets and the role of berry phenolics in cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2016-10-25

    Diet and nutrition have an important influence on the prophylaxis and progression of cardiovascular disease; one example is the inhibition of blood platelet functions by specific components of fruits and vegetables. Garlic, onion, ginger, dark chocolate and polyunsaturated fatty acids all reduce blood platelet aggregation. A number of fruits contain a range of cardioprotective antioxidants and vitamins, together with a large number of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, which may possess both antioxidant properties and anti-platelet activity. Fresh berries and berry extracts possess high concentrations of phenolic compounds, i.e. phenolic acid, stilbenoids, flavonoids and lignans. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of current knowledge of the anti-platelet activity of berries, which form an integral part of the human diet. It describes the effects of phenolic compounds present in a number of berries, i.e. black chokeberries - aronia berries (Aronia melanocarpa), blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), cranberries (Vaccinium sect. Oxycoccus), sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides) and grapes (Vitis), as well as various commercial products from berries (i.e. juices), on platelets and underlying mechanisms. Studies show that the effects of berries on platelet activity are dependent on not only the concentrations of the phenolic compounds in the berries or the class of phenolic compounds, but also the types of berry and the form (fresh berry, juice or medicinal product). Different results indicate that berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disorders, but the development of well-controlled clinical studies with berries is encouraged.

  2. Analysis on classification and species diversity of Pinus taiwanensis community in Daiyun Mountain National Nature Reserve%戴云山国家级自然保护区黄山松群落类型与物种多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任国学; 刘金福; 徐道炜; 洪伟; 郑世群; 黄志森

    2011-01-01

    采用典型取样法对戴云山国家级自然保护区黄山松(Pinus taiwanensis Hayata)群落的类型和物种多样性进行了分析.以乔木层主要树种的重要值为参考指标,通过系统聚类分析,可将该黄山松群落分为8个群丛类型:黄山松+杉木—乌药—铁芒萁群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+ Cunninghamia lanceolata - Lindera aggregate - Dicranopteris linearis);黄山松+多脉青冈—细枝柃—里白群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+Cyclobalanopsis multinervis-Eurya loquaianaHicriopteris glauca);黄山松+江南山柳—短尾越桔—铁芒萁群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+ Clethra cavaleriei- Vaccinium carlesii-Dicranopteris linearis);黄山松+甜槠—肿节少穗竹—里白群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+ Castanopsis eyreiOligostachyum oedogonatum-Hicriopteris glauca);黄山松+吊钟花—短尾越桔—狗脊群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+Enkianthus quinqueflorus-Vaccinium carlesii-Woodwardia japonica);黄山松+华丽杜鹃—短尾越桔—里白群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+ Rhododendron farrerae- Vaccinium carlesii- Hicriopteris glauca);黄山松+光叶水青冈—满山红—铁芒萁群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+Fagus lucida-Rhododendron mariesii-Dicranopteris linearis);黄山松—满山红—平颖柳叶箬群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis-Rhododendron mariesii-Isachne truncata).各群丛总体物种丰富度指数和多样性指数总体上呈随海拔升高而降低的趋势,总体均匀度指数Pielou指数和Alatalo指数波动不大.在群落垂直结构上,乔木层、灌木层和草本层物种丰富度指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数有差异;各群丛间乔木层和灌木层的物种丰富度指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数波动较大,草本层这3个指数波动较小且数值上小于前两者.分析结果显示:海拔是决定该黄山松群落多样性差异的主导因子.%Classification and species diversity of Pinus taiwanensis Hayata community in Daiyun Mountain National Nature Reserve

  3. Behaviour of {sup 137}Cs in the Boreal forest ecosystem of central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawaris, B.H.

    1995-12-31

    Behaviour of Chernobyl fallout 1{sup 37}Cs in a coniferous forest ecosystem in central Sweden was investigated between 1990 and 1994. Results demonstrated that forest soil belongs to nutrient deficient type, and deposited fallout 1{sup 37}Cs from Chernobyl nuclear accident (CNA) was retained in the upper 5 cm of humic forest soil layer, with a venial migration deeper into soil profile. No correlation between forest soil exchangeable and total potassium (K{sup +}) and 1{sup 37}Cs transfer parameters was observed. However, addition of K{sup +}, found to efficiently reduce 1{sup 37}Cs uptake by sheep`s fescue and the addition of stable caesium (1{sup 33}Cs{sup +}) enhanced it. The addition of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) was slightly stimulating the uptake of 1{sup 37}Cs by sheep`s fescue in the first cut only. Field plants showed a considerably reduction in their 1{sup 37}Cs activity concentrations. Relative to their 1{sup 37}Cs levels of 1986-89, a little reduction in heather occurred eight years after CNA. In contrast the reductions in lingonberry and bilberry were 87% and 68%, respectively. Three fractions of forest soil bound 1{sup 37}Cs were observed due to sequential extraction procedure (SEP). The first, is easily extractable 1{sup 37}Cs fraction, it comprises 22% of total forest soil 1{sup 37}Cs inventory in the upper 5 cm layer. The second, is soil organically and biologically bound 1{sup 37}Cs comprises about 30% of soil bound 1{sup 37}Cs. This fraction might be accounted for long-term soil available 1{sup 37}Cs for plant uptake after bio-degradation processes by soil microorganisms. The third, is the residual fraction, it comprises more than 35% of total forest soil 1{sup 37}Cs inventory, and may be associated with soil components which are probably of organic nature. Sorption of 1{sup 37}Cs by zeolite (Mordenite) revealed that soil bound 1{sup 37}Cs is to some extent more mobile in forest soils with high OM% and low pH than those with low OM%.

  4. Las ericáceas de la vertiente pacífica de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancur Julio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el tratamiento taxonómico de la familia Ericaceae para la vertiente pacífica del departamento de Nariño, Colombia. El área de estudio abarca toda la llanura del pacífico y la vertiente pacífica de la cordillera de los Andes, hasta los 2.000 m de altitud, de dicho departamento. Los registros de las especies se obtuvieron mediante trabajo de campo, revisión de literatura y el estudio de las colecciones depositadas en los  herbarios CAUP, COL, HUA, PSO, QCA y QCNE. En el tratamiento taxonómico se incluyen descripciones morfológicas para la familia Ericaceae y para cada uno de los géneros y especies, acompañadas de comentarios sobre su distribución geográfica y altitudinal, y en algunos casos, de comentarios taxonómicos. También se incluye una clave sinóptica y una clave dicotómica para determinar especies, un glosario de los términos botánicos utilizados y un listado de los especímenes citados. Se encontraron 53 especies, agrupadas en 11 géneros, de las cuales una es una especie nueva de Vaccinium para la ciencia, tres son nuevos registros para Colombia (Cavendishia awa, Psammisia chionantha y P. oreogenes, antes registradas solo para el norte del Ecuador, y 15 son nuevos registros para el departamento de Nariño (Anthopterus oliganthus, Cavendishia awa, C. palustris, Diogenesia floribunda,  Disterigma humboldtii, D. pseudokillipiella, Psammisia chionantha, P. dolichopoda, P. oreogenes, P. ulbrichiana, Sphyrospermum buxifolium, S. dissimile, S. distichum, Themistoclesia alata y Thibaudia archeri. Los géneros con más especies fueron Cavendishia (15, Psammisia (10, Disterigma (6 y Sphyrospermum (7, seguidos por Thibaudia con cuatro especies, Anthopterus y Macleania con tres especies, Diogenesia con dos especies y Satyria, Themistoclesia y Vaccinium con una especie. Por otra parte, nueve especies tienen distribución geográfica muy restringida, de las cuales tres solo han sido registradas para el área de estudio

  5. Enraizamento in vitro de mirtilo em condições fotoautotróficas In vitro rooting of blueberry under photoautotrophic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Roberta Damiani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do enraizamento fotoautotrófico de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei Reade, cultivar 'Delite', comparando o efeito da luz natural (casa de vegetação e da luz artificial (sala de crescimento durante duas épocas do ano (verão e inverno, bem como o efeito de três concentrações de sacarose (0; 15 e 30g L-1 adicionadas ao meio de cultura e de diferentes tipos de vedação dos frascos de cultivo (alumínio, algodão e filme plástico. Após 60 dias de enraizamento in vitro em meio de cultura WPM, contendo 9µM L-1 de AIB, observou-se que o enraizamento em meio de cultura livre de sacarose promoveu o aumento do número de raízes e da porcentagem de enraizamento e, quando associado ao fechamento dos frascos com algodão, favoreceu, também, o incremento do comprimento das raízes e da massa fresca total. Quanto ao ambiente de cultivo e às épocas do ano, concluiu-se que o enraizamento pode ser realizado com sucesso de forma fotoautotrófica e, durante o verão, independentemente do ambiente de cultivo, verifica-se um aumento do comprimento de raízes, da porcentagem de enraizamento e da massa fresca total.The aim of this research was to assess the photoautotrofic rooting efficiency of blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade, cultivar 'Delite' by comparing the effect between natural light (greenhouse and artificial light (growth room in two seasons (summer and winter, as well as the effect of different three sucrose concentrations (0; 15 or 30g L-1 added to the culture medium and different types of flasks closure (aluminum, cotton and plastic film. After 60 days of in vitro rooting on WPM medium culture containing 9µM L-1 AIB, rooting in free-sucrose culture medium promoted an increased in the number of roots and rooting percentage; and, whether associated to cotton closed, there was an increase in length of roots and in the total fresh weight. Regarding environment growth and season, rooting could be

  6. Enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de mirtilo: influência da lesão na base e do ácido indolbutírico Rooting of herbaceous blueberry cuttings: influence of the base incision and indolbutiric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Trevisan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O mirtilo (Vaccinium sp. é uma espécie de clima temperado que, por ocasião do período vegetativo, produz abundante quantidade de material vegetal que pode ser utilizado na propagação. Objetivou-se verificar o potencial de enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de diferentes cultivares de mirtilo, tratadas ou não com ácido indolbutírico e com e sem lesão na base. O trabalho foi realizado em dois experimentos, testando a capacidade de enraizamento das cultivares Florida, Woodard, Bluegem, Bluebele, Clímax e Briteblue. No primeiro experimento, as estacas das cultivares foram tratadas com AIB (0, 2500, 5000 e 7500mgL-1. No segundo experimento utilizou-se 2000mgL-1 de AIB, em estacas com e sem lesão na base. O delineamento utilizado foi completamente casualizado com repetições e unidades experimentais adequadas para cada experimento. O uso do ácido indolbutírico e a lesão nas estacas, não proporcionaram estímulo na emissão de raízes adventícias; as cultivares apresentam potencial genético de enraizamento diferenciado, sendo que, a Bluebelle apresentou maiores porcentuais de estacas enraizadas, e a Clímax, os menores porcentuais.Blueberries (Vaccinium sp. are species of temperate climate that, for occasion of the vegetative period, produce large amount of vegetal material that can be used in the propagation. This way, with the aim of verifying the rooting potential of different herbaceous cuttings of blueberry cultivars, with the use or not of indolbutíric acid and base injury. The work was carried out in two experiments, having tested the capacity of rooting of the following cultivars Florida, Woodard, Bluegem, Bluebele, Clímax and Briteblue. In the first experiment, cuttings of cultivars were treated with IBA (0, 2500, 5000 and 7500mg.L-1. On the second experiment one used 2000mg.L-1 of AIB, in cuttings with and without injury in the base. The experimental design was the completely randomized with adjusted repetitions and

  7. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira Biology of South American fruit fly in blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.The objective of this work was to describe the biology of Anastrepha fraterculus in blueberry (Vaccinium ashei, blackberry (Rubus spp., strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum and Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora fruits. The experiment was carried out in laboratory under controlled conditions of temperature (25±2ºC, relative humidity (70±10%, and photophase (12 hours to determine insect biological parameters in immature and adult development stages. Anastrepha fraterculus finishes its biological cycle in all studied hosts; however, the Brazilian native fruits (strawberry guava and Surinam cherry provide better conditions for development of the insect. Biological parameters determined for immature development stadium were similar in the four hosts. Insects reared in Surinam cherry and strawberry guava showed, in the

  8. Brazilian ground pearl damaging blackberry, raspberry and blueberry in Brazil Pérola-da-terra causando danos em amoreira-preta, framboeseira e mirtileiro no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922 (Hemiptera: Margarodidae, is a subterranean, polyphagous scale insect native of Southern Brazil that feeds on a variety of different vineyard plant species (Vitis spp.. In this study, it is reported three new plant hosts of the species. In 2007 and 2010, infested plants were documented in the towns of Farroupilha (29°14'34"S, 51°23'20"W and Vacaria (28°26'30"S, 50°52'59"W in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specimens of the ground pearl were found in the roots of three cultivated berry plants: blackberry (Rubus spp., raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberry (Vaccinium sp.. Observed symptoms included: chlorotic leaves, gradual wasting, reduced production, and mortality. Given the increasing popularity of berry orchards in the region, this study serves as an alert for farmers to avoid establishing them in areas infested with the ground pearl and to check for the insects in the root cuttings used to establish berry crops.A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922 (Hemiptera: Margarodidae é uma cochonilha subterrânea, polífaga, nativa do sul do Brasil, que se alimenta de diversas espécies vegetais causando prejuízos, principalmente à cultura da videira (Vitis spp.. Nesta comunicação, três espécies vegetais são relatadas como novos hospedeiros da praga. Em 2007 e 2010, plantas infestadas foram registradas nos municípios de Farroupilha (29°14'34"S e 51°23'20"W e Vacaria (28°26'30"S e 50°52'59"W, RS. Exemplares da cochonilha foram encontrados em raízes de amoreira-preta (Rubus spp., framboeseira (Rubus idaeus L. e mirtileiro (Vaccinium sp.. Os sintomas observados foram folhas cloróticas, definhamento progressivo, diminuição na produção e morte das plantas. Devido à ampliação do cultivo de pequenas frutas na região, essa informação serve de alerta aos produtores para que evitem o plantio em áreas infestadas com a cochonilha e observem a presen

  9. Preparation of nanoscale iron (oxide, oxyhydroxides and zero-valent) particles derived from blueberries: Reactivity, characterization and removal mechanism of arsenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manquián-Cerda, Karen; Cruces, Edgardo; Angélica Rubio, María; Reyes, Camila; Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolás

    2017-11-01

    The application of iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) to the removal of various pollutants has received wide attention over the last few decades. A synthesis alternative to obtain these nanoparticles without using harmful chemical reagents, such as NaBH4, is the use of extracts from different natural sources that allow a lesser degree of agglomeration, in a process known as green synthesis. In this study, FeNPs were synthesized by 'green' (hereafter, BB-Fe NPs) and 'chemical' (hereafter, nZVI) methods. Extracts of leaves and blueberry shoots (Vaccinium corymbosum) were used as reducing agents for FeCl3·6H2O solution in the green synthesis method. FeNPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrophoretic migration, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and evaluated for the removal of As(V) from aqueous systems. In both synthesis methods, XRD analysis confirmed the presence of the different kinds of iron nanoparticles. SEM analysis showed that the average size of BB-Fe NPs was 52.4nm and that a variety of nanoparticles of different forms and associated structures, such as lepidocrocite, magnetite, and nZVI, were present, while the dimensions of nZVI were 80.2nm. Comparatively significant differences regarding the electrophoretic mobility were found between both materials pre- and post-sorption of As(V). The velocity of As(V) removal by BB-Fe NPs was slower than that by nZVI, reaching equilibrium at 120min compared to 60min for nZVI. The removal kinetics of As(V) were adequately described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the maximum adsorbed amounts of this analyte are in close accordance with the experimental results. The Langmuir-Freundlich model is in good agreement with our experimental data, where the sorption capacity of nZVI and BB-Fe NPs was found to be 52.23 ± 6.06 and 50.40 ± 5.90 (mg·g(-1)), respectively. The use of leaves of Vaccinium

  10. Rheological behavior of blueberry Comportamento reológico de mirtilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Colato Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and physicochemical characteristics of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus fruits produced in Brazil were analyzed. Rheological properties were measured at 5, 25, 45 and 65 °C, on a stress controlled rheometer equipped with grooved a stainless-steel parallel-plate in a shear rate range of 0-300 s-1, with the objective of determining the influence of temperature on the rheological properties. The pseudoplastic behavior with yield stress was well described by the Ostwald-de-Waele (Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley (HB and Mizhari Berk models. The yield stress and behavior index decreased with the increase in the temperatures for 5, 25, and 45 °C whereas for the temperature of 65 °C the effects were the opposite exhibiting elevated values. The viscosity decreased with an increase in temperature, and the Arrhenius equation described adequately the effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity of the puree, in which the activation energy (Ea determined at a shear rate of 100 s-1 was 9.36 kJ.mol-1.As características físicas e físico-químicas do mirtilo (Vaccinium myrtillus produzido no Brasil foram analisadas. As propriedades reológicas foram medidas em 5, 25, 45 e 65 °C, em um reômetro de tensão controlada equipado com geometria rugosa de placas paralelas com taxa de deformação variando de 0-300 s-1 com o objetivo de verificação da influência da temperatura no comportamento do fluido. O comportamento pseudoplástico com tensão residual foi bem descrito pelos modelos de Ostwald-de-Waele (Lei da Potência, Herschel-Bulkley (HB e Mizhari Berk. A tensão residual diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura para 5, 25 e 45 °C, enquanto que para 65 °C os efeitos foram contrários, exibindo elevados valores. A viscosidade diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura e a equação de Arrhenius apresentou uma boa descrição do efeito da temperatura na viscosidade aparente do mirtilo, e a energia de ativação (Ea determinada para uma taxa de

  11. Novel Root-Fungus Symbiosis in Ericaceae: Sheathed Ericoid Mycorrhiza Formed by a Hitherto Undescribed Basidiomycete with Affinities to Trechisporales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohník, Martin; Sadowsky, Jesse J.; Kohout, Petr; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Nestby, Rolf; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ericaceae (the heath family) are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed ‘sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza’, discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity) to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet remain

  12. Observation on Feeding Habit of Dominant Birds and Forage Sites in an Evergreen Broadleaved Forest, Tiantong Forest Park, Zhejiang%天童常绿阔叶林样地中优势鸟类食性与采食地点植物的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 王军馥; 张航; 丁虎林; 唐思贤

    2012-01-01

    Based on observation of food habit of common birds was observed at a 20 hm2 plot from October 2010 to September 2011 in Tiantong Forest Park, Zhejiang, we analyzed the relation between birds and tree species. Among the 3 130 birds of 32 species observed that belong to 5 families and 12 orders 5 species Alcippe morrisonia, Aegithalos concinnus, Parus major, Hemixos castanonotus and Pycnonotus sinensis were dominant. The species of trees perched by birds were correspondingly related to bird species by similarity index and Spearman correlation analysis. Birds Parus major and Aegithalos concinnus more likely foraged on or near trees of Diospyros gtaucifolia, bird Pycnonotus sinensis was near trees of Vaccinium trichocladum and Schoepfia jasminodora in autumn, while birds Hemixos castanonotus selected their forage site near trees of Eurya muricata in summer and autumn.%2010年10月至2011年9月,在浙江天童国家森林公园内的天童20 hm2样地中对鸟类食性进行观察,并对鸟类与植物物种间分布关系进行研究.调查观察到鸟类5目12科32种3 130只次,其中优势种类为灰眶雀鹛(Alcippe morrisonia)、红头[长尾]山雀(Aegithalos concinnus)、大山雀(Parus major)、栗背短脚鹎(Hemixos castanonotus)和白头鹎(Pycnonotus sinensis).采用Sorensen相似性指数和Spearman相关性分析对优势种鸟类与植被分布的关系进行分析,结果显示鸟类分布与植物分布呈对应关系:大山雀和红头[长尾]山雀在同一时期与浙江柿(Diospyros glaucifolia)有相关性,白头鹎同时期与刺毛越橘(Vaccinium trichocladum)和青皮木(Schoepfia jasminodora)相关,栗背短脚鹎在不同时期与同种植物格药柃( Eurya muricata)相关.

  13. Impacto de los sistemas de riego por goteo en arándanos Impact of drip irrigation systems in blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pannunzio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo examinó los efectos de diferentes sistemas de riego por goteo en el rendimiento de la variedad O´Neal de arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L. El estudio se realizó en Zarate (33º 41’ S y 59º 41’ W, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El cultivo se implantó en agosto de 2001, la primera cosecha se efectuó en octubre de 2003. El objetivo fue determinar cual era el sistema de riego por goteo que maximizaba el rendimiento, siendo los tratamientos, un lateral de tubería de goteo por fila de plantas con goteros a 40 cm (T1 y dos laterales de tubería de goteo con goteros a 20 cm por fila de plantas (T2. El porcentaje de suelo mojado por sistema se incrementa a medida que aumenta el número de emisores por metro lineal. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completamente aleatorizados, con bloques de cinco plantas y cinco repeticiones por tratamiento. La cosecha de 2003, reportó rendimientos de 2436 kg ha-1 para el tratamiento T1 y de 4335 kg ha-1 para tratamiento T2. El mojado parcial del suelo que realiza el tratamiento T1, de menor cantidad de goteros por metro lineal, no es suficiente para mojar un porcentaje de suelo compatible con altos rendimientos.The experiment examined the effects of different drip irrigation systems in an O´Neal variety of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. It was contucted at Zarate (33º 41’ S and 59º 41’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plants of the experiment were planted in August of 2001, after one year in nursery. The first harvest was realized in October of 2003. The main scope of the experiment was to find the irrigation system which maximized yields. Treatments were: one drip irrigation line with drippers at 40 cm (T1 and two laterals with drippers at 20 cm per row (T2. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design, each one with 5 plants and 5 replications. During the harvest of October and November of 2003, reported yields were 2436 kg ha-1 for the treatment T1 and

  14. Novel root-fungus symbiosis in Ericaceae: sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza formed by a hitherto undescribed basidiomycete with affinities to Trechisporales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vohník

    Full Text Available Ericaceae (the heath family are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed 'sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza', discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet

  15. First records of Chrysomelidae (Insecta, Coleoptera on blueberries in Argentina: new associations between native chrysomelids and an exotic crop Primeros registros de Chrysomelidae (Insecta, Coleoptera sobre arándanos en Argentina: nuevas asociaciones entre crisomélidos nativos y un cultivo exótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Cabrera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae, is a shrub native to the northern Hemisphere introduced in Argentina, where it occupies small cultivated areas mainly in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos and Tucumán. At present, little is known about insects associated with this crop in Argentina. The aim of this study was to identify the species of Chrysomelidae present in blueberry crops in different regions of Argentina, and to present new chrysomelids-blueberry associations. Identification diagnosis, geographical distribution, association with other plants and aspects of their biology is given for each species. Seven species of crop-damaging Chrysomelidae were recorded in blueberry crops of Buenos Aires and Entre Rios. They belong to the subfamilies Galerucinae: Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, Disonychodes exclamationis (Boheman, Caeporis stigmula Germar, and Cacoscelis melanoptera Germar; Eumolpinae: Percolaspis varia (Lefèvre, and Spintherophyta semiaurata (Klug; and Cryptocephalinae: Lexiphanes coenobita Suffrian.El arándano, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae, es un arbusto nativo del hemisferio Norte, que fue introducido en la Argentina donde ocupa pequeñas áreas cultivadas, principalmente en las provincias de Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos y Tucumán. Hasta la actualidad, se conoce poco sobre los insectos asociados con este cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es relevar las especies de crisomélidos presentes en los cultivos de arándano de diferentes regiones, y aportar nuevas asociaciones crisomélidos-arándano para la Argentina. Para cada especie registrada, se brinda la diagnosis para su reconocimiento, su distribución geográfica, la asociación con otras plantas y algunos aspectos de su biología. Se registraron siete especies de Chrysomelidae que utilizan el arándano como recurso alimenticio en las provincias de Buenos Aires y Entre Ríos: subfamilia Galerucinae: Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, Disonychodes

  16. Above-ground biomass and structure of pristine Siberian Scots pine forests as controlled by competition and fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, C; Schulze, E-D; Schulze, W; von Stünzner-Karbe, D; Ziegler, W; Miljukova, I M; Sogatchev, A; Varlagin, A B; Panvyorov, M; Grigoriev, S; Kusnetzova, W; Siry, M; Hardes, G; Zimmermann, R; Vygodskaya, N N

    1999-10-01

    The study presents a data set of above-ground biomass (AGB), structure, spacing and fire regime, for 24 stands of pristine Siberian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests with lichens (n = 20) or Vaccinium/mosses (n = 4) as ground cover, along four chronosequences. The stands of the "lichen" site type (LT) were stratified into three chronosequences according to stand density and fire history. Allometric equations were established from 90 sample trees for stem, coarse branch, fine branch, twig and needle biomass. The LT stands exhibited a low but sustained biomass accumulation until a stand age of 383 years. AGB reached only 6-10 kgdw m(-2) after 200 years depending on stand density and fire history compared to 20 kgdw m(-2) in the "Vaccinium" type (VT) stands. Leaf area index (LAI) in the LT stands remained at 0.5-1.5 and crown cover was 30-60%, whereas LAI reached 2.5 and crown cover was >100% in the VT stands. Although nearest-neighbour analyses suggested the existence of density-dependent mortality, fire impact turned out to have a much stronger effect on density dynamics. Fire scar dating and calculation of mean and initial fire return intervals revealed that within the LT stands differences in structure and biomass were related to the severity of fire regimes, which in turn was related to the degree of landscape fragmentation by wetlands. Self-thinning analysis was used to define the local carrying capacity for biomass. A series of undisturbed LT stands was used to characterise the upper self-thinning boundary. Stands that had experienced a moderate fire regime were positioned well below the self-thinning boundary in a distinct fire-thinning band of reduced major axis regression slope -0.26. We discuss how this downward shift resulted from alternating phases of density reduction by fire and subsequent regrowth. We conclude that biomass in Siberian Scots pine forests is strongly influenced by fire and that climate change will affect ecosystem

  17. A Critical Approach to Evaluating Clinical Efficacy, Adverse Events and Drug Interactions of Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Angelo A; Hoon-Kim, Sung; Radhakrishnan, Rajan; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses represent the uppermost ladders in the hierarchy of evidence. Systematic reviews/meta-analyses suggest preliminary or satisfactory clinical evidence for agnus castus (Vitex agnus castus) for premenstrual complaints, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) for hypertension, feverfew (Tanacetum partenium) for migraine prevention, ginger (Zingiber officinalis) for pregnancy-induced nausea, ginseng (Panax ginseng) for improving fasting glucose levels as well as phytoestrogens and St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) for the relief of some symptoms in menopause. However, firm conclusions of efficacy cannot be generally drawn. On the other hand, inconclusive evidence of efficacy or contradictory results have been reported for Aloe vera in the treatment of psoriasis, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in cystitis prevention, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) for tinnitus and intermittent claudication, echinacea (Echinacea spp.) for the prevention of common cold and pomegranate (Punica granatum) for the prevention/treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A critical evaluation of the clinical data regarding the adverse effects has shown that herbal remedies are generally better tolerated than synthetic medications. Nevertheless, potentially serious adverse events, including herb-drug interactions, have been described. This suggests the need to be vigilant when using herbal remedies, particularly in specific conditions, such as during pregnancy and in the paediatric population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Identifying Breeding Priorities for Blueberry Flavor Using Biochemical, Sensory, and Genotype by Environment Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jessica L; Guthart, Matthew J; Gezan, Salvador A; Pisaroglo de Carvalho, Melissa; Schwieterman, Michael L; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Sims, Charles A; Clark, David G; Olmstead, James W

    2015-01-01

    Breeding for a subjective goal such as flavor is challenging, as many blueberry cultivars are grown worldwide, and identifying breeding targets relating to blueberry flavor biochemistry that have a high degree of genetic control and low environmental variability are priorities. A variety of biochemical compounds and physical characters induce the sensory responses of taste, olfaction, and somatosensation, all of which interact to create what is perceived flavor. The goal of this study was to identify the flavor compounds with a larger genetic versus environmental component regulating their expression over an array of cultivars, locations, and years. Over the course of three years, consumer panelists rated overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor intensity of 19 southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids) genotypes in 30 sensory panels. Significant positive correlations to overall liking of blueberry fruit (Pflavor (R2 = 0.63). Sourness had a significantly negative relationship with overall liking (R2 = 0.55). The relationship between flavor and texture liking was also linear (R2 = 0.73, Pflavor components, a three year study was conducted to compare genetic and environmental influences on flavor biochemistry. Panelists could discern genotypic variation in blueberry sensory components, and many of the compounds affecting consumer favor of blueberries, such as fructose, pH, β-caryophyllene oxide and 2-heptanone, were sufficiently genetically controlled that allocating resources for their breeding is worthwhile.

  19. Sustained by First Nations: European newcomers' use of Indigenous plant foods in temperate North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Peoples of North America have collectively used approximately 1800 different native species of plants, algae, lichens and fungi as food. When European explorers, traders and settlers arrived on the continent, these native foods, often identified and offered by Indigenous hosts, gave them sustenance and in some cases saved them from starvation. Over the years, some of these species – particularly various types of berries, such as blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp., wild raspberries and blackberries (Rubus spp., and wild strawberries (Fragaria spp., and various types of nuts (Corylus spp., Carya spp., Juglans spp., Pinus spp., along with wild-rice (Zizania spp. and maple syrup (from Acer saccharum – became more widely adopted and remain in use to the present day. Some of these and some other species were used in plant breeding programs, as germplasm for hybridization programs, or to strengthen a crop's resistance to disease. At the same time, many nutritious Indigenous foods fell out of use among Indigenous Peoples themselves, and along with their lessened use came a loss of associated knowledge and cultural identity. Today, for a variety of reasons, from improving people's health and regaining their cultural heritage, to enhancing dietary diversity and enjoyment of diverse foods, some of the species that have dwindled in their use have been “rediscovered” by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Peoples, and indications are that their benefits to humanity will continue into the future.

  20. Medicinal plants and secondary metabolites for diabetes mellitus control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common and complex problems of modern societies which has caused many economic and social problems. Because diabetes has no definite treatment, the use of traditional medicine seems to be an appropriate solution to control and manage it. Studies revealed that Vaccinium Arctostaphylos L., Securigera securidaca L., Gymnema sylvestre L., Atriplex halimus L., Camellia sinensis L., Ginkgo biloba L., Mamordica charantia L., Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L., Silybum marianum (L., Gaertn and Trigonella foenum graecum L. are effective against diabetes. Flavonoids, quercin, metformin, quinolizidine, anthocyanin, catechin and flavone, phenylpropanoids, lipoic acid and coumarin metabolites were introduced major impact on diabetes. With regard to the study of plants and their metabolites and the mechanisms of their influence, it is clear that these plants have the potential to reduce blood sugar and diabetes and be considered as candidates for preparing new drugs. Combination of plants extracts or their components may also have synergistic effects to better act on diabetes.

  1. Toxicological assessment of P-9801091 plant mixture extract after chronic administration in CBA/HZg mice--a biochemical and histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlevski, Roberta; Hadzija, Mirko; Slijepcević, Milivoj; Juretić, Dubravka

    2008-06-01

    Acute, subchronic and chronic effects of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass were assessed in serum of healthy CBA/HZg mice at 24 hours, 7 days, 3 months and 6 months of treatment (experimental group), and compared with the values obtained in the control group of untreated healthy CBA/HZg mice. The P-9801091 plant mixture extract is an antihyperglycemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli fructus sine semine (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefolii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana officinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Toxic effect of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract was assessed by the following biochemical parameters: urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and cholesterol. Also, histopathological examination of the kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, testes and lungs was performed. Results of biochemical testing performed at specified time points generally showed no statistically significant differences from control values, with the only exception of the catalytic concentration of AST in the experimental group measured on day 7, which was significantly increased as compared with the control group (p<0.05). Pathohistological examination including characteristic organ and tissue structure, and parenchyma relationship to the adjacent blood vessels and connective tissue in the examined organs revealed no major pathologic changes.

  2. The Effects of Disturbance History on Ground-Layer Plant Community Composition in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant communities are sensitive to perturbations and may display alternative recovery pathways depending on disturbance history. In sub-boreal lodgepole pine forests of central interior British Columbia, Canada, fire and logging are two widespread landscape disturbances that overlap in many regions. We asked whether cumulative, short-interval disturbance from logging and fire resulted in different ground-layer plant communities than resulted from fire alone. Using field-collected data, we compared the taxonomic composition and functional traits of 3-year old plant communities that were either harvested 6-to-13 years prior, or not harvested prior to being burned in a large stand-replacing fire. The taxonomic composition diverged between the two treatments, driven primarily by differences in a few key indicator species such as Petasites frigidus and Vaccinium membranaceum. Analysis of individual species’ morphological traits indicated that only a few species vary in size in relation to disturbance history. Our data suggest that a history of forest harvest leaves a subtle footprint on post-fire ground-layer plant communities at early stages of succession.

  3. Ethno-botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua-Barcelo, Racquel Tan

    2014-05-01

    To conduct a survey on the common name/s, traditional uses and cultural importance of the edible wild fruits in different municipalities of Benguet, Cordillera administrative region. Interviews using questionnaires with barangay leaders and indigenous people were conducted with 176 key informants from June 2011 to July 2013. A total of 36 fruit species were found in different municipalities of Benguet. These fruit species belong to 27 genera and 20 families. Among the 13 municipalities of Benguet, Kibungan has the highest number of species. There are many uses of wild fruits which ranged from food (snack/dessert/table food), forage (especially for birds, monkeys and wild animals such as cloud rat and grass eaters), offertory, processed/preserved (as jam, jellies, candies, juice and wine), condiment or ingredient (for cooking), source of dye or ink, decoration (to garnish food) and as medicine to common ailments or health problems. Based on the inventory and calculated cultural importance index, Garcinia binucao (balokok) belonging to Clusiaceae is the most abundant fruit, hence it is the commonly used fruit for various purposes such as food, forage, processing/preservation and condiment/ingredient; Vaccinium myrtoides (ayusip) for offerings and as source of dye/ink; Saurauia elegans (uyok) for decoration, and, Antidesma bunius (bugnay) for medicine. Benguet province in the Cordillera region provides a diversity of edible wild fruits. The data gathered from the study signifies that collection, processing and utilization of edible wild fruits are still part of the daily activities of the people in Benguet.

  4. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  5. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of a Polyherbal Mixture in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a polyherbal mixture containing Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrullus colocynthis, Juglans regia, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis, Teucrium polium, Trigonella foenum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium arctostaphylos were tested on biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. The animals were randomized into three groups: (1 normal control, (2 diabetic control, and (3 diabetic rats which received diet containing 15% (w/w of this mixture for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg. At the end of experiment, the mixture had no significant effect on serum hepatic enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. However, the level of fasting blood glucose, water intake, and urine output in treated group was lower than that in diabetic control rats (P<0.01. Also, the levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in polyherbal mixture treated rats were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group (P<0.05. Our results demonstrated that this polyherbal mixture has beneficial effects on blood glucose and lipid profile and it has the potential to be used as a dietary supplement for the management of diabetes.

  6. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  7. Tooth brushing, oil pulling and tissue regeneration: A review of holistic approaches to oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi

    2011-04-01

    Even though dentistry was not a specialized branch of Ayurveda, it is included in its Shalakya Tantra (system of surgery). Problems such as deformities of the oral cavity, plaques and infections were managed in ancient India. Traditional medicine can treat various infectious and chronic conditions. Research has shown that all kinds of chewing sticks described in ancient Ayurveda texts have medicinal and anti-cariogenic properties. Its oil pulling (Kaval, Gandush) practice is claimed to cure about 30 systemic diseases. Amla (Emblic myrobalan), is a general rebuilder of oral health. Bilberry fruit (Vaccinium myrtillus) and hawthorn berry (Crateagus oxycanthus) stabilize collagen, strengthening the gum tissue. Liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabral) promotes anti-cavity action, reduces plaque, and has an antibacterial effect. Use of safe, quality products and practices should be ensured based on available evidence if traditional medicine is to be acknowledged as part of primary health care. Scientific validations of the Ayurveda dental health practices could justify their incorporation into modern dental care. Publicity of these techniques using appropriate media would benefit the general population by giving more confidence in the ancient practices, thus preventing tooth decay and loss.

  8. Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makkar, HPS.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant materials from 14 plant species considered important for medicinal purposes. These plants were evaluated for nutritive value and PSMs: tannins, saponins, lectins, alkaloids and cyanogens. High levels of tannins were found in roots of Bergenia crassifolia and in leaves of B. crassifolia, Vaccinium vitisidaea and Rheum undulatum. High lectin activity (haemagglutination was present in B. crassifolia roots, and leaves of R. undulatum, Iris lacteal and Thymus gobicus contained weak lectin activity. Tanacetum vulgare, Serratula centauroids, Taraxacum officinale and Delphinum elatum leaves contained saponin activity (haemolysis. Alkaloids and cyanogens were not present in any of the samples. The paper discusses the known medicinal uses of these plants in light of the PSMs levels, and identifies plant samples for future applications in human and livestock health, welfare and safety.

  9. The first genetic map of the American cranberry: exploration of synteny conservation and quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, Laura; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Honig, Josh; Das, Sushma Parankush; Rajah, Veeran D; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Bassil, Nahla; Rowland, Lisa J; Polashock, James; Vorsa, Nicholi

    2013-03-01

    The first genetic map of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has been constructed, comprising 14 linkage groups totaling 879.9 cM with an estimated coverage of 82.2 %. This map, based on four mapping populations segregating for field fruit-rot resistance, contains 136 distinct loci. Mapped markers include blueberry-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cranberry-derived sequence-characterized amplified region markers previously used for fingerprinting cranberry cultivars. In addition, SSR markers were developed near cranberry sequences resembling genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis or defense against necrotrophic pathogens, or conserved orthologous set (COS) sequences. The cranberry SSRs were developed from next-generation cranberry genomic sequence assemblies; thus, the positions of these SSRs on the genomic map provide information about the genomic location of the sequence scaffold from which they were derived. The use of SSR markers near COS and other functional sequences, plus 33 SSR markers from blueberry, facilitates comparisons of this map with maps of other plant species. Regions of the cranberry map were identified that showed conservation of synteny with Vitis vinifera and Arabidopsis thaliana. Positioned on this map are quantitative trait loci (QTL) for field fruit-rot resistance (FFRR), fruit weight, titratable acidity, and sound fruit yield (SFY). The SFY QTL is adjacent to one of the fruit weight QTL and may reflect pleiotropy. Two of the FFRR QTL are in regions of conserved synteny with grape and span defense gene markers, and the third FFRR QTL spans a flavonoid biosynthetic gene.

  10. Production and viability of unreduced gametes in triploid interspecific blueberry hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweikat, I M; Lyrene, P M

    1988-10-01

    Three triploid (2n=3x=36) blueberry hybrids were obtained by hand-pollinating approximately 7,000 flowers of tetraploid highbush blueberry cultivars (based on Vaccinium corymbosum L.) with pollen from the diploid species V. elliottii Chapm. Meiotic analysis of these triploids revealed trivalents, bivalents and univalents in all metaphase I cells, with lagging chromosomes evident at anaphase I. Pollen of the three triploids was mostly aborted and did not stain with acetocarmine. However, the three triploids did produce from 0.9%-1.3% giant pollen grains that stained with acetocarmine and were present as monads, dyads or triads, rather than the normal tetrads. Pollination of 10,853 flowers of hexaploid V. ashei Reade cultivars with pollen from the triploids produced 266 berries, which averaged fewer than two fully-developed seeds per berry. One triploid clone showed partial female fertility when crossed to hexaploids, self-pollinated, or intercrossed with other triploids. Ploidy levels of the resulting hybrids were determined.

  11. Utilization of blueberry by the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae): survival, development, and larval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, D; Molina, J Ma

    2004-06-01

    The lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner [1820] (Lasiocampidae), is a common species found in blueberry, Vaccinium spp. (Ericaceae) fields of Western Andalusia. The biology of this species as well as the extent to which its larvae can use and survive on blueberry is unknown. In this study, the suitability to larvae of several blueberry cultivars was studied. Larvae were grown under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage of six blueberry cultivars. Survival, development, and food use were determined for first and fifth instars. According to our results, blueberry has become an alternative host plant for S. panda in southwestern Andalusia. Low growth rates and efficiencies of use of food were observed. Lower gross efficiency of growth was found for larvae fed blueberry 'Sharpblue', despite a higher apparent digestibility of this cultivar. Larvae reared on this cultivar had the highest mortality, increased developmental time, and used a greater part of metabolism for maintenance. Herbivore pressure may be increased with the widespread planting of the most suitable cultivars 'Misty' and 'O'Neal', whereas 'Sharpblue' and'Climax' seem to be the least suitable host plants. These data provide useful information for planning and managing blueberry orchards in the presence of S. panda populations.

  12. Mixtures of coal ash and compost as substrates for highbush blueberry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, B.L.; Zimmerman, R.H. [ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA). USDA Henry A Wallace Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, Fruit Lab.

    2002-07-01

    Bottom ash from a coal-fired power plant and two composts were tested as components of soil-free media and as soil amendments for growing highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Combinations of ash and compost were compared to Berryland sand, and Manor clay loam, and compost amended Manor clay loam. The pH of all treatment media was adjusted to 4.5 with sulfur at the beginning of the experiment. In 1997, plants of 'Bluecrop' and 'Sierra' were planted in 15-dm{sup 3} pots containing the pH-adjusted treatment media. The first substantial crop was harvested in 1999. At the end of the 1999 season, one half of the plants were destructively harvested for growth analysis. The remaining plants were cropped again in 2000. Yield and fruit size data were collected in both seasons, and leaf and fruit samples were collected in 1999 for elemental analysis. The presence of coal ash or composted biosolids in the media had no detrimental effect on leaf or fruit elemental content. Total growth and yield of both cultivars was reduced in clay loam soil compared to Berryland sand, whereas growth and yield of plants in coal ash-compost was similar to or exceeded that of plants in Berryland sand.

  13. Comparison and screening of bioactive phenolic compounds in different blueberry cultivars: Evaluation of anti-oxidation and α-glucosidase inhibition effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Zhou, Qing; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Li, Xing; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Jiu-Liang

    2017-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate antioxidation and α-glucosidase inhibition of the bioactive compounds in three cultivars of blueberry ('Northland' (NL) from the hybrid blueberry (V. corymbosum L.×V. angustifolium Aiton), 'Britewell' (BW), and 'Gardenblue' (GB) from the rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade)). A total of eighteen anthocyanins were identified and quantified in Anthocyanins (ACNs), among which four acylated anthocyanins were exclusively found in Northland. The blueberry anthocyanin extracts (BAEs) were further measured the antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibition effect. Northland BAEs exhibited significantly superior antioxidant activity compared with BAEs of other cultivars, and the antioxidant activity was correlated with the content of anthocyanins. However, α-glucosidase inhibition test showed that Britewell BAEs had the strongest inhibitory effect. BAEs were further separated into anthocyanin fraction (AF) and copigment fraction (CF). Fifteen phenolic acids and four iridoids were identified in CF. In terms of α-glucosidase inhibition effects, the CF from three cultivars could inhibit α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner, while the AF did not show significant inhibitory effects. The blueberry exhibits excellent antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cooked blueberries: anthocyanin and anthocyanidin degradation and their radical-scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla; Amaro, L Filipe; Pinho, Olivia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2010-08-25

    This study examined anthocyanin and anthocyanidin composition and radical-scavenging activity of three cultivars of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L., cv. Bluecrop, Bluetravel, and Ozarkblue) before and after cooking. A total of 13 anthocyanins were separated and monitored in methanolic extracts of raw fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector (HPLC/DAD). Principal component analysis using the anthocyanin profile as variables revealed differences according to cultivar origin. Of the six common anthocyanidins, four were identified and quantified in the hydrolysates, namely, malvidin, the most abundant, followed by cyanidin, petunidin, and delphynidin. A systematic evaluation of the degradation of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins of blueberries cooked in stuffed fish was performed. The percentage of anthocyanin degradation in cooked blueberries (by progressive heating from 12 to 99 °C for 60 min) ranged between 16 and 30% for Bluecrop, 30-42% for Bluetravel, and 12-41% for Ozarkblue. However, cooked blueberries maintained or increased radical-scavenging activity when evaluated by the 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Overall, results show that cooked blueberries can serve as a good source of bioactive phytochemicals.

  15. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of blueberry cultivars grown in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of the phenolic compounds and anthocyanins and the antioxidant activity of blueberry (Vaccinium sp. cultivars grown in Brazil. The Folin-Ciocalteau method was applied in order to quantify the phenolic compounds and ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and β-carotene/linoleic acid methods were applied in order to evaluated antioxidant activity. The phenolic compounds content ranged from 274.48 to 694.60 mg GAE.100 g-1 of fresh weight (FW. Anthocyanins content ranged from 40.62 to 378.31 mg.100 g-1 FW for Bluecrop and Tifblue cultivars, respectively. Antioxidant activities assessed by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods presented significant differences among the studied cultivars ranging from 1238.48 to 2445.96, 1014.24 to 2055.06 and 699.78 to 1740.25 µmol TEAC.100 g-1 FW, respectively. The results confirm the blueberry as a source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity and also show that there are different levels of concentrations of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity according to the cultivar and production location.

  16. Element interactions and soil properties affecting the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roivainen, Paeivi; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, Kuopio (Finland)

    2012-03-15

    Cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), uranium (U), and zinc (Zn) are among the elements that have radioactive isotopes in radioactive waste. Soil-to-plant transfer is a key process for possible adverse effects if these radionuclides are accidentally released into the environment. The present study aimed at investigating factors affecting such transfer in boreal forest. The plant species studied were blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Regression analyses were carried out to investigate the effects of the chemical composition and physical properties of soil on the soil-to-leaf/needle concentration ratios of Co, Mo, Ni, Pb, U and Zn. Soil potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) concentrations were the most important factors affecting the soil-to-plant transfer of the elements studied. Soil clay and organic matter contents were found to significantly affect plant uptake of Mo, Pb and U. Knowledge of the effects of these factors is helpful for interpretation of the predictions of radioecological models describing soil-to-plant transfer and for improving such models. (orig.)

  17. Anti-Tumor Activity of a Polysaccharide from Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyun Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (Vaccinium spp. are rich in bioactive compounds. However, the biological activity of polysaccharides from blueberry has not been reported so far. This study evaluated the anti-tumor and immunological activities of a polysaccharide (BBP3-1 from blueberry in S180-bearing mice. The experimental results indicated that BBP3-1 (100 mg·kg−1·d−1 inhibited the tumor growth rate by 73.4%. Moreover, this group, compared with the model control, had shown an effect of increasing both the spleen and thymus indices (p < 0.05, increasing phagocytosis by macrophages (p < 0.05, boosting the proliferation and transformation of lymphocytes (p < 0.01, promoting the secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 (p < 0.05 and improving NK cell activity (p < 0.01. From this study, we could easily conclude that BBP3-1 has the ability to inhibit tumor progression and could act as a good immunomodulator.

  18. Occurrence and biology of Tolype innocens (Burmeister on blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salvador Louzada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 is reported for the first time damaging blueberry (Vaccinium ashei plants in Brazil having the caterpillars feeding on leaves and new shoots. T. innocens biology was studied on blueberry leaves in laboratory conditions and then a fertility life table was elaborated. Developmental time and viability of egg, larval and pupal stages and egg-adult period were 15.0 and 35.3, 33.3 and 84.5, 20.6 and 100, and 69.2 days and 45%, respectively. Average pupal weight was 0.840g for the females and 0.580g for the males. The sex ratio was 0.5. Pre-oviposition and oviposition time lasted 6.34 and 12.1 days, respectively. Mean fecundity was 251 eggs per female. Eggs were laid either individually or in masses. Longevity was 19.0 and 20.0 days for males and females, respectively. T. innocens population increased 47 times per generation, with a mean generation time of 77 days, and a finite rate of increase of 1.02. This data on biological parameters will be useful for establishing control strategies.

  19. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  20. Photosynthesis and Yellow Vine Syndrome of American Cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey J. M. Hou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. contains rich antioxidants and has significant health benefits in fighting a variety of human diseases. In the past ten years, cranberry growers have reported yellow vine syndrome, which is associated with reduced photosynthetic performance, in the cranberry bogs. It has been found that the yellow vine syndrome of cranberry is associated with nutritional imbalance; it might be an issue for cranberry quality and food security as well as the crop production. This review evaluates the present state of knowledge of yellow vine syndrome, together with recent advances that are resulting from an improved mechanistic understanding and a possible solution that will be of considerable value to cranberry growers. This review also includes results from the author’s own laboratory. Water stress, nutritional imbalance, and photoinhibition are the likely reasons for producing yellow vine of cranberry. Future endeavors should be placed on the combination of genetic, biochemical, and biophysical techniques at the molecular level and plant physiology at the field and greenhouse level. This may provide specific information in order to understand the molecular details of yellow vine of cranberry as well as a tool for guiding future breeding efforts and management practices.

  1. Detection of plant growth enhancing features in psychrotolerant yeasts from Patagonia (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Bruzone, María Clara; Fernández, Natalia Veronica; Dames, Joanna

    2016-10-01

    This study explores the biotechnological potential for plant production of twelve psychrotolerant yeasts strains from Northwest-Patagonia. These strains were isolated from different substrates associated with Nothofagus sp. in native forests and Vaccinium sp. in a commercial plantation. Yeasts characterization was performed using in vitro assays to evaluate the production of auxin-like compounds and siderophores, ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate and to reduce common plant pathogen growth. Strain YF8.3 identified as Aureobasidium pullullans was the main producer of auxin-like and siderophores compounds. Phosphate solubilization was a characteristic observed by strains L8.12 and CRUB1775 identified as Holtermaniella takashimae and Candida maritima, respectively. Different yeast strains were able to inhibit the growth of Verticillium dahliae PPRI5569 and Pythium aphanidermatum PPRI 9009, but they all failed to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum PPRI5457. The present study, suggests that yeasts present in different environments in Northwestern-Patagonian have physiological in vitro features which may influence plant growth. These results are promising for the developing of biological products based on Patagonian yeasts for plant production in cold-temperate regions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Honeybees increase fruit set in native plant species important for wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wild cherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  3. How alpine heathlands response to the snow cover change on the ski slope? Long-lasting ski slope impact case study from the Hrubý Jeseník Mts (Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Zeidler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and duration of snow cover are important variables that affect ecosystem processes in the alpine zone. The establishment of ski resorts dramatically change their surrounding environment and ski slopes represent significant anthropogenic impact in the mountains. We assessed the changes in environmental factors, phenology, growth, and reproductive performance of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus, a dominant species of alpine heathlands, caused by a “nature-friendly” managed ski slope (i.e., without artificial snow and machine grading at permanent plots established on the ski slope under operations (inside the ski slope and on an unaffected control area (outside the ski slope. A lower mean temperature and a shorter time of great temperature fluctuation during snow melting, a longer time span of snow cover, and a higher snow water equivalent were observed inside the ski slope compared to outside it. Due to changed environmental conditions, the beginning of growth was postponed, and a delay in phenological development was observed in the bilberry at the ski slope. However, bilberry ripened both inside and outside the ski slope in a similar period and showed similar cover and even higher flower and fruit densities inside the ski slope compared with natural surroundings. The persistence of bilberry was not deteriorated and its performance was even better inside the ski slope. On the ski slope, managed snow cover can reduce the potential vegetation shifts due to expected impact of the climate warming. That should be taken into account in conservation and management planning.

  4. Antihyperlipidemic effect of a polyherbal mixture in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Borji, Abasalt

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a polyherbal mixture containing Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrullus colocynthis, Juglans regia, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis, Teucrium polium, Trigonella foenum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium arctostaphylos were tested on biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. The animals were randomized into three groups: (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, and (3) diabetic rats which received diet containing 15% (w/w) of this mixture for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). At the end of experiment, the mixture had no significant effect on serum hepatic enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. However, the level of fasting blood glucose, water intake, and urine output in treated group was lower than that in diabetic control rats (P < 0.01). Also, the levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in polyherbal mixture treated rats were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that this polyherbal mixture has beneficial effects on blood glucose and lipid profile and it has the potential to be used as a dietary supplement for the management of diabetes.

  5. Phylogeny of Phaeomollisia piceae gen. sp. nov.: a dark, septate, conifer-needle endophyte and its relationships to Phialocephala and Acephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünig, Christoph R; Queloz, Valentin; Duò, Angelo; Sieber, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    Dark, septate endophytes (DSE) were isolated from roots and needles of dwarf Picea abies and from roots of Vaccinium spp. growing on a permafrost site in the Jura Mountains in Switzerland. Two of the isolates sporulated after incubation for more than one year at 4 degrees C. One of them was a hitherto undescribed helotialean ascomycete Phaeomollisia piceae gen. sp. nov., the other was a new species of Phialocephala, P. glacialis sp. nov. Both species are closely related to DSE of the Phialocephala fortinii s. lat.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) as revealed by phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and 18S rDNA regions. Morphologically dissimilar fungi, such as Vibrissea and Loramyces species, are phylogenetically also closely linked to the new species and the PAC. Cadophora lagerbergii and C. (Phialophora) botulispora are moved to Phialocephala because Phialocephala dimorphospora and P. repens are the closest relatives. Several Mollisia species were closely related to the new species and the PAC according to ITS sequence comparisons. One DSE from needles of Abies alba and one from shoots of Castanea sativa formed Cystodendron anamorphs in culture. Their identical 18S sequences and almost identical ITS sequences indicated Mollisia species as closest relatives, suggesting that Mollisia species are highly euryoecious.

  6. Activity of broad-spectrum and reduced-risk insecticides on various life stages of cranberry fruitworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in highbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John C; Jenkins, Paul E; Poppen, Ryan Vander; Isaacs, Rufus

    2010-10-01

    Laboratory and semifield bioassays were conducted to determine the life-stage activity of insecticides for controlling cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a key lepidopteran pest of highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L. The organophosphates azinphosmethyl and phosmet, the pyrethroid esfenvalerate, and the carbamate methomyl were lethal to all life stages. The neonicotinoids thiacloprid and acetamiprid demonstrated strong larvicidal and ovicidal activity but were somewhat weaker adulticides than the conventional broad-spectrum compounds. Bacillus thuringiensis, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate were shown to control A. vacinii primarily through their larvicidal activity. Spinosad was toxic to all life stages, including eggs laid on top of residues and those that were treated topically, but larvicidal activity was short lived. The growth regulators pyriproxyfen and novaluron had strong ovicidal activity when eggs were laid on top of residues but had limited larvicidal activity. Tebufenozide was not directly toxic to eggs, but demonstrated larvicidal activity, and ovilarvicidal activity when topically applied to eggs. Azinphosmethyl, phosmet, indoxacarb, thiacloprid, and acetamiprid were all toxic to the egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum Riley. In contrast pyriproxyfen, emamectin benzoate, methomyl, novaluron, and spinosad did not negatively affect the survival of T. minutum within Acrobasis vacinii eggs. These results help inform the ongoing development of integrated strategies for insect management in blueberry.

  7. Determination of free amino acids and 18 elements in freeze-dried strawberry and blueberry fruit using an Amino Acid Analyzer and ICP-MS with micro-wave digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Hai-Tian; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Dong, Ai-Jun; Jing, Jing; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the level of 18 trace elements of two freeze-dried samples from the Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and the Strawberry (Fragaria × Ananassa). The total free amino acid composition in the blueberry and strawberry was determined by an Amino Acid Analyzer. Eleven free amino acids were found in both berries. The trace elements in each dried fruit sample were determined by ICP-MS with microwave digestion. The linearity range of the standard curves was 0-1250.0 μg L(-1) (Mg, P, K, Ca),while in all cases, except for B, Na, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Pb, Ge and As, which was 125.0 μg mL(-1), all related coefficients were above 0.9999; recovery was in the range of 79.0-106.8%. Minor concentrations of nutritional elements were found in each freeze-dried berry. In sum, the toxic trace element analysis found the content of toxic trace elements in each freeze-dried berry sample was safe for human consumption and that the overall quality of the blueberry surpassed that of the strawberry. The results certify that the two freeze-dried berries have potential for human consumption in value-added products and have a certain theoretical and practical significance.

  8. Tooth brushing, oil pulling and tissue regeneration: A review of holistic approaches to oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though dentistry was not a specialized branch of Ayurveda, it is included in its Shalakya Tantra (system of surgery. Problems such as deformities of the oral cavity, plaques and infections were managed in ancient India. Traditional medicine can treat various infectious and chronic conditions. Research has shown that all kinds of chewing sticks described in ancient Ayurveda texts have medicinal and anti-cariogenic properties. Its oil pulling (Kaval, Gandush practice is claimed to cure about 30 systemic diseases. Amla (Emblic myrobalan, is a general rebuilder of oral health. Bilberry fruit (Vaccinium myrtillus and hawthorn berry (Crateagus oxycanthus stabilize collagen, strengthening the gum tissue. Liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabral promotes anti-cavity action, reduces plaque, and has an antibacterial effect. Use of safe, quality products and practices should be ensured based on available evidence if traditional medicine is to be acknowledged as part of primary health care. Scientific validations of the Ayurveda dental health practices could justify their incorporation into modern dental care. Publicity of these techniques using appropriate media would benefit the general population by giving more confidence in the ancient practices, thus preventing tooth decay and loss.

  9. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Murray

    Full Text Available Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp., grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

  10. Structure and Composition of Old-Growth and Unmanaged Second-Growth Riparian Forests at Redwood National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of second-growth riparian stands has become an important issue for managers of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl. forest reserves. Identifying differences between old-growth and second-growth forest vegetation is a necessary step in evaluating restoration needs and targets. The objective of this study was to characterize and contrast vegetation structure and composition in old-growth and unmanaged second-growth riparian forests in adjacent, geomorphologically similar watersheds at Redwood National Park. In the old-growth, redwood was the dominant overstory species in terms of stem density, basal area, and importance values. Second-growth was dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong., Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco, and redwood. Understory species were similar in both forests, with several key differences: Oxalis oregana Nutt. and Trillium ovatum Pursh had greater importance values in the old-growth, and Vaccinium parvifolium Sm., Dryopteris spp. and sedges Carex spp. had greater importance values in the second-growth. Notable differences in structure and composition suggest that restoration practices such as thinning could expedite the acquisition of old-growth characteristics in second-growth riparian forests.

  11. Studies in Neotropical paleobotany. XIII. An Oligo-Miocene palynoflora from Simojovel (Chiapas, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A

    1999-01-01

    A plant microfossil assemblage of 24 identified and five unknown pollen and spore types is reported from the early Miocene La Quinta Formation near Simojovel, Chiapas, Mexico. The taxa group into seven paleocommunities representing versions of the modern mangroves (Pelliciera, Rhizophora), swamp and lowland riparian forest (Ceratopteris, Crudia, Pachira), tropical rain forest (Selaginella, cf. Antrophyum, Pteris, Sphaeropteris/Trichipteris, cf. Aguiaria, Crudia, Guarea, Pachira), lower montane rain forest (Alfaroa/Oreomunnea, possibly Eugenia), evergreen cloud forest [Picea, Pinus, Podocarpus, Ericaceae (possibly Cavendishia/Vaccinium)], evergreen seasonal forest (Hymenaea, Ilex, possibly Eugenia), and tropical deciduous forest (Cedrela). Elements of arid and high-elevation habitats were absent or few, and northern temperate elements (Picea, Pinus?) were few or rare. Paleoelevations are estimated at 1000-1200 m (present average 2000 m, maximum 3004 m), MAT (mean annual temperature) at least as warm as the present 24°C, and annual rainfall near the present ∼2500 mm but more evenly distributed. The La Quinta (Simojovel) and other Tertiary floras from the region reflect a trend toward higher altitudes, more seasonal rainfall, cooling tempertures, increased introduction of cool-temperate elements from the north after ∼15 Ma (million years), and increased introduction of tropical elements from the south after completion of the isthmian land bridge ∼3.5 Ma ago.

  12. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of the northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, Edward E.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  13. 蓝莓抑菌活性研究进展%Progress in Antibacterial Activity of Blueberries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 孙晓红; 曹奕; 赵勇; Vivian C.H.Wu; 潘迎捷

    2013-01-01

    越橘属的蓝莓含有酚类物质、有机酸类、花青素类和糖类等生物活性成分.较早研究表明,蓝莓具有抗感染、抗氧化、抗肿瘤等功能,而近年的研究表明蓝莓具有抑菌作用.本文介绍了蓝莓的抑菌活性,分析了蓝莓中的抑菌活性成分,同时概括了蓝莓提取物对各种菌体的抑菌机理.%Blueberry was belong to Vaccinium spp.,which contained the biological active component of phenolic substances,organic acids,anthocyan and sugars.Early it was researched that blueberries had the ftmction of anti-infection,oxidation,anti-tumor.But recently,it was suggested that blueberry had bacteriostasis.The activity of bacteriostasis in blueberry was covered in this paper.And the antibacterial activity ingredients in blueberries were analyzed.In addition,the antibacterial mechanism of blueberry extract to all kinds of bacteria was summarized.

  14. Les indicateurs de la pression du cerf élaphe sur la végétation du sous-bois en forêt feuillue tempérée (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehaire, F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of red deer pressure on understory vegetation in temperate deciduous forest. A review. During recent decades, populations of large herbivores have increased. Consequently, their pressure on forest vegetation has been exacerbated and, in some forests, has reached levels that have reduced the diversity of forest ecosystem services. Assessing the balance between timber production and hunting remains a crucial question for forest users (foresters, hunters and requires reliable tools such as ecological indicators. This paper reviews the ecological indicators that characterize the pressure of red deer (Cervus elaphus L. on understory vegetation in temperate deciduous forest. Such indicators monitor the cover, height, stem density, biomass and species diversity of different indicator plant groups. These plant groups embrace species belonging to the herbaceous stratum, forest regeneration or particular species such as bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. and bramble (Rubus fruticosus L.. As the choice of indicator plants affects considerably the performance of the ecological indicator of deer pressure on understory vegetation, such decisions must be carried out with caution, taking into account plant abundance and palatability. The reviewed indicators help us to understand the relationship between biodiversity, carrying capacity and deer populations. They are intended for use by forest managers who would like to monitor red deer pressure in relation to forest management goals and forest sustainability.

  15. Effect of NPK fertilization and elemental sulphur on growth and yield of lowbush blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. STARAST

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of fertilizers on the pH of former arable soils and on the growth and the yield of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.. Lowbush blueberry fertilization experiments were established in 1999 at two locations – at Kärla, Saaremaa, West Estonia and at Vasula, Tartu County, South Estonia. Experimental sites were situated on different soils: soil pHKCl at Kärla was 5.5 and at Vasula 6.2. Elemental sulphur and acidifying fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and superphosphate were used in both plantations. Fertilizers were applied based on nutrient in the soil and sulphur was applied at 100 g m–2. Plant growth was recorded in 2001, 2002 and 2003. A positive influence of NPK fertilization on yield was found in both Kärla and Vasula, and yield were 336 g and 41 g higher compared to the control, respectively. The vegetative growth and yield of blueberry depended significantly on soil pH. Elemental sulphur increased soil acidity and on loamy sand soil did not increase plant productivity. The sulphur effect on soil pH began to decrease three years after application. Sulphur can be recommended to increase soil acidity in nutrient-rich soil but, not nutrient poor soil with light texture, where only NPK fertilizers were effective.;

  16. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects.

  17. Bilberry adulteration using the food dye amaranth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Kerry G; Halstead, Clynton W; Matthias, Anita; De Voss, James J; Stuthe, Julia M U; Bone, Kerry M; Lehmann, Reginald P

    2006-09-20

    Vaccinium myrtillus or bilberry fruit is a commonly used herbal product. The usual method of determining the anthocyanin content is a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay. Using this method, anthocyanin levels of two extracts were found to be 25% as claimed by the manufacturers. When high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used, however, one extract was found to contain 9% anthocyanins probably not derived from V. myrtillus but from an adulterant. This adulterant was subsequently identified, using HPLC, mass spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, as amaranth, that is, 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-sulfo-1-naphthalenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt-a synthetic dark red sulfonic acid based naphthylazo dye. As described in this study, if deliberate adulteration occurs in an extract, a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay is inadequate to accurately determine the levels of compounds such as anthocyanins. Detection of deliberate adulteration in commercial samples thus requires the use of alternative, more sophisticated, methods of analysis such as HPLC with photodiode array detection as a minimum.

  18. Complementarity in mineral nitrogen use among dominant plant species in a subalpine community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornon, André; Escaravage, Nathalie; Lamaze, Thierry

    2007-11-01

    The underlying mechanisms that enable plant species to coexist are poorly understood. Complementarity in resource use is among the major mechanisms proposed that could favor species coexistence but is insufficiently documented. In alpine soil, low temperatures are a major constraint for the supply of plant nitrogen. We carried out (15)N labeling of soil mineral N to determine to what extent four major species of a subalpine community compete for N, or develop ionic (NH(4)(+) vs. NO(3)(-)) or temporal complementarity. The Poaceae took up much more (15)N per soil area unit than the ericaceous species, and all species displayed three major strategies in exploiting (15)N: (1) uptake mainly early in the growing season (Vaccinium myrtillus), (2) uptake at a slow and similar rate throughout the growing season (Rhododendron ferrugineum), and (3) uptake at high rates over the growing season (Festuca eskia and Nardus stricta). However, while F. eskia used (15)NH(4)(+) mainly early and (15)NO(3)(-) mainly late in the growing season, the reverse was observed for N. stricta. Taking into account (15)N dilution in soil NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) pools, we calculated that NH(4)(+) provided more than 80% of the mineral N uptake in Ericaceae and about 60% in grasses. Together, such ionic and temporal complementarity would reduce competition between species and could be a major mechanism promoting species diversity.

  19. CÉLULAS SOLARES SENSIBILIZADAS POR CORANTES NATURAIS: UM EXPERIMENTO INTRODUTÓRIO SOBRE ENERGIA RENOVÁVEL PARA ALUNOS DE GRADUAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela G. Sonai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An interesting practical experiment about the preparation of dye–sensitized solar cells (DSSC using natural dyes were carried out by the undergraduate students in the chemistry course at UNICAMP . Natural dyes were extracted from blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L., jabuticabas (Myrciaria cauliflora, raw and cooked beets (Beta vulgaris L., and annattos (Bixa orellana L., which were used to sensitize TiO2 films that composed the photoanode in the DSSC. A polymer electrolyte containing an iodide/triiodide redox couple was used in lieu of the use of liquid solutions to prevent any leakage in the devices. A maximum solar-to-electric energy conversion of 0.26 ± 0.02% was obtained for the solar cell prepared with annatto extracts. This experiment was an effective way to illustrate to the undergraduate students how to apply some of the chemical concepts that they learned during their chemistry course to produce electric energy from a clean and renewable energy source. Teachers could also exploit the basics of the electronic transitions in inorganic and organic compounds (e.g., metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ϖ-ϖ* transitions, thermodynamics (e.g., Gibbs free energy, acid–base reactions in the oxide solid surface and electrolyte, and band theory (i.e., the importance of the Fermi level energy.

  20. Anthocyanin Incorporated Dental Copolymer: Bacterial Growth Inhibition, Mechanical Properties, and Compound Release Rates and Stability by 1H NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Hrynash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate bacterial growth inhibition, mechanical properties, and compound release rate and stability of copolymers incorporated with anthocyanin (ACY; Vaccinium macrocarpon. Methods. Resin samples were prepared (Bis-GMA/TEGDMA at 70/30 mol% and incorporated with 2 w/w% of either ACY or chlorhexidine (CHX, except for the control group. Samples were individually immersed in a bacterial culture (Streptococcus mutans for 24 h. Cell viability (n=3 was assessed by counting the number of colony forming units on replica agar plates. Flexural strength (FS and elastic modulus (E were tested on a universal testing machine (n=8. Compound release and chemical stability were evaluated by UV spectrophotometry and 1H NMR (n=3. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05. Results. Both compounds inhibited S. mutans growth, with CHX being most effective (P<0.05. Control resin had the lowest FS and E values, followed by ACY and CHX, with statistical difference between control and CHX groups for both mechanical properties (P<0.05. The 24 h compound release rates were ACY: 1.33 μg/mL and CHX: 1.92 μg/mL. 1H NMR spectra suggests that both compounds remained stable after being released in water. Conclusion. The present findings indicate that anthocyanins might be used as a natural antibacterial agent in resin based materials.

  1. Identification of polyphenols and their metabolites in human urine after cranberry-syrup consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswaldi, Ihsan; Arráez-Román, David; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Contreras, María Del Mar; Uberos, José; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    As the beneficial effects of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can be partly attributed to its phenolic composition, the evaluation of the physiological behaviour of this fraction is crucial. A rapid and sensitive method by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) has been used to identify phenolic metabolites in human urine after a single dose of cranberry syrup. Prior to the analysis, metabolites were extracted using an optimised solid-phase extraction procedure. All possible metabolites were investigated based on retention time, accurate mass data and isotope and fragmentation patterns. Free coumaroyl hexose (isomer 1 and 2), dihydroxybenzoic acid, caffeoyl glucose, dihydroferulic acid 4-O-β-d-glucuronide, methoxyquercetin 3-O-galactoside, scopoletin, myricetin and quercetin, together with other 23 phase-I and phase-II metabolites, including various isomers, could be tentatively identified in the urine. Afterwards, the metabolites were simultaneously screened in the urine of different subjects at 0, 2, 4, and 6h after the ingestion of cranberry syrup by Target Analysis(TM) software.

  2. Adhesion of Asaia bogorensis to Glass and Polystyrene in the Presence of Cranberry Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolak, Hubert; Kregiel, Dorota; Czyzowska, Agata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion abilities of the acetic acid bacterium Asaia bogorensis to glass and polystyrene in the presence of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice. The strain of A. bogorensis used was isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored drinking water. The cranberry juice was analyzed for polyphenols, organic acids, and carbohydrates using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The adhesive abilities of bacterial cells in culture medium supplemented with cranberry juice were determined using luminometry and microscopy. The viability of adhered and planktonic bacterial cells was determined by the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. This strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties that were dependent upon the type of surface. The highest level of cell adhesion was found on the polystyrene. However, in the presence of 10% cranberry juice, attachment of bacterial cells was three times lower. Chemical analysis of juice revealed the presence of sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanins, which were identified as galactosides, glucosides, and arabinosides of cyanidin and peonidin. A-type proanthocyanidins responsible for the antiadhesion properties of V. macrocarpon also were detected.

  3. Temporal effects of hunting on foraging behavior of an apex predator: Do bears forego foraging when risk is high?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Anne G; Zedrosser, Andreas; Mysterud, Atle; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Steyaert, Sam M J G; Swenson, Jon E

    2016-12-01

    Avoiding predators most often entails a food cost. For the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos), the hunting season coincides with the period of hyperphagia. Hunting mortality risk is not uniformly distributed throughout the day, but peaks in the early morning hours. As bears must increase mass for winter survival, they should be sensitive to temporal allocation of antipredator responses to periods of highest risk. We expected bears to reduce foraging activity at the expense of food intake in the morning hours when risk was high, but not in the afternoon, when risk was low. We used fine-scale GPS-derived activity patterns during the 2 weeks before and after the onset of the annual bear hunting season. At locations of probable foraging, we assessed abundance and sugar content, of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), the most important autumn food resource for bears in this area. Bears decreased their foraging activity in the morning hours of the hunting season. Likewise, they foraged less efficiently and on poorer quality berries in the morning. Neither of our foraging measures were affected by hunting in the afternoon foraging bout, indicating that bears did not allocate antipredator behavior to times of comparably lower risk. Bears effectively responded to variation in risk on the scale of hours. This entailed a measurable foraging cost. The additive effect of reduced foraging activity, reduced forage intake, and lower quality food may result in poorer body condition upon den entry and may ultimately reduce reproductive success.

  4. Land Surface Coverage, Main Vegetation and Physical Soil Characteristics of West Side of Lawu Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahayu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of catchment area management of a mountain requeres identification the vegetation and condition of the major vegetation. This reserachs purpouse was characterizing major vegetation, coverage and soil properties at 1000 m elevation sea level to the top of Lawu mountain. Survey was started by identification of every vegetation unit followed by taking soil sample that was analyzed in laboratory for identifying the properties. Sampling and identification conducted close by common climbing track line to the top, including Jogorogo and Cemoro Sewu East Java, and Cemoro Kandang and Sukuh Central java. Coverage of vegetation used sattellite immage landsad and was analyzed by Arview software. Results showed that intens and dense forest was 36,22% and the other was rare density forest. Major vegetation of Lawu mountain was Pinus (Pinus merkusii, Cemara (Casuarina equisatifolia, Tanganan (Schleptera sp, Akasia gunung (Acasia decurren, rumput vestuca, Cantigi (Vaccinium sp kayu pasang (Lithocarpus pruinusa and vegetables on agriculture land. Every type of vegetation unit had different soil physycal properties of topsoil, while elevation had effect on soil bulk volume and porocity.

  5. Wild plants used for food by Hungarian ethnic groups living in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dénes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A list of plant species used for food in Hungary and among Hungarian ethnic groups of the Carpathian Basin during the 19th and 20th centuries was compiled from 71 ethnographic and ethnobotanical sources and a survey among contemporary Hungarian botanists. Species used as food, spice, beverage or occasional snacks were collected. Sources mention 236 plant species belonging to 68 families. Most wild fleshy fruits (mostly Rosa, Rubus, Cornus, Ribes, Vaccinium spp., dry fruits and seeds (Fagus, Quercus, Corylus, Castanea, Trapa spp., several green vegetables (e.g. Rumex, Urtica, Humulus, Chenopodiaceae spp., Ranunculus ficaria, bulbs and tubers (Lathyrus tuberosus, Helianthus tuberosus, Chaerophyllum bulbosum, Allium spp. used for food in Europe, are also known to be consumed in Hungary. A characteristic feature of Hungarian plant use was the mass consumption of the underground parts of several marsh (e.g. Typha, Phragmites, Sagittaria, Alisma, Butomus, Bolboschoenus spp., as well as the endemic Armoracia macrocarpa and steppe species (e.g. Crambe tataria, Rumex pseudonatronatus. Consuming wild food plants is still important among Hungarians living in Transylvania: even nowadays more than 40 species are gathered and used at some locations.

  6. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.

  7. Effects of UV-B radiation on anatomical characteristics, phenolic compounds and gene expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway in highbush blueberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Arellano, Alejandro; Latsague, Mirtha; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren

    2014-12-01

    The effects of increased doses of UV-B radiation on anatomical, biochemical and molecular features of leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes were investigated. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 Wm(-2) of biologically effective UV-B radiation for up to 72 h. Leaf thickness and the adaxial epidermis thickness fell more than 3-fold in both genotypes at the highest UV-B dose. Moreover, in Bluegold an evident disorganization in the different cell layers was observed at the highest UV-B radiation. A significant decrease in chlorophyll a/b after 6 h in Brigitta under the greater UV-B doses was observed. Anthocyanin and total phenolics were increased, especially at 0.19 Wm(-2), when compared to the control in both genotypes.Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in Brigitta, and was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than in Bluegold leaves. Regarding the expression of phenylpropanoid genes, only the transcription factor VcMYBPA1 showed a significant and sustained induction at higher doses of UV-B radiation in both genotypes compared to the controls. Thus, the reduction of leaf thickness concomitant with a lower lipid peroxidation and rapid enhancement of secondary metabolites, accompanied by a stable induction of the VcMYBPA1 transcription factor suggest a better performance against UV-B radiation of the Brigitta genotype.

  8. Nitrate reductase activity in some subarctic species and UV influence in the foliage of Betula pendula Roth. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krywult, Marek; Turunen, Minna; Sutinen, Marja-Liisa; Derome, Kirsti; Norokorpi, Yrjö

    2002-02-04

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity was studied in the foliage of five subarctic species: mature trees of European white birch (Betula pubescens Erch. S.S.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), Ericaceous shrub bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), naturally growing in a forest, and seed-grown silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings in an ultraviolet (UV) exclusion field experiment at the Pallas-Ounastunturi National Park in Finnish Lapland (68 degrees N). Mean NR activity ranged from 0 in bilberry to 1477 (S.D. = 277.7) and 1910 (S.D. = 785.4) nmol g(-1) DW h(-1) in mature trees of European white birch and silver birch seedlings, respectively. Significant differences due to UV exclosure treatments were determined for the NR activity of silver birch seedlings (F = 3.62, P= 0.025*) after three growing seasons (191 days) of UV exclusion. The ambient and control silver birch seedlings had or tended to have higher NR activity than those grown under UV exclusion. No relationship was found between the foliage NR activity and total nitrogen content, which ranged from 0.61 to 1.35% per seedling. The present study suggests large differences in NR activity between the species and the induction of NR activity in silver birch seedlings due to ambient UV radiation.

  9. Anti-Adhesion Activity of A2-type Proanthocyanidins (a Cranberry Major Component) on Uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Daria; Tempera, Gianna; Genovese, Carlo; Furneri, Pio M

    2014-04-03

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), but Proteus mirabilis also plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on a UPEC and Proteus mirabilis strains and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. A significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (up to 75%) on the HT1376 cell line was observed vs. control. For the strains of P. mirabilis there was also a reduction of adhesion (up to 75%) compared to controls, as well as a reduction in motility and urease activity. These results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in maintaining urinary tract health.

  10. Anti-Adhesion Activity of A2-type Proanthocyanidins (a Cranberry Major Component on Uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Nicolosi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, but Proteus mirabilis also plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on a UPEC and Proteus mirabilis strains and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. A significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (up to 75% on the HT1376 cell line was observed vs. control. For the strains of P. mirabilis there was also a reduction of adhesion (up to 75% compared to controls, as well as a reduction in motility and urease activity. These results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in maintaining urinary tract health.

  11. Short-term UV-B radiation affects photosynthetic performance and antioxidant gene expression in highbush blueberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Acevedo, Patricio; Loyola, Rodrigo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2016-10-01

    The impact of increased artificial UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance, antioxidant and SOD activities and molecular antioxidant metabolism responses in leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes was studied. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 W m(-2) of biologically-effective UV-B irradiance for 0-72 h. Our findings show that net photosynthesis (Pn) decreased significantly in Bluegold, accompanied by a reduction in the effective quantum yield (ФPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR), especially at the highest UV-B irradiation. On the other hand, Brigitta showed a better photosynthetic performance, as well as a clear increment in the antioxidant activity response that could be associated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the early hours of induced UV-B stress in all treatments. At the molecular level, the expression of the three antioxidant genes evaluated in both genotypes had a similar tendency. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) expression was significantly increased (6-fold) in Bluegold compared to Brigitta. Thus, the reduction of Pn concomitant with a lower photochemical performance and a reduced response of antioxidant metabolism suggest that the Bluegold genotype is more sensitive to UV-B radiation, while Brigitta appears to tolerate better moderate UV-B irradiance in a short-term experiment.

  12. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Rowland, Lisa J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  13. Eradication and Sensitization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to Methicillin with Bioactive Extracts of Berry Pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheen, Serajus; Peng, Mengfei; Joo, Jungsoo; Teramoto, Hironori; Biswas, Debabrata

    2017-01-01

    The therapeutic roles of phenolic blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) pomace (commercial byproduct) extracts (BPE) and their mechanism of actions were evaluated against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Five major phenolic acids of BPE, e.g., protocatechuic, p. coumaric, vanillic, caffeic, and gallic acids, as well as crude BPE completely inhibited the growth of vegetative MRSA in vitro while BPE+methicillin significantly reduced MRSA biofilm formation on plastic surface. In addition, BPE restored the effectiveness of methicillin against MRSA by down-regulating the expression of methicillin resistance (mecA) and efflux pump (norA, norB, norC, mdeA, sdrM, and sepA) genes. Antibiogram with broth microdilution method showed that MIC of methicillin reduced from 512 μg/mL to 4 μg/mL when combined with only 200 μg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/mL of BPE. Significant reduction in MRSA adherence to and invasion into human skin keratinocyte Hek001 cells were also noticed in the presence of BPE. BPE induced anti-apoptosis and anti-autophagy pathways through overexpression of Bcl-2 gene and down-regulation of TRADD and Bax genes (inducers of apoptosis pathway) in Hek001 cells. In summary, novel and sustainable prophylactic therapy can be developed with BPE in combination with currently available antibiotics, especially methicillin, against skin and soft tissue infections with MRSA. PMID:28270804

  14. Egg parasitoids of Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Overexpression of blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with changes in the expression of phytohormone-related genes in blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan; Walworth, Aaron E; Mackie, Charity; Song, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Flowering locus T (FT) is a primary integrator in the regulation of plant flowering. Overexpressing a blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT gene (VcFT) (herein VcFT-OX) resulted in early flowering and dwarfing in 'Aurora' plants (herein 'VcFT-Aurora'). In this study, we found that VcFT-OX reduced shoot regeneration from leaf explants. To investigate the potential roles of the phytohormone pathway genes associated with VcFT-OX, differentially expressed (DE) genes in leaf tissues of 'VcFT-Aurora' plants were annotated and analyzed using non-transgenic 'Aurora' plants as a control. Three DE floral genes, including the blueberry SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of constans 1 (VcSOC1) (gibberellin related), Abscisic acid responsive elements-binding factor 2 (VcABF2) and protein related to ABI3/VP1 (VcABI3/VP1) (ethylene-related), are present under both the phytohormone-responsive and the dwarfing-related Gene Ontology terms. The gene networks of the DE genes overall showed the molecular basis of the multifunctional aspects of VcFT overexpression beyond flowering promotion and suggested that phytohormone changes could be signaling molecules with important roles in the phenotypic changes driven by VcFT-OX.

  16. Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  17. Quercetin glycosides and chlorogenic acid in highbush blueberry leaf decoction prevent cataractogenesis in vivo and in vitro: Investigation of the effect on calpains, antioxidant and metal chelating properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Makri, Olga E; Mermigki, Penelope G; Lamari, Fotini N; Georgakopoulos, Constantinos D

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigates whether highbush blueberry leaf polyphenols prevent cataractogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside were quantified in Vaccinium corymbosum leaf decoction (BBL) using HPLC-DAD. Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with 20 μmol selenite (Na2SeO3)/kg body weight on postnatal (PN) day 10 (Se, n = 8-10/group) only or also intraperitoneally with 100 mg dry BBL/kg body weight on PN days 11 and 12 (SeBBL group, n = 10). Control group received only normal saline (C). Cataract evaluation revealed that BBL significantly prevented lens opacification. It, also, protected lens from selenite oxidative attack and prevented calpain activation, as well as protein loss and aggregation. In vitro studies showed that quercetin attenuated porcine lens turbidity caused by [Formula: see text] or Ca(2+) and interacted efficiently with those ions according to UV-Vis titration experiments. Finally, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside moderately inhibited pure human μ-calpain. Conclusively, blueberry leaf extract, a rich source of bioactive polyphenols, prevents cataractogenesis by their strong antioxidant, chelating properties and through direct/indirect inhibition of lens calpains.

  18. Emergence of traditional antidiabetic treatments as starting points for development of modern medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is projected by the World Health Organization (WHO that by the year 2030, diabetes will be the leading cause of death in the world judging from the current trend of the disease. Medicinal plants are used in traditional systems all over the world since time immemorial. About 80% of the world population still rely on traditional herbal medicine to meet their primary health care needs especially in rural areas of developing nations. Scientific studies elucidating the mechanism of action of some traditional medicines have been instrumental in the development of some modern medicines. It is in the light of the above that the present review provides profiles of plants with hypoglycemic properties starting from the discovery of a well-known and acceptable medication for diabetes: metformin. We traced the origin of the discovery of metformin from the plant Galega officinalis (Family: Fabaceae to the drug form and we have highlighted the various efforts taken for the final product to be arrived at. Plants discussed in this review include; Anacardium occidentale Linn, Bumelia sartorum Mart, Coccinia indica Wight and Arn, Phaseolus vulgaris L, Vaccinium myrtillus L, Rauwolfia vomitoria Afzel, Panax quinquefolius L, Panax ginseng C.A.Mey, Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.. [J Exp Integr Med 2015; 5(3.000: 121-127

  19. Exploring Perceptions of Raspberries and Blueberries by Italian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Girgenti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers can be important active contributors to a sustainable society by selecting foods that are produced respecting environmental and socially ethical standards. In the fruit sector, sustainability issues are often associated with imprecisely defined concepts such as “locally grown”, “freshness” and “local product”. This study has investigated raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. purchases in order to identify how berry fruits choice attributes are ranked by consumers in two Italian Regions, using a choice experiment (best-worst methodology. Twelve attributes—that indirectly refer to the concept of environmental sustainability—have been investigated. According to the preferences expressed by our sample of retail purchasers (n = 669, the results show that the reasons for the purchase of berries are associated with numerous parameters among which freshness and product origin are the most important and price was not ranked as so relevant. These findings indirectly testify the consumer attention towards the sustainability of local production and the link between sustainability and territory. Therefore, we can presume that the improvement of consumer familiarity with attributes such as “locally grown” and “local product” could support more eco-friendly consumption of raspberries and blueberries.

  20. Inventory of Invasive Plant Species along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Hapsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted in November 2013 to inventory invasive plant species present along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park exploratively. Result showed that there were 11 plant species found abundantly along the corridor. Typical native species were dominated by Cyathea contaminans, Casuarina junghuhniana and Vaccinium varingiaefolium. Three species were determined as invasive alien species i.e. Chromolaena odorata, Acacia decurrens and Blumea lacera whereas five species were determined as native species but potential invaders i.e. Rubus moluccanus, Melastoma malabatrichum, Polygonum barbatum, Debregeasia longifolia and Pteridium aquilinum. In term of tourism particularly on nature-based destinations enable moving in and out of invasive alien species due to opening the access of some natural protected areas. The environmental impact of an alien species whether it becomes invasive at its destination depends on its biological key point,  what ecological role the species may play, and on additional factors such as its tolerance of the gross features of the environment in the new range. Keyword: invasive plants, corridor, Kawah Ijen, Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi

  1. Explaining bank vole cycles in southern Norway 1980-2004 from bilberry reports 1932-1977 and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selås, Vidar

    2006-04-01

    Correlations between mast fruiting of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and peak levels of Clethrionomys-voles have been reported from both Norway and Finland, but there has been a discussion whether this is a bottom-up or a top-down relationship. In a multiple regression model, 65% of the variation in a bilberry production index calculated from game reports from southern Norway 1932-1977 could be explained by the berry index of the two preceding years and climate factors acting during key stages of the flowering cycle. High vole populations in previous years did not contribute to explain the fluctuation in berry production. I used the selected model and climate data to predict bilberry production for the period 1978-2004. Predicted berry indices of the current and previous year explained 38% and the total amount of precipitation in May-June explained 16% of the variation in a log-transformed snap-trapping index of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus 1980-2004. The vole index was not related to any of the climate variables used to predict berry production. This pattern supports the hypothesis that vole cycles are generated by changes in plant chemistry due to climate-synchronized mast fruiting.

  2. Effect of a complex lutein formula in an animal model for light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin-Pin; Ke, Chia-Ying; Kuo, Chih-Chieh; Lee, Yih-Jing

    2016-08-31

    Several retinal degenerative diseases cause vision loss and retinal cell death. Currently, people face prolonged exposure to digital screens, rendering vision protection from light exposure a critical topic. In this study, we designed a complex lutein formula (CLF) by combining several natural compounds: Calendula officinalis, Lycium barbarum, Vaccinium myrtillus, Cassia obtusifolia, and Rhodiola rosea. In addition, we evaluated the protective effects of the formula on retinal functions in an animal model for light-induced retinal degeneration. We employed electroretinography to analyse retinal function, and conducted a histological examination of the morphological changes in the retina treated under various conditions. We revealed that the retinal function in animals exposed to light for 7 days decreased significantly; however, the retinal function of animals that had received the CLF exhibited superior performance, despite light exposure. In addition, a greater portion of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) (i.e. the nuclei of photoreceptors) in these animals was preserved compared with the animals that had not received the formula after 7 days of light exposure. These results revealed that our dietary CLF supplement attenuated retinal function loss resulting from long-term light exposure.

  3. Fungal biomass associated with the phyllosphere of bryophytes and vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, M L; Nybakken, L; Kauserud, H; Ohlson, M

    2009-11-01

    Little is known about the amount of fungal biomass in the phyllosphere of bryophytes compared to higher plants. In this study, fungal biomass associated with the phyllosphere of three bryophytes (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum commune) and three vascular plants (Avenella flexuosa, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Vaccinium myrtillus) was investigated using ergosterol content as a proxy for fungal biomass. Phyllosphere fungi accounted for 0.2-4.0 % of the dry mass of moss gametophytes, representing the first estimation of fungal biomass associated with bryophytes. Significantly more fungal biomass was associated with the phyllosphere of bryophytes than co-occurring vascular plants. The ergosterol present in moss gametophytic tissues differed significantly between species, while the ergosterol present in vascular plant leaf tissues did not. The photosynthetic tissues of mosses had less associated fungal biomass than their senescent tissues, and the magnitude of this difference varied in a species-specific manner. The fungal biomass associated with the vascular plants studied varied significantly between localities, while that of mosses did not. The observed differences in phyllosphere community biomass suggest their size could be affected by host anatomical and physiological attributes, including micro-niche availability and chemical host defenses, in addition to abiotic factors like moisture and nutrient availability.

  4. The diet of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in the forest ecosystems of Zhytomirske Polesie of the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnov Volodymyr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The botanical composition of the European roe deer diet in the radioactively contaminated forest ecosystems of Zhytomirske Polesie of the Ukraine was investigated. Deer were caught monthly over a two–year period on three plots in forest habitats typical for Zhytomirske Polesie (fresh and moist mixed coniferous forests and mixed broadleaved forests. An analysis of the stomach contents of hunted deer showed that they consumed leafy as well as leafless stems, grasses, fruits and mushrooms depending on the season and availability of forest plants. Each season was characterized by one major dietary component. In the spring, the main component of the deer diet was the stems of woody plants. 44 species of vascular plants (3% of the natural flora of the region were identified in the roe deer diet including 41 species of Magnoliophyta, of which 34 species of Magnoliopsida and 7 species of Liliopsida, 2 species of Polipodiophyta and one species of Pinophyta. Species such as aspen (Populus tremula, oak (Quercus robur, blackberry (Rubus nessensis and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus were consumed year-round.

  5. Effects of cranberry extracts on growth and biofilm production of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Kerry L; Sarkisian, Simon A; Woodmansee, Suzanne; Rowley, David C; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-09-01

    Biofilm producing bacteria such as Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli are the most common cause of catheter related urinary tract infections (UTIs). The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is utilized widely as a prophylaxis for UTIs due to its prevention of microbial adhesion. Cranberry contains proanthocyanidins (PACs), which have been implicated as active constituents responsible for its bacterial antiadhesive properties. Despite overwhelming data supporting cranberry's beneficial effects against human pathogenic bacteria, there is limited information regarding its effects on biofilm formation. This study evaluated the effects of three proprietary PAC-standardized cranberry extracts on the inhibition of bacterial growth and biofilm production against a panel of clinically relevant pathogens: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Escherichia coli. The extracts inhibited the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus spp.) but not the Gram-negative species (E. coli) with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the range 0.02-5 mg/mL. The extracts also inhibited biofilm production by the Gram-positive bacteria but did not eradicate their established biofilm. These results suggest that cranberry may have beneficial effects against the growth and biofilm producing capability of Gram-positive bacteria pathogens.

  6. A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background in traditional medicine, blueberries have been used to facilitate blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in diabetic mice have indicated facilitated glycaemic regulation following dietary supplementation with extracts from European blueberries, also called bilberries, (Vaccinium myrtillus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fermented oat meal drinks containing bilberries or rosehip (Rosa canina on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Methods glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in young healthy adults were measured in two series. In series 1, two drinks based on oat meal (5%, fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, and added with fruit (10%; bilberries (BFOMD or rose hip (RFOMD respectively, were studied. In series 2, BFOMD was repeated, additionally, a drink enriched with bilberries (47% was tested (BBFOMD. As control a fermented oat meal drink (FOMD was served. Results in series 1 the bilberry- and rosehip drinks, gave high glucose responses similar to that after the reference bread. However, the insulin index (II after the BFOMD was significantly lower (II = 65 (P Conclusion a fermented oat meal drink added with bilberries induced a lower insulin response than expected from the glycaemic response. The mechanism for the lowered acute insulin demand is still unclear, but may be related to some bio-active component present in the bilberries, or to the fermented oat meal base.

  7. Responses of fungal and plant communities to partial humus removal in mid-boreal N-enriched forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Oili; Hamberg, Leena; Ohenoja, Esteri; Strömmer, Rauni; Markkola, Annamari

    2012-10-15

    Partial removal of the forest humus layer was performed in nitrogen-enriched urban Scots pine forest stands in the northern Finland in order to improve soil conditions for ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, important symbionts of trees. Aboveground part of understory vegetation and the uppermost half of the humus layer were removed (REMOVAL treatment) from sample plots in six urban and eight rural reference forest sites at the beginning of the 2001 growing season. During the seasons 2001-2005, we inventoried sporocarp production of ECM and saprophytic fungi, and in 2003 the recovery of understory vegetation. The REMOVAL treatment resulted in a higher number of fruiting ECM species and sporocarps than controls at the rural, but not at urban sites. The sporocarp number of saprophytic fungi declined in the REMOVAL subplots at the urban sites. The recovery of bryophytes and lichens in the REMOVAL treatment was slow at both the urban and rural sites, whereas Vaccinium dwarf shrub cover, and herb and grass cover returned rapidly at the urban sites. We conclude that the partial vegetation and humus layer removal as a tool to promote the reproduction of ECM fungal species is limited in the boreal urban forests.

  8. Aib e substrato na produção de mudas de mirtilo cv. "Climax" através de microestaquia Iba and substrate in the plantlets production of blueberry cv. 'Climax' through microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Wulff Schuch

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Embora no Sul do Brasil o mirtilo esteja sendo pesquisado e produzido como uma nova alternativa na fruticultura, a maioria das mudas produzidas são obtidas pela propagação vegetativa, através do uso de estacas, e os resultados obtidos s��o insatisfatórios. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a capacidade de enraizamento de mirtilo "rabbiteye", através da técnica de microestaquia. Microestacas provenientes de plantas aclimatadas de Vaccinium ashey Reade, cv. "Climax", obtidas através de micropropagação, foram testadas. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação usando dois tipos de microestacas (média e apical, dois substratos (areia e Plantmax® e três concentrações de AIB (0, 1000 e 2000mg L-1. Aos 60 dias após a instalação do experimento, foi avaliada a percentagem de microestacas enraizadas, a percentagem de microestacas sobreviventes, o número médio de raízes por microestaca, o comprimento médio das raízes e o comprimento da raiz mais desenvolvida. Concluiu-se que a microestaquia pode ser uma técnica eficiente na produção de mudas de mirtilo, através do uso de plantas-matrizes micropropagadas. O emprego de microestacas oriundas da porção mediana proporcionou elevados índices de enraizamento e sobrevivência, independentemente da concentração de AIB utilizada. Por outro lado, para microestacas apicais, a aplicação de AIB foi fundamental para o enraizamento.Although blueberries in the South of Brazil have been researched and produced as a new alternative in the horticulture, the majority of plants are propagated vegetatively through the use of cuttings and the results obtained are unsatisfactory. In this way, this research was aimed at testing the rooting ability of rabbiteye Blueberry by microcuttings techniques. Microcuttings from acclimated plants of Vaccinium ashey Reade cv. Climax obtained through micropropagation were tested. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using

  9. Influência do dano da abelha-irapuá em flores de mirtileiro sobre a frutificação efetiva e as frutas produzidas Damage influence of the irapuá bee on blueberry flower over the effective fruit production and the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Madruga Telesca da Silveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A abelha-irapuá, Trigona spinipes, é considerada um inseto-praga de várias culturas, por se alimentar de folhas e principalmente de flores e frutos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar o dano provocado pela irapuá em flores de mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei Read. e avaliar a frutificação efetiva e a qualidade da fruta produzida. O experimento foi conduzido no pomar experimental de mirtileiro, da Embrapa Clima Temperado em Pelotas, RS. Foram marcadas 200 flores de mirtileiro, seleção 103, sendo 100 destas com dano feito pela irapuá e 100 sem o dano. Após a floração, foi observada a frutificação efetiva, e por ocasião da colheita, foram determinados o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, o diâmetro dos frutos e o número de sementes por fruto. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado. Nas flores sem danos da irapuá, houve maior percentagem de frutificação efetiva, e as frutas oriundas das mesmas apresentaram maior diâmetro e maior quantidade de sementes. O teor de SST nas frutas de mirtilo, oriundas tanto das flores com dano como daquelas sem dano, foi semelhante. Esses resultados sugerem que a T. spinipes é prejudicial à cultura do mirtilo, principalmente na época de floração, pois os danos causados pelo inseto provocaram baixa frutificação, frutas de tamanho reduzido e com menor quantidade de sementes.The irapuá Trigona spinipes is considered a pest insect of several crops because it feeds on their leaves, flowers and fruits. The aim of this study was to characterize the damage caused by irapuá on blueberry flowers (Vaccinium ashei over the fruit set and fruit quality. The experiment was conducted in a blueberry collection of Embrapa Clima Temperado, in Pelotas, RS. Two hundred flowers were observed, being one hundred of them with irapuá damage and the other 100 flowers without damage. The fruit set was recorded as well as the level of soluble solids (TSS, the fruit diameter and number

  10. Occurrence and biology of Tolype innocens (Burmeister on blueberry Ocorrência e biologia de Tolype innocens (Burmeister em mirtilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salvador Louzada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 is reported for the first time damaging blueberry (Vaccinium ashei plants in Brazil having the caterpillars feeding on leaves and new shoots. T. innocens biology was studied on blueberry leaves in laboratory conditions and then a fertility life table was elaborated. Developmental time and viability of egg, larval and pupal stages and egg-adult period were 15.0 and 35.3, 33.3 and 84.5, 20.6 and 100, and 69.2 days and 45%, respectively. Average pupal weight was 0.840g for the females and 0.580g for the males. The sex ratio was 0.5. Pre-oviposition and oviposition time lasted 6.34 and 12.1 days, respectively. Mean fecundity was 251 eggs per female. Eggs were laid either individually or in masses. Longevity was 19.0 and 20.0 days for males and females, respectively. T. innocens population increased 47 times per generation, with a mean generation time of 77 days, and a finite rate of increase of 1.02. This data on biological parameters will be useful for establishing control strategies.A ocorrência de Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 (Lasiocampidae é relatada pela primeira vez danificando o mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei no Brasil, sendo que as lagartas se alimentam das folhas e ramos novos. Em laboratório, foi estudada a biologia em folhas de mirtilo em condições controladas de temperatura (25±1ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotofase (12h e elaborada a tabela de vida de fertilidade. A duração e a viabilidade dos estágios de ovo, lagarta e pupa, e período ovo-adulto foram de 15,0 e 35,3; 33,3 e 84,5; 20,6 e 100; e 69,2 dias e 45%, respectivamente. O peso médio de pupas foi de 0,840g para as fêmeas e 0,580g para os machos. A razão sexual foi de 0,5. Os períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição foram de 6,34 e 12,1 dias, respectivamente. A fecundidade média foi de 251 ovos por fêmea, colocados de forma isolada ou em massas. A longevidade dos machos foi de 19,0 dias e das fêmeas de 20,0 dias. T

  11. Study on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Highbush Blueberry in Greenhouse%设施高灌蓝莓光合特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏海蓉; 刘庆忠; 张庆霞; 宗晓娟; 王甲威; 张道辉

    2014-01-01

    Using Vaccinium corymbosum‘Sierra’ as material, the photosynthetic characteristics of high-bush blueberry in greenhouse were studied .The results showed that the photosynthetically active radiation ( PAR) and leaf temperature ( TL) reached the maximum at 12∶00 and 13∶00 respectively .The net photosyn-thetic rate ( Pn ) reached the maximum at 8∶00 , and then decreased steadily .There was a small upturn at 15∶00~16∶00 and then decreased again .The daily variation of the stomatal conductance ( Gs) was the same with that of Pn, but that of intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was on the contrary.The light saturation point was 600 μmol/(m2· s), the light compensation point was 62.6 μmol/(m2· s) and the CO2 compensation point was 129 .8 μL/L.Temperature was the major limiting factor of Pn under high temperature and low light conditions.When the temperature was higher than 28℃, the photosynthesis was seriously restrained , which was caused by the multi -effects of stoma and non -stoma restriction factors .%以高灌蓝莓品种‘喜来’(Vaccinium corymbosum‘Sierra’)为试材,对设施高灌蓝莓的光合特性进行了研究。结果表明,设施内光合有效辐射( PAR)及叶面温度( TL)分别于12∶00和13∶00达到最大值,高灌蓝莓叶片的净光合速率( Pn)于早晨8∶00达到最大值,之后持续降低,在15∶00~16∶00有小量回升,之后再次降低。气孔导度( Gs)日变化与Pn变化趋势相同,而细胞间隙二氧化碳浓度( Ci)的变化趋势与之相反。高灌蓝莓叶片的光饱和点为600μmol/(m2· s),光补偿点为62.6μmol/(m2· s),CO2补偿点为129.8μL/L,在温室高温弱光环境下,温度是Pn的主要限制因子,温度在28℃以上时高灌蓝莓的光合作用受到严重抑制,该抑制是气孔因素与非气孔因素共同影响的结果。

  12. Horseradish and Watercress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiel I

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available iIntroduction:/i Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. Due to the growing problem of antibiotic resistances there is an urgent need for alternative herbal medicinal products for the treatment of non-severe lower UTIs. Vaccinium macrocarpon is effective through various mechanisms of action without inducing resistances in microorganisms. Thus, an observational study (n = 48 was conducted with a prepa ration of a standardized cranberry extract (67 mg proanthocyanidines combined with glucosinolates containing extracts of Nasturtium officinale and Armoracia rusticana.br iMethods:/i Women (≥ 18 years with an increase in leukocytes in the urine and clinical symptoms typical for UTIs like dysuria, imperative strangury, augmented or new onset of incontinence and suprapubic pain received one of the tablets containing the combined herbal extracts twice daily during the first week and one tablet per day for the following 4 weeks. After 14 days (t1 and after 35 days (t2 taking the tablets a further survey and control check-up with a urine test have been conducted. Patients with persistent clinical symptoms received an antibiotic, for the others the intake of the tablets with the herbal combined extract preparation was continued.br iResults:/i 34 patients (70,8 % could abstain from taking antibiotics within the first 14 days (t1 and 32 patients (66,7 % within 35 days (t2. 28 patients (87,5 % were without symptoms at t2. No adverse events were observed.br iConclusion:/i This observational study was the first clinical study performed with a combined extract preparation containing Cranberry, Nasturtium and Armoracia, which furthermore supports the concept of using alternative medicine treating non-severe lower UTIs.br bKurzfassung/b:iEinleitung:/i Harnwegsinfektionen (HWIs gehören zu den häufigsten bakteriellen Infektionen, die Frauen betreffen. Durch die wachsende Problematik der Antibiotika

  13. Eine Extraktkombination aus Cranberry, Brunnenkresse und Meerrettich in der Anwendung bei Frauen mit unkompliziertem Harnwegsinfekt // A Complex Preparation of Cranberry, Horseradish and Watercress in the Treatment of Non-Severe Lower Urinary Tract Infect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiel I

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available iIntroduction:/i Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. Due to the growing problem of antibiotic resistances there is an urgent need for alternative herbal medicinal products for the treatment of non-severe lower UTIs. Vaccinium macrocarpon is effective through various mechanisms of action without inducing resistances in microorganisms. Thus, an observational study (n = 48 was conducted with a preparation of a standardized cranberry extract (67 mg proanthocyanidines combined with glucosinolates containing extracts of Nasturtium officinale and Armoracia rusticana.br iMethods:/i Women (≥ 18 years with an increase in leukocytes in the urine and clinical symptoms typical for UTIs like dysuria, imperative strangury, augmented or new onset of incontinence and suprapubic pain received one of the tablets containing the combined herbal extracts twice daily during the first week and one tablet per day for the following 4 weeks. After 14 days (t1 and after 35 days (t2 taking the tablets a further survey and control check-up with a urine test have been conducted. Patients with persistent clinical symptoms received an antibiotic, for the others the intake of the tablets with the herbal combined extract preparation was continued.briResults:/i 34 patients (70,8 % could abstain from taking antibiotics within the first 14 days (t1 and 32 patients (66,7 % within 35 days (t2. 28 patients (87,5 % were without symptoms at t2. No adverse events were observed.briConclusion:/i This observational study was the first clinical study performed with a combined extract preparation containing Cranberry, Nasturtium and Armoracia, which furthermore supports the concept of using alternative medicine treating non-severe lower UTIs. p bKurzfassung: /biEinleitung:/i Harnwegsinfektionen (HWIs gehören zu den häufigsten bakteriellen Infektionen, die Frauen betreffen. Durch die wachsende Problematik der Antibiotika

  14. 江苏省维管植物分布新记录(三)%New records of vascular plants in Jiangsu Province ( Ⅲ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶康; 刘启新; 邓懋彬; 褚晓芳

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: According to plant investigation result in Yixing and Liyang of Jiangsu Province, ten species, one subspecies and one variety belonging to eleven genera of ten families are reported as new records in Jiangsu Province, viz. Machilus pauhoi Kanehira, Schisandra arisanensis Hayata subsp. viridis (A. C. Smith) R. M. K. Saunders, Broussonetia kaempferi Sieb. var. australis Suzuki, Laportea cuspidate (Wedd.) Friis, Oreocnide frutescens (Thunb.) Miq., Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana (A. Camus) Y. S. Hsu et H. W. Jen, Achyranthes longifolia (Makino) Makino, Eurya alata Kobuski, Hyperwum seniavinii Maxim., Viola palrinii DC. ex Ging., V. violacea Makino and Vaccinium trichocladum Merr. et Met. And Oreocnide Miq. is a new record genus in Jiangsu Province. Some of them are simply analyzed on resources, flora and distribution.%结合《江苏植物志》(增订版)的修订,作者对江苏境内植物做了补充调查并发现了一些江苏省分布新记录.续前文[1-2],本文报道了分布于宜溧山地的部分江苏新记录属和新记录种,共计有10种1亚种1变种,隶属10个科11个属,其中有新记录属1个.另外,从植物资源利用、植物区系及分布范围等方面对部分种类进行了简要分析.凭证标本均保存于江苏省·中国科学院植物研究所标本馆(NAS).

  15. Nitrogen Fertilization Modifies the Phenology of Ground CO2 Efflux in a Boreal Scots Pine Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. D.; Näsholm, T.; Linder, S.; Tarvainen, L.; Peichl, M.; Lundmark, T.

    2015-12-01

    Problems with the extraction of ecosystem respiration rates from eddy covariance data have led to renewed interest in chamber-based estimates of CO2 efflux from near the ground surface. However, chamber measurements frequently have their own issues. Here we describe the results of a study using large (≈2 m radius), transparent chambers over intact ground vegetation to describe the net efflux of CO2 and its environmental controls during the growing season at Rosinedal, a research site in northern Sweden. Measurements were made at thirty-minute intervals over the course of three growing seasons in a heavily fertilized and an unfertilized Scots pine stand. Ammonium nitrate was added at rates of 100 kg N ha-1 for the first five years, after which the rate was halved but the additions continued. The CO2 efflux results were simultaneously fitted to a nonlinear model describing the exponential increase in dark efflux with temperature, the Michaelis-Menten saturation of light-driven CO2 uptake in photosynthesis, the reduction in efflux due to soil drying, and a residual term that we ascribe to weekly shifts in the photosynthate partitioning of canopy trees to belowground processes. We found the expected exponential increase in dark efflux with temperature, however the net efflux in daytime was often negative, reflecting the high GPP of the ground vegetation, especially in dense canopies of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). There was a clear reduction in dark efflux under dry conditions. The empirical phenology parameters increased sharply in early July, around the time that leaf expansion and rapid cambial growth were completed. This increase was more pronounced on the control plot than on the fertilized plot, consistent with expectations based on the notion that N fertilization should favor aboveground partitioning. The empirical "partitioning coefficient" shifted net efflux by nearly as much as the seasonal temperature range. Dark efflux of CO2 was nearly halved as a

  16. Vole preference of bilberry along gradients of simulated moose density and site productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Simen; Andreassen, Harry P; Persson, Inga-Lill; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Danell, Kjell; Skarpe, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Browsing by large herbivores might either increase or decrease preference for the plant by other herbivores, depending on the plant response. Using a cafeteria test, we studied the preference by root voles (Microtus oeconomus [Pallas, 1776]) for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) previously subjected to 4 levels of simulated moose (Alces alces [Linnaeus, 1758]) density. The different levels of moose density were simulated at population densities relevant for Fennoscandian conditions, in exclosures situated along a site productivity gradient. We expected: (i) voles to prefer bilberry from high productivity sites over low productivity sites; (ii) voles to prefer browsed bilberry, if plants allocate resources to compensatory growth or to avoid browsed bilberry if plants allocate resources to defense; (iii) these effects to increase with increasing simulated moose density; and (iv) the concentration of plant chemicals and the plant morphology to explain vole preference. Specifically, we predicted that voles would prefer: (i) plants with high nitrogen content; (ii) plants with low content of defensive substances; and (iii) tall plants with long shoots. Voles preferred bilberry from the high productivity sites compared to the low productivity sites. We also found an interaction between site productivity and simulated moose density, where voles preferred unbrowsed plants at low productivity sites and intermediate levels of browsing at high productivity sites. There was no effect of plant chemistry or morphology on vole preference. We conclude that moose browsing impacts the food preference of voles. With the current high densities of moose in Fennoscandia, this could potentially influence vole food selection and population dynamics over large geographical areas.

  17. Effect of 'antidiabetis' herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcevic, M; Juretic, D

    2001-05-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent No. P-9801091 Zagreb, Croatia was investigated. Two extracts were prepared: ethanol extract (extract 1), and ethanol extract from which ethanol was evaporated on a rotatory evaporator at a temperature of 45 degrees C (extract 2). Extract 1 and extract 2 were administered (in experiment 1) to alloxan-induced non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in the same dose of 20 mg/kg. Blood glucose was determined before, and 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after the preparation administration. Extract 1 and extract 2 decreased the level of blood glucose by 10 and 20%, respectively, of the initial value (at 0 min, mean = 22.6 +/- 8.3 mmol/l). Serum levels of glucose and fructosamine were determined in NOD mice, NOD mice administered extract 2 in a dose of 20 mg/kg of extract 2, and NOD mice administered acarbose in a dose of 25 mg/100 g chow, in order to verify the hypoglycemic action of extract 2 (in experiment 2). Extract 2 and acarbose were admixed to the chow. The duration of treatment was 7 days. Significantly lower glucose (P < 0.05) and fructosamine (P < 0.001) levels were recorded in extract 2 treated NOD mice as compared with NOD mice. Study results showed extract 2 to significantly decrease the level of glucose and fructosamine in alloxan induced NOD mice. Our future studies will be focused on the search of active principles of the extracts.

  18. Glutathione S-transferases and malondialdehyde in the liver of NOD mice on short-term treatment with plant mixture extract P-9801091.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcević, M; Juretić, D; Petrik, J

    2003-04-01

    Changes in the concentration of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the liver of normal and diabetic NOD mice with and without treatment with the plant extract P-9801091. The plant extract P-9801091 is an antihyperglycaemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum of fi cinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefoliiherba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana of ficinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus is responsible for the development of oxidative stress (via glucose auto-oxidation and protein glycation), which is characterized by increased lipid peroxide production (MDA is a lipid peroxidation end product) and/or decreased antioxidative defence (GST in the liver is predominantly an alpha enzyme, which has antioxidative activity). The catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver was significantly reduced in diabetic NOD mice compared with normal NOD mice (p < 0.01), while the concentration of MDA showed a rising tendency (not significant). The results showed that statistically significant changes in antioxidative defence occurred in the experimental model of short-term diabetes mellitus. A 7-day treatment with P-9801091 plant extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass led to a significant increase in the catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver of diabetic NOD mice (p < 0.01) and a decrease in MDA concentration (not significant), which could be explained by its antihyperglycaemic effect. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Absence of snow cover reduces understory plant cover and alters plant community composition in boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Haei, Mahsa; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2012-02-01

    Snow regimes affect biogeochemistry of boreal ecosystems and are altered by climate change. The effects on plant communities, however, are largely unexplored despite their influence on relevant processes. Here, the impact of snow cover on understory community composition and below-ground production in a boreal Picea abies forest was investigated using a long-term (8-year) snow cover manipulation experiment consisting of the treatments: snow removal, increased insulation (styrofoam pellets), and control. The snow removal treatment caused longer (118 vs. 57 days) and deeper soil frost (mean minimum temperature -5.5 vs. -2.2°C) at 10 cm soil depth in comparison to control. Understory species composition was strongly altered by the snow cover manipulations; vegetation cover declined by more than 50% in the snow removal treatment. In particular, the dominant dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus (-82%) and the most abundant mosses Pleurozium schreberi (-74%) and Dicranum scoparium (-60%) declined strongly. The C:N ratio in V. myrtillus leaves and plant available N in the soil indicated no altered nitrogen nutrition. Fine-root biomass in summer, however, was negatively affected by the reduced snow cover (-50%). Observed effects are attributed to direct frost damage of roots and/ or shoots. Besides the obvious relevance of winter processes on plant ecology and distribution, we propose that shifts in the vegetation caused by frost damage may be an important driver of the reported alterations in biogeochemistry in response to altered snow cover. Understory plant performance clearly needs to be considered in the biogeochemistry of boreal systems in the face of climate change.

  20. Carbon allocation patterns in boreal and hemiboreal forest ecosystems along the gradient of soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriiska, Kaie; Uri, Veiko; Frey, Jane; Napa, Ülle; Kabral, Naima; Soosaar, Kaido; Rannik, Kaire; Ostonen, Ivika

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. Changes in C allocation alter ecosystems carbon sequestration and plant-soil-atmosphere gas exchange, hence having an impact on the climate. Currently, there is lack of reliable indicators that show the direction of C accumulation patterns in forest ecosystems on regional scale. The first objective of our study was to determine the variability of carbon allocation in hemiboreal coniferous forests along the gradient of soil fertility in Estonia. We measured C stocks and fluxes, such as litter, fine root biomass and production, soil respiration etc. in 8 stands of different site types - Scots pine (Cladonia, Vaccinium, Myrtillus, Fragaria) and Norway spruce (Polytrichum, Myrtillus, Oxalis, Calamagrostis alvar). The suitability of above- and belowground litter production (AG/BG) ratio was analysed as a carbon allocation indicator. The second aim of the study was to analyse forest C allocation patterns along the north-south gradient from northern boreal Finland to hemiboreal Estonia. Finally, C sequestration in silver birch and grey alder stands were compared with coniferous stands in order to determine the impact of tree species on carbon allocation. Preliminary results indicate that estimated AG/BG ratio (0.5 ... 3.0) tends to decrease with increasing soil organic horizon C/N ratio, indicating that in less fertile sites more carbon is allocated into belowground through fine root growth and in consequence the soil organic carbon stock increases. Similar trends were found on the north-south forest gradient. However, there was a significant difference between coniferous and broadleaf stands in C allocation patterns. Net ecosystem exchange in Estonian coniferous stands varied from -1.64 ... 3.95 t C ha-1 yr-1, whereas older stands tended to be net carbon sources.

  1. INCLUDING RISK IN ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS:A STOCHASTIC SIMULATION MODEL FOR BLUEBERRY INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMÁN LOBOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional method of net present value (NPV to analyze the economic profitability of an investment (based on a deterministic approach does not adequately represent the implicit risk associated with different but correlated input variables. Using a stochastic simulation approach for evaluating the profitability of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. production in Chile, the objective of this study is to illustrate the complexity of including risk in economic feasibility analysis when the project is subject to several but correlated risks. The results of the simulation analysis suggest that the non-inclusion of the intratemporal correlation between input variables underestimate the risk associated with investment decisions. The methodological contribution of this study illustrates the complexity of the interrelationships between uncertain variables and their impact on the convenience of carrying out this type of business in Chile. The steps for the analysis of economic viability were: First, adjusted probability distributions for stochastic input variables (SIV were simulated and validated. Second, the random values of SIV were used to calculate random values of variables such as production, revenues, costs, depreciation, taxes and net cash flows. Third, the complete stochastic model was simulated with 10,000 iterations using random values for SIV. This result gave information to estimate the probability distributions of the stochastic output variables (SOV such as the net present value, internal rate of return, value at risk, average cost of production, contribution margin and return on capital. Fourth, the complete stochastic model simulation results were used to analyze alternative scenarios and provide the results to decision makers in the form of probabilities, probability distributions, and for the SOV probabilistic forecasts. The main conclusion shown that this project is a profitable alternative investment in fruit trees in

  2. Comparative effects of nitrogen fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil nitrogen during establishment of highbush blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eBryla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Bluecrop’. Treatments included four methods of N application (weekly fertigation, split fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls and four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg•ha-1 N. Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with a liquid urea solution; weekly fertigation was applied once a week from leaf emergence to 60 d prior to the end of the season while split fertigation was applied as a triple split from April to June. Non-fertigated controls were fertilized with granular ammonium sulfate, also applied as a triple split, and irrigated by drip or microsprays. Weekly fertigation produced the smallest plants among treatments at 50 kg•ha-1 N in year 1 but the highest canopy cover at 150 kg•ha-1 N in both years 1 and 2. The other application methods required less N to maximize growth but were less responsive than weekly fertigation to additional N fertilizer applications. In fact, 44-50% of the plants died when granular fertilizer was applied at 150 kg•ha-1 N. By comparison, none of the plants died with weekly fertigation. Plant death with granular fertilizer was associated with high ammonium ion concentrations (up to 650 mg•L-1 and electrical conductivity (>3 dS•m-1 in the soil solution. Early results indicate that fertigation may be less efficient (i.e., less plant growth per unit of N applied at lower N rates than granular fertilizer application but is also safer (i.e., less plant death and promotes more growth when high amounts of fertilizer is applied.

  3. Ethno-botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua-Barcelo, Racquel Tan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey on the common name/s, traditional uses and cultural importance of the edible wild fruits in different municipalities of Benguet, Cordillera administrative region. Methods Interviews using questionnaires with barangay leaders and indigenous people were conducted with 176 key informants from June 2011 to July 2013. Results A total of 36 fruit species were found in different municipalities of Benguet. These fruit species belong to 27 genera and 20 families. Among the 13 municipalities of Benguet, Kibungan has the highest number of species. There are many uses of wild fruits which ranged from food (snack/dessert/table food), forage (especially for birds, monkeys and wild animals such as cloud rat and grass eaters), offertory, processed/preserved (as jam, jellies, candies, juice and wine), condiment or ingredient (for cooking), source of dye or ink, decoration (to garnish food) and as medicine to common ailments or health problems. Based on the inventory and calculated cultural importance index, Garcinia binucao (balokok) belonging to Clusiaceae is the most abundant fruit, hence it is the commonly used fruit for various purposes such as food, forage, processing/preservation and condiment/ingredient; Vaccinium myrtoides (ayusip) for offerings and as source of dye/ink; Saurauia elegans (uyok) for decoration, and, Antidesma bunius (bugnay) for medicine. Conclusions Benguet province in the Cordillera region provides a diversity of edible wild fruits. The data gathered from the study signifies that collection, processing and utilization of edible wild fruits are still part of the daily activities of the people in Benguet. PMID:25183144

  4. Produção e qualidade de frutos de mirtileiros sob diferentes intensidades de poda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Külkamp de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de poda do mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei Read utilizado no país se fundamenta em estudos realizados em locais com condições edafoclimáticas distintas da nossa realidade. Assim, foram avaliadas diferentes intensidades de poda de frutificação em dois genótipos de mirtileiro, e seus efeitos na produção e na qualidade dos frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial, localizado em Pelotas-RS. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial (2x4, com quatro repetições. Plantas de sete anos de idade, do grupo Rabbiteye, cultivares 'Briteblue' e 'Woodard', foram submetidas às intensidades de poda leve, moderada, drástica e sem poda (testemunha nos anos de 2010 e 2011, no período de repouso hibernal (primeira quinzena de agosto. Foram avaliadas a produção média por planta, sendo estimada a produtividade por área, peso fresco, diâmetro, teor de sólidos solúveis, pH e acidez titulável dos frutos. De acordo com os resultados, a intensidade de poda tem efeito sobre a antecipação da colheita. Com a decorrência de uma maior intensidade de poda, houve uma tendência de aumento do tamanho dos frutos. Para mirtileiros Briteblue, há decréscimo de produtividade, conforme se aumenta a intensidade de poda. Mirtileiros Briteblue são mais produtivos e apresentam maior matéria fresca de fruto do que Woodard.

  5. Identifying Breeding Priorities for Blueberry Flavor Using Biochemical, Sensory, and Genotype by Environment Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Gilbert

    Full Text Available Breeding for a subjective goal such as flavor is challenging, as many blueberry cultivars are grown worldwide, and identifying breeding targets relating to blueberry flavor biochemistry that have a high degree of genetic control and low environmental variability are priorities. A variety of biochemical compounds and physical characters induce the sensory responses of taste, olfaction, and somatosensation, all of which interact to create what is perceived flavor. The goal of this study was to identify the flavor compounds with a larger genetic versus environmental component regulating their expression over an array of cultivars, locations, and years. Over the course of three years, consumer panelists rated overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor intensity of 19 southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids genotypes in 30 sensory panels. Significant positive correlations to overall liking of blueberry fruit (P<0.001 were found with sweetness (R2 = 0.70, texture (R2 = 0.68, and flavor (R2 = 0.63. Sourness had a significantly negative relationship with overall liking (R2 = 0.55. The relationship between flavor and texture liking was also linear (R2 = 0.73, P<0.0001 demonstrating interaction between olfaction and somatosensation. Partial least squares analysis was used to identify sugars, acids, and volatile compounds contributing to liking and sensory intensities, and revealed strong effects of fructose, pH, and several volatile compounds upon all sensory parameters measured. To assess the feasibility of breeding for flavor components, a three year study was conducted to compare genetic and environmental influences on flavor biochemistry. Panelists could discern genotypic variation in blueberry sensory components, and many of the compounds affecting consumer favor of blueberries, such as fructose, pH, β-caryophyllene oxide and 2-heptanone, were sufficiently genetically controlled that allocating resources for their

  6. Molecular characterisation of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1, that is differentially expressed under aluminium stress in highbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, C; Aquea, F; Loyola, R; Slovin, J; Josway, S; Rengel, Z; Reyes-Díaz, M; Alberdi, M; Arce-Johnson, P

    2013-11-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a small acidic protein, is one of the best characterised Ca(2+) sensors in eukaryotes. This Ca(2+) -regulated protein plays a critical role in decoding and transducing environmental stress signals by activating specific targets. Many environmental stresses elicit changes in intracellular Ca(2+) activity that could initiate adaptive responses under adverse conditions. We report the first molecular cloning and characterisation of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1 (Vaccinium corymbosum Calmodulin 1), in the woody shrub, highbush blueberry. VcCaM1 was first identified as VCAL19, a gene induced by aluminium stress in V. corymbosum L. A full-length cDNA of VcCaM1 containing a 766-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 149 amino acids was cloned from root RNA. The sequence encodes four Ca(2+) -binding motifs (EF-hands) and shows high similarity (99%) with the isoform CaM 201 of Daucus carota. Expression analyses showed that following Al treatment, VcCaM1 message level decreased in roots of Brigitta, an Al-resistant cultivar, and after 48 h, was lower than in Bluegold, an Al-sensitive cultivar. VcCAM1 message also decreased in leaves of both cultivars within 2 h of treatment. Message levels in leaves then increased by 24 h to control levels in Brigitta, but not in Bluegold, but then decreased again by 48 h. In conclusion, VcCaM1 does not appear to be directly involved in Al resistance, but may be involved in improved plant performance under Al toxicity conditions through regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and antioxidant systems in leaves. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Changes in fruit antioxidant activity among blueberry cultivars during cold-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Ann Marie; Luby, James J; Hancock, James F; Berkheimer, Steven; Hanson, Eric J

    2002-02-13

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, anthocyanin content, and six other fruit characters including titratable acid concentration, soluble solids, firmness, and percentage of bruised berries were determined for nine blueberry (Vaccinium L. sp.) cultivars at harvest and at various postharvest intervals after storage at 5 degrees C. Berries from MSU-58, Brigitta, and Legacy stored successfully for 7 weeks, Bluegold stored for 3-5 weeks, Bluecrop, Elliott, and Nelson stored for 3 weeks, and Jersey and Little Giant stored for fewer than 3 weeks. During the time they retained marketable quality, one cultivar (MSU-58) demonstrated a 29% increase in antioxidant activity. None of the cultivars showed a significant decrease from the harvest antioxidant activity value during storage. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and anthocyanin content were strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.87-0.99, P cultivar mean basis. Berries from Elliott were also harvested from plants at two levels of bush ripeness (30-50% and 60-80% ripe berries on plants) and separated into three fruit maturity classes on the basis of percent blue color. The level of bush ripeness had no significant effect on antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, or anthocyanin content; however, fruit maturity had a significant effect on antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and anthocyanin content, and bush ripeness x fruit maturity interactions were significant for these three traits. Berries with 50-75% blue coloration harvested from bushes with 60-80% mature fruit showed a significant increase in antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and anthocyanin content during the first 3 weeks in storage. Our results demonstrate that increases in antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and anthocyanin content may occur in the blueberry during cold storage and are cultivar-dependent. The increases that occur in immature fruit, such as in Elliott, may be advantageous for producers

  8. Host status of blueberry to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W; Zee, Francis T

    2009-10-01

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine whether northern or southern highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., are hosts for the invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal and adult emergence. The number of puparia, number of puparia per gram, and percentage of adult emergence on 'Bluecrop' blueberry were significantly higher for B. dorsalis and C. capitata than B. cucurbitae; B. dorsalis, C. capitata, and B. cucurbitae produced an average of 1.06, 0.60, and 0.09 pupae per g fruit and had 5.8, 54.1, and 12.7% adult emergence, respectively. 'Berkeley' blueberries produced an average of only 0.06, 0.02, and 0.0 pupae per g fruit for B. dorsalis, C. capitata, and B. cucurbitae, respectively. Similarly, six blueberry cultivars were harvested weekly for 10 wk, exposed to Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in cages, and held for pupal and adult emergence on either sand or artificial diet. In total, 2,677 blueberries were exposed to 2681 B. latifons and held on sand, and no pupariation or adult emergence was observed. Small numbers of B. latifrons puparia and adults emerged from the artificial diet treatment in all cultivars. Results from rearing on sand and diet indicate that blueberry is an acceptable oviposition host for B. latifrons but not an adequate developmental host. These data suggest blueberry is potentially a good host for B. dorsalis and C. capitata, and an adequate host for Bactrocera cucurbitae, but that there may be significant variation in resistance among cultivars. Blueberry seems to be a nonhost for B. latifrons.

  9. Variation in highbush blueberry floral volatile profiles as a function of pollination status, cultivar, time of day and flower part: implications for flower visitation by bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-06-01

    Studies of the effects of pollination on floral scent and bee visitation remain rare, particularly in agricultural crops. To fill this gap, the hypothesis that bee visitation to flowers decreases after pollination through reduced floral volatile emissions in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum, was tested. Other sources of variation in floral emissions and the role of floral volatiles in bee attraction were also examined. Pollinator visitation to blueberry flowers was manipulated by bagging all flowers within a bush (pollinator excluded) or leaving them unbagged (open pollinated), and then the effect on floral volatile emissions and future bee visitation were measured. Floral volatiles were also measured from different blueberry cultivars, times of the day and flower parts, and a study was conducted to test the attraction of bees to floral volatiles. Open-pollinated blueberry flowers had 32 % lower volatile emissions than pollinator-excluded flowers. In particular, cinnamyl alcohol, a major component of the floral blend that is emitted exclusively from petals, was emitted in lower quantities from open-pollinated flowers. Although, no differences in cinnamyl alcohol emissions were detected among three blueberry cultivars or at different times of day, some components of the blueberry floral blend were emitted in higher amounts from certain cultivars and at mid-day. Field observations showed that more bees visited bushes with pollinator-excluded flowers. Also, more honey bees were caught in traps baited with a synthetic blueberry floral blend than in unbaited traps. Greater volatile emissions may help guide bees to unpollinated flowers, and thus increase plant fitness and bee energetic return when foraging in blueberries. Furthermore, the variation in volatile emissions from blueberry flowers depending on pollination status, plant cultivar and time of day suggests an adaptive role of floral signals in increasing pollination of flowers.

  10. Effect of substrate type on the field performance and chemical composition of highbush blueberry cv.Patriot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. OCHMIAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a 3-year study was to compare the effect of substrate type (peat, sawdust and cocoa husk on the yield, fruit quality, general and phenolic composition, and antioxidant activity of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cultivar Patriot. The largest berries and the highest yield were obtained from bushes grown in sawdust (3.661 kg ha-1. Berries from bushes grown in cocoa husk had the highest content of N (14.25 g kg-1, P (1.17 g kg-1, K (6.51 g kg-1, and Zn (8.78 mg kg-1, as well as P (1.26 g kg-1 and K (6.99 g kg-1 in the leaves. Both the leaves and fruits of plants grown in sawdust had higher Cu concentrations (3.89 and 3.01 mg kg-1. Berries from sawdust-grown bushes had the highest soluble solids (13.1% and total sugar (10.80 g 100 g-1 content. The fruits obtained from peat-grown bushes exhibited enhanced antioxidant capacity (38.6 ìmol Trolox g-1. However, the highest levels of phenolics were noted in berries produced in the cocoa husk (208.29 mg 100 g-1 and peat-bed system (174.07 mg 100 g-1. Regardless of the type of substrate used, the following phenols were identified (in descending order: anthocyanins>chlorogenic acid>flavonols. Delphinidin-glycosides were the most abundant pigments, and cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin-glycosides were also detected. Total flavonol content (quercetin derivatives and kaempferol 3-rutinoside was not significantly affected by the type of substrate.;

  11. Elevated Genetic Diversity in the Emerging Blueberry Pathogen Exobasidium maculosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Stewart

    Full Text Available Emerging diseases caused by fungi are increasing at an alarming rate. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA, severely reducing fruit quality in some plantings. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity of E. maculosum in the southeastern USA to elucidate the basis of disease emergence and to investigate if populations of E. maculosum are structured by geography, host species, or tissue type. We sequenced three conserved loci from 82 isolates collected from leaves and fruit of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum, highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum, and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids from commercial fields in Georgia and North Carolina, USA, and 6 isolates from lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium from Maine, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Populations of E. maculosum from the southeastern USA and from lowbush blueberry in Maine and Nova Scotia are distinct, but do not represent unique species. No difference in genetic structure was detected between different host tissues or among different host species within the southeastern USA; however, differentiation was detected between populations in Georgia and North Carolina. Overall, E. maculosum showed extreme genetic diversity within the conserved loci with 286 segregating sites among the 1,775 sequenced nucleotides and each isolate representing a unique multilocus haplotype. However, 94% of the nucleotide substitutions were silent, so despite the high number of mutations, selective constraints have limited changes to the amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. Overall, these results suggest that the emergence of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot is not due to a recent introduction or host shift, or the recent evolution of aggressive genotypes of E. maculosum, but more likely as a result of an increasing

  12. Characteristics of soil-to-plant transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roivainen, P.

    2011-07-01

    The use of nuclear energy generates large amounts of different types of radioactive wastes that can be accidentally released into the environment. Soil-to-plant transfer is a key process for the dispersion of radionuclides in the biosphere and is usually described by a concentration ratio (CR) between plant and soil concentrations in radioecological models. Our knowledge of the soil-to-plant transfer of many radionuclides is currently limited and concerns mainly agricultural species and temperate environments. The validity of radioecological modelling is affected by the accuracy of the assumptions and parameters used to describe soil-to-plant transfer. This study investigated the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements (cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn)) relevant to radioactive waste at two boreal forest sites and assessed the factors affecting the CR values. May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) were selected as representatives of understory species, while rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) represented trees in this study. All the elements studied were found to accumulate in plant roots, indicating that separate CR values for root and aboveground plant parts are needed. The between-species variation in CR values was not clearly higher than the within-species variation, suggesting that the use of generic CR values for understory species and trees is justified. No linear relationship was found between soil and plant concentrations for the elements studied and a non-linear equation was found to be the best for describing the dependence of CR values on soil concentration. Thus, the commonly used assumption of a linear relationship between plant and soil concentrations may lead to underestimation of plant root uptake at low soil concentrations. Plant nutrients potassium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur were found to

  13. Gene expression and metabolite profiling of developing highbush blueberry fruit indicates transcriptional regulation of flavonoid metabolism and activation of abscisic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifkin, Michael; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Zaharia, L Irina; Schernthaner, Johann P; Gesell, Andreas; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kennedy, James A; Constabel, C Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated. Two expressed sequence tag libraries from ripening blueberry fruit were constructed as a resource for gene identification and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primer design. Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that flavonoid biosynthetic transcript abundance followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and transcript profiles were consistent with the abundance of the three major classes of flavonoids. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) and corresponding biosynthetic transcripts encoding anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase were most concentrated in young fruit and localized predominantly to the inner fruit tissue containing the seeds and placentae. Mean PA polymer length was seven to 8.5 subunits, linked predominantly via B-type linkages, and was relatively constant throughout development. Flavonol accumulation and localization patterns were similar to those of the PAs, and the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of both was correlated with flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase transcript abundance. By contrast, anthocyanins accumulated late in maturation, which coincided with a peak in flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase and flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase transcripts. Transcripts of VcMYBPA1, which likely encodes an R2R3-MYB transcriptional regulator of PA synthesis, were prominent in both phases of development. Furthermore, the initiation of ripening was accompanied by a substantial rise in abscisic acid, a growth regulator that may be an important component of the ripening process and contribute to the regulation of

  14. 笃斯越桔多酚提取物成分分析及其抗氧化活性的研究%Composition analysis and antioxidant activity of bog bilberry polyphenol extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳嘉; 赵竞; 景浩

    2009-01-01

    研究笃斯越桔(Vaccinium uliginosum Linn)多酚提取物的成分、花青素组分和抗氧化能力.采用Bradford法和苯酚-硫酸法分别测定提取物中蛋白质和总糖的含量,Folin-ciocaheu法测定总多酚含量.进一步采用RP-HPLC分析笃斯越桔多酚提取物中花青素组分.结果表明,笃斯越桔多酚提取物中多酚含量占干质量的61.7%,花青素组分为5种,矢车菊素-3-葡萄糖苷为其主要成分.采用ABTS法和DPPH法评价提取物的抗氧化活性.结果显示,笃斯越桔多酚提取物清除ABTS和DPPH自由基的能力随提取物剂量的增加而升高,且EC50分别为114.1 μg/mL和1 16.0μg/mL,而标准品Trolox的EC50分别为129.0 μg/mL和130.6μg/mL.笃斯越桔多酚提取物多酚含量高,抗氧化能力强,是一种有效的天然抗氧化剂.

  15. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  16. Variation in highbush blueberry floral volatile profiles as a function of pollination status, cultivar, time of day and flower part: implications for flower visitation by bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Studies of the effects of pollination on floral scent and bee visitation remain rare, particularly in agricultural crops. To fill this gap, the hypothesis that bee visitation to flowers decreases after pollination through reduced floral volatile emissions in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum, was tested. Other sources of variation in floral emissions and the role of floral volatiles in bee attraction were also examined. Methods Pollinator visitation to blueberry flowers was manipulated by bagging all flowers within a bush (pollinator excluded) or leaving them unbagged (open pollinated), and then the effect on floral volatile emissions and future bee visitation were measured. Floral volatiles were also measured from different blueberry cultivars, times of the day and flower parts, and a study was conducted to test the attraction of bees to floral volatiles. Key Results Open-pollinated blueberry flowers had 32 % lower volatile emissions than pollinator-excluded flowers. In particular, cinnamyl alcohol, a major component of the floral blend that is emitted exclusively from petals, was emitted in lower quantities from open-pollinated flowers. Although, no differences in cinnamyl alcohol emissions were detected among three blueberry cultivars or at different times of day, some components of the blueberry floral blend were emitted in higher amounts from certain cultivars and at mid-day. Field observations showed that more bees visited bushes with pollinator-excluded flowers. Also, more honey bees were caught in traps baited with a synthetic blueberry floral blend than in unbaited traps. Conclusions Greater volatile emissions may help guide bees to unpollinated flowers, and thus increase plant fitness and bee energetic return when foraging in blueberries. Furthermore, the variation in volatile emissions from blueberry flowers depending on pollination status, plant cultivar and time of day suggests an adaptive role of floral signals in

  17. Managed Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Caged With Blueberry Bushes at High Density Did Not Increase Fruit Set or Fruit Weight Compared to Open Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J W; O'Brien, J; Irvin, J H; Kimmel, C B; Daniels, J C; Ellis, J D

    2017-04-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of bumble bees to the pollination of commercial highbush blueberries in Florida is unknown. Herein, we determined if managed bumble bees could contribute to highbush blueberry pollination. There were four treatments in this study: two treatments of caged commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colonies (low and high weight hives), a treatment excluding all pollinators, and a final treatment which allowed all pollinators (managed and wild pollinators) in the area have access to the plot. All treatments were located within a highbush blueberry field containing two cultivars of blooming plants, 'Emerald' and 'Millennia', with each cage containing 16 mature blueberry plants. We gathered data on fruit set, berry weight, and number of seeds produced per berry. When pollinators were excluded, fruit set was significantly lower in both cultivars (58%). Berry weight was not significantly different among the treatments, and the number of seeds per berry did not show a clear response. This study emphasizes the importance of bumble bees as an effective pollinator of blueberries and the potential beneficial implications of the addition of bumble bees in commercial blueberry greenhouses or high tunnels. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29Lkg(-1) in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85Lkg(-1) for whole, small-bodied fish. The logCRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were approximately 4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  19. Ethno-botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Racquel Tan Chua-Barcelo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a survey on the common name/s, traditional uses and cultural importance of the edible wild fruits in different municipalities of Benguet, Cordillera administrative region. Methods: Interviews using questionnaires with barangay leaders and indigenous people were conducted with 176 key informants from June 2011 to July 2013. Results: A total of 36 fruit species were found in different municipalities of Benguet. These fruit species belong to 27 genera and 20 families. Among the 13 municipalities of Benguet, Kibungan has the highest number of species. There are many uses of wild fruits which ranged from food (snack/dessert/table food), forage (especially for birds, monkeys and wild animals such as cloud rat and grass eaters), offertory, processed/preserved (as jam, jellies, candies, juice and wine), condiment or ingredient (for cooking), source of dye or ink, decoration (to garnish food) and as medicine to common ailments or health problems. Based on the inventory and calculated cultural importance index, Garcinia binucao (balokok) belonging to Clusiaceae is the most abundant fruit, hence it is the commonly used fruit for various purposes such as food, forage, processing/preservation and condiment/ingredient; Vaccinium myrtoides (ayusip) for offerings and as source of dye/ink; Saurauia elegans (uyok) for decoration, and, Antidesma bunius (bugnay) for medicine. Conclusions: Benguet province in the Cordillera region provides a diversity of edible wild fruits. The data gathered from the study signifies that collection, processing and utilization of edible wild fruits are still part of the daily activities of the people in Benguet.

  20. Steam treatment of forest ground vegetation to improve tree seedling establishment and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, Gisela [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Vegetation Ecology

    2000-07-01

    Mechanical soil scarification is the commonly used site preparation technique in Sweden today and there is a need for alternative site preparation methods to fulfil some environmental goals in Swedish forestry. Thermal vegetation control could be an alternative method that reduces the competing forest ground vegetation with minimal disturbance to the mineral soil and ground floor. The aim with this work has been to investigate if it is possible to control forest ground vegetation by steam treatment as an alternative site preparation method before planting or seeding. Studies were conducted on four sites, each representing main Swedish forest vegetation types, i.e. the ground vegetation was dominated by crowberry (Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull) and wavy hair grass (Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin). Steam generally controlled recolonization of vegetation on all investigated sites for a longer time than soil scarification. Especially in controlling grass vegetation steam treatment was much more effective than soil scarification. The establishment and growth of seeded Scots pine seedlings also improved after vegetation control by steam treatment compared to that in intact vegetation. For all sites, both steam treatment and soil scarification improved seedling height growth compared to seedlings planted in intact vegetation. In the bilberry and heather dominated sites seedling growth in steam treated plots was even better than for seedlings planted in mechanical soil scarified plots. Further, key biological soil processes such as microbial activity and mycorrhizal colonisation were not negatively affected by steam treatment. The conclusion made from these studies is that steam treatment has the potential to be used as an alternative site preparation method especially on sites dominated by ericaceous vegetation. However, the method requires some further technical development before it may be used