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Sample records for linfocintilografia pelvica contribuicao

  1. Pelvic lymphoscintigraphy: contribution to the preoperative staging of rectal cancer; Linfocintilografia pelvica. Contribuicao ao estadiamento pre-operatorio do cancer retal

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    Silva, Jose Hyppolito da

    1996-12-31

    Preservation of the lower rectal sphincters has been the main concern of colorectal surgeons in an attempt to avoid colostomy. Various proposed procedures contradict the oncological principles of the operation`s radicality, especially pelvic lymphadenectomy. Prior knowledge of this space is therefore, an important factor in choosing the operative technique: radical (amputation), or conservative. The introduction of ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have provided preoperative information about the anatomic nature of the region. The morphological and functional study supplied by lymphoscintigraphy of this space supplements the data furnished by the other imaging techniques. The objective of this prospective of this prospective study was threefold: to standardize lymphoscintigraphy, to differentiate patients with rectal cancer from those with other coloproctological diseases and to asses the lymphonodal involvement in the former by utilizing the anatomopathological and surgical correlation. The study included 60 patients with various coloproctological diseases seen on the Department of Gastroentorology, Hospital da Clinicas, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, from September 1990 to August 1993. Thirty were cases of rectal cancer and the remainder were other colorectal diseases. The method consisted of injecting 0.5 of a dextran solution market with radioactive technetium in the perineal region and obtaining images by a gamma camera. In the rectal cancer patients, the tracer progresses unilaterally or is absent; in the others, it is bilateral and symmetrical, although its progress may be slow. The statistical data demonstrated that in rectal cancer, lymphoscintigraphy asseses the nodal involvement approximaltely as that obtained by the sun of the anatomapathological and surgical findings. Based on the results, the following conclusioons were possible: lymphoscintigraphy is a standardized, painless and harmless test that can be performed in all cases; it differentiates patients with rectal cancer from those with other coloproctological diseases; it significantly assesses lymphonodal involvement preoperatively in reactal cancer; its sensitivity is 88.23%, specificity is 87.50%, the positive predictive value is 78.94%, the negative ptredictive value is 93.33% and accuracy is 87.75%. (author) 75 refs., 10 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Pelvic lymphoscintigraphy: contribution to the preoperative staging of rectal cancer; Linfocintilografia pelvica. Contribuicao ao estadiamento pre-operatorio do cancer retal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Hyppolito da

    1997-12-31

    Preservation of the lower rectal sphincters has been the main concern of colorectal surgeons in an attempt to avoid colostomy. Various proposed procedures contradict the oncological principles of the operation`s radicality, especially pelvic lymphadenectomy. Prior knowledge of this space is therefore, an important factor in choosing the operative technique: radical (amputation), or conservative. The introduction of ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have provided preoperative information about the anatomic nature of the region. The morphological and functional study supplied by lymphoscintigraphy of this space supplements the data furnished by the other imaging techniques. The objective of this prospective of this prospective study was threefold: to standardize lymphoscintigraphy, to differentiate patients with rectal cancer from those with other coloproctological diseases and to asses the lymphonodal involvement in the former by utilizing the anatomopathological and surgical correlation. The study included 60 patients with various coloproctological diseases seen on the Department of Gastroentorology, Hospital da Clinicas, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, from September 1990 to August 1993. Thirty were cases of rectal cancer and the remainder were other colorectal diseases. The method consisted of injecting 0.5 of a dextran solution market with radioactive technetium in the perineal region and obtaining images by a gamma camera. In the rectal cancer patients, the tracer progresses unilaterally or is absent; in the others, it is bilateral and symmetrical, although its progress may be slow. The statistical data demonstrated that in rectal cancer, lymphoscintigraphy asseses the nodal involvement approximaltely as that obtained by the sun of the anatomapathological and surgical findings. Based on the results, the following conclusioons were possible: lymphoscintigraphy is a standardized, painless and harmless test that can be performed in all cases; it differentiates patients with rectal cancer from those with other coloproctological diseases; it significantly assesses lymphonodal involvement preoperatively in reactal cancer; its sensitivity is 88.23%, specificity is 87.50%, the positive predictive value is 78.94%, the negative ptredictive value is 93.33% and accuracy is 87.75%. (author) 75 refs., 10 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Linfonodo sentinela após mamoplastia de aumento pela via transaxilar: estudo prospectivo controlado por meio de linfocintilografia em 43 pacientes Sentinel lymph node detection after transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty: a prospective controlled study utilizing lymphoscintigraphy in 43 breasts

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    Heitor Naoki Sado

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se a mamoplastia de aumento pela via transaxilar apresenta potencial de prejudicar a identificação futura do linfonodo sentinela. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo controlado em que foram selecionadas 22 pacientes divididas em grupo pós-mamoplastia e grupo controle, totalizando 43 mamas (22 no grupo pós-mamoplastia e 21 no grupo controle avaliadas por meio de linfocintilografia imediatamente após injeções periareolares de fitato-99mTc. Os testes estatísticos consideraram como diferenças significativas valores de p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential influence of transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty on future detection of sentinel lymph node. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective controlled study where 22 patients were selected and divided into two groups (post-mammoplasty and control corresponding to 43 breasts (22 in the post-mammoplasty group and 21 in the control group evaluated by lymphoscintigraphy immediately after periareolar 99mTc-phytate injections. In the statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered as significant. RESULTS: All the breasts in the post-mammoplasty group presented lymphatic drainage to the axillary chain, with no difference as compared with the control group (p = 0.488. The average number of hot lymph nodes was 1.27 ± 0.46 in the post-mammoplasty group, and 1.33 ± 0.58 in the control group (p = 0.895. The mean time required to visualize the first lymph node was 3.14 ± 4.42 minutes in the post-mammoplasty group, and 5.48 ± 5.06 minutes in the control group (p = 0.136. CONCLUSION: Transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty did not affect the future detection of sentinel lymph node.

  4. Abdominal wall hernias: computed tomography findings; Hernias da parede abdomino-pelvica: aspectos tomograficos

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    D' Ippolito, Giuseppe; Rosas, George de Queiroz; Mota, Marcos Alexandre; Akisue, Sandra R. Tsukada; Galvao Filho, Mario de Melo[Hospital e Maternidade Sao Luiz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de US/TC/RMN]. E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br

    2005-07-15

    Abdominal hernias are a common clinical problem Clinical diagnosis of abdominal hernias can sometimes be challenging, particularly in obese patients or patients with previous abdominal surgery. CT scan of the abdomen allows visualization of hernias and their contents and the differentiation from other masses of the abdominal wall such as tumors, hematomas and abscesses. Moreover, CT may identify complications such as incarceration, bowel obstruction, volvulus and strangulation. This study illustrates the CT scan findings observed in different types of abdominal wall hernias. (author)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic endometriosis; Ressonancia magnetica em endometriose pelvica

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    Vieira, G.P.; Martin, B.; Tubiana, J.M. [Hospital Saint Antoine, Paris (France)

    1994-07-01

    Twenty-five magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed in 18 patients with proven endometriosis. MRI findings were analyzed and compared with laparoscopic or surgical findings; MRI accurately demonstrated ovarian endometrial cysts as well as ectopic foci of endometriosis. Adhesions may be also suggested. Contrary to laparoscopy, MRI easily depicts both deep lesions and endometrial implants under the peritoneum. Consequently, MRI appears as an useful adjunct to laparoscopy for initial diagnosis before starting a medical treatment and above all as the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of the answer to treatment, avoiding iterative and often adhesions limited laparoscopies. (author). 7 refs.; 9 figs.

  6. Contribuicao da atividade vagal em parametros eletrofisiologicos supraventriculares de atletas

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo José Stein

    1997-01-01

    Fundamento: Atletas praticantes de atividades aeróbias apresentam maior freqüência de alterações na condução aírioventricular (AV). Pouco se conhece, porém, a respeito das modificações que ocorrem no sistema excitocondutor em indivíduos treinados aerobicamente com eletrocardiograma de repouso normal. Objetivo; Estudar a associação entre o automatismo sino-atrial e a condução AV com a atividade vagai em atletas praticantes de atividades aeróbias e em sedentários normais. Delineamento: Estudo t...

  7. Pelvic splenosis. Clinical case presentation and literature review; Esplenosis pelvica. Presentacion de caso clinico y revision de la literatura

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    Schalch Ponce de Leon, J.M.; Rivera B, B; Garcia O, R [Centro Medico ABC, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    A feminine patient of 31 years primigravidas with pregnancy of 6 weeks of gestation by FUM. Splenoctomy antecedent 20 years ago by splenic traumatic rupture. It enters to the service of Gynecology for sudden and intense pelvic pain in iliac left fossa and scarce trans vaginal bled. Ultrasound reports uterine cavity without gestational sack, mass of 3.5x1.4 cm in right annex. She is carried out to laparoscopy with pre surgical diagnosis of 'right ectopic pregnancy'. During the surgery its are found data that indicate probable splenosis in bottom of right sack. It was carried out at simple and contrasted TAC that show vascularized solid tumoration accustomed in bottom of right sack. The hepatosplenic scintillography with colloidal sulfide labelled with {sup 99m}Tc corroborate the diagnostic of pelvic and abdominal splenosis. (Author)

  8. Pelvic splenosis. Clinical case presentation and literature review; Esplenosis pelvica. Presentacion de caso clinico y revision de la literatura

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    Schalch Ponce de Leon, J.M.; Rivera B, B.; Garcia O, R. [Centro Medico ABC, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    A feminine patient of 31 years primigravidas with pregnancy of 6 weeks of gestation by FUM. Splenoctomy antecedent 20 years ago by splenic traumatic rupture. It enters to the service of Gynecology for sudden and intense pelvic pain in iliac left fossa and scarce trans vaginal bled. Ultrasound reports uterine cavity without gestational sack, mass of 3.5x1.4 cm in right annex. She is carried out to laparoscopy with pre surgical diagnosis of 'right ectopic pregnancy'. During the surgery its are found data that indicate probable splenosis in bottom of right sack. It was carried out at simple and contrasted TAC that show vascularized solid tumoration accustomed in bottom of right sack. The hepatosplenic scintillography with colloidal sulfide labelled with {sup 99m}Tc corroborate the diagnostic of pelvic and abdominal splenosis. (Author)

  9. Instrumento mensurador de adesao para hipertensos: contribuicao da Teoria da Resposta ao Item

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    Malvina Thais Pacheco Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar instrumento de medição da adesão ao tratamento da hipertensão por meio da "Teoria da Resposta ao Item". MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico com 406 hipertensos com complicações associadas, atendidos na atenção básica em Fortaleza, CE, 2011, pela "Teoria da Resposta ao Item". As etapas de execução foram: teste de dimensionalidade, calibração dos itens; tratamento dos dados e construção da escala, analisadas com base no modelo de resposta gradual. Estudo da dimensionalidade do instrumento foi feito pela análise da matriz de correlação policórica e análise fatorial de informação completa. Utilizou-se o software Multilog para calibração dos itens e estimação dos escores. RESULTADOS: Os itens referentes ao tratamento medicamentoso foram os mais diretamente relacionados à adesão, enquanto aqueles referentes ao tratamento não medicamentoso precisam ser reformulados, pois possuíram menor quantidade de informação psicométrica e baixa discriminação. A independência dos itens, o reduzido número de níveis da escala e as baixas variâncias explicadas no ajuste dos modelos mostraram as principais fragilidades do instrumento analisado. A "Teoria da Resposta ao Item" mostrou-se relevante para análise, pois avaliou o respondente quanto à adesão ao tratamento da hipertensão, ao nível de dificuldade dos itens e à sua capacidade de discriminação entre indivíduos com diferentes níveis de adesão, o que gerou maior quantidade de informação. CONCLUSÕES: O instrumento analisado é limitado para medir a adesão ao tratamento da hipertensão, mediante análise pela "Teoria da Resposta ao Item", e necessita de ajustes. A adequada formulação dos itens é importante para medir precisamente o traço latente desejado.

  10. A contribuicao do direito nuclear para o melhor aproveitamento da energia nuclear para fins pacifico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The text describes the contribution of nuclear law in order to improve the nuclear energy utiliation for peaceful uses. The actuation of the nuclear law as mediator between the nuclear progress and its consequences aiming to get better life conditions and education as base for developing are shown [pt

  11. A fenomenologia social de Alfred Schutz e sua contribuicao para a enfermagem

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    Maria Cristina Pinto de Jesus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O cuidado de enfermagem pode ser considerado uma ação social que tem como cenário o mundo cotidiano, onde são estabelecidas relações intersubjetivas que devem ser valorizadas pelo enfermeiro nos diversos contextos em que atua. Estudo teórico que teve como objetivo destacar as principais concepções da fenomenologia social de Alfred Schütz e sua contribuição para a Enfermagem como área de conhecimento e prática profissional. As seguintes questões nortearam este estudo: qual a compreensão do cuidar em Enfermagem sob a ótica da fenomenologia social de Alfred Schütz? Como aplicar as concepções teóricas de Alfred Schütz na ação de cuidar em Enfermagem? Foram demarcadas tais concepções e a interface destas com a Enfermagem. Ao incorporar à Enfermagem conceitos da teoria da ação social elaborados por Alfred Schütz, este estudo permite ao enfermeiro valorizar e aplicar os aspectos apontados por este referencial teórico no âmbito assistencial, no ensino e na investigação científica.

  12. Study of effects of metallic prostheses in radiotherapy treatments in prostate cancer; Estudio de los efectos de las protesis metalicas en tratamientos radioterapicos en irradiacion pelvica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, P.; Mateos, J. C.; Herrador, M.; Ortiz, M. J.

    2006-07-01

    In this work it is described the problems related to the radiotherapy treatments of patients with prostate cancer and hip implants Analyze the effects of metallic prostheses in radiotherapy treatments and present the methods to overcome the problems that arise in these situations. Our patients are student in a TAC Philips with a range of Hounsfield number of-1000 to 4000. The planning and measurement of CT numbers are done in a RTP ADAC Pinnacle that have a maximum of 32767 CT units. The metallic implants more frequently used, titanium, stainless steel and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, generate CT numbers from 2000 to 3000, and cause saturation effects. This problem may be solved with modern scanners that use the extended CT range. It is an algorithm that expand the usual range by a factor of 10. An alternative solution to this problem can be used if the prostheses are able to scan to select the window parameters that allow an automatic region of interest (roi) definition that match to the dimensions of the implants. Finally it is assigned the electronic/physical densities to the created roi's. The clinical dosimetry of patients with prostheses have been done defining the usual regions of interests (target volume and risk organs) in first place. Finally the prostheses are outlined using the window parameters previously measured and assigned the electronic or physical densities. The attenuation of the implant may then be calculated accurately. The presence of implants in the treatment fields originate artifacts in the TAC images of patients and underdosage of target volume that range between 12% and 30% in function of material an energy used. It is necessary the application of methods that correct the dose behind the implant, if it is not possible to prevent the incidence of the treatment beams over the prostheses. (Author)

  13. Contribution of the height in the ambient dose equivalent; Contribuicao da altitude no equivalente de dose ambiente

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    de Campos, Vicente de P.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Alipio, Osvaldo C.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando, E-mail: vpcampos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of natural sources in the ambient dose equivalent. The evaluation of the levels of environmental radiation was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters CaSO{sub 4} of doped C, which have high sensitivity and little fading. The dosimeters were placed in five locations at different altitudes, covering the period from three to nine years depending on their location. The results were grouped according to the use and occupation of land in the vicinity of the measurement point.

  14. Rural electrification in Santarem: the contribution of micro hydropower; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

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    Els, Rudi Henri Van [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Diniz, Janaina Deane de Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA . The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA ) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the electric sector. The proposed management model is that of collective administration where the operation of the system is done by the proper community. However, the operation and maintenance of the systems is still coordinated by the municipality, because the mechanisms to implement the collective management have not yet been created. Rural electrification through MHP's showed to be viable to attend rural communities in the municipality of Santarem. However, in order to succeed, the communities have to be organized in rural electricity utilities cooperatives to include these initiatives in the electric sector, attending the installations to the sector's standards and consolidating the management model. (author)

  15. Rural electrification in Santarem: contribution of micro hydroelectric power plants; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Els, Rudi Henri Van; Diniz, Janaina Deane De Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de [Universidade de Barsilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA. The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the electric sector. The proposed management model is that of collective administration where the operation of the system is done by the proper community. However, the operation and maintenance of the systems is still coordinated by the municipality, because the mechanisms to implement the collective management have not yet been created. Rural electrification through MHP's showed to be viable to attend rural communities in the municipality of Santarem. However, in order to succeed, the communities have to be organized in rural electricity utilities cooperatives to include these initiatives in the electric sector, attending the installations to the sector's standards and consolidating the management model. (author)

  16. Atlas digital: uma contribuicao para o sistema de informacoes do municipio de Sao Joao de Meriti – RJ

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    Ricardo Araujo Mathias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Um Atlas Digital é um atlas que pode ser acessado atraves de um computador, sendo possivel a utilizacao de uma variada gama de temas, formatos e escalas. Neste trabalho apresenta-se um prototipo de Atlas Digital como colaboracao ao Sistema de Informacao Municipal – SIM, para o municipio de Sao João de Meriti, RJ. O SIM tem como meta os servicos municipais, sendo as suas informacoes fundamentais para a melhoria da gestao das prefeituras. A pesquisa foi direcionada para o tema da habitabilidade, que consiste num conjunto de condicoes voltadas para a criacao de um habitat saudavel, conseguinte foram trabalhados os subtemas: infraestrutura de abastecimento de agua, esgoto, coleta de lixo, saude e educacao.

  17. Contribution of matrix converter in microgeneration for a sustainable energy planning; Contribuicao do conversor matricial na microgeracao para um planejamento energetico sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Javier Alexis Andrade; Romero, Jesus Franklin Andrade [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], emails: javier.romero@ufabc.edu.br, jesus.romero@ufabc.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Once microturbine (MT) based generation systems present suitable and short term application conditions in distributed generation, a rigorous sustainability evaluation is necessary. In this work a Two Stage Matrix Converter (CM2E) that improves the energy efficiency performance is evaluated. In this sense, an analysis based on technological indicators regarding a sustainable energy planning is presented in technological, economic, social and environmental dimensions (author)

  18. Properties of altered soils by alkaline solution: contribution in the performance evaluation of repositories; Propriedades de solos alterados por solucao alcalina: contribuicao na avaliacao de desempenho de repositorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabria, Jaqueline Alves de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    The radioactive wastes from nuclear technology applications must be properly disposed in a repository, during the necessary time to ensure the human and the environment protection. The surface systems are largely considered for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, but generally require the use of engineering barriers to control the radionuclides release. An important engineering barrier is the backfill which is situated between the package and structural material, and has the functions of reducing the water infiltration and to promote the retardation of the radionuclide migration, among others. Therefore, the material to be used as backfill such as clays, cement, soils, rocks, must has good sorption, permeability and mechanical properties. The selection of the material will depend also largely on the material availability and installation design. The concrete is also used in the construction of repository, and its interaction with water induces its degradation, resulting in a high pH solution. This solution interacts with the backfilling materials promoting mineralogical alterations that results in significant changes in their key properties and performance as safety component of the repository. In this work, five Brazilian soils of Minas Gerais state, selected according to their generic characteristics along with information from Sistema Brasileiro de Classificacao de Solos (SiBCS) were investigated concerning their potential use as backfilling material in a superficial repository by the determination of retention capacity for cesium and iodine. Sorption-related parameters, used in the performance assessment of the soils, were obtained from experimental data fitting to different sorption isotherms models. The soil that showed the best sorption of Cs, was a clay soil that presented distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) of 90.5 mL.g{sup -1} and maximum sorption capacity (Q{sub max}) of 18.372 mg.g{sup -1}. Regarding the iodine, the sorption was very low for all evaluated samples (less than 20% after 10 days of equilibrium), being the best performance one, the nitosoil sample whose K{sub d} values varied from 11.78 to 63.05 mL.g{sup -1}. In a subsequent step, the clay soil, was submitted to the alkaline solution interaction, in order to investigate possible alterations on the sorption properties and hydraulic conductivity of this soil. Using the sorption parameters, obtained from data fitted isotherms, the retardation factor, R, was estimated for the samples before and after the interaction. It was demonstrated that the alkaline alteration promotes damages to sorption properties of Cs, once the R became significantly smaller (about 1000 times) after the interaction. The hydraulic conductivity in turn increased slightly (3,91x10{sup -8} cm.s{sup -1} to 5,08 x 10{sup -8} cm.s{sup -1}). It was concluded that these changes were due, mainly, to the dissolution of minerals present in the clay soil (kaolinite and quartz), associated with the incorporation of K and Ca from the alkaline solution, resulting, probably, in the formation of hydrated calcium silicate phases. Additionally, the effects of alkaline solution on the properties of a commercial bentonite were studied. Contrary to the clay soil, it was observed a gain in the sorption characteristics, with K{sub d} (Cs) increasing from 760.05 mL.g{sup -1}to 1311.80 mL.g{sup -1}and Q{sub max} from 36.32 mg.g{sup -1}to 52.13 mg.g{sup -1}, with the corresponding increase in the retardation coefficient, R. The dissolution of the clay minerals from the initial sample and the incorporation of Mg, K e Ca coming from the alkaline solution, generating smectite of different kinds, were considered as the main mineralogical changes responsible for the modifications in sorption parameters. The different behavior between the two evaluated samples, soil and bentonite, confirms that the nature and extension of changes observed, when mineral samples interact with alkaline solution, depend on the chemical/mineralogical composition of the solid material, among other factors. (author)

  19. History of Portuguese section of ISES; A historia de asociead protuguesa de energia solar contribuicao da seccao portuguesa para a Historia da ISES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, J. F.; Carvalho, M. J.

    2004-07-01

    An overview is presented of the most relevant activities of SPES, the Portuguese section of ISES, during the last two decades. It has been a very intensive solar energy promotion activity, which used up to now almost all available tools, including realization and participation in Congresses, conferences, seminars and workshops, publication of a periodic magazine, newsletters, press releases, books, brochures, posters and other dissemination papers, participation in national and international projects for dissemination of solar energy applications, creation and maintenance of a web site, celebration of the SUNDAY and so on. Unfortunately this important set of activities has no direct correspondence with the Portuguese market for solar collectors, which did not grow accordingly. Reasons for this discrepancy, proposed measures to overcome it and perspectives for our section are also presented in this paper. (Author)

  20. Technological contribution of production engineering for national self-sufficiency in petroleum; Contribuicao tecnologica da engenharia de producao para a auto-suficiencia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Anelise Quintao [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Engenharia de Reservatorios], e-mail: alara@petrobras.com.br; Pinto, Antonio Carlos Capeleiro [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Pre-Projetos de Desenvolvimento da Producao], e-mail: acc@petrobras.com.br; Lage, Antonio Carlos Vieira Martins [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Poco], e-mail: antoniolage@petrobas.com.br; Del Vecchio, Cesar Jose Moraes [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Programa Tecnologico de Transporte (PROTRAN)], e-mail: cdv@petrobras.com.br; Masetti, Isaias Quaresma [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Metodos Cientificos], e-mail: masetti@petrobras.com.br; Formigli Filho, Jose Miranda [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia Executiva de Engenharia de Producao; Fagundes Netto, Jose Roberto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Elevacao, Escoamento e Processamento], e-mail: rfagundes@petrobras.com.br; Beltrao, Ricardo Luis Carneiro [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia Geral de Producao], e-mail: rbeltrao@petrobras.com.br

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents a retrospective of some of PETROBRAS' main technological advances that contributed for Brazil to reach petroleum production self-sufficiency. The impact of the corporate strategy to invest in training and qualifying human resources in the development of critical technologies for the Company's business is discussed. From the mid-seventies, there has been a significant increase in the effort directed to research and development (R and D) in the Exploration and Production (E and P) segment. Motivated by challenges imposed by ever increasing water depths (WD) and the early production of discovered fields, technological developments accelerated. A few of the topics discussed herein include the competition between wet subsea systems and atmospheric systems, the first floating production units based on semi-submersible drilling platforms and on adapted tankers, the development of wellhead systems, risers and production lines. Beginning in the mid-eighties, PETROBRAS successively broke world records in terms of water depth with its wells and production and off loading facilities. In order to support this leadership, new technologies were developed and adapted, in partnership with vendors and scientific and technological institutions, in the country and abroad. This paper discusses the technologies developed for maintaining the production of mature fields, increasing the production capacity and managing the integrity of installed units, managing great volumes of produced water as a function of mechanisms adopted for the maintenance of reservoir pressure and managing production projects. In conclusion, the main solutions currently in development are described. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the inflammatory activity in chronic osteomyelitis. Contribution of the scintigraphy with polyclonal antibodies; Avaliacao de atividade inflamatoria em osteomielite cronica. Contribuicao da cintilografia com anticorpos policlonais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit

    1996-07-01

    Active chronic osteomyelitis or complicating osteomyelitis (superimposed on diseases that changes the normal bone structure fractures, post-surgery, prosthesis) can be difficult to diagnose by anatomic radiological imaging modalities, like plain radiograph and CT. These diseases frequently cause also increased bone remodeling, leading to nonspecific uptake of Tc-99m-bone scan agents and gallium-67. New radiopharmaceuticals with greater inflammation/infection avidity and specificity are being developed, including the nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) labeled with technetium-99. Tc-99m-IgG may be available as a ready to use kit, with no reported side effects, low patient absorbed radiation dose and low cost. The mechanism of IgG uptake at the inflammation site has not been fully elucidated yet. Specific (receptor linking, physico-chemical immunoglobulin properties) and nonspecific mechanisms (enhanced vascular permeability and macromolecular exudate) has been suggested. IgG scintigraphy results are affected by the isotope, labeling procedure adopted and characteristics of the inflammatory focus. Nineteen patients with suspected osteomyelitis (active chronic osteomyelitis or violated bone osteomyelitis) were studied by Tc-99m-IgG scintigraphy (directly labeled polyclonal immunoglobulin, Sandoglobuilina - Sandoz). All patients also underwent standard three-phase bone scintigraphy using methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m-MDP), gallium-67 scintigraphy and plain radiographs. Infection was found in 8 sites. Sensitivity and specificity for Tc-99m-MDP, gallium-67 and Tc 99m-IgG scintigraphy were, respectively, 88 and 36%, 75 and 73%,88 and 82%. All patients with false positive IgG scintigraphies had previous surgery. Other current scintigraphic procedures used in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis are also reviewed. (author)

  2. Energy, society and environment: considerations about the contribution of biofuels to sustainable development; Energia, sociedade e meio ambiente: consideracoes acerca da contribuicao dos biocombustiveis para o desenvolvimento sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Bruna de Barros [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2010-07-01

    The concept of development on the contemporary scene is limited to ideas of economic growth and consumption. In this context, arises the need for a new form of development, witch can be represented by the concept of sustainable development. The sustainability at the energy sector has a key role on mitigating environmental and social problems, and also contributes to security on energy supply. Therefore, the main purpose of the present paper is to understand the need for sustainable development at the contemporary scene and relate it to the energy context. To, then, analyze the prospect of biofuels on the three spheres of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental. (author)

  3. Contribution to the operating energy planning of hydrothermal power systems; Contribuicao ao planejamento da operacao energetica de sistemas hidrotermicos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Adriano Alber de Franca Mendes

    1991-08-01

    This work treats of the problem of the planning of the energy operation of hydrothermal power systems, gone back to those with predominance of hydraulic generation, as it is the case of the Brazilian system. The work makes an analysis of the problem of the planning of the energy operation of systems hydrothermal leaving of the concepts and nature of this problem. Their inherent difficulties are shown and they come the main approaches in operation in countries with predominance of hydroelectric generation. It still introduces the methodology in energy planning in Brazil being pointed their main limitations. Finally an alternative model for the planning of the energy operation of the system brazilian hydrothermal, based on the made studies is also presented.

  4. Contributions of the food irradiation technology to the nutritional and alimentary safety; Contribuicao da tecnologia de irradiacao de alimentos no fornecimento de seguranca alimentar e nutricional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Sonia Regina Schauffert

    1999-07-01

    This work is a bibliographic review about the contributions of the food irradiation technology on nutritional and alimentary safety. Subjected to research and development for more than 60 years, these technology was approved by a jointly FAO/WHO/IAEA Expert Committees in 1980 with the conclusion that the irradiation of food up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy present no toxicological hazard and introduce no special nutritional or microbiological problems. Following these conclusions general standards and practices for food irradiation were adopted by the Codex Alimentarium Commission in 1983, opening the possibilities for internal applications and international commerce of irradiated food in many countries. Radiation from radioisotopes sources, electron accelerators or X-ray generators can be applied to food in order to reduce the microbial load, insect disinfestation, improving the shelf life extension of the products. Absorbed doses up to 10 kGy level do not introduce significant alterations in the macro or micro nutrients contents or in the sensorial characteristic of irradiated food. Although food safety can be related with many other important topics, irradiation technology improving food quality, reducing food spoilage during preservation and preventing problems related with food borne disease present a good potential to contribute with the foment and guaranty of the nutritional and alimentary safety. (author)

  5. Comparação da linfocintilografia com dextrano 500 com a do fitato na pesquisa do linfonodo sentinela no câncer de mama Lymphoscintigraphy imaging study for sentinel node mapping, comparing dextran 500 with phytate, in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Leite Xavier

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a acurácia de dois radiocolóides na marcação do linfonodo sentinela (LNS por imagem. MÉTODOS: as pacientes foram incluídas no período de maio de 2002 a abril de 2004. Neste estudo duplo-cego, a paciente foi submetida duas vezes ao mesmo exame, mas com fármacos diferentes, sendo que os fármacos, tecnécio-99m-dextrano 500 (dextrano e tecnécio-99m-fitato (fitato, foram injetados, na mama, em quatro pontos na área peritumoral e no subcutâneo superficialmente ao tumor, com volume de 2 ml, contendo de 1,0 a 1,5 mCi, em alíquotas de 0,4 ml. Para a obtenção das imagens, duas horas após a injeção do radiofármaco, usamos gama-câmera com colimador de alta resolução. A drenagem linfática axilar foi identificada em imagens radiográficas estáticas, anterior e lateral. A estatística para pares discordantes foi realizada pelo teste de MacNemar e pelo teste Z para proporções. RESULTADOS: na análise das 40 pacientes, obtiveram-se 15 pares com imagens positivas iguais, 4 pares com imagens negativas e 21 pares com imagens distintas, seja porque uma era negativa, seja porque o número de LNS marcados era diferente. A análise do desempenho quanto ao sucesso e insucesso mostrou 35 e 27 imagens positivas e 5 e 13 imagens negativas, respectivamente para o dextrano e o fitato, sendo que das negativas 4 eram comuns. O estudo estatístico pelo teste de MacNemar mostrou p=0,026, com odds ratio (OR = 0,11 e IC 95% 0,01PURPOSE: a case-control study comparing two radiocolloids used in scintigraphy to map the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN in breast cancer patients. METHODS: forty patients were prospectively enrolled between May 2002 and April 2004, after signing an informed consent form. In the present double-blind study, each patient was submitted twice to the same examination, a mammary scintigraphy, one with 99mTc-dextran 500 (dextran and the other with 99mTc-phytate (phytate, on different days. A volume of 2 ml with 1-1.5 mCi of each radiopharmaceutical, in divided aliquots, was injected in the breast parenchyma in four points around in the tumor and the subcutaneous area superficial to the tumor. The image was obtained 2 h after the injection, using a gamma camera with high-resolution collimator. The lymph nodes were identified by anterior and lateral static scintigraphic images. Statistical analysis was done with the use of McNemar and Z tests. RESULTS: in the analysis of the 40 patients, we had 15 pairs with positive identical images, 4 pairs with negative images and 21 pairs with inconsistent images, either because one of them was negative, or because the SLN numbers were different. When the protocol was opened, we found 35 and 27 positive images and 5 and 13 negative images for dextran and phytate treatment groups, respectively. Among the negative images, 4 were shared by both groups. The McNemar test, used for the statistical analysis, showed p=0.026, odds ratio (OR = 0.11 with 95% CI 0.01 < OR < 0.85. The accuracy, evaluated by the success ratio of the SLN mapping, was 67.5% for phytate and 87.5% for dextran, with p=0.032. Analysis of variance of the SLN number in lymphoscintigraphy images showed p=0.008. CONCLUSION: these results recommend the use of dextran instead of phytate for the SLN study of breast carcinoma by scintigraphy, when the same methodology is being used.

  6. Avaliação das compensações linfáticas no pós-operatório de câncer de mama com dissecção axilar através da linfocintilografia Evaluation of lymphatic compensation by lymphoscintigraphy in the postoperative period of breast cancer surgery with axillary dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferreira de Rezende

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sistema linfático é um componente do corpo humano intimamente relacionado ao sistema venoso. Entretanto, o conhecimento científico a seu respeito é limitado. A etiologia e os fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento do linfedema no pós-operatório de câncer de mama são multifatoriais e ainda não foram completamente esclarecidos. O objetivo desta revisão da literatura foi descrever o padrão linfocintilográfico e avaliar as compensações linfáticas do membro superior no pós-operatório de câncer de mama com dissecção axilar.The lymphatic system is a component of the human body that is closely related to the venous system. However, scientific knowledge of this system is limited. The etiology and risk factors for the development of postoperative lymphedema in patients with breast cancer seem to be multifactorial and have not been fully understood yet. The objective of this review of the literature was to describe lymphoscintigraphic pattern and to evaluate upper limb lymphatic compensation following breast cancer surgery with axillary dissection.

  7. Sustainable Campus Program: University of Sao Paulo and its contribution to the reduction of environmental and economic impacts; Programa Campus Sutentavel: a Universidade de Sao Paulo e sua contribuicao a reducao dos impactos ambientais e economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, M M; Grimoni, J A.B.; Burani, G F [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Massola, A M.A.; Barbosa, E J.S.; Hamzo, S T; Guarnieri, M C; Prist, R; Sonnewend, J E.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (COSESP/USP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria do Campus da Capital

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the actions and the results obtained by the action of the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in reduction of environmental impacts caused by its activities, the creation of standards and indicators to monitor the results, the training of personnel and development models of public administration that can be adopted by other universities and city, state and federal administration. (author)

  8. Contribution of WHOQOL-Bref in the quality of life of workers in a radioactive installation; Contribuicao dos dominios do WHOQOL-Bref na qualidade de vida de trabalhadores de uma instalacao radiativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ivani M.; Silva, Amanda J. da; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G., E-mail: imfernandes@ipen.b, E-mail: ajsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.b, E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper analysed the contribution of WHOQOL-Bref (physical, social, psychological and environmental) for the global life quality of individual occupationally exposed to ionizing radiations and to verify its interrelationship with the social demographic variables, its work conditions and life style. The studied sample (n=86) has answered to a questionnaire composed by socio demographic, work conditions and life style questions and by the WHOQOL-Bref instrument. The data analysis involved descriptive and non parametric tests. The results shown that the psychological domain obtained more average score (75.9+-12.4) and the environmental less score (62.5+-11.4). It was observed significant correlations (p<0.05) among the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref and the studied variables. The internal consistency of the instrument, evaluated by Alpha of Cronbach, for the studied sample was considered high (0.832)

  9. Prospective study of fetal hydronephrosis diagnosed by ultrasound- contribution to prevent renal damage in childhood; Estudo prospectivo da hidronefrose fetal diagnosticada por ultra-som: uma contribuicao na prevencao ao dano renal na infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Eduardo A.; Cabral, Antonio Carlos V.; Leite, Henrique V.; Filgueiras, Teresa F.; Oliveira, Raquel B.B.; Vilasboas, Aranai S.; Tiburcio, Arthur E.L.; Diniz, Jose Silveiro S. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas

    1998-03-01

    Newborns with anomalies of the urinary tract detected by fetal echography were investigated. The purpose was to identify prevalent uropathies, clinical outcome and variables of prognostic significance in patients with fetal hydronephrosis. The patients were investigated by ultrasound, micturating cystourethrography and radionuclide imaging, after beginning of chemoprophylaxis. Renal function and urinary tract infection were also studied. Eight-three patients were included in this study, 54(65,1%) of these were boys. Postnatal predominant diagnosis were pelviureteric junction obstruction (3,3%) and multicytic kidney (15,7%). Follow-up average was 35 {+-} 2.5 months. Renal function deteriored in 8 children during follow-up. Worse prognosis was associated with prenatal diagnosis before third trimester of gestation, bilateral uropathy, oligohydrammios, abnormal palpable kidney or bladder, abnormal renal function on admission and urethral obstruction. (author) 40 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Petrogenesis contamination of the Todos os Santos bay by aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons: a contribution for the environmental diagnostic; Contaminacao petrogenica da Baia de Todos os Santos por hidrocarbonetos policiclicos aromaticos: uma contribuicao ao diagnostico ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, J. Carlos V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tavares, Tania M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    This work studies the contamination degree of the meso and infra-coastline sediments of the Baia de Todos os Santos, Bahia, the largest of Brazil, by organic compounds, mainly of period origin. The assessment was proceeded through quantification of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), by fluorimetric analysis in continuous flow. The levels of contamination were quantified taking in consideration the levels considered as critical by the published literature. The grading of the target sites with those of the control sites (background) were compared also. The main objective was to define the degree of contamination relative to different areas of the bay, correlating with the different activities, such as oil exploitation, industrial production, mainly of oil processing at the north of the bay, port and urban, specially near the city of Salvador, with 2 million of inhabitants. In some stations, specially in those classified as industrial, urban and heavy boats traffic, sediments showed contamination, resulting in grades up to 2000 times greater than the control sites. Some regions, mainly industrial and urban, showed high PHA's contamination, higher than 200 {mu}g/g. The majority of sediments in areas remaining as recreational until present days showed no contamination, lesser than {mu}g/g. (author)

  11. A field study of postpartum period of dairy cows by rectal palpation and progesterone profiles in the milk by radioimmunoassay; Contribuicao ao estudo do puerperio de vacas leiteiras atraves de acompanhamento clinico-reprodutivo e determinacao de progesterona por radioimunoensaio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozicki, Luis Ernandes; Silva, Marcelo Alves da [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria]. E-mail: lkozicki@agrarias.ufpr.br; Woellner, Luis Carlos; Shibata, Flavia Kazumi [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro de Medicina Nuclear

    1998-07-01

    This study was carried out on 18 calved dairy cows, near the town of Curitiba-PR-Brazil. The animals were submitted weekly to a rectal palpation of the genital tract and the uterine involution and ovarian activity were considered. The rectal palpations began from the 7{sup th} day postpartum till the 49{sup th} day. at the same milk samples the first morning milk were taken on the 9{sup th} week. The progesterone (P{sub 4}) level determination of the milk was established by radioimmunoassay. The findings of the research showed: the postpartum oestrus was observed at the 28.5{sup th} day and the corpus luteum was detected on the 34.5{sup th} day. The period from oestrus to the first high progesterone level post partum was 5.5 days. The uterine involution period was carried on the 24.1{sup th} day. The progesterone dominant period was shorter and had duration of 11.5 days on the first oestrus cycle post partum. The progesterone concentration from the first Corpus luteum post partum was low (1.9 ng/ml milk). The anoestrus rate until 49{sup th} day postpartum was 33.3% and the silent heat rate reached 61.1%. (author)

  12. The diagnostic contribution of computed tomography in intranasal carcinoma with retrobulbar, oral and brain invasion in a canine: case report; Contribuicao da tomografia computadorizada no diagnostico de carcinoma intranasal com invasao retrobular, oral e cerebral em canino: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardo, Karen Maciel, E-mail: kmz@bol.com.br; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Zanoni, Diogo Souza; Costa, Denis Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Clinica Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Intranasal tumors are uncommon and in most cases are malignant, aggressive and with low to moderate potential for metastasis. Clinical signs are usually caused by progressive obstruction of the upper airways. The test cytopathological also is a diagnosis method, but the definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological. Computed tomography (CT) is recommended to treatment planning. A poodle was attended at the veterinary hospital with a clinical history of epistaxis and nasal and ocular secretions, seizures and severe dyspnoea. The animal underwent to radiographic examination of the chest and skull as well as helical computed tomography of the nasal cavity and brain before and after the administration of intravenous contrast. The CT findings revealed an expansive bilateral nasal cavity neoformation, with involvement of the retrobulbar space, right frontal sinus, brain and oral cavity, suggesting a neoplastic or an infectious process. The CT examination allowed the material collection, directly from the mass, to cytological examination, providing the diagnosis of carcinoma. CT also allowed the determination of the unfavorable prognosis of the patient and the treatment planning which not included the surgical excision of the neoformation. Although CT was not conclusive in the diagnosis of carcinoma, it was essential to accurately define the extent of the lesion, to guide the collection of material directly from the tumor and to determine the prognosis of the animal, proving to be an extremely useful tool in cases of tumors intranasal in dogs. (author)

  13. Contribution to fuel depletion study in PWR type reactors, reactor core with three and four regions of enrichment; Contribuicao ao estudo da evolucao da composicao do combustivel em reatores tipo PWR nucleos a tres e a quatro regioes de enriquecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M C.C.

    1977-03-01

    The main methods for calculation of fuel depletion are studied and some approaches to do it are mentioned; the LEOPARD Code is described and full details are given for each subroutine, flow charts are included; the method given by the code for calculation of fuel depletion is described; some imperfections from the IPR`s version are listed, and corrected, for instance: the method for burn-up calculation of heavy isotopes; the results of calculations for a reference reactor based on data of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) for Angra I Nuclear Power Plant are presented and discussed. (author).

  14. Multicriteria contribution approach for the determination of energy planning politics at new exploratory frontiers of hydrocarbon; Contribuicao da abordagem multicriterio para a determinacao de politicas de planejamento energetico em novas fronteiras exploratorias de hidrocarbonetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Fabio Guimaraes; Bulhoes, Fernando Cesar Chagas [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: fg.rocha@petrobras. com.br, fernando.bulhoes@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper considers that, given the complexity of the involved factors (environmental, social, technological, economical and financial questions), the multi criteria approach can be viewed as important help tool in the definition of politic related to new hydrocarbon exploratory frontiers. To give subsides to this argument, it was made a bibliographical review, being highlighted the involved risks in exploitation and production activities, and the importance of taking into consideration the preferences of the individuals decision. Methodologies are presented, highlighting the different viewing of the american and french schools. A panorama of random variables involved in decision making of investments in new exploratory frontiers also is presented, emphasizing the importance their importance in the future offer petroleum and the challenges involved in that activity.

  15. Contribution to the planning and dosimetry of photon beams applied to radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy; Contribuicao ao planejamento e a dosimetria de feixes de fotons aplicados a radiocirurgia e a radioterapia estereotaxica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Walter Menezes

    2003-08-15

    Radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy are irradiation techniques that use small diameter photon beams for treating intracranial lesions such as pituitary adenomas, acoustic tumors and arterio-venous malformations which are inaccessible for surgery. These treatment techniques are characterized by the use of very small radiation beams which deliver a precisely measured dose to the target volume, while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. Treatment can be performed by using multiple {sup 60}Co gamma-ray sources (in the so-called 'Gamma Knife'), charged particles or X-ray beams produced by linear accelerators. The prescribed dose can be given in a single session or in multiple fractions, as in conventional radiotherapy. The success of the treatment depends, among other factors, of the accurate determination of the parameters that characterize the radiation beam produced by the equipment, as well as, of a well designed quality assurance program. In this study, the dosimetric parameters of a set of collimating cones of a Radionics{sup TM} treatment system applied to two 6 MV- photon beams (Clinac 600C - Varian{sup TM}, and Mevatron MD2 - Siemens{sup TM}) were evaluated by using a water filled PMMA simulator. Measurements were carried out for photon beam diameters ranging from 12.5 to 40.0 mm for the Clinac-600C and from 5.0 to 50.0 mm for the Mevatron MD2. The parameters were evaluated by using a parallel plate ionization chamber (Markus), Kodak X-Omat V dosimetric films, thermoluminescent dosemeters (Harschaw, TLD-100) and photodiodes. The maximum tissue-ratio, the off-axis profile and the output factors were determined and the results were compared to those reported elsewhere. A study of the dosimetric characteristics of some commercially available phototransistors was also carried out. The results showed that these electronic components can be successfully used for measuring the dosimetric parameters of small diameter photon beans used in radiosurgery. Measurements were also performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters in order to verify the degree of compliance between the doses calculated through the Radionics{sup TM} Planning System and the actual treatment dose. This was accomplished by using a Rando(R) anthropomorphic phantom. The results showed that the two doses agree within {+-} 2%. The influence of the presence of inhomogeneities within the irradiated volume, due to the presence of air or bone in the radiation path was assessed. The results showed that these inhomogeneities significantly affect both the dose distribution pattern and the beam profiles in the treatment volume. The results of this study show that the dosimetry of small diameter radiation beams is still challenging, due mainly to the limited resolution of available detectors and to the lack of lateral equilibrium in small diameter radiation beams. (author)

  16. Integration of photovoltaic solar panels in residential buildings and its contribution in a power feeder of a mixed urban region; Integracao de paineis solares fotovoltaicos em edificacoes residenciais e sua contribuicao em um alimentador de energia de zona urbana mista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isis Portolan dos

    2009-02-15

    Energy generation is one of the main pollution sources in the world. Photovoltaic solar energy is a way to guarantee the electric energy generation using a clean and renewable source, the sun. With the photovoltaic modules integration in buildings, it is possible to generate energy in urban areas, using areas already constructed and also minimizing the energy loss with transmission and distribution. Direct connection of a photovoltaic system to the electric grid avoids the necessity of a storage system, and allows the generated energy to be used by any consumer connected to the grid. This thesis proposes the creation and propagation of predefined kits including photovoltaic modules and other equipment, in order to complete installation and connection of photovoltaic generator, resulting in solar roofs in urban houses. The kits could be installed on roofs of existent residences or in new ones, making the installation easier and minimizing the necessity and the costs of a specific project for each case. With the definition of standard components, like the modules, inverters, and others equipment, there would be an industrial production scale, minimizing costs. In addition, the kits also make the training of the installers easier. The simulation of this concept in a residential area in Florianopolis, demonstrates that there is enough area in the roofs to locate one kit in all residences, and that this generation is able to contribute to the energy demand of the area. So all energy generated by the kits will be immediately consumed inside the area, relieving the concessionaire load. His argue that kits can be an interesting way of bringing this energy generation technology to mainstream. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the contribution of contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces in the measure of exposure rate of radioiodine therapy patients; Avaliacao da contribuicao da contaminacao de superficies do quarto terapeutico na medida da taxa de exposicao de pacientes de radioiodoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Rafael Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    The contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces is significant and the measures of patient exposure rate are held on the fourth dependencies, relevant questions are raised: the background radiation of the room stay high due to surface contamination, may interfere with the rate of patient exposure at the time of its release? The monitoring site is important to determine whether the patient will be released? The value of the deal activity and the clinical condition of the patient may increase the contamination, influencing the monitoring results? This paper aims to conduct a quantitative analysis of surface contamination of the contribution of therapeutic room at the time is monitored exposure rate from inpatient. Measurements were made regarding the hospitalization of 32 patients with different doses administered activity, age and of both genders. The measurements were performed in the therapeutic rooms at the hospital Brotherhood Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo. Exposure rate measurements were performed at the center of the room at 1 meter of the patient on the day of its release. After his release and prior to decontamination, measurements were performed at predetermined landmarks within the therapeutic room. The results revealed that on average background radiation, high due to surface contamination contributes only 2% of the patient dose rate. It can be considered that even with influence of contamination of surfaces, this is insignificant to determine if the patient may or may not be released. This study suggests that the site in which monitoring occurs exposure rate of the patient should not be decisive for liberation thereof. (author)

  18. Evolution of the economic importance of the oil and gas industrial sector in Brazil: impacts on macroeconomic indicators; Evolucao da importancia economica da industria de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: contribuicao a variaveis macroeconomicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre Luis de Souza

    2007-06-15

    This thesis analyzes the evolution of the macroeconomic importance of the oil and gas sector in Brazil, in the recent years, which is represented by its contribution to the macroeconomic indicators, which are: GDP, Investment, Foreign Direct Investment, Trade Balance, Tax Revenue, Jobs, Wages and Inflation. The results found indicate that the oil and gas sector has a relevant contribution to the values of the Brazilian GDP, total amount of investment, total amount of foreign direct investment, tax revenue, inflation and trade balance, whereas this sector has a less relevant impact for the creation of jobs and wages in Brazil. (author)

  19. Geophysical contribution for the study of the Granitic Batholit Santa Helena, southwest of the Amazonian Craton; Contribuicao geofisica ao estudo do Batolito Granitico Santa Helena, sudoeste do Craton Amazonico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Vanessa Biondo; Mantovani, Marta Silvia Maria, E-mail: van.biondo@gmail.com, E-mail: msmmanto@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas

    2012-08-15

    The Santa Helena batholith is subject of many controversies concerning its geographical extension, lithological constitution, geochemical characterization and geotectonic setting. This paper aims to contribute for a better understanding of this intrusion using geophysical data (gammaspectrometric and aeromagnetic). These data were obtained through surveys contracted by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM) flown over the study region. Given the compositional variety of the rocks, we analyzed the susceptibility contrast (magnetometry) and distribution of radioelements (K, Th and U, measured by gammaspectrometry) in the batholith. The resulting geophysical signature is different when comparing the northern and southern parts of the body, suggesting the presence of two distinct suites. The boundary between these two suites coincides with the location of an approximately N75 deg W oriented fault system that extends through the batholith. (author)

  20. Anthropic contribution on pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs: the case of Sao Simao's hydroelectric power plant - GO/MG, Brazil; Contribuicao antropica na poluicao de reservatorios hidreletricos: o caso da Usina Hidreletrica de Sao Simao - GO/MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gizele Araujo Borba da

    2010-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs through a case study of the Sao Simao Hydropower. The literature relates the problem of eutrophication with the addition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in excess, resulting in water pollution. Through data for both tributary rivers and the reservoir, it was found that the Sao Simao dam presents a framework for eutrophication. We made an analysis to see which tributary rivers were the main sources of nutrients released into the waters of the reservoir and a survey of possible human activities that are contributing to the intake of nutrients in these tributaries. (author)

  1. Study of the production of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}F-FLT in automated system: contribution for process validation; Estudo da producao do radiofarmaco FLT-{sup 18}F em sistema automatizado: contribuicao para a validacao do processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Camila

    2013-07-01

    Radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}F-FLT is a thymidine nucleoside analogue and a promising tumor proliferation marker for PET images. The synthesis of this radiopharmaceutical is not simple, and often has low yields. This radiopharmaceutical has already been studied for some years; however, there is no production, nor are there clinical studies in Brazil. The study of the production process and its compliance with the guidelines of Good Manufacturing Practices (ANVISA) are of extreme importance. This study aimed to investigate the synthesis of this radiopharmaceutical, evaluate methods of quality control that will be used in future production routines, perform cytotoxicity studies, biodistribution studies and PET imaging in animals, thereby contributing to the development and elaboration of the process validation protocol and to the establishment of analytical methods to be used during production routines. Initially, we studied the synthesis and production of {sup 18}F-FLT, with the evaluation of three different temperatures of radiolabeling to check the behavior of the radiochemical yield and stability of the nal product. Studies of analytical methodology comprised the analysis of radionuclide identification, determination of chromatographic profiles, radiochemical purity, residual solvents, and pH. In vitro studies of internalization and cytotoxicity were also carried out. In in vivo studies, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution in healthy animals and in animals with tumor models, in addition to PET/CT images in animals with melanomas. The final product had high radiochemical purity and was stable for up to 10 hours after the synthesis, but got a relatively low radiochemical yield, as described in the literature. The tested analytical methods proved suitable for use in the quality control of {sup 18}F-FLT. In in vitro studies, {sup 18}F-FLT showed a significant percentage of binding to tumor cells, and the nonradiolabeled molecule was not considered toxic for these studied cells. The biodistribution and images showed results that were consistent with expectations. Contributions to the validation process were satisfactory, and will assist in the future validation of the production process of the radiotracer under study. (author)

  2. Anthropic contribution on pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs: the case of Sao Simao's hydroelectric power plant - GO/MG, Brazil; Contribuicao antropica na poluicao de reservatorios hidreletricos: o caso da Usina Hidreletrica de Sao Simao - GO/MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gizele Araujo Borba da

    2010-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs through a case study of the Sao Simao Hydropower. The literature relates the problem of eutrophication with the addition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in excess, resulting in water pollution. Through data for both tributary rivers and the reservoir, it was found that the Sao Simao dam presents a framework for eutrophication. We made an analysis to see which tributary rivers were the main sources of nutrients released into the waters of the reservoir and a survey of possible human activities that are contributing to the intake of nutrients in these tributaries. (author)

  3. Contribution to the planning and dosimetry of photon beams applied to radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy; Contribuicao ao planejamento e a dosimetria de feixes de fotons aplicados a radiocirurgia e a radioterapia estereotaxica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Walter Menezes

    2003-08-15

    Radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy are irradiation techniques that use small diameter photon beams for treating intracranial lesions such as pituitary adenomas, acoustic tumors and arterio-venous malformations which are inaccessible for surgery. These treatment techniques are characterized by the use of very small radiation beams which deliver a precisely measured dose to the target volume, while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. Treatment can be performed by using multiple {sup 60}Co gamma-ray sources (in the so-called 'Gamma Knife'), charged particles or X-ray beams produced by linear accelerators. The prescribed dose can be given in a single session or in multiple fractions, as in conventional radiotherapy. The success of the treatment depends, among other factors, of the accurate determination of the parameters that characterize the radiation beam produced by the equipment, as well as, of a well designed quality assurance program. In this study, the dosimetric parameters of a set of collimating cones of a Radionics{sup TM} treatment system applied to two 6 MV- photon beams (Clinac 600C - Varian{sup TM}, and Mevatron MD2 - Siemens{sup TM}) were evaluated by using a water filled PMMA simulator. Measurements were carried out for photon beam diameters ranging from 12.5 to 40.0 mm for the Clinac-600C and from 5.0 to 50.0 mm for the Mevatron MD2. The parameters were evaluated by using a parallel plate ionization chamber (Markus), Kodak X-Omat V dosimetric films, thermoluminescent dosemeters (Harschaw, TLD-100) and photodiodes. The maximum tissue-ratio, the off-axis profile and the output factors were determined and the results were compared to those reported elsewhere. A study of the dosimetric characteristics of some commercially available phototransistors was also carried out. The results showed that these electronic components can be successfully used for measuring the dosimetric parameters of small diameter photon beans used in radiosurgery. Measurements were also performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters in order to verify the degree of compliance between the doses calculated through the Radionics{sup TM} Planning System and the actual treatment dose. This was accomplished by using a Rando(R) anthropomorphic phantom. The results showed that the two doses agree within {+-} 2%. The influence of the presence of inhomogeneities within the irradiated volume, due to the presence of air or bone in the radiation path was assessed. The results showed that these inhomogeneities significantly affect both the dose distribution pattern and the beam profiles in the treatment volume. The results of this study show that the dosimetry of small diameter radiation beams is still challenging, due mainly to the limited resolution of available detectors and to the lack of lateral equilibrium in small diameter radiation beams. (author)

  4. The BEST project - BioEthanol for the Sustainable Transportation - a contribution to the environment of the metropolis; O projeto BEST - BioEtanol para o Transporte Sustentavel - uma contribuicao ao meio ambiente das metropoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Melo, Euler Hoffmann; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: silvia@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The BEST Project - Bio Ethanol for the Sustainable Transportation was an initiative of the European Union, coordinated by the Stockholm City Hall, at Sweden. This project gave incentives the use of ethanol, replacing the Diesel fuel, at the public transportation in Brazil and in the world. The used vehicles in the tests were monitored and evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency and environmental energy of the ethanol, and after the results, the BEST project and the European Union gave recommendations for the formulation of public politics of incentives to the use of technology.

  5. Contribution of quantitative coronary angiography in Palmaz-Schatz optimal stent liberation strategy for subacute occlusion control; Contribuicao da angiografia coronaria quantitativa na estrategia de liberacao otima da endoprotese de Palmaz-Schatz para o controle da oclusao subaguda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego

    1995-07-01

    This study examines whether a single method, quantitative coronary angiography with automated edge detection, could efficiently guide optimal stent liberation, assuring good clinical results and eliminating the need for anticoagulation therapy. This investigation includes 101 patients with optimal implantation of 104 Palmaz-stents. Their mean age was 58.62 years and 79.2% were male. Most of them presented unstable angina (61.39%) and had single vessel disease (85.15%) The treated vessel was the left anterior descending artery in 39.60%; the right coronary artery in 34.66%; the left circumflex artery in 7.92% and saphenous vein grafts in 17.82%. The mean reference diameter of the target vessel was 3.43 mm. Each implantation comprehended two phases: initial stent liberation and additional high pressure balloon inflation, guided by quantitative coronary angiography. Arterial quantification showed an important increase in the mean luminal diameter (p<0.001), characterized by an immediate gain of 2.37 mm [standard deviation (SD): 0.55 m]. Quantitative angiography permitted to identify a further gain in the luminal diameter following the high pressure balloon inflation, o.49 mm 9 SD:0.53 mm). Therefore, the total mean immediate gain was 2.85 mm (SD:0.64 mm). The mean diameter stenosis changed from 80.21% (SD:14.56%) to 11.81% (SD: 7.59% - p<0.001) after initial stent delivery; and to 0.16% (SD:3.45% - p<,0.001), after high pressure balloon inflation. Quantitative coronary angiography performed detailed measurements of the minimal caliber variations along the entire prosthesis due to the high pressure balloon inflations, similarly to the intracoronary ultrasound. This guided the optimal stent implantation and helped the clinical management of these cases. In this series, even maintained only under antiaggregant agents, no patient presented major ischemic complications and only one (0.99%) had a hemorrhage in the puncture site that required blood transfusion. The mean in hospital stay was 3.54 days (SD: 1.94 days). Therefore, the results of this study allow to conclude that: 1) Quantitative coronary angiography with automated edge detection was capable of detecting minimal changes in the luminal diameter due to the high pressure balloon inflation and could define stent implantation as optimal; 2) Quantitative coronary angiography allowed to safely avoids systemic anticoagulation and its complications; 3) This method is an efficient and safe way to orientate optimal implantation of the Palmaz-Schatz stent, eliminating the drawbacks of other imaging techniques. (author)

  6. A contribution to the study of the thermal behavior and of the electric performance of squirrel-cage induction motors; Uma contribuicao ao estudo do comportamento termico e do desempenho eletrico de motores de inducao com rotor em gaiola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avolio, Edwin

    1992-03-01

    A thermal-electric mathematical model for a squirrel cage induction motors which permits to specify the best motor for specific drive, under thermal and electric aspects based, only on manufacturer technical bulletins and technical information is presented. Changes of rotor parameters due Skin Effect and changes of winding resistances (both stator and rotor) with the temperature are considered. The accuracy of this model is appraised using experimental results. The thermal behavior and electric performance for some motors are obtained for continuos and intermittent duties with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal voltages. (author)

  7. Low intensity laser therapy and functional orthopedics contribution in pain and temporo mandibular dysfunction treatment; Contribuicao do laser em baixa intensidade e da ortopedia funcional dos maxilares no tratamento da dor e disfuncao tempora-mandibular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollato, Renata Fronzaglia

    2003-07-01

    Temporo Mandibular Dysfunction (TMD) is a term used to describe disorders which involve temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticatory muscles, and associated structures, isolatedly or not, whose most frequent symptoms pain. Its etiology involve controversies, and among risk factors is Class 11 malocclusion. A lot of techniques are used for TMD treatment, and the most recent are Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) and Functional Orthopedics (FO). The aim of this study was to evaluate pain and buccal mobility in subjects with Class II malocclusion and TMD symptoms, treated with LILT and FO associated or not. Eighteen subjects were selected and divided in three groups. Group 1 was treated with LILT, {lambda} = 780 nm, 70 mW, 15 J/cm{sup 2} per point, in six sessions during two weeks. The application was in three points around the TMJ and in masticatory muscles: masseter, temporalis, sternomastoid and trapezius, on both sides when there was pain. Palpation was made before and five minutes after application and subjects answered a questionnaire with a score for pain evaluation. Group 2 received functional orthopedics aparatology Planas Indirect Composed Plates, and was evaluated once a week during two weeks, after palpation and following the same score as group 1. Group 3 received both therapies at the same time, and the first application coincided with the aparatology installation. The evaluation followed the parameters of group 1. The results were statically analyzed , and in general form did not show significant differences. There was remission of pain symptoms in ali of the groups, and group 3 showed more rapidly results. This fact leaded us to a conclusion that the association of the LILT with FO was the best treatment for the pain symptoms remission in TMD. (author)

  8. Rural development index: a contribution for the planning of the wide using of the access to electric power; Indicador de desenvolvimento rural: uma contribuicao para o planejamento da universalizacao do acesso a energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini, Marcio; Souza, Danielle; Batista, Norma [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: giannini@cepel.br; dpires@cepel.br; norma@cepel.br; Camacho, Cristiane F.; Paz, Luciana; Rodrigues, Alexia [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: ccamacho@cepel.br; lrocha@cepel.br; alexia@cepel.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a methodology to be applied in the evaluation of projects of rural electrification including those related to the social, economic, energy and environmental areas. Based on the analysis of data collected in a large field research that covered all country, it was created the Rural Development Index (IDR) that seeks to summarize the acquired information to help in the evaluation and planning of the Electric Sector's actions concerned to the rural areas. Thus, it is presented the results of the methodology application in three Brazilian states during the two phases of the research, before and after the supply of electric energy in a regular and safe basis. (author)

  9. A contribution to the energy conservation and to the three-phase induction motors rotor in cage maintenance; Uma contribuicao a conservacao de energia e a manutencao de motores de inducao trifasicos de rotor em gaiola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Antonio Tadeu Lyrio de

    1993-11-01

    The thesis introduces two methods for three-phase rotor in cage induction motors. These methods evaluate performance with reliability and rapidity with seen to the application in electric power conservation and in maintenance. The first method it bases in tests executed in machine with free rotor and with locked rotor. The second method it bases in the motor characteristic greatnesses values treatment from manufacturers catalogs data. They are both methods where the equivalent circuit parameters in T are identified from a statistical optimization process in every motor operation band, including the departure. The performance from both methods was going evaluated in tests executed in 40 motors using the method B of the norm IEEE-112 and 54 motors using the norm IEC-34-2 after the adequate numeric treatment.

  10. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  11. Contribution of computed tomography in patients with lung metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma not apparent on plain radiography who were treated with radioiodine; Contribuicao da tomografia computadorizada em pacientes com metastases pulmonares de carcinoma diferenciado de tireoide nao-aparentes na radiografia e tratados com radioiodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro W.S.; Purisch, Saulo [Santa Casa Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dep. de Tireoide. Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: pedrorosario@globo.com; Tavares, Wilson C. [Instituto Alpha de Gastroenterologia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barroso, Alvarao L.; Rezende, Leonardo L.; Padrao, Eduardo L. [Santa Casa Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2008-02-15

    Computed tomography (CT or CAT Scan) of the chest is more sensitive than radiography in the detection of lung metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but little information is available regarding the aggregated value of this method. The present study evaluated the response of patients with lung metastases of DTC not apparent on radiography to treatment with {sup 131}I and the value of CT in these cases. Twenty-five patients with lung metastases not apparent on radiography, who initially received 100-200 mCi I{sup 151}, were evaluated and those presenting pulmonary uptake on post-therapy WBS were submitted to a new treatment after 6 to 12 months, and so on. The chance of detection of pulmonary uptake on post-therapy WBS did not differ between patients with negative and positive CT (100% versus 91.5%). Mean serum Tg levels were higher in patients with positive CT (108 ng/ml versus 52 ng/ml). Negative post-therapy WBS was achieved in 82% of patients with positive CT and in 92.3% with negative CT and the cumulative I{sup 131} activity necessary to achieve this outcome did not differ between the two groups (mean = 300 mCi). Stimulated Tg was undetectable in 47% of patients with negative CT at the end of treatment, but in none of the patients whose CT continued to be positive. In patients with elevated Tg, the CT result apparently did not change the indication of therapy or the I{sup 131} activity to be administered. In cases with lung metastases, the persistence of micronodules on CT was associated with the persistence of detectable Tg in patients presenting negative post-therapy WBS. (author)

  12. Contribution of state public policies to participation of family agriculture in the national program for production and use of biodiesel: the case of Bahia (Brazil); A contribuicao da politica estadual para viabilizar a participacao da agricultura familiar no programa nacional de producao e uso de biodiesel: o caso da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avzaradel, Ana Carolina

    2008-03-15

    The commencement of the National Program for the Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB) consolidates the efforts of the Federal Government to stimulate the national production of this biofuel. The program is aimed at the insertion of small family farmers in the productive chain of biodiesel, promoting the social inclusion of this part of the population. PNPB stipulates that 2% of biodiesel must be blended with diesel oil (B2) from 2008 on, a percentage that will reach 5% in 2013. However, the demand for biodiesel created by this program may not be met if the blockages in the production chain are not removed. Since the absence of raw material is highlighted as the main obstacle to production, the main difficulties faced by family farmers were focused on. The study dealt specifically with the case of Bahia, since it already has a structured production chain of vegetable oil seeds and because of its leading position in the national production of biodiesel. Impacts resulting from the adoption of state public policies aimed at family farmers who produce vegetable oil for the production of biodiesel were analyzed. Vegetable oil supply scenarios in Bahia show that state government support for family farming benefits biodiesel production, allowing to estimate the percentage of the participation of family agriculture in Bahia to meet the targets set in the PNPB. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation (N{sub 2}) contribution in several forage legumes and the transfer of N to associated grasses; Avaliacao da contribuicao da fixacao biologica de N{sub 2} em varias leguminosas forrageiras e transferencia de N para uma graminea consorciada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M S.V.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to compare two different techniques for labelling the soil mineral nitrogen with {sup 15} N, for studies to quantify the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to forage legumes using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. The two techniques for labelling the soil were: incorporation a {sup 15} N labelled organic compost (slow release treatment), and split applications of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate. The evaluation of the techniques was through the quantification of BNF in the Itaguai Hybrid of Centrosema using two non-Na- fixing control plants (P. maximum K K-16 and Sorghum bicolor). The objective of experiment 2 was to quantify the contribution of BNF to forage legumes and the transfer of fixed nitrogen to associated grasses in mixed swards again using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. This study was conducted on a red podzolic soil (Typic Hapludult), with 7 forage legumes and 3 grasses in monoculture, and 3 mixed swards of Brachiaria brizantha with the Centrosema hybrid, Galactia striata and Desmodium ovalifolium, respectively, with varying ratios of grass to legume (4:1 to 1:4). In order to quantify the BNF contributions to the legumes and the transfer of fixed N to the B. brizantha, the plots were amended 8 times with doses of 0.01 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate (12.5 atom % {sup 15} N) each 14 days, giving a total of 0.08 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N during the 97 days of the experiment. In monoculture the different forage legumes obtained the equivalent of between 43 and 100 kg N ha{sup -1} from BNF. Stylosanthes guianensis showed the greatest contributions from BNF at 100 Kg N ha{sup -1}. In mixed swards with Brachiaria brizantha the proportion of N derived from BNF in the three legumes studied (Centrosema hybrid, G. striata and D. ovalifolium) was significantly greater than when they were grown in monoculture. (author). 197 refs, 9 figs, 19 tabs.

  14. Quantitative model of evaluation of the contribution of each radioactive source in the individual external dose Hx in nuclear medicine service personnel; Modelo quantitativo de avaliacao da contribuicao de cada fonte radioativa na dose individual externa Hx em trabalhador de servico de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Nathalie Canhameiro; Tinois, Eduardo; Koga, Katia Hiromoto; Bezerra, Aline da Silva; Ferreira, Vinicius Capistrano; Azevedo, Thaisa Resende; Moriguchi, Sonia Marta, E-mail: soniamoriguchi@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2016-07-01

    Assess whether the activities performed in the Nuclear Medicine service are significant in the total dose received by the workers and their relative contributions. Methods: measured independent variables: number of scintigraphies remaining in the examination room (N); eluted activity (E); Total activity marked in pharmaceuticals kits (K); num-ber of times that was scheduled to work in the Hot room (Q); Variable dependent measured: cumulative effective dose in the period 10/2012 to 04/2013 added to each worker, obtained by information registered daily and monthly on activities and doses received in the period. Held Multiple Linear Regression (D = a + β{sub 1} N + E + β{sub 2} β{sub 3} K + β{sub 4} Q) with α = 0.05 significance level. It was concluded that the independent variables N (p = 0.097) and E (p = 0.086) did not significantly interfere with the Cumulative dose in the period. The K variables (p = 0.017) and Q (p = 0.028) were significant in the proposed model. (author)

  15. The use of stochastic method for the calculation of liquid-vapor multicomponent equilibrium and the contribution of groups theory for the evaluation of fugacity coefficient; Uso de um metodo estocastico para calculo do equilibrio liquido-vapor de sistemas multicomponentes e avaliacao de uma abordagem por contribuicao de grupos para o calculo do coeficiente de fugacidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Rafaelly L.; Oliveira, Jackson A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Rojas, Leopoldo O.A. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work has the main objective of evaluating the mathematical model developed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004) in terms of the prediction capacity for the calculation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). This model is based on Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and it considers the binary interaction parameters (Kij(T)) estimated by a contribution group method and dependent of the temperature. The model proposed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004), named PPR78 (Predictive Peng-Robinson), was implemented in this work by using the Fortran language. An optimization approach based on the stochastic algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used in order to calculate the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Simulations were accomplished for several binary systems and the results were concordant with some experimental data of the investigated systems. However, for some systems different from those presented by Jaubert and Mutelet (2004), the model presented low prediction capacity. In spite of the great demand of computational performance, the algorithm PSO demonstrated robustness during the calculation of VLE and it assured convergence in most of the cases. (author)

  16. Contribution to the study of the determination of the remaining flow in deviation SHP (Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Plants): the incorporation of the economic value of environmental resources; Contribuicao ao estudo da determinacao da vazao remanescente em PCHS (Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas) de desvio: a incorporacao do valor economico de recursos ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Henrique Machado Moreira [Schlumberger, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: henriquemmsantos@yahoo.com.br; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI/GEE/ISSE), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Sistemas Eletricos e Energia. Grupo de Estudos Energeticos], e-mail: afonsohms@gmail.com; Ribeiro Junior, Leopoldo Uberto, e-mail: leopoldo_junior@yahoo.com.br; Nascimento, Jose Guilherme Antloga do, e-mail: jgan@brasilpch.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper seems to develop the economic analysis of Small Hydro Plants - SHP, incorporating in this analysis evaluations of priceless losses for the society, as the environmental damages, taking SHP Paraitinga as the study case. It involves questions related to environmental valuation, economics, and engineering, presenting the concept of the Economic Valuation of Environmental Resources. The main valuation methods are presented. In the economic analysis, the concept of willingness to pay is verified by using demand function, that involves the elasticity and the price. The price is calculated based on costs and the elasticity is calculated based on the essentially of the goods or services, which could be reached by market observation. Only the remaining outflow definition, in the stretch of reduced outflow of the project will be studied. After these studies and valuations, some scenarios will be adopted for the developed model, on current values and projections. A comparison of the present work and the methodology of commitment programming are carried out. Finally the results will be analyzed, trying to get the 'optimum outflow', aiming at balancing power, tourism and environmental interests. (author)

  17. Evaluation of underground water contamination of tubular wells, by fuels oil in Santo Andre City, Sao Paulo state: a contribution to the environmental management; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua subterranea de pocos tubulares, por combustiveis fosseis, no municipio de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo: uma contribuicao a gestao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindrisz, Ana Copat

    2006-07-01

    The contamination of underground waters by hydrocarbons originated from gas stations has been object of increasing preoccupation in environmental organization all over the world. The organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX), present in these fuels, are extremely toxic to human health and could make impracticable the exploration of these contaminated waters by these kinds of pollutants and consequently the gasoline wells used for this purpose. In this work, it was carried out a diagnosis of the water quality with information and analyses, with the goals to snap shot the situation of the wells destined to domestic and commercial supply of water in the urban area of Santo Andre city, Sao Paulo state. There have been evaluated the presence of micron pollutants BTEX, after contamination due to leaks in fuel storage tanks close to the wells, in different places of the city. The physical chemistry parameters like color, turbidity and residual chlorine were also evaluated as well as trace elements, metals, anions like fluorine, sulphates, chlorine, nitrates and phosphates and bacteriological (total coliforms, thermo stable coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria). On definition of the sampling area, it was sought, at first, the evaluation of environmental contaminations historical series by gas stations, evaluating the set of information available at government environmental organizations and spatial representatively of the problem. For administration of the underground water quality it was adopted the methodology used by Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), being accomplished a previous identification of contaminated potential areas and organizing a data base on landfills disposal and neglected places; registration of gas station services and, wells used by the population, industrial inventory with active and neglected maps taking into consideration the size and residues generation (such as SEMASA), prioritizing in this way the monitoring places. It was made registrations of places and preliminary investigation of suspicious areas was accomplished. The sampling and monitoring were carried out and the results were compared with the standard values for underground water that are established by CETESB. The results showed that in the twelve wells evaluated were not found values of BTEX above the recommended by Law 518/2004 of the Health Ministry in which the allowed value for benzene is 5 mug L{sup -1}. It was observed that three of the twelve wells studied were contaminated with nitrate, which is responsible for Methaemoglobinaemia induction. They were appraised also the processes or mechanisms of natural (biodegradation) or induced remediation. (author)

  18. Contribution to the evaluation of vortex-induced vibrations analysis using 'wake oscillators' and 'vortex-tracking' models; Contribuicao a avaliacao dos modelos 'wake oscillator' e 'vortex tracking' para analise de vibracoes induzidas por vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Daniel L. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ellwanger, Gilberto B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Galgoul, Nelson S. [SUPORTE Consultoria e Projetos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Fatigue due to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) is one of the major uncertainties today in the design of slender offshore structures, such as risers, pipelines, umbilicals, tendons and mooring lines, required for oil and gas production in deep waters. The absence of reliable tools for quantitative analyses of this phenomenon is a technological barrier, which is being faced by several research groups, generating tens of thesis and articles every year. This paper presents VIV results achieved by the author, using 'wake oscillator' and 'vortex tracking' models, when researching for his M. Sc. dissertation. Time domain analyses were performed using a commercial software. First results describe the response of the evaluated models for two degrees-of-freedom rigid cylinders, which were compared to values prescribed in recognized recommended practices. Afterwards, VIV analyses results for a steel catenary 10-inch diameter riser in three dimensional current profiles were compared to measured values. The considered riser, installed in 910 m water depth offshore Brazil, is possibly the only monitored SCR with no VIV suppression devices in the world today. The results were considered satisfactory, despite some discrepancies. The authors expect the presented results to contribute in further studies on these models. (author)

  19. Contribution of the intervention on the economic control - CIEC. and the liberation of the derivatives trading and imports in Brazil: the search for the wide opening of the market; Contribuicao de intervencao no dominio economico - CIDE e a liberacao da comercializacao e importacao dos derivados no Brasil: a busca pela plena abertura do mercado no setor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simao, Newton [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Participacoes Governamentais; Sala, Janaina [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Refino e Processamento de Gas Natural

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the evolution of the petroleum derivatives price structure from the year of 1988, and point out the main changes in the downstream segment of the petroleum industry after the market opening occurred in January 2002. An comparative analysis have been performed between the two periods, mainly of the substitution of the Specific Price Parcel - SPP by the CIED - Contribution of the Intervention in the Economic Domain, and an approach made on the positive and negative points of the present structure of taxation on the derivatives trading and import in Brazil.

  20. Biogas from landfills embankments: the Brazilian contribution for the management of urban solid residues and the greenhouse effect mitigation through the mechanisms for clean development; Biogas de aterros: a contribuicao do Brasil na gestao de residuos solidos urbanos e na mitigacao do efeito estufa atraves dos mecanismos de desenvolvimento limpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Gleide B.M.; Guimaraes, Hoji Y' a Henda da R.; Andrade, Euridice S. Mamede de; Teixeira, Gisele Pereira; Freitas, Marcos A.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    This paper studies the clean development mechanism (CDM) for sanitary sewage in Brazil, as instruments for flexibilization and mitigation of the effects of climate changes coming from the global heating. This research presents the assessments of the CDM projects for sanitary sewage in Brazil, considering the Project Conception Documents (PCD) approved until November 2007. The paper presents some methodologies for studying of energy generation potential from the biogas originated in sanitary sewage. The paper also contributes to projects of carbon credit commercialization, and relevance of the CDM instrument for the adequate management expansion of the residence solid residues as well, and advances in the implantation of sanitary embankments in Brazil.

  1. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao e identificacao da toxicidade (Toxity Identification Evaluation - TIE) do efluente liquido do polo industrial de Belford Roxo, RJ, e sua contribuicao na qualidade das aguas do corso inferior do Rio Sarapui, sub-bacia do Rio Iguacu, Bacia da Baia da Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-07-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  2. Fiscal reform of fuel regulation in Brazil: recent developments and environmental implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinostroza, Miriam; Sauer, Ildo Luis; Guerra, Sinclair M.-G.

    2005-11-15

    Internationally the fossil fuel-based energy sector now faces increasing uncertainties due to changes in its fiscal regulation, prompted by pressure for environmental regulation. These changes typically eliminate some taxes at the beginning of the oil production chain, but compensate for these by increasing taxation on consumption. In Brazil, fiscal reform proposals focus not on environmental arguments but on the elimination of excess levies and red tape and on increasing equity across income classes. However, liberalization process of oil and gas industries in Brazil has led to modifications in fuels taxation. This article discusses current Brazilian fiscal policy as related to fossil fuels, explaining the nature of recently introduced contribution for economic regulation (Contribuicao de Intervencao ao Dominio Economico, CIDE) and the impacts on price formation. It also shows how those modifications tend to include external costs from activities in the fuel sector; through revenues from a levy earmarked for two purposes: i) funding investments in projects deemed to be environmentally beneficial, and, ii) improvements in road infrastructure aimed at reducing emissions from transportation. Some ideas on how to improve use of the levy to perk up fuel alcohol competitiveness are also discussed. (Author)

  3. Contribution to the scintillation detection optimization in double phase detectors for direct detection of dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Catalin

    Na ultima decada, foram feitos grandes progressos no desenvolvimento dos detetores de detecao direta das particulas que constituem a materia negra. Com estrategias do aumento gradual do volume do alvo e, simultaneamente, de reducao dos niveis de fundo, a experiencia XENON obteve resultados muito bons e perspetivas promissoras para a detecao de materia negra. Tarefas relativas a analise de dados experimentais adquiridos com o detetor de dupla fase em uso, assim como as simulacoes do campo eletrico, desenvolvimento, montagem e testes para o proximo detetor XENON1T, assim como a participacao regular na manutencao geral e monitorizacao do prototipo atual XENON100 no LNGS, constituiram o plano de trabalhos para as atividades de investigacao do presente doutoramento e a minha contribuicao para a otimizacao da detecao de cintilacao nos detetores da experiencia XENON. A necessidade de alcancar niveis elevados de sensibilidade, requer inovacao em todos os aspetos fisicos do detetor, assim como a reducao de todas as fontes de radioatividade que contribuem para o fundo. O modo mais indicado de operacao para os detetores com enchimento a Xe no estado liquido e gasoso envolve a medicao da cintilacao primaria e da secundaria provenientes da interacao das particulas no Xe liquido. A razao entre estes dois sinais permite diferenciar claramente a maior parte dos eventos correspondentes as fundo dos eventos correspondentes a WIMPs. Deste modo, a leitura dos sinais correspondentes a cintilacao e de extrema importancia. A amplitude do sinal de cintilacao antes dos fotossensores e maximizada atraves da otimizacao de varios parametros, tais como a geometria do alvo do detetor, a transparencia das grelhas dos eletrodos, a uniformidade do ganho em cintilacao secundaria e a utilizacao de material reflectivo para cobrir as superficies que nao sao fotossensiveis.

  4. Pelvic and hind limb musculature of Staurikosaurus pricei (Dinosauria: Saurischia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando N. Grillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of pelvic and hind limb bones and muscles in basal dinosaurs is important for understanding the early evolution of bipedal locomotion in the group. The use of data from both extant and extinct taxa placed into a phylogenetic context allowed to make well-supported inferences concerning most of the hind limb musculature of the basal saurischian Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Santa Maria Formation, Late Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Two large concavities in the lateral surface of the ilium represent the origin of the muscles iliotrochantericus caudalis plus iliofemoralis externus (in the anterior concavity and iliofibularis (in the posterior concavity. Muscle ambiens has only one head and originates from the pubic tubercle. The origin of puboischiofemoralis internus 1 possibly corresponds to a fossa in the ventral margin of the pré-acetabular iliac process. This could represent an intermediate stage prior to the origin of a true pré-acetabular fossa. Muscles caudofemorales longus et brevis were likely well developed, and Staurikosaurus is unique in bearing a posteriorly projected surface for the origin of caudofemoralis brevis.O estudo da musculatura pelvica e do membro posterior em dinossauros basais e importante para entender a evolução inicial do bipedalismo em dinossauros Saurischia. Empregando uma metodologia que tem como base dados obtidos a partir de taxons viventes e extintos posicionados em um contexto filogenetico, foi possivel fazer inferencias bem suportadas relativas a maior parte dos musculos do membro posterior do dinossauro Saurischia basal Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Formação Santa Maria, Triassico Superior do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Duas grandes concavidades na superficie lateral do ilio correspondem a origem dos musculos iliotrochantericus caudalis e iliofeoralis externus (compartilhando a concavidade anterior e para o musculo iliofibularis (na concavidade posterior. O musculo ambiens

  5. Lanthanide oxide and phosphate nanoparticles for thermometry and bimodal imaging =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debasu, Mengistie Leweyehu

    Nesta tese relatam-se estudos de fotoluminescencia de nanoparticulas de oxidos e fosfatos dopados com ioes trivalentes de lantanideos, respectivamente, nanobastonetes de (Gd,Eu)2O3 e (Gd,Yb,Er)2O3 e nanocristais de (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4, demonstrando-se tambem aplicacoes destes materiais em revestimentos inteligentes, sensores de temperatura e bioimagem. Estuda-se a transferencia de energia entre os sitios de Eu3+ C2 e S6 dos nanobastonetes Gd2O3. A contribuicao dos mecanismos de transferencia de energia entre sitios para o tempo de subida 5D0(C2) e descartada a favor da relaxacao directa 5D1(C2) 5D0(C2) (i.e., transferencia de energia entre niveis). O maior tempo de decaimento do nivel 5D0(C2) nos nanobastonetes, relativamente ao valor medido para o mesmo material na forma de microcristais, e atribuido, quer a existencia de espacos livres entre nanobastonetes proximos (factor de enchimento ou fraccao volumica), quer a variacao do indice de refraccao efectivo do meio em torno dos ioes Eu3+. A dispersao de nanobastonetes de (Gd,Eu)2O3 em tres resinas epoxi comerciais atraves da cura por UV permite obter nanocompositos epoxi- (Gd,Eu)2O3. Relatam-se estudos cineticos e das propriedades termicas e de fotoluminescencia destes nanocompositos. Estes, preservam as tipicas propriedades de emissao do Eu3+, mostrando o potencial do metodo de cura por UV para obter revistimentos inteligentes e fotoactivos. Considera-se um avanco significativo a realizacao de uma nanoplataforma optica, incorporando aquecedor e termometro e capaz de medir uma ampla gama de temperaturas (300-2000 K) a escala nano, baseada em nanobastonetes de (Gd,Yb,Er)2O3 (termometros) cuja superficie se encontra revestida com nanoparticulas de ouro. A temperature local e calculada usando, quer a distribuicao de Boltzmann (300-1050 K) do racio de intensidades da conversao ascendente 2H11=2!4I15=2/4S3=2!4I15=2, quer a lei de Planck (1200-2000 K) para uma emissao de luz branca atribuida a radiacao do corpo negro

  6. Structural and Magnetic Studies on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Hybrid Matrices =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno Joao de Oliveira

    Este trabalho aborda algumas propriedades magneticas e estruturais de nanoparticulas de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro crescidos em matrizes hibridas orgânicas-inorgânicas. As matrizes hibridas, denominadas di-ureasils e obtidas pelo processo sol-gel, sao compostas por uma rede siliciosa ligada covalentemente por pontes ureia a cadeias orgânicas de diferente peso molecular. A estrutura local dos di-ureasils nao dopados esta modelada como grupos de dominios siliciosos com dimensoes nanometricas, estruturalmente correlacionados no seio de uma matriz rica em polimero. Neste trabalho mostra-se que os di-ureasils permitem o crescimento controlado de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro, incluindo a magnetite, maguemite, oxihidroxinitrato de ferro e ferrihidrite. O crescimento das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite da-se em condicoes acidas a superficie dos dominios siliciosos, junto aos grupos carbonilo, que funcionam como pontos de nucleacao. Desse modo da-se uma nucleacao heterogenea, onde o tamanho das nanoparticulas depende da concentracao de ferro (entre 1 e 6% em massa), sendo a concentracao de particulas constante. As propriedades magneticas das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite revelam a existencia de interaccoes antiferromagneticas e de momentos descompensados. A contribuicao destas duas componentes nas curvas de magnetizacao em funcao do campo magnetico pode ser separada usando um metodo aqui proposto, o que permite um adequado estudo da evolucao do momento magnetico com a temperatura. O estudo das propriedades magneticas dinâmicas das particulas de ferrihidrite, atraves de susceptibilidade ac, medidas de relaxacao e medidas de efeito Mossbauer, permitiu estudar a evolucao das interaccoes dipolares em funcao da concentracao de ferro, bem como determinar a distribuicao de barreiras de energia de anisotropia no caso em que essas interaccoes sao desprezaveis. E apresentado um novo metodo para comparacao desta distribuicao com a distribuicao de tamanhos, que

  7. Spin-Transfer-Torque Nano-Oscillators: Fabrication, Characterization and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jose Diogo Teixeira Barbosa

    Este trabalho aborda algumas propriedades magneticas e estruturais de nanoparticulas de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro crescidos em matrizes hibridas orgânicas-inorgânicas. As matrizes hibridas, denominadas di-ureasils e obtidas pelo processo sol-gel, sao compostas por uma rede siliciosa ligada covalentemente por pontes ureia a cadeias orgânicas de diferente peso molecular. A estrutura local dos di-ureasils nao dopados esta modelada como grupos de dominios siliciosos com dimensoes nanometricas, estruturalmente correlacionados no seio de uma matriz rica em polimero. Neste trabalho mostra-se que os di-ureasils permitem o crescimento controlado de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro, incluindo a magnetite, maguemite, oxihidroxinitrato de ferro e ferrihidrite. O crescimento das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite da-se em condicoes acidas a superficie dos dominios siliciosos, junto aos grupos carbonilo, que funcionam como pontos de nucleacao. Desse modo da-se uma nucleacao heterogenea, onde o tamanho das nanoparticulas depende da concentracao de ferro (entre 1 e 6% em massa), sendo a concentracao de particulas constante. As propriedades magneticas das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite revelam a existencia de interaccoes antiferromagneticas e de momentos descompensados. A contribuicao destas duas componentes nas curvas de magnetizacao em funcao do campo magnetico pode ser separada usando um metodo aqui proposto, o que permite um adequado estudo da evolucao do momento magnetico com a temperatura. O estudo das propriedades magneticas dinâmicas das particulas de ferrihidrite, atraves de susceptibilidade ac, medidas de relaxacao e medidas de efeito Mossbauer, permitiu estudar a evolucao das interaccoes dipolares em funcao da concentracao de ferro, bem como determinar a distribuicao de barreiras de energia de anisotropia no caso em que essas interaccoes sao desprezaveis. E apresentado um novo metodo para comparacao desta distribuicao com a distribuicao de tamanhos, que

  8. Detecção do linfonodo sentinela em câncer da mama: comparação entre métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Nilton Leite

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar a eficiência da cintilografia mamária, do detector manual de raios gama (probe e do corante azul vital para a localização do linfonodo sentinela (LNS, estabelecendo a sensibilidade, o valor preditivo negativo (VPN e a acurácia do mapeamento do LNS. Métodos: neste estudo estão incluídas 88 pacientes com câncer de mama atendidas consecutivamente e com axila clinicamente negativa. Foi utilizado o radiofármaco tecnécio ligado ao colóide dextran 500 (Dextran 99mTc, para cintilografia pré-operatória, realizada em 58 pacientes, e detecção transoperatória com o probe em 53 pacientes. Destas, 47 tiveram as contagens de irradiação gama anotadas e também o intervalo de tempo decorrido entre a injeção e a cirurgia. Foram empregados 2 mL do corante vital Bleu Patente V, injetado em torno do tumor, 5 minutos antes da incisão cirúrgica na axila em todos os casos. O LNS foi avaliado por congelação em 77 casos e todos pela coloração por hematoxilina e eosina. Resultados: a linfocintilografia, realizada em 58 casos, foi útil em 62,1%, sendo que em nove ocorreu mapeamento de dois linfonodos, e com o probe foram confirmados 45 casos (84,9% dos 53 avaliados. Das 47 com anotação de contagens de raios gama e do tempo decorrido da injeção do radiofármaco até a cirurgia, constituíram-se dois grupos para análise, o grupo dia (27 casos e o grupo outro dia (20 casos, que se mostraram diferentes, com significância estatística, tanto no tempo decorrido quanto nas contagens de raios gama, porém sem interferência nos resultados de detecção do LNS. A associação do probe e do corante azul resultou em sucesso nos 53 casos avaliados, assim como em 32 dos 35 casos em que só o corante foi usado. A média de idade das pacientes foi 58 anos. Quarenta e uma pacientes tiveram linfonodos axilares com metástase e apenas duas com LNS falsamente negativo, dando sensibilidade de 95,3%, VPN de 95,5% e acurácia de 97,6. Conclus

  9. A biópsia de linfonodo sentinela não deve ser recomendada para pacientes portadores de melanoma espesso Sentinel node biopsy should not be recommended for patients with thick melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santos de Oliveira Filho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar se há alguma relação entre o estado histopatológico do linfonodo sentinela, a recorrência e a mortalidade decorrente do melanoma espesso em pacientes submetidos à BLS ao longo de um seguimento significante. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e seis pacientes portadores de melanoma espesso submetidos à BLS foram selecionados de um banco de dados prospectivo. A linfocintilografia, o mapeamento linfático e a detecção gama intraoperatória foram realizados em todos pacientes. O linfonodo sentinela (LS foi analisado por HE e por imunoistoquímica. Linfadenectomia total foi indicada para os pacientes com LS positivo. O estado histopatológico do LS foi relacionado à taxa de recorrência e de mortalidade por melanoma. RESULTADOS: Cento e sessenta e seis LS foram retirados dos 86 pacientes. As idades variaram de 18 a 73 anos. Havia 47 mulheres e 39 homens. Micrometástases foram encontradas em 44 pacientes. Quarenta e dois pacientes foram submetidos à linfadenectomia total. Sete pacientes tiveram outro linfonodo positivo. Entre os 44 pacientes com LS positivo houve 20 recorrências e 15 mortes. Houve 18 recidivas e 12 mortes no grupo de LS negativo. A espessura de Breslow não apresentou correlação com o estado histopatológico do LS. O estado histopatológico do LS não interferiu nas taxas de recorrência e de mortalidade (teste de Fisher, p=1.00. A mediana de seguimento foi 69 meses. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a falta de evidência de benefício, a BLS não deve ser indicada para pacientes com melanoma espesso fora de estudos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether there is any relationship between the state of the sentinel lymph node histopathology, recurrence and mortality from thick melanoma in patients undergoing SLNB over a long follow-up. METHODS: Eighty-six patients with thick melanoma undergoing SLNB were selected from a prospective database. Lymphoscintigraphy, lymphatic mapping and intraoperative gamma probe detection were

  10. Answer to preoperative chemie radiation in locally advanced rectum cancer; Respuesta a quimioradiacion preoperatoria en cancer de recto localmente avanzado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas Mendez, Silvia [Costa Rica

    2006-07-01

    entre la finalizacion del tratamiento combinado preoperatorio y la cirugia debe de ser al menos seis semanas para garantizar el efecto en el tumor y disminuir la toxicidad del tratamiento. Concluye, ademas, que la tasa de complicacion posterior a la terapia combinada preoperatoria y la escision mesorectal total es de aproximadamente 33%; sin embargo, las complicaciones septicas pelvicas pueden disminuirse con una ostomia de proteccion. Enfoca que la tecnica de preservacion de esfinteres ha demostrado ser segura y efectiva si se hace una seleccion previa de los pacientes en forma adecuada. Para lograr un estadiaje adecuado debe contarse con un ultrasonido endoscopico transrectal y una tomografia de adecuada calidad. Concluye, tambien, que en tumores intervenidos posterior a neoadyuvancia no se necesitan margenes distales ibres de enfermedad mayores a 2 cm. La escision mesorectal total es la recomendacion quirurgica actual de manejo en el cancer rectal.

  11. The Douro estuarine plume: Detection, processes and dynamics =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Renato Paulo dos Santos

    importante na regiao proxima a embocadura do estuario. Observaram-se relacoes a uma escala interanual entre a turbidez da pluma e os indices climaticos East Atlantic e NAO, com uma correlacao maxima identificada com 1 e 3 meses de desfasamento, respetivamente. Com base nos resultados das simulacoes efetuadas, a pluma e classificada como de larga escala e de advecao superficial, apresentando caracteristicas de uma pluma prototipica. Em condicoes de caudal moderado a elevado, a descarga estuarina e suficiente para gerar uma corrente costeira para norte sem acao do vento. Em eventos de ventos leste, a propagacao da pluma e similar ao caso sem vento, com um aumento da velocidade da corrente. Uma corrente costeira para sul e unicamente identificada sob condicoes de forte vento de oeste. Ventos de norte tendem a estender a pluma para o largo, com uma inclinacao na direcao sudoeste, enquanto ventos de sul intensificam a corrente para norte, sendo a mistura das plumas do Douro e do Minho uma consequencia possivel. A analise desta interacao apontou a contribuicao do Douro como importante na estabilizacao da WIBP e nas trocas de agua entre o oceano e as Rias Baixas. A interacao da pluma do Douro com estuarios localizados a sul da sua foz e a confirmacao in situ da recirculacao observada nos resultados numericos afiguram-se como temas relevantes para investigacoes futuras. None