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Sample records for lines selectively bred

  1. Immunological characteristics and response to lipopolysaccharide of mouse lines selectively bred with natural and acquired immunities.

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    Narahara, Hiroki; Sakai, Eri; Katayama, Masafumi; Ohtomo, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Kanako; Takemoto, Miki; Aso, Hisashi; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Mohri, Yasuaki; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Isogai, Emiko; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2012-05-01

    Genetic improvement of resistance to infectious diseases is a challenging goal in animal breeding. Infection resistance involves multiple immunological characteristics, including natural and acquired immunity. In the present study, we developed an experimental model based on genetic selection, to improve immunological phenotypes. We selectively established three mouse lines based on phagocytic activity, antibody production and the combination of these two phenotypes. We analyzed the immunological characteristics of these lines using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is one of the main components of Gram-negative bacteria. An intense immunological reaction was induced in each of the three mouse lines. Severe loss of body weight and liver damage were observed, and a high level of cytokine messenger RNA was detected in the liver tissue. The mouse line established using a combination of the two selection standards showed unique characteristics relative to the mouse lines selected on the basis of a single phenotype. Our results indicate that genetic selection and breeding is effective, even for immunological phenotypes with a relatively low heritability. Thus, it may be possible to improve resistance to infectious diseases by means of genetic selection. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running exhibit lower blood pressure during withdrawal from wheel access.

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    Kolb, Erik M; Kelly, Scott A; Garland, Theodore

    2013-03-15

    Exercise is known to be rewarding and have positive effects on mental and physical health. Excessive exercise, however, can be the result of an underlying behavioral/physiological addiction. Both humans who exercise regularly and rodent models of exercise addiction sometimes display behavioral withdrawal symptoms, including depression and anxiety, when exercise is denied. However, few studies have examined the physiological state that occurs during this withdrawal period. Alterations in blood pressure (BP) are common physiological indicators of withdrawal in a variety of addictions. In this study, we examined exercise withdrawal in four replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines). Mice from the HR lines run almost 3-fold greater distances on wheels than those from non-selected control lines, and have altered brain activity as well as increased behavioral despair when wheel access is removed. We tested the hypothesis that male HR mice have an altered cardiovascular response (heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure [MAP]) during exercise withdrawal. Measurements using an occlusion tail-cuff system were taken during 8 days of baseline, 6 days of wheel access, and 2 days of withdrawal (wheel access blocked). During withdrawal, HR mice had significantly lower systolic BP, diastolic BP, and MAP than controls, potentially indicating a differential dependence on voluntary wheel running in HR mice. This is the first characterization of a cardiovascular withdrawal response in an animal model of high voluntary exercise. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Serotonin-mediated central fatigue underlies increased endurance capacity in mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

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    Claghorn, Gerald C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Thompson, Zoe; Barber, Curtis; Garland, Theodore

    2016-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is implicated in central fatigue, and 5-HT1A pharmaceuticals are known to influence locomotor endurance in both rodents and humans. We studied the effects of a 5-HT1A agonist and antagonist on both forced and voluntary exercise in the same set of mice. This cohort of mice was taken from 4 replicate lines of mice that have been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (HR) as compared with 4 non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice run voluntarily on wheels about 3× as many revolutions per day as compared with C, and have greater endurance during forced treadmill exercise. We hypothesized that drugs targeting serotonin receptors would have differential effects on locomotor behavior of HR and C mice. Subcutaneous injections of a 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100,635), a combination of 5-HT1A agonist and a 5-HT1A/1B partial agonist (8-OH-DPAT+pindolol), or physiological saline were given to separate groups of male mice before the start of each of three treadmill trials. The same manipulations were used later during voluntary wheel running on three separate nights. WAY-100,635 decreased treadmill endurance in HR but not C mice (dose by linetype interaction, P=0.0014). 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol affected treadmill endurance (PWheel running was reduced in HR but not C mice at the highest dose of 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol (dose by linetype, P=0.0221), but was not affected by WAY-100,635 treatment. These results provide further evidence that serotonin signaling is an important determinant of performance during both forced and voluntary exercise. Although the elevated wheel running of HR mice does not appear related to alterations in serotonin signaling, their enhanced endurance capacity does. More generally, our results indicate that both forced and voluntary exercise can be affected by an intervention that acts (primarily) centrally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioural profiles of two Wistar rat lines selectively bred for high or low anxiety-related behaviour.

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    Liebsch, G; Montkowski, A; Holsboer, F; Landgraf, R

    1998-08-01

    Over the past years, two breeding lines, derived originally from outbred Wistar rats, have been established that differ markedly and consistently in their anxiety-related behaviour in the elevated plus-maze. At the age of ten weeks, rats were tested once on the elevated plus-maze and the males and females displaying the most anxious and the least anxious behaviour were sib-mated to start a new generation of the high anxiety-related behaviour (HAB) and the low anxiety-related behaviour (LAB) lines, respectively. The resulting difference in emotionality between these two lines was also evident in an open field test and correlated with differences in the forced swim test. In the open field, the HAB rats tended to be less active and explored the central zone of the open field much less than the LAB animals. In the forced swim test, HAB rats started floating earlier, spent significantly more time in this immobile posture and struggled less than LAB rats. However, in an olfactory-cued social discrimination task there was no difference between male and female animals from either line. The overall performance in these various behavioural tests suggests that selective breeding has resulted in rat lines not only differing markedly in their innate anxiety-related behaviour in the plus-maze, but also in other stress-related behavioural performances, suggesting a close link between the emotional evaluation of a novel and stressful situation and an individual's coping strategy.

  5. Effects of size, sex, and voluntary running speeds on costs of locomotion in lines of laboratory mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity.

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    Rezende, Enrico L; Kelly, Scott A; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Selective breeding for over 35 generations has led to four replicate (S) lines of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) that run voluntarily on wheels about 170% more than four random-bred control (C) lines. We tested whether S lines have evolved higher running performance by increasing running economy (i.e., decreasing energy spent per unit of distance) as a correlated response to selection, using a recently developed method that allows for nearly continuous measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) and running speed in freely behaving animals. We estimated slope (incremental cost of transport [COT]) and intercept for regressions of power (the dependent variable, VO2/min) on speed for 49 males and 47 females, as well as their maximum VO2 and speeds during wheel running, under conditions mimicking those that these lines face during the selection protocol. For comparison, we also measured COT and maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) during forced exercise on a motorized treadmill. As in previous studies, the increased wheel running of S lines was mainly attributable to increased average speed, with males also showing a tendency for increased time spent running. On a whole-animal basis, combined analysis of males and females indicated that COT during voluntary wheel running was significantly lower in the S lines (one-tailed P=0.015). However, mice from S lines are significantly smaller and attain higher maximum speeds on the wheels; with either body mass or maximum speed (or both) entered as a covariate, the statistical significance of the difference in COT is lost (one-tailed P> or =0.2). Thus, both body size and behavior are key components of the reduction in COT. Several statistically significant sex differences were observed, including lower COT and higher resting metabolic rate in females. In addition, maximum voluntary running speeds were negatively correlated with COT in females but not in males. Moreover, males (but not females) from the S lines exhibited

  6. Transpiration Response and Growth in Pearl Millet Parental Lines and Hybrids Bred for Contrasting Rainfall Environments

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    Susan Medina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of high vapor pressure deficit (VPD and soil drying, restricting transpiration is an important avenue to gain efficiency in water use. The question we raise in this article is whether breeding for agro-ecological environments that differ for the rainfall have selected for traits that control plant water use. These are measured in pearl millet materials bred for zones varying in rainfall (8 combinations of parent and F1-hybrids, 18 F1-hybrids and then 40 F1-hybrids. In all cases, we found an agro-ecological variation in the slope of the transpiration response to increasing VPD, and parental line variation in the transpiration response to soil drying within hybrids/parent combinations. The hybrids adapted to lower rainfall had higher transpiration response curves than those from the highest rainfall zones, but showed no variation in how transpiration responded to soil drying. The genotypes bred for lower rainfall zones showed lower leaf area, dry matter, thicker leaves, root development, and exudation, than the ones bred for high rainfall zone when grown in the low VPD environment of the greenhouse, but there was no difference in their root length neither on the root/shoot index in these genotypes. By contrast, when grown under high VPD conditions outdoors, the lower rainfall hybrids had the highest leaf, tiller, and biomass development. Finally, under soil drying the genotypes from the lower rainfall accumulated less biomass than the ones from higher rainfall zone, and so did the parental lines compared to the hybrids. These differences in the transpiration response and growth clearly showed that breeding for different agro-ecological zones also bred for different genotype strategies in relation to traits related to plant water use.Highlights:• Variation in transpiration response reflected breeding for agro-ecological zones• Different growth strategies depended on the environmental conditions• Different ideotypes reflected

  7. Transpiration Response and Growth in Pearl Millet Parental Lines and Hybrids Bred for Contrasting Rainfall Environments.

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    Medina, Susan; Gupta, S K; Vadez, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Under conditions of high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil drying, restricting transpiration is an important avenue to gain efficiency in water use. The question we raise in this article is whether breeding for agro-ecological environments that differ for the rainfall have selected for traits that control plant water use. These are measured in pearl millet materials bred for zones varying in rainfall (8 combinations of parent and F 1 -hybrids, 18 F 1 -hybrids and then 40 F 1 -hybrids). In all cases, we found an agro-ecological variation in the slope of the transpiration response to increasing VPD, and parental line variation in the transpiration response to soil drying within hybrids/parent combinations. The hybrids adapted to lower rainfall had higher transpiration response curves than those from the highest rainfall zones, but showed no variation in how transpiration responded to soil drying. The genotypes bred for lower rainfall zones showed lower leaf area, dry matter, thicker leaves, root development, and exudation, than the ones bred for high rainfall zone when grown in the low VPD environment of the greenhouse, but there was no difference in their root length neither on the root/shoot index in these genotypes. By contrast, when grown under high VPD conditions outdoors, the lower rainfall hybrids had the highest leaf, tiller, and biomass development. Finally, under soil drying the genotypes from the lower rainfall accumulated less biomass than the ones from higher rainfall zone, and so did the parental lines compared to the hybrids. These differences in the transpiration response and growth clearly showed that breeding for different agro-ecological zones also bred for different genotype strategies in relation to traits related to plant water use. Highlights : • Variation in transpiration response reflected breeding for agro-ecological zones • Different growth strategies depended on the environmental conditions • Different ideotypes reflected

  8. Plasma adiponectin is increased in mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity, but not by wheel running per se

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, L. M.; Meerlo, P.; Garland, T.; Visser, G. H.; van Dijk, G.

    2007-01-01

    Mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity (S) have decreased fat content compared to mice from randomly bred control (C) lines. We explored whether this difference was associated with alterations in levels of circulating hormones involved in regulation of food intake and energy balance,

  9. Responses to cholinergic agonists of rats selectively bred for differential sensitivity to ethanol.

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    de Fiebre, C M; Romm, E; Collins, J T; Draski, L J; Deitrich, R A; Collins, A C

    1991-03-01

    Alcoholics are almost invariably heavy users of tobacco. Both alcoholism and smoking appear to be influenced by genetic factors but it is not known whether the same or different genes regulate the abuse of ethanol and nicotine. Recent studies have demonstrated that the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mouse lines, which were selectively bred for differences in ethanol-induced anesthesia ("sleep-time"), also differ in several effects of nicotine and the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine. In order to determine whether or not these differences are due to chance, the relative sensitivities of rat lines which were selectively bred for differences in ethanol-induced sleep-time were determined. The high alcohol sensitivity (HAS) rat line was more sensitive to the locomotor and body temperature depressant effects of nicotine than was the low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rat line. The control line (CAS) was intermediate in sensitivity. The rat lines did not differ in sensitivity to oxotremorine's hypothermia-producing effects. The numbers and affinities of two classes of brain nicotinic receptors were measured in eight brain regions. No differences among the rat lines were detected. These results suggest that ethanol elicits some of its depressant actions via an effect on brain nicotinic systems, but the differences in sensitivity to ethanol and nicotine are probably not due to differences in the number of brain nicotinic receptors. Perhaps this interaction explains the high correlation between alcoholism and smoking in humans.

  10. Open-field behavior of house mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running.

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    Bronikowski, A M; Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Girard, I A; Rhodes, J S; Garland, T

    2001-05-01

    Open-field behavioral assays are commonly used to test both locomotor activity and emotionality in rodents. We performed open-field tests on house mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines genetically selected for high voluntary wheel-running for 22 generations and from four replicate random-bred control lines. Individual mice were recorded by video camera for 3 min in a 1-m2 open-field arena on 2 consecutive days. Mice from selected lines showed no statistical differences from control mice with respect to distance traveled, defecation, time spent in the interior, or average distance from the center of the arena during the trial. Thus, we found little evidence that open-field behavior, as traditionally defined, is genetically correlated with wheel-running behavior. This result is a useful converse test of classical studies that report no increased wheel-running in mice selected for increased open-field activity. However, mice from selected lines turned less in their travel paths than did control-line mice, and females from selected lines had slower travel times (longer latencies) to reach the wall. We discuss these results in the context of the historical open-field test and newly defined measures of open-field activity.

  11. Crossfostering in mice selectively bred for high and low levels of open-field thigmotaxis.

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    Leppänen, Pia K; Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M

    2005-02-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate whether the difference in open-field (OF) thigmotaxis between mice selectively bred for high and low levels of wall-seeking behavior originated from genetic or acquired sources. Unfostered, infostered, and crossfostered mice were compared in two experiments in which the effects of strain, sex, and fostering on ambulation, defecation, exploration, grooming, latency to move, radial latency, rearing, thigmotaxis, and urination were studied. These experiments revealed that OF thigmotaxis was unaffected by the foster condition and thus genetically determined. The selected strains of mice also diverged repeatedly with regard to exploration and rearing. The findings are in line with the previously described existence of an inverse relationship between emotionality and exploration.

  12. Mitochondrial haplotypes are not associated with mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

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    Wone, Bernard W M; Yim, Won C; Schutz, Heidi; Meek, Thomas H; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-04

    Mitochondrial haplotypes have been associated with human and rodent phenotypes, including nonshivering thermogenesis capacity, learning capability, and disease risk. Although the mammalian mitochondrial D-loop is highly polymorphic, D-loops in laboratory mice are identical, and variation occurs elsewhere mainly between nucleotides 9820 and 9830. Part of this region codes for the tRNA Arg gene and is associated with mitochondrial densities and number of mtDNA copies. We hypothesized that the capacity for high levels of voluntary wheel-running behavior would be associated with mitochondrial haplotype. Here, we analyzed the mtDNA polymorphic region in mice from each of four replicate lines selectively bred for 54 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from four control lines (Control) randomly bred for 54 generations. Sequencing the polymorphic region revealed a variable number of adenine repeats. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) varied from 2 to 3 adenine insertions, resulting in three haplotypes. We found significant genetic differentiations between the HR and Control groups (F st  = 0.779, p ≤ 0.0001), as well as among the replicate lines of mice within groups (F sc  = 0.757, p ≤ 0.0001). Haplotypes, however, were not strongly associated with voluntary wheel running (revolutions run per day), nor with either body mass or litter size. This system provides a useful experimental model to dissect the physiological processes linking mitochondrial, genomic SNPs, epigenetics, or nuclear-mitochondrial cross-talk to exercise activity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Phenotypic and molecular differences between rats selectively bred to voluntarily run high vs. low nightly distances.

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    Roberts, Michael D; Brown, Jacob D; Company, Joseph M; Oberle, Lauren P; Heese, Alexander J; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Wells, Kevin D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Knouse, John A; Ferreira, J Andries; Childs, Thomas E; Brown, Marybeth; Booth, Frank W

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to partially phenotype male and female rats from generations 8-10 (G8-G10) that had been selectively bred to possess low (LVR) vs. high voluntary running (HVR) behavior. Over the first 6 days with wheels, 34-day-old G8 male and female LVRs ran shorter distances (P HVR counterparts, respectively. HVR and LVR lines consumed similar amounts of standard chow with or without wheels. No inherent difference existed in PGC-1α mRNA in the plantaris and soleus muscles of LVR and HVR nonrunners, although G8 LVR rats inherently possessed less NADH-positive superficial plantaris fibers compared with G8 HVR rats. While day 28 body mass tended to be greater in both sexes of G9-G10 LVR nonrunners vs. G9-G10 HVR nonrunners (P = 0.06), body fat percentage was similar between lines. G9-G10 HVRs had fat mass loss after 6 days of running compared with their prerunning values, while LVR did not lose or gain fat mass during the 6-day voluntary running period. RNA deep sequencing efforts in the nucleus accumbens showed only eight transcripts to be >1.5-fold differentially expressed between lines in HVR and LVR nonrunners. Interestingly, HVRs presented less Oprd1 mRNA, which ties in to potential differences in dopaminergic signaling between lines. This unique animal model provides further evidence as to how exercise may be mechanistically regulated.

  14. Endurance capacity of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

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    Meek, Thomas H; Lonquich, Brian P; Hannon, Robert M; Garland, Theodore

    2009-09-15

    Mice from four lines bred for high voluntary wheel activity run approximately 3-fold more revolutions per day and have elevated maximal oxygen consumption during forced treadmill exercise, as compared with four unselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that these high runner (HR) lines would have greater treadmill endurance-running capacity. Ninety-six mice from generation 49 were familiarized with running on a motorized treadmill for 3 days. On days 4 and 5, mice were given an incremental speed test (starting at 20 m min(-1), increased 1.5 m min(-1) every 2 min) and endurance was measured as the total time or distance run to exhaustion. Blood samples were taken to measure glucose and lactate concentrations at rest during the photophase, during peak nightly wheel running, and immediately following the second endurance test. Individual differences in endurance time were highly repeatable between days (r=0.79), and mice tended to run longer on the second day (paired t-test, Pwheel running and treadmill endurance differed between the sexes, reinforcing previous studies that indicate sex-specific responses to selective breeding. HR mice appear to have a higher endurance capacity than reported in the literature for inbred strains of mice or transgenics intended to enhance endurance.

  15. Effects of leptin treatment and Western diet on wheel running in selectively bred high runner mice.

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    Meek, Thomas H; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Vu, Kim T; Garland, Theodore

    2012-05-15

    The role of leptin in regulating physical activity is varied. The behavioral effects of leptin signaling depend on the type of activity and the animal's physiological state. We used mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running to further study how leptin regulates volitional exercise. Mice from four replicate high runner (HR) lines typically run ~3-fold more revolutions per day than those from four non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice have altered dopamine function and differences from C in brain regions known to be important in leptin-mediated behavior. Furthermore, male HR mice have been found to dramatically increase running when administered Western diet, an effect possibly mediated through leptin signaling. Male mice from generation 61 (representing three HR lines and one C line) were allowed wheel access at 24 days of age and given either Western diet (high in fat and with added sucrose) or standard chow. After four weeks, Western diet significantly increased circulating leptin, insulin, C-peptide, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and inflammatory hormone resistin concentrations in HR mice (C mice not measured). Western diet increased running in HR mice, but did not significantly affect running in C mice. During the fifth week, all mice received two days of intra-peritoneal sham injections (physiological saline) followed by three days of murine recombinant leptin injections, and then another six days of sham injections. Leptin treatment significantly decreased caloric intake (adjusted for body mass) and body mass in all groups. Wheel running significantly increased with leptin injections in HR mice (fed Western or standard diet), but was unaffected in C mice. Whether Western diet and leptin treatment stimulate wheel running in HR mice through the same physiological pathways awaits future study. These results have implications for understanding the neural and endocrine systems that control locomotor activity, food consumption, and body

  16. Running behavior and its energy cost in mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity.

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    Rezende, Enrico L; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Locomotion is central to behavior and intrinsic to many fitness-critical activities (e.g., migration, foraging), and it competes with other life-history components for energy. However, detailed analyses of how changes in locomotor activity and running behavior affect energy budgets are scarce. We quantified these effects in four replicate lines of house mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (S lines) and in their four nonselected control lines (C lines). We monitored wheel speeds and oxygen consumption for 24-48 h to determine daily energy expenditure (DEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), locomotor costs, and running behavior (bout characteristics). Daily running distances increased roughly 50%-90% in S lines in response to selection. After we controlled for body mass effects, selection resulted in a 23% increase in DEE in males and a 6% increase in females. Total activity costs (DEE - RMR) accounted for 50%-60% of DEE in both S and C lines and were 29% higher in S males and 5% higher in S females compared with their C counterparts. Energetic costs of increased daily running distances differed between sexes because S females evolved higher running distances by running faster with little change in time spent running, while S males also spent 40% more time running than C males. This increase in time spent running impinged on high energy costs because the majority of running costs stemmed from "postural costs" (the difference between RMR and the zero-speed intercept of the speed vs. metabolic rate relationship). No statistical differences in these traits were detected between S and C females, suggesting that large changes in locomotor behavior do not necessarily effect overall energy budgets. Running behavior also differed between sexes: within S lines, males ran with more but shorter bouts than females. Our results indicate that selection effects on energy budgets can differ dramatically between sexes and that energetic constraints in S

  17. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

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    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phenotypic and molecular differences between rats selectively bred to voluntarily run high vs. low nightly distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D.; Brown, Jacob D.; Company, Joseph M.; Oberle, Lauren P.; Heese, Alexander J.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Wells, Kevin D.; Cruthirds, Clayton L.; Knouse, John A.; Ferreira, J. Andries; Childs, Thomas E.; Brown, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to partially phenotype male and female rats from generations 8–10 (G8–G10) that had been selectively bred to possess low (LVR) vs. high voluntary running (HVR) behavior. Over the first 6 days with wheels, 34-day-old G8 male and female LVRs ran shorter distances (P HVR counterparts, respectively. HVR and LVR lines consumed similar amounts of standard chow with or without wheels. No inherent difference existed in PGC-1α mRNA in the plantaris and soleus muscles of LVR and HVR nonrunners, although G8 LVR rats inherently possessed less NADH-positive superficial plantaris fibers compared with G8 HVR rats. While day 28 body mass tended to be greater in both sexes of G9–G10 LVR nonrunners vs. G9–G10 HVR nonrunners (P = 0.06), body fat percentage was similar between lines. G9–G10 HVRs had fat mass loss after 6 days of running compared with their prerunning values, while LVR did not lose or gain fat mass during the 6-day voluntary running period. RNA deep sequencing efforts in the nucleus accumbens showed only eight transcripts to be >1.5-fold differentially expressed between lines in HVR and LVR nonrunners. Interestingly, HVRs presented less Oprd1 mRNA, which ties in to potential differences in dopaminergic signaling between lines. This unique animal model provides further evidence as to how exercise may be mechanistically regulated. PMID:23552494

  19. Mice selectively bred for open-field thigmotaxis: life span and stability of the selection trait.

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    Leppänen, Pia K; Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M; Selander, Ritva-Kajsa

    2005-04-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors examined 69 mice selectively bred for high or low levels of open-field (OF) thigmotactic behavior (high open-field thigmotaxis [HOFT] and low open-field thigmotaxis [LOFT], respectively). They found that the strains differed in defecation during the 60-min exposure to the OF. Furthermore, the strains differed with regard to their life spans: The more thigmotactic HOFT mice lived longer than the LOFT mice. The strains were not differentiated by food intake or excretion. The strain difference in thigmotaxis was not age dependent, and it persisted in the home-cage condition as well. Neither the location (center or wall) of the starting point nor the shape (circular or square) of the OF arena affected the difference in wall-seeking behavior between the two strains. The authors concluded that the difference in thigmotaxis (or emotionality) between the HOFT and LOFT mice is a stable and robust feature of these animals.

  20. Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice.

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    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple lines of high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-hour daily access over a 4-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding BECs of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Rats selectively bred for low levels of play-induced 50 kHz vocalizations as a model for autism spectrum disorders: a role for NMDA receptors.

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    Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Moskal, Joseph R; Brudzynski, Stefan M; Panksepp, Jaak

    2013-08-15

    Early childhood autism is characterized by deficits in social approach and play behaviors, socio-emotional relatedness, and communication/speech abnormalities, as well as repetitive behaviors. These core neuropsychological features of autism can be modeled in laboratory rats, and the results may be useful for drug discovery and therapeutic development. We review data that show that rats selectively bred for low rates of play-related pro-social ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) can be used to model social deficit symptoms of autism. Low-line animals engage in less social contact time with conspecifics, show lower rates of play induced pro-social USVs, and show an increased proportion of non-frequency modulated (i.e. monotonous) ultrasonic vocalizations compared to non-selectively bred random-line animals. Gene expression patterns in the low-line animals show significant enrichment in autism-associated genes, and the NMDA receptor family was identified as a significant hub. Treatment of low-line animals with the NMDAR functional glycine site partial agonist, GLYX-13, rescued the deficits in play-induced pro-social 50-kHz USVs and reduced monotonous USVs. Since the NMDA receptor has been implicated in the genesis of autistic symptoms, it is possible that GLYX-13 may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of autism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The selectively bred high alcohol sensitivity (HAS) and low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rats differ in sensitivity to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; Dawson, Ralph; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2002-06-01

    Studies in rodents selectively bred to differ in alcohol sensitivity have suggested that nicotine and ethanol sensitivities may cosegregate during selective breeding. This suggests that ethanol and nicotine sensitivities may in part be genetically correlated. Male and female high alcohol sensitivity (HAS), control alcohol sensitivity, and low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rats were tested for nicotine-induced alterations in locomotor activity, body temperature, and seizure activity. Plasma and brain levels of nicotine and its primary metabolite, cotinine, were measured in these animals, as was the binding of [3H]cytisine, [3H]epibatidine, and [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin in eight brain regions. Both replicate HAS lines were more sensitive to nicotine-induced locomotor activity depression than the replicate LAS lines. No consistent HAS/LAS differences were seen on other measures of nicotine sensitivity; however, females were more susceptible to nicotine-induced seizures than males. No HAS/LAS differences in nicotine or cotinine levels were seen, nor were differences seen in the binding of nicotinic ligands. Females had higher levels of plasma cotinine and brain nicotine than males but had lower brain cotinine levels than males. Sensitivity to a specific action of nicotine cosegregates during selective breeding for differential sensitivity to a specific action of ethanol. The differential sensitivity of the HAS/LAS rats is due to differences in central nervous system sensitivity and not to pharmacokinetic differences. The differential central nervous system sensitivity cannot be explained by differences in the numbers of nicotinic receptors labeled in ligand-binding experiments. The apparent genetic correlation between ethanol and nicotine sensitivities suggests that common genes modulate, in part, the actions of both ethanol and nicotine and may explain the frequent coabuse of these agents.

  3. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun eYen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB. Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition, implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD

  4. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms.

  5. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T.

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms

  6. Locomotor trade-offs in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Chappell, Mark A; McGillivray, David G; Syme, Douglas A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-08-01

    We investigated sprint performance and running economy of a unique ;mini-muscle' phenotype that evolved in response to selection for high voluntary wheel running in laboratory mice (Mus domesticus). Mice from four replicate selected (S) lines run nearly three times as far per day as four control lines. The mini-muscle phenotype, resulting from an initially rare autosomal recessive allele, has been favoured by the selection protocol, becoming fixed in one of the two S lines in which it occurred. In homozygotes, hindlimb muscle mass is halved, mass-specific muscle oxidative capacity is doubled, and the medial gastrocnemius exhibits about half the mass-specific isotonic power, less than half the mass-specific cyclic work and power, but doubled fatigue resistance. We hypothesized that mini-muscle mice would have a lower whole-animal energy cost of transport (COT), resulting from lower costs of cycling their lighter limbs, and reduced sprint speed, from reduced maximal force production. We measured sprint speed on a racetrack and slopes (incremental COT, or iCOT) and intercepts of the metabolic rate versus speed relationship during voluntary wheel running in 10 mini-muscle and 20 normal S-line females. Mini-muscle mice ran faster and farther on wheels, but for less time per day. Mini-muscle mice had significantly lower sprint speeds, indicating a functional trade-off. However, contrary to predictions, mini-muscle mice had higher COT, mainly because of higher zero-speed intercepts and postural costs (intercept-resting metabolic rate). Thus, mice with altered limb morphology after intense selection for running long distances do not necessarily run more economically.

  7. Effects of a selectively bred novelty-seeking phenotype on the motivation to take cocaine in male and female rats

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    Cummings Jennifer A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender and enhanced novelty reactivity can predispose certain individuals to drug abuse. Previous research in male and female rats selectively bred for high or low locomotor reactivity to novelty found that bred High Responders (bHRs acquire cocaine self-administration more rapidly than bred Low Responders (bLRs and that bHR females in particular self-administered more cocaine than the other groups. The experiments presented here aimed to determine whether an individual's sex and behavioral phenotype interact to affect motivation to take cocaine. Methods We examined motivation for taking cocaine in two experiments using a range of doses on a progressive ratio (PR schedule of responding in bHR or bLR males and females. Additionally, we included a measure of continuing to respond in the absence of reinforcement, a feature of addiction that has been recently incorporated into tests of animal models on the basis of the criteria for substance use disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Statistical analyses were performed using PASW Statistics 18.0 software. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by a Bonferroni correction post hoc test when applicable. Results We found sex differences as well as effects of novelty reactivity on the motivation to self-administer cocaine. Specifically, females demonstrated higher breaking points on the PR schedule compared with males, regardless of phenotype, and bHR males and females exhibited higher motivation than bLR animals at a number of the doses studied. Conclusions An individual's sex continues to be a predisposing factor with respect to drug abuse liability and can be compounded by additional individual differences such as reactivity to novelty.

  8. Cisgenic Rvi6 scab-resistant apple lines show no differences in Rvi6 transcription when compared with conventionally bred cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gusberti, Michele; Schouten, Henk J; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2016-03-01

    The expression of the apple scab resistance gene Rvi6 in different apple cultivars and lines is not modulated by biotic or abiotic factors. All commercially important apple cultivars are susceptible to Venturia inaequalis, the causal organism of apple scab. A limited number of apple cultivars were bred to express the resistance gene Vf from the wild apple genotype Malus floribunda 821. Positional cloning of the Vf locus allowed the identification of the Rvi6 (formerly HcrVf2) scab resistance gene that was subsequently used to generate cisgenic apple lines. It is important to understand and compare how this resistance gene is transcribed and modulated during infection in conventionally bred cultivars and in cisgenic lines. The aim of this work was to study the transcription pattern of Rvi6 in three classically bred apple cultivars and six lines of 'Gala' genetically modified to express Rvi6. Rvi6 transcription was analyzed at two time points using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) following inoculation with V. inaequalis conidia or water. Rvi6 transcription was assessed in relation to five reference genes. β-Actin, RNAPol, and UBC were the most suited to performing RT-qPCR experiments on Malus × domestica. Inoculation with V. inaequalis conidia under conditions conducive to scab infection failed to produce any significant changes to the transcription level of Rvi6. Rvi6 expression levels were inconsistent in response to external treatments in the different apple cultivars, and transgenic, intragenic or cisgenic lines.

  9. Gut Microbiota and a Selectively Bred Taste Phenotype: A Novel Model of Microbiome-Behavior Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, Mark; Fodor, Anthony A; Chapman, Clinton D; Martin, Gary G; Perez-Chanona, Ernesto; Jobin, Christian; Dess, Nancy K

    2016-06-01

    The microbiota-gut-brain axis is increasingly implicated in obesity, anxiety, stress, and other health-related processes. Researchers have proposed that gut microbiota may influence dietary habits, and pathways through the microbiota-gut-brain axis make such a relationship feasible; however, few data bear on the hypothesis. As a first step in the development of a model system, the gut microbiome was examined in rat lines selectively outbred on a taste phenotype with biobehavioral profiles that have diverged with respect to energy regulation, anxiety, and stress. Occidental low and high-saccharin-consuming rats were assessed for body mass and chow, water, and saccharin intake; littermate controls had shared cages with rats in the experimental group but were not assessed. Cecum and colon microbial communities were profiled using Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and multivariate analysis of microbial diversity and composition. The saccharin phenotype was confirmed (low-saccharin-consuming rats, 0.7Δ% [0.9Δ%]; high-saccharin-consuming rats, 28.1Δ% [3.6Δ%]). Regardless of saccharin exposure, gut microbiota differed between lines in terms of overall community similarity and taxa at lower phylogenetic levels. Specifically, 16 genera in three phyla distinguished the lines at a 10% false discovery rate. The study demonstrates for the first time that rodent lines created through selective pressure on taste and differing on functionally related correlates host different microbial communities. Whether the microbiota are causally related to the taste phenotype or its correlates remains to be determined. These findings encourage further inquiry on the relationship of the microbiome to taste, dietary habits, emotion, and health.

  10. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats selectively bred for low and high voluntary running behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacob D; Green, Caroline L; Arthur, Ian M; Booth, Frank W; Miller, Dennis K

    2015-02-01

    The rewarding effects of physical activity and abused drugs are caused by stimulation of similar brain pathways. Low (LVR) and high (HVR) voluntary running lines were developed by selectively breeding Wistar rats on running distance performance on postnatal days 28-34. We hypothesized that LVR rats would be more sensitive to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than HVR rats due to their lower motivation for wheel running. We investigated how selection for LVR or HVR behavior affects inherited activity responses: (a) open field activity levels, (b) habituation to an open field environment, and (c) the locomotor response to cocaine. Open field activity was measured for 80 min on three successive days (days 1-3). Data from the first 20 min were analyzed to determine novelty-induced locomotor activity (day 1) and the habituation to the environment (days 1-3). On day 3, rats were acclimated to the chamber for 20 min and then received saline or cocaine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg) injection. Dopamine transporter (DAT) protein in the nucleus accumbens was measured via Western blot. Selecting for low and high voluntary running behavior co-selects for differences in inherent (HVR > LVR) and cocaine-induced (LVR > HVR) locomotor activity levels. The differences in the selected behavioral measures do not appear to correlate with DAT protein levels. LVR and HVR rats are an intriguing physical activity model for studying the interactions between genes related to the motivation to run, to use drugs of abuse, and to exhibit locomotor activity.

  11. Western diet increases wheel running in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Garland, T

    2010-06-01

    Mice from a long-term selective breeding experiment for high voluntary wheel running offer a unique model to examine the contributions of genetic and environmental factors in determining the aspects of behavior and metabolism relevant to body-weight regulation and obesity. Starting with generation 16 and continuing through to generation 52, mice from the four replicate high runner (HR) lines have run 2.5-3-fold more revolutions per day as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines, but the nature of this apparent selection limit is not understood. We hypothesized that it might involve the availability of dietary lipids. Wheel running, food consumption (Teklad Rodent Diet (W) 8604, 14% kJ from fat; or Harlan Teklad TD.88137 Western Diet (WD), 42% kJ from fat) and body mass were measured over 1-2-week intervals in 100 males for 2 months starting 3 days after weaning. WD was obesogenic for both HR and C, significantly increasing both body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass, the latter even when controlling statistically for wheel-running distance and caloric intake. The HR mice had significantly less fat than C mice, explainable statistically by their greater running distance. On adjusting for body mass, HR mice showed higher caloric intake than C mice, also explainable by their higher running. Accounting for body mass and running, WD initially caused increased caloric intake in both HR and C, but this effect was reversed during the last four weeks of the study. Western diet had little or no effect on wheel running in C mice, but increased revolutions per day by as much as 75% in HR mice, mainly through increased time spent running. The remarkable stimulation of wheel running by WD in HR mice may involve fuel usage during prolonged endurance exercise and/or direct behavioral effects on motivation. Their unique behavioral responses to WD may render HR mice an important model for understanding the control of voluntary activity levels.

  12. Circulating levels of endocannabinoids respond acutely to voluntary exercise, are altered in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running, and differ between the sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Zoe; Argueta, Donovan; Garland, Theodore; DiPatrizio, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The endocannabinoid system serves many physiological roles, including in the regulation of energy balance, food reward, and voluntary locomotion. Signaling at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor has been specifically implicated in motivation for rodent voluntary exercise on wheels. We studied four replicate lines of high runner (HR) mice that have been selectively bred for 81 generations based on average number of wheel revolutions on days five and six of a six-day period of wheel access. Four additional replicate lines are bred without regard to wheel running, and serve as controls (C) for random genetic effects that may cause divergence among lines. On average, mice from HR lines voluntarily run on wheels three times more than C mice on a daily basis. We tested the general hypothesis that circulating levels of endocannabinoids (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG] and anandamide [AEA]) differ between HR and C mice in a sex-specific manner. Fifty male and 50 female mice were allowed access to wheels for six days, while another 50 males and 50 females were kept without access to wheels (half HR, half C for all groups). Blood was collected by cardiac puncture during the time of peak running on the sixth night of wheel access or no wheel access, and later analyzed for 2-AG and AEA content by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We observed a significant three-way interaction among sex, linetype, and wheel access for 2-AG concentrations, with females generally having lower levels than males and wheel access lowering 2-AG levels in some but not all subgroups. The number of wheel revolutions in the minutes or hours immediately prior to sampling did not quantitatively predict plasma 2-AG levels within groups. We also observed a trend for a linetype-by-wheel access interaction for AEA levels, with wheel access lowering plasma concentrations of AEA in HR mice, while raising them in C mice. In addition, females tended to have higher AEA

  13. Sweetener Intake by Rats Selectively Bred for Differential Saccharin Intake: Sucralose, Stevia, and Acesulfame Potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dess, Nancy K; Dobson, Kiana; Roberts, Brandon T; Chapman, Clinton D

    2017-06-01

    Behavioral responses to sweeteners have been used to study the evolution, mechanisms, and functions of taste. Occidental low and high saccharin consuming rats (respectively, LoS and HiS) have been selectively outbred on the basis of saccharin intake and are a valuable tool for studying variation among individuals in sweetener intake and its correlates. Relative to HiS rats, LoS rats consume smaller amounts of all nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners tested to date, except aspartame. The lines also differ in intake of the commercial product Splenda; the roles of sucralose and saccharides in the difference are unclear. The present study extends prior work by examining intake of custom mixtures of sucralose, maltodextrin, and sugars and Splenda by LoS and HiS rats (Experiment 1A-1D), stevia and a constituent compound (rebaudioside A; Experiment 2A-2E), and acesulfame potassium tested at several concentrations or with 4 other sweeteners at one concentration each (Experiment 3A-3B). Results indicate that aversive side tastes limit intake of Splenda, stevia, and acesulfame potassium, more so among LoS rats than among HiS rats. In addition, regression analyses involving 5 sweeteners support the idea that both sweetness and bitterness are needed to account for intake of nonnutritive sweeteners, more so among LoS rats. These findings contribute to well developed and emerging literatures on sweetness and domain-general processes related to gustation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. High motivation for exercise is associated with altered chromatin regulators of monoamine receptor gene expression in the striatum of selectively bred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, M C; Majdak, P; Perez, S; Reilly, M; Garland, T; Rhodes, J S

    2017-03-01

    Although exercise is critical for health, many lack the motivation to exercise, and it is unclear how motivation might be increased. To uncover the molecular underpinnings of increased motivation for exercise, we analyzed the transcriptome of the striatum in four mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running and four non-selected control lines. The striatum was dissected and RNA was extracted and sequenced from four individuals of each line. We found multiple genes and gene systems with strong relationships to both selection and running history over the previous 6 days. Among these genes were Htr1b, a serotonin receptor subunit and Slc38a2, a marker for both glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic signaling. System analysis of the raw results found enrichment of transcriptional regulation and kinase genes. Further, we identified a splice variant affecting the Wnt-related Golgi signaling gene Tmed5. Using coexpression network analysis, we found a cluster of interrelated coexpression modules with relationships to running behavior. From these modules, we built a network correlated with running that predicts a mechanistic relationship between transcriptional regulation by nucleosome structure and Htr1b expression. The Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures identified the protein kinase C δ inhibitor, rottlerin, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Linifanib and the delta-opioid receptor antagonist 7-benzylidenenaltrexone as potential compounds for increasing the motivation to run. Taken together, our findings support a neurobiological framework of exercise motivation where chromatin state leads to differences in dopamine signaling through modulation of both the primary neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, and by neuromodulators such as serotonin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. Cardiac protein expression patterns are associated with distinct inborn exercise capacity in non-selectively bred rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we successfully demonstrated for the first time the existence of cardiac proteomic differences between non-selectively bred rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacities. A proteomic approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to study the left ventricle (LV tissue proteome of rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacity. Low running performance (LRP and high running performance (HRP rats were categorized by a treadmill exercise test, according to distance run to exhaustion. The running capacity of HRPs was 3.5-fold greater than LRPs. Protein profiling revealed 29 differences between HRP and LRP rats (15 proteins were identified. We detected alterations in components involved in metabolism, antioxidant and stress response, microfibrillar and cytoskeletal proteins. Contractile proteins were upregulated in the LVs of HRP rats (α-myosin heavy chain-6, myosin light chain-1 and creatine kinase, whereas the LVs of LRP rats exhibited upregulation in proteins associated with stress response (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, α-crystallin B chain and HSPβ-2. In addition, the cytoskeletal proteins desmin and α-actin were upregulated in LRPs. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased contractile protein levels in HRP rats partly accounted for their improved exercise capacity, and that proteins considered risk factors to the development of cardiovascular disease were expressed in higher amounts in LRP animals.

  16. Low copulatory activity in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) relative to alcohol-preferring (sP) rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus that similar neural mechanisms are involved in the reinforcing properties of natural rewards, like food and sex, and drugs of abuse. Rat lines selectively bred for high and low oral alcohol intake and preference have been useful for understanding factors contributing to excessive alcohol intake and may constitute proper animal models for investigating the neurobiological basis of natural rewarding stimuli. Methods The present study evaluated copulatory behavior in alcohol and sexually naïve Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and -nonpreferring (sNP) male rats in three consecutive copulatory behavior tests. Results The main finding was that, under the conditions used in this study, sNP rats were sexually inactive relative to sP rats. To gain more information about the sexual behavior in sP rats, Wistar rats were included as an external reference strain. Only minor differences between sP and Wistar rats were revealed. Conclusions The reason behind the low copulatory activity of sNP rats remains to be elucidated, but may in part be mediated by innate differences in brain transmitter systems. The comparison between sP and Wistar rats may also suggest that the inherent proclivity to excessive alcohol drinking in sP rats may mainly be dependent on its anxiolytic properties, as previously proposed, and not changes in the reward system. PMID:25728453

  17. Economic values and selection index in different Angus-Nellore cross-bred production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, G M; Savegnago, R P; El Faro, L; Mosaquatro Roso, V; de Paz, C C P

    2018-06-01

    Bioeconomic models were developed to calculate economic values (EV) for economically important traits in beef cattle, to evaluate the impact of these traits on production profitability, to assess possible market changes with a payment system and to develop economic selection indexes for Angus cattle for two production systems. Two beef cattle production systems were simulated as follows: a cow-calf cycle (CC) and a complete cycle (CoC). Following selection, positive changes in the EV were observed. In the CC, each 1.0% increment in weaning weight (WW), weaning rate (WR) and pregnancy rate (PR) resulted in increases in US$ 1.30, US$ 3.68 and US$ 3.55 per cow/year in profit, respectively. In the CoC, EV of US$ 1.01, US$ 1.79, US$ 1.19, US$ 1.34, US$ 6.84 and US$ 7.86 per cow/year were obtained for WW, year weight, yearling weight, final weight, WR and PR, respectively. The payment system for carcass quality showed that the scenario considering that 100% of the animals displayed uniform carcasses exhibited the highest EV and was considered optimal. Considering the sensitivity analysis, the price paid per animal was the factor that most affected the EV in both systems. The selection indexes obtained may be used in similar production systems, and the use of EV and selection indexes are important tools for any production system with positive change in profit after selection. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Resveratrol Attenuates Exercise-Induced Adaptive Responses in Rats Selectively Bred for Low Running Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Nikolett; Sarga, Linda; Csende, Zsolt; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Davies, Kelvin J.A.; Radak, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    Low capacity runner (LCR) rats have been developed by divergent artificial selection for treadmill endurance capacity to explore an aerobic biology-disease connection. The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation have been demonstrated in endurance running. In this study it was examined whether 12 weeks of treadmill exercise training and/or resveratrol can retrieve the low running performance of the LCR and impact mitochondrial biogenesis and quality control. Resveratrol regressed ru...

  19. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Godfrey

    achieved by alcohol-preferring P rats as a result of chronic voluntary exposure may have favorable vs. detrimental effects on lipid profiles in this genetic line, consistent with data supporting beneficial cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects of moderate ethanol consumption.

  20. Cocaine self-administration and reinstatement in female rats selectively bred for high and low voluntary running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethells, J R; Zlebnik, N E; Miller, D K; Will, M J; Booth, F; Carroll, M E

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has found that rats behaviorally screened for high (vs. low) wheel running were more vulnerable to cocaine abuse. To assess the extent to which a genetic component is involved in this drug-abuse vulnerability, rats selectively bred for high or low voluntary running (HVR or LVR, respectively) were examined for differences in cocaine seeking in the present study. Female rats were trained to lever press for food and then were assessed for differences in acquisition of cocaine (0.4mg/kg; i.v.) self-administration across 10 sessions. Once acquired, rats self-administered cocaine for a 14-day maintenance phase, followed by a 14-day extinction phase when cocaine was no longer available. Subsequently, reinstatement of cocaine seeking was examined with priming injections of cocaine (5, 10 & 15mg/kg), caffeine (30mg/kg), yohimbine (2.5mg/kg) and cocaine-paired cues. A greater percentage of LVR rats met the acquisition criteria for cocaine self-administration and in fewer sessions than HVR rats. No differences in responding for cocaine were observed between phenotypes during maintenance. However, during extinction LVR rats initially responded at higher rates and persisted in cocaine seeking for a greater number of sessions. No phenotype differences were observed following drug and cue-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking. In general, LVR rats were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of cocaine than HVR rats during periods of transition into and out of cocaine self-administration. Thus, LVR rats sometimes showed a greater vulnerability cocaine seeking than HVR rats. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. COMPARISON OF PRODUCTION PARAMETERS BETWEEN THE FIRST GENERATION OF A-LINE IMPORTED AND BRED GILTS ON THE NUCLEUS FARM VELIKA BRANJEVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Dubravac

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of productive parameters of two analyzed groups (the first generation of imported gilts and the gilts born on the domestic farm was conducted on a nucleus farm that imported the gilt lines from the TOPIGS breeding program. For the purposes of the nucleus pig farm, TOPIGS gilts were imported from Netherlands. The nucleus farm where the analysis of the two groups’ productive parameters was conducted imported the ancestral and grandfather lines to produce the parenting generation TOPIGS 40 sows which are bred with a Pietrain line of boars. The TOPIGS 40 sow is an animal based on A-line and B-line characterized by high fertility rate, excellent maternal characteristics, good capacity for growth, and quality meaty body. The analysis of productive parameters of the two observed groups of gilts (the first generation of 105 imported gilts and 88 gilts born on the domestic farm resulted in significantly higher number of total born, born alive and weaned piglets after the first farrowing (P<0.001 as well as significantly higher number of total born and born alive piglets at third farrowing (P<0.05. The results of the observed qualities confirm the fact that, apart from the unquestionable genetic potential, other factors such as adaptation, accommodation conditions, microclimate, nutrition, and management have a significant effect on the increase of production results.

  2. Selectively bred crossed high-alcohol-preferring mice drink to intoxication and develop functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization during free-choice ethanol access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Kasten, Chelsea R; Boehm, Stephen L; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Crossed high-alcohol-preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1 × HAP2 replicate lines and demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. In this report, we investigated the relationship between free-choice drinking, intoxication, tolerance, and sensitization in cHAP mice. We hypothesized that initially mice would become ataxic after drinking alcohol, but that increased drinking over days would be accompanied by increasing tolerance to the ataxic effects of ethanol (EtOH). Male and female cHAP mice had free-choice access to 10% EtOH and water (E), while Water mice (W) had access to water alone. In experiment 1, the first drinking experience was monitored during the dark portion of the cycle. Once E mice reached an average intake rate of ≥1.5 g/kg/h, they, along with W mice, were tested for footslips on a balance beam, and BECs were assessed. In experiments 2, 3, and 4, after varying durations of free-choice 10% EtOH access (0, 3, 14, or 21 days), mice were challenged with 20% EtOH and tested for number of footslips on a balance beam or locomotor stimulant response. Blood was sampled for BEC determination. We found that cHAP mice rapidly acquire alcohol intakes that lead to ataxia. Over time, cHAP mice developed behavioral tolerance to the ataxic effects of alcohol, paralleled by escalating alcohol consumption. However, locomotor sensitization did not develop following 14 days of free-choice EtOH access. Overall, we observed increases in free-choice drinking with extended alcohol access paralleled by increases in functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization. These data support our hypothesis that escalating free-choice drinking over days in cHAP mice is driven by tolerance to alcohol's behavioral effects. These data are the first to demonstrate that escalating free-choice consumption is accompanied by increasing alcohol tolerance. In

  3. Minimization over randomly selected lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Sahin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a population-based evolutionary optimization method for minimizing a given cost function. The mutation operator of this method selects randomly oriented lines in the cost function domain, constructs quadratic functions interpolating the cost function at three different points over each line, and uses extrema of the quadratics as mutated points. The crossover operator modifies each mutated point based on components of two points in population, instead of one point as is usually performed in other evolutionary algorithms. The stopping criterion of this method depends on the number of almost degenerate quadratics. We demonstrate that the proposed method with these mutation and crossover operations achieves faster and more robust convergence than the well-known Differential Evolution and Particle Swarm algorithms.

  4. Line selection in celestial masers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, M.S.

    1978-09-01

    The primary themes of this work concern the applicability of the Cook (1975) filter mechanism to line selection in hydroxyl masers, and the question of whether interstellar hydroxyl, water, and silicon monoxide masers are saturated. Whether the Cook filter is operative in celestial masers has not thus far been decided, even though it has been shown that such an effect might be occurring. The theory in its present form does not account for line broadening, nor have its consequences with regard to microwave maser emission from excited states of hydroxyl been explored. Both these topics are discussed and the findings are compared with the observations of NGC 6334A, a source which is interesting because of the strong evidence for Zeeman splitting which can be seen in some of its observed spectra. The question of whether interstellar masers are saturated has been much discussed, but a simple method for determining the state of saturation of observed masers does not exist. In particular, the importance of background radiation and of different cloud geometries on the state of saturation of interstellar masers up to now has not been fully appreciated. Both these topics are discussed. (author)

  5. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T.

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique an...

  6. Lines of Descent Under Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baake, Ellen; Wakolbinger, Anton

    2017-11-01

    We review recent progress on ancestral processes related to mutation-selection models, both in the deterministic and the stochastic setting. We mainly rely on two concepts, namely, the killed ancestral selection graph and the pruned lookdown ancestral selection graph. The killed ancestral selection graph gives a representation of the type of a random individual from a stationary population, based upon the individual's potential ancestry back until the mutations that define the individual's type. The pruned lookdown ancestral selection graph allows one to trace the ancestry of individuals from a stationary distribution back into the distant past, thus leading to the stationary distribution of ancestral types. We illustrate the results by applying them to a prototype model for the error threshold phenomenon.

  7. 75 FR 32356 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically Engineered High... advising the public of our determination that a soybean line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International... engineered organisms. Our determination is based on our evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred...

  8. Genetical polymorphism of acc synthase and ACC oxidase in Apple selections bred in Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The work on breeding new apple cultivars, of improved quality and longer storage life has been going on for a long time at the Fruit and Grape Research Centre in Čačak. As a result nine promising apple selections, that show the range of fruit storage capability (J/l/7, J/l/20, J/2/12, J/2/14, J/ll/31, J/54/53/59, J/60/7/63, Šumatovka 1 O.P. and Šumatovka 2 O.P., were singled out. Fruit ripening is genetically programmed, complex physiological process with the important role of plant hormone ethylene. Allelic polymorphism of the genes encoding ACC synthase and ACC oxidase, enzymes on ethylene biosynthetic pathway, was studied in promising apple selections and compared to their storage life. Polymorphism was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method and restriction analysis with 6 restriction enzymes. Two alleles of the gene encoding ACC synthase (ACS1-1 and ACS1-2, three alleles of the ACC oxidase gene (a, b and n were identified and a positive test for early seedling selection, the fruits of which will be characterized by long storage life, was indicated.

  9. Acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult male rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer L; Anderson, Marissa M; Nelson, Sarah E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2007-05-16

    Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On postnatal day 25 (adolescents) or 150 (adults), rats were implanted with an intravenous catheter and trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) using an autoshaping procedure that consisted of two 6-h sessions. In the first 6 h, rats were given non-contingent cocaine infusions at random intervals 10 times per hour, and during the second 6-h session, rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio 1 (FR 1) lever-response contingency. Acquisition was defined as a total of at least 250 infusions over 5 consecutive days, and rats were given 30 days to meet the acquisition criterion. Subsequently, saccharin phenotype scores were determined by comparing 24-h saccharin and water consumption in two-bottle tests to verify HiS/LoS status. Adolescent LoS rats had a faster rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration than adult LoS rats; however, adolescent and adult HiS rats acquired at the same rate. Both HiS and LoS adolescents had significantly higher saccharin phenotype scores than HiS and LoS adults, respectively. Additionally, saccharin score was negatively correlated with the number of days to meet the acquisition criterion for cocaine self-administration, but this was mostly accounted for by the HiS adolescents. These results suggest that during adolescence, compared with adulthood, rats have both an increased avidity for sweets and vulnerability to initiate drug abuse.

  10. Maximal metabolic rates during voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and cold exposure in house mice selectively bred for high wheel-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Malisch, Jessica L; Garland, Theodore

    2005-06-01

    Selective breeding for high wheel-running activity has generated four lines of laboratory house mice (S lines) that run about 170% more than their control counterparts (C lines) on a daily basis, mostly because they run faster. We tested whether maximum aerobic metabolic rates (V(O2max)) have evolved in concert with wheel-running, using 48 females from generation 35. Voluntary activity and metabolic rates were measured on days 5+6 of wheel access (mimicking conditions during selection), using wheels enclosed in metabolic chambers. Following this, V(O2max) was measured twice on a motorized treadmill and twice during cold-exposure in a heliox atmosphere (HeO2). Almost all measurements, except heliox V(O2max), were significantly repeatable. After accounting for differences in body mass (S running speeds on the treadmill. However, running speeds and V(O2max) during voluntary exercise were significantly higher in S lines. Nevertheless, S mice never voluntarily achieved the V(O2max) elicited during their forced treadmill trials, suggesting that aerobic capacity per se is not limiting the evolution of even higher wheel-running speeds in these lines. Our results support the hypothesis that S mice have genetically higher motivation for wheel-running and they demonstrate that behavior can sometimes evolve independently of performance capacities. We also discuss the possible importance of domestication as a confounding factor to extrapolate results from this animal model to natural populations.

  11. Acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult male rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Jennifer L.; Anderson, Marissa M.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On postnatal day 25 (adolescents) or 150 (adults), rats were implanted with an intravenous catheter and trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) using an autoshaping procedure that consis...

  12. Cisgenic Rvi6 scab-resistant apple lines show no differences in Rvi6 transcription when compared with conventionally bred cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gusberti, Michele; Schouten, H.J.; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, G.A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Main conclusion: The expression of the apple scab resistance geneRvi6in different apple cultivars and lines is not modulated by biotic or abiotic factors.All commercially important apple cultivars are susceptible to Venturia inaequalis, the causal organism of apple scab. A limited number of apple

  13. Chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells show line-specific differences in sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet. Part I: Humoral parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaansen-Tennekes, R; de Vries Reilingh, G; Nieuwland, M G B; Parmentier, H K; Savelkoul, H F J

    2009-09-01

    Individual differences in nutrient sensitivity have been suggested to be related with differences in stress sensitivity. Here we used layer hens divergently selected for high and low specific antibody responses to SRBC (i.e., low line hens and high line hens), reflecting a genetically based differential immune competence. The parental line of these hens was randomly bred as the control line and was used as well. Recently, we showed that these selection lines differ in their stress reactivity; the low line birds show a higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. To examine maternal effects and neonatal nutritional exposure on nutrient sensitivity, we studied 2 subsequent generations. This also created the opportunity to examine egg production in these birds. The 3 lines were fed 2 different nutritionally complete layer feeds for a period of 22 wk in the first generation. The second generation was fed from hatch with the experimental diets. At several time intervals, parameters reflecting humoral immunity were determined such as specific antibody to Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease vaccines; levels of natural antibodies binding lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin; and classical and alternative complement activity. The most pronounced dietary-induced effects were found in the low line birds of the first generation: specific antibody titers to Newcastle disease vaccine were significantly elevated by 1 of the 2 diets. In the second generation, significant differences were found in lipoteichoic acid natural antibodies of the control and low line hens. At the end of the observation period of egg parameters, a significant difference in egg weight was found in birds of the high line. Our results suggest that nutritional differences have immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive humoral immune parameters in birds with high HPA axis reactivity and affect egg production in birds with low HPA axis reactivity.

  14. Line profile variations in selected Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollatschny, W; Zetzl, M; Ulbrich, K

    2010-01-01

    Continua as well as the broad emission lines in Seyfert 1 galaxies vary in different galaxies with different amplitudes on typical timescales of days to years. We present the results of two independent variability campaigns taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. We studied in detail the integrated line and continuum variations in the optical spectra of the narrow-line Seyfert galaxy Mrk 110 and the very broad-line Seyfert galaxy Mrk 926. The broad-line emitting region in Mrk 110 has radii of four to 33 light-days as a function of the ionization degree of the emission lines. The line-profile variations are matched by Keplerian disk models with some accretion disk wind. The broad-line region in Mrk 926 is very small showing an extension of two to three light-days only. We could detect a structure in the rms line-profiles as well as in the response of the line profile segments of Mrk 926 indicating the BLR is structured.

  15. Differences in nitrogen and urea metabolism between goats bred for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether selection for fleece weight is accompanied by changes in the efficiency of nitrogen utilization, using Angora and Boer goats as models of animals bred for fleece or meat production respectively. A diet, containing a protein: energy ratio of 12 g CP/ MJ ME, was fed at ...

  16. Characterization of selection effects on broiler lines using DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Schmidt

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of selection for body weight on the genetic variability and diversity in broiler lines. Two paternal broiler lines (LL and LLc were used. LL line was selected for 12 generations for growth and carcass and reproduction characteristics. The LLc line was established from LL line in 1985 and mated at random. Blood samples from six chickens per line were collected and used for molecular analysis. Also, a DNA pool was made for each line to compare effects between lines. Data were analyzed considering the collected information on the presence or absence of DNA bands. Band sharing scores were calculated using the DICE coefficient. The pattern of the 21 most representative bands was used. DNA fingerprinting (DFP showed 90.48 % of polymorphism bands for both lines. Difference between lines was not due to the presence or absence of bands, but to the frequency of such bands in each genotype. Considering that both lines had the same genetic background, changes on band frequency were probably due to selection. Selection for body weight had an effect on the band frequency as evaluated by DFP, and for this reason this technique could be used as a tool in the selection process. Results also suggest that bands 4, 5 and 19 were linked to body weight traits, and bands 9, 10, 12, 13 and 21 were linked to reproductive traits such as egg production.

  17. Behavioral Traits are Affected by Selective Breeding for Increased Wheel-Running Behavior in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, I.; Schubert, K. A.; Reijne, A. C.; Scholte, J.; Garland, T.; Gerkema, M. P.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.; Maxson, Stephen

    Voluntary physical activity may be related to personality traits. Here, we investigated these relations in two mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior and in one non-selected control line. Selection lines were more explorative and "information gathering" in the

  18. Selecting physician leaders for clinical service lines: critical success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Andrew L; Bard, Marc A

    2008-03-01

    Clinical service lines and interdisciplinary centers have emerged as important strategic programs within academic health centers (AHCs). Effective physician leadership is significant to their success, but how these leaders are chosen has not been well studied. The authors conducted a study to identify current models for selecting the physician leaders of clinical service lines, determine critical success factors, and learn how the search process affected service line performance. In 2003 and 2004, the authors interviewed clinical and executive personnel involved in 14 programs to establish, or consider establishing, heart or cancer service lines, at 13 AHCs. The responses were coded to identify and analyze trends and themes. The key findings of the survey were (1) the goals and expectations that AHCs set for their service line leaders vary greatly, depending on both the strategic purpose of the service line in the AHC and the service line's stage of development, (2) the matrix organizational structure employed by most AHCs limits the leader's authority over necessary resources, and calls forth a variety of compensating strategies if the service line is to succeed, (3) the AHCs studied used relatively informal processes to identify, evaluate, and select service line leaders, and (4) the leader's job is vitally shaped by the AHC's strategic, structural, and political context, and selection criteria should be determined accordingly. Institutions should be explicit about the strategic purpose and stage of development of their clinical service lines and be clear about their expectations and requirements in hiring service line leaders.

  19. Selective Iterative Waterfilling for Digital Subscriber Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high-performance, low-complexity, quasi-distributed dynamic spectrum management (DSM algorithm suitable for DSL systems. We analytically demonstrate that the rate degradation of the distributed iterative waterfilling (IW algorithm in near-far scenarios is caused by the insufficient utilization of all available frequency and power resources due to its nature of noncooperative game theoretic formulation. Inspired by this observation, we propose the selective IW (SIW algorithm that can considerably alleviate the performance degradation of IW by applying IW selectively to different groups of users over different frequency bands so that all the available resources can be fully utilized. For users, the proposed SIW algorithm needs at most times the complexity of the IW algorithm, and is much simpler than the centralized optimal spectrum balancing (OSB, while it can offer a rate performance much better than that of the IW and close to the maximum possible rate region computed by the OSB in realistic near-far DSL scenarios. Furthermore, its predominantly distributed structure makes it suitable for DSL implementation.

  20. The Genetic Variability of Floral and Agronomic Characteristics of Newly-Bred Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat El-Namaky

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Male sterility enabled commercialization of heterosis in rice but low seed set remains a constraint on hybrid dissemination. We evaluated 216 F6 maintainer lines for agronomic and floral characteristics in augmented design and selected 15 maintainer lines, which were testcrossed with IR58025A. Five backcrosses were conducted to transfer cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS to select maintainer lines. Newly-bred BC5:6 CMS lines were evaluated for outcrossing rates and agronomic characteristics. There were highly significant differences among 216 F6 maintainer lines for characteristics whose genotypic variance was higher than environmental variance. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was almost the same as the genotypic coefficient of variation, indicating that most phenotypic variation was due to genetics. There were highly significant differences among CMS lines for number of days to 50% flowering and maturity; stigma exertion; panicle exertion, length and weight; spikelet fertility; tillers per plant; plant height; grains per panicle; grain yield per plant; and 1000-grain weight, but not for pollen and panicle sterility during dry and wet seasons. Three CMS lines (CMS3, CMS12, and CMS14, exhibited high outcrossing rates (56.17%, 51.42% and 48.44%, respectively, which had a highly significant, positive correlation with stigma exertion (0.97, spikelet opening angle (0.82, and panicle exertion (0.95.

  1. RADISH CULTIVARS BRED AT VNIISSOK AND THEIR USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the base of comparative assessment and average data estimation from 2010 to 2015, the characteristics of 11 cultivars bred at VNIISSOK were described regarding yield capacity and its components, variation, interdependencies at two sowing terms winter,spring time, direction of selection and cultivar uses at cultivar maintaining breeding program. Cultivar 'Koroleva Margo' is rather used in breeding program for yield capacity and taste qualities. Cultivar 'Sonata' is a source of such features as early maturity, valuable biochemical content and low nitrate accumulation. Cultivar 'Sofit' is known to bear early maturity and simultaneous seed maturation. 'Ariya' is a source of cylindrical root shape and early maturation. Cultivar 'Teplichnyi Gribovskyi' is used in breeding program for early maturation and simultaneous seed maturation. Cultivar 'Feya' bearsresistance to bolting and valuable biochemical substances. Cultivar 'Variant' has such features as root density, ability to grow under low lighting, short-term storability.  Purple-red with white tips is a newmade cultivar 'Mavr' suitable for breeding program for valuable biochemical content, unusual root color, also bearing male sterile forms (MS for heterosis hybrid breeding. Out of all cultivars regarded, 'Mokhovskiy' is only a genetic source to breed radish forms with edible leaves. The positive weak dependence was revealed between cultivar biochemical characteristics, root weight, dry matter  content, and nitrate content; whereas the positive middle dependence is revealed with sugar contents and negative dependence with ascorbic acid content. According to  iochemical characteristics, the best cultivar population as 'Ariya', 'Sonata' (ascorbic acid; Mavr, Sonata, Variant (dry matter, sugars have been chosen. Cultivars 'Koroleva Margo', Pheya, Sonata, Sophit, Mokhovskiy are the initial breeding accessions for selection of new cultivar population, MS and MF lines needed for heterosis.

  2. Performance of selected eastern oyster lines across northeastern US estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern oyster production derived from aquaculture has expanded, but growth potential is constrained by losses to disease. Breeding programs supporting industry in the Northeast have targeted resistance to three diseases: MSX, Dermo, and ROD. Selected lines should possess some level of resistance a...

  3. Evaluating the performance of selective-bred lines of eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, at different locations along the east coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of the economically important eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica have been severely affected in the last few decades by diseases such as Dermo, MSX, SSO, and ROD. As the demand for a fast-growing, disease-resistant oyster increases, so has the need for effective breeding programs that...

  4. Application of Bred Vectors To Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, M.; Kalnay, E.; Patil, Dj

    We introduced a statistic, the BV-dimension, to measure the effective local finite-time dimensionality of the atmosphere. We show that this dimension is often quite low, and suggest that this finding has important implications for data assimilation and the accuracy of weather forecasting (Patil et al, 2001). The original database for this study was the forecasts of the NCEP global ensemble forecasting system. The initial differences between the control forecast and the per- turbed forecasts are called bred vectors. The control and perturbed initial conditions valid at time t=n(t are evolved using the forecast model until time t=(n+1) (t. The differences between the perturbed and the control forecasts are scaled down to their initial amplitude, and constitute the bred vectors valid at (n+1) (t. Their growth rate is typically about 1.5/day. The bred vectors are similar by construction to leading Lya- punov vectors except that they have small but finite amplitude, and they are valid at finite times. The original NCEP ensemble data set has 5 independent bred vectors. We define a local bred vector at each grid point by choosing the 5 by 5 grid points centered at the grid point (a region of about 1100km by 1100km), and using the north-south and east- west velocity components at 500mb pressure level to form a 50 dimensional column vector. Since we have k=5 global bred vectors, we also have k local bred vectors at each grid point. We estimate the effective dimensionality of the subspace spanned by the local bred vectors by performing a singular value decomposition (EOF analysis). The k local bred vector columns form a 50xk matrix M. The singular values s(i) of M measure the extent to which the k column unit vectors making up the matrix M point in the direction of v(i). We define the bred vector dimension as BVDIM={Sum[s(i)]}^2/{Sum[s(i)]^2} For example, if 4 out of the 5 vectors lie along v, and one lies along v, the BV- dimension would be BVDIM[sqrt(4), 1, 0

  5. Selective attention in vision: recognition memory for superimposed line drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, E B; Fink, S I

    1981-10-01

    These experiments show that observers can selectively attend to one of two stationary superimposed pictures. If superimposed line drawings are presented to observers who are told to attend to one line drawing in the pair and to ignore the other line drawing in the pair, then a subsequent recognition test in which the pictures are presently singly, the attended picture in each pair is recognized much more frequently than the unattended picture in each pair. This selective recognition occurs both with large (11 degrees-22 degrees) displays in which observers are free to make eye movements during a 3-sec exposure and with small (1 degree) displays in which observers are instructed to fixate steadily on a point during a 1-sec exposure. The results of the steady fixation experiments show that in the absence of eye movements, attention to one of two superimposed stimuli can cause an observer to remember the attended image and not to remember the other, clearly visible, unattended image in a superimposed pair.

  6. Blood Protein Polymorphism of Small Cattle Bred in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Marmaryan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biochemical and genetic markers have not yet been used in selection and breeding of agricultural animals in Armenia. The objective behind the experiments was to assess the small cattle bred in Armenia- the semi-coarse wool and semi-fine wool sheep, as well as goats of different genotypes characterized by different milk productivity, polymorphic blood proteins-transferrin, ceruloplasmin, aiming to use them in breeding. Another objective was to study the genetic distance between the researched breeds and crossbreeds aiming to reveal the genetic similarity. The findings of research studies come to show that goats with polymorphic transferrin locus and a big set of genotypes are characterized by higher milk productivity; therefore it is recommended that they be used in selection as a supplementary milk productivity marker. The genetic distance between the researched goats comprised 0,60 which comes to show that semi-fine wool sheep were also bred with the help of semi-coarse wool crossbreeds. The high coefficients of genetic distance of crossbreed goats compared to both the highly milk producing imported breeds and the locals are indicative of inherited high adaptability qualities of locals and high milk producing quality of pure breeds.

  7. A Brief Opportunity to Run Does Not Function as a Reinforcer for Mice Selected for High Daily Wheel-Running Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W.; Garland, Theodore, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Mice from replicate lines, selectively bred based on high daily wheel-running rates, run more total revolutions and at higher average speeds than do mice from nonselected control lines. Based on this difference it was assumed that selected mice would find the opportunity to run in a wheel a more efficacious consequence. To assess this assumption…

  8. New line selected from irradiated cuttings of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shuyun; Wu Chongguang; Li Weiji; Feng Qihuan

    1992-01-01

    Some clonal lines of resistance to black rot were obtained from M 1 V 3 of Xu-18 variety. Through some regional tests, provincial yield trial and production test, the mutant line Nong-Da 601 (12-11-8) as spring sweet potato showed a better yield than the control, the dry matter content of Nong-Da 601 was also better than that of control, further more, the resistance to black rot of mutant selected in M 1 V 3 could be passed onto their progeny. The analysis of esterase isozyme showed zymogram variation between Nong-Da 601 and Xu-18. From the observation of the root tip cells, the chromosome bridge appeared obviously after irradiation, but the frequency of chromosome aberration in M 1 V 6 was decreased almost to the level of control (Xu-18). It seems that the changes of disease resistance from susceptible to resistant by irradiation was not due to chromosome aberration but due to gene mutation

  9. Early environmental planning: A process for power line corridor selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haagenstad, T.; Bare, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted an environmental planning study in the fall of 1997 to help determine the best alternative for upgrading the Laboratory's electrical power system. Alternatives considered included an on-site power generation facility and two corridors for a 10-mile-long 115-kV power line. This planning process was conducted prior to the formal National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review. The goals were to help select the best proposed action, to recommend modifications and mitigation measures for each alternative for a more environmentally sound project, and to avoid potential delays once the formal Department of Energy review process began. Significant constraints existed from a planning perspective, including operational issues such as existing outdoor high explosives testing areas, as well as environmental issues including threatened and endangered species habitats, multiple archeological sites, contaminated areas, and aesthetics. The study had to be completed within 45 days to meet project schedule needs. The process resulted in a number of important recommendations. While the construction and operation of the on-site power generation facility could have minimal environmental impacts, the need for a new air quality permit would create severe cost and schedule constraints for the project. From an environmental perspective, construction and operation of a power line within either corridor was concluded to be a viable alternative. However, impacts with either corridor would have to be reduced through specific recommended alignment modifications and mitigation measures

  10. Nucleus accumbens neuronal maturation differences in young rats bred for low versus high voluntary running behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Wells, Kevin D; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Heese, Alexander J; Zhu, Conan; Rottinghaus, George E; Childs, Thomas E; Booth, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    We compared the nucleus accumbens (NAc) transcriptomes of generation 8 (G8), 34-day-old rats selectively bred for low (LVR) versus high voluntary running (HVR) behaviours in rats that never ran (LVRnon-run and HVRnon-run), as well as in rats after 6 days of voluntary wheel running (LVRrun and HVRrun). In addition, the NAc transcriptome of wild-type Wistar rats was compared. The purpose of this transcriptomics approach was to generate testable hypotheses as to possible NAc features that may be contributing to running motivation differences between lines. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Ontology analyses suggested that ‘cell cycle’-related transcripts and the running-induced plasticity of dopamine-related transcripts were lower in LVR versus HVR rats. From these data, a hypothesis was generated that LVR rats might have less NAc neuron maturation than HVR rats. Follow-up immunohistochemistry in G9–10 LVRnon-run rats suggested that the LVR line inherently possessed fewer mature medium spiny (Darpp-32-positive) neurons (P running wheel access in our G9–10 LVRs uniquely increased their Darpp-32-positive and Dcx-positive neuron densities. In summary, NAc cellularity differences and/or the lack of running-induced plasticity in dopamine signalling-related transcripts may contribute to low voluntary running motivation in LVR rats. PMID:24665095

  11. Application Of Database Program in selecting Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) Mutant Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H, Soeranto

    2000-01-01

    Computer database software namely MSTAT and paradox have been exercised in the field of mutation breeding especially in the process of selecting plant mutant lines of sorghum. In MSTAT, selecting mutant lines can be done by activating the SELECTION function and then followed by entering mathematical formulas for the selection criterion. Another alternative is by defining the desired selection intensity to the analysis results of subprogram SORT. Including the selected plant mutant lines in BRSERIES program, it will make their progenies be easier to be traced in subsequent generations. In paradox, an application program for selecting mutant lines can be made by combining facilities of Table, form and report. Selecting mutant lines with defined selection criterion can easily be done through filtering data. As a relation database, paradox ensures that the application program for selecting mutant lines and progeny trachings, can be made easier, efficient and interactive

  12. Logarithmic bred vectors in spatiotemporal chaos: structure and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallerberg, Sarah; Pazó, Diego; López, Juan M; Rodríguez, Miguel A

    2010-06-01

    Bred vectors are a type of finite perturbation used in prediction studies of atmospheric models that exhibit spatially extended chaos. We study the structure, spatial correlations, and the growth rates of logarithmic bred vectors (which are constructed by using a given norm). We find that, after a suitable transformation, logarithmic bred vectors are roughly piecewise copies of the leading Lyapunov vector. This fact allows us to deduce a scaling law for the bred vector growth rate as a function of its amplitude. In addition, we relate growth rates with the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents corresponding to the most expanding directions. We illustrate our results with simulations of the Lorenz 1996 model.

  13. Selection and agronomic evaluation of induced mutant lines of sesame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoballah, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Station yield trial: Three high yielding mutants (8, 48, and EFM92) with better and stable performance were developed in our breeding programme and submitted for registration to the Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation. Multi-location yield trials indicated that mutant line EFM92 ranked first in all locations; significant yield increases recorded for it ranged from 14.7 to 74.0% over the check variety. Moreover, it was 15-20 days earlier than the check and/or other mutants. Mutant lines 8 and 48 produced higher seed yields than the check at two different locations. These mutants can probably be grown and produce more yield than the check variety at the low yielding environments. Seed quality assay: During 1996 and 1997, 15 promising lines of sesame including mutants and hybrid populations as well as the local variety were evaluated for seed protein, oil content and fatty acid composition. The protein content varied from 20.6 to 26.7%; hybrid population EXM90 gave the highest value. About 85% of the total fatty acids in the oil are unsaturated (oleic and linoleic) and 15% saturated, mainly palmitic and stearic. Linoleic acid ranged from 41.8 to 47.9%. Mutant lines 6, 9, and EFM92, which gave high oil content (54-55.5%) together with high linoleic acid values (45.2-47.8%), are recommended for breeding for seed oil quality. Heterosis, combining ability and type of gene action in sesame: A half diallel set of crosses involving seven parents was used to study heterosis and combining ability in the F 1 generation as well as the nature of gene action controlling seed yield and its contributing traits in both F 1 and F 2 in order to identify the most efficient breeding methods leading to rapid genetic improvement. The expressions of heterosis varied with the crosses and characters investigated. The maximal significant positive useful heterosis was observed for branches/plant (52.9%) followed by seed yield/plant (38

  14. Quantitative Autoradiography on [(35)S]TBPS Binding Sites of Gamma- Aminobutyric Acid(A) Receptors in Discrete Brain Regions of High- Alcohol-Drinking and Low-Alcohol- Drinking Rats Selectively Bred forHigh- and Low-Alcohol Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, B.H.; Kunkler, P.E.; Lumeng, L.

    1997-01-01

    It has been documented that ethanol can potentiate brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic function, and there is a close link between the GABA(A) receptor complex and effects of ethanol, including reinforcement of alcohol which is a fundamental element of alcohol preference. However, it is unknown in what discrete brain regions GABA(A) receptors might be associated with alcohol preference. In the present study, [(35)S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([(35)S]TBPS) was used to localize GABA(A) receptors in high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats and low-alcohol-drinking (LAD) rats which were selectively bred for high and low alcohol preference, respectively. Initial qualitative observations indicated that [(35)S]TBPS binding sites were abundant in many brain areas including the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala of HAD and LAD rats. Furthermore, the quantitative autoradiographic analysis revealed fewer [(35)S]TBPS binding sites of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdaloid complex, central medial thalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic nucleus and anterior hypothalamic nucleus of HAD rats than LAD rats. Collectively, this study has indicated that HAD rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference possess lower [(35)S]TBPS binding in the brain. Since lower TBPS binding has been proposed to reflect enhanced GABAergic function, as evidenced in rats with seizure or under alcohol withdrawal, the results from the present study suggest that HAD rats might have an enhanced GABAergic function. It is thus likely that enhanced GABAergic function in the brain might be related to high alcohol preference which is characteristic in HAD rats. In addition, the present result showing no difference of [(35)S]TBPS binding in the nucleus accumbens is also in agreement with a notion that [(35)S]TBPS binding may represent only a small spectrum of the GABA(A) receptor complex which is constituted of a sophisticated subunit combination whose functional compositions are still unknown. In

  15. BRED: a simple and powerful tool for constructing mutant and recombinant bacteriophage genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Marinelli

    Full Text Available Advances in DNA sequencing technology have facilitated the determination of hundreds of complete genome sequences both for bacteria and their bacteriophages. Some of these bacteria have well-developed and facile genetic systems for constructing mutants to determine gene function, and recombineering is a particularly effective tool. However, generally applicable methods for constructing defined mutants of bacteriophages are poorly developed, in part because of the inability to use selectable markers such as drug resistance genes during viral lytic growth. Here we describe a method for simple and effective directed mutagenesis of bacteriophage genomes using Bacteriophage Recombineering of Electroporated DNA (BRED, in which a highly efficient recombineering system is utilized directly on electroporated phage DNA; no selection is required and mutants can be readily detected by PCR. We describe the use of BRED to construct unmarked gene deletions, in-frame internal deletions, base substitutions, precise gene replacements, and the addition of gene tags.

  16. A selective sweep in a microsporidian parasite Nosema-tolerant honeybee population, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Q.; Lattorff, H. M. G.; Kryger, P.

    2014-01-01

    Nosema is a microsporidian parasite of the honeybee, which infects the epithelial cells of the gut. In Denmark, honeybee colonies have been selectively bred for the absence of Nosema over decades, resulting in a breeding line that is tolerant toward Nosema infections. As the tolerance toward the ...

  17. Selective Attention in Vision: Recognition Memory for Superimposed Line Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, E. Bruce; Fink, Susan I.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments show that observers can selectively attend to one of two stationary superimposed pictures. Selective recognition occurred with large displays in which observers were free to make eye movements during a 3-sec exposure and with small displays in which observers were instructed to fixate steadily on a point. (Author/RD)

  18. The selection and implementation of hidden line algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A.

    1983-06-01

    One of the most challenging problems in the field of computer graphics is the elimination of hidden lines in images of nontransparent bodies. In the real world the nontransparent material hinders the light ray coming from hidden regions to the observer. In the computer based image formation process there is no automatic visibility regulation of this kind. So many lines are created which result in a poor quality of the spacial representation. Therefore a three-dimensional representation on the screen is only meaningfull if the hidden lines are eliminated. For this process many algorithms have been developed in the past. A common feature of these codes is the large amount of computer time needed. In the first generation of algorithms, which are commonly used today, the bodies are modeled by plane polygons. More recently, however, also algorithms are in use, which are able to treat curved surfaces without discretisation by plane surfaces. In this paper the first group of algorithms is reviewed, and the most important codes are described. The experience obtained during the implementation of two algorithms is presented. (orig.) [de

  19. Selection and characterizations of radiation-induced salinity-tolerant lines in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.S.; Kim, D.S.; Lee, S.J.; Song, H.S.; Lim, Y.P.; Lee, Y.I.

    2003-01-01

    NaCl tolerant cell lines were selected from irradiated callus, which were generated from seed cultures. M 1 -regenerates were obtained from the salt-tolerant callus cultured on the auxin-free medium for 30 days. Some regenerants were more tolerant than the parent variety (Dongjinbyeo) on a medium containing 0.75 % NaCl. Seeds (M 3 5,000 lines) derived from M 2 lines were grown to the 3 leaf stage. M 3 lines were soaked with a 0.75 % salt solution for 3 weeks and 350 salt-tolerant genotypes were selected. Among the M 3 350 lines, forty tolerant lines were selected from a saline field (10~14 mS) near the sea coast. Of the forty lines, two lines (18-1 and 50-1) showed more improved plant height, panicle length, tillering number, spikelet number and yield than those of the original variety. Thirty primers were screened and two RAPD markers were identified, which appeared in both the salt-tolerant lines (18-1 and 50-1). From DNA-hybridization experiments, it appeared that the fragment arose from the middle-repetitive copy sequences. The transcript involved in the marker showed a higher expression in the salt-tolerant lines than the sensitive lines. The salt-tolerant lines would be useful as a resource for salt-tolerant breeding. (author)

  20. Effect of selected insecticides on SF9 insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, M.; Rahmo, A.; Hajjar, J.

    2013-01-01

    The toxic effect of three insecticides: dimethoate (organophosphate insecticide), acetamiprid (neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid insecticide) were evaluated in vitro on cultured Sf9 cell line. Cell growth inhibition was measured by the 3- (4,5- dimethylthiazol - 2-yl) - 2,5 - diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Regression Analysis was used to estimate the 20% inhibition of cells growth (IC 20). The IC 20 values obtained for deltamethrin, acetamipridand dimethoate were: 46.8, 61.6 and 68.9 μM, respectively. The proportion of phagocytic cells was positively correlated with the applied concentrations of the insecticides. (author)

  1. Effects of selective breeding for increased wheel-running behavior on circadian timing of substrate oxidation and ingestive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, I.; Vaanholt, L. M.; Doornbos, M.; Garland, T.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in substrate preference and utilization across the circadian cycle may be influenced by the degree of physical activity and nutritional status. In the present study, we assessed these relationships in control mice and in mice from a line selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running

  2. Integrated configurable equipment selection and line balancing for mass production with serial-parallel machining systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaïa, Olga; Dolgui, Alexandre; Guschinsky, Nikolai; Levin, Genrikh

    2014-10-01

    Solving equipment selection and line balancing problems together allows better line configurations to be reached and avoids local optimal solutions. This article considers jointly these two decision problems for mass production lines with serial-parallel workplaces. This study was motivated by the design of production lines based on machines with rotary or mobile tables. Nevertheless, the results are more general and can be applied to assembly and production lines with similar structures. The designers' objectives and the constraints are studied in order to suggest a relevant mathematical model and an efficient optimization approach to solve it. A real case study is used to validate the model and the developed approach.

  3. The front line health worker: selection, training, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaghy, H A; Najarzadeh, E; Schwartz, T A; Russel, S S; Solter, S; Zeighami, B

    1976-03-01

    Iranian villagers with basic literacy were recruited, selected, trained, and deployed as Village Health Workers (VHWs) to rural areas of Iran. VHW clinical visit records and activities logs were analyzed to determine levels and nature of effort achieved in the field. Within six months of deployment, the number of patient visits to VHW treatment services constituted 53% of the target population. Within ten months of deployment, the number of family planning acceptors rose from 8% to 21% of the population at risk. Improvements to water supplies have been effected in 50% of target villages. Sanitary improvements have been made to 35% of the houses and 88% of toilets in those villages. Demographic characteristics, class rank, and place of residence of VHWs appear unassociated with village differences in levels of achievement. However, availability of material resources and actual time spent by VHWs on the job may be factors influencing the differences in outcome between villages.

  4. Comparison of degrees of maturity of rabbit lines selected for different traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pascual

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study whether commercial nucleus lines of rabbits selected for different traits, and experimental lines having commercial purposes, have the same degree of maturity when compared at the same slaughter age. The study was carried out with 17897 rabbits from Universitat Politècnica de València. Rabbits came from the maternal lines A (3902 rabbits; 44th generation, V (4238 rabbits; 39th generation and LP (6115 rabbits; 9th generation, selected for litter size at weaning; the paternal line R (2023 rabbits; 25th generation, selected for growth rate between 28 and 63 days of age; the maternal line OR (586 rabbits; 11th generation selected for ovulation rate; and the lines High (503 rabbits; 5th generation and Low (530 rabbits; 5thgeneration lines, from a divergent selection for high and low intramuscular fat, respectively. Rabbits were weighted at 28 (W28 and 63 (W63 days of age. Rabbit does (42, 25, 39, 94, 14, 32 and 22 from lines A, V, R, LP, OR, High and Low, respectively were weighed between 30 and 80 wk of age to determine adult weight (AW. Line R had higher W28 and W63, growth rate between 28 and 63 d of age and AW than lines A, V and LP (5802 g vs. 4410, 4222, and 4391 g for AW, respectively. No relevant differences between lines in degrees of maturity at 28 and 63 d of age and time to reach 40% of degree of maturity (percentage of weight compared to AW were found between lines A, V, R and LP, but the degree of maturity at 2000 g and the time taken to reach that weight were lower in line R (34.7% and 55.2 d than in lines A (45.5% and 71.1 d, V (47.4% and 69.6 d, and LP (45.8% and 68.0 d. No relevant differences were found between lines OR, High and Low in the traits analysed. A robustness analysis showed that results can be extrapolated to other commercial lines and other slaughter weights. In conclusion, comparison of lines at similar slaughter age could be considered a valid approach for comparisons at the same

  5. Genetically heterogeneous and selected lines of rats: behavioral and reproductive comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinder, K P

    1980-03-01

    Avoidance learning, open-field, and reproductive behaviors of a genetically heterogeneous stock (derived from a four-way cross of selected lines) were compared with the corresponding behaviors of the parental lines. The heterogeneous stock showed heterosis on the body development, fertility rate, litter size at birth and at weaning, and directional dominance on the avoidance learning and open-field measures.

  6. Pentobarbital Sleep Time in Mouse Lines Selected for Resistance and Susceptibility to Fescue Toxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Kimberly Ann

    2002-01-01

    In previous work with mouse lines selected for resistance (R) and susceptibility (S) to fescue toxicosis, R mice had higher activities of Phase II liver enzymes glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl-transferase than S mice. Objectives of this study were: 1. to determine whether selection for toxicosis response had also caused divergence between lines in hepatic Phase I enzyme activity (as assessed by sleep time following sodium pentobarbital anesthesia), 2. to determi...

  7. Standing genetic variation as a major contributor to adaptation in the Virginia chicken lines selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zheya; Pettersson, Mats E; Honaker, Christa F; Siegel, Paul B; Carlborg, Örjan

    2015-10-01

    Artificial selection provides a powerful approach to study the genetics of adaptation. Using selective-sweep mapping, it is possible to identify genomic regions where allele-frequencies have diverged during selection. To avoid false positive signatures of selection, it is necessary to show that a sweep affects a selected trait before it can be considered adaptive. Here, we confirm candidate, genome-wide distributed selective sweeps originating from the standing genetic variation in a long-term selection experiment on high and low body weight of chickens. Using an intercross between the two divergent chicken lines, 16 adaptive selective sweeps were confirmed based on their association with the body weight at 56 days of age. Although individual additive effects were small, the fixation for alternative alleles across the loci contributed at least 40 % of the phenotypic difference for the selected trait between these lines. The sweeps contributed about half of the additive genetic variance present within and between the lines after 40 generations of selection, corresponding to a considerable portion of the additive genetic variance of the base population. Long-term, single-trait, bi-directional selection in the Virginia chicken lines has resulted in a gradual response to selection for extreme phenotypes without a drastic reduction in the genetic variation. We find that fixation of several standing genetic variants across a highly polygenic genetic architecture made a considerable contribution to long-term selection response. This provides new fundamental insights into the dynamics of standing genetic variation during long-term selection and adaptation.

  8. Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Pathak, Rupak; Skinner, Charles; Kutanzi, Kristy R.; Allen, Antiño R.; Raber, Jacob; Tackett, Alan J.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are heavily methylated and are the most abundant transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Here, we investigated the differential DNA methylation within the LINE-1 under normal conditions and in response to environmentally relevant doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in the lungs of C57BL6 mice is dependent on their evolutionary age, where the elder age of the element is associated with the lower extent of DNA methylation. Exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and methionine-deficient diet affected DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements in an age- and promoter type-dependent manner. Exposure to densely IR, but not sparsely IR, resulted in DNA hypermethylation of older LINE-1 elements, while the DNA methylation of evolutionary younger elements remained mostly unchanged. We also demonstrate that exposure to densely IR increased mRNA and protein levels of LINE-1 via the loss of the histone H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in the H3K4 trimethylation at the LINE-1 5′-untranslated region, independently of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation is important for regulation of LINE-1 expression under normal conditions, but histone modifications may dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1 in response to exposure to densely IR. - Highlights: • DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements is dependent on their evolutionary age. • Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements. • Radiation-induced reactivation of LINE-1 is DNA methylation-independent. • Histone modifications dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1.

  9. Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Nzabarushimana, Etienne [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Department of Bioinformatics, School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Pathak, Rupak [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Skinner, Charles; Kutanzi, Kristy R. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Allen, Antiño R. [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Raber, Jacob [Departments of Behavioral Neuroscience, Neurology, and Radiation Medicine, Division of Neuroscience, ONPRC, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Tackett, Alan J. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Nelson, Gregory A. [Department of Basic Sciences, Division of Radiation Research, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350 (United States); and others

    2016-10-15

    Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are heavily methylated and are the most abundant transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Here, we investigated the differential DNA methylation within the LINE-1 under normal conditions and in response to environmentally relevant doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in the lungs of C57BL6 mice is dependent on their evolutionary age, where the elder age of the element is associated with the lower extent of DNA methylation. Exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and methionine-deficient diet affected DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements in an age- and promoter type-dependent manner. Exposure to densely IR, but not sparsely IR, resulted in DNA hypermethylation of older LINE-1 elements, while the DNA methylation of evolutionary younger elements remained mostly unchanged. We also demonstrate that exposure to densely IR increased mRNA and protein levels of LINE-1 via the loss of the histone H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in the H3K4 trimethylation at the LINE-1 5′-untranslated region, independently of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation is important for regulation of LINE-1 expression under normal conditions, but histone modifications may dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1 in response to exposure to densely IR. - Highlights: • DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements is dependent on their evolutionary age. • Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements. • Radiation-induced reactivation of LINE-1 is DNA methylation-independent. • Histone modifications dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1.

  10. Modulations of the processing of line discontinuities under selective attention conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersch, Anne; Fahle, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    We examined whether the processing of discontinuities involved in figure-ground segmentation, like line ends, can be modulated under selective attention conditions. Subjects decided whether a gap in collinear or parallel lines was located to the right or left. Two stimuli were displayed in immediate succession. When the gaps were on the same side, reaction times (RTs) for the second stimulus increased when collinear lines followed parallel lines, or the reverse, but only when the two stimuli shared the same orientation and location. The effect did not depend on the global form of the stimuli or on the relative orientation of the gaps. A frame drawn around collinear elements affected the results, suggesting a crucial role of the "amodal" orthogonal lines produced when line ends are aligned. Including several gaps in the first stimulus also eliminated RT variations. By contrast, RT variations remained stable across several experimental blocks and were significant for interstimulus intervals from 50 to 600 msec between the two stimuli. These results are interpreted in terms of a modulation of the processing of line ends or the production of amodal lines, arising when attention is selectively drawn to a gap.

  11. A Novel Fault Line Selection Method Based on Improved Oscillator System of Power Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of fault line selection based on IOS is presented. Firstly, the IOS is established by using math model, which adopted TZSC signal to replace built-in signal of duffing chaotic oscillator by selecting appropriate parameters. Then, each line’s TZSC decomposed by db10 wavelet packet to get CFB with the maximum energy principle, and CFB was solved by IOS. Finally, maximum chaotic distance and average chaotic distance on the phase trajectory are used to judge fault line. Simulation results show that the proposed method can accurately judge fault line and healthy line in strong noisy background. Besides, the nondetection zones of proposed method are elaborated.

  12. Characterization of seasonal reproduction in Virginia Tech Selection Line, St. Croix, and Suffolk ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Katherine Mead

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation research contained three studies. The first two studies were conducted to investigate the ability of ewes to rebreed while lactating during seasonal anestrus. Breeds studied included the Virginia Tech Out-of-season (OOS) Line, which is a wool line genetically selected to lamb in the fall, and the St. Croix, a hair breed of tropical origin thought to be lowly seasonal. When January-lambing ewes were exposed to rams while lactating in April, significantly more OOS than St. ...

  13. Frequency Selective Properties of Coaxial Transmission Lines Loaded with Combined Artificial Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Falcone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a modified coaxial transmission line by periodic inclusions will be discussed. The introduction of split ring resonators, conductor stubs, air gaps, and combination of these gives rise to new frequency selective properties, such as stopband or passband behavior, observable in planar as well as volumetric metamaterial structures. These results envisage new potential applications and implementation of devices in coaxial transmission line technology.

  14. Method of selecting optimum cross arm lengths for a 750 kV transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, G N; Olorokov, V P

    1965-01-01

    A method is presented, based on both technical and economic considerations, for selecting cross arm lengths for intermediate poles of power transmission lines according to the effects of internal overvoltage, methods from probability theory and mathematical statistics employed. The problem of optimum pole size is considered in terms of the effect of internal overvoltages for a prescribed maximum level of 2.1 PU currently used in the USSR for the design of 750 kV lines.

  15. Implications of selection in common bean lines in contrasting environments concerning nitrogen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Volpi Furtini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain productivities of 100 bean lines were evaluated in the presence and absence of nitrogen fertilizer in order to identify those with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE and to determine the correlated response observed in a stressed environment following selection in a non-stressed environment. The genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the lines, as well as the response index to applied nitrogen, were determined. The average grain productivities at both locations were 39.5% higher in the presence of nitrogen fertilizer, with 8.3 kg of grain being produced per kg of nitrogen applied. NUE varied greatly between lines. Lines BP-16, CVII-85-11, BP-24, Ouro Negro and MA-IV-15-203 were the most efficient and responsive. The results showed that it is possible to select bean lines in stressed and non-stressed environments. It was inferred that common bean lines for environments with low nitrogen availability should preferably be selected under nitrogen stress.

  16. 78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically Engineered... Hi-Bred International Inc., designated as maize event DP-[Oslash][Oslash]4114-3, which has been... by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its petition for a determination of nonregulated status...

  17. 78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment... has prepared a preliminary determination regarding a request from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc... 340. APHIS received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International...

  18. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  19. Analysis of severe feather pecking behavior in a high feather pecking selection line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, R; Kjaer, J B; Abreu, G C G

    2009-01-01

    Even though feather pecking (FP) in laying hens has been extensively studied, a good solution to prevent chickens from this behavior under commercial circumstances has not been found. Selection against FP behavior is possible, but for a more effective selection across different populations......, it is necessary to characterize the genetic mechanism associated with this behavior. In this study, we use a high FP selection line, which has been selected for 8 generations. We present evidence of the presence of a major dominant allele affecting the FP behavior by using an argument based on the presence...

  20. Dopamine D1 receptor modulation in nucleus accumbens lowers voluntary wheel running in rats bred to run high distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Gilpin, Leigh; Parker, Kyle E; Childs, Thomas E; Will, Matthew J; Booth, Frank W

    2012-02-01

    Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been postulated to influence reward development towards drugs of abuse and exercise. Herein, we used generation 4-5 rats that were selectively bred to voluntary run high (HVR) versus low (LVR) distances in order to examine if dopamine-like 1 (D1) receptor modulation in the NAc differentially affects nightly voluntary wheel running between these lines. A subset of generation 5-6 HVR and LVR rats were also used to study the mRNA expression of key genes related to reward and addiction in the NAc (i.e., DRD1, DRD5, DRD2, Nr4a2, FosB, and BDNF). In a crossover fashion, a D1-like agonist SKF 82958 (2 μg per side) or D1-like full antagonist SCH 23390 (4 μg per side) was bilaterally injected into the NAc of HVR and LVR female Wistar rats prior to their high running nights. Notably, during hours 2-4 (between 2000 and 2300) of the dark cycle there was a significant decrement in running distances in the HVR rats treated with the D1 agonist (p=0.025) and antagonist (p=0.017) whereas the running distances in LVR rats were not affected. Interestingly, HVR and LVR rats possessed similar NAc concentrations of the studied mRNAs. These data suggest that: a) animals predisposed to run high distances on a nightly basis may quickly develop a rewarding response to exercise due to an optimal D1-like receptor signaling pathway in the NAc that can be perturbed by either activation or blocking, b) D1-like agonist or antagonist injections do not increase running distances in rats that are bred to run low nightly distances, and c) running differences between HVR and LVR animals are seemingly not due to the expression of the studied mRNAs. Given the societal prevalence of obesity and extraneous physical inactivity, future studies should be performed in order to further determine the culprit for the low running phenotype observed in LVR animals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Selection and evaluation of soybean lines derived from gamma irradiation for rust resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.; Wongpiyasatid, A.; Lamseejan, S.

    1983-01-01

    In 1979, seeds of 11 soybean cultivars were gamma irradiated with 15 and 30 krad. Treated and control seeds of each cultivar were planted in the rainy season. In the rainy season of 1980, M 3 populations were screened for rust resistance in Nong Hoi Valley and Mae Joe Experiment Station, both in Chiang Main province. The IWGSR rust rating system was used. Based upon the slow growth of rust on soybean plants, 6 and 115 plants were selected from 2,802 control plants and from 28,824 treated plants, respectively. Selected lines were evaluated in Nong Hoi Valley in the rainy season of 1981. Sixteen selections with average good seed yield per plant and low percentage of shrivelled seeds were obtained. Among them, two lines, namely G8586/Line number 81-1-072 and S.J. 4/Line number 81-1-037 gave the higher average seed yield per plant than other lines. They are at present in a preliminary yield trial in Chiang Mai. Chiang Mai. (author)

  2. Antiproliferative Effects of Selected Chemotherapeutics in Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line A2780

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Caltová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the effect of selected cytostatics on a human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 as a model system for ovarian cancer treatment. This cell line is considered cisplatin-sensitive. Panel of tested cytostatics included cisplatin, paclitaxel, carboplatin, gemcitabine, topotecan and etoposide. These cytostatics have a different mechanism of action. To evaluate cytotoxic potential of the tested compounds, the methods measuring various toxicological endpoints were employed including morphological studies, MTT assay, dynamic monitoring of cell proliferation with xCELLigence, cell cycle analysis, caspase 3 activity and expression of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and cell death. The A270 cell line showed different sensitivity towards the selected cytostatics, the highest cytotoxic effect was associated with paclitaxel and topotecan.

  3. Product-line selection and pricing with remanufacturing under availability constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Necati; Esenduran, G.÷k.‡e.; Altinel, I. Kuban

    2004-12-01

    Product line selection and pricing are two crucial decisions for the profitability of a manufacturing firm. Remanufacturing, on the other hand, may be a profitable strategy that captures the remaining value in used products. In this paper we develop a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model form the perspective of an original equipment manufacturer (OEM). The objective of the OEM is to select products to manufacture and remanufacture among a set of given alternatives and simultaneously determine their prices so as to maximize its profit. It is assumed that the probability a customer selects a product is proportional to its utility and inversely proportional to its price. The utility of a product is an increasing function of its perceived quality. In our base model, products are discriminated by their unit production costs and utilities. We also analyze a case where remanufacturing is limited by the available quantity of collected remanufacturable products. We show that the resulting problem is decomposed into the pricing and product line selection subproblems. Pricing problem is solved by a variant of the simplex search procedure which can also handle constraints, while complete enumeration and a genetic algorithm are used for the solution of the product line selection problem. A number of experiments are carried out to identify conditions under which it is economically viable for the firm to sell remanufactured products. We also determine the optimal utility and unit production cost values of a remanufactured product, which maximizes the total profit of the OEM.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES ADDED POLEN ON BRED AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    OLIMPIA COLIBAR; D. POPOVICI; E. CRAINICEANU; GABRIELA KORODI; P. ONITA

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics (oligosaccharides and acidifying agents) appeared in the place of the old antibiotics. Mannan -oligosaccharides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (beer-yeast) are used with success in the nutrition of pigs, chickens and rabbits. The beer-yeast is used also in the bee family’s foraging with a major success. The bee-bred which is the protein source for the honey bees contains also many species of yeast. Our experiment of adding mannan -oligosaccharides in the energetic and...

  5. Slim by design: serving healthy foods first in buffet lines improves overall meal selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S

    2013-01-01

    Each day, tens of millions of restaurant goers, conference attendees, college students, military personnel, and school children serve themselves at buffets--many being all-you-can-eat buffets. Knowing how the food order at a buffet triggers what a person selects could be useful in guiding diners to make healthier selections. The breakfast food selections of 124 health conference attendees were tallied at two separate seven-item buffet lines (which included cheesy eggs, potatoes, bacon, cinnamon rolls, low-fat granola, low-fat yogurt, and fruit). The food order between the two lines was reversed (least healthy to most healthy, and vise-versa). Participants were randomly assigned to choose their meal from one line or the other, and researchers recorded what participants selected. With buffet foods, the first ones seen are the ones most selected. Over 75% of diners selected the first food they saw, and the first three foods a person encountered in the buffet comprised 66% of all the foods they took. Serving the less healthy foods first led diners to take 31% more total food items (pselection of healthier foods was less common. Three words summarize these results: First foods most. What ends up on a buffet diner's plate is dramatically determined by the presentation order of food. Rearranging food order from healthiest to least healthy can nudge unknowing or even resistant diners toward a healthier meal, helping make them slim by design. Health-conscious diners, can proactively start at the healthier end of the line, and this same basic principle of "first foods most" may be relevant in other contexts - such as when serving or passing food at family dinners.

  6. O-naphthoquinone isolated from Capraria biflora L. induces selective cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Wisintainer, G G N; Scola, G; Moura, S; Lemos, T L G; Pessoa, C; de Moraes, M O; Souza, L G S; Roesch-Ely, M; Henriques, J A P

    2015-12-21

    Biflorin is an o-naphthoquinone isolated from the roots of the plant Capraria biflora L. (Scrophulariaceae). In this study, the cytotoxic effects of biflorin were verified, and late apoptosis was detected in various cancer cell lines by in situ analysis. The cytotoxicity was further evaluated exclusively for 48 h of treatment in different tumor and non-tumor cell lines (Hep-2, HeLa, HT-29, A-375, and A-549, and HEK-293, respectively). The results indicated that biflorin induced selective cytotoxicity in tumor cells. HeLa cells were more susceptible to biflorin, followed by HT-29, A-549, A-375, and Hep-2 at all concentrations (range 5-50 μg/mL), and the highest half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 (56.01 ± 1.17 μg/mL) was observed in HEK-293 cells. Late apoptotic/necrotic events, observed by in situ immunostaining with Annexin V, varied with each cell line; an increase in late apoptotic events was observed corresponding to the increase in biflorin dosage. Hep-2 cells showed a greater percentage of late apoptotic events among the tumor cell lines when treated with higher concentrations of biflorin (69.63 ± 2.28%). The non-tumor HEK-293 line showed greater resistance to late apoptotic events, as well as a lower level of cytotoxicity (77.69 ± 6.68%) than the tested tumor lines. The data presented indicate that biflorin showed an important, possibly selective, cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines, thereby revealing a promising novel substance with potential anticancer activity for tumor therapy.

  7. A cytogenetic study of Korean native goat bred in the nuclear power plant using the micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang-Mo; Ji, Young-Hoon; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Se-Ra; Kim, Jong-Choon; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Cytogenetic and hematological analysis was performed on the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) obtained from Korean native goats bred in two nuclear power plants (Wolsong and Uljin) and a control area. The frequencies of gamma-ray-induced micronuclei (MN) in the cytokinesis-blocked (CB) lymphocytes at several doses were measured in three Korean native goats. The measurements performed after irradiation showed dose-related increases in the MN frequency in each of the donors. The results were analyzed using a linear-quadratic model with a line of best fit of y=0.1019D+0.0045D 2 +0.0093 (y=number of MN/GB cells and D=irradiation dose in Gy). The MN rates in the goats from the Wolsong and Uljin nuclear power plant, and the control area were 9.60±2.88, 6.83±1.47 and 9.88±4.32 per 1,000 CB lymphocytes, respectively. The apparent difference is not statistically significant. The MN frequencies of PBLs from goats bred in three areas means that the values are within the background variation in this experiment. The MN frequencies and hematological values were similar regardless of whether the goats were bred in the nuclear power plant or the control area. (author)

  8. Slim by design: serving healthy foods first in buffet lines improves overall meal selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wansink

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Each day, tens of millions of restaurant goers, conference attendees, college students, military personnel, and school children serve themselves at buffets--many being all-you-can-eat buffets. Knowing how the food order at a buffet triggers what a person selects could be useful in guiding diners to make healthier selections. METHOD: The breakfast food selections of 124 health conference attendees were tallied at two separate seven-item buffet lines (which included cheesy eggs, potatoes, bacon, cinnamon rolls, low-fat granola, low-fat yogurt, and fruit. The food order between the two lines was reversed (least healthy to most healthy, and vise-versa. Participants were randomly assigned to choose their meal from one line or the other, and researchers recorded what participants selected. RESULTS: With buffet foods, the first ones seen are the ones most selected. Over 75% of diners selected the first food they saw, and the first three foods a person encountered in the buffet comprised 66% of all the foods they took. Serving the less healthy foods first led diners to take 31% more total food items (p<0.001. Indeed, diners in this line more frequently chose less healthy foods in combinations, such as cheesy eggs and bacon (r = 0.47; p<0.001 or cheesy eggs and fried potatoes (r= 0.37; p<0.001. This co-selection of healthier foods was less common. CONCLUSIONS: Three words summarize these results: First foods most. What ends up on a buffet diner's plate is dramatically determined by the presentation order of food. Rearranging food order from healthiest to least healthy can nudge unknowing or even resistant diners toward a healthier meal, helping make them slim by design. Health-conscious diners, can proactively start at the healthier end of the line, and this same basic principle of "first foods most" may be relevant in other contexts - such as when serving or passing food at family dinners.

  9. Chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells show line-specific differences in sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet. Part I: Humoral parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaansen-Tennekes, R.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Parmentier, H.K.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in nutrient sensitivity have been suggested to be related with differences in stress sensitivity. Here we used layer hens divergently selected for high and low specific antibody responses to SRBC (i.e., low line hens and high line hens), reflecting a genetically based

  10. Genome characterization of the selected long- and short-sleep mouse lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Robin; Odell, Aaron; Richmond, Phillip; Malmer, Daniel; Halper-Stromberg, Eitan; Bennett, Beth; Larson, Colin; Leach, Sonia; Radcliffe, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    The Inbred Long- and Short-Sleep (ILS, ISS) mouse lines were selected for differences in acute ethanol sensitivity using the loss of righting response (LORR) as the selection trait. The lines show an over tenfold difference in LORR and, along with a recombinant inbred panel derived from them (the LXS), have been widely used to dissect the genetic underpinnings of acute ethanol sensitivity. Here we have sequenced the genomes of the ILS and ISS to investigate the DNA variants that contribute to their sensitivity difference. We identified ~2.7 million high-confidence SNPs and small indels and ~7000 structural variants between the lines; variants were found to occur in 6382 annotated genes. Using a hidden Markov model, we were able to reconstruct the genome-wide ancestry patterns of the eight inbred progenitor strains from which the ILS and ISS were derived, and found that quantitative trait loci that have been mapped for LORR were slightly enriched for DNA variants. Finally, by mapping and quantifying RNA-seq reads from the ILS and ISS to their strain-specific genomes rather than to the reference genome, we found a substantial improvement in a differential expression analysis between the lines. This work will help in identifying and characterizing the DNA sequence variants that contribute to the difference in ethanol sensitivity between the ILS and ISS and will also aid in accurate quantification of RNA-seq data generated from the LXS RIs.

  11. Measurement of collisional self broadening of atomic resonance lines in selective reflection experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papoyan, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    A method is developed to measure directly the collisional self broadening rate for a dense atomic vapor from selective reflection spectra. Experimental realization for the atomic D 1 and D 2 resonance lines of Rb confirms a validity of the proposed technique. The deflection of experimentally measured values is not more than 20% from theoretically predicted ones in the atomic number density range of 7· 10 16 - 7· 10 17 cm - 3 . 10 refs

  12. Cytotoxic Activity of Selected Iranian Traditional Medicinal Plants on Colon, Colorectal and Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mohammad Taghizadeh Kashani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many natural products from plants have been recognized to exert anticancer activity. In this study, ethanolic extracts of selected medicinal herbs from Iranian flora including Alyssum homolocarpum Fisch. (from seeds, Urtica dioica L. (from aerial parts, Cichorium intybus L. (from roots and Solanum nigrum L. (from fruits, were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect on different cell lines.Methods: Cytotoxic effect of these extracts was studied on three different cancer cell lines; colon carcinoma (HT-29, colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 and breast ductal carcinoma (T47D. In addition, Swiss mouse embryo fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 were used as normal nonmalignant cells. MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was utilized for calculating the cytotoxicity of extracts on cell lines.Results: Results showed the potent cytotoxic activity of U. dioica ethanolic extract against T47D cell line with IC50 value of 46.14±4.55 µg/ml. Other extracts showed poor activity with IC50>100 µg/ml.Conclusions: Cytotoxic activity recorded in the present study revealed high potential antiproliferative activity of U. dioica ethanolic extract against T47D cell line. The real IC50 values of this extract may be considerably lower than the IC50 measured in our study if its pharmacological active compounds become pure. The results emphasize the importance of studies on U. dioica ethanolic extract to characterize potential components as cytotoxic natural medicines.

  13. MUC1 gene polymorphism in three Nelore lines selected for growth and its association with growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabio Ricardo Pablos; Maione, Sandra; Sartore, Stefano; Soglia, Dominga; Spalenza, Veronica; Cauvin, Elsa; Martelli, Lucia Regina; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Sacchi, Paola; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Rasero, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the VNTR polymorphism of the mucin 1 gene (MUC1) in three Nelore lines selected for yearling weight to determine whether allele and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were affected by selection for growth. In addition, the effects of the polymorphism on growth and carcass traits were evaluated. Birth, weaning and yearling weights, rump height, Longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness, were analyzed. A total of 295 Nelore heifers from the Beef Cattle Research Center, Instituto de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho, were used, including 41 of the control line, 102 of the selection line and 152 of the traditional. The selection and traditional lines comprise animals selected for higher yearling weight, whereas control line animals are selected for yearling weight close to the average. Five alleles were identified, with allele 1 being the most frequent in the three lines, especially in the lines selected for higher means for yearling weight. Heterozygosity was significantly higher in the control line. Association analyses showed significant effects of allele 1 on birth weight and weaning weight while the allele 3 exert significant effects on yearling weight and back fat thickness. Despite these findings, application of this marker to marker-assisted selection requires more consistent results based on the genotyping of a larger number of animals in order to increase the accuracy of the statistical analyses.

  14. Clustering Properties of Emission Line Selected Galaxies over the past 12.5 Gyrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khostovan, Ali Ahmad; Sobral, David; Mobasher, Bahram; Best, Philip N.; Smail, Ian; Matthee, Jorryt; Darvish, Behnam; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Stott, John P.

    2018-01-01

    In this talk, I will present my latest results on the clustering and dark matter halo (DMH) mass properties of ~7000 narrowband-selected [OIII] and [OII] emitters. I will briefly describe the past work that has been done with our samples (e.g., luminosity functions, evolution of equivalent widths) as motivation of using [OIII] and [OII] emitters to study clustering/halo properties. My talk will focus on our findings regarding the line luminosity and stellar mass dependencies with DMH mass. We find strongly increasing and redshift-independent trends between line luminosity and DMH mass with evidence for a shallower slope at the bright end consistent with halo masses of ~ 1012.5-13 M⊙. Similar, but weaker, trends between stellar mass and halo mass have also been found. We investigate the inter-dependencies of these trends on halo mass and find that the correlation with line luminosity is stronger than with stellar mass. This suggest that active galaxies may be connected with their host DMHs simply based on their emission line luminosity. If time permits, I will briefly present our most recent results using our sample of ~4000 Lyα emitters, where we find similar trends to that seen with the [OIII] and [OII] samples, as well as previous Hα measurements, which suggests galaxies selected based on emission lines may be tracing the same subpopulation of star forming galaxies. I will conclude my talk with an interpretation of this connection and suggest that the shallower slope seen for the brightest emitters is evidence for a transitional halo mass as suggested in models where quenching mechanisms truncate star formation activity and reduce the fraction of star forming galaxies with increasing halo mass.

  15. Measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in metallic lithium and lithium oxide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The LBM program requires that nanocurie quantities of tritium, bred in both lithium oxide pellets and lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding + or - 6%. Two methods of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in LBM lithium oxide pellets and one method of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in lithium samples are described. Potential errors associated with these tritium measurement techniques are also discussed

  16. Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt GS

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

  17. Furano diterpenes from Pterodon pubescens Benth with selective in vitro anticancer activity for prostate cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindola, Humberto M.; Carvalho, Joao E. de; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Rodrigues, Rodney A. F.; Denny, Carina; Sousa, Ilza M. de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann; Tamashiro, Jorge Y.

    2009-01-01

    Activity guided fractionation of Pterodon pubescens Benth. methylene chloride-soluble fraction afforded novel 6α-acetoxi 7β-hydroxy-vouacapan 1 and four known diterpene furans 2, 3, 4, 5. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against human normal cells and tumour cell lines UACC-62 (melanoma), MCF-7 (breast), NCI-H460 (lung, non-small cells), OVCAR-03 (ovarian), PC-3 (prostate), HT-29 (colon), 786-0 (renal), K562 (leukemia) and NCI-ADR/RES (ovarian expressing phenotype multiple drugs resistance). Results were expressed by three concentration dependent parameters GI 50 (concentration that produces 50% growth inhibition), TGI (concentration that produces total growth inhibition or cytostatic effect) and LC 50 (concentration that produces .50% growth, a cytotoxicity parameter). Also, in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated against 3T3 cell line (mouse embryonic fibroblasts). Antiproliferative properties of compounds 1, 4 and 5 are herein reported for the first time. These compounds showed selectivity in a concentration-dependent way against human PC-3. Compound 1 demonstrated selectivity 26 fold more potent than the positive control, doxorubicin, for PC-3 (prostrate) cell line based on GI 50 values, causing cytostatic effect (TGI value) at a concentration fifteen times less than positive control. Moreover comparison of 50% lethal concentration (LC 50 value) with positive control (doxorubicin) suggested that compound 1 was less toxic. (author)

  18. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  19. Background matters: Minor vibratory stimulation during motor skill acquisition selectively reduces off-line memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Maria; Herling, Zohar; Levy, Ishay; Egbarieh, Nebal; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Karni, Avi

    2017-04-01

    Although a ubiquitous situation, it is not clear how effective is a learning experience when task-irrelevant, sensory noise occurs in the background. Here, young adults were trained on the finger opposition sequence task, in a well-established training and testing protocol affording measures for online as well as off-line learning. During the training session, one group experienced a minor background vibratory stimulation to the trunk by the means of vibrating cushion, while the second group experienced recorded sound vibrations. A control group was trained with no extra sensory stimulation. Sensory stimulation during training had no effect on the online within-session gains, but dampened the expression of the off-line, consolidation phase, gains in the two sensory stimulation groups. These results suggest that background sensory stimulation can selectively modify off-line, procedural memory consolidation processes, despite well-preserved on-line learning. Classical studies have shown that neural plasticity in sensory systems is modulated by motor input. The current results extend this notion and suggest that some types of task-irrelevant sensory stimulation, concurrent with motor training, may constitute a 'gating' factor - modulating the triggering of long-term procedural memory consolidation processes. Thus, vibratory stimulation may be considered as a behavioral counterpart of pharmacological interventions that do not interfere with short term neural plasticity but block long-term plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Comparative study of microleakage by using different finished lines in selective laser melting metal crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Zhong, Qun; Wu, Xue-Ying; Weng, Jia-Wei

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate microleakage of SLM Co -Cr alloy metal crown with two types finished line (chamfer and shoulder), compared with conventional fabrication of Co -Cr alloy metal crowns. Thirty healthy non-carious human molars were selected and randomly assigned to 3 groups, 10 in each. Teeth in group A and C received a chamfer finish line preparation, whereas teeth in group C received a shoulder finish line. Conventional Co -Cr alloy metal crowns were fabricated for group A when SLM metal crowns were made for group B and group C. Glass ionomer was applied for bonding. After 5000 thermocycles ranging from 5degrees centigrade to 55degrees centigrade,all the specimens were evaluated by dye penetration and then microleakage was examined under light microscope. The data were analyzed statistically with SPSS 20.0 software package. Microleakage in group A was significantly higher than the other two groups, group B and group C showed no significant difference in microleakage while microleakage in group B was higher than that in group C. Microleakage of SLM metal crowns was significantly less than that of conventional Co-Cr alloy metal crowns; chamfer finish line designs was recommended for SLM metal crowns in consideration of reducing microleakage and protecting tooth.

  1. Selection of refractory materials for acid tanks at the CSN continuous pickling line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sidiney Nascimento; Marques, Oscar Rosa; Bueno, Mauricio Chaves; Longo, Elson; Silva Pinheiro, Adriano da

    1997-01-01

    Aiming at the revamping of the CSN continuous pickling line 4 acid tanks, a Post Mortem study of the refractory lining was carried out. The collected samples were characterized through techniques such as chemical analysis, mercury porosimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. Trying to reproduce the operational conditions closely, laboratorial simulations were carried out. Such simulations lead to the addition of some alterations on the test method proposed by ABNT. Primarily, the sulfuric acid was substituted by hydrochloric acid (30%), containing iron in solution (130g/l). As result, it was concluded that acid resistant refractories containing a smaller alumina and /or corundum and mullite concentrations, presenting a smaller open porosity and average pore diameter, have a better performance face to corrosion due to hydrochloric acid solution. In addition, abrasion wear resistance tests, according to the ASTM-G65-85 standard were carried out in order to select different materials to the acid tanks cells. (author)

  2. Selection and evaluation of an ultra high vacuum gate valve for Isabelle beam line vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.; McCafferty, D.

    1980-01-01

    A minimum of eighty-four (84) Ultra High Vacuum Gate Valves will be utilized in ISABELLE to protect proton beam lines from catastrophic vacuum failure and to provide sector isolation for maintenance requirements. The valve to be selected must function at less than 1 x 10 -11 Torr pressure and be bakeable to 300 0 C in its open or closed position. In the open position, the valve must have an RF shield to make the beam line walls appear continuous. Several proposed designs were built and evaluated. The evaluation consisted mainly of leak testing, life tests, thermal cycling, mass spectrometer analysis, and 10 -12 Torr operation. Problems with initial design and fabrication were resolved. Special requirements for design and construction were developed. This paper describes the tests on two final prototypes which appear to be the best candidates for ISABELLE operation

  3. SELECTED PARAMETERS OF THE WORK OF SPEED LIMITER IN LINE STRAINING SYSTEM IN A FRICTIONAL LIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lonkwic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of selected work parameters of speed limiter in line straining system. We analyzed the effect of changing the geometrical conditions of the new solution for the speed limiter in line straining system upon the working conditions in frictional lift braking system. Within the conducted simulations of the work of the system, which is responsible for lift braking with a tension with spring, a test bed was prepared, which simulated the work of tension-rope-limiter system. The tests were performed in the conditions reflecting the work of a lifting appliance. Analyzing the results obtained through empirical calculations, we can conclude that there is a possibility of applying the spring to eliminate the weight.

  4. A large sample of Kohonen-selected SDSS quasars with weak emission lines: selection effects and statistical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusinger, H.; Balafkan, N.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: A tiny fraction of the quasar population shows remarkably weak emission lines. Several hypotheses have been developed, but the weak line quasar (WLQ) phenomenon still remains puzzling. The aim of this study was to create a sizeable sample of WLQs and WLQ-like objects and to evaluate various properties of this sample. Methods: We performed a search for WLQs in the spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 based on Kohonen self-organising maps for nearly 105 quasar spectra. The final sample consists of 365 quasars in the redshift range z = 0.6 - 4.2 (z¯ = 1.50 ± 0.45) and includes in particular a subsample of 46 WLQs with equivalent widths WMg iiattention was paid to selection effects. Results: The WLQs have, on average, significantly higher luminosities, Eddington ratios, and accretion rates. About half of the excess comes from a selection bias, but an intrinsic excess remains probably caused primarily by higher accretion rates. The spectral energy distribution shows a bluer continuum at rest-frame wavelengths ≳1500 Å. The variability in the optical and UV is relatively low, even taking the variability-luminosity anti-correlation into account. The percentage of radio detected quasars and of core-dominant radio sources is significantly higher than for the control sample, whereas the mean radio-loudness is lower. Conclusions: The properties of our WLQ sample can be consistently understood assuming that it consists of a mix of quasars at the beginning of a stage of increased accretion activity and of beamed radio-quiet quasars. The higher luminosities and Eddington ratios in combination with a bluer spectral energy distribution can be explained by hotter continua, i.e. higher accretion rates. If quasar activity consists of subphases with different accretion rates, a change towards a higher rate is probably accompanied by an only slow development of the broad line region. The composite WLQ spectrum can be reasonably matched by the

  5. A selective splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, Yasumichi; Sasaki, Katsunori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masayo; Hatayama, Mayumi; Ito, Satoshi; Ikuta, Katsuya; Shindo, Motohiro; Hasebe, Takumu; Nakajima, Shunsuke; Sawada, Koji; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Torimoto, Yoshihiro; Ohtake, Takaaki; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Hepcidin is a main regulator of iron metabolism, of which abnormal expression affects intestinal absorption and reticuloendothelial sequestration of iron by interacting with ferroportin. It is also noted that abnormal iron accumulation is one of the key factors to facilitate promotion and progression of cancer including hepatoma. By RT-PCR/agarose gel electrophoresis of hepcidin mRNA in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HLF, a smaller mRNA band was shown in addition to the wild-type hepcidin mRNA. From sequencing analysis, this additional band was a selective splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA lacking exon 2 of HAMP gene, producing the transcript that encodes truncated peptide lacking 20 amino acids at the middle of preprohepcidin. In the present study, we used the digital PCR, because such a small amount of variant mRNA was difficult to quantitate by the conventional RT-PCR amplification. Among seven hepatoma-derived cell lines, six cell lines have significant copy numbers of this variant mRNA, but not in one cell line. In the transient transfection analysis of variant-type hepcidin cDNA, truncated preprohepcidin has a different character comparing with native preprohepcidin: its product is insensitive to digestion, and secreted into the medium as a whole preprohepcidin form without maturation. Loss or reduction of function of HAMP gene by aberrantly splicing may be a suitable phenomenon to obtain the proliferating advantage of hepatoma cells. - Highlights: • An aberrant splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA lacking exon 2 of HAMP gene. • Absolute quantification of hepcidin mRNA by digital PCR amplification. • Hepatoma-derived cell lines have significant copies of variant-type hepcidin mRNA. • Truncated preprohepcidin is secreted from cells without posttranslational cleavage.

  6. A selective splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toki, Yasumichi [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Sasaki, Katsunori, E-mail: k-sasaki@asahikawa-med.ac.jp [Department of Gastrointestinal Immunology and Regenerative Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroki [Department of Legal Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yamamoto, Masayo; Hatayama, Mayumi; Ito, Satoshi; Ikuta, Katsuya; Shindo, Motohiro; Hasebe, Takumu; Nakajima, Shunsuke; Sawada, Koji; Fujiya, Mikihiro [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Torimoto, Yoshihiro [Oncology Center, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ohtake, Takaaki; Kohgo, Yutaka [Department of Gastroenterology, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Tochigi 329-2763 (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    Hepcidin is a main regulator of iron metabolism, of which abnormal expression affects intestinal absorption and reticuloendothelial sequestration of iron by interacting with ferroportin. It is also noted that abnormal iron accumulation is one of the key factors to facilitate promotion and progression of cancer including hepatoma. By RT-PCR/agarose gel electrophoresis of hepcidin mRNA in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HLF, a smaller mRNA band was shown in addition to the wild-type hepcidin mRNA. From sequencing analysis, this additional band was a selective splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA lacking exon 2 of HAMP gene, producing the transcript that encodes truncated peptide lacking 20 amino acids at the middle of preprohepcidin. In the present study, we used the digital PCR, because such a small amount of variant mRNA was difficult to quantitate by the conventional RT-PCR amplification. Among seven hepatoma-derived cell lines, six cell lines have significant copy numbers of this variant mRNA, but not in one cell line. In the transient transfection analysis of variant-type hepcidin cDNA, truncated preprohepcidin has a different character comparing with native preprohepcidin: its product is insensitive to digestion, and secreted into the medium as a whole preprohepcidin form without maturation. Loss or reduction of function of HAMP gene by aberrantly splicing may be a suitable phenomenon to obtain the proliferating advantage of hepatoma cells. - Highlights: • An aberrant splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA lacking exon 2 of HAMP gene. • Absolute quantification of hepcidin mRNA by digital PCR amplification. • Hepatoma-derived cell lines have significant copies of variant-type hepcidin mRNA. • Truncated preprohepcidin is secreted from cells without posttranslational cleavage.

  7. Comparative functional anatomy of the epaxial musculature of dogs (Canis familiaris) bred for sprinting vs. fighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Emma L; Hudson, Penny E; Channon, Sarah B

    2014-09-01

    The axial musculoskeletal system of quadrupedal mammals is not currently well understood despite its functional importance in terms of facilitating postural stability and locomotion. Here we examined the detailed architecture of the muscles of the vertebral column of two breeds of dog, the Staffordshire bull terrier (SBT) and the racing greyhound, which have been selectively bred for physical combat and high speed sprint performance, respectively. Dissections of the epaxial musculature of nine racing greyhounds and six SBTs were carried out; muscle mass, length, and fascicle lengths were measured and used to calculate muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and to estimate maximum muscle potential for force, work and power production. The longissimus dorsi muscle was found to have a high propensity for force production in both breeds of dog; however, when considered in combination with the iliocostalis lumborum muscle it showed enhanced potential for production of power and facilitating spinal extension during galloping gaits. This was particularly the case in the greyhound, where the m. longissimus dorsi and the m. iliocostalis lumborum were estimated to have the potential to augment hindlimb muscle power by ca. 12%. Breed differences were found within various other muscles of the axial musculoskeletal system, particularly in the cranial cervical muscles and also the deep muscles of the thorax which insert on the ribs. These may also highlight key functional adaptations between the two breeds of dog, which have been selectively bred for particular purposes. Additionally, in both breeds of dog, we illustrate specialisation of muscle function by spinal region, with differences in both mass and PCSA found between muscles at varying levels of the axial musculoskeletal system, and between muscle functional groups. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  8. Optimization of Sex Ratio in a Selection Plan for Palas Prolificacy Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Popa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper work is to optimize the sex ratio in a selection plan, according to model developed by King (1961, which will be proposed to be applied for prolificacy improvement in Prolific Line Palas. The method used in this paper work is modeling, which exist in the most animal breeding scientifically papers. After the simulations, we observed that the most convenient variant was that which prefigure use of 13 rams on reproduction activity. This variant offer a genetic gain per generation by 0.47497 additive standard deviations.

  9. Protein and energy metabolism in two lines of chickens selected for growth on high or low protein diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O; Sørensen, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Genetic adaptation was investigated in broilers selected for seven generations on a normal (A) or a low (B) protein diet. Protein and energy metabolism were studied in males from these selected lines fed on a diet of intermediate protein content. All selected birds retained more nitrogen than those...

  10. Spectral properties of X-ray selected narrow emission line galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Colmenero, E.

    1998-03-01

    This thesis reports a study of the X-ray and optical properties of two samples of X-ray selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELGs), and their comparison with the properties of broad line Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). One sample (18 NELGs) is drawn from the ROSAT International X-ray Optical Survey (RIXOS), the other (19 NELGs and 33 AGN) from the ROSAT UK Deep Survey. ROSAT multi-channel X-ray spectra have been extracted and fitted with power-law, bremsstrahlung and black body models for the brighter RIXOS sources. In most cases, power-law and bremsstrahlung models provide the best results. The average spectral energy index, alpha, of the RIXOS NELGs is 0.96 +/- 0.07, similar to that of AGN (alpha~1). For the fainter RIXOS NELGs, as well as for all the UK Deep Survey sources, counts in three spectral bands have been extracted and fitted with a power-law model, assuming the Galactic value for N_H. The brighter RIXOS sources demonstrated that the results obtained by these two different extraction and fitting procedures provide consistent results. Two average X-ray spectra, one for the NELGs and another for the AGN, were created from the UK Deep Survey sources. The power-law slope of the average NELG is alpha = 0.45 +/- 0.09, whilst that of the AGN is alpha = 0.96 +/- 0.03. ROSAT X-ray surveys have shown that the fractional surface density of NELGs increases with respect to AGN at faint fluxes (case for NELGs to be major contributors to the XRB at the fainter fluxes. The analysis of optical spectroscopy, obtained on La Palma and Hawaii, shows that NELGs form a very heterogeneous group, made up of a mixture of Seyfert 2, LINER and HII-region like galaxies. Seyfert 2 galaxies are found to possess in general the steepest X-ray slopes. Ways to explain this in the context of the unified model of AGN are discussed. The FWHM of some emission lines (Halpha, Hbeta, [NII]) in the NELGs appears to increase with steepening X-ray spectral slope. In the case of the Balmer lines

  11. Selection of VSH-derived “Pol-line” honey bees and evaluation of their Varroa-resistance characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Danka , Robert G.; Harris , Jeffery W.; Dodds , Garrett E.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractHoney bees with Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) have good resistance to Varroa destructor. We bred “Pol-line” bees by outcrossing VSH queens to US commercial stocks from 2008 to 2014 and then selecting colonies with low mite infestations. Beginning in 2011, field performance of colonies with outcrossed Pol-line queens was compared to colonies with outcrossed VSH queens. Mite infestations after one season were comparable in colonies of the two bee types. Queens f...

  12. Characterization of Boerhavia diffusa L. mutant lines by RAPD and isozyme, selected for agronomically valuable traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, N.; Sangwan, N.S.; Misra, H.O.; Sangwan, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Boerhavia diffusa is a medicinally important plant and finds extensive uses in traditional herbal drug preparations. For the development of improved varieties in terms of superior yield and quality of herb/root of B. diffusa, mutation breeding was attempted. Mutants generated by physical and chemical mutagenic treatments were screened for yield and quality parameters of the root/herb up to three consecutive generations. The selected-screened lines generated by physical and chemical mutagenic treatments on two selected genotypes I and II were molecularly analyzed using eight isozymes and eleven RAPD primers producing good amplification. Mutants from BD10 (selected genotype I) were distinct, while, in case of BD22 (selected genotype II), only one mutant BDMu7 was recorded distinct by isozyme analysis. The wild mutant (BDMu16, with maximum height and mouve coloured flower) was distinct in RAPD banding pattern. Isozymes differentiated the mutants from their respective controls, whereas RAPD differentiated the mutants and controls and also distinguished the mutants. The RAPD analysis was found to be better suited than isozymes for detecting genetic differences among controls and their mutants. However, both RAPD and isozyme analyses gave similar patterns of genetic relationships [it

  13. Aspects of Salt Tolerance in a NaCl-Selected Stable Cell Line of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hayyim, G; Kochba, J

    1983-07-01

    A NaCl-tolerant cell line which was selected from ovular callus of ;Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) proved to be a true cell line variant. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (a) Cells which have been removed from the selection pressure for at least four passages retain the same NaCl tolerance as do cells which are kept constantly on 0.2 molar NaCl. (b) Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake are considerably lower in salt-tolerant cells (R-10) than in salt-sensitive cells (L-5) at a given external NaCl concentration. (c) Growth of salt-tolerant cells is markedly suppressed upon replacement of NaCl by KCl, whereas the growth of salt-sensitive cells is only slightly affected. Accumulation of K(+) and Cl(-) accompanies the inhibition of growth. Experiments carried out with sodium and potassium sulfate suggest that the toxic effect is due to the accumulated Cl(-). (d) Removal of Ca(2+) from the growth medium severely inhibits the growth of salt-tolerant cells in the presence of NaCl, while it has a minor effect on growth of salt-sensitive cells in the presence of NaCl. (e) Electron micrographs show that the salt-tolerant cells have very big vacuoles when exposed to salt, while the size of the vacuoles of the salt-sensitive cells does not change.

  14. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen; Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron; Moustakas, John; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zitrin, Adi; Frye, Brenda L.; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benítez, Narciso; Broadhurst, Tom; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y 105 ) and F125W (J 125 ), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete

  15. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Frye, Brenda L. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Bartelmann, Matthias [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P. O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Benítez, Narciso [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huétor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU E-Bilbao (Spain); Donahue, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo, E-mail: hxx@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Departamento de Astronoía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860 Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2015-03-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y {sub 105}) and F125W (J {sub 125}), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete.

  16. Reintroduction of captive-bred African Grass-Owls Tyto capensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study represents the first attempt to determine post-release survival of a captive-bred owl in Africa. We released six captive-bred African Grass-Owls Tyto capensis into suitable habitat and, using radio telemetry, determined their daytime roost sites. One bird left the study area soon after release and did not yield data.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES ADDED POLEN ON BRED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIMPIA COLIBAR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and prebiotics (oligosaccharides and acidifying agents appeared in the place of the old antibiotics. Mannan -oligosaccharides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (beer-yeast are used with success in the nutrition of pigs, chickens and rabbits. The beer-yeast is used also in the bee family’s foraging with a major success. The bee-bred which is the protein source for the honey bees contains also many species of yeast. Our experiment of adding mannan -oligosaccharides in the energetic and protein feed and of using the artificial bee-bread in the place of pollen shows that those methods didn’t lead an increased performance of the frozen pollen, honey energetic and protein feed.

  18. Asymmetries in Chickens from Lines Selected and Relaxed for High or Low Antibody Titers to Sheep Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Tu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wattle length, width, and area were measured to classify bilateral asymmetries in four lines of chickens. The lines were the S26 generation of White Leghorns selected for high (HAS or low (LAS response to sheep red blood cells and sublines in which selection had been relaxed for three generations (high antibody relaxed [HAR] and low antibody relaxed [LAR]. Antibody titers (AB were greater for HAS than for HAR with both greater than for LAS and LAR which while different for males did not differ for females. The low antibody lines were heavier and reached sexual maturity at younger age than the high antibody lines. In general, wattle length, width, and area were greater in the low than high antibody lines. In 24 comparisons for bilaterality 18 exhibited fluctuating asymmetry and 6 exhibited directional asymmetry with 5 of the 6 being for wattle length. There was not a clear pattern for changes in degree of asymmetry when selection was relaxed for 3 generations. For females, the relative asymmetry (RA of wattle area was larger (p≤0.05 for HAR than for LAR and not different from the selected lines and relaxed lines. There were no differences among lines for RA of wattle length and width of females and wattle length, width, and area of males.

  19. The use of super-selective mesenteric embolisation as a first-line management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Soh, MBBS, BBiomedSci, PGDipSurgAnat

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Super-selective mesenteric embolisation is a viable, safe and effective first line management for localised LGIB. Our results overall compare favourably with the published experiences of other institutions. It is now accepted first-line practice at our institution to manage localised LGIB with embolisation.

  20. Regional analysis assessment of landslide hazard and zoning map for transmission line route selection using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, I N Z; Omar, R C; Usman, F; Mejan, M A; Halim, M K Abd; Zainol, M A; Zulkarnain, M S

    2013-01-01

    The stability of ground as foundation for infrastructure development is always associated with geology and geomorphology aspects. Failure to carefully analyze these aspects may induce ground instability such subsidence and landslide which eventually can cause catastrophe to the infrastructure i.e. instability of transmission tower. However, in some cases such as the study area this is unavoidable. A GIS system for analysis of route was favoured to perform optimal route predictions based selection by incorporating multiple influence factors into its analysis by incorporating the Landslide Hazard Map (LHM) that was produced on basis of slope map, aspect map, land use map and geological map with the help of ArcGIS using weighted overlay method. Based on LHM it is safe to conclude that the proposed route for Ulu Jelai- Neggiri-Lebir-LILO transmission line has very low risk in term of landslides.

  1. Drug Treatment of Cancer Cell Lines: A Way to Select for Cancer Stem Cells?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Belgiovine, Cristina; Donà, Francesca; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Mondello, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Tumors are generally composed of different cell types. In recent years, it has been shown that in many types of cancers a subset of cells show peculiar characteristics, such as the ability to induce tumors when engrafted into host animals, self-renew and being immortal, and give rise to a differentiated progeny. These cells have been defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells. CSCs can be isolated both from tumor specimens and established cancer cell lines on the basis of their ability to exclude fluorescent dyes, express specific cell surface markers or grow in particular culture conditions. A key feature of CSCs is their resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which could contribute to the remaining of residual cancer cells after therapeutic treatments. It has been shown that CSC-like cells can be isolated after drug treatment of cancer cell lines; in this review, we will describe the strategies so far applied to identify and isolate CSCs. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible use of these selected populations to investigate CSC biology and develop new anticancer drugs

  2. Selective cytotoxicity and modification activity of picornaviruses on transformed cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avagyan H. R.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We do analyze of the dynamics of morphometabolic changes in transformed cells (of susceptoible lines demonstrating resistance to picrnaviral infection. Methods. The study was performed by application of cell culture technology and a complex of cytochemical and cytophotometric assays. Were used picornaviruses from various genu. Results. According to the results obtained, resistant to picornavirus infection cells of different susceptible lines have similar changes in the phenotype. They have decreased number of nucleoli and increased percentage of euploidy (and near euploid. In resistant cells of all cultures the reduction in amount of DNA and RNA both in nucleus and in cytoplasm was found. All these data correlated with the increased euploidy (and near euploid of the resistant population. All picornavirus resistant cells had a less transformed phenotype, and decreased proliferative activity. Decreased nucleolar status becomes apparent by reduction of all nucleolar indices. Conclusions. Picornaviruses on the susceptible cells produce 2 types of changes – selection and modification. Whatever the mechanism, it is specific for an individual virus, since no restrictions occur in case of infection caused by another picornavirus

  3. Selection of radioresistant cells by vitamin A deficiency in a small cell lung cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, Takeo; Shimosato, Yukio; Wada, Makio; Yokota, Jun; Terada, Masaaki

    1990-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of a human small cell lung cancer cell line, Lu-134-B cells, cultured in serum-supplemented medium and of cells transferred to and cultured in delipidized serum-supplemented (vitamin A-deficient) medium was studied. The cells cultured in serum-supplemented medium showed the phenotype of classic small cell lung cancer sensitive to radiation, while cells transferred to delipidized serum-supplemented medium showed partial squamous cell differentiation and became resistant to radiation. These results suggest that some small cell lung cancer cells in vitro change their morphology and radiosensitivity depending on the culture conditions. The change in radiosensitivity was reproducible, and was not reversible by culture of the radioresistant cells in delipidized serum-supplemented medium with addition of retinoic acid (vitamin A-sufficient medium) for two months, although squamous cells disappeared. Acquisition of radioresistancy was considered to occur as the result of clonal selective growth in delipidized medium of a minor cell population in the original cell culture, based on a study of chromosome number. It was also found that there was no association of myc-family oncogenes with the changes of radiosensitivity in this cell line. (author)

  4. WINDING METHOD SELECTION FOR TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATION LINE FOR HIGH-SPEED OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav A. Loparev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with fiber-optical cable winding methods for realization of fiber-optic communication line with high-speed object. We consider possible options of coils for optical cable winding providing mobility of one of the cable ends on an object. It is shown that the choice of a winding process is caused by the need of ensuring the minimum deformation of fiber-optical micro cable in case of separation from a winding body. It is revealed that the minimum tension value and its unevenness are observed when reeling from coils with a rocket form. Design ratios for determination of winding parameters are given. It is shown that reduction of tension unevenness reduces the jumps of internal tension and probability of break and emergence of optical signal local attenuation. Decrease in internal stresses occurs due to the absence of overlapping of the coils of the underlying layers with the overlying ones. To confirm the operability and the possibility of constructive implementation of the selected winding scheme, experiments were carried out to perform rocket and other types of winding with the use of a specially designed machine model. It is shown that the application of line rocket winding enables to achieve stability when reeling a cable during the movement and excludes breaks. Attenuation of optical signal decreases due to the increase in the bend minimum radius. This phenomenon is explained by reduction of the internal stresses causing optical signal attenuation in the place of cable separation from the coil.

  5. A chemically selective laser ion source for the on-line isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheerer, F.

    1993-03-01

    In this thesis a laser ion source is presented. In a hot chamber the atoms of the elements to be studied are resonantly by light of pulsed dye lasers, which are pumped by pulsed copper-vapor lasers with extremely high pulse repetition rate (ν rep ∼ 10 kHz), stepwise excited and ionized. By the storage of the atoms in a hot chamber and the high pulse repetition rate of the copper-vapor lasers beyond the required high efficiency (ε ∼ 10%) can be reached. First preparing measurements were performed at the off-line separator at CERN with the rare earth elements ytterbium and thulium. Starting from the results of these measurements further tests of the laser ion source were performed at the on-line separator with in a thick tantalum target produced neutron-deficient ytterbium isotopes. Under application of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer in Mainz an efficient excitation scheme on the resonance ionization of tin was found. This excitation scheme is condition for an experiment at the GSI for the production of the extremely neutron-deficient, short-lived nucleus 102 Sn. In the summer 1993 is as first application of the newly developed laser ion source at the PSB-ISOLDE at CERN an astrophysically relevant experiment for the nuclear spectroscopy of the neutron-rich silver isotopes 124-129 Ag is planned. This experiment can because of the lacking selectivity of conventional ion sources only be performed by means of the here presented laser ion source. The laser ion source shall at the PSB-ISOLDE 1993 also be applied for the selective ionization of manganese. (orig./HSI) [de

  6. Effects of early-life exposure to Western diet and wheel access on metabolic syndrome profiles in mice bred for high voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Keeney, B K; Hannon, R M; Dlugosz, E M; Garland, T

    2014-03-01

    Experimental studies manipulating diet and exercise have shown varying effects on metabolic syndrome components in both humans and rodents. To examine the potential interactive effects of diet, exercise and genetic background, we studied mice from four replicate lines bred (52 generations) for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines) and four unselected control lines (C). At weaning, animals were housed for 60 days with or without wheels and fed either a standard chow or Western diet (WD, 42% kcal from fat). Four serial (three juvenile and one adult) blood samples were taken to measure fasting total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides and glucose. Western diet was obesogenic for all mice, even after accounting for the amount of wheel running and kilojoules consumed. Western diet significantly raised glucose as well as TC and HDL-C concentrations. At the level of individual variation (repeatability), there was a modest correlation (r = 0.3-0.5) of blood lipids over time, which was reduced with wheel access and/or WD. Neither genetic selection history nor wheel access had a statistically significant effect on blood lipids. However, HR and C mice had divergent ontogenetic trajectories for body mass and caloric intake. HR mice also had lower adiposity, an effect that was dependent on wheel access. The environmental factors of diet and wheel access had pronounced effects on body mass, food consumption and fasting glucose concentrations, interacting with each other and/or with genetic strain. These data underscore the importance (and often unpredictable nature) of genotype-by-environment and environment-by-environment interactions when studying body weight regulation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  7. Temperature dependency of cupular mechanics and hair cell frequency selectivity in the fish canal lateral line organ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga-Post, JEC; van Netten, SM

    2000-01-01

    The mechanical frequency selectivity of the cupula located in the supraorbital lateral line canal and the frequency selectivity of the hair cells driven by the cupula were measured simultaneously in vivo. Laser interferometry was used to measure cupular mechanics and extracellular receptor

  8. 49 CFR 542.2 - Procedures for selecting low theft light duty truck lines with a majority of major parts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for selecting low theft light duty... TRUCK LINES TO BE COVERED BY THE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 542.2 Procedures for selecting low theft... a low theft rate have major parts interchangeable with a majority of the covered major parts of a...

  9. Laser-induced Breakdown spectroscopy quantitative analysis method via adaptive analytical line selection and relevance vector machine regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Yi, Cancan; Xu, Jinwu; Ma, Xianghong

    2015-01-01

    A new LIBS quantitative analysis method based on analytical line adaptive selection and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) regression model is proposed. First, a scheme of adaptively selecting analytical line is put forward in order to overcome the drawback of high dependency on a priori knowledge. The candidate analytical lines are automatically selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines, such as spectral intensity, wavelength and width at half height. The analytical lines which will be used as input variables of regression model are determined adaptively according to the samples for both training and testing. Second, an LIBS quantitative analysis method based on RVM is presented. The intensities of analytical lines and the elemental concentrations of certified standard samples are used to train the RVM regression model. The predicted elemental concentration analysis results will be given with a form of confidence interval of probabilistic distribution, which is helpful for evaluating the uncertainness contained in the measured spectra. Chromium concentration analysis experiments of 23 certified standard high-alloy steel samples have been carried out. The multiple correlation coefficient of the prediction was up to 98.85%, and the average relative error of the prediction was 4.01%. The experiment results showed that the proposed LIBS quantitative analysis method achieved better prediction accuracy and better modeling robustness compared with the methods based on partial least squares regression, artificial neural network and standard support vector machine. - Highlights: • Both training and testing samples are considered for analytical lines selection. • The analytical lines are auto-selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines. • The new method can achieve better prediction accuracy and modeling robustness. • Model predictions are given with confidence interval of probabilistic distribution

  10. Gamma radiation-induced heritable mutations at repetitive DNA loci in out-bred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, C.M.; Sharma, R.; Quinn, J.S.; Boreham, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that expanded-simple-tandem-repeat (ESTR) DNA loci are efficient genetic markers for detecting radiation-induced germ line mutations in mice. Dose responses following irradiation, however, have only been characterized in a small number of inbred mouse strains, and no studies have applied Esters to examine potential modifiers of radiation risk, such as adaptive response. We gamma-irradiated groups of male out-bred Swiss-Webster mice with single acute doses of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy, and compared germ line mutation rates at ESTR loci to a sham-irradiated control. To test for evidence of adaptive response we treated a third group with a total dose of 1.1 Gy that was fractionated into a 0.1 Gy adapting dose, followed by a challenge dose of 1.0 Gy 24 h later. Paternal mutation rates were significantly elevated above the control in the 0.5 Gy (2.8-fold) and 1.0 Gy (3.0-fold) groups, but were similar to each other despite the difference in radiation dose. The doubling dose for paternal mutation induction was 0.26 Gy (95% CI = 0.14-0.51 Gy). Males adapted with a 0.1 Gy dose prior to a 1.0 Gy challenge dose had mutation rates that were not significantly elevated above the control, and were 43% reduced compared to those receiving single doses. We conclude that pre-meiotic male germ cells in out-bred Swiss-Webster mice are sensitive to ESTR mutations induced by acute doses of ionizing radiation, but mutation induction may become saturated at a lower dose than in some strains of inbred mice. Reduced mutation rates in the adapted group provide intriguing evidence for suppression of ESTR mutations in the male germline through adaptive response. Repetitive DNA markers may be useful tools for exploration of biological factors affecting the probability of heritable mutations caused by low-dose ionizing radiation exposure. The biological significance of ESTR mutations in terms of radiation risk assessment, however, is still undetermined

  11. Regulation of metabolism by dietary carbohydrates in two lines of rainbow trout divergently selected for muscle fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Medale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Polakof, Sergio; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Panserat, Stephane

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for lean (L) or fat (F) muscle suggested that they differ in their ability to metabolise glucose. In this context, we investigated whether genetic selection for high muscle fat content led to a better capacity to metabolise dietary carbohydrates. Juvenile trout from the two lines were fed diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 10 weeks, after which blood, liver, muscle and adipose tissues were sampled. Growth rate, feed efficiency and protein utilisation were lower in the F line than in the L line. In both lines, intake of carbohydrates was associated with a moderate post-prandial hyperglycaemia, a protein sparing effect, an enhancement of nutrient (TOR-S6) signalling cascade and a decrease of energy-sensing enzyme (AMPK). Gene expression of hepatic glycolytic enzymes was higher in the F line fed carbohydrates compared with the L line, but concurrently transcripts for the gluconeogenic enzymes was also higher in the F line, possibly impairing glucose homeostasis. However, the F line showed a higher gene expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid bioconversion, in particular with an increased dietary carbohydrate intake. Enhanced lipogenic potential coupled with higher liver glycogen content in the F line suggests better glucose storage ability than the L line. Overall, the present study demonstrates the changes in hepatic intermediary metabolism resulting from genetic selection for high muscle fat content and dietary carbohydrate intake without, however, any interaction for an improved growth or glucose utilisation in the peripheral tissues.

  12. Genomic selection of crossing partners on basis of the expected mean and variance of their derived lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthushenrich, Tanja; Frisch, Matthias; Herzog, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In a line or a hybrid breeding program superior lines are selected from a breeding pool as parental lines for the next breeding cycle. From a cross of two parental lines, new lines are derived by single-seed descent (SSD) or doubled haploid (DH) technology. However, not all possible crosses between the parental lines can be carried out due to limited resources. Our objectives were to present formulas to characterize a cross by the mean and variance of the genotypic values of the lines derived from the cross, and to apply the formulas to predict means and variances of flowering time traits in recombinant inbred line families of a publicly available data set in maize. We derived formulas which are based on the expected linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two loci and which can be used for arbitrary mating systems. Results were worked out for SSD and DH lines derived from a cross after an arbitrary number of intermating generations. The means and variances were highly correlated with results obtained by the simulation software PopVar. Compared with these simulations, computation time for our closed formulas was about ten times faster. The means and variances for flowering time traits observed in the recombinant inbred line families of the investigated data set showed correlations of around 0.9 for the means and of 0.46 and 0.65 for the standard deviations with the estimated values. We conclude that our results provide a framework that can be exploited to increase the efficiency of hybrid and line breeding programs by extending genomic selection approaches to the selection of crossing partners.

  13. Genomic selection of crossing partners on basis of the expected mean and variance of their derived lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthushenrich, Tanja; Frisch, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In a line or a hybrid breeding program superior lines are selected from a breeding pool as parental lines for the next breeding cycle. From a cross of two parental lines, new lines are derived by single-seed descent (SSD) or doubled haploid (DH) technology. However, not all possible crosses between the parental lines can be carried out due to limited resources. Our objectives were to present formulas to characterize a cross by the mean and variance of the genotypic values of the lines derived from the cross, and to apply the formulas to predict means and variances of flowering time traits in recombinant inbred line families of a publicly available data set in maize. We derived formulas which are based on the expected linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two loci and which can be used for arbitrary mating systems. Results were worked out for SSD and DH lines derived from a cross after an arbitrary number of intermating generations. The means and variances were highly correlated with results obtained by the simulation software PopVar. Compared with these simulations, computation time for our closed formulas was about ten times faster. The means and variances for flowering time traits observed in the recombinant inbred line families of the investigated data set showed correlations of around 0.9 for the means and of 0.46 and 0.65 for the standard deviations with the estimated values. We conclude that our results provide a framework that can be exploited to increase the efficiency of hybrid and line breeding programs by extending genomic selection approaches to the selection of crossing partners. PMID:29200436

  14. Rats bred for high alcohol drinking are more sensitive to delayed and probabilistic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, C J; Mitchell, S H

    2008-10-01

    Alcoholics and heavy drinkers score higher on measures of impulsivity than nonalcoholics and light drinkers. This may be because of factors that predate drug exposure (e.g. genetics). This study examined the role of genetics by comparing impulsivity measures in ethanol-naive rats selectively bred based on their high [high alcohol drinking (HAD)] or low [low alcohol drinking (LAD)] consumption of ethanol. Replicates 1 and 2 of the HAD and LAD rats, developed by the University of Indiana Alcohol Research Center, completed two different discounting tasks. Delay discounting examines sensitivity to rewards that are delayed in time and is commonly used to assess 'choice' impulsivity. Probability discounting examines sensitivity to the uncertain delivery of rewards and has been used to assess risk taking and risk assessment. High alcohol drinking rats discounted delayed and probabilistic rewards more steeply than LAD rats. Discount rates associated with probabilistic and delayed rewards were weakly correlated, while bias was strongly correlated with discount rate in both delay and probability discounting. The results suggest that selective breeding for high alcohol consumption selects for animals that are more sensitive to delayed and probabilistic outcomes. Sensitivity to delayed or probabilistic outcomes may be predictive of future drinking in genetically predisposed individuals.

  15. A phenome database (NEAUHLFPD) designed and constructed for broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Dong, Xiang-yu; Liang, Hao; Leng, Li; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shou-zhi; Li, Hui; Du, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-05-20

    Effective management and analysis of precisely recorded phenotypic traits are important components of the selection and breeding of superior livestocks. Over two decades, we divergently selected chicken lines for abdominal fat content at Northeast Agricultural University (Northeast Agricultural University High and Low Fat, NEAUHLF), and collected large volume of phenotypic data related to the investigation on molecular genetic basis of adipose tissue deposition in broilers. To effectively and systematically store, manage and analyze phenotypic data, we built the NEAUHLF Phenome Database (NEAUHLFPD). NEAUHLFPD included the following phenotypic records: pedigree (generations 1-19) and 29 phenotypes, such as body sizes and weights, carcass traits and their corresponding rates. The design and construction strategy of NEAUHLFPD were executed as follows: (1) Framework design. We used Apache as our web server, MySQL and Navicat as database management tools, and PHP as the HTML-embedded language to create dynamic interactive website. (2) Structural components. On the main interface, detailed introduction on the composition, function, and the index buttons of the basic structure of the database could be found. The functional modules of NEAUHLFPD had two main components: the first module referred to the physical storage space for phenotypic data, in which functional manipulation on data can be realized, such as data indexing, filtering, range-setting, searching, etc.; the second module related to the calculation of basic descriptive statistics, where data filtered from the database can be used for the computation of basic statistical parameters and the simultaneous conditional sorting. NEAUHLFPD could be used to effectively store and manage not only phenotypic, but also genotypic and genomics data, which can facilitate further investigation on the molecular genetic basis of chicken adipose tissue growth and development, and expedite the selection and breeding of broilers

  16. GABAB Receptor Stimulation Accentuates the Locomotor Effects of Morphine in Mice Bred for Extreme Sensitivity to the Stimulant Effects of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Holstein, Sarah E.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2006-01-01

    Mice selectively bred for divergent sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol (FAST and SLOW) also differ in their locomotor response to morphine. The GABAB receptor has been implicated in the mediation of locomotor stimulation to both ethanol and morphine, and a reduction in ethanol-induced stimulation has been found with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen in FAST mice. We hypothesized that GABAB receptor activation would also attenuate the locomotor stimulant responses to m...

  17. Selective removal of heavy metals from metal-bearing wastewater in a cascade line reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Jelena; Stopić, Srećko; Friedrich, Bernd; Kamberović, Zeljko

    2007-11-01

    This paper is a part of the research work on 'Integrated treatment of industrial wastes towards prevention of regional water resources contamination - INTREAT' the project. It addresses the environmental pollution problems associated with solid and liquid waste/effluents produced by sulfide ore mining and metallurgical activities in the Copper Mining and Smelting Complex Bor (RTB-BOR), Serbia. However, since the minimum solubility for the different metals usually found in the polluted water occurs at different pH values and the hydroxide precipitates are amphoteric in nature, selective removal of mixed metals could be achieved as the multiple stage precipitation. For this reason, acid mine water had to be treated in multiple stages in a continuous precipitation system-cascade line reactor. All experiments were performed using synthetic metal-bearing effluent with chemical a composition similar to the effluent from open pit, Copper Mining and Smelting Complex Bor (RTB-BOR). That effluent is characterized by low pH (1.78) due to the content of sulfuric acid and heavy metals, such as Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn with concentrations of 76.680, 26.130, 0.113, 11.490, 1.020 mg/dm3, respectively. The cascade line reactor is equipped with the following components: for feeding of effluents, for injection of the precipitation agent, for pH measurements and control, and for removal of the process gases. The precipitation agent was 1M NaOH. In each of the three reactors, a changing of pH and temperature was observed. In order to verify. efficiency of heavy metals removal, chemical analyses of samples taken at different pH was done using AES-ICP. Consumption of NaOH in reactors was 370 cm3, 40 cm3 and 80 cm3, respectively. Total time of the experiment was 4 h including feeding of the first reactor. The time necessary to achieve the defined pH value was 25 min for the first reactor and 13 min for both second and third reactors. Taking into account the complete process in the cascade line

  18. Myosin heavy chain isoform expression in adult and juvenile mini-muscle mice bred for high-voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, Robert J; Acosta, Wendy; Garland, Theodore

    2014-11-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform composition of locomotor and non-locomotor muscles of mini-muscle mice were assessed at the protein and mRNA levels in both adult and juvenile (21 day old) mice. Mini-muscle mice are one outcome of a replicated artificial selection experiment in which four lines of mice were bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines). Two of the lines responded with an increase in frequency of a single nucleotide polymorphism in an intron in the MyHC-2b gene (myh4) that when homozygous causes a dramatic reduction in triceps surae mass. We found that both locomotor and non-locomotor muscles of adult mini-muscle mice displayed robust reductions, but not elimination, of the MyHC-2b isoform at both the protein and mRNA levels, with commensurate increases in MyHC-2x and sometimes MyHC-2a, as compared with either a line of HR mice that does not display the mini-muscle phenotype or inbred C57Bl6 mice. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that locomotor muscles of mini-muscle mice contain fibers that express the MyHC-2b isoform, which migrates normally in SDS-PAGE gels. However, these MyHC-2b positive fibers are generally smaller than the surrounding fibers and smaller than the MyHC-2b positive fibers of non-mini-muscle mice, resulting in characteristically fast muscles that lack a substantial MyHC-2b positive (superficial) region. In contrast, the masseter, a non-locomotor muscle of mini-muscle mice contained MyHC-2b positive fibers that stained more lightly for MyHC-2b, but appeared normal in size and distribution. In adults, many of the MyHC-2b positive fibers in the mini-muscle mice also display central nuclei. Only a small proportion of small MyHC-2b fibers in mini-muscle mice stained positive for the neural cell adhesion molecule, suggesting that anatomical innervation was not compromised. In addition, weanling (21 day old), but not 5 day old mice, displayed alterations in MyHC isoform content at both the protein and mRNA levels, including

  19. Measurement-Based Transmission Line Parameter Estimation with Adaptive Data Selection Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Changgang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Hengxu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate parameters of transmission lines are critical for power system operation and control decision making. Transmission line parameter estimation based on measured data is an effective way to enhance the validity of the parameters. This paper proposes a multi-point transmission line parameter...

  20. The spatial intensity distribution of selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 - Comparison between theory and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Bohm, K.H.; Raga, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that most of the spatial intensity distribution of 11 selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 (including the forbidden S II emission lines at 6731 A and 4069 A, the forbidden O III line at 5007 A, and the forbidden O II line at 3727 A) can be explained by a bow shock with a shock velocity of about 150-200 km/sec at the stagnation point, and under the assumption that the gas entering the shock is fully preionized. The results are based on three spectrograms (with a total exposure time of 180 min) obtained consecutively. Specifically, the ratios of each of the forbidden lines to H-alpha were studied, which permitted a critical test of the model. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observations was found to be remarkable, considering the complex geometry that a bow shock could have. 38 refs

  1. Selective excitation of singly-ionized silver emission lines by Grimm glow discharge plasmas using several different plasma gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagatsuma, K.

    1996-01-01

    The relative intensities of silver emission lines from Grimm glow discharge plasmas were investigated in the wavelength range from 160 to 600 nm when using different plasma gases. It was characteristic of the plasma excitation that the spectral patterns were strongly dependent on the nature of the plasma gas employed. Intense emission lines of silver ion were observed when argon-helium mixed gases were employed as the plasma gas. Selective excitation of the ionic lines could be principally attributed to the charge transfer collisions between silver atoms and helium ions. (orig.)

  2. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized.

  3. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized

  4. Selection of Novel Peptides Homing the 4T1 CELL Line: Exploring Alternative Targets for Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L Silva

    Full Text Available The use of bacteriophages to select novel ligands has been widely explored for cancer therapy. Their application is most warranted in cancer subtypes lacking knowledge on how to target the cancer cells in question, such as the triple negative breast cancer, eventually leading to the development of alternative nanomedicines for cancer therapeutics. Therefore, the following study aimed to select and characterize novel peptides for a triple negative breast cancer murine mammary carcinoma cell line- 4T1. Using phage display, 7 and 12 amino acid random peptide libraries were screened against the 4T1 cell line. A total of four rounds, plus a counter-selection round using the 3T3 murine fibroblast cell line, was performed. The enriched selective peptides were characterized and their binding capacity towards 4T1 tissue samples was confirmed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. The selected peptides (4T1pep1 -CPTASNTSC and 4T1pep2-EVQSSKFPAHVS were enriched over few rounds of selection and exhibited specific binding to the 4T1 cell line. Interestingly, affinity to the human MDA-MB-231 cell line was also observed for both peptides, promoting the translational application of these novel ligands between species. Additionally, bioinformatics analysis suggested that both peptides target human Mucin-16. This protein has been implicated in different types of cancer, as it is involved in many important cellular functions. This study strongly supports the need of finding alternative targeting systems for TNBC and the peptides herein selected exhibit promising future application as novel homing peptides for breast cancer therapy.

  5. Genome-wide characterization of genetic variants and putative regions under selection in meat and egg-type chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschiero, Clarissa; Moreira, Gabriel Costa Monteiro; Gheyas, Almas Ara; Godoy, Thaís Fernanda; Gasparin, Gustavo; Mariani, Pilar Drummond Sampaio Corrêa; Paduan, Marcela; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2018-01-25

    Meat and egg-type chickens have been selected for several generations for different traits. Artificial and natural selection for different phenotypes can change frequency of genetic variants, leaving particular genomic footprints throghtout the genome. Thus, the aims of this study were to sequence 28 chickens from two Brazilian lines (meat and white egg-type) and use this information to characterize genome-wide genetic variations, identify putative regions under selection using Fst method, and find putative pathways under selection. A total of 13.93 million SNPs and 1.36 million INDELs were identified, with more variants detected from the broiler (meat-type) line. Although most were located in non-coding regions, we identified 7255 intolerant non-synonymous SNPs, 512 stopgain/loss SNPs, 1381 frameshift and 1094 non-frameshift INDELs that may alter protein functions. Genes harboring intolerant non-synonymous SNPs affected metabolic pathways related mainly to reproduction and endocrine systems in the white-egg layer line, and lipid metabolism and metabolic diseases in the broiler line. Fst analysis in sliding windows, using SNPs and INDELs separately, identified over 300 putative regions of selection overlapping with more than 250 genes. For the first time in chicken, INDEL variants were considered for selection signature analysis, showing high level of correlation in results between SNP and INDEL data. The putative regions of selection signatures revealed interesting candidate genes and pathways related to important phenotypic traits in chicken, such as lipid metabolism, growth, reproduction, and cardiac development. In this study, Fst method was applied to identify high confidence putative regions under selection, providing novel insights into selection footprints that can help elucidate the functional mechanisms underlying different phenotypic traits relevant to meat and egg-type chicken lines. In addition, we generated a large catalog of line-specific and common

  6. N-Linked Glycosylation is an Important Parameter for Optimal Selection of Cell Lines Producing Biopharmaceutical Human IgG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, Patrick H. C.; Gerritsen, Jolanda; Perdok, Gerrard; Valbjorn, Jesper; Vink, Tom; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the variations in N-linked glycosylation of human IgG molecules derived from 105 different stable cell lines each expressing one of the six different antibodies. Antibody expression was based on glutamine synthetase selection technology in suspension growing CHO-KISV cells. The glycans

  7. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines(Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Joo Bong; Lee, Young Il; Song, Hee Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Young Keun; Shin, In Chul; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Woon; Lim, Yong Taek

    1992-08-01

    The radiosensitivity and salt resistance on the single cell and callus of potato, mass production method of plantlet and microtuber of potato by in vitro culture and microtuber formation from the stem irradiated with radiation were investigated to obtain a optimum condition for selection of mutant cell line. (Author)

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 541 - Criteria for Selecting Light Duty Truck Lines Likely To Have High Theft Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Likely To Have High Theft Rates C Appendix C to Part 541 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt. 541, App. C Appendix C to Part 541—Criteria for Selecting Light Duty Truck Lines Likely To Have High Theft Rates Scope These criteria specify the factors the...

  9. Optimization of temperature-programmed GC separations. II. Off-line simplex optimization and column selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, H.M.J.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Sandra, P; Bertsch, W.; Sandra, P.; Devos, G.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a method is described which allows off-line optimization of temperature programmed GC separations. Recently, we described a new numerical method to predict off-line retention times and peak widths of a mixture containing components with known identities in capillary GC. In the present

  10. Selection of wheat lines with resistance to Fusarium graminearum by somaclonal variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guangzu

    1997-10-01

    The screening wheat new lines which have the resistance to Fusarium graminearum were completed by in vitro induced mutation and cell screening. Four new lines with resistance to Fusarium graminearum were obtained. The field inoculating determination in 1990∼1996 showed that their resistance was 1∼2 degree higher than that of parents, and there were variations in main agronomic traits between the new lines and their parents. Changes of the defensive enzymes (SOD, POD), sugar-protein on cell surface, and ultrastructure were investigated by using new lines and their parents under the action of toxin of Fusarium graminearum. The new lines under the action of toxin of Fusarium graminearum have the ability to increase the defensive enzyme activity and thickness of sugarprotein on cell surface and to reduce the damage of cell membrane system that would result in resistance increasing. (8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.)

  11. Effective selection criteria for screening drought tolerant recombinant inbred lines of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Nishtman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seventy two sunflower recombinant inbred lines were tested for their yielding ability under both water-stressed and well-watered states. The inbred lines were evaluated in a rectangular 8´9 lattice design with two replications in both well-watered and water-stressed conditions, separately. Eight drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index (STI, mean productivity (MP, geometric mean productivity (GMP, harmonic mean (HM, stress susceptibility index (SSI, tolerance index (TOL, yield index (YI and yield stability index (YSI were calculated based on grain yield for every genotype. Results showed the highest values of mean productivity (MP index, geometric mean productivity (GMP, yield index (YI, harmonic mean (HM and stress tolerance index (STI indices for ‘C134a’ inbred line and least values of stress susceptibility index (SSI and tolerance (TOL for C61 inbred line. According to correlation of indices with yield performance under both drought stress and non-stress states and principle component analysis, indices including HM, MP, GMP and STI could properly distinguish drought tolerant sunflower inbred lines with high yield performance under both states. Cluster analysis of inbred lines using Ys, Yp and eight indices, categorized them into four groups including 19, 6, 26 and 19 inbred lines.

  12. [Selected enhancement of different order stokes lines of SRS by using fluorescence of mixed dye solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hao-yi; Gao, Jie; Yang, Jing-guo

    2007-03-01

    A new method to enhance the intensity of the different orders of Stokes lines of SRS by using mixed dye fluorescence is reported. The Stokes lines from the second-order to the fifth-order of CCl4 were enhanced by the fluorescence of mixed R6G and RB solutions in different proportions of 20:2, 20:13 and 20:40 (R6g:Rb), respectively. It is considered that the Stokes lines from the second-order to the fifth-order are near the fluorescence peaks of the three mixed solutions, and far from the absorption peaks of R6g and Rb, so the enhancement effect dominates the absorption effect; as a result, these stokes lines are enhanced. On the contrary, the first-order stokes line is near the absorption peak of RB and far from the fluorescence peaks of the mixed solutions, which leads to the weakening of this stokes line. It is also reported that the first-order, the second-order and the third-order Stokes lines of benzene were enhanced by the fluorescence of mixed solutions of R6g and DCM with of different proportions. The potential application of this method is forecasted.

  13. Cytokines Expression and Nitric Oxide Production under Induced Infection to Typhimurium in Chicken Lines Divergently Selected for Cutaneous Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on cell-mediated immunity (CMI was investigated in 5 week-old immuno divergent broiler lines selected for the high and low response to phytohemagglutinin-P. The immune response was assessed in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs induced with Salmonella Typhimurium at different time intervals (0 h, 0.5 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. The differential mRNA expression patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2 and iNOS were evaluated by quantitative real time PCR. In-vitro production of nitric oxide (NO was also estimated in the culture supernatant and correlated with iNOS mRNA expression. Present study showed higher production of NO in the high cell-mediated line (HCMI as compared to the low cell-mediated line (LCMI upon stimulation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Correspondingly, higher mRNA expression of iNOS and IFN-γ were observed in high response birds (HCMI; but IL-2 was down regulated in this line compared to the low response birds (LCMI. Significantly (p<0.05 higher expression of iNOS, IFN-γ and higher production of NO in high line indicated that the selection for PHA-P response might be employed for increasing the immune competence against Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken flocks.

  14. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z ∼ 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Hayes, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Scarlata, Claudia; Mehta, Vihang [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Henry, Alaina; Hathi, Nimish; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Haardt, Francesco [DiSAT, Università dellInsubria, via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Siana, Brian [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneously selected z ∼ 2.5 SFGs. We detect no escaping Lyman continuum from SFGs selected on [O ii] nebular emission ( N = 208) and, within a narrow redshift range, on [O iii]/[O ii]. We measure 1 σ upper limits to the LyC escape fraction relative to the non-ionizing UV continuum from [O ii] emitters, f {sub esc} ≲ 5.6%, and strong [O iii]/[O ii] > 5 ELGs, f {sub esc} ≲ 14.0%. Our observations are not deep enough to detect f {sub esc} ∼ 10% typical of low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters. However, we find that this population represents a small fraction of the star-forming galaxy population at z ∼ 2. Thus, unless the number of extreme emission line galaxies grows substantially to z ≳ 6, such galaxies may be insufficient for reionization. Deeper survey data in the rest-frame ionizing UV will be necessary to determine whether strong line ratios could be useful for pre-selecting LyC leakers at high redshift.

  15. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z ∼ 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Hayes, Matthew; Scarlata, Claudia; Mehta, Vihang; Henry, Alaina; Hathi, Nimish; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier; Teplitz, Harry I.; Haardt, Francesco; Siana, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneously selected z ∼ 2.5 SFGs. We detect no escaping Lyman continuum from SFGs selected on [O ii] nebular emission ( N = 208) and, within a narrow redshift range, on [O iii]/[O ii]. We measure 1 σ upper limits to the LyC escape fraction relative to the non-ionizing UV continuum from [O ii] emitters, f _e_s_c ≲ 5.6%, and strong [O iii]/[O ii] > 5 ELGs, f _e_s_c ≲ 14.0%. Our observations are not deep enough to detect f _e_s_c ∼ 10% typical of low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters. However, we find that this population represents a small fraction of the star-forming galaxy population at z ∼ 2. Thus, unless the number of extreme emission line galaxies grows substantially to z ≳ 6, such galaxies may be insufficient for reionization. Deeper survey data in the rest-frame ionizing UV will be necessary to determine whether strong line ratios could be useful for pre-selecting LyC leakers at high redshift.

  16. Data compression can discriminate broilers by selection line, detect haplotypes, and estimate genetic potential for complex phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, N J; Hawken, R J; Okimoto, R; Sapp, R L; Reverter, A

    2017-09-01

    Accurately establishing the relationships among individuals lays the foundation for genetic analyses such as genome-wide association studies and identification of selection signatures. Of particular interest to the poultry industry are estimates of genetic merit based on molecular data. These estimates can be commercially exploited in marker-assisted breeding programs to accelerate genetic improvement. Here, we test the utility of a new method we have recently developed to estimate animal relatedness and applied it to genetic parameter estimation in commercial broilers. Our approach is based on the concept of data compression from information theory. Using the real-world compressor gzip to estimate normalized compression distance (NCD) we have built compression-based relationship matrices (CRM) for 988 chickens from 4 commercial broiler lines-2 male and 2 female lines. For all pairs of individuals, we found a strong negative relationship between the commonly used genomic relationship matrix (GRM) and NCD. This reflects the fact that "similarity" is the inverse of "distance." The CRM explained more genetic variation than the corresponding GRM in 2 of 3 phenotypes, with corresponding improvements in accuracy of genomic-enabled predictions of breeding value. A sliding-window version of the analysis highlighted haplotype regions of the genome apparently under selection in a line-specific manner. In the male lines, we retrieved high population-specific scores for IGF-1 and a cognate receptor, INSR. For the female lines, we detected an extreme score for a region containing a reproductive hormone receptor (GNRHR). We conclude that our compression-based method is a valid approach to established relationships and identify regions under selective pressure in commercial lines of broiler chickens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Evaluating genetic traceability methods for captive-bred marine fish and their applications in fisheries management and wildlife forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Bylemans, Jonas; Maes, Gregory E.; Diopere, Eveline; Cariani, Alessia; Senn, Helen; Taylor, Martin I.; Helyar, Sarah; Bargelloni, Luca; Bonaldo, Alessio; Carvalho, Gary; Guarniero, Ilaria; Komen, Hans; Martinsohn, Jann Th; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Tinti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Growing demands for marine fish products is leading to increased pressure on already depleted wild populations and a rise in aquaculture production. Consequently, more captive-bred fish are released into the wild through accidental escape or deliberate releases. The increased mixing of captive-bred and wild fish may affect the ecological and/or genetic integrity of wild fish populations. Unambiguous identification tools for captive-bred fish will be highly valuable to manage risks (fisheries ...

  18. AFLP and AMP Fingerprints as Markers to Evaluate Genetic Differences between Medicago truncatula Line Jemalong and 2HA, a New Line Produced by in vitro Culture Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Irwanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new line, Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong 2HA (herein known as 2HA has been developed via repetitive regeneration and selection of M. truncatula cv. Jemalong. During somatic embryogenesis, 2HA produces 500 times more embryos than its progenitor, Jemalong. It is interesting to study if those two lines are isogenic or has genetic differences. The main objectives of the study was to evaluate the genotypic differences between Jemalong and 2HA also to evaluate the methylation event in 2HA utilized two DNA fingerprinting techniques, i.e AFLP fingerprints (Amplified Length of Polymorphism and AMP (Amplified Methylation Polymorphism. The results showed that AFLP analysis using eight primers combinations could not detect any differences between Jemalong and 2HA. However, using AMP methylation sensitive primers it could detect 15 polymorphisms out of 840 markers. These results lead to a conclusion that Jemalong and 2HA are isogenic lines. 2HA may have higher regeneration capacities due to methylation process which occurs during the production of 2HA through repetitive regeneration cycles.

  19. Selective breeding of two lines of guinea pigs differing in bronchial sensitivity to acetylcholine and histamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, H; Nishibata, R; Kawamoto, Y; Ino, T

    1991-04-01

    We developed two lines of guinea pigs, one as model animals for bronchial asthma with bronchial hypersensitivity and the other with hyposensitivity as a control. In the last four years, the bronchial hypersensitive line (BHS) and hyposensitive line (BHR), both derived from Hartley strain guinea pigs, have been selected by using bronchial reactivity to acetylcholine and to histamine as parameters. Both lines have reached the F6 generation. The following results were obtained with the two lines: 1) Sib and cous in matings, and mating of selected consanguineous individuals were adopted in breeding BHS and BHR. The breeding started with six families, each, but in the F6 generation the number of families decreased to two in each line. 2) Appearance rates of hyper- or hyposensitivity to acetylcholine and histamine increased with successive generations in both lines, which had been completely separated by the F6 generation. 3) Coefficients of inbreeding in BHS and BHR in the F6 generation ranged from 42% to 45% in the former and 42% in the latter. 4) Heritabilities (h2) of BHS and BHR for the appearance rates of sensitivity to acetylcholine were presumed to be 0.54 in the former and 0.69 in the latter. 5) No difference in the body weight of 0, 20, and 40 day-old BHS was observed in any generation. On the other hand, the body weight of 20 and 40 day-old BHR tended to decrease with successive generations. 6) Mean litter sizes of BHS and BHR in each of the generations ranged from 2.24 to 3.47 animals in the former and from 2.63 to 3.38 animals in the latter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. An automatic optimum number of well-distributed ground control lines selection procedure based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Somayeh; Valadan Zoej, Mohammad Javad; Salehi, Bahram

    2018-05-01

    The procedure of selecting an optimum number and best distribution of ground control information is important in order to reach accurate and robust registration results. This paper proposes a new general procedure based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is applicable for all kinds of features (point, line, and areal features). However, linear features due to their unique characteristics are of interest in this investigation. This method is called Optimum number of Well-Distributed ground control Information Selection (OWDIS) procedure. Using this method, a population of binary chromosomes is randomly initialized. The ones indicate the presence of a pair of conjugate lines as a GCL and zeros specify the absence. The chromosome length is considered equal to the number of all conjugate lines. For each chromosome, the unknown parameters of a proper mathematical model can be calculated using the selected GCLs (ones in each chromosome). Then, a limited number of Check Points (CPs) are used to evaluate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each chromosome as its fitness value. The procedure continues until reaching a stopping criterion. The number and position of ones in the best chromosome indicate the selected GCLs among all conjugate lines. To evaluate the proposed method, a GeoEye and an Ikonos Images are used over different areas of Iran. Comparing the obtained results by the proposed method in a traditional RFM with conventional methods that use all conjugate lines as GCLs shows five times the accuracy improvement (pixel level accuracy) as well as the strength of the proposed method. To prevent an over-parametrization error in a traditional RFM due to the selection of a high number of improper correlated terms, an optimized line-based RFM is also proposed. The results show the superiority of the combination of the proposed OWDIS method with an optimized line-based RFM in terms of increasing the accuracy to better than 0.7 pixel, reliability, and reducing systematic

  1. High-Specificity Targeted Functional Profiling in Microbial Communities with ShortBRED.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kaminski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Profiling microbial community function from metagenomic sequencing data remains a computationally challenging problem. Mapping millions of DNA reads from such samples to reference protein databases requires long run-times, and short read lengths can result in spurious hits to unrelated proteins (loss of specificity. We developed ShortBRED (Short, Better Representative Extract Dataset to address these challenges, facilitating fast, accurate functional profiling of metagenomic samples. ShortBRED consists of two components: (i a method that reduces reference proteins of interest to short, highly representative amino acid sequences ("markers" and (ii a search step that maps reads to these markers to quantify the relative abundance of their associated proteins. After evaluating ShortBRED on synthetic data, we applied it to profile antibiotic resistance protein families in the gut microbiomes of individuals from the United States, China, Malawi, and Venezuela. Our results support antibiotic resistance as a core function in the human gut microbiome, with tetracycline-resistant ribosomal protection proteins and Class A beta-lactamases being the most widely distributed resistance mechanisms worldwide. ShortBRED markers are applicable to other homology-based search tasks, which we demonstrate here by identifying phylogenetic signatures of antibiotic resistance across more than 3,000 microbial isolate genomes. ShortBRED can be applied to profile a wide variety of protein families of interest; the software, source code, and documentation are available for download at http://huttenhower.sph.harvard.edu/shortbred.

  2. First- and Second-Line Targeted Systemic Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma—An Update on Patient Selection and Response Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann von Felden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with vascular invasion and/or extrahepatic spread and preserved liver function, according to stage C of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC classification, has a dismal prognosis. The multi-targeted tyrosine-kinase receptor inhibitor (TKI sorafenib is the only proven active substance in systemic HCC therapy for first-line treatment. In this review, we summarize current aspects in patient selection and management of side effects, and provide an update on response evaluation during first-line sorafenib therapy. Since second-line treatment options have been improved with the successful completion of the RESORCE trial, demonstrating a survival benefit for second-line treatment with the TKI regorafenib, response monitoring during first-line therapy will be critical to deliver optimal systemic therapy in HCC. To this regard, specific side effects, in particular worsening of arterial hypertension and diarrhea, might suggest treatment response during first-line sorafenib therapy; however, clear predictive clinical markers, as well as laboratory test or serum markers, are not established. Assessment of radiologic response according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST is helpful to identify patients who do not benefit from sorafenib treatment.

  3. Reduced metabolic disease risk profile by voluntary wheel running accompanying juvenile Western diet in rats bred for high and low voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Braselton, Joshua F; Roberts, Christian K; Booth, Frank W

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic disease risk is influenced by genetics and modifiable factors, such as physical activity and diet. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, rats selectively bred for high (HVR) versus low voluntary running distance (LVR) behaviors were housed in a complex design with or without voluntary running wheels being fed either a standard or Western (WD, 42% kcal from fat and added sucrose) diet for 8 weeks. Upon intervention completion, percent body fat, leptin, insulin, and mediobasal hypothalamic mRNAs related to appetite control were assessed. Wheel access led to differences in body weight, food intake, and serum leptin and insulin. Intriguingly, percent body fat, leptin, and insulin did not differ between HVR and LVR lines in response to the two levels of voluntary running, regardless of diet, after the 8 wk. experiment despite HVR eating more calories than LVR regardless of diet and voluntarily running 5-7 times further in wheels than LVR. In response to WD, we observed increases in Cart and Lepr mediobasal hypothalamic mRNA in HVR, but no differences in LVR. Npy mRNA was intrinsically greater in LVR than HVR, while wheel access led to greater Pomc and Cart mRNA in LVR versus HVR. These data suggest that despite greater consumption of WD, HVR animals respond similarly to WD as LVR as a result, in part, of their increased wheel running behavior. Furthermore, high physical activity in HVR may offset the deleterious effects of a WD on adiposity despite greater energy intake in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Selection of an analytical line for determining lithium in aluminum alloys by laser induced breakdown spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednev, V.N.; Yakovlev, A.V.; Labutin, T.A.; Popov, A.M.; Zorov, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    Possibilities for determining lithium in aluminum alloys by laser spark spectrometry are studied. The optimum conditions for registering the emission signal of lithium at which the effect of the continuous background radiation of the laser plasma attains a minimum are found. The possibility of determining lithium by laser spark spectrometry using the spectral line at 610 nm is studied for the first time. A comparison of the detection limits and sensitivities of determining lithium by emission its lines at 610 and 671 nm has indicated the advisability of using the line 610 nm for the studied alloys. The detection limit calculated using the 3σ test was found to be 230 ppm (610 nm) and 870 ppm (671 nm) [ru

  5. Evaluation of TFAM and FABP4 gene polymorphisms in three lines of Nellore cattle selected for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, D R; Souza, F R P; Mercadante, M E Z; Fonseca, L F S; Tonhati, H; Cyrillo, J N S G; Bonilha, S F M; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-10-19

    We analyzed the polymorphisms TFAM HaeIII, TFAM MboI and FABP4 MspA1I in three Nellore lines selected for growth in order to evaluate how selection affects the frequencies of these polymorphisms and evaluate their association with growth and carcass traits in Zebu cattle. Birth, weaning and yearling weights, rump height, longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness were analyzed. The sample was constituted of animals from two lines selected for yearling weight (NeS and NeT), and a control line (NeC), established in 1980, at the São Paulo Instituto de Zootecnia. Two hundred and seventy-two heifers were genotyped for TFAM gene SNPs, and 325 heifers were genotyped for the FABP4 SNP. High frequencies were observed for the alleles A (TFAM HaeIII), C (TFAM MboI) and C (FABP4 MspA1I). Significant differences in allele frequencies between NeS and NeT were observed for the TFAM HaeIII, and between the line NeT and lines NeC and NeS for the FABP4 MspA1I SNP. Five haplotypes were observed for the two polymorphisms in the TFAM gene, haplotype AACC being the most frequent. None of the markers separately or according to haplotype was significantly associated with the growth and carcass traits. The low frequencies of alleles that are associated with high marbling scores and thick subcutaneous fat in taurine breeds might explain the low means for these traits in Nellore cattle.

  6. Prevalence of Balantidium coli Infection in Bred Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Guangxi, southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Long Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Balantidium coli infects humans, primates and pigs, causing serious diarrhea and dysentery. Little information on the prevalence of B. coli in primates is available in China. This investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence of B. coli infection in bred rhesus monkeys in Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region (GZNAR, southern China.A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from rhesus monkeys bred in cages in GZNAR and B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites were examined microscopically after sedimentation with water in May 2013.(64.2% samples were tested positive. The prevalence was 65% (39/60 and 63.3% (38/60 in female and male monkeys, respectively. 80% (48/60 cages in this nonhuman primate center were positive for B. coli.The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in bred rhesus monkeys in GZNAR, which poses potential threats to animal and human health.

  7. Genetic variation assessed with microsatellites in mass selection lines of the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xubo; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng

    2016-12-01

    Four successive mass selection lines of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, selected for faster growth in breeding programs in China were examined at ten polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess the level of allelic diversity and estimate the effective population size. These data were compared with those of their base population. The results showed that the genetic variation of the four generations were maintained at high levels with an average allelic richness of 18.8-20.6, and a mean expected heterozygosity of 0.902-0.921. They were not reduced compared with those of their base population. Estimated effective population sizes based on temporal variances in microsatellite frequencies were smaller to that of sex ratio-corrected broodstock count estimates. Using a relatively large number of broodstock and keeping an equal sex ratio in the broodstock each generation may have contributed to retaining the original genetic diversity and maintaining relatively large effective population size. The results obtained in this study showed that the genetic variation was not affected greatly by mass selection progress and high genetic variation still existed in the mass selection lines, suggesting that there is still potential for increasing the gains in future generations of C. gigas. The present study provided important information for future genetic improvement by selective breeding, and for the design of suitable management guidelines for genetic breeding of C. gigas.

  8. Accuracy and simultaneous selection gains for N-stress tolerance and N-use efficiency in maize tropical lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Freitas Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Maize plants can be N-use efficient or N-stress tolerant. The first have high yields in favorable environments but is drastically affected under stress conditions; whereas the second show satisfactory yields in stressful environments but only moderate ones under optimal conditions. In this context, our aim was to assess the possibility of selecting tropical maize lines that are simultaneously N-stress tolerant and N-use efficient and check for differences between simultaneous selection statistical methods. Sixty-four tropical maize lines were evaluated for Nitrogen Agronomic Efficiency (NAE and Low Nitrogen Tolerance (LNTI response indices and two per se selection indices, Low Nitrogen Agronomic Efficiency (LNAE and Harmonic Mean of Relative Performance (HMRP. We performed eight selection scenarios: LNAE; HMRP; Additive index; Mulamba-Mock index; and Independent culling levels. The last three was predicted by REML/BLUP single-trait and multi-trait using genotypic values of NAE and LNTI. The REML/BLUP multi-trait analysis was superior to the single-trait analysis due to high unfavorable correlation between NAE and LNTI. However, the accuracy and genotypic determination coefficient of NAE and LNTI were too low. Thus, neither single- nor multi-trait analysis achieved a good result for simultaneous selection nor N-use efficiency nor N-stress tolerance. LNAE obtained satisfactorily accurate values and genotypic determination coefficient, but its performance in selection gain was worse than HMRP, particularly in terms of N-use efficiency. Therefore, because of the superior performance in accuracy, genotypic determination coefficient and selection, HMRP was considered the best simultaneous selection methodology of the scenarios tested for N-use efficiency and N-stress tolerance.

  9. A COUP-TFII Human Embryonic Stem Cell Reporter Line to Identify and Select Atrial Cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwach, Verena; Verkerk, Arie O.; Mol, Mervyn; Monshouwer-Kloots, Jantine J.; Devalla, Harsha D.; Orlova, Valeria V.; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Mummery, Christine L.; Davis, Richard P.; Passier, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Reporter cell lines have already proven valuable in identifying, tracking, and purifying cardiac subtypes and progenitors during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). We previously showed that chick ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) is highly enriched

  10. Hybridization of downregulated-COMT transgenic switchgrass lines with field selected switchgrass for improved biomass traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been produced for improved cell walls for biofuels. Downregulated caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) switchgrass produced significantly more biomass and biofuel than the non-transgenic progenitor line. In the present study we sought to further...

  11. Physiological and molecular analysis of selected Kenyan maize lines for aluminum tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important limitation to maize production in many tropical and sub-tropical acid soil areas. The aim of this study was to survey the variation in Al tolerance in a panel of maize lines adapted for Kenya and look for novel sources of Al tolerance. 112 Kenyan maize accessio...

  12. Biologic activity of the novel orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) KPT-335 against canine melanoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Exportin 1 (XPO1, also known as CRM1), is a chaperone protein responsible for the export of over 200 target proteins out of the nucleus. The expression and activity of XPO1 is upregulated in several human cancers and its expression is also linked to the development of chemotherapy resistance. Recent studies using both human and murine cancer cell lines have demonstrated that XPO1 is a relevant target for therapeutic intervention. The present study sought to characterize the biologic activity of an orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE), KPT-335, against canine melanoma cell lines as a prelude to future clinical trials in dogs with melanoma. Results We evaluated the effects of KPT-335 on 4 canine malignant melanoma cell lines and found that KPT-335 inhibited proliferation, blocked colony formation, and induced apoptosis of treated cells at biologically relevant concentrations of drug. Additionally, KPT-335 downregulated XPO1 protein while inducing a concomitant increase in XPO1 messenger RNA. Lastly, KPT-335 treatment of cell lines upregulated the expression of both protein and mRNA for the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and p21, and promoted their nuclear localization. Conclusions KPT-335 demonstrates biologic activity against canine melanoma cell lines at physiologically relevant doses, suggesting that KPT-335 may represent a viable treatment option for dogs with malignant melanoma. PMID:25022346

  13. A Novel Inhibitor Of Topoisomerase I is Selectively Toxic For A Subset of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SW044248, identified through a screen for chemicals that are selectively toxic for NSCLC cell lines, was found to rapidly inhibit macromolecular synthesis in sensitive, but not in insensitive cells. SW044248 killed approximately 15% of a panel of 74 NSCLC cell lines and was non-toxic to immortalized human bronchial cell lines.

  14. Mice divergently selected for high and low basal metabolic rates evolved different cell size and organ mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciak, S; Bonda-Ostaszewska, E; Czarnołęski, M; Konarzewski, M; Kozłowski, J

    2014-03-01

    Evolution of metabolic rates of multicellular organisms is hypothesized to reflect the evolution of their cell architecture. This is likely to stem from a tight link between the sizes of cells and nuclei, which are expected to be inversely related to cell metabolism. Here, we analysed basal metabolic rate (BMR), internal organ masses and the cell/nucleus size in different tissues of laboratory mice divergently selected for high/low mass-corrected BMR and four random-bred mouse lines. Random-bred lines had intermediate levels of BMR as compared to low- and high-BMR lines. Yet, this pattern was only partly consistent with the between-line differences in cell/nucleus sizes. Erythrocytes and skin epithelium cells were smaller in the high-BMR line than in other lines, but the cells of low-BMR and random-bred mice were similar in size. On the other hand, the size of hepatocytes, kidney proximal tubule cells and duodenum enterocytes were larger in high-BMR mice than other lines. All cell and nucleus sizes were positively correlated, which supports the role of the nucleus in cell size regulation. Our results suggest that the evolution of high BMR involves a reduction in cell size in specialized tissues, whose functions are primarily dictated by surface-to-volume ratios, such as erythrocytes. High BMR may, however, also incur an increase in cell size in tissues with an intense transcription and translation, such as hepatocytes. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. FLAX OIL FROM TRANSGENIC LINUM USITATISSIMUM SELECTIVELY INHIBITS IN VITRO PROLIFERATION OF HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebarowski, Tomasz; Gebczak, Katarzyna; Wiatrak, Benita; Kulma, Anna; Pelc, Katarzyna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan; Gasiorowski, Kazimierz

    2017-03-01

    Emulsions made of oils from transgenic flaxseeds significantly decreased in vitro proliferation of six tested human cancer cell lines in 48-h cultures, as assessed with the standard sulforhodamine assay. However, the emulsions also increased proliferation rate of normal human dermal fibroblasts and, to a lower extend, of keratinocytes. Both inhibition of in vitro proliferation of human cancer cell lines and stimulation of proliferation of normal dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were especially strong with the emulsion type B and with emulsion type M. Oils from seeds of transgenic flax type B and M should be considered as valuable adjunct to standard cytostatic therapy of human cancers and also could be applied to improve the treatment of skin lesions in wound healing.

  16. THE JET POWER AND EMISSION-LINE CORRELATIONS OF RADIO-LOUD OPTICALLY SELECTED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punsly, Brian; Zhang Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, the properties of the extended radio emission form Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasars with 0.4 20-30 kpc). The frequency of quasars with FR II level extended radio emission is ∼2.3% and >0.4% of quasars have FR I level extended radio emission. The lower limit simply reflects the flux density limit of the survey. The distribution of the long-term time-averaged jet powers of these quasars, Q-bar , has a broad peak ∼3 x 10 44 erg s -1 that turns over below 10 44 erg s -1 and sources above 10 45 erg s -1 are extremely rare. It is found that the correlation between the bolometric (total thermal) luminosity of the accretion flow, L bol , and Q-bar is not strong. The correlation of Q-bar with narrow line luminosity is stronger than the correlation with broad line luminosity and the continuum luminosity. It is therefore concluded that previous interpretations of correlations of Q-bar with narrow line strengths in radio galaxies as a direct correlation of jet power and accretion power have been overstated. It is explained why this interpretation mistakenly overlooks the sizeable fraction of sources with weak accretion luminosity and powerful jets discovered by Ogle et al.

  17. 50 CFR 23.63 - What factors are considered in making a finding that an animal is bred in captivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... finding that an animal is bred in captivity? 23.63 Section 23.63 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... controlled environment; and has general characteristics that may include artificial housing, waste removal... means an ensemble of captive wildlife used for reproduction. (c) Bred-in-captivity criteria. For a...

  18. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs. PMID:27504097

  19. Spectral properties of the narrow-line region in Seyfert galaxies selected from the SDSS-DR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaona, L.; Ciroi, S.; Di Mille, F.; Cracco, V.; La Mura, G.; Rafanelli, P.

    2012-12-01

    Although the properties of the narrow-line region (NLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) have been deeply studied by many authors in the past three decades, many questions are still open. The main goal of this work is to explore the NLR of Seyfert galaxies by collecting a large statistical spectroscopic sample of Seyfert 2 and Intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies having a high signal-to-noise ratio in order to take advantage of a high number of emission lines to be accurately measured. 2153 Seyfert 2 and 521 Intermediate-type Seyfert spectra were selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) with a diagnostic diagram based on the oxygen emission-line ratios. All the emission lines, broad components included, were measured by means of a self-developed code, after the subtraction of the stellar component. Physical parameters, such as internal reddening, ionization parameter, temperature, density, gas and stellar velocity dispersion were determined for each object. Furthermore, we estimated mass and radius of the NLR, kinetic energy of the ionized gas and black hole accretion rate. From the emission-line analysis and the estimated physical properties, it appears that the NLR is similar in Seyfert 2 and Intermediate-Seyfert galaxies. The only differences, lower extinction, gas kinematics in general not dominated by the host galaxy gravitational potential and higher percentage of [O III]λ5007 blue asymmetries in Intermediate-Seyfert, can be ascribed to an effect of inclination of our line of sight with respect to the torus axis.

  20. High spin spectroscopy near the N=Z line: Channel selection and excitation energy systematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, C.E.; Cameron, J.A.; Flibotte, S. [McMaster Univ., Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The total {gamma}-ray and charged-particle energies emitted in fusion-evaporation reactions leading to N=Z compound systems in the A = 50-70 mass region have been measured with the 8{pi} {gamma}-ray spectrometer and the miniball charged-particle detector array. A new method of channel selection has been developed which combines particle identification with these total energy measurements and greatly improves upon the selectivity possible with particle detection alone. In addition, the event by event measurement of total {gamma}-ray energies using the BGO ball of the 8{pi} spectrometer has allowed a determination of excitation energies following particle evaporation for a large number of channels in several different reactions. The new channel selection procedure and excitation energy systematics are illustrated with data from the reaction of {sup 24}Mg on {sup 40}Ca at E{sub lab} = 80MeV.

  1. Progress in selection for sodium chloride, 2,4-D dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and streptomycin tolerance in Citrus sinensis ovular callus lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochba, J.; Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1982-01-01

    Citrus sinensis (cultivar Shamouti) nucellar embryogenic callus lines with greatly increased tolerance to salinity (NaCl), 2,4-D and streptomycin were selected. Selected lines were found stable after removal of selection pressure. Gamma irradiation at 8-16 kR was also employed and found to speed up selections. Embryos from NaCl and 2,4-D tolerant lines also showed increased tolerance. Embryogenesis in selected lines, suppressed during selection procedures, was regained by growing cultures in the presence of galactose or lactose as the sole carbon source. A schedule was worked out furthering development of embryos into plantlets. Conditions for adventive shoot formation from embryonic shoot segments were established, thus allowing cloning of embryos. A procedure was worked out for suspension culture and agar plating of cell groups. (author)

  2. Selective apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cell line by truncated minimal functional region of Apoptin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ni, Lim; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah bt; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi b; Othman, Abas Mazni b; Othman, Fauziah bt

    2013-01-01

    Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) VP3 protein (also known as Apoptin), a basic and proline-rich protein has a unique capability in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Five truncated Apoptin proteins were analyzed to determine their selective ability to migrate into the nucleus of human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells for inducing apoptosis. For identification of the minimal selective domain for apoptosis, the wild-type Apoptin gene had been reconstructed by PCR to generate segmental deletions at the N’ terminal and linked with nuclear localization sites (NLS1 and NLS2). All the constructs were fused with maltose-binding protein gene and individually expressed by in vitro Rapid Translation System. Standardized dose of proteins were delivered into human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and control human liver Chang cells by cytoplasmic microinjection, and subsequently observed for selective apoptosis effect. Three of the truncated Apoptin proteins with N-terminal deletions spanning amino acid 32–83 retained the cancer selective nature of wild-type Apoptin. The proteins were successfully translocated to the nucleus of MCF-7 cells initiating apoptosis, whereas non-toxic cytoplasmic retention was observed in normal Chang cells. Whilst these truncated proteins retained the tumour-specific death effector ability, the specificity for MCF-7 cells was lost in two other truncated proteins that harbor deletions at amino acid 1–31. The detection of apoptosing normal Chang cells and MCF-7 cells upon cytoplasmic microinjection of these proteins implicated a loss in Apoptin’s signature targeting activity. Therefore, the critical stretch spanning amino acid 1–31 at the upstream of a known hydrophobic leucine-rich stretch (LRS) was strongly suggested as one of the prerequisite region in Apoptin for cancer targeting. Identification of this selective domain provides a platform for developing small targets to facilitating carrier-mediated-transport across

  3. Bull fertility evaluations for Angus service sires bred to Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a phenotypic evaluation of service-sire fertility implemented in August 2008, is based on data from the most recent 4 years, conventional-semen breedings up to 7 services, and cow parities 1 through 5. Many US dairy cows are now being bred to Angus sires because beef pric...

  4. Incidence and risk factors of milk fever among cross-bred dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted on 206 cross-bred dairy cows in different dairy herds in Khartoum State, Sudan, during the period from March 2003 to June 2004 to determine the prevalence and incidence rate of milk fever (MF) based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis, and to recognize the risk factors associated with the ...

  5. 40 CFR 1045.310 - How must I select engines for production-line testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... select and test one more engine. Then, calculate the required sample size for the model year as described.... It defines 95% confidence intervals for a one-tail distribution. σ = Test sample standard deviation (see paragraph (c)(2) of this section). x = Mean of emission test results of the sample. STD = Emission...

  6. Selection of scFvs specific for the HepG2 cell line using ribosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    the important advantage of requiring no prior knowledge of ... were amplified separately by RT-PCR, and an anti-HepG2 VH/k chain ribosome display library was constructed ..... Engert A, Hudson P R and Power B E 2007 Selection of human.

  7. A multi attribute decision making method for selection of optimal assembly line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vijaya Ramnath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With globalization, sweeping technological development, and increasing competition, customers are placing greater demands on manufacturers to increase quality, flexibility, on time delivery of product and less cost. Therefore, manufacturers must develop and maintain a high degree of coherence among competitive priorities, order winning criteria and improvement activities. Thus, the production managers are making an attempt to transform their organization by adopting familiar and beneficial management philosophies like cellular manufacturing (CM, lean manufacturing (LM, green manufacturing (GM, total quality management (TQM, agile manufacturing (AM, and just in time manufacturing (JIT. The main objective of this paper is to propose an optimal assembly method for an engine manufacturer’s assembly line in India. Currently, the Indian manufacturer is following traditional assembly method where the raw materials for assembly are kept along the sideways of conveyor line. It consumes more floor space, more work in process inventory, more operator's walking time and more operator's walking distance per day. In order to reduce the above mentioned wastes, lean kitting assembly is suggested by some managers. Another group of managers suggest JIT assembly as it consumes very less inventory cost compared to other types of assembly processes. Hence, a Multi-attribute decision making model namely analytical hierarchy process (AHP is applied to analyse the alternative assembly methods based on various important factors.

  8. Induction of mutations in Thai rice varieties and subsequent selection and testing of beneficial mutant lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasananda, S; Khambanonda, P [Ministry of Agriculture, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1970-03-01

    Ionizing radiations were first used in the Thailand Rice Breeding Program in 1955 when seeds of two recommended varieties were sent to the United States of America for treatment. As a result, five promising mutant lines are at present in regional yield tests where they are being considered for recommendation to rice growers. During the period 1960-1961 an unsuccessful attempt was made to induce resistance to blast in three susceptible varieties by exposing seeds to a local source of ionizing radiation In 1964, after an elapse of about 4 years, another attempt was made to utilize ionizing radiations in the breeding program by treating seeds of two recommended varieties. In 1965, a co-ordinated rice mutation breeding program was initiated under the auspices of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture which resulted in treating seeds of twelve different rice varieties with both ethyl methane sulphonate and gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co gamma cell. The results so far indicate that mutagenic agents have been successful in producing genetic variability. Differences in heading date, mature plant height and plant type are frequently observed in the M{sub 2} and M{sub 3} generations. Several lines obtained from two of the irradiated varieties have exhibited a higher degree of resistance to blast than the parental material. From 15-kR treatments of non-glutinous varieties, mutants with glutinous endosperm have been obtained. Not all varieties gave the same response to treatment. (author)

  9. Selected plantar pressure characteristics associated with the skating performance of national in-line speed skaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Hsu, Hsiu-Tao; Chu, I-Hua; Tsai, Feng-Hua; Liang, Jing-Min

    2017-06-01

    In order to help coaches analyse the techniques of professional in-line speed skaters for making the required fine adjustments and corrections in their push-off work, this study analysed the specific plantar pressure characteristics during a 300-m time-trial test. Fourteen elite in-line speed skaters from the national team were recruited in this study. The total completion time of the 300-m time-trial test, duration of each skating phase, and plantar pressure distribution were measured. The correlation between plantar pressure distribution and skating performance was assessed using Pearson correlation analyses. The results showed that the contact time of the total foot and force-time integral (FTI) in the medial forefoot were significantly correlated with the duration of the start phase, and the FTIs in the medial forefoot of the gliding (left) leg and lateral forefoot of the pushing (right) leg were significantly correlated with the duration of the turning phase. The maximum force in the medial heel, medial forefoot, and median forefoot and the FTI in the medial heel and medial forefoot were significantly correlated with the duration of the linear acceleration phase. The results suggest that a correct plantar loading area and push-off strategy can enhance the skating performance.

  10. Genetic parameters and selection for resistance to bacterial spot in recombinant F6 lines of Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to advance generations and select superior sweet pepper genotypes with resistance tobacterial spot, using the breeding method Single Seed Descent (SSD based on the segregating population derived from thecross between Capsicum annuum L. UENF 1421 (susceptible, non-pungent and UENF 1381 (resistant, pungent. Thesegregating F3 generation was grown in pots in a greenhouse until the F5 generation. The F6 generation was grown in fieldconditions. The reaction to bacterial spot was evaluated by inoculation with isolate ENA 4135 of Xanthomonas campestris pv.vesicatoria, based on a score scale and by calculating the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The presence orabsence of capsaicin was also assessed. Eighteen F6 lines were bacterial leaf spot-resistant. Since no capsaicin was detectedin the F6 lines 032, 316, 399, 434, and 517, these will be used in the next steps of the sweet pepper breeding program.

  11. Chickens from lines artificially selected for juvenile low and high body weight differ in glucose homeostasis and pancreas physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumners, L H; Zhang, W; Zhao, X; Honaker, C F; Zhang, S; Cline, M A; Siegel, P B; Gilbert, E R

    2014-06-01

    Artificial selection of White Plymouth Rock chickens for juvenile (day 56) body weight resulted in two divergent genetic lines: hypophagic low weight (LWS) chickens and hyperphagic obese high weight (HWS) chickens, with the latter more than 10-fold heavier than the former at selection age. A study was designed to investigate glucose regulation and pancreas physiology at selection age in LWS chickens and HWS chickens. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests revealed differences in threshold sensitivity to insulin and glucose clearance rate between the lines. Results from real-time PCR showed greater pancreatic mRNA expression of four glucose regulatory genes (preproinsulin, PPI; preproglucagon, PPG; glucose transporter 2, GLUT2; and pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1, Pdx1) in LWS chickens, than HWS chickens. Histological analysis of the pancreas revealed that HWS chickens have larger pancreatic islets, less pancreatic islet mass, and more pancreatic inflammation than LWS chickens, all of which presumably contribute to impaired glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sigma Virus (DMelSV Incidence in Lines of Drosophila melanogaster Selected for Survival following Infection with Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan L. Bentz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response of Drosophila melanogaster is complex and involves both specific and general responses to parasites. In this study we tested for cross-immunity for bacteria and viruses by scoring the incidence of infection with the vertically transmitted Sigma virus (DMelSV in the progeny of a cross between females transmitting DMelSV at high frequencies and males from lines subjected to three selection regimes related to resistance to Bacillus cereus. There was no significant difference in transmission of DMelSV among selection regimes, though results suggest that the B. cereus selected lines had lower rates of infection by DMelSV. We found a significant difference in viral infection with respect to the sex of the progeny, with males consistently less likely to be infected than females. Given a finite energy budget, flies that have experienced immune system challenge may show alterations in other life history traits. Later eclosing progeny were also less likely to be infected than earlier eclosing progeny, indicating a relationship with development time. Finally, there was a significant interaction between the timing of collection and the sex of the progeny, such that later eclosing males were the most resistant group. Increased development time is sometimes associated with increased energy acquisition; from this perspective, increased development time may be associated with acquiring sufficient resources for effective resistance.

  13. Selection of maintaining, method for keeping of biologial purity, patternship and health, regarding viruses infection of distinguished potato breeding lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza MIKE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A large number of potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines disappeared as an effect of nonfavourable climatically conditions and especially by viruses diseases, as well as other biological and viruses degeneration. To avoid the negative effect of degeneration on potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines, the method of selection for maintaining and multiplication of potato is applying in Romania in the frame of National Center for Maintaining of potato varieties and distinguished breeding lines Apa Rosie, Covasna County, which belong to the Station for Research and Development of Potato, Targu Secuiesc, Covasna County.In this center are maintained and multiplied all distinguished varieties and breeding centers from Romania (National Institute for research and Development of Potato and Sugar beet Brasov, Research and Development Station for Agriculture Suceava, Research and Development Station for Potato Targu Secuiesc, Research and development Station for Potato Miercurea Ciuc.Using the method of selection for maintaining it is possible an early identification of somatic mutations, disease (especially viruses infection by visual elimination or by serological testing.The viruses’ infection of potato leads to disturbed the metabolism of plants and produces anatomical – morphological alters as: mosaic, crinkle, rolling, browning of leaves and plants deformation.The disturbing of plant metabolism has as negative effect the reduction of vegetation period, decreasing the yield capacity, depreciation of physical and chemical quality of tubers.The genetically complex structure of cultivated potato (2n = 4x = 48 and strong segregation of long – expected characters in the obtained future progeny by sexual hybridization, complicated many times by nonfavourable linkage, are the backgrounds for initiation of maintain selection.

  14. Desmoid-type fibromatosis: a front-line conservative approach to select patients for surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Marco; Rimareix, Françoise; Mariani, Luigi; Domont, Julien; Collini, Paola; Le Péchoux, Cecile; Casali, Paolo G; Le Cesne, Axel; Gronchi, Alessandro; Bonvalot, Sylvie

    2009-09-01

    Surgery is still the standard treatment for desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF). Recently, the Institut Gustave Roussy (IGR), Villejuif, France, reported a series of patients treated with a front-line conservative approach (no surgery and no radiotherapy). The disease remained stable in more than half of patients. This study was designed to evaluate this approach on the natural history of the disease in a larger series of patients. A total of 142 patients presenting to the IGR or Istituto Nazionale Tumori (INT), Milan, Italy, were initially treated using a front-line deliberately conservative policy. Their progression-free survival (PFS) was observed and a multivariate analysis was performed for major clinical variables. Seventy-four patients presented with primary tumor, 68 with recurrence. Eighty-three patients received a "wait & see" policy (W&S), whereas 59 were initially offered medical therapy (MT), mainly hormonal therapy and chemotherapy. A family history of sporadic colorectal cancer was present in 8% of patients. The 5-year PFS was 49.9% for the W&S group and 58.6% for the medically treated patients (P = 0.3196). Similar results emerged for primary and recurrent DF. Multivariate analysis identified no clinical variables as independent predictors of PFS. In the event of progression, all patients were subsequently managed safely. A conservative policy could be a safe approach to primary and recurrent DF, which could avoid unnecessary morbidity from surgery and/or radiation therapy. Half of patients had medium-term stable disease after W&S or MT. A multidisciplinary, stepwise approach should be prospectively tested in DF.

  15. Rapid selection and proliferation of CD133+ cells from cancer cell lines: chemotherapeutic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Kelly

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are considered a subset of the bulk tumor responsible for initiating and maintaining the disease. Several surface cellular markers have been recently used to identify CSCs. Among those is CD133, which is expressed by hematopoietic progenitor cells as well as embryonic stem cells and various cancers. We have recently isolated and cultured CD133 positive [CD133+] cells from various cancer cell lines using a NASA developed Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB (Celdyne, Houston, TX. For comparison, another bioreactor, the rotary cell culture system (RCCS manufactured by Synthecon (Houston, TX was used. Both the HFB and the RCCS bioreactors simulate aspects of hypogravity. In our study, the HFB increased CD133+ cell growth from various cell lines compared to the RCCS vessel and to normal gravity control. We observed a +15-fold proliferation of the CD133+ cellular fraction with cancer cells that were cultured for 7-days at optimized conditions. The RCCS vessel instead yielded a (-4.8-fold decrease in the CD133+cellular fraction respect to the HFB after 7-days of culture. Interestingly, we also found that the hypogravity environment of the HFB greatly sensitized the CD133+ cancer cells, which are normally resistant to chemo treatment, to become susceptible to various chemotherapeutic agents, paving the way to less toxic and more effective chemotherapeutic treatment in patients. To be able to test the efficacy of cytotoxic agents in vitro prior to their use in clinical setting on cancer cells as well as on cancer stem cells may pave the way to more effective chemotherapeutic strategies in patients. This could be an important advancement in the therapeutic options of oncologic patients, allowing for more targeted and personalized chemotherapy regimens as well as for higher response rates.

  16. Program scheme using common source lines in channel stacked NAND flash memory with layer selection by multilevel operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Bin; Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Seunghyun; Lee, Sang-Ho; Park, Byung-Gook

    2018-02-01

    To obtain high channel boosting potential and reduce a program disturbance in channel stacked NAND flash memory with layer selection by multilevel (LSM) operation, a new program scheme using boosted common source line (CSL) is proposed. The proposed scheme can be achieved by applying proper bias to each layer through its own CSL. Technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations are performed to verify the validity of the new method in LSM. Through TCAD simulation, it is revealed that the program disturbance characteristics is effectively improved by the proposed scheme.

  17. Efficient Banknote Recognition Based on Selection of Discriminative Regions with One-Dimensional Visible-Light Line Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyen Danh Pham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Banknote papers are automatically recognized and classified in various machines, such as vending machines, automatic teller machines (ATM, and banknote-counting machines. Previous studies on automatic classification of banknotes have been based on the optical characteristics of banknote papers. On each banknote image, there are regions more distinguishable than others in terms of banknote types, sides, and directions. However, there has been little previous research on banknote recognition that has addressed the selection of distinguishable areas. To overcome this problem, we propose a method for recognizing banknotes by selecting more discriminative regions based on similarity mapping, using images captured by a one-dimensional visible light line sensor. Experimental results with various types of banknote databases show that our proposed method outperforms previous methods.

  18. Efficient Banknote Recognition Based on Selection of Discriminative Regions with One-Dimensional Visible-Light Line Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Young Ho; Kwon, Seung Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2016-03-04

    Banknote papers are automatically recognized and classified in various machines, such as vending machines, automatic teller machines (ATM), and banknote-counting machines. Previous studies on automatic classification of banknotes have been based on the optical characteristics of banknote papers. On each banknote image, there are regions more distinguishable than others in terms of banknote types, sides, and directions. However, there has been little previous research on banknote recognition that has addressed the selection of distinguishable areas. To overcome this problem, we propose a method for recognizing banknotes by selecting more discriminative regions based on similarity mapping, using images captured by a one-dimensional visible light line sensor. Experimental results with various types of banknote databases show that our proposed method outperforms previous methods.

  19. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study.

  20. Evaluation of yield in Gamma Radiated Lines Selected from Mutated Generations of Mungbean (Vigna radiata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Thandar; Phyu Hnin Htike; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The induced mutation through different gamma radiation frequencies 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500Gy in mungbean was studied for yield components in M3 generation. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was employed with three replications in this experiment. The data collected from M3 generation were subjected to statistical analysis with the help of Excel (Microsoft office 2007) and for pairs wise comparison of groups was by SPSS program.In primary yield components, there were no significant difference in M3 generation of pods per plant, pod length and seeds per pod except 100 seeds weight. The plant treated with 250 Gy and 400Gy exploited the maximum value of one hundred seeds weight and yield per plant , respectively. Although there was no significant difference in secondary yield components; 50% flowering days, 50% maturity days and plant height in this generation, highest plant height at 200Gy and early flowering and maturity at 300Gy were obserded. The selection of individual plants in the M3 generation was carried out for high yield. In mutant selection, 250Gy and 400Gy revealed relatively more number of plants having good characters such as more number of pods per plant and longer pod length but not in other treatments and control.

  1. Multilocation trial of potential selected mutant lines of groundnut (arachis hypogaea) at 3 location in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Harun; Rusli Ibrahim; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin

    2002-01-01

    Two fixed mutant lines of groundnut derived from cultivar Matjan were selected for their yield potential at M 1 0 generation. Multilocation trial of these mutants (MJ40/42 and MJ20/165-5) was carried out to evaluate genotype stability at different climate and soil types in Peninsular Malaysia. The mutant lines were planted and compared with their parent (Matjan) and control variety (MKT1). The identified locations were in Taiping (Perak), Machang (Kelantan), and Air Hitam (Johor). The soils at the locations were of the Serdang, Bungor and Rengam series, respectively. The trial was carried out simultaneously in the same year at each location. Mutant MJ20/165-5 showed stable performance at all location compared to other genotypes tested. Its yield was higher than the parent in Kelantan and Johor trial and showed similar performance in Perak. This mutant also showed better yield performance than the control varieties in the Kelantan trial. Meanwhile, mutant line MJ40/42 gave better yield in Kelantan and Johor but did not perform well in Perak as compared to its parent and control varieties. (Author)

  2. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  3. Discrimination of tomatoes bred by spaceflight mutagenesis using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yongni; Xie, Chuanqi; Jiang, Linjun; Shi, Jiahui; Zhu, Jiajin; He, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Visible/near infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIR) based on sensitive wavelengths (SWs) and chemometrics was proposed to discriminate different tomatoes bred by spaceflight mutagenesis from their leafs or fruits (green or mature). The tomato breeds were mutant M1, M2 and their parent. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) were implemented for calibration models. PLS analysis was implemented for calibration models with different wavebands including the visible region (400-700 nm) and the near infrared region (700-1000 nm). The best PLS models were achieved in the visible region for the leaf and green fruit samples and in the near infrared region for the mature fruit samples. Furthermore, different latent variables (4-8 LVs for leafs, 5-9 LVs for green fruits, and 4-9 LVs for mature fruits) were used as inputs of LS-SVM to develop the LV-LS-SVM models with the grid search technique and radial basis function (RBF) kernel. The optimal LV-LS-SVM models were achieved with six LVs for the leaf samples, seven LVs for green fruits, and six LVs for mature fruits, respectively, and they outperformed the PLS models. Moreover, independent component analysis (ICA) was executed to select several SWs based on loading weights. The optimal LS-SVM model was achieved with SWs of 550-560 nm, 562-574 nm, 670-680 nm and 705-715 nm for the leaf samples; 548-556 nm, 559-564 nm, 678-685 nm and 962-974 nm for the green fruit samples; and 712-718 nm, 720-729 nm, 968-978 nm and 820-830 nm for the mature fruit samples. All of them had better performance than PLS and LV-LS-SVM, with the parameters of correlation coefficient (rp), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias of 0.9792, 0.2632 and 0.0901 based on leaf discrimination, 0.9837, 0.2783 and 0.1758 based on green fruit discrimination, 0.9804, 0.2215 and -0.0035 based on mature fruit discrimination, respectively. The overall results indicated that ICA was an effective way for the

  4. Aspects of Salt Tolerance in a NaCl-Selected Stable Cell Line of Citrus sinensis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hayyim, Gozal; Kochba, Joshua

    1983-01-01

    A NaCl-tolerant cell line which was selected from ovular callus of `Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) proved to be a true cell line variant. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (a) Cells which have been removed from the selection pressure for at least four passages retain the same NaCl tolerance as do cells which are kept constantly on 0.2 molar NaCl. (b) Na+ and Cl− uptake are considerably lower in salt-tolerant cells (R-10) than in salt-sensitive cells (L-5) at a given external NaCl concentration. (c) Growth of salt-tolerant cells is markedly suppressed upon replacement of NaCl by KCl, whereas the growth of salt-sensitive cells is only slightly affected. Accumulation of K+ and Cl− accompanies the inhibition of growth. Experiments carried out with sodium and potassium sulfate suggest that the toxic effect is due to the accumulated Cl−. (d) Removal of Ca2+ from the growth medium severely inhibits the growth of salt-tolerant cells in the presence of NaCl, while it has a minor effect on growth of salt-sensitive cells in the presence of NaCl. (e) Electron micrographs show that the salt-tolerant cells have very big vacuoles when exposed to salt, while the size of the vacuoles of the salt-sensitive cells does not change. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16663067

  5. Evaluation of some mutant lines of rice induced by gamma radiation treatment 1. mean performance of rice mutants in M4 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, M.N.; El-Wakil, H.M.F.; Ebaid, R.A.; Sallam, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Grains of eight rice mutants; SC 1, SC 6, RTY 1, RTY 3, HY 14, HYI 17, EH 4 and HYPI 22 were secured from Botany Department Faculty of Agriculture Cairo university. The procedures and the methodology for induction these mutants as well as the original mean performance of such mutants are presented else where; Sabbour, (1989) and Sabbour etal. (2002). Grains were sown (M4 generation) at the experimental farm in Itai EI-Baroud Agricultural Research Station Behaira Governorate Agricultural Research Center (ARC) in the summer season (2007). The mean performance of such mutants was studied during M4 generation. The most exciting results were as follows: the selected line SC 1 showed in M4 generation superior agronomic and yield traits. Sc 1 mutant line is not bred truly and it need more generations to reach stability. SC 6 in M4 generation showed considerable number of individuals scored low mean values toward the negative direction and lowering the overall trait mean performance. The rice lines RTY 1 and RTY 3 proved that, the average number of fertile tillers per plant of the selected lines maintained previously recorded mean values of M3 generation in M4. The traits showed significant differences among their progeny that recorded high CV% values as compared with those showed no significant differences. The rice lines HY 14 and HYI 17 showed a true breeding signs and no more breeding generations are required. Rice lines EH 4, showed a considerable reduction in number of days elapsed from date of cultivation till harvest. As, this mutant maintained 86.58 days till heading. Rice mutant line HYPI 22 did not bred truly for the original selected traits (high yield and high protein content) and it still need more generations of selection to reach considerable stability

  6. Comparison of productive and carcass traits and economic value of lines selected for different criteria, slaughtered at similar weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Szendrő

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare 3 genetic groups, slaughtered at similar weights, to examine their productive and carcass traits and economic value. Three lines of the Pannon Breeding Programme, selected for different criteria, were examined in the experiment. Pannon Ka (PKa, maternal line does were inseminated with semen of PKa, Pannon White (PWhite or Pannon Large (PLarge, terminal line bucks. The kits (PKa×PKa, PWhite×PKa, PLarge×PKa; n=60 in each genetic group were weaned at 35 d of age and reared until 88, 83 and 79, respectively, when they reached similar body weights for slaughtering (2.8 kg. The weight gain of PLarge×PKa was the largest (51.0 g/d and that of PKa×PKa was the smallest (47.2 g/d, while PWhite×PKa (41.8 g/d was intermediate (P<0.001. Difference was found in feed conversion ratio between weaning and the age of slaughter  PKa×PKa: 3.03 respect to PWhite×PKa: 2.75 and PLarge×PKa: 2.66; , P<0.05. Dressing out percentage and ratio of hind part to reference carcass of PWhite×PKa, PLarge×PKa and PKa×PKa were 62.4 and 37.7, 61.8 and 37.5, 61.3 and 36.8%, respectively (P<0.01. Results show that PLarge×PKa rabbits were able to exceed the average economic indicators compared to other groups. It may be concluded that the production performance of growing rabbits was affected by the adult weight, but the carcass traits were influenced by the computer tomography (CT-based selection.

  7. EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT 1.0 < z < 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Hasinger, Günther; Steinhardt, Charles; Silverman, John D.; Schramm, Malte

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the redshift range 1.0 < z < 2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z ≲ 2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the “AGN cosmic downsizing” phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the comoving number density at the bright end of the AGN luminosity function, together with the corresponding selection effects. However, one might need to consider a correlation between the AGN luminosity and the accretion rate of black holes, in which luminous AGNs have higher Eddington ratios than low-luminosity AGNs, in order to understand the relatively small fraction of low-luminosity AGNs with high accretion rates in this epoch. Therefore, the observed downsizing trend could be interpreted as massive black holes with low accretion rates, which are relatively fainter than less-massive black holes with efficient accretion

  8. Selection of the optimal combination of water vapor absorption lines for detection of temperature in combustion zones of mixing supersonic gas flows by diode laser absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironenko, V.R.; Kuritsyn, Yu.A.; Bolshov, M.A.; Liger, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Determination of a gas medium temperature by diode laser absorption spectrometry (DLAS) is based on the measurement of integral intensities of the absorption lines of a test molecule (generally water vapor molecule). In case of local thermodynamic equilibrium temperature is inferred from the ratio of the integral intensities of two lines with different low energy levels. For the total gas pressure above 1 atm the absorption lines are broadened and one cannot find isolated well resolved water vapor absorption lines within relatively narrow spectral interval of fast diode laser (DL) tuning range (about 3 cm"−"1). For diagnostics of a gas object in the case of high temperature and pressure DLAS technique can be realized with two diode lasers working in different spectral regions with strong absorption lines. In such situation the criteria of the optimal line selection differs significantly from the case of narrow lines. These criteria are discussed in our work. The software for selection the optimal spectral regions using the HITRAN-2012 and HITEMP data bases is developed. The program selects spectral regions of DL tuning, minimizing the error of temperature determination δT/T, basing on the attainable experimental error of line intensity measurement δS. Two combinations of optimal spectral regions were selected – (1.392 & 1.343 μm) and (1.392 & 1.339 μm). Different algorithms of experimental data processing are discussed.

  9. 49 CFR 542.1 - Procedures for selecting new light duty truck lines that are likely to have high or low theft rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... lines that are likely to have high or low theft rates. 542.1 Section 542.1 Transportation Other... OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR SELECTING LIGHT DUTY TRUCK LINES TO BE COVERED BY THE THEFT... or low theft rates. (a) Scope. This section sets forth the procedures for motor vehicle manufacturers...

  10. Fluoroorotic acid-selected Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell lines with a stable thymine starvation phenotype have lost the thymine-regulated transcriptional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, D; Thornburg, R

    2000-08-01

    We have selected 143 independent Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell lines that survive in the presence of 5-fluoroorotic acid. These lines show several diverse phenotypes. The majority of these cell lines showed reduced levels of UMP synthase. However, one particular phenotype, which represents 14% of the total independent lines (20 cell lines), showed an unexpected, high level of UMP synthase and was therefore analyzed in detail. The selected cell lines showed no differences with wild-type cells with respect to uptake of orotic acid, affinity of UMP synthase for its substrates, or UMP synthase gene-copy number. Alternative detoxification mechanisms were also excluded. The elevated enzyme activity was correlated with elevated UMP synthase protein levels as well as elevated UMP synthase mRNA levels. In contrast to wild-type cell lines, the fluoroorotic acid-selected cell lines did not respond to thymine or to other biochemicals that affect thymine levels. In addition, there was also a concomitant up-regulation of aspartate transcarbamoylase, however, dihydroorotase and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase are not up-regulated in these cell lines.

  11. Fluoroorotic Acid-Selected Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Cell Lines with a Stable Thymine Starvation Phenotype Have Lost the Thymine-Regulated Transcriptional Program1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Djoko; Thornburg, Robert

    2000-01-01

    We have selected 143 independent Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell lines that survive in the presence of 5-fluoroorotic acid. These lines show several diverse phenotypes. The majority of these cell lines showed reduced levels of UMP synthase. However, one particular phenotype, which represents 14% of the total independent lines (20 cell lines), showed an unexpected, high level of UMP synthase and was therefore analyzed in detail. The selected cell lines showed no differences with wild-type cells with respect to uptake of orotic acid, affinity of UMP synthase for its substrates, or UMP synthase gene-copy number. Alternative detoxification mechanisms were also excluded. The elevated enzyme activity was correlated with elevated UMP synthase protein levels as well as elevated UMP synthase mRNA levels. In contrast to wild-type cell lines, the fluoroorotic acid-selected cell lines did not respond to thymine or to other biochemicals that affect thymine levels. In addition, there was also a concomitant up-regulation of aspartate transcarbamoylase, however, dihydroorotase and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase are not up-regulated in these cell lines. PMID:10938367

  12. Differences in exterior conformation between primitive, Half-bred, and Thoroughbred horses: anatomic-breeding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosa, M; Frackowiak, H; Purzyc, H; Wojnowska, M; Gramacki, A; Gramacki, J

    2013-04-01

    The study included 249 horses belonging to 3 horse breeds. Konik horses, comprising the first group, is an example of a breed similar to the extinct Tarpan. In our study, these horses were taken to be a primitive anatomical model of the horse body. The other groups comprised the Polish Half-bred horse and Thoroughbred horse. The biometric characteristics of the horses were compared based on 24 indices. The aim of the paper was to find a reduced set of indices that can be used to determine group membership of the horses. To do this, we used statistical methods to find the most important indices that best discriminate breeds from each other. Chi-squared statistics, linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and 1-way ANOVA showed that the discrimination among groups of horses is connected with these 5 indices: scapula, smaller trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and coxal tuber), greater trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and ischial tuberosity), metacarpus circumference, and hind autopodium-smaller trunk. Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are clearly different in exterior conformation from Konik horses. The differences between Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are more subtle. The conformation of Thoroughbreds is jointly determined by relatively small differences in a range of features.

  13. Cadmium and lead accumulations and agronomic quality of a newly bred pollution-safe cultivar (PSC) of water spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Mu, Yang-Xiu; He, Chun-Tao; Fu, Hui-Ling; Wang, Xue-Song; Gong, Fei-Yue; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2018-04-01

    Breeding for pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) can reduce pollutant accumulation in crops. However, the PSC breeding would face the risk of nutritional quality reduction, which is usually ignored in conventional breeding programs targeting to increase crop yield or nutritional quality. Thus, the doubt whether the risk would exist has to be clarified for supporting the PSC breeding. In the present study, a newly bred Cd/Pb-PSC of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.) and its parents (QLQ with low-Cd/Pb accumulation ability and T308 with high yield) of water spinach were employed to clarify the above-mentioned issue. Yields, and concentrations of Cd, Pb, nitrite, and organic and inorganic nutrients in shoots of the three experimental lines were determined. There were no significant differences in Cd/Pb concentration between the new PSC and QLQ, in nitrite content between the new PSC and its two parents and in yield between the new PSC and T308. It is decisively significant that shoot concentrations of organic and inorganic nutrients in the Cd/Pb-PSC were as high as those in one of its parents. It is affirmed that the breeding operations (crossing and consequently continuous selfing) for lowering Cd/Pb accumulation capacity of water spinach would not lower the nutritional values of the obtained Cd/Pb-PSCs from the breeding, which should be a pillar that supports the feasibility to minimize Cd/Pb pollution in vegetables using PSC-breeding method.

  14. Design of the prototype of a beam transport line for handling and selection of low energy laser-driven beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, F., E-mail: francesco.schillaci@eli-beams.eu [INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Maggiore, M. [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Costa, M.; Rifuggiato, D.; Romano, F. [INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Scuderi, V. [INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines Project, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-21

    A first prototype of transport beam-line for laser-driven ion beams to be used for the handling of particles accelerated by high-power laser interacting with solid targets has been realized at INFN. The goal is the production of a controlled and stable beam in terms of energy and angular spread. The beam-line consists of two elements: an Energy Selection System (ESS), already realized and characterized with both conventional and laser-accelerated beams, and a Permanent Magnet Quadrupole system (PMQ) designed, in collaboration with SIGMAPHI (Fr), to improve the ESS performances. In this work a description of the ESS system and some results of its characterization with conventional beams are reported, in order to provide a complete explanation of the acceptance calculation. Then, the matching with the PMQ system is presented and, finally, the results of preliminary simulations with a realistic laser-driven energy spectrum are discussed demonstrating the possibility to provide a good quality beam downstream the systems.

  15. Experimental determination of line strengths for selected carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide absorption lines at temperatures between 295 and 1250 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvecz, P.J.; Nichols, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used for the determination of the line strengths of 41 CO and CO 2 absorption lines at temperatures between 295 and 1250 K. The CO vibrational-rotational lines were from the P branch of the fundamental absorption band (2150--1950 cm -1 ) while the CO 2 vibrational-rotational lines were from the far wing of the R branch of the ν 3 fundamental band (2395--2380 cm -1 ). The intensities of the lines were measured from absorption spectra recorded in a high-temperature gas cell containing known concentrations of CO/CO 2 /N 2 gas mixtures at atmospheric pressure. Absorption spectra were recorded through the cell with the use of a moderate-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The absorption spectra were mathematically corrected for distortions resulting from the finite resolution of the spectrometer and for peak overlap. Line strength measurements were made from the corrected peaks by using the Bouguer-Lambert law and assuming a Lorentzian line profile. The experimentally obtained line strengths were evaluated by statistical calculations, by consideration of the validity of the Bouguer-Lambert assumption for these data, by comparison with existing room-temperature and high-temperature data, and by comparison with theoretical calculations. For CO, the statistical analysis suggests that the reported values have an uncertainty of ±10--12%, which is similar to the observed discrepancies with other reported values at room temperature. At high temperatures, the difference between these data and previously reported data and theoretical predictions is less than 10%. For CO 2 , the statistical uncertainty associated with the line strength calculations is less than 5%, which is also the approximate level of agreement with existing room-temperature data

  16. A Comparison Between House Mouse Lines Selected for Attack Latency or Nest-Building : Evidence for a Genetic Basis of Alternative Behavioral Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, Frans; Bult, Abel; Lynch, Carol B.; Oortmerssen, Geert A. van; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    House mouse lines bidirectionally selected for either nest-building behavior or attack latency were tested for both attack latency and nest-building behavior under identical conditions. Male mice selected for high nest-building behavior had shorter attack latencies, i.e., were more aggressive, than

  17. Correlated effects of selection for immunity in White Leghorn chicken lines on natural antibodies and specific antibody responses to KLH and M. butyricum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minozzi, G.; Parmentier, H.K.; Mignon-Grasteau, S.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Bed'hom, B.; Gourichon, D.; Minvielle, F.; Pinard-van der Laan, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background - The effect of selection for three general immune response traits on primary antibody responses (Ab) to Mycobacterium butyricum or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was studied in four experimental lines of White Leghorn chicken. Birds underwent 12 generations of selection for one of three

  18. Improving Blast Resistance of a Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Line GD-8S by Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-ge LIU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi-1, from donor line BL122, was introduced into a thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice line GD-8S, which possessed good grain quality but high susceptibility to rice blast, by using backcross breeding and molecular marker-assisted selection. Five elite improved male sterile lines, RGD8S-1, RGD8S-2, RGD8S-3, RGD8S-4 and RGD8S-5, were selected based on the results of molecular marker analysis, spikelet sterility, recovery rate of genetic background and agronomic traits. Thirty-three representative blast isolates collected from Guangdong Province, China were used to inoculate the improved lines and the original line GD-8S artificially. The resistance frequencies of the improved lines ranged from 76.47% to 100%, much higher than that of the original line GD-8S (9.09%. On the agronomic characters, there were no significant differences between the improved lines and GD-8S except for flag leaf length and panicle number per plant. The improved lines could be used for breeding hybrid rice with high blast resistance.

  19. CYT387, a selective JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor: in vitro assessment of kinase selectivity and preclinical studies using cell lines and primary cells from polycythemia vera patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardanani, A; Lasho, T; Smith, G; Burns, C J; Fantino, E; Tefferi, A

    2009-08-01

    Somatic mutations in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), including JAK2V617F, result in dysregulated JAK-signal transducer and activator transcription (STAT) signaling, which is implicated in myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) pathogenesis. CYT387 is an ATP-competitive small molecule that potently inhibits JAK1/JAK2 kinases (IC(50)=11 and 18 nM, respectively), with significantly less activity against other kinases, including JAK3 (IC(50)=155 nM). CYT387 inhibits growth of Ba/F3-JAK2V617F and human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells (IC(50) approximately 1500 nM) or Ba/F3-MPLW515L cells (IC(50)=200 nM), but has considerably less activity against BCR-ABL harboring K562 cells (IC=58 000 nM). Cell lines harboring mutated JAK2 alleles (CHRF-288-11 or Ba/F3-TEL-JAK2) were inhibited more potently than the corresponding pair harboring mutated JAK3 alleles (CMK or Ba/F3-TEL-JAK3), and STAT-5 phosphorylation was inhibited in HEL cells with an IC(50)=400 nM. Furthermore, CYT387 selectively suppressed the in vitro growth of erythroid colonies harboring JAK2V617F from polycythemia vera (PV) patients, an effect that was attenuated by exogenous erythropoietin. Overall, our data indicate that the JAK1/JAK2 selective inhibitor CYT387 has potential for efficacious treatment of MPN harboring mutated JAK2 and MPL alleles.

  20. Assessment of DGAT1 and LEP gene polymorphisms in three Nelore (Bos indicus) lines selected for growth and their relationship with growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, F R P; Mercadante, M E Z; Fonseca, L F S; Ferreira, L M S; Regatieri, I C; Ayres, D R; Tonhati, H; Silva, S L; Razook, A G; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze LEP and DGAT1 gene polymorphisms in 3 Nelore lines selected for growth and to evaluate their effects on growth and carcass traits. Traits analyzed were birth, weaning, and yearling weight, rump height, LM area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness obtained by ultrasound. Two SNP in the LEP gene [LEP 1620(A/G) and LEP 305(T/C)] and the K232A mutation in the DGAT1 gene were analyzed. The sample consisted of 357 Nelore heifers from 2 lines selected for yearling weight and a control line, established in 1980, at the Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho (Sertãozinho, Brazil). Three genotypes were obtained for each marker. Differences in allele frequencies among the 3 lines were only observed for the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, with the frequency of the A allele being greater in the control line than in the selected lines. The DGAT1 K232A mutation was associated only with rump height, whereas LEP 1620(A/G) was associated with weaning weight and LEP 305(T/C) with birth weight and backfat thickness. However, more studies, with larger data sets, are necessary before these makers can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  1. Production of reciprocal translocation lines and genetical analysis of tetravalent behavior in barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Tokuhiko

    1988-03-01

    The seeds of a barley cultivar, Chikurinibaraki No.1 and of an early mutant line, Ea 52, derived from it were exposed to the external irradiation of gamma ray and thermal neutrons, and to the internal irradiation with the alpha ray from the nuclear reaction B-10 (n, alpha) Li-7 generated by the thermal neutron irradiation of B-10 imbibed seeds. The reciprocal translocation induced by these irradiation was detected and bred in the pedigrees of irradiated materials by the selection in terms of the partial sterility of seeds. The examination of seed fertility and chromosome pairing at the MI of meiosis of the F/sub 1/ hybrid between the selected lines and the original cultivar was also used. Consequently, 50 homozygous lines of reciprocal translocation were confirmed. The tester lines for translocated chromosomes were established by the cytological examination of the chromosome pairing in the hybrids between each two of the tester lines. The investigation of the inheritance of translocation heterozygotes showed that most of the newly obtained lines differently behaved from the expectation on the genetical basis of reciprocal translocation. (Kako, I.).

  2. Production of reciprocal translocation lines and genetical analysis of tetravalent behavior in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tokuhiko

    1988-01-01

    The seeds of a barley cultivar, Chikurinibaraki No.1 and of an early mutant line, Ea 52, derived from it were exposed to the external irradiation of gamma ray and thermal neutrons, and to the internal irradiation with the alpha ray from the nuclear reaction B-10 (n, alpha) Li-7 generated by the thermal neutron irradiation of B-10 imbibed seeds. The reciprocal translocation induced by these irradiation was detected and bred in the pedigrees of irradiated materials by the selection in terms of the partial sterility of seeds. The examination of seed fertility and chromosome pairing at the MI of meiosis of the F 1 hybrid between the selected lines and the original cultivar was also used. Consequently, 50 homozygous lines of reciprocal translocation were confirmed. The tester lines for translocated chromosomes were established by the cytological examination of the chromosome pairing in the hybrids between each two of the tester lines. The investigation of the inheritance of translocation heterozygotes showed that most of the newly obtained lines differently behaved from the expectation on the genetical basis of reciprocal translocation. (Kako, I.)

  3. Semi-dwarf mutant lines of hexaploid triticale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pidra, M.

    1989-01-01

    A spring form of hexaploid secondary triticale ADD 143/71, bred by MOGILEVA at the Plant Breeding Station at Uhretice was used for the mutagen treatment. The mutation experiment started in 1979. Seeds were treated with a 0.8 mM water solution of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNH) (CETL and RELICHOVA, unpublished). From 180 M 1 plants, one spike was harvested per plant. A random sample of these seeds was sown as M 2 in 1980 and several plants with shorter main culm were selected. Selfed progenies of eight mutant plants designated ADD 143-m1, ADD 143-m2, ADD 143-m3 etc. were further tested in M 3 and M 4 . There were significant differences in culm length and in some other characters between the original line and the mutant lines. Especially the line m8 looks like a promising source of semi-dwarfness for breeding programmes of hexaploid triticale. During 1985-1987 genetic analysis was performed on the ADD 143/71 and the mutant lines m2, m6, m7 and m8, which suggest that their mutant genes are allelic and recessive

  4. IVF or IUI as first-line treatment in unexplained subfertility: the conundrum of treatment selection markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; Tajik, P; Zafarmand, M H; Bensdorp, A J; Bossuyt, P M M; Oosterhuis, G J E; van Golde, R; Repping, S; Lambers, M D A; Slappendel, E; Perquin, D; Pelinck, M J; Gianotten, J; Maas, J W M; Eijkemans, M J C; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W; van Wely, M

    2017-05-01

    Are there treatment selection markers that could aid in identifying couples, with unexplained or mild male subfertility, who would have better chances of a healthy child with IVF with single embryo transfer (IVF-SET) than with IUI with ovarian stimulation (IUI-OS)? We did not find any treatment selection markers that were associated with better chances of a healthy child with IVF-SET instead of IUI-OS in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility. A recent trial, comparing IVF-SET to IUI-OS, found no evidence of a difference between live birth rates and multiple pregnancy rates. It was suggested that IUI-OS should remain the first-line treatment instead of IVF-SET in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility and female age between 18 and 38 years. The question remains whether there are some couples that may have higher pregnancy chances if treated with IVF-SET instead of IUI. We performed our analyses on data from the INeS trial, where couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility and an unfavourable prognosis for natural conception were randomly allocated to IVF-SET, IVF in a modified natural cycle or IUI-OS. In view of the aim of this study, we only used data of the comparison between IVF-SET (201 couples) and IUI-OS (207 couples). We pre-defined the following baseline characteristics as potential treatment selection markers: female age, ethnicity, smoking status, type of subfertility (primary/secondary), duration of subfertility, BMI, pre-wash total motile count and Hunault prediction score. For each potential treatment selection marker, we explored the association with the chances of a healthy child after IVF-SET and IUI-OS and tested if there was an interaction with treatment. Given the exploratory nature of our analysis, we used a P-value of 0.1. None of the markers were associated with higher chances of a healthy child from IVF-SET compared to IUI-OS (P-value for interaction >0.10). Since this is the first large study that looked at

  5. Relationship Between Selected Strength and Power Assessments to Peak and Average Velocity of the Drive Block in Offensive Line Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Bert H; Conchola, Eric C; Smith, Doug B; Akehi, Kazuma; Glass, Rob G

    2016-08-01

    Jacobson, BH, Conchola, EC, Smith, DB, Akehi, K, and Glass, RG. Relationship between selected strength and power assessments to peak and average velocity of the drive block in offensive line play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2202-2205, 2016-Typical strength training for football includes the squat and power clean (PC) and routinely measured variables include 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat and 1RM PC along with the vertical jump (VJ) for power. However, little research exists regarding the association between the strength exercises and velocity of an actual on-the-field performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of peak velocity (PV) and average velocity (AV) of the offensive line drive block to 1RM squat, 1RM PC, the VJ, body mass (BM), and body composition. One repetition maximum assessments for the squat and PC were recorded along with VJ height, BM, and percent body fat. These data were correlated with PV and AV while performing the drive block. Peal velocity and AV were assessed using a Tendo Power and Speed Analyzer as the linemen fired, from a 3-point stance into a stationary blocking dummy. Pearson product analysis yielded significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations between PV and AV and the VJ, the squat, and the PC. A significant inverse association was found for both PV and AV and body fat. These data help to confirm that the typical exercises recommended for American football linemen is positively associated with both PV and AV needed for the drive block effectiveness. It is recommended that these exercises remain the focus of a weight room protocol and that ancillary exercises be built around these exercises. Additionally, efforts to reduce body fat are recommended.

  6. Are voluntary wheel running and open-field behavior correlated in mice? Different answers from comparative and artificial selection approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Ordonez, Genesis; Garland, Theodore

    2012-09-01

    Voluntary wheel running and open-field behavior are probably the two most widely used measures of locomotion in laboratory rodents. We tested whether these two behaviors are correlated in mice using two approaches: the phylogenetic comparative method using inbred strains of mice and an ongoing artificial selection experiment on voluntary wheel running. After taking into account the measurement error and phylogenetic relationships among inbred strains, we obtained a significant positive correlation between distance run on wheels and distance moved in the open-field for both sexes. Thigmotaxis was negatively correlated with distance run on wheels in females but not in males. By contrast, mice from four replicate lines bred for high wheel running did not differ in either distance covered or thigmotaxis in the open field as compared with mice from four non-selected control lines. Overall, results obtained in the selection experiment were generally opposite to those observed among inbred strains. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  7. Selection for increased voluntary wheel-running affects behavior and brain monoamines in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, R.Parrish; Pringle, R.B.; Forster, G.L.; Renner, K.J.; Malisch, J.L.; Garland, T.; Swallow, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. PMID:23352668

  8. Visual selection and maintenance of the cell lines with high plant regeneration ability and low ploidy level in Dianthus acicularis by monitoring with flow cytometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Tomonori; Mii, Masahiro

    2005-12-01

    Efficient plant regeneration system from cell suspension cultures was established in D. acicularis (2n=90) by monitoring ploidy level and visual selection of the cultures. The ploidy level of the cell cultures closely related to the shoot regeneration ability. The cell lines comprising original ploidy levels (2C+4C cells corresponding to DNA contents of G1 and G2 cells of diploid plant, respectively) showed high regeneration ability, whereas those containing the cells with 8C or higher DNA C-values showed low or no regeneration ability. The highly regenerable cell lines thus selected consisted of compact cell clumps with yellowish color and relatively moderate growth, suggesting that it is possible to select visually the highly regenerable cell lines with the original ploidy level. All the regenerated plantlets from the highly regenerable cell cultures exhibited normal phenotypes and no variations in ploidy level were observed by flow cytometry (FCM) analysis.

  9. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  10. Magnetic field selective enhancement of Li I lines comparing Li II line in laser ablated lithium plasma at 10- 2 mbar air ambient gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Ding; Sun, Liying; Hai, Ran; Liu, Jiamin; Ding, Hongbin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of magnetic field (1.1 T) on the atomic and ionic spectral emission of a laser produced lithium plasma at low pressure has been investigated. The experimental results indicate that magnetic field enhances the intensities of Li I spectral lines but reduces the Li II spectral lines intensities. In this study, two narrowband filters were placed before the ICCD camera to observe the evolution feature of Li II spectral line (548.39 nm, 2p3P2,1,0 → 2s3S1) and Li I spectral line (610.30 nm, 3d2P3/2, 5/2 → 2p2P1/2, 3/2), respectively. The plasma dynamic images show that with the magnetic field, the number density of luminous Li atoms is higher, while the number density of luminous Li ions is lower in comparison to the field-free case. The reduced Li II spectral intensities indicate that the quenching rate of Li ions in the excited state is greater than that without the magnetic field. The enhanced impact frequency of recombination indicates that magnetic field increases the recombination process of electron and Li ions. All of these observations strongly suggest that magnetic confinement increases the recombination process of the electrons with Li ions in the plasma, which results in the decrease in the intensity of Li II line. The results are useful for applying laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to in-situ diagnose the processes of lithium wall conditioning in EAST tokamak.

  11. Selection of high quality male sterility line of Indica rice by field-free magnetic space inducement and its characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qiucheng; Huang Baocai; Zhang Zhiming; Liu Luxiang; Xu Guozhan

    2006-01-01

    The sterility lines Yu-08A was developed through the treatment of free-magnetic field for one year and selection by back-crossing with its parent in vitro and in the field from 1995 to 2000. The abortive fertility of sterility (Yu-08A) was stable and free-setting was 100%. The propagation yield of Yu-08A was 58.1% higher than that of Zhensan 97A, and the hybrid propagation of Yu-08A crossing-over with 97-066 was 62.6% higher than that of Zhensan 97A crossing-over with Minghui 63 in the same season and the same field. The yield of hybrid (Yuyou No.1, obtained from Yu-08A crossing-over with 97-066) was 5%8% higher than Zhensan 97A crossing-over with Minghuei 63. the rice quality of hybrid Yuyou No.1 reaches the second grade high-quality standard issued by the Ministry of Agriculture. (authors)

  12. Wheel-running activity and energy metabolism in relation to ambient temperature in mice selected for high wheel-running activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Garland, Theodore; Daan, Serge; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore; Heldmaier, G.

    Interrelationships between ambient temperature, activity, and energy metabolism were explored in mice that had been selectively bred for high spontaneous wheel-running activity and their random-bred controls. Animals were exposed to three different ambient temperatures (10, 20 and 30 degrees C) and

  13. Monoamines and sexual function in rats bred for increased catatonic reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochkov, D V; Alekhina, T A; Kuznetsova, E G; Barykina, N N

    2009-07-01

    Body weight, ovary and uterus weight, the nature of estral cycles, and hypothalamus dopamine and noradrenaline levels and plasma testosterone levels were studied in female GC rats, bred for increased catatonic reactivity, at different stages of the estral cycle (estrus, proestrus). The outbred Wistar strain served as controls. On the background of decreased body weight, GC females showed impairments to the morphological cyclical changes in the ovaries and uterus, with a reduction in ovary weight in diestrus (p rats showed higher levels of these monoamines in estrus and lower levels in diestrus. Plasma testosterone levels in female GC rats were higher in diestrus than in estrus and in Wistar rats.

  14. Response of Fusarium thapsinum to sorghum brown midrib lines and to phenolic metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation type: poster Presentation title: Response of Fusarium thapsinum to sorghum brown midrib lines and to phenolic metabolites Sorghum lines were bred for reduced lignin for cellulosic bioenergy uses, through the incorporation of brown midrib (bmr) bmr6 and/or 12 into two gen...

  15. Loss in MCL-1 function sensitizes non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines to the BCL-2-selective inhibitor venetoclax (ABT-199)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D C; Xiao, Y; Lam, L T; Litvinovich, E; Roberts-Rapp, L; Souers, A J; Leverson, J D

    2015-01-01

    As a population, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cell lines positive for the t(14;18) translocation and/or possessing elevated BCL2 copy number (CN; BCL2 High ) are exquisitely sensitive to navitoclax or the B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (BCL-2)-selective inhibitor venetoclax. Despite this, some BCL2 High cell lines remain resistant to either agent. Here we show that the MCL-1-specific inhibitor A-1210477 sensitizes these cell lines to navitoclax. Chemical segregation of this synergy with the BCL-2-selective inhibitor venetoclax or BCL-X L -selective inhibitor A-1155463 indicated that MCL-1 and BCL-2 are the two key anti-apoptotic targets for sensitization. Similarly, the CDK inhibitor flavopiridol downregulated MCL-1 expression and synergized with venetoclax in BCL2 High NHL cell lines to a similar extent as A-1210477. A-1210477 also synergized with navitoclax in the majority of BCL2 Low NHL cell lines. However, chemical segregation with venetoclax or A-1155463 revealed that synergy was driven by BCL-X L inhibition in this population. Collectively these data emphasize that BCL2 status is predictive of venetoclax potency in NHL not only as a single agent, but also in the adjuvant setting with anti-tumorigenic agents that inhibit MCL-1 function. These studies also potentially identify a patient population (BCL2 Low ) that could benefit from BCL-X L (navitoclax)-driven combination therapy

  16. Low Impact of Avian Pox on Captive-Bred Houbara Bustard Breeding Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Souley, Mam-Noury Amadou; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Paul, Mathilde C

    2017-01-01

    Avian pox, a disease caused by avipoxviruses, is a major cause of decline of some endangered bird species. While its impact has been assessed in several species in the wild, effects of the disease in conservation breeding have never been studied. Houbara bustard species ( Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii ), whose populations declined in the last decades, have been captive bred for conservation purposes for more than 20 years. While mortality and morbidity induced by avipoxviruses can be controlled by appropriate management, the disease might still affect bird breeding performance and jeopardize the production objectives of conservation programs. Impacts of the disease was studied during two outbreaks in captive-bred juvenile Houbara bustards in Morocco in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, by modeling the effect of the disease on individual breeding performance (male display and female egg production) of 2,797 birds during their first breeding season. Results showed that the impact of avian pox on the ability of birds to reproduce and on the count of displays or eggs is low and mainly non-significant. The absence of strong impact compared to what could be observed in other species in the wild may be explained by the controlled conditions provided by captivity, especially the close veterinary monitoring of each bird. Those results emphasize the importance of individual management to prevent major disease emergence and their effects in captive breeding of endangered species.

  17. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardiasp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  18. First radioactive ions charge bred in REXEBIS at the REX-ISOLDE accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, B H; Fostner, O; Wenander, F; Ames, F; Reisinger, K; Liljeby, L; Skeppstedt, Ö; Jonson, B; Nyman, G H

    2003-01-01

    REXEBIS is the charge breeder of the REX-ISOLDE post accelerator. The radioactive 1$^{+}$ ions produced at ISOLDE are accumulated, phase-space cooled and bunched in the REXTRAP, and thereafter injected into the EBIS with an energy up to 60 keV. The REXEBIS produced the first charge bred ions in August 2001 and has been running nearly non-stop during September to December 2001. It has delivered stable $^{39}$K$^{10+}$ and $^{23}$Na$^{6+}$ beams generated in the ion source in front of REXTRAP with a Na$^{7+}$ current exceeding 70 pA (6x10$^{7}$ p/s). Stable $^{27}$Al$^{7+}$ and $^{23}$Na$^{6+}$ from ISOLDE and also the first radioactive $^{26}$Na$^{7+}$ and $^{24}$Na$^{7+}$ beams (just 5x10$^{5}$ p/s) have been charge bred and accelerated for tests of the experimental setup. Despite some problems with the electron gun, which had one breakdown after about 1500 hours of operation and displays slow changes of the emission conditions, the EBIS is working remarkably stable (24 hours / 7 days a week). We will report ...

  19. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  20. Hyperhidrosis in naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Catherine A; Seeman, Jennifer L; Hoffmann, Guenther

    2011-05-01

    This case study details the unusual clinical findings in a unique paw-pad disorder that recently emerged among 2 male and 1 female naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris) newly received into our facility. During acclimation period physical examinations, the affected dogs demonstrated constantly moist, soft paw pads on all 4 feet. No information was available regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this pad condition in beagle dogs. Here, we report the results of physical examination, clinical chemistry analysis, hematology, histopathology, detailed observations, and novel testing techniques performed during the acclimation period. Histopathology of several sections of affected footpads was compared with that of an age-matched dog with clinically normal paw pads. We describe the morphologic features of a distinctive cutaneous canine footpad condition and discuss the possible differential diagnoses. The histologic and clinical features were most consistent with those of hyperhidrosis; to our knowledge, this report is the first description of hyperhidrosis as a distinct condition in purpose-bred beagle dogs.

  1. Automated high-content assay for compounds selectively toxic to Trypanosoma cruzi in a myoblastic cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alonso-Padilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, represents a very important public health problem in Latin America where it is endemic. Although mostly asymptomatic at its initial stage, after the disease becomes chronic, about a third of the infected patients progress to a potentially fatal outcome due to severe damage of heart and gut tissues. There is an urgent need for new drugs against Chagas disease since there are only two drugs available, benznidazole and nifurtimox, and both show toxic side effects and variable efficacy against the chronic stage of the disease.Genetically engineered parasitic strains are used for high throughput screening (HTS of large chemical collections in the search for new anti-parasitic compounds. These assays, although successful, are limited to reporter transgenic parasites and do not cover the wide T. cruzi genetic background. With the aim to contribute to the early drug discovery process against Chagas disease we have developed an automated image-based 384-well plate HTS assay for T. cruzi amastigote replication in a rat myoblast host cell line. An image analysis script was designed to inform on three outputs: total number of host cells, ratio of T. cruzi amastigotes per cell and percentage of infected cells, which respectively provides one host cell toxicity and two T. cruzi toxicity readouts. The assay was statistically robust (Z´ values >0.6 and was validated against a series of known anti-trypanosomatid drugs.We have established a highly reproducible, high content HTS assay for screening of chemical compounds against T. cruzi infection of myoblasts that is amenable for use with any T. cruzi strain capable of in vitro infection. Our visual assay informs on both anti-parasitic and host cell toxicity readouts in a single experiment, allowing the direct identification of compounds selectively targeted to the parasite.

  2. Study the chemical composition and agronomic traits for some durum wheat lines (Triticum durum) selected from M4-irradiated populations under drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.K.; Nesiem, M.R.A.; Kasem, M.K.M.; Basyouny, M.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were carried out during four successive seasons 2005-2009 to access the effectiveness of gamma rays on inducing new drought tolerance lines from two durum wheat cultivars, i.e. Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3. Irradiated grains (0, 150, 250 and 350 Gy) of both cultivars were sown and at harvest, 20 grains (M1) from each treatment were planted as in the first season. In the second season, grains of 61 plants were selected as they had the following higher criteria, i.e. yield, grain yield/plant, plant height, tillering and 100 grains weight. The selected variants should exceed by 50 % or more the control. Grains of the 61 selected plants were individually sown under drought or non-stress conditions, at the end of this season, six selected putative lines had superiority over their parents. The S1 and S2 lines have an excellent grain yield per plant under non stress condition as compared to Sohag3. The S3 and S4 lines have the superiority for grain yield per plant under drought condition as compared to Sohag 3. The B1 and B2 lines have the superiority for grain yield per plant under non stress condition comparing with Beni Suef 3. In the fourth season, growth, chemical composition and yield of the six putative lines as well as Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were determined under non stress and drought conditions. The results showed a significant increase in the number of leaves on the main stem and tillering number/plant for S1, S2, B1 and B2 as compared each with their corresponding parent under non stress condition. Also, S3 and S4 lines had the same results comparing with Sohag 3 under drought condition. The results of S3 and S4 showed and accumulation of organic protective osmolytes such as sugar proline and free amino acids. As well as N, P, K and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots as compared to Sohag 3 .The putative lines S1, S2 and B1 showed a significant increase for grain yield per plant comparing with their controls under non stress

  3. Selective on-line detection of boronic acids and derivatives in high-performance liquid chromatography eluates by post-column reaction with alizarin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, F.L.; Wardani, P.A.; Zuilhof, H.; Beek, van T.A.

    2015-01-01

    An on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the rapid and selective detection of boronic acids in complex mixtures was developed. After optimization experiments at an HPLC flow rate of 0.40 mL/min, the HPLC-separated analytes were mixed post-column with a solution of 75 µM

  4. How and When Accentuation Influences Temporally Selective Attention and Subsequent Semantic Processing during On-Line Spoken Language Comprehension: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-qing; Ren, Gui-qin

    2012-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials (ERP) experiment was carried out to investigate how and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension, and how the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing changed with the degree of…

  5. Active galactic nuclei emission line diagnostics and the mass-metallicity relation up to redshift z ∼ 2: The impact of selection effects and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Gobat, Raphael; Jean-Baptiste, Ingrid; Le Floc'h, Émeric; Pannella, Maurilio; Schreiber, Corentin; Charlot, Stéphane; Lehnert, M. D.; Pacifici, Camilla; Trump, Jonathan R.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Dickinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Emission line diagnostic diagrams probing the ionization sources in galaxies, such as the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagram, have been used extensively to distinguish active galactic nuclei (AGN) from purely star-forming galaxies. However, they remain poorly understood at higher redshifts. We shed light on this issue with an empirical approach based on a z ∼ 0 reference sample built from ∼300,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, from which we mimic selection effects due to typical emission line detection limits at higher redshift. We combine this low-redshift reference sample with a simple prescription for luminosity evolution of the global galaxy population to predict the loci of high-redshift galaxies on the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagrams. The predicted bivariate distributions agree remarkably well with direct observations of galaxies out to z ∼ 1.5, including the observed stellar mass-metallicity (MZ) relation evolution. As a result, we infer that high-redshift star-forming galaxies are consistent with having normal interstellar medium (ISM) properties out to z ∼ 1.5, after accounting for selection effects and line luminosity evolution. Namely, their optical line ratios and gas-phase metallicities are comparable to that of low-redshift galaxies with equivalent emission-line luminosities. In contrast, AGN narrow-line regions may show a shift toward lower metallicities at higher redshift. While a physical evolution of the ISM conditions is not ruled out for purely star-forming galaxies and may be more important starting at z ≳ 2, we find that reliably quantifying this evolution is hindered by selections effects. The recipes provided here may serve as a basis for future studies toward this goal. Code to predict the loci of galaxies on the BPT and MEx diagnostic diagrams and the MZ relation as a function of emission line luminosity limits is made publicly available.

  6. Active galactic nuclei emission line diagnostics and the mass-metallicity relation up to redshift z ∼ 2: The impact of selection effects and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Gobat, Raphael; Jean-Baptiste, Ingrid; Le Floc' h, Émeric; Pannella, Maurilio; Schreiber, Corentin [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Charlot, Stéphane; Lehnert, M. D.; Pacifici, Camilla [UPMC-CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Trump, Jonathan R. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Dickinson, Mark, E-mail: stephanie.juneau@cea.fr [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Emission line diagnostic diagrams probing the ionization sources in galaxies, such as the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagram, have been used extensively to distinguish active galactic nuclei (AGN) from purely star-forming galaxies. However, they remain poorly understood at higher redshifts. We shed light on this issue with an empirical approach based on a z ∼ 0 reference sample built from ∼300,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, from which we mimic selection effects due to typical emission line detection limits at higher redshift. We combine this low-redshift reference sample with a simple prescription for luminosity evolution of the global galaxy population to predict the loci of high-redshift galaxies on the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagrams. The predicted bivariate distributions agree remarkably well with direct observations of galaxies out to z ∼ 1.5, including the observed stellar mass-metallicity (MZ) relation evolution. As a result, we infer that high-redshift star-forming galaxies are consistent with having normal interstellar medium (ISM) properties out to z ∼ 1.5, after accounting for selection effects and line luminosity evolution. Namely, their optical line ratios and gas-phase metallicities are comparable to that of low-redshift galaxies with equivalent emission-line luminosities. In contrast, AGN narrow-line regions may show a shift toward lower metallicities at higher redshift. While a physical evolution of the ISM conditions is not ruled out for purely star-forming galaxies and may be more important starting at z ≳ 2, we find that reliably quantifying this evolution is hindered by selections effects. The recipes provided here may serve as a basis for future studies toward this goal. Code to predict the loci of galaxies on the BPT and MEx diagnostic diagrams and the MZ relation as a function of emission line luminosity limits is made publicly available.

  7. Syringolin A selectively labels the 20 S proteasome in murine EL4 and wild-type and bortezomib-adapted leukaemic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Jérôme; Florea, Bogdan I; Kraus, Marianne; Groll, Michael; Huber, Robert; Bachmann, André S; Dudler, Robert; Driessen, Christoph; Overkleeft, Herman S; Kaiser, Markus

    2009-11-02

    The natural product syringolin A (SylA) is a potent proteasome inhibitor with promising anticancer activities. To further investigate its potential as a lead structure, selectivity profiling with cell lysates was performed. At therapeutic concentrations, a rhodamine-tagged SylA derivative selectively bound to the 20 S proteasome active sites without detectable off-target labelling. Additional profiling with lysates of wild-type and bortezomib-adapted leukaemic cell lines demonstrated the retention of this proteasome target and subsite selectivity as well as potency even in clinically relevant cell lines. Our studies, therefore, propose that further development of SylA might indeed result in an improved small molecule for the treatment of leukaemia.

  8. The effects of disruptive and stabilizing selection on body size in Drosophila melanogaster. III. Genetic analysis of two lines with different reactions to disruptive selection with mating of opposite extremes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Scharloo, W.

    1974-01-01

    A genetic analysis was made of two lines which when subjected to disruptive selection with compulsary mating of opposite extremes (D−) showed a different response viz. one, D−-1, showing predominantly an increase of environmental variance and possibly interaction variance, the other, D−-2, showing

  9. An optimized procedure for preconcentration, determination and on-line recovery of palladium using highly selective diphenyldiketone-monothiosemicarbazone modified silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Pandey, Amit; Gulati, Shikha; Adholeya, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Diphenyldiketone-monothiosemicarbazone modified silica gel. ► Highly selective, efficient and reusable chelating resin. ► Solid phase extraction system for on-line separation and preconcentration of Pd(II) ions. ► Application in catalytic converter and spiked tap water samples for on-line recovery of Pd(II) ions. - Abstract: A novel, highly selective, efficient and reusable chelating resin, diphenyldiketone-monothiosemicarbazone modified silica gel, was prepared and applied for the on-line separation and preconcentration of Pd(II) ions in catalytic converter and spiked tap water samples. Several parameters like effect of pH, sample volume, flow rate, type of eluent, and influence of various ionic interferences, etc. were evaluated for effective adsorption of palladium at trace levels. The resin was found to be highly selective for Pd(II) ions in the pH range 4–5 with a very high sorption capacity of 0.73 mmol/g and preconcentration factor of 335. The present environment friendly procedure has also been applied for large-scale extraction by employing the use of newly designed reactor in which on-line separation and preconcentration of Pd can be carried out easily and efficiently in short duration of time.

  10. The cost of feeding bred dairy heifers on native warm-season grasses and harvested feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J K; Boyer, C N; Griffith, A P; Waller, J C; Bates, G E; Keyser, P D; Larson, J A; Holcomb, E

    2016-01-01

    Heifer rearing is one of the largest production expenses for dairy cattle operations, which is one reason milking operations outsource heifer rearing to custom developers. The cost of harvested feedstuffs is a major expense in heifer rearing. A possible way to lower feed costs is to graze dairy heifers, but little research exists on this topic in the mid-south United States. The objectives of this research were to determine the cost of feeding bred dairy heifers grazing native warm-season grasses (NWSG), with and without legumes, and compare the cost of grazing with the cost of rearing heifers using 3 traditional rations. The 3 rations were corn silage with soybean meal, corn silage with dry distillers grain, and a wet distillers grain-based ration. Bred Holstein heifers between 15- and 20-mo-old continuously grazed switchgrass (SG), SG with red clover (SG+RC), a big bluestem and Indiangrass mixture (BBIG), and BBIG with red clover (BBIG+RC) in Tennessee during the summer months. Total grazing days were calculated for each NWSG to determine the average cost/animal per grazing day. The average daily gain (ADG) was calculated for each NWSG to develop 3 harvested feed rations that would result in the same ADG over the same number of grazing day as each NWSG treatment. The average cost/animal per grazing day was lowest for SG ($0.48/animal/grazing d) and highest for BBIG+RC ($1.10/animal/grazing d). For both BBIG and SG, legumes increased the average cost/animal per grazing day because grazing days did not increase enough to account for the additional cost of the legumes. No difference was observed in ADG for heifers grazing BBIG (0.85 kg/d) and BBIG+RC (0.94 kg/d), and no difference was observed in ADG for heifers grazing SG (0.71 kg/d) and SG+RC (0.70 kg/d). However, the ADG for heifers grazing SG and SG+RC was lower than the ADG for heifers grazing either BBIG or BBIG+RC. The average cost/animal per grazing day was lower for all NWSG treatments than the average cost

  11. Evaluation of growth characters and yield components for six durum wheat lines (triticum durum deaf) selected from M4 and M5 - irradiated population under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesiem, M. R. A.; Kassem, M. K. M.; Basyouny, M. A. E.

    2012-12-01

    Grain of two durum wheat cultivars, Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were irradiated with gamma ray doses 0, 150, 250 and 350 Gy to obtain new durum wheat lines, characterized by high yielding and drought tolerance. Irradiated grains were cultivated in the field under normal and drought conditions 2005 - 2010 seasons. 20 grain (M 1 ) from each treatment was planed as in the first season. In the second season (M 2 ), grains of 61 plants were selected as thy had the following higher criteria, i.e yield, grain yield / plant, plant height, tillering and 100 grains weight. The selected variants should exceed by 50% or more than control. Grains of the 61 selected plants were individually sown under normal and drought condition. At the end of this season, six selected putative line had superiority over their parents. The S1 and S2 lines had an excellent grain yield per plant under normal condition but S3 and S4 lines had superiority for grain yield per plant under drought condition as compared to parents Sohag3. B1 and B2 lines had the superiority for grain per plant under normal condition comparing with the parent Beni Suef3. In the fourth season (M4),growth, chemical compositions and yield as well as its components of the six putative lines as well as the parents Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were determined under normal and drought conditions. The results showed a significant under normal and drought conditions. The results showed a significant increase in the number of leaves on the main stem and tillering number / plant for S1, S2, B1, B2 as compared with their corresponding parent under normal condition. Also, S3 and S4 line shad the same results comparing with the parent Sohag3 under drought condition. The results of S3 and S4 showed an accumulation of organic protective asmolytes such as sugar, proline and free amino acid. As well as N, P, K, and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots as compared to the parent Sohag 3 . The putative line S1, A2 and B1 showed significant increase

  12. Linear and Poisson models for genetic evaluation of tick resistance in cross-bred Hereford x Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, D R; Pereira, R J; Boligon, A A; Silva, F F; Schenkel, F S; Roso, V M; Albuquerque, L G

    2013-12-01

    Cattle resistance to ticks is measured by the number of ticks infesting the animal. The model used for the genetic analysis of cattle resistance to ticks frequently requires logarithmic transformation of the observations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability and goodness of fit of different models for the analysis of this trait in cross-bred Hereford x Nellore cattle. Three models were tested: a linear model using logarithmic transformation of the observations (MLOG); a linear model without transformation of the observations (MLIN); and a generalized linear Poisson model with residual term (MPOI). All models included the classificatory effects of contemporary group and genetic group and the covariates age of animal at the time of recording and individual heterozygosis, as well as additive genetic effects as random effects. Heritability estimates were 0.08 ± 0.02, 0.10 ± 0.02 and 0.14 ± 0.04 for MLIN, MLOG and MPOI models, respectively. The model fit quality, verified by deviance information criterion (DIC) and residual mean square, indicated fit superiority of MPOI model. The predictive ability of the models was compared by validation test in independent sample. The MPOI model was slightly superior in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability, whereas the correlations between observed and predicted tick counts were practically the same for all models. A higher rank correlation between breeding values was observed between models MLOG and MPOI. Poisson model can be used for the selection of tick-resistant animals. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Optimization of cell line development in the GS-CHO expression system using a high-throughput, single cell-based clone selection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Omasa, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are commonly produced by high-expressing, clonal and recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Currently, CHO cells dominate as a commercial production host because of their ease of use, established regulatory track record, and safety profile. CHO-K1SV is a suspension, protein-free-adapted CHO-K1-derived cell line employing the glutamine synthetase (GS) gene expression system (GS-CHO expression system). The selection of high-producing mammalian cell lines is a crucial step in process development for the production of therapeutic antibodies. In general, cloning by the limiting dilution method is used to isolate high-producing monoclonal CHO cells. However, the limiting dilution method is time consuming and has a low probability of monoclonality. To minimize the duration and increase the probability of obtaining high-producing clones with high monoclonality, an automated single cell-based clone selector, the ClonePix FL system, is available. In this study, we applied the high-throughput ClonePix FL system for cell line development using CHO-K1SV cells and investigated efficient conditions for single cell-based clone selection. CHO-K1SV cell growth at the pre-picking stage was improved by optimizing the formulation of semi-solid medium. The efficiency of picking and cell growth at the post-picking stage was improved by optimization of the plating time without decreasing the diversity of clones. The conditions for selection, including the medium formulation, were the most important factors for the single cell-based clone selection system to construct a high-producing CHO cell line. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel match-line selective charging scheme for high-speed, low-power and noise-tolerant content-addressable memory

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Muhammad Mubashwar; Rashid, Abdul B M Harun Ur; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Content-addressable memory (CAM) is an essential component for high-speed lookup intensive applications. This paper presents a match-line selective charging technique to increase speed and reduce the energy per bit per search while increasing the noise-tolerance. Simulation in TSMC 0.18 μm technology with 64×72 Ternary CAM shows the match-line energy reduction of 45% compared to the conventional currentsaving scheme with the reduction of minimum cycle time by 68% and the improvement of noise-tolerance by 96%.

  15. A novel match-line selective charging scheme for high-speed, low-power and noise-tolerant content-addressable memory

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Muhammad Mubashwar

    2010-06-01

    Content-addressable memory (CAM) is an essential component for high-speed lookup intensive applications. This paper presents a match-line selective charging technique to increase speed and reduce the energy per bit per search while increasing the noise-tolerance. Simulation in TSMC 0.18 μm technology with 64×72 Ternary CAM shows the match-line energy reduction of 45% compared to the conventional currentsaving scheme with the reduction of minimum cycle time by 68% and the improvement of noise-tolerance by 96%.

  16. Direct determination of Ti content in sunscreens with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Line selection method for high TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menneveux, Jérôme; Wang, Fang; Lu, Shan; Bai, Xueshi; Motto-Ros, Vincent [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gilon, Nicole [Institut des Sciences Analytiques, UMR5280 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Chen, Yanping [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu, Jin, E-mail: jin.yu@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Sunscreen represents a large variety of creams which, in the analytical point of view, exhibit a similar matrix. Such matrix corresponds to a semi-solid emulsion of mixture of oil and water. The formulation of a cream can include metal and nonmetal elements in different contents in order to realize specific pharmaceutical or cosmetic functions designed for the product. The complex matrix of these materials makes their analysis challenging for classical elemental analytical techniques with specific and complicated sample pretreatment procedures needed for reliable quantification. In this work we demonstrate and assess direct determination, without any pretreatment, of elemental content, especially for metallic element such as titanium, in a sunscreen using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The used configuration corresponds to that of indirect ablation of a thin film of cream applied on the surface of a pure aluminum target. We especially focused, in this work, on the case of high concentration of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle in cream. Such choice was justified first by the fact that such concentration level is usually found in commercial sunscreens. On the other hand, titanium presents a large number of lines, neutral as well as singly ionized, in the spectral range from the near UV to the near IR. It provides therefore an ideal case to study line selection method to manage the effect of self-absorption, which becomes unavoidable at high concentration level, and to optimize measurement precision. Through such study, we try to deduce a quantifiable and generalizable line selection method for high performance LIBS measurements. More specifically, calibration curves were first established using 6 laboratory-prepared samples. The quadratic term of the curves was then studied as a function of the intensity of the used lines and their type (neutral or ion, resonant or non-resonant). The prediction performance of the lines was assessed with 2 validation samples with

  17. NARROW-LINE X-RAY-SELECTED GALAXIES IN THE CHANDRA -COSMOS FIELD. I. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, E.; Watson, M. G. [University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elvis, M.; Civano, F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-04-20

    The COSMOS survey is a large and deep survey with multiwavelength observations of sources from X-rays to the UV, allowing an extensive study of their properties. The central 0.9 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field have been observed by Chandra with a sensitivity up to 1.9 × 10{sup −16} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the full (0.5–10 keV) band. Photometric and spectroscopic identification of the Chandra -COSMOS (C-COSMOS) sources is available from several catalogs and campaigns. Despite the fact that the C-COSMOS galaxies have a reliable spectroscopic redshift in addition to a spectroscopic classification, the emission-line properties of this sample have not yet been measured. We present here the creation of an emission-line catalog of 453 narrow-line sources from the C-COSMOS spectroscopic sample. We have performed spectral fitting for the more common lines in galaxies ([O ii] λ 3727, [Ne iii] λ 3869, H β , [O iii] λλ 4959, 5007, H α , and [N ii] λλ 6548, 6584). These data provide an optical classification for 151 (i.e., 33%) of the C-COSMOS narrow-line galaxies based on emission-line diagnostic diagrams.

  18. Long-Term Monitoring of the Broad-Line Region Properties in a Selected Sample of AGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilić, Dragana [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Shapovalova, Alla I. [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Arkhyz (Russian Federation); Popović, Luka Č. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade (Serbia); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Puebla (Mexico); Burenkov, Alexander N. [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Arkhyz (Russian Federation); Kollatschny, Wolfram [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Göttingen (Germany); Kovačević, Andjelka [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Marčeta-Mandić, Sladjana [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade (Serbia); Rakić, Nemanja [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Faculty of Science, University of Banjaluka, Banjaluka, Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina); La Mura, Giovanni; Rafanelli, Piero, E-mail: dilic@math.rs [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2017-09-14

    We present the results of the long-term optical monitoring campaign of active galactic nuclei (AGN) coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science. This campaign has produced a remarkable set of optical spectra, since we have monitored for several decades different types of broad-line (type 1) AGN, from a Seyfert 1, double-peaked line, radio loud and radio quiet AGN, to a supermassive binary black hole candidate. Our analysis of the properties of the broad line region (BLR) of these objects is based on the variability of the broad emission lines. We hereby give a comparative review of the variability properties of the broad emission lines and the BLR of seven different type 1 AGNs, emphasizing some important results, such as the variability rate, the BLR geometry, and the presence of the intrinsic Baldwin effect. We are discussing the difference and similarity in the continuum and emission line variability, focusing on what is the impact of our results to the supermassive black hole mass determination from the BLR properties.

  19. Long-Term Monitoring of the Broad-Line Region Properties in a Selected Sample of AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Ilić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the long-term optical monitoring campaign of active galactic nuclei (AGN coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science. This campaign has produced a remarkable set of optical spectra, since we have monitored for several decades different types of broad-line (type 1 AGN, from a Seyfert 1, double-peaked line, radio loud and radio quiet AGN, to a supermassive binary black hole candidate. Our analysis of the properties of the broad line region (BLR of these objects is based on the variability of the broad emission lines. We hereby give a comparative review of the variability properties of the broad emission lines and the BLR of seven different type 1 AGNs, emphasizing some important results, such as the variability rate, the BLR geometry, and the presence of the intrinsic Baldwin effect. We are discussing the difference and similarity in the continuum and emission line variability, focusing on what is the impact of our results to the supermassive black hole mass determination from the BLR properties.

  20. Characters of tomato and pepper bred by space mutation in glasshouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Xiaobo; Gu Xiaojun; Chen Chunhong; Li Shicheng

    2004-01-01

    Plant growth and yield of tomato and pepper bred by space mutation and materials carried by aero-craft 'Shenzhou' No.4 and its parent variety as control were studied in glasshouse. The results show that all varieties grew vigorously in glasshouse and the average fruit weight was about 221 g for tomato variety 641 and 648 and material HT10-3-2 and HT10-2. Accumulated yield for variety 648 was 2847.5 g, which was 9.9% higher than variety 641, indicating that they are suitable for glasshouse cultivation. Average fruit weight for pepper variety 616 was about 76 g, potential with accumulated yield of 440.9 g, indicating that it can be used for glasshouse cultivation. There was no significant difference between the Aero-craft carried materials and but the yield range change of among and its the carried materials 7.5%-8.0%

  1. Mutation analysis of GLDC, AMT and GCSH in cataract captive-bred vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauke, Chesa G; Magwebu, Zandisiwe E; Sharma, Jyoti R; Arieff, Zainunisha; Seier, Jürgen V

    2016-08-01

    Non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of glycine metabolism characterized by accumulation of glycine in body fluids and various neurological symptoms. This study describes the first screening of NKH in cataract captive-bred vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). Glycine dehydrogenase (GLDC), aminomethyltransferase (AMT) and glycine cleavage system H protein (GCSH) were prioritized. Mutation analysis of the complete coding sequence of GLDC and AMT revealed six novel single-base substitutions, of which three were non-synonymous missense and three were silent nucleotide changes. Although deleterious effects of the three amino acid substitutions were not evaluated, one substitution of GLDC gene (S44R) could be disease-causing because of its drastic amino acid change, affecting amino acids conserved in different primate species. This study confirms the diagnosis of NKH for the first time in vervet monkeys with cataracts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ultrasonographic reproductive tract measures and pelvis measures as predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus in restricted bred beef heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N

    Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in

  3. Chemical form of tritium released from solid breeder materials and the influences of it on a bred tritium recovery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukubo, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Nishida, Y.; Kinjyo, T.; Tanifuji, Takaaki; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Enoeda, Mikio

    2004-01-01

    The ratio of HTO in total tritium was measured at release of the bred tritium to the purge gas with hydrogen using the thermal release after irradiation method, where neutron irradiation was performed at JRR-3 reactor in JAERI or KUR reactor in Kyoto University. It is experimentally confirmed in this study that not a small portion of bred tritium is released to the purge gas in the form of HTO form ceramic breeder materials even when hydrogen is added to the purge gas. The chemical composition is to be decided by the competitive reaction at the grain surface of a ceramic breeder material where desorption reaction, isotope exchange reaction 1, isotope exchange reaction 2 and water formation reaction are considered to take part. Observation in this study implies that it is necessary to have a bred tritium recovery system applicable for both HT and HTO form to recover whole bred tritium. The chemical composition also decides the amount of tritium transferable to the cooling water of the electricity generation system through the structural material in the blanket system. Permeation behavior of tritium through some structural materials at various conditions are also discussed. (author)

  4. Evaluating genetic traceability methods for captive-bred marine fish and their applications in fisheries management and wildlife forensics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylemans, Jonas; Maes, Gregory E.; Diopere, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    Growing demands for marine fish products is leading to increased pressure on already depleted wild populations and a rise in aquaculture production. Consequently, more captive-bred fish are released into the wild through accidental escape or deliberate releases. The increased mixing of captive-br...

  5. Lyapunov, singular and bred vectors in a multi-scale system: an empirical exploration of vectors related to instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, Adrienne; Kalnay, Eugenia; Ide, Kayo; Yang, Shu-Chih; Wolfe, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    imitating the tropical El Niño–Southern Oscillation. The bred vectors are able to separate the fast and slow modes of growth through appropriate selection of the breeding perturbation size and rescaling interval. The Lyapunov vectors are able to successfully separate the fast ‘extratropical atmosphere’, but are unable to completely decouple the ‘tropical atmosphere’ from the ‘ocean’. This leads to ‘coupled’ Lyapunov vectors that are mainly useful in the (slow) ‘ocean’ system, but are still affected by changes in the (fast) ‘tropical’ system. The singular vectors are excellent in capturing the fast modes, but are unable to capture the slow modes of growth. The dissimilar behavior of the three types of vectors leads to a degradation in the similarities of the subspaces they inhabit and affects their relative ability of representing the coupled modes. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  6. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bulati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines. Our analysis revealed that the four fractions showed different protein contents and diverse patterns of activity towards human PBMC and cancer cell lines. Interestingly, fractions III and IV exerted cytotoxic effects on human cells. Conversely, fractions I and II displayed very low toxic effects associated with antiproliferative activities on cancer cell lines.

  7. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulati, Matteo; Longo, Alessandra; Masullo, Tiziana; Vlah, Sara; Bennici, Carmelo; Bonura, Angela; Salamone, Monica; Tagliavia, Marcello; Nicosia, Aldo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Colombo, Paolo; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis . Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines. Our analysis revealed that the four fractions showed different protein contents and diverse patterns of activity towards human PBMC and cancer cell lines. Interestingly, fractions III and IV exerted cytotoxic effects on human cells. Conversely, fractions I and II displayed very low toxic effects associated with antiproliferative activities on cancer cell lines.

  8. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of Carbonyl Sulfide from 3700 to 4800 cm -1and Selection of a Line-Pointing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naı̈m, S.; Fayt, A.; Bredohl, H.; Blavier, J.-F.; Dubois, I.

    1998-11-01

    We have measured the Fourier transform spectrum of natural OCS from 3700 to 4800 cm-1with a near Doppler resolution and a line-position accuracy between 4 and 8 × 10-5cm-1. For the normal isotopic species, 37 vibrational transitions have been analyzed for both frequencies and intensities. We also report 15 bands of OC34S, eight bands of O13CS, nine bands of OC33S, and two bands of18OCS. Important effective Herman-Wallis terms are explained on the basis of eigenvectors. A comparison of different line-pointing programs is also presented.

  9. Selective Method for the Determination of Manganese in End-fitting of Spoolable Reinforced Plastic Line Pipe for Petroleum Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Dongna; Li, Houbu; Cai, Xuehua

    2017-10-01

    The fact that spoolable reinforced plastic line pipe is more flexible and spoolable than steel, and is also much lighter, means that it can becarried and deployedfrom smaller vessels and managed more easily. It was well known that manganese is an important element in end-fitting of spoolable reinforced plastic line pipe. In this paper, a simple spectrophotometric method was described for the determination of manganese in end-fitting of spoolable reinforced plastic line pipe. The method was based on the oxidation-reduction reaction between ammonium persulfate and manganese(II) producing manganese(VII) in the presence of silver nitrate as a catalyst. The characteristic wavelength of maximum absorption of manganese(VII) was obtained locating at 530 nm. Under the optimum reaction conditions the absorption value was proportional to the concentration of manganese in the range of 0.50%˜1.80% (R2 = 0.9997), and the relative standard deviation was less than 3.0% (n=5). The proposed method was applied successfully to determine manganese in end-fitting of spoolable reinforced plastic line pipe samples.

  10. Application of ABTS radical cation for selective on-line detection of radical scavengers in HPLC eluates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, [No Value; Niederlander, HAG; van Beek, TA

    2001-01-01

    The radical cation 2,2 ' -azinobis-(3 -ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate), (ABTS(.+)) was utilized in an on-line HPLC method for the detection of radical scavengers in complex matrixes. The HPLC-separated analytes react postcolumn with the preformed ABTS(.+), and the induced bleaching is detected as

  11. A Selective Stratistical Study of Transaction Activity in a Large On-Line Automated Circulation System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Gerry D.

    The objective of this study was to provide the library community with basic statistical data from on-line activity in the Ohio State University Libraries' Circulation System. Over 1.6 million archive records in the circulation system for 1972 were investigated to produce subject reports of circulation activity, activity reports by collection…

  12. CD133 expression is not selective for tumor initiating or radioresistant cell populations in the CRC line HCT-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Claudia; Dietrich, Antje; Wondrak, Marit; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.; Grade, Marian; Ried, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of certain subpopulations of cancer cells with stem-cell like characteristics that might be responsible for treatment resistance and recurrence of disease is still challenging and under quite controversial discussion. In most studies, surrogate cell surface antigens such as the 92-110 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein CD133 (human Prominin-1) were labeled to isolate particular small cancer cell populations for studying their tumorigenic potential. In colorectal carcinomas (CRC) for example, a small CD133 positive (CD133 + ) cell population has recently been described to be enriched for tumor-initiating/cancer stem cells (TIC/CSC) as compared to the CD133 negative (CD133) population. Furthermore, it was documented that the CD133 + subpopulation could exclusively be maintained in culture as spheres under serum-free conditions. Addition of serum resulted in cell differentiation, growth in 2-D and downregulation of CD133 expression. This would imply that established colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines that have been grown under adherent, serum-supplemented conditions for years should be devoid of CD133 + cells and TIC/CSC, respectively, which seems contradictory to the finding that many CRC lines produce tumors in nude mice models. In order to gain insight into this paradox, we studied the expression of CD133 in numerous established CRC lines under standard culture conditions and chose one particular cell line based on its expression pattern to study the behavior of CD133 + / CD133 - subpopulations

  13. Comparison of feed energy costs of maintenance, lean deposition, and fat deposition in three lines of mice selected for heat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, D L; Nielsen, M K

    2006-02-01

    Three replications of mouse selection populations for high heat loss (MH), low heat loss (ML), and a nonselected control (MC) were used to estimate the feed energy costs of maintenance and gain and to test whether selection had changed these costs. At 21 and 49 d of age, mice were weighed and subjected to dual x-ray densitometry measurement for prediction of body composition. At 21 d, mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum, an 80% of ad libitum, or a 60% of ad libitum feeding group for 28-d collection of individual feed intake. Data were analyzed using 3 approaches. The first approach was an attempt to partition energy intake between costs for maintenance, fat deposition, and lean deposition for each replicate, sex, and line by multiple regression of feed intake on the sum of daily metabolic weight (kg(0.75)), fat gain, and lean gain. Approach II was a less restrictive attempt to partition energy intake between costs for maintenance and total gain for each replicate, sex, and line by multiple regression of feed intake on the sum of daily metabolic weight and total gain. Approach III used multiple regression on the entire data set with pooled regressions on fat and lean gains, and subclass regressions for maintenance. Contrasts were conducted to test the effect of selection (MH - ML) and asymmetry of selection [(MH + ML)/2 - MC] for the various energy costs. In approach I, there were no differences between lines for costs of maintenance, fat deposition, or protein deposition, but we question our ability to estimate these accurately. In approach II, selection changed both cost of maintenance (P = 0.03) and gain (P = 0.05); MH mice had greater per unit costs than ML mice for both. Asymmetry of the selection response was found in approach II for the cost of maintenance (P = 0.06). In approach III, the effect of selection (P maintenance cost, but asymmetry of selection (P > 0.17) was not evident. Sex effects were found for the cost of fat deposition (P = 0.02) in

  14. Sustainable Supplier Selection with A Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Making Method Based on Triple Bottom Line

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Burcu Avcı; Özçelik , Funda

    2014-01-01

    To meet the demands of various stakeholders and to comply with environmental legislations, businesses started to look at their supply chain to enhance their overall sustainability profile. Supply chain operations with sustainability awareness have become an important issue in recent years and make the sustainable supplier performance evaluation and selection process as a central concept of sustainable supply chain management. In this study, supplier selection problem is modelled within the co...

  15. Selective expression of myosin IC Isoform A in mouse and human cell lines and mouse prostate cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Ihnatovych

    Full Text Available Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily. We recently identified a novel isoform and showed that the MYOIC gene in mammalian cells encodes three isoforms (isoforms A, B, and C. Furthermore, we demonstrated that myosin IC isoform A but not isoform B exhibits a tissue specific expression pattern. In this study, we extended our analysis of myosin IC isoform expression patterns by analyzing the protein and mRNA expression in various mammalian cell lines and in various prostate specimens and tumor tissues from the transgenic mouse prostate (TRAMP model by immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, and by indirect immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded prostate specimen. Analysis of a panel of mammalian cell lines showed an increased mRNA and protein expression of specifically myosin IC isoform A in a panel of human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines but not in non-cancer prostate or other (non-prostate- cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that myosin IC isoform A expression is significantly increased in TRAMP mouse prostate samples with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN lesions and in distant site metastases in lung and liver when compared to matched normal tissues. Our observations demonstrate specific changes in the expression of myosin IC isoform A that are concurrent with the occurrence of prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse prostate cancer model that closely mimics clinical prostate cancer. These data suggest that elevated levels of myosin IC isoform A may be a potential marker for the detection of prostate cancer.

  16. Screening and Selection of High Carotenoid Producing in Vitro Tomato Cell Culture Lines for [13C]-Carotenoid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Engelmann, Nancy J.; Campbell, Jessica K.; Rogers, Randy B.; Rupassara, S. Indumathie; Garlick, Peter J.; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Isotopically labeled tomato carotenoids, phytoene, phytofluene, and lycopene, are needed for mammalian bioavailability and metabolism research but are currently commercially unavailable. The goals of this work were to establish and screen multiple in vitro tomato cell lines for carotenoid production, test the best producers with or without the bleaching herbicides, norflurazon and 2-(4-chlorophenyl-thio)-triethylamine (CPTA), and to use the greatest carotenoid accumulator for in vitro 13C-lab...

  17. The Effects of Allicin, a Reactive Sulfur Species from Garlic, on a Selection of Mammalian Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. H. Gruhlke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has been used as a spice and medicinal plant since ancient times. Garlic produces the thiol-reactive defence substance, allicin, upon wounding. The effects of allicin on human lung epithelium carcinoma (A549, mouse fibroblast (3T3, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC, human colon carcinoma (HT29 and human breast cancer (MCF7 cell lines were tested. To estimate toxic effects of allicin, we used a standard MTT-test (methylthiazoltetrazolium for cell viability and 3H-thymidine incorporation for cell proliferation. The glutathione pool was measured using monobromobimane and the formation of reactive species was identified using 2′,7′-dichlorofluoresceine-diacetate. The YO-PRO-1 iodide staining procedure was used to estimate apoptosis. Allicin reduced cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. In the bimane test, it was observed that cells treated with allicin showed reduced fluorescence, suggesting glutathione oxidation. The cell lines tested differed in sensitivity to allicin in regard to viability, cell proliferation and glutathione oxidation. The 3T3 and MCF-7 cells showed a higher proportion of apoptosis compared to the other cell types. These data show that mammalian cell lines differ in their sensitivity and responses to allicin.

  18. Researcher responsibilities and genetic counseling for pure-bred dog populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jerold S

    2011-08-01

    Breeders of dogs have ethical responsibilities regarding the testing and management of genetic disease. Molecular genetics researchers have their own responsibilities, highlighted in this article. Laboratories offering commercial genetic testing should have proper sample identification and quality control, official test result certificates, clear explanations of test results and reasonably priced testing fees. Providing test results to a publicly-accessible genetic health registry allows breeders and the public to search for health-tested parents to reduce the risk of producing or purchasing affected offspring. Counseling on the testing and elimination of defective genes must consider the effects of genetic selection on the population. Recommendations to breed quality carriers to normal-testing dogs and replacing them with quality normal-testing offspring will help to preserve breeding lines and breed genetic diversity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Essential Oil Content of the Rhizome of Curcuma purpurascens Bl. (Temu Tis) and Its Antiproliferative Effect on Selected Human Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sok-Lai; Lee, Guan-Serm; Ahmed Hamdi, Omer Abdalla; Awang, Khalijah; Aznam Nugroho, Nurfina

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens Bl., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is known as temu tis in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In this study, the hydrodistilled dried ground rhizome oil was investigated for its chemical content and antiproliferative activity against selected human carcinoma cell lines (MCF7, Ca Ski, A549, HT29, and HCT116) and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5). Results from GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of the rhizome oil of temu tis showed turmerone as the major component, followed by germacrone, ar-turmerone, germacrene-B, and curlone. The rhizome oil of temu tis exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HT29 cells (IC50 value of 4.9 ± 0.4 μg/mL), weak cytotoxicity against A549, Ca Ski, and HCT116 cells (with IC50 values of 46.3 ± 0.7, 32.5 ± 1.1, and 35.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.), and no inhibitory effect against MCF7 cells. It exhibited mild cytotoxicity against a noncancerous human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5), with an IC50 value of 25.2 ± 2.7 μg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this rhizome's oil and its selective antiproliferative effect on HT29. The obtained data provided a basis for further investigation of the mode of cell death. PMID:25177723

  20. β-Caryophyllene, a Compound Isolated from the Biblical Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gileadensis, Is a Selective Apoptosis Inducer for Tumor Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Amiel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biblical balm of Gilead (Commiphora gileadensis was investigated in this study for anticancerous activity against tumor cell lines. The results obtained from ethanol-based extracts and from essential oils indicated that β-caryophyllene (trans-(1R,9S-8-methylene-4,11,11-trimethylbicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene is a key component in essential oils extracted from the balm of Gilead. β-Caryophyllene can be found in spice blends, citrus flavors, soaps, detergents, creams, and lotions, as well as in a variety of food and beverage products, and it is known for its anti-inflammatory, local anaesthetic, and antifungal properties. It is also a potent cytotoxic compound over a wide range of cell lines. In the current paper, we found that Commiphora gileadensis stem extracts and essential oil have an antiproliferative proapoptotic effect against tumor cells and not against normal cells. β-caryophyllene caused a potent induction of apoptosis accompanied by DNA ladder and caspase-3 catalytic activity in tumor cell lines. In summary, we showed that C. gileadensis stems contain an apoptosis inducer that acts, in a selective manner, against tumor cell lines and not against normal cells.

  1. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Selection of herbicide-resistant cell lines by using {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Yeon [Sunchun University, Sunchun (Korea); Seo, Yong Weon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In order to develop the herbicide resistant cell lines, micro calli derived from rice anther culture and mature seed of wheat cultivars were irradiated with gamma rays. 1) The callus was dedifferentiated by 7 or 21 day pretreatment at 7 deg. C in two rice cultivars, Ilpumbyeo ad Dongjinbyeo. 2) To check the optimum concentration of herbicide, three herbicides were tested with micro calli. 3) The optimum dose of gamma ray to seeds of wheat seemed to be from 100 to 150 Gy. 4) AFLP and RAPD technique were established to develope herbicide resistant molecular marker in rice. 34 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  2. Selective breeding for infant rat separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations: developmental precursors of passive and active coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Susan A; Hofer, Myron A

    2007-09-04

    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate "anxious"/"depressed" phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an "aggressive" phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting "coping styles" with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation.

  3. 40 CFR 1051.310 - How must I select vehicles or engines for production-line testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines, randomly select and test one more engine. Then, calculate the required sample size for the model... distribution. σ = Test sample standard deviation (see paragraph (c)(2) of this section). x = Mean of emission... sample size for the model year as described in paragraph (c) of this section. (3) In the first test...

  4. Quantitative trait loci for maysin synthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) lines selected for high silk maysin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J D F; Snook, M E; Houchins, K E; Rector, B G; Widstrom, N W; McMullen, M D

    2007-06-01

    Maysin is a naturally occurring C-glycosyl flavone found in maize (Zea mays L.) silk tissue that confers resistance to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea, Boddie). Recently, two new maize populations were derived for high silk maysin. The two populations were named the exotic populations of maize (EPM) and the southern inbreds of maize (SIM). Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was employed to determine which loci were responsible for elevated maysin levels in inbred lines derived from the EPM and SIM populations. The candidate genes consistent with QTL position included the p (pericarp color), c2 (colorless2), whp1 (white pollen1) and in1 (intensifier1) loci. The role of these loci in controlling high maysin levels in silks was tested by expression analysis and use of the loci as genetic markers onto the QTL populations. These studies support p, c2 and whp1, but not in1, as loci controlling maysin. Through this study, we determined that the p locus regulates whp1 transcription and that increased maysin in these inbred lines was primarily due to alleles at both structural and regulatory loci promoting increased flux through the flavone pathway by increasing chalcone synthase activity.

  5. Screening and selection of high carotenoid producing in vitro tomato cell culture lines for [13C]-carotenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Nancy J; Campbell, Jessica K; Rogers, Randy B; Rupassara, S Indumathie; Garlick, Peter J; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W

    2010-09-22

    Isotopically labeled tomato carotenoids, phytoene, phytofluene, and lycopene, are needed for mammalian bioavailability and metabolism research but are currently commercially unavailable. The goals of this work were to establish and screen multiple in vitro tomato cell lines for carotenoid production, test the best producers with or without the bleaching herbicides, norflurazon and 2-(4-chlorophenyl-thio)triethylamine (CPTA), and to use the greatest carotenoid accumulator for in vitro 13C-labeling. Different Solanum lycopersicum allelic variants for high lycopene and varying herbicide treatments were compared for carotenoid accumulation in callus and suspension culture, and cell suspension cultures of the hp-1 line were chosen for isotopic labeling. When grown with [U]-13C-glucose and treated with CPTA, hp-1 suspensions yielded highly enriched 13C-lycopene with 45% of lycopene in the M+40 form and 88% in the M+35 to M+40 isotopomer range. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of highly enriched 13C-carotenoid production from in vitro plant cell culture.

  6. Magnetic field-induced modification of selection rules for Rb D 2 line monitored by selective reflection from a vapor nanocell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Emmanuel; Sargsyan, Armen; Tonoyan, Ara; Hakhumyan, Grant; Papoyan, Aram; Leroy, Claude; Sarkisyan, David

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic field-induced giant modification of the probabilities of five transitions of 5S1 / 2,Fg = 2 → 5P3 / 2,Fe = 4 of 85Rb and three transitions of 5S1 / 2,Fg = 1 → 5P3 / 2,Fe = 3 of 87Rb forbidden by selection rules for zero magnetic field has been observed experimentally and described theoretically for the first time. For the case of excitation with circularly-polarized (σ+) laser radiation, the probability of Fg = 2,mF = - 2 → Fe = 4,mF = - 1 transition becomes the largest among the seventeen transitions of 85Rb Fg = 2 → Fe = 1,2,3,4 group, and the probability of Fg = 1, mF = - 1 → Fe = 3,mF = 0 transition becomes the largest among the nine transitions of 87Rb Fg = 1 → Fe = 0,1,2,3 group, in a wide range of magnetic field 200-1000 G. Complete frequency separation of individual Zeeman components was obtained by implementation of derivative selective reflection technique with a 300 nm-thick nanocell filled with Rb, allowing formation of narrow optical resonances. Possible applications are addressed. The theoretical model is well consistent with the experimental results.

  7. MEAT PERFORMANCE OF THE CZECH SPOTTED CATTLE BULLS BRED IN MOUNTAIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chosen indicators of meat performance of 98 bulls of Czech Spotted cattle bred in elevation above 720 m above sea-level in the mountain region of Šumava are presented in the article. The fattening was realized in a barn with a deep litter. The feed ration consisted of haylage throughout the year. The bulls were divided into three groups according to their genotype - C100, C75-85R (CxR and C75-85A (CxA. The highest live weight at slaughter was achieved in the group C100 with 650 kg with the average age of 726 days and the weight of the carcasses of 363.8 kg. On the other hand, the worst results were achieved in the group CxA. For comparison a group of 14 bulls of the Holstein breed was created (H100, which was fattened in the same conditions. The bulls achieved their highest live weight before slaughter (664.6 kg, but at the highest age (743 days. Statistically significant differences were proven in the meat performance after individual fathers – the best results were documented with the offspring of the bull BO-837. After the separation of the set of bulls according to live weight at the end of fattening, the highest results were achieved by the group above 700 kg. The best class using the SEUROP method was achieved by the group with slaughtering live weight between 650 kg and 700 kg.

  8. Imaging studies of the hindlimbs of pacas (Cuniculus paca) bred in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, F A P; Rahal, S C; Doiche, D P; Machado, M R F; Vulcano, L C; Teixeira, C R; El-Warrak, A O

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the hindlimbs of pacas bred in captivity using radiographic and computed tomography (CT) studies. Nine mature pacas (Cuniculus paca) 5.9-8.2 kg in body weight. Radiographical aspects of the bones of the hindlimbs were evaluated, and the Norberg angle and inclination angle were measured for each hindlimb. Anteversion angle were measured in CT examination. The bone anatomy of the hindlimb of the paca was similar to that of the guinea pig, apart from two lunulae and a single fabella (lateral) which were observed. The Norberg angle had mean value of 130.56º ± 3.81 without any significant difference between testers. Inclination angles ranged from 142.44º ± 4.82 to 145.44º ± 4.09 by Hauptman's method, and from 144.94º ± 3.13 to 148.22º ± 3.25 by Montavon's method, for right and left hindlimbs respectively. Average values for the anteversion angles measured with CT ranged from 28.56º ± 5.56 to 32.91º ± 2.62. The data may be used in future studies comparing the paca to other rodent species. In addition, the paca could be used as an animal model in orthopaedic research.

  9. Environmental enrichment ameliorates depressive-like symptoms in young rats bred for learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S Helene; Zeuch, Benjamin; Riva, Marco A; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of major depression is known to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In the current study, we therefore set out to investigate depressive-like behavior and its modification by environmental enrichment using rats bred for 'learned helplessness'. 45 males of congenitally helpless (cLH, n=22) and non-helpless (cNLH, n=23) rats of two different generations were used to systematically investigate differential effects of environmental enrichment on learned helpless behavior, anhedonic-like behavior (sweetened condensed milk consumption) and spontaneous behavior in the home cage. While enrichment was found to reduce learned helpless behavior in 14 weeks old, but not 28 weeks old cLH rats, it did not affect the consumption of sweetened condensed milk. Regarding the home cage behavior, no consistent changes between rats of different strains, housing conditions, and ages were observed. We could thus demonstrate that a genetic predisposition for learned helplessness may interact with environmental conditions in mediating some, but not all depressive-like symptoms in congenitally learned helpless rats. However, future efforts are needed to isolate the differential benefits of environmental factors in mediating the different depression-related symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring reproductive performance of cross-bred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, S.; Jainudeen, M.R.; Azizuddin, K.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

  11. Physiological and production response of dairy goats bred in a tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; Salles, Maria Gorete Flores; da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Carneiro, Hilton Alexandre Vidal; de Souza, Leonardo Peres; Rondina, Davide; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the adaptability of Saanen and ½Saanen × ½Anglo-Nubian (½S½AN) goats bred in tropical climates. The study included 30 goats, 15 Saanen and 15 ½S½AN. The data was collected during the rainy and dry seasons. During the whole experimental period, the environment variables were recorded, as well as rectal temperature (RT), superficial temperature (ST), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) and milk production (MP). The adaptability coefficient (AC) was calculated for both genotypes. The averages were evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability. There was a genotype and period of year effect, as well as the interaction genotype × period of year. Pearson's simple correlation analysis was then carried out between milk production and physiological and environment variables. There was a statistical difference ( p goats, regardless of the season. MP was greater in the dry season ( p goats. Under the conditions of the present study, it is concluded that the goats were influenced by climatic factors, where the rainy period was more likely to cause thermal stress in the animals.

  12. Autosomal recessive congenital cataract in captive-bred vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwebu, Zandisiwe E; Abdul-Rasool, Sahar; Seier, Jürgen V; Chauke, Chesa G

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic predisposition of congenital cataract in a colony of captive-bred vervet monkeys. Four congenital cataract genes: glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 2 (GCNT2), heat shock transcription factor 4 (HSF4), crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) and lens intrinsic membrane protein-2 (LIM2) were screened, sequenced and analysed for possible genetic variants in 36 monkeys. Gene expression was also evaluated in these genes. Fifteen sequence variants were identified in the coding regions of three genes (GCNT2, HSF4 and CRYAA). Of these variations, only three were missense mutations (M258V, V16I and S24N) and identified in the GCNT2 transcripts A, B and C, respectively, which resulted in a downregulated gene expression. Although the three missense mutations in GCNT2 have a benign effect, a possibility exists that the candidate genes (GCNT2, HSF4 and CRYAA) might harbour mutations that are responsible for total congenital cataract. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Born to be free? Assessing the viability of releasing captive-bred wobbegongs to restock depleted populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Asha Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Large predatory fishes, such as sharks, play an important functional role within marine ecosystems. Restocking of depleted populations has been extensively studied for commercially or recreationally important teleost fish species; however, it has, to the best of our knowledge, never been successfully attempted and assessed on sharks. We evaluated whether fifteen captive-bred wobbegongs (Orectolobus maculatus released into a small bay inhabited by wild sharks would survive and remain within a small ‘no-take’ marine reserve. The captive-bred sharks and twelve wild sharks were tagged with acoustic transmitters and their presence was monitored by an array of acoustic receivers. The detection rate of control tags was modelled against environmental variables to predict detection probabilities and account for days when environmental conditions hampered shark detections. The overall detection probability ranged from 28% to 38% and was most affected by wind direction. Wild wobbegongs showed clear seasonal patterns of attendance to the study site, with the highest probability of presence during the summer months. The captive-bred sharks did not display the same seasonal trend in occurrence. The age at which captive-bred sharks were released into the area affected residency periods. Four out of five adults remained in the area for up to three years post release, while all the juveniles permanently left the area within a year post-release. Three of the juveniles were detected on receivers up to 12 km from the study site. Therefore, if restocking of depleted populations of sharks is to be used as a conservation strategy, the age at which sharks are released must be considered.

  14. Icing Forecasting of High Voltage Transmission Line Using Weighted Least Square Support Vector Machine with Fireworks Algorithm for Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiannan Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecasting of icing thickness has great significance for ensuring the security and stability of the power grid. In order to improve the forecasting accuracy, this paper proposes an icing forecasting system based on the fireworks algorithm and weighted least square support vector machine (W-LSSVM. The method of the fireworks algorithm is employed to select the proper input features with the purpose of eliminating redundant influence. In addition, the aim of the W-LSSVM model is to train and test the historical data-set with the selected features. The capability of this proposed icing forecasting model and framework is tested through simulation experiments using real-world icing data from the monitoring center of the key laboratory of anti-ice disaster, Hunan, South China. The results show that the proposed W-LSSVM-FA method has a higher prediction accuracy and it may be a promising alternative for icing thickness forecasting.

  15. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry for on-line trace gas analysis in biology and medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2007), s. 77-82 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : selected ion flow tube mass spectroscopy (SIFT-MS) * breath analysis * breath metabolities * flowing afterglow mass spectrometry (FA-MS) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2007

  16. Body composition and energetic efficiency in two lines of mice selected for rapid growth rate and their F1 crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, E J; Bakker, H; Nagai, J

    1977-01-01

    Correlated responses to selection for increased growth rate were compared in two mouse populations (M16 and H6) of distinct genetic origin. Traits studied were body composition, feed intake, constituent gains and energetic efficiency. When compared with their respective controls (ICR and C2) at 6 and 9 weeks of age, body weight increased more in M16 (57%and 69 % of the control mean) than in H6 (40 % and 34%). The M16 showed correlated responses in fat percent of 2.6% (P .05). The correlated responses in fat percent were 2.7 and 4.7 times higher in M16 than H6 at 6 and 9 weeks. The regression of ln fat weight on ln empty body weight was larger in M16 (P calories and ash; fat and caloric gain and efficiency exhibited higher correlated responses in M16 than H6. During the 6- to 9-week interval, the M16 population continued to evince positive correlated responses in gains and efficiencies of fat, protein and calories, whereas H6 did not. Several possible explanations are presented to account for the differences in correlated responses between the selected populations. Partitioning of correlated response differences between M16 and H6 into average direct and average maternal genetic effects indicated that average direct genetic effects, favoring M16, were responsible for the major difference between the selected populations. Direct heterosis in F1 crosses of the selected populations were generally not significant, although there was a tendency for fat percent and fat weight to show heterosis.

  17. In-line localized monitoring of catalyst activity in selective catalytic NO.sub.x reduction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Lawrence J [Laguna Niguel, CA; Smith, Randall A [Huntington Beach, CA

    2009-12-22

    Localized catalyst activity in an SCR unit for controlling emissions from a boiler, power plant, or any facility that generates NO.sub.x-containing flue gases is monitored by one or more modules that operate on-line without disrupting the normal operation of the facility. Each module is positioned over a designated lateral area of one of the catalyst beds in the SCR unit, and supplies ammonia, urea, or other suitable reductant to the catalyst in the designated area at a rate that produces an excess of the reductant over NO.sub.x on a molar basis through the designated area. Sampling probes upstream and downstream of the designated area draw samples of the gas stream for NO.sub.x analysis, and the catalyst activity is determined from the difference in NO.sub.x levels between the two probes.

  18. A novel bicistronic gene design couples stable cell line selection with a fucose switch in a designer CHO host to produce native and afucosylated glycoform antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Gargi; Martin, Tom; Barnes, Arnita; Wang, Jihong; Jimenez, Rod Brian; Rice, Megan; Li, Lina; Feng, Hui; Zhang, Shu; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Wu, Herren; Marelli, Marcello; Hatton, Diane; Zhu, Jie; Bowen, Michael A

    2018-04-01

    The conserved glycosylation site Asn 297 of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) can be decorated with a variety of sugars that can alter mAb pharmacokinetics and recruitment of effector proteins. Antibodies lacking the core fucose at Asn 297 (afucosylated mAbs) show enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and increased efficacy. Here, we describe the development of a robust platform for the manufacture of afucosylated therapeutic mAbs by engineering a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell line to co-express a mAb with GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-4-hexulose reductase (RMD), a prokaryotic enzyme that deflects an intermediate in the de novo synthesis of fucose to a dead-end product, resulting in the production of afucosylated mAb (GlymaxX™ Technology, ProBioGen). Expression of the mAb and RMD genes was coordinated by co-transfection of separate mAb and RMD vectors or use of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element to link the translation of RMD with either the glutamine synthase selection marker or the mAb light chain. The GS-IRES-RMD vector format was more suitable for the rapid generation of high yielding cell lines, secreting afucosylated mAb with titers exceeding 6.0 g/L. These cell lines maintained production of afucosylated mAb over 60 generations, ensuring their suitability for use in large-scale manufacturing. The afucosylated mAbs purified from these RMD-engineered cell lines showed increased binding in a CD16 cellular assay, demonstrating enhancement of ADCC compared to fucosylated control mAb. Furthermore, the afucosylation in these mAbs could be controlled by simple addition of L-fucose in the culture medium, thereby allowing the use of a single cell line for production of the same mAb in fucosylated and afucosylated formats for multiple therapeutic indications.

  19. Ability of Group IVB metallocene polyethers containing dienestrol to arrest the growth of selected cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashida Yuki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monomeric Group IVB (Ti, Zr and Hf metallocenes represent a new class of antitumor compounds. There is literature on the general biological activities of some organotin compounds. Unfortunately, there is little information with respect to the molecular level activity of these organotin compounds. We recently started focusing on the anti-cancer activity of organotin polymers that we had made for other purposes and as part of our platinum anti-cancer effort. Methods For this study, we synthesized a new series of metallocene-containing compounds coupling the metallocene unit with dienestrol, a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen. This is part of our effort to couple known moieties that offer antitumor activity with biologically active units hoping to increase the biological activity of the combination. The materials were confirmed to be polymeric using light scattering photometry and the structural repeat unit was verified employing matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy results. Results The polymers demonstrated the ability to suppress the growth of a series of tumor cell lines originating from breast, colon, prostrate, and lung cancers at concentrations generally lower than those required for inhibition of cell growth by the commonly used antitumor drug cisplatin. Conclusion These drugs show great promise in vitro against a number of cancer cell lines and due to their polymeric nature will most likely be less toxic than currently used metal-containing drugs such as cisplatin. These drugs also offer several addition positive aspects. First, the reactants are commercially available so that additional synthetic steps are not needed. Second, synthesis of the polymer is rapid, occurring within about 15 seconds. Third, the interfacial synthetic system is already industrially employed in the synthesis of aromatic nylons and polycarbonates. Thus, the ability to synthesize large amounts of

  20. Ability of Group IVB metallocene polyethers containing dienestrol to arrest the growth of selected cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roner, Michael R; Carraher, Charles E Jr; Shahi, Kimberly; Ashida, Yuki; Barot, Girish

    2009-01-01

    Monomeric Group IVB (Ti, Zr and Hf) metallocenes represent a new class of antitumor compounds. There is literature on the general biological activities of some organotin compounds. Unfortunately, there is little information with respect to the molecular level activity of these organotin compounds. We recently started focusing on the anti-cancer activity of organotin polymers that we had made for other purposes and as part of our platinum anti-cancer effort. For this study, we synthesized a new series of metallocene-containing compounds coupling the metallocene unit with dienestrol, a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen. This is part of our effort to couple known moieties that offer antitumor activity with biologically active units hoping to increase the biological activity of the combination. The materials were confirmed to be polymeric using light scattering photometry and the structural repeat unit was verified employing matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy results. The polymers demonstrated the ability to suppress the growth of a series of tumor cell lines originating from breast, colon, prostrate, and lung cancers at concentrations generally lower than those required for inhibition of cell growth by the commonly used antitumor drug cisplatin. These drugs show great promise in vitro against a number of cancer cell lines and due to their polymeric nature will most likely be less toxic than currently used metal-containing drugs such as cisplatin. These drugs also offer several addition positive aspects. First, the reactants are commercially available so that additional synthetic steps are not needed. Second, synthesis of the polymer is rapid, occurring within about 15 seconds. Third, the interfacial synthetic system is already industrially employed in the synthesis of aromatic nylons and polycarbonates. Thus, the ability to synthesize large amounts of the drugs is straight forward

  1. Methodology for the selection of routes for international cross-border line projects involving multiple objectives and decision-makers in the analyses of restrictions and environmental possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel S, Enrique; Cadena, Luis Fernando

    2005-01-01

    A scheme was developed and applied to select the optimum environmental route for international cross-border line projects, in a decision making context involving multiple objectives and multiple decision-makers, the project studied was the electricity interconnection for central America (SIEPAC) for which a prospective assessment was carried out regarding the restrictions and possibilities in the light of the Colombian environmental dimensions management model. The methodology proposed followed these stages: Definition and approval of the structure of environmental restriction and criticality variables, sectorization and selection of complex sections, definition of decision-makers for multi-objective analysis; design and application of consultation tool; definition and modeling of options applying SIG; sensitivity analysis of alternative routes and project's environment management. Different options were identified for insertion and permanence of the project according to the criteria of various interest groups and actors consulted: environmental authorities, electricity companies, scientific community and civil society

  2. Effects of selective breeding for increased wheel-running behavior on circadian timing of substrate oxidation and ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónás, I; Vaanholt, L M; Doornbos, M; Garland, T; Scheurink, A J W; Nyakas, C; van Dijk, G

    2010-04-19

    Fluctuations in substrate preference and utilization across the circadian cycle may be influenced by the degree of physical activity and nutritional status. In the present study, we assessed these relationships in control mice and in mice from a line selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior, either when feeding a carbohydrate-rich/low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet. Housed without wheels, selected mice, and in particular the females, exhibited higher cage activity than their non-selected controls during the dark phase and at the onset of the light phase, irrespective of diet. This was associated with increases in energy expenditure in both sexes of the selection line. In selected males, carbohydrate oxidation appeared to be increased compared to controls. In contrast, selected females had profound increases in fat oxidation above the levels in control females to cover the increased energy expenditure during the dark phase. This is remarkable in light of the finding that the selected mice, and in particular the females showed higher preference for the LF diet relative to controls. It is likely that hormonal and/or metabolic signals increase carbohydrate preference in the selected females, which may serve optimal maintenance of cellular metabolism in the presence of augmented fat oxidation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of productive and reproductive performance and hair cortisol levels between Brown Swiss cross-bred and Holstein cows housed in the same barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Natsumi; Kuroki, Reimi; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2017-10-01

    The productive and reproductive characteristics of Brown Swiss (B) cross-bred cows were investigated by comparing with those of Holstein (H) cows housed in the same barn. Additionally, their hair cortisol levels were analyzed to evaluate the extent of stress experienced during dry and lactation periods. B cross-bred cows had lower milk yields and higher milk fat rates than H cows. Reproductive records showed that days from parturition to first artificial insemination (AI) in B cross-bred (n = 16) and H (n = 27) cows were not significantly different, but conception rate at first AI of B cross-bred cows tended to be higher than that of H cows. Percentage of B cross-bred cows that resumed ovarian cyclic activity within 45 days after parturition was higher than that of H cows (6/6 (100%) and 5/11 (45.5%), P cows had higher body condition scores at that time. Hair cortisol level at 60 to 90 days after parturition in H cows increased significantly compared with in the dry period, and it was higher than that of B cows during the same period. These results suggest that B cross-bred cows experience less metabolic stress during early lactation, which may result in earlier resumption of reproductive function. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. In vitro toxicity of selected pesticides on RTG-2 and RTL-W1 fish cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babin, M.M.; Tarazona, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    The rainbow trout fish cell lines RTG-2 and RTL-W1 were used to determine the cytotoxic effects of the pesticides bifenthrin, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, λ-cyhalothrin, quinalphos and chlorpyrifos. Cytotoxicity was measured by EROD and β-Gal enzymatic activities, the neutral red (NR) uptake assay, and the FRAME KB protein (KBP) assay. The β-Gal activity was unaffected by the pesticide exposure. The EROD activity was induced by cyhalothrin and λ-cyhalothrin (RTG-2 and RTL-W1) and by bifenthrin (RTL-W1). Dose dependent inhibition responses were observed for EROD activity in cells exposed to quinalphos (RTL-W1) and chlorpyrifos (RTG-2 and RTL-W1). RTL-W1 offered a better response for EROD induction. The EC50 values on EROD endpoint were more sensitive than NR and KBP. The acute fish toxicity of chlorpyrifos and quinalphos depends highly on the species; the species sensitivity distributions cover several orders of magnitude and the values obtained for EROS were within the lowest part of the reported ranges. - In vitro cell cultures can provide sensitive indicators for pesticide effects on biota

  5. In vitro toxicity of selected pesticides on RTG-2 and RTL-W1 fish cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babin, M.M. [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta. de La Coruna Km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: babin@inia.es; Tarazona, J.V. [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta. de La Coruna Km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    The rainbow trout fish cell lines RTG-2 and RTL-W1 were used to determine the cytotoxic effects of the pesticides bifenthrin, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, {lambda}-cyhalothrin, quinalphos and chlorpyrifos. Cytotoxicity was measured by EROD and {beta}-Gal enzymatic activities, the neutral red (NR) uptake assay, and the FRAME KB protein (KBP) assay. The {beta}-Gal activity was unaffected by the pesticide exposure. The EROD activity was induced by cyhalothrin and {lambda}-cyhalothrin (RTG-2 and RTL-W1) and by bifenthrin (RTL-W1). Dose dependent inhibition responses were observed for EROD activity in cells exposed to quinalphos (RTL-W1) and chlorpyrifos (RTG-2 and RTL-W1). RTL-W1 offered a better response for EROD induction. The EC50 values on EROD endpoint were more sensitive than NR and KBP. The acute fish toxicity of chlorpyrifos and quinalphos depends highly on the species; the species sensitivity distributions cover several orders of magnitude and the values obtained for EROS were within the lowest part of the reported ranges. - In vitro cell cultures can provide sensitive indicators for pesticide effects on biota.

  6. Cytogenetic analysis and mapping of leaf rust resistance in Aegilops speltoides Tausch derived bread wheat line Selection2427 carrying putative gametocidal gene(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjana, M; Vinod; Sharma, J B; Mallick, Niharika; Tomar, S M S; Jha, S K

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major biotic stress affecting wheat yields worldwide. Host-plant resistance is the best method for controlling leaf rust. Aegilops speltoides is a good source of resistance against wheat rusts. To date, five Lr genes, Lr28, Lr35, Lr36, Lr47, and Lr51, have been transferred from Ae. speltoides to bread wheat. In Selection2427, a bread wheat introgresed line with Ae. speltoides as the donor parent, a dominant gene for leaf rust resistance was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 3B (LrS2427). None of the Lr genes introgressed from Ae. speltoides have been mapped to chromosome 3B. Since none of the designated seedling leaf rust resistance genes have been located on chromosome 3B, LrS2427 seems to be a novel gene. Selection2427 showed a unique property typical of gametocidal genes, that when crossed to other bread wheat cultivars, the F 1 showed partial pollen sterility and poor seed setting, whilst Selection2427 showed reasonable male and female fertility. Accidental co-transfer of gametocidal genes with LrS2427 may have occurred in Selection2427. Though LrS2427 did not show any segregation distortion and assorted independently of putative gametocidal gene(s), its utilization will be difficult due to the selfish behavior of gametocidal genes.

  7. Variations in seed protein content of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant lines by in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Annamalai; Jayabalan, Narayanasamy

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the influence of gamma irradiation (GR), ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and sodium azide (SA) treatment on yield and protein content of selected mutant lines of cotton. Seeds of MCU 5 and MCU 11 were exposed to gamma rays (GR), ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and sodium azide (SA). Lower dose of gamma irradiation (100-500 Gy), 10-50 mM EMS and SA at lower concentration effectively influences in improving the yield and protein content. Significant increase in yield (258.9 g plant(-1)) and protein content (18.63 mg g(-1) d. wt.) as compared to parental lines was noted in M2 generations. During the subsequent field trials, number of mutant lines varied morphologically in terms of yield as well as biochemical characters such as protein. The selected mutant lines were bred true to their characters in M3 and M4 generations. The significant increase in protein content and profiles of the mutant lines with range of 10.21-18.63 mg g(-1). The SDS-PAGE analysis of mutant lines revealed 9 distinct bands of different intensities with range of 26-81 kDa. The difference in intensity of bands was more (41, 50 and 58 kDa) in the mutant lines obtained from in vitro mutation than in vivo mutation. Significance of such stimulation in protein content correlated with yielding ability of the mutant lines of cotton in terms of seed weight per plant. The results confirm that in cotton it is possible to enhance the both yield and biochemical characters by in vivo and in vitro mutagenic treatments.

  8. A two-Transputer VME module for data acquisition and on-line event selection in ZEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boterenbrood, H.; Goble, S.; Jong, S.J. de; Kieft, G.; Lugt, H.J. van der; Uijterwaal, H.A.J.R.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Waard, A. de; Wiggers, L.W.

    1993-01-01

    For the ZEUS experiment at the HERA e-p collider in Hamburg a versatile and fast VME-based processor module has been developed at NIKHEF-H. The single-slot wide VME module contains two INMOS T800 Transputers, each with private memory, and a triple-port memory (TPM), accessible to both Transputers. Both Transputers have access to the VME bus, while an external master can also access the TPM directly. The VME accesses proceed typically with 10 Mbyte/s. Three application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) handle the internal and external Transputer interfacing. The module combines the VME environment with the parallel processing and link-oriented environment of the Transputer. Over 200 modules are used in the data acquisition and event selection systems of ZEUS. (orig.)

  9. Captive-bred neotropical birds diagnosed with Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Novaes, Ricardo; Pires, Marcus Sandes; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Bergamo do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina

    2018-02-01

    Currently, there are only three valid species of Cryptosporidium infecting avian hosts, namely, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium galli and Cryptosporidium avium in addition to 12 genotypes of unknown species status. The objectives of this study were to microscopically diagnose the presence of Cryptosporidium in birds from a commercial aviary located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; genotypically characterize species and/or genotypes of genus Cryptosporidum; and conduct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to compare the obtained DNA sequences with those deposited in GenBank. A total of 85 fecal samples were collected from wild captive-bred birds: 48 of family Psittacidae and 37 of family Ramphastidae. Initially, a search for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was conducted using the centrifugal-flotation in saturated sugar solution technique, after that, the collected samples were analyzed microscopically. Cryptosporidium infections were only detected in 24.32% of samples belonging to the family Ramphastidae. DNA was extracted from positive samples and molecular diagnostics was applied targeting the 18S rRNA gene, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III was diagnosed in this study more closely related to the gastric species. This is the first record of Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III in order Piciformes and family Ramphastidae, where three host species (Ramphastus toco, Ramphastus tucanus, and Pteroglossus bailloni) were positive for the etiologic agent. Based on the molecular data obtained, these wild birds raised in captivity do not represent a source of human cryptosporidiosis, considering that Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III does not constitute a zoonosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Genetic parameters and expected responses to selection for components of feed efficiency in a Duroc pig line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan P; Ragab, Mohamed; Quintanilla, Raquel; Rothschild, Max F; Piles, Miriam

    2017-12-01

    Improving feed efficiency ([Formula: see text]) is a key factor for any pig breeding company. Although this can be achieved by selection on an index of multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction of breeding values with optimal economic weights, considering deviations of feed intake from actual needs ([Formula: see text]) should be of value for further research on biological aspects of [Formula: see text]. Here, we present a random regression model that extends the classical definition of [Formula: see text] by including animal-specific needs in the model. Using this model, we explore the genetic determinism of several [Formula: see text] components: use of feed for growth ([Formula: see text]), use of feed for backfat deposition ([Formula: see text]), use of feed for maintenance ([Formula: see text]), and unspecific efficiency in the use of feed ([Formula: see text]). Expected response to alternative selection indexes involving different components is also studied. Based on goodness-of-fit to the available feed intake ([Formula: see text]) data, the model that assumes individual (genetic and permanent) variation in the use of feed for maintenance, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] showed the best performance. Joint individual variation in feed allocation to maintenance, growth and backfat deposition comprised 37% of the individual variation of [Formula: see text]. The estimated heritabilities of [Formula: see text] using the model that accounts for animal-specific needs and the traditional [Formula: see text] model were 0.12 and 0.18, respectively. The estimated heritabilities for the regression coefficients were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.55 for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations of [Formula: see text] were positive with amount of feed used for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] but negative for [Formula: see text]. Expected response in overall efficiency, reducing [Formula

  11. Two-line hybrid rice male sterile line 'NHR111S' with a marker of green-revertible albino leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Liu Xin; Shu Xiaoli; Shu Qingyao; Xia Yingwu; Wu Dianxing

    2006-01-01

    NHR111S is a new two-line male sterile line with a marker of green-revertible albino leave that was bred from in vitro mutagens is of the thermo/photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line 'Guangzhan63S' by 60 Co γ-rays. It has the same desired agronomic traits, fertility characteristics and combining ability as characteristics of the parent. It is convenient to develop leaf color marker-aided elimination strategy in the multiplication and production of hybrid rice seeds. (authors)

  12. Molecularly imprinted sol-gel nanofibers based solid phase microextraction coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for selective determination of acesulfame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Karimi, Mohammad; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz

    2015-03-01

    Sol-gel based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanofiber was successfully fabricated by electrospinning technique on the surface of a stainless steel bar. The manufactured tool was applied for on-line selective solid phase microextraction (SPME) and determination of acesulfame (ACF) as an artificial sweetener with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The selective ability of method for the extraction of ACF was investigated in the presence of some selected sweeteners such as saccharine (SCH), aspartame (ASP) and caffeine (CAF). Electrospinning of MIP sol-gel solution on the stainless steel bar provided an unbreakable sorbent with high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stability. Moreover, application of the MIP-SPME tool revealed a unique approach for the selective microextraction of the analyte in beverage samples. In this work, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propylamine (TMSPA) was chosen as a precursor due to its ability to imprint the analyte by hydrogen bonding, Van der Walls, and dipole-dipole interactions. Nylon 6 was also added as a backbone and support for the precursor in which sol could greatly growth during the sol-gel process and makes the solution electrospinable. Various effective parameters in the extraction efficiency of the MIP-SPME tool such as loading time, flow rate, desorption time, selectivity, and the sample volume were evaluated. The linearity for the ACF in beverage sample was in the range of 0.78-100.5 ng mL(-1). Limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.23 and 0.78 ng mL(-1) respectively. The RSD values (n=5) were all below 3.5%at the 20 ng mL(-1) level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Honey bee lines selected for high propolis production also have superior hygienic behavior and increased honey and pollen stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemo, D; De Jong, D; Couto, R H N; Malheiros, E B

    2013-12-19

    Honey bees use propolis to defend against invaders and disease organisms. As some colonies produce much more propolis than others, we investigated whether propolis collecting is associated with disease resistance traits, including hygienic behavior and resistance to the parasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor. The three highest (HP) and three lowest propolis-producing (LP) colonies among 36 Africanized honey bee colonies were initially selected. Queens and drones from these colonies were crossed through artificial insemination to produce five colonies of each of the following crosses: HP♀ X HP♂, LP♀ X HP♂, HP♀ X LP♂, and LP♀ X LP♂. Colonies headed by HP♀ X HP♂ queens produced significantly more propolis than those with HP♀ X LP♂ and LP♀ X HP♂ queens and these in turn produced significantly more propolis than those headed by LP♀ X LP♂ queens. The brood cell uncapping rate of the high-propolis-producing colonies in the hygienic behavior test was significantly superior to that of the other groups. The LP X LP group was significantly less hygienic than the two HP X LP crosses, based on the evaluation of the rate of removal of pin-killed pupae. The HP X HP colonies were significantly more hygienic than the other crosses. No significant differences were found in mite infestation rates among the groups of colonies; although overall, colony infestation rates were quite low (1.0 to 3.2 mites per 100 brood cells), which could have masked such effects. Honey and pollen stores were significantly and positively correlated with propolis production.

  14. SEROLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO Anaplasma phagocytophilum IN HORSES FROM THE RIO DE JANEIRO STATE MOUNTED POLICE BRED IN THE URBAN ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Farias Rolim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emergent hemoparasite in regions where ticks are regularly found. In order to investigate the rate of anti-A. phagocytophilum antibody in horses of the Mounted Police of Rio de Janeiro state and therefore the presence of this agent, 41 horses from the Cavalry Squadron (CS and 50 from the Regiment of Mounted Police (RMP were selected. For the serologic diagnosis the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody test was performed. In the present work, among 91 equine sera samples anti-A. phagocytophilum antibodies, with titer ≥ 1:80, were detected in 11 animals (12%, being five (5% from males and six (7% females, with no statistical difference. The adult animals with ages varying between five and 14 years presented the highest rate of positive reaction, although antibodies were detected in animals of all ages. We did not observe statistic differences in relation to the presence of anti-A. phagocytophilum antibodies among the animals bred in the CS and RMP. The presence of anti-A.phagocytophilim antibodies in horses of the Mounted Police with no clinical signs is indicative that the parasite is present in the enzootic form among the horses of the urban area. The circulation of the parasite among the animals is not dependent of the presence of tick infestations.

  15. Recreational fishing selectively captures individuals with the highest fitness potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, David A H; Suski, Cory D; Philipp, David P; Klefoth, Thomas; Wahl, David H; Kersten, Petra; Cooke, Steven J; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2012-12-18

    Fisheries-induced evolution and its impact on the productivity of exploited fish stocks remains a highly contested research topic in applied fish evolution and fisheries science. Although many quantitative models assume that larger, more fecund fish are preferentially removed by fishing, there is no empirical evidence describing the relationship between vulnerability to capture and individual reproductive fitness in the wild. Using males from two lines of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) selectively bred over three generations for either high (HV) or low (LV) vulnerability to angling as a model system, we show that the trait "vulnerability to angling" positively correlates with aggression, intensity of parental care, and reproductive fitness. The difference in reproductive fitness between HV and LV fish was particularly evident among larger males, which are also the preferred mating partners of females. Our study constitutes experimental evidence that recreational angling selectively captures individuals with the highest potential for reproductive fitness. Our study further suggests that selective removal of the fittest individuals likely occurs in many fisheries that target species engaged in parental care. As a result, depending on the ecological context, angling-induced selection may have negative consequences for recruitment within wild populations of largemouth bass and possibly other exploited species in which behavioral patterns that determine fitness, such as aggression or parental care, also affect their vulnerability to fishing gear.

  16. Molecular gas in the Herschel-selected strongly lensed submillimeter galaxies at z 2-4 as probed by multi-J CO lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Omont, A.; Beelen, A.; Gao, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Gavazzi, R.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Ivison, R.; Lehnert, M.; Liu, D.; Oteo, I.; González-Alfonso, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Cox, P.; Krips, M.; Neri, R.; Riechers, D.; Baker, A. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Cooray, A.; Smail, I.

    2017-12-01

    We present the IRAM-30 m observations of multiple-J CO (Jup mostly from 3 up to 8) and [C I](3P2 → 3P1) ([C I](2-1) hereafter) line emission in a sample of redshift 2-4 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). These SMGs are selected among the brightest-lensed galaxies discovered in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Forty-seven CO lines and 7 [C I](2-1) lines have been detected in 15 lensed SMGs. A non-negligible effect of differential lensing is found for the CO emission lines, which could have caused significant underestimations of the linewidths, and hence of the dynamical masses. The CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs), peaking around Jup 5-7, are found to be similar to those of the local starburst-dominated ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and of the previously studied SMGs. After correcting for lensing amplification, we derived the global properties of the bulk of molecular gas in the SMGs using non-LTE radiative transfer modelling, such as the molecular gas density nH2 102.5-104.1 cm-3 and the kinetic temperature Tk 20-750 K. The gas thermal pressure Pth ranging from 105 K cm-3 to 106 K cm-3 is found to be correlated with star formation efficiency. Further decomposing the CO SLEDs into two excitation components, we find a low-excitation component with nH2 102.8-104.6 cm-3 and Tk 20-30 K, which is less correlated with star formation, and a high-excitation one (nH2 102.7-104.2 cm-3, Tk 60-400 K) which is tightly related to the on-going star-forming activity. Additionally, tight linear correlations between the far-infrared and CO line luminosities have been confirmed for the Jup ≥ 5 CO lines of these SMGs, implying that these CO lines are good tracers of star formation. The [C I](2-1) lines follow the tight linear correlation between the luminosities of the [C I](2-1) and the CO(1-0) line found in local starbursts, indicating that [C I] lines could serve as good total molecular gas mass tracers for high-redshift SMGs as well

  17. EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES AND LINES OF SOYBEAN FOR BREEDING FOR VALUABLE TRAITS IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Shafigullin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans is the most important source of high quality protein using as food and oil. Soybean protein is balanced for amino acid composition that is advantage in comparison with other legumes, oil crops, and cereals. Soybean protein contains all the essential amino acids in a ratio close to the animal protein. Due to the acute deficiency of protein, the interest in soybean production and breeding of new varieties are constantly growing worldwide. The early ripening lines for the duration of the vegetation period and interphase periods of development were selected. The soybean samples with a maximum seed weight per a plant, thousand-seed weight and the largest number of seeds in a bean were revealed. The genotypes with the optimal displays of these traits for the breeding in the different directions were identified.

  18. SGLT2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists as second-line therapy in type 2 diabetes: patient selection and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgle, Holly E; White, Karen; McAdam-Marx, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the selection of second-line therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are unable to achieve glycemic control with metformin therapy alone. Newer pharmacologic treatments for T2DM include glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. Both the classes of medication are efficacious, exhibit positive effects on weight, and are associated with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. The purpose of this review is to compare the clinical trial and real-world effectiveness data of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists versus sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors related to A1c reduction, weight loss, cost-effectiveness, cardiovascular outcomes, and safety in patients with T2DM. This review summarizes comparative evidence for providers who are determining which of the two classes may be the most appropriate for a specific patient.

  19. The six most widely used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors decrease androgens and increase estrogens in the H295R cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Larsen, Lizette Weber; Sørensen, Amalie Møller

    2017-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used as first line of treatment in major depressive disorder (MDD) are known to exert negative effects on the endocrine system and fertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible endocrine disrupting effect of six SSRIs...... in the pathway. Furthermore, all SSRIs relatively increased the estrogen/androgen ratio, indicating stimulating effects on the aromatase. Our study demonstrates the potential of SSRIs to interfere with steroid production in the H295R cells around Cmax levels and indicates that these drugs should be investigated...... validated LC-MS/MS method. All 6 SSRIs were found to exert endocrine disrupting effects on steroid hormone synthesis at concentrations just around Cmax. Although the mechanisms of disruption were all different, they all resulted in decreased testosterone levels, some due to effects on CYP17, some earlier...

  20. Development of an Ionization Scheme for Gold using the Selective Laser Ion Source at the On-Line Isotope Separator ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Fedosseev, V; Marsh, B A; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2006-01-01

    At the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility, the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) can be used to ionize reaction products as they effuse from the target. The RILIS process of laser step-wise resonance ionization of atoms in a hot metal cavity provides a highly element selective stage in the preparation of the radioactive ion beam. As a result, the ISOLDE mass separators can provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. The number of elements available at RILIS has been extended to 26, with the addition of a new three-step ionization scheme for gold. The optimal ionization scheme was determined during an extensive study of the atomic energy levels and auto-ionizing states of gold, carried out by means of in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy. Details of the ionization scheme and a summary of the spectroscopy study are presented.

  1. The modulation of radiosensitivity by combined treatment of selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS 398 and EGF receptor blocker AG 1478 in HeLa cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Seon Min; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, Joo Heon; Park, Mi Ja; Seong, In Ock [Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ki Mun; Chai, Gyu Yong [Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Selective inhibition of multiple molecular targets may improve the antitumor activity of radiation. Two specific inhibitors of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were combined with radiation on the HeLa cell line. To investigate cooperative mechanism with selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker, in vitro experiments were done. Antitumor effect was obtained by growth inhibition and apoptosis analysis by annexin V-Flous method. Radiation modulation effects were determined by the clonogenic cell survival assay. Surviving fractions at 2 Gy (SF{sub 2}) and dose enhancement radio at a surviving fraction of 0.25 were evaluated. To investigate the mechanism of the modulation of radiosensitivity, the cell cycle analyses were done by flow cytometry. The bcl-2 and bax expressions were analyzed by western blot. A cooperative effect were observed on the apoptosis of the HeLa cell line when combination of the two drugs, AG 1478 and NS 398 with radiation at the lowest doses, apoptosis of 22.70% compare with combination of the one drug with radiation, apoptosis of 8.49%. In cell cycle analysis, accumulation of cell on G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase and decrement of S phase fraction was observed from 24 hours to 72 hours after treatment with radiation, AG 1478 and NS 398. The combination of NS 398 and AG 1478 enhanced radiosensitivity in a concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells with dose enhancement ratios of 3.00 and SF{sub 2} of 0.12 but the combination of one drug with radiation was not enhanced radiosensitivity with dose enhancement ratios of 1.12 and SF2 of 0.68 ({rho} = 0.005). The expression levels of bcl-2 and bax were reduced when combined with AG 1478 and NS 398. Our results indicate that the selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker combined with radiation have potential additive or cooperative effects on radiation treatment and may act through various mechanisms including direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation

  2. The modulation of radiosensitivity by combined treatment of selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS 398 and EGF receptor blocker AG 1478 in HeLa cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Seon Min; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, Joo Heon; Park, Mi Ja; Seong, In Ock; Kang, Ki Mun; Chai, Gyu Yong

    2005-01-01

    Selective inhibition of multiple molecular targets may improve the antitumor activity of radiation. Two specific inhibitors of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were combined with radiation on the HeLa cell line. To investigate cooperative mechanism with selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker, in vitro experiments were done. Antitumor effect was obtained by growth inhibition and apoptosis analysis by annexin V-Flous method. Radiation modulation effects were determined by the clonogenic cell survival assay. Surviving fractions at 2 Gy (SF 2 ) and dose enhancement radio at a surviving fraction of 0.25 were evaluated. To investigate the mechanism of the modulation of radiosensitivity, the cell cycle analyses were done by flow cytometry. The bcl-2 and bax expressions were analyzed by western blot. A cooperative effect were observed on the apoptosis of the HeLa cell line when combination of the two drugs, AG 1478 and NS 398 with radiation at the lowest doses, apoptosis of 22.70% compare with combination of the one drug with radiation, apoptosis of 8.49%. In cell cycle analysis, accumulation of cell on G 0 /G 1 phase and decrement of S phase fraction was observed from 24 hours to 72 hours after treatment with radiation, AG 1478 and NS 398. The combination of NS 398 and AG 1478 enhanced radiosensitivity in a concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells with dose enhancement ratios of 3.00 and SF 2 of 0.12 but the combination of one drug with radiation was not enhanced radiosensitivity with dose enhancement ratios of 1.12 and SF2 of 0.68 (ρ = 0.005). The expression levels of bcl-2 and bax were reduced when combined with AG 1478 and NS 398. Our results indicate that the selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker combined with radiation have potential additive or cooperative effects on radiation treatment and may act through various mechanisms including direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, suppression of tumor cell

  3. Identification of differentially expressed genes in the oviduct of two rabbit lines divergently selected for uterine capacity using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, M; Castelló, A; Peiró, R; Argente, M J; Santacreu, M A; Folch, J M

    2013-06-01

    Suppressive subtractive hybridization libraries from oviduct at 62 h post-mating of two lines of rabbits divergently selected for uterine capacity were generated to identify differentially expressed genes. A total of 438 singletons and 126 contigs were obtained by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 704 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), of which 54% showed homology to known proteins of the non-redundant NCBI databases. Differential screening by dot blot validated 71 ESTs, of which 47 showed similarity to known genes. Transcripts of genes were functionally annotated in the molecular function and the biological process gene ontology categories using the BLAST2GO software and were assigned to reproductive developmental process, immune response, amino acid metabolism and degradation, response to stress and apoptosis terms. Finally, three interesting genes, PGR, HSD17B4 and ERO1L, were identified as overexpressed in the low line using RT-qPCR. Our study provides a list of candidate genes that can be useful to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenotypic differences observed in early embryo survival and development traits. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensafi, Ali A. [College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Ensafi@cc.iut.ac.ir; Ghaderi, Ali R. [College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-09-05

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 {mu}g of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ng mL{sup -1} Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ng mL{sup -1} Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments.

  5. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Ghaderi, Ali R.

    2007-01-01

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5 M HNO 3 and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 μg of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5 M HNO 3 solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ng mL -1 Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ng mL -1 Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments

  6. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A; Ghaderi, Ali R

    2007-09-05

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5M HNO(3) and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 microg of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5M HNO(3) solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ngmL(-1) Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ngmL(-1) Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments.

  7. Microscopic morphology and testis morphometry of captivity-bred Adult bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus Shaw, 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Carlos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the testicular morphometry of captivity-bred adult bullfrogs. Fifteen young adult male were studied, in the rainy season and a lengthy photoperiod. The GSI was established at 0.15%. The nuclear diameter of germinative and Leydig cells, the nucleolus diameter of Sertoli cells and the area of cysts and tubules were determined and the mean number of ISPC, IISPC and SPT per cyst and the mean number of cysts per tubule was estimated. The nucleoplasmatic proportion of the nucleus of the Leydig cell was 76.22%, indicating less cytoplasmic activity. Eight generations of spermatogonia were found. The spermatogenesis efficiency in meiosis and in mitosis was 63 and 49%, respectively. The spermatogenesis of bullfrog fited in the pattern of other captivity Anurans, with differences as the morphology of Sertoli and Leydig cells nuclei.A morfometria é uma importante ferramenta para a biologia estrutural, permitindo estudos estereológicos e análises quantitativas. Existem muitos pontos a serem esclarecidos sobre a morfometria testicular desta espécie, que objetivamos desvendar neste trabalho. Quinze machos adultos foram estudados, em período chuvoso e de fotoperíodo longo (dezembro, 2000. O IGS encontrado foi de 0.15%. O diâmetro nuclear das células germinativas e da célula de Leydig, o diâmetro nucleolar das células de Sertoli e a área dos cistos e túbulos foram determinados. O número médio de ISPC, IISPC e SPT por cisto e o número médio de cisto por túbulo foi estimado. A proporção nucleoplasmática do núcleo da célula de Leydig foi de 76.22%, indicando pouca atividade citoplasmática. Oito gerações de espermatogônia foram estimadas. A eficiência da espermatogênese na meiose e mitose foi de 63% e49%, respectivamente. A espermatogênese de rãtouro segue os padrões dos demais Anuros de cativeiro, apresentando diferenças nos núcleos das c��lulas de Sertoli e Leydig.

  8. The pht4;1-3 mutant line contains a loss of function allele in the Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 gene caused by a remnant inactivated selection marker-a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anders K; Andersson, Mats X

    2017-01-01

    A striking and unexpected biochemical phenotype was found in an insertion mutant line in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . One of two investigated insertion mutant lines in the gene encoding the phosphate transporter PHT4;1 demonstrated a prominent loss of trienoic fatty acids, whereas the other insertion line was indistinguishable from wild type in this aspect. We demonstrate that the loss of trienoic fatty acids was due to a remnant inactive negative selection marker gene in this particular transposon tagged line, pht4;1-3 . This constitutes a cautionary tale that warns of the importance to confirm the loss of this type of selection markers and the importance of verifying the relationship between a phenotype and genotype by more than one independent mutant line or alternatively genetic complementation.

  9. CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES IN YOUNG SOWS BRED IN FARMSTEADS ON CLUJ COUNTY INCIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. CORNOIU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to offer some information concerning the morphological stateof Bazna Breed female suina biological material bred and kept in farmsteads onCluj County incidence, near to enter to reproduce for the first time.Practically, after a biometric synthetic check, 37 young sows were phenotypicallyanalyzed, considered as acceptable to reproduction by the breeders.The obtained results were statistically processed and the formulated conclusionswant to be modest recommendations for suina breeders in general, and for Baznabreed in special.

  10. Metabolic and behavioral responses to high-fat feeding in mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, L. M.; Jonas, I.; Doornbos, M.; Schubert, K. A.; Nyakas, C.; Garland, T.; Visser, G. H.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased dietary fat intake is a precipitating factor for the development of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. Physically active individuals generally have a reduced risk of developing these unhealthy states, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the

  11. In vitro anti-proliferative activity on colon cancer cell line (HT-29) of Thai medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Jantrawut, Pensak; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-02-23

    Thai/Lanna region has its own folklore wisdoms including the traditional medicinal plant recipes. Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III" has been developed by Prof. Dr. Jiradej Manosroi. It consists of over 200,000 recipes for all diseases including cancer. To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities on human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) as well as the cancer cell selectivity of the methanolic extracts (MEs) and fractions of the 23 selected plants from the "MANOSROI III" database. The 23 selected plants were extracted with methanol under reflux and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity by sulforhodamine B assay. The 5 plants (Gloriosa superba, Caesalpinia sappan, Fibraurea tinctoria, Ventilago denticulata and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) with potent anti-proliferative activity were fractionated by liquid-liquid partition to give 4 fractions including each hexane (HF), methanol-water (MF), n-butanol (BF) and water (WF) fractions. They were tested for anti-proliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity. The ME and fractions of G. superba which showed potent anti-proliferative activity were further examined for morphological changes and apoptotic activities by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. The ME of G. superba root showed active with the highest anti-proliferative activity at 9.17 and 1.58 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively. After liquid-liquid partition, HF of V. denticulata, MFs of F. tinctoria, V. denticulata and BF of P. tetragonolobus showed higher anti-proliferative activities than their MEs. The MF of G. superba indicated the highest anti-proliferative activity at 7.73 and 1.34 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively, but only 0.86 fold of its ME. The ME and HF, MF and BF of G. superba and MF of F. tinctoria demonstrated high cancer cell selectivity. At 50 µg/ml, ME, HF, MF and BF of G. superba demonstrated higher apoptotic activities than the two standard drugs

  12. Twenty-three generations of mice bidirectionally selected for open-field thigmotaxis: selection response and repeated exposure to the open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Pia K; Ravaja, N; Ewalds-Kvist, S B M

    2006-03-01

    We examined: (a) the response to bidirectional selection for open-field (OF) thigmotaxis in mice for 23 generations and (b) the effects of repeated exposure (during 5 days) on different OF behaviors in the selectively bred high OF thigmotaxis (HOFT) and low OF thigmotaxis (LOFT) mice. A total of 2049 mice were used in the study. Prior to the testing in the selection experiment, the mice were exposed to the OF apparatus for approximately 2 min on each of 4 consecutive days. Thus, the selection was based on the scores registered on the 5th day after the four habituation periods. The HOFT mice were more thigmotactic than the LOFT mice in almost each generation. The HOFT mice also tended to rear less than the LOFT mice, which was explained by the inverse relationship between emotionality and exploratory tendencies. The lines did not generally differ in ambulation. Sex differences were found in thigmotaxis, ambulation, and rearing. In the repeated exposure experiment, the development of nine different OF behaviors across the 5 days of testing was addressed. Both lines ambulated, explored, and reared most on the 1st, 4th, and 5th days. Grooming and radial latency decreased and thigmotaxis increased linearly across the testing days. Line differences were found in ambulation, exploration, grooming, and rearing, while sex differences were manifested in ambulation and exploration. The line difference in thigmotaxis was evident only on the 5th day. Temporal changes were partially at variance with the general assumptions. OF thigmotaxis was found to be a powerful characteristic for producing two diverging lines of mice.

  13. Genomic selection and association mapping in rice (Oryza sativa): effect of trait genetic architecture, training population composition, marker number and statistical model on accuracy of rice genomic selection in elite, tropical rice breeding lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, Jennifer; Begum, Hasina; Akdemir, Deniz; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; Redoña, Edilberto; Atlin, Gary; Jannink, Jean-Luc; McCouch, Susan R

    2015-02-01

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its efficacy for breeding inbred lines of rice. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in conjunction with five-fold GS cross-validation on a population of 363 elite breeding lines from the International Rice Research Institute's (IRRI) irrigated rice breeding program and herein report the GS results. The population was genotyped with 73,147 markers using genotyping-by-sequencing. The training population, statistical method used to build the GS model, number of markers, and trait were varied to determine their effect on prediction accuracy. For all three traits, genomic prediction models outperformed prediction based on pedigree records alone. Prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31 and 0.34 for grain yield and plant height to 0.63 for flowering time. Analyses using subsets of the full marker set suggest that using one marker every 0.2 cM is sufficient for genomic selection in this collection of rice breeding materials. RR-BLUP was the best performing statistical method for grain yield where no large effect QTL were detected by GWAS, while for flowering time, where a single very large effect QTL was detected, the non-GS multiple linear regression method outperformed GS models. For plant height, in which four mid-sized QTL were identified by GWAS, random forest produced the most consistently accurate GS models. Our results suggest that GS, informed by GWAS interpretations of genetic architecture and population structure, could become an effective tool for increasing the efficiency of rice breeding as the costs of genotyping continue to decline.

  14. Genomic selection and association mapping in rice (Oryza sativa: effect of trait genetic architecture, training population composition, marker number and statistical model on accuracy of rice genomic selection in elite, tropical rice breeding lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Spindel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic Selection (GS is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its efficacy for breeding inbred lines of rice. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in conjunction with five-fold GS cross-validation on a population of 363 elite breeding lines from the International Rice Research Institute's (IRRI irrigated rice breeding program and herein report the GS results. The population was genotyped with 73,147 markers using genotyping-by-sequencing. The training population, statistical method used to build the GS model, number of markers, and trait were varied to determine their effect on prediction accuracy. For all three traits, genomic prediction models outperformed prediction based on pedigree records alone. Prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31 and 0.34 for grain yield and plant height to 0.63 for flowering time. Analyses using subsets of the full marker set suggest that using one marker every 0.2 cM is sufficient for genomic selection in this collection of rice breeding materials. RR-BLUP was the best performing statistical method for grain yield where no large effect QTL were detected by GWAS, while for flowering time, where a single very large effect QTL was detected, the non-GS multiple linear regression method outperformed GS models. For plant height, in which four mid-sized QTL were identified by GWAS, random forest produced the most consistently accurate GS models. Our results suggest that GS, informed by GWAS interpretations of genetic architecture and population structure, could become an effective tool for increasing the efficiency of rice breeding as the costs of genotyping continue to decline.

  15. Genomic Selection and Association Mapping in Rice (Oryza sativa): Effect of Trait Genetic Architecture, Training Population Composition, Marker Number and Statistical Model on Accuracy of Rice Genomic Selection in Elite, Tropical Rice Breeding Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, Jennifer; Begum, Hasina; Akdemir, Deniz; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; Redoña, Edilberto; Atlin, Gary; Jannink, Jean-Luc; McCouch, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its efficacy for breeding inbred lines of rice. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in conjunction with five-fold GS cross-validation on a population of 363 elite breeding lines from the International Rice Research Institute's (IRRI) irrigated rice breeding program and herein report the GS results. The population was genotyped with 73,147 markers using genotyping-by-sequencing. The training population, statistical method used to build the GS model, number of markers, and trait were varied to determine their effect on prediction accuracy. For all three traits, genomic prediction models outperformed prediction based on pedigree records alone. Prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31 and 0.34 for grain yield and plant height to 0.63 for flowering time. Analyses using subsets of the full marker set suggest that using one marker every 0.2 cM is sufficient for genomic selection in this collection of rice breeding materials. RR-BLUP was the best performing statistical method for grain yield where no large effect QTL were detected by GWAS, while for flowering time, where a single very large effect QTL was detected, the non-GS multiple linear regression method outperformed GS models. For plant height, in which four mid-sized QTL were identified by GWAS, random forest produced the most consistently accurate GS models. Our results suggest that GS, informed by GWAS interpretations of genetic architecture and population structure, could become an effective tool for increasing the efficiency of rice breeding as the costs of genotyping continue to decline. PMID:25689273

  16. Use of milk progesterone for determining the reproductive status of cross-bred swamp buffaloes and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuong Le Xuan; Tan Luu Van; Trieu Cao Van; Dung Chung Anh; Canh Tran Tich; Quynh Vuong Dac

    1990-01-01

    Eighteen cross-bred buffaloes (F 1 , local breed x Murrah) and 19 cross-bred cows (F 1 , local breed x Holstein Friesian), 4-6 years of age, were used in the study to determine the potential of milk progesterone measurement as an aid in characterizing the onset of postpartum ovarian activity and for early pregnancy diagnosis. The first oestrous cycle, based on milk progesterone, commenced between days 40-50 postpartum in 17% of the buffaloes but between days 25-35 postpartum in 21% of the cows. At days 61-100 postpartum, 33% of the buffaloes had cycling ovaries with progesterone concentrations of 3.23-4.02 ng/mL, while 53% of the cows had cycling ovaries during the same period with progesterone concentrations of 3.52-4.16 ng/mL. During the oestrous cycle, the progesterone level showed peak elevations on day 15 in buffaloes and on day 9 in cows. The milk progesterone profiles of the buffalo took longer to reach peak levels, but declined faster than those in the cow. The accuracy of positive pregnancy diagnosis was 78% in buffaloes and 83.3% in cows, but the accuracy of diagnosing non-pregnancy was 100% in both species. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  17. Interactions between Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci and associations of selected molecular markers with quality traits in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DH lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystkowiak, Karolina; Langner, Monika; Adamski, Tadeusz; Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Krajewski, Paweł; Surma, Maria

    2017-02-01

    The quality of wheat depends on a large complex of genes and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci controlling technological quality traits and their stability across environments, and to assess the impact of interaction between alleles at loci Glu-1 and Glu-3 on grain quality. DH lines were evaluated in field experiments over a period of 4 years, and genotyped using simple sequence repeat markers. Lines were analysed for grain yield (GY), thousand grain weight (TGW), protein content (PC), starch content (SC), wet gluten content (WG), Zeleny sedimentation value (ZS), alveograph parameter W (APW), hectolitre weight (HW), and grain hardness (GH). A number of QTLs for these traits were identified in all chromosome groups. The Glu-D1 locus influenced TGW, PC, SC, WG, ZS, APW, GH, while locus Glu-B1 affected only PC, ZS, and WG. Most important marker-trait associations were found on chromosomes 1D and 5D. Significant effects of interaction between Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on technological properties were recorded, and in all types of this interaction positive effects of Glu-D1 locus on grain quality were observed, whereas effects of Glu-B1 locus depended on alleles at Glu-3 loci. Effects of Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci per se were not significant, while their interaction with alleles present at other loci encoding HMW and LMW were important. These results indicate that selection of wheat genotypes with predicted good bread-making properties should be based on the allelic composition both in Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, and confirm the predominant effect of Glu-D1d allele on technological properties of wheat grains.

  18. Inflammatory effects induced by selected limonene oxidation products: 4-OPA, IPOH, 4-AMCH in human bronchial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsa, Dorelia; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Coelhan, Mehmet

    2016-11-16

    Limonene, a monoterpene abundantly present in most of the consumer products (due to its pleasant citrus smell), easily undergoes ozonolysis leading to several limonene oxidation products (LOPs) such as 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene (4-AMCH), 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA) and 3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanal (IPOH). Toxicological studies have indicated that human exposure to limonene and ozone can cause adverse airway effects. However, little attention has been paid to the potential health impact of specific LOPs, in particular of IPOH, 4-OPA and 4-AMCH. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects of the selected LOPs on human bronchial epithelial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar epithelial (A549) cell lines by generating concentration-response curves using the neutral red uptake assay and analyzing the inflammatory response with a series of cytokines/chemokines. The cellular viability was mostly reduced by 4-OPA [IC 50 =1.6mM (A549) and 1.45mM (16HBE14o-)] when compared to IPOH [IC 50 =3.5mM (A549) and 3.4mM (16HBE14o-)] and 4-AMCH [IC 50 could not be calculated]. As a result from the inflammatory response, IPOH [50μM] induced an increase of both IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in A549 (1.5-fold change) and in 16HBE14o- (2.8- and 7-fold change respectively). 4-OPA [50μM] treatment of A549 increased IL-6 (1.4-times) and IL-8 (1.3-times) levels, while in 16HBE14o- had an opposite effect. A549 treated with 4-AMCH [50μM] elevate both IL-6 and IL-8 levels by 1.2-times, while in 16HBE14o- had an opposite effect. Based on our results, lung cellular injury characterized by inflammatory cytokine release was observed for both cell lines treated with the selected chemicals at concentrations that did not affect their cellular viability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of reproductive tract scoring on reproductive efficiency in beef heifers bred by timed insemination and natural service versus only natural service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, K; Kasimanickam, R; Tibary, A; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-04-15

    in both groups became pregnant earlier in the breeding season compared with heifers with lower RTS (log-rank statistics: P < 0.0001). Heifers in the AI-NS group become pregnant at a faster rate compared with those in the NSO group (P < 0.01). The BS-PR for heifers with RTS 5 was different between AI-NS and NSO groups (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the RTS influenced both the number of beef heifers that became pregnant during the breeding season and the time at which they become pregnant. Furthermore, irrespective of RTS, heifers bred by NSO required more time to become pregnant than their counterparts in herds that used timed AI. The application of RTS system is reliant on the use of synchronization protocol. The application of RTS for selection may plausibly remove precocious females with lower RTS. On the contrary, application of RTS would help select heifers that will become pregnant earlier in breeding season. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. SGLT2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists as second-line therapy in type 2 diabetes: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgle HE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Holly E Gurgle, Karen White, Carrie McAdam-Marx Department of Pharmacotherapy, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: Controversy exists regarding the selection of second-line therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM who are unable to achieve glycemic control with metformin therapy alone. Newer pharmacologic treatments for T2DM include glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. Both the classes of medication are efficacious, exhibit positive effects on weight, and are associated with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. The purpose of this review is to compare the clinical trial and real-world effectiveness data of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists versus sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors related to A1c reduction, weight loss, cost-effectiveness, cardiovascular outcomes, and safety in patients with T2DM. This review summarizes comparative evidence for providers who are determining which of the two classes may be the most appropriate for a specific patient. Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, GLP-1 receptor agonist, SGLT2 inhibitor, A1c, weight loss, adverse effect

  1. JET PROPERTIES OF GeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES AND POSSIBLE CONNECTION TO THEIR DISK AND CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Na; Lin, Da-Bin; Liang, En-Wei [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Zhang, Jin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xue, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan, E-mail: zhang.jin@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2015-01-01

    The observed spectral energy distributions of five GeV-selected narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are fitted with a model including the radiation ingredients from the relativistic jet, the accretion disk, and the corona. We compare the properties of these GeV NLS1 galaxies with flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), and radio-quiet (RQ) Seyfert galaxies, and explore possible hints for jet-disk/corona connection. Our results show that the radiation physics and the jet properties of the GeV NLS1 galaxies resemble that of FSRQs. The luminosity variations of PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342 at the GeV band is tightly correlated with the beaming factor (δ), similar to that observed in FSRQ 3C 279. The accretion disk luminosities and the jet powers of the GeV NLS1 galaxies cover both the ranges of FSRQs and BL Lacs. With the detection of bright corona emission in 1H 0323+342, we show that the ratio of the corona luminosity (L {sub corona}) to the accretion disk luminosity (L {sub d}) is marginally within the high end of this ratio distribution for an RQ Seyfert galaxy sample, and the variation of jet luminosity may connect with L {sub corona}. However, it is still unclear whether a system with a high L {sub corona}/L {sub d} ratio prefers to power a jet.

  2. In vitro selection of high-infectious, leukemogenic virus from low-infectious, non-leukemogenic type C virus from a malignant ST/a mouse cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M

    1979-01-01

    ; however, virus was detected in supernatant fluids only after two to four subcultures of the infected cells. The virus thus produced was XC(+) and a large plaque former. The virus released from infected SC-1 cells was N-tropic, whereas the viruses from infected NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cells were NB...... nanogram of p30, was 30- to 60-fold lower for the virus released from the ST-L1 cell line than that of the viruses after passage in SC-1, NIH/3T3, and BALB/3T3 cells. None of the viruses could infect rabbit or mink cells. Inoculation of the viruses into newborn mice showed that the ST-L1 virus was non......-leukemogenic, whereas the NB-tropic virus selected from this after passage in BALB/3T3 or NIH/3T3 cells was highly leukemogenic. Viruses isolated from leukemic animals were indistinguishable with respect to host range and protein mobilities in SDS gels from the ones with which the mice were inoculated. Although the SC...

  3. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting fatness and breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected on abdominal fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neau André

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL for abdominal fatness and breast muscle weight were investigated in a three-generation design performed by inter-crossing two experimental meat-type chicken lines that were divergently selected on abdominal fatness. A total of 585 F2 male offspring from 5 F1 sires and 38 F1 dams were recorded at 8 weeks of age for live body, abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. One hundred-twenty nine microsatellite markers, evenly located throughout the genome and heterozygous for most of the F1 sires, were used for genotyping the F2 birds. In each sire family, those offspring exhibiting the most extreme values for each trait were genotyped. Multipoint QTL analyses using maximum likelihood methods were performed for abdominal fat and breast muscle weights, which were corrected for the effects of 8-week body weight, dam and hatching group. Isolated markers were assessed by analyses of variance. Two significant QTL were identified on chromosomes 1 and 5 with effects of about one within-family residual standard deviation. One breast muscle QTL was identified on GGA1 with an effect of 2.0 within-family residual standard deviation.

  4. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY (BELLS). I. A LARGE SPECTROSCOPICALLY SELECTED SAMPLE OF LENS GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT {approx}0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S.; Pandey, Parul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Seitz, Stella [University Observatory Munich, Scheinstrasse 1, 81679 Muenchen (Germany); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. Michael [Pittsburgh Center for Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology (PITT-PACC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Brinkmann, Jon [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Weaver, Benjamin A. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present a catalog of 25 definite and 11 probable strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lens systems with lens redshifts 0.4 {approx}< z {approx}< 0.7, discovered spectroscopically by the presence of higher-redshift emission lines within the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of luminous galaxies, and confirmed with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of 44 candidates. Our survey extends the methodology of the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys survey (SLACS) to higher redshift. We describe the details of the BOSS spectroscopic candidate detections, our HST ACS image processing and analysis methods, and our strong gravitational lens modeling procedure. We report BOSS spectroscopic parameters and ACS photometric parameters for all candidates, and mass-distribution parameters for the best-fit singular isothermal ellipsoid models of definite lenses. Our sample to date was selected using only the first six months of BOSS survey-quality spectroscopic data. The full five-year BOSS database should produce a sample of several hundred strong galaxy-galaxy lenses and in combination with SLACS lenses at lower redshift, strongly constrain the redshift evolution of the structure of elliptical, bulge-dominated galaxies as a function of luminosity, stellar mass, and rest-frame color, thereby providing a powerful test for competing theories of galaxy formation and evolution.

  5. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Carletti, Monica; Sacchi, Paola; Rasero, Roberto; Nebbia, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring

  6. Mu-opioid receptor inhibition decreases voluntary wheel running in a dopamine-dependent manner in rats bred for high voluntary running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Brown, Jacob D; Kovarik, M Cathleen; Miller, Dennis K; Booth, Frank W

    2016-12-17

    The mesolimbic dopamine and opioid systems are postulated to influence the central control of physical activity motivation. We utilized selectively bred rats for high (HVR) or low (LVR) voluntary running behavior to examine (1) inherent differences in mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) expression and function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), (2) if dopamine-related mRNAs, wheel-running, and food intake are differently influenced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone injection in HVR and LVR rats, and (3) if dopamine is required for naltrexone-induced changes in running and feeding behavior in HVR rats. Oprm1 mRNA and protein expression were greater in the NAc of HVR rats, and application of the Oprm1 agonist [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to dissociated NAc neurons produced greater depolarizing responses in neurons from HVR versus LVR rats. Naltrexone injection dose-dependently decreased wheel running and food intake in HVR, but not LVR, rats. Naltrexone (20mg/kg) decreased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and Fos and Drd5 mRNA in NAc shell of HVR, but not LVR, rats. Additionally, lesion of dopaminergic neurons in the NAc with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) ablated the decrease in running, but not food intake, in HVR rats following i.p. naltrexone administration. Collectively, these data suggest the higher levels of running observed in HVR rats, compared to LVR rats, are mediated, in part, by increased mesolimbic opioidergic signaling that requires downstream dopaminergic activity to influence voluntary running, but not food intake. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Flavia [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Spalenza, Veronica [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Carletti, Monica [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Sacchi, Paola [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Rasero, Roberto [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Nebbia, Carlo [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring.

  8. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Carletti, Monica; Sacchi, Paola; Rasero, Roberto; Nebbia, Carlo

    2013-04-15

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Two generations of selection on restricted best linear unbiased prediction breeding values for income minus feed cost in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, C

    1992-07-01

    Two generations of selection on restricted BLUP breeding values were applied in an experiment with laying hens. Selection had been on phenotype of income minus feed cost (IFC) between 21 and 40 wk of age in the previous five generations. The restriction of no genetic change in egg weight was included in the EBV for power-transformed IFC (i.e., IFCt, with t-values of 3.7 and 3.6 in the two generations, respectively). The experiment consisted of two selection lines plus a randomly bred control of 20 male and 80 female breeders each. Observations on 8,844 survivors to 40 wk were available. Relative to the base population average, the restriction reduced genetic gain in IFC from 4.1 and 3.9% to 2.0 and 2.2% per generation in the two selection lines, respectively. Average EBV for egg weight remained nearly constant after a strong increase in the previous five generations. Rates of genetic gain for egg number, body weight, and feed conversion (feed/egg mass) were not affected significantly. In the seventh generation, a genetic gain in feed conversion of 10.3% relative to the phenotypic mean of the base population was obtained.

  10. Artificial Selection Response due to Polygenic Adaptation from a Multilocus, Multiallelic Genetic Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Yanjun; Sheng, Zheya; Lillie, Mette; Rönnegård, Lars; Honaker, Christa F; Siegel, Paul B; Carlborg, Örjan

    2017-10-01

    The ability of a population to adapt to changes in their living conditions, whether in nature or captivity, often depends on polymorphisms in multiple genes across the genome. In-depth studies of such polygenic adaptations are difficult in natural populations, but can be approached using the resources provided by artificial selection experiments. Here, we dissect the genetic mechanisms involved in long-term selection responses of the Virginia chicken lines, populations that after 40 generations of divergent selection for 56-day body weight display a 9-fold difference in the selected trait. In the F15 generation of an intercross between the divergent lines, 20 loci explained >60% of the additive genetic variance for the selected trait. We focused particularly on fine-mapping seven major QTL that replicated in this population and found that only two fine-mapped to single, bi-allelic loci; the other five contained linked loci, multiple alleles or were epistatic. This detailed dissection of the polygenic adaptations in the Virginia lines provides a deeper understanding of the range of different genome-wide mechanisms that have been involved in these long-term selection responses. The results illustrate that the genetic architecture of a highly polygenic trait can involve a broad range of genetic mechanisms, and that this can be the case even in a small population bred from founders with limited genetic diversity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. SELECTING ANGORA GOATS TO CONSUME MORE JUNIPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Lupton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This research project was initiated in 2003 to develop a more effective tool for biological management of invading juniper species on rangelands through herbivory by Angora goats.  After we had established that juniper consumption in free-ranging goats has a genetic component (heritability = 13%, male and female goats were bred selectively for above- (high and below-average (low juniper consumption that was estimated by fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Divergent lines are being produced to facilitate the identification of physiological mechanisms that permit some goats to consume considerably more juniper than others as a regular component of their diet.  Because diet is known to affect growth and fiber production, another objective of the project is to establish the effects of the selection protocol on body weights, fleece weights, and fiber characteristics.  Mature females (age > 1.5 yr and kids were maintained on rangeland and shorn twice a year.  Extreme high- and low-consuming yearling males (10 of each per year were evaluated annually in a central performance test.  The selection protocol resulted in average EBV for percentage juniper consumption of 3.9 and -0.4 (P 0.1 in body weight, mohair production and properties between high and low consumers.  However, the adult data for the extreme males indicated that high consuming males have lower body weights than low consumers (53.8 vs. 57.9 kg, P = 0.01. Differences in body weight and several mohair production and quality traits have also been detected in the mature females but at this early stage of the selection program, no substantial differences have been observed and certainly none that would have an economic impact for producers.  Ultimately, we expect to demonstrate that the high-consuming line controls juniper more effectively than either the low-consuming line or unselected Angora goats.  Subsequently, we plan to release high juniper

  12. [Selection and construction of cell line stably expressing survivin gene in lower level through eukaryotic plasmid vector of shRNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Xia; Sun, Shan-Zhen; Song, Ying

    2008-06-01

    To construct a short hairpin RNA(shRNA) interference expression plasmid vector of survivin gene, transfect tongue squamous cell carcinoma line Tca8113 which expressed survivin gene in a high level, and choose the cells whose survivin gene were suppressed significantly. Two pairs of oligonucleotide sequences specific for survivin gene were designed and synthesized, and cloned into pSilencer-2.1U6-neo plasmid. The recombinant plasmids (named PS1 and PS2) were amplified in Ecoli. DH5alpha was identified by restriction digestion, PCR and sequencing. The vectors were transfected into Tca8113 cells with lipofectamine 2000. After selection with G418, the stable cell clones were attained. Survivn expression was assayed with real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. SAS8.0 software package was used for Student t test. Two vectors were constructed successfully and stable cell clones with PS1 or PS2 plasmid were obtained. As compared with those of control, survivin expression of transfected cell with PS1 or PS2 in mRNA level was significantly suppressed (P<0.05). In protein level, only those of transfected cell with PS2 was significantly suppressed (P<0.01). The shRNA interference expression plasmid vectors of survivin gene are successfully constructed, and Tca8113 cells which express survivin gene in a stable lower level are attained, which enable us to carry out further research on gene therapy of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.30572056).

  13. IMPROVED log(gf ) VALUES OF SELECTED LINES IN Mn I AND Mn II FOR ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS IN FGK DWARFS AND GIANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Sobeck, J. S.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present work is to produce transition probabilities with very low uncertainties for a selected set of multiplets of Mn I and Mn II. Multiplets are chosen based upon their suitability for stellar abundance analysis. We report on new radiative lifetime measurements for 22 levels of Mn I from the e 8 D, z 6 P, z 6 D, z 4 F, e 8 S, and e 6 S terms and six levels of Mn II from the z 5 P and z 7 P terms using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atom/ion beam. New branching fractions for transitions from these levels, measured using a Fourier-transform spectrometer, are reported. When combined, these measurements yield transition probabilities for 47 transitions of Mn I and 15 transitions of Mn II. Comparisons are made to data from the literature and to Russell-Saunders (LS) theory. In keeping with the goal of producing a set of transition probabilities with the highest possible accuracy and precision, we recommend a weighted mean result incorporating our measurements on Mn I and II as well as independent measurements or calculations that we view as reliable and of a quality similar to ours. In a forthcoming paper, these Mn I/II transition probability data will be utilized to derive the Mn abundance in stars with spectra from both space-based and ground-based facilities over a 4000 A wavelength range. With the employment of a local thermodynamic equilibrium line transfer code, the Mn I/II ionization balance will be determined for stars of different evolutionary states.

  14. Phase II Trial of Atezolizumab As First-Line or Subsequent Therapy for Patients With Programmed Death-Ligand 1-Selected Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (BIRCH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.; Gettinger, S.; Johnson, M.L.; Janne, P.A.; Garassino, M.C.; Christoph, D.; Toh, C.K.; Rizvi, N.A.; Chaft, J.E.; Costa, E.; Patel, J.D.; Chow, L.Q.M.; Koczywas, M.; Ho, C.; Fruh, M.; Heuvel, M. van den; Rothenstein, J.; Reck, M.; Paz-Ares, L.; Shepherd, F.A.; Kurata, T.; Li, Z.; Qiu, J.; Kowanetz, M.; Mocci, S.; Shankar, G.; Sandler, A.; Felip, E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose BIRCH was designed to examine the efficacy of atezolizumab, a humanized anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody, in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) across lines of therapy. Patients were selected on the basis of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TC) or

  15. Acquisition, Maintenance and Relapse-Like Alcohol Drinking: Lessons from the UChB Rat Line

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Yedy; Karahanian, Eduardo; Ezquer, Fernando; Morales, Paola; Ezquer, Marcelo; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Quintanilla, María E.

    2017-01-01

    This review article addresses the biological factors that influence: (i) the acquisition of alcohol intake; (ii) the maintenance of chronic alcohol intake; and (iii) alcohol relapse-like drinking behavior in animals bred for their high-ethanol intake. Data from several rat strains/lines strongly suggest that catalase-mediated brain oxidation of ethanol into acetaldehyde is an absolute requirement (up 80%?95%) for rats to display ethanol?s reinforcing effects and to initiate chronic ethanol in...

  16. Characterization of the RAPD for 6 Durum wheat lines (Triticum durum desf.) selected from M4-irradiated population under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalil, M.K.; Nesiem, M.R.A.; Kassem, M.K.M.; Basyouny, M.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Grains of two durum wheat cultivars Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were irradiated with different doses of gamma ray 0, 150, 250 and 350 Gy to obtain new durum wheat lines characterized by high yielding and drought tolerance. Irradiated grins were cultivated in the field under normal and drought conditions during 2005-2009 Results of field experiments showed that there were new six putative lines S1, S2, S3, S4, B1 and B2. Each putative line had superiority than its parent in grain yield / plant. The putative lines S1 and S2 had superiority over their parent Sohag 3 under normal conditions in grain yield per plant this increase equal 52 and 60% respectively. The putative lines S3 and S4 had superiority in grain yield per plan as compared to Sohag 3 under drought conditions this increase equal 75 to 58% respectively. The putative lines B1 and B2 had superiority in grain yield per plant than their parent Beni Suef 3 under normal condition this increase equal 46 and 12% respectively. Results for RAPD markers showed that each putative line was characterized by positive and negative unique marker. The putative line S1: characterized by four negative marker amplified by OPM-05, OPN-04, OPA-18 and OPB-12 primers. The putative line S2: characterized by one negative unique marker amplified by OPQ-14 marker. The putative line S3: characterized by two positive markers amplified by OPB-07 and OPG-12 markers and one negative unique marker amplified by OPA-10 marker. The putative line S4: characterized by four negative markers amplified by OPM-05, OPN-13, OPQ-12 and OPQ-14 markers and one positive unique marker amplified by OPC-05 marker. The putative line B1: characterized by four positive markers amplified by OPA-10, OPG-12, OPB-07 and OPA-18 markers and three negative markers amplified with OPM-05, OPC-05 and OPB-12 markers. The putative line B2: characterized by three positive unique marker amplified by OPB-07, OPN-04, OPN-10 markers and four negative markers amplified with OPA-10

  17. Investigation of the Behavioral Characteristics of Dogs Purpose-Bred and Prepared to Perform Vapor Wake® Detection of Person-Borne Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Lazarowski

    2018-03-01

    significantly lower in the Washouts. Furthermore, differences between groups emerged as early as 3 and 6 months for select measures. We describe the behavioral characteristics targeted for selection in developing the VW phenotype and discuss the relative merit and degree of expression of those characteristics in the success of dogs bred and trained for the VW application.

  18. Investigation of the Behavioral Characteristics of Dogs Purpose-Bred and Prepared to Perform Vapor Wake® Detection of Person-Borne Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowski, Lucia; Haney, Pamela Sue; Brock, Jeanne; Fischer, Terry; Rogers, Bart; Angle, Craig; Katz, Jeffrey S; Waggoner, L Paul

    2018-01-01

    lower in the Washouts. Furthermore, differences between groups emerged as early as 3 and 6 months for select measures. We describe the behavioral characteristics targeted for selection in developing the VW phenotype and discuss the relative merit and degree of expression of those characteristics in the success of dogs bred and trained for the VW application.

  19. Ultrasonographic reproductive tract measures and pelvis measures as predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus in restricted bred beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in young heifers. The objectives of this study were to determine which transrectal ultrasound or pelvis measures taken at a single examination are independent predictors of reproductive failure and whether the RTS system can be optimized with this information. In this observational study, year-old beef heifers (n = 488) in 2 birth cohorts were followed from just before the first breeding until confirmation of pregnancy. A single pre-breeding examination included body condition score, RTS, ultrasound measures of the reproductive tract (length and diameter of the left and right ovaries, presence and diameter of a CL, largest follicle diameter and left uterus horn diameter) and transverse and vertical diameters of the pelvis. Additional farm records including dam parity, sire, birth weight and birth date, weaning weight, weaning date, prebreeding body weight, AI dates, and semen used were available. Breeding consisted of 50 days of AI, followed 5 to 7 days later by a 42-day bull breeding period. Pregnancy failure was defined as the failure to become pregnant after the AI and bull breeding periods, while anestrus was defined as the failure to be detected in estrus during the 50-day AI period. From the prebreeding data and farm records, independent predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus were identified using stepwise reduction in multiple logistic regression models. Age at the onset of breeding was the only consistent independent predictor of pregnancy failure and anestrus in both cohorts of this study (P score, uterus horn diameter, absence of a CL, largest follicle of less than 13 mm, and pelvis area (PA) were the prebreeding examination variables that remained in

  20. Parasites in cross-bred pigs in the upper east region of Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permin, A.; Yelifari, L; Bloch, P

    1999-01-01

    .7%); and Schistosoma suis (0.4%). Furthermore, six growers were selected from each village for clinical and postmortem examinations, i.e. 60 in total. The clinical examinations revealed ectoparasites on 98.3% of the animals. The ectoparasites were: Haematopinus suis (66.7%); Boophilus spp. (58.3%); Amblyomma spp (45.......0%). Cysts of the human tapeworm Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, were present in 11.7% of the animals. Small pieces of the diaphragm were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis spp.. The prevalence was 28.3%, but no larvae of Trichinella spp. were found. Furthermore, four of the animals (6.7%) had...

  1. Lactation curve of cross-bred buffalo under two production systems in the Amazonian region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Ribeiro Neto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Agroforestry Research Center of EMBRAPA (CPAFRO, Rondônia, Brazil, to evaluate the lactation curve of crosss-bred buffalo [Murrah (M, Mediterranean (Me and Jafarabadi(J] under two production systems. Production system one (PS1 corresponded to the period of 1984 to 1998 where animals (4471 observation were milked once a day and received only pasture without supplementation. Production system two (PS2 corresponded to the period of 1999 to 2002 where animals (458 observations were milked twice daily with concentrate supplementation to pasture. Eight mathematical functions were used: Inverse Polynomial, Linear Hyperbolic, Incomplete Gamma, Logarithmic, Logarithmic Quadratic, Linear, Quadratic and Jenkins & Ferrel. Statistical analysis was conducted using PROC NLIN of SAS (2005. Results showed that for both production systems, Incomplete Gama was the best function to describe the lactation curve. Values of coefficient of determination, standard-deviation, coefficient of variation and standard-error were 95%, 0.068, 7.20, and 0.003, respectively. The corresponding values for PS2 were 96%, 0.200, 2.12, and 0.003. Values of the lactation curve parameters (a, b, and c for PS1 and PS2, respectively, were (a 7.0035923 and 10.9209, (b -0.1080043 and -0.1614882, (c 0.0434868 and 0.0679365.

  2. Selection of Common Bean Lines, Recombinant Inbred Lines and Commercial Genotypes Tolerant to Low Phosphorus Availability in an Acrisol Soil on the Basis of Root Traits and Grain Yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.; Gomez, L. A.; Morales, A. [Instituto de Suelos, MINAG (Cuba); others, and

    2013-11-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume for human consumption worldwide and especially in Latin America and Africa, but low soil phosphorus (P) availability limits grain production in these areas. For these reason eighty five recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of BAT 477 x DOR 364 and twenty commercial bean genotypes were sown in plots in an Acrisol soil with low P availability to evaluate nine root traits and grain yield. The study was carried out in Pinar del Rio province in Cuba between November 2006 and February 2009. The plots received basal fertilization (N and K) and P fertilization between 15 and 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5} ha{sup -1}. Ten plants were sampled from each plot at R{sub 6} pod fill to evaluate root traits and shoot biomass, and at R{sub 9} physiological maturity to estimate grain yield. The 85 RILs showed great variability for root traits, grain yield and P stress tolerance calculated as relative grain yield. The commercial bean lines also showed large diversity in yield parameters. Principal Component Analysis showed that there were high and significant correlations between root traits (basal root number, primary root depth, adventitious root length and adventitious root number) and grain yield parameters (grain yield at 15 P level and relative grain yields). Adventitious root traits showed the greatest correlation with yield under low P. Promising RILs included 75.1.1, 60.1.1, 38.1.1, 14.1.1 and 38.1.1 and promising commercial bean lines included ICA Pijao, BAT 482, ICA 23, BAT 24 and BAT 832. (author)

  3. Effect of pO2 on antitumor drug cytotoxicity on MDR and non-MDR variants selected from the LoVo metastatic colon carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelong-Rebel, Isabelle; Brisson, Christine; Fabre, Michel; Bergerat, Jean-Pierre; Rebel, Gérard

    2008-01-01

    Two chemosensitive cell lines, LoVo-fusoid (LoVo-f) and LoVo-small cells (LoVo-sc) were derived from the original LoVo cell line. These two variants and the multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell line LoVo-Dox were screened for various properties. In non-permeabilized cells, only LoVo-sc showed mucin-2 staining whereas labelling was positive in all permeabilized cell lines. As shown by electron microscopy screening and by relative resistance to trypsin detachment, only LoVo-sc cells showed strong mucus secretion. All three cell lines displayed strong staining for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and lung-resistance-related protein (LRP) in different locations according to the drug resistance state. The three cell lines showed intracellular labelling of LRP and MRP. The sensitive cells showed P-gp in a large perinuclear ring and in the cytoplasm, but little (LoVo-sc cells) or no staining (LoVo-f cells) was shown at the plasma membrane level. For the Lovo-Dox cells, P-gp was located in the plasma membrane, in cellular anchorages and in the cytoplasm as well. Cell resistance against antineoplastic agents often results from mobilization of various factors, the modulation of which is linked to the culture conditions. As most of the protocols utilize cells growing in (air + 5-10% CO2) atmosphere e.g. 20% O2, balance of the respective participants in the MDR multi-modal mechanism may not be representative of the in vivo situation and may lead to erratic pharmacological response. Indeed, cells within solid tumours were exposed to low pO2, most of them being under hypoxic condition (0.1-5% O2). In the absence of anticancer drugs, all LoVo cell lines grew notably faster at 20% O2 than at 5% O2. Moreover, respective sensitivities of both non-MDR variants to doxorubicin were altered according the pO2. Whatever the pO2 was, virtually none of the antioxidants tested affected the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin for the three cell lines. By contrast

  4. Deterministic Simulation of Alternative Breeding Objectives and Schemes for Pure Bred Cattle in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahi, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Alternative breeding objectives and schemes for milk production were evaluated for their economic efficiency using deterministic simulation. A two-tier open nucleus breeding scheme and a young bull system (YBS) were assumed with intensive recording and 100% artificial insemination (AI) in the nucleus and 35% AI in the commercial population, which was assumed to comprise of the smallholder herds. Since most production systems are dual purpose, breeding objectives were defined, which represented different scenarios. These objectives represented the present (objective 1- dual purpose), smallholder (objective 2- dual purpose with limited mature live weight) and future production situations (objective 3- dual purpose with fat based milk price). Breeding objectives differed in the trials included and their economic values while the breeding schemes differed in records available for use as selection criteria as well as in the costs and investment parameters. since the main question for establishing a breeding and recording programme is that of efficiency of investment, the monetary genetic response and profit per cow in the population were used as evaluation criteria. All breeding objectives and schemes realized profits. The objectives and schemes that ranked highly for annual monetary genetic response and total return per cow did not rank the same in profit per cow in all cases. In objective 3, the scheme that assumed records on fat yield (FY) were available for use as selection criterion and that, which assumed no records on FY,differed very little in profit per cow (approximately 4%). Therefore, under the current production and marketing conditions, a breeding scheme that requires measuring of the fat content does not seem to be justified from an economic point of view. There is evidence that a well-organised breeding programme utilizing an open nucleus, a YBS and the smallholder farms as well as commercial population could sustain itself

  5. HOME-GROWN AND ABROAD-BRED ENTREPRENEURS IN CHINA: A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCES OF EXTERNAL CONTEXT ON ENTREPRENEURIAL COMPETENCIES

    OpenAIRE

    THOMAS WING YAN MAN; THERESA LAU; K. F. CHAN

    2008-01-01

    As an attempt to explore the influence of external context on entrepreneurial competencies, we conducted a comparative analysis using a sample of 16 home-grown and abroad-bred entrepreneurs in China. Through a content analysis of the critical incidents during their business development, we found that both groups demonstrated a similar set of entrepreneurial competencies, with strategic, relationship, conceptual, organizing and opportunity competencies being the most predominant types. However...

  6. Survival rate and expression of Heat-shock protein 70 and Frost genes after temperature stress in Drosophila melanogaster lines that are selected for recovery time from temperature coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaka, Hiroko; Ueda, Chiaki; Goto, Shin G

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying temperature tolerance using Drosophila melanogaster lines with rapid, intermediate, or slow recovery from heat or chill coma that were established by artificial selection or by free recombination without selection. Specifically, we focused on the relationships among their recovery from heat or chill coma, survival after severe heat or cold, and survival enhanced by rapid cold hardening (RCH) or heat hardening. The recovery time from heat coma was not related to the survival rate after severe heat. The line with rapid recovery from chill coma showed a higher survival rate after severe cold exposure, and therefore the same mechanisms are likely to underlie these phenotypes. The recovery time from chill coma and survival rate after severe cold were unrelated to RCH-enhanced survival. We also examined the expression of two genes, Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Frost, in these lines to understand the contribution of these stress-inducible genes to intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. The line showing rapid recovery from heat coma did not exhibit higher expression of Hsp70 and Frost. In addition, Hsp70 and Frost transcription levels were not correlated with the recovery time from chill coma. Thus, Hsp70 and Frost transcriptional regulation was not involved in the intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships between the H and A-O blood types, phosphohexose isomerase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase red cell enzyme systems and halothane sensitivity, and economic traits in a superior and an inferior selection line of swiss landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögeli, P; Stranzinger, G; Schneebeli, H; Hagger, C; Künzi, N; Gerwig, C

    1984-12-01

    Associations between production traits and the genes for halothane sensitivity (HAL), S, A and H blood group systems and phosphohexose isomerase (PHI) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) enzyme systems were investigated in two lines of pigs selected for an index. The phenotypic variance-covariance matrix of the index included backfat thickness and daily gain, whereas the genetic variance-covariance matrix included daily gain, feed conversion and percentage of lean meat. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Animal Production and has been underway since 1973. The same index was applied but in two opposite directions to give a superior and inferior line in relation to the production traits. One hundred twenty-nine animals of the superior line in the seventh generation and 88 animals of the inferior line in the sixth generation were studied. Forty-two percent (54/129) of the animals of the superior line were halothane-positive. No animals in the inferior line were halothane reactors. Of the halothane-positive pigs, 70.4% (38/54) in the superior line had the HaHa and 94.4% (51/54) had the SsSs genotype, whereas only 4% (3/75) of the HaHa and 12% (9/75) of the SsSs pigs were halothane-negative. By practicing selection at the H and S loci, it seems possible to efficiently reduce halothane sensitivity in Swiss Landrace pigs. In pigs of the superior line, there were significant differences in percentage of lean meat, carcass length, pH1 (pH value at 45 min to 1 h postmortem, M. longissimus) and reflectance values among genotypes of the HAL, S and H systems and among some genotypes of the 6-PGD system. Poorest meat quality, highest percentage of lean meat and shortest carcass length were observed in pigs homozygous for the alleles HALn, Ss, Ha, PHIB and 6-PGDA. In the inferior line, these associations were absent. As the HAL locus is associated with the above mentioned production traits, linkage disequilibria may explain the

  8. Towards a mechanistic understanding of vulnerability to hook-and-line fishing: Boldness as the basic target of angling-induced selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Kuparinen, Anna

    2017-01-01

    by juvenile growth rate, while morphological traits were only weakly related to angling vulnerability. In addition, we found juvenile growth rate to be moderately correlated with boldness. Hence, direct selection on boldness will also induce indirect selection on juvenile growth and vice versa, but given......In passively operated fishing gear, boldness-related behaviors should fundamentally affect the vulnerability of individual fish and thus be under fisheries selection. To test this hypothesis, we used juvenile common-garden reared carp (Cyprinus carpio) within a narrow size range to investigate...... the mechanistic basis of behavioral selection caused by angling. We focused on one key personality trait (i.e., boldness), measured in groups within ponds, two morphological traits (body shape and head shape), and one life-history trait (juvenile growth capacity) and studied mean standardized selection gradients...

  9. Analysis of microcontaminants in aqueous samples by fully automated on-line solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass selective detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, A.J.H.; van Beekvelt, C.A.; Cid Montanes, P.; Slobodník, J.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    The trace-level analysis of unknown organic pollutants in water requires the use of fast and sensitive methods which also provide structural information. In the present study, an on-line technique was used which combines sample preparation by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a small

  10. Development of Androgen- and Estrogen-Responsive bio-assays, members of a panel of human cell line-based highly selective steroid-responsive bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, E.; Jansen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have established highly sensitive and specific androgen and estrogen reporter cell lines which we have named AR (androgen receptor) and ERα (estrogen receptor alpha) CALUX® (Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression), respectively. Both bioassays are member of a panel of CALUX reporter cell

  11. Development of androgen-and estrogen-responsive bioassays, members of a panel of human cell line-based highly selective steroid-responsive bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, E.; Jansen, H.J..; Riteco, J.A.C.; Brouwer, A.

    2005-01-01

    We have established highly sensitive and specific androgen and estrogen reporter cell lines which we have named AR (androgen receptor) and ERα (estrogen receptor alpha) CALUX® (Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression), respectively. Both bioassays are member of a panel of CALUX reporter cell

  12. On-line pre-reduction of pentavalent arsenicals by thioglycolic acid for speciation analysis by selective hydride generation-cryotrapping-atomic absorption spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, Stanislav; Matoušek, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2008), s. 685-691 ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400310507 Grant - others:NIH-FIRCA(US) 1 R03 TW007057-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : HG-AAS * methylated arsenic species * on-line pre-reduction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.853, year: 2008

  13. Development of technology and equipment for trapping emissions from a vitrification line, including the manufacture of selected nodes (flow separator, NOx absorber, aerosol filters)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepak, F.; Kanka, J.; Koutova, S.; Petioky, K.; Seidlova, B.

    1993-03-01

    The technology was designed of a processing line for trapping nitrogen oxides emerging during the treatment of liquid wastes from nuclear power plants. In this design, absorption with a chemical reaction is combined with subsequent trapping of the then formed aerosols of the acids on a sprayed fibrous insert flown through by the gas treated. The degree of absorption is 94% and more for NO 2 , and 43% on average for NO. (J.B). 10 tabs., 3 figs., 11 refs

  14. Higher Levels of c-Met Expression and Phosphorylation Identify Cell Lines With Increased Sensitivity to AMG-458, a Novel Selective c-Met Inhibitor With Radiosensitizing Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo; Torossian, Artour; Sun, Yunguang; Du, Ruihong; Dicker, Adam P.; Lu Bo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: c-Met is overexpressed in some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tissues. Cell lines with higher levels of c-Met expression and phosphorylation depend on this receptor for survival. We studied the effects of AMG-458 on 2 NSCLC cell lines. Methods and Materials: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium assays assessed the sensitivities of the cells to AMG-458. Clonogenic survival assays illustrated the radiosensitizing effects of AMG-458. Western blot for cleaved caspase 3 measured apoptosis. Immunoblotting for c-Met, phospho-Met (p-Met), Akt/p-Akt, and Erk/p-Erk was performed to observe downstream signaling. Results: AMG-458 enhanced radiosensitivity in H441 but not in A549. H441 showed constitutive phosphorylation of c-Met. A549 expressed low levels of c-Met, which were phosphorylated only in the presence of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor. The combination of radiation therapy and AMG-458 treatment was found to synergistically increase apoptosis in the H441 cell line but not in A549. Radiation therapy, AMG-458, and combination treatment were found to reduce p-Akt and p-Erk levels in H441 but not in A549. H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458 after small interfering RNA knockdown of c-Met; there was no change in A549. After overexpression of c-Met, A549 became more sensitive, while H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458. Conclusions: AMG-458 was more effective in cells that expressed higher levels of c-Met/p-Met, suggesting that higher levels of c-Met and p-Met in NSCLC tissue may classify a subset of tumors that are more sensitive to molecular therapies against this receptor.

  15. B cell signatures of BCWD-resistant and susceptible lines of rainbow trout: a shift towards more EBF-expressing progenitors and fewer mature B cells in resistant animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwollo, Patty; Ray, Jocelyn C; Sestito, Michael; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Wiens, Gregory D; Kaattari, Steve; StJacques, Brittany; Epp, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a chronic disease of rainbow trout, and is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), a common aquaculture pathogen. The National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has bred two genetic lines of rainbow trout: a line of Fp-resistant trout (ARS-Fp-R or R-line trout) and a line of susceptible trout (ARS-Fp-S, or S-line). Little is known about how phenotypic selection alters immune response parameters or how such changes relate to genetic disease resistance. Herein, we quantify interindividual variation in the distribution and abundance of B cell populations (B cell signatures) and examine differences between genetic lines of naive animals. There are limited trout-specific cell surface markers currently available to resolve B cell subpopulations and thus we developed an alternative approach based on detection of differentially expressed transcription factors and intracellular cytokines. B cell signatures were compared between R-line and S-line trout by flow cytometry using antibodies against transcription factors early B cell factor-1 (EBF1) and paired domain box protein Pax5, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, and the immunoglobulin heavy chain mu. R-line trout had higher percentages of EBF(+) B myeloid/ progenitor and pre-B cells in PBL, anterior and posterior kidney tissues compared to S-line trout. The opposite pattern was detected in more mature B cell populations: R-line trout had lower percentages of both IgM(+) mature B cells and IgM-secreting cells in anterior kidney and PBL compared to S-line trout. In vitro LPS-activation studies of PBL and spleen cell cultures revealed no significant induction differences between R-line and S-line trout. Together, our findings suggest that selective resistance to BCWD may be associated with shifts in naive animal developmental lineage commitment that result in decreased B lymphopoiesis and increased myelopoiesis in BCWD resistant trout relative

  16. Safety studies on intravenous administration of oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus in purpose-bred beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Naik, Shruthi; Galyon, Gina D; Jenks, Nathan; Steele, Mike; Peng, Kah-Whye; Federspiel, Mark J; Donnell, Robert; Russell, Stephen J

    2013-12-01

    VSV-IFNβ-NIS is a novel recombinant oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with documented efficacy and safety in preclinical murine models of cancer. To facilitate clinical translation of this promising oncolytic therapy in patients with disseminated cancer, we are utilizing a comparative oncology approach to gather data describing the safety and efficacy of systemic VSV-IFNβ-NIS administration in dogs with naturally occurring cancer. In support of this, we executed a dose-escalation study in purpose-bred dogs to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of systemic VSV-hIFNβ-NIS, characterize the adverse event profile, and describe routes and duration of viral shedding in healthy, immune-competent dogs. The data indicate that an intravenous dose of 10(10) TCID50 is well tolerated in dogs. Expected adverse events were mild to moderate fever, self-limiting nausea and vomiting, lymphopenia, and oral mucosal lesions. Unexpected adverse events included prolongation of partial thromboplastin time, development of bacterial urinary tract infection, and scrotal dermatitis, and in one dog receiving 10(11) TCID50 (10 × the MTD), the development of severe hepatotoxicity and symptoms of shock leading to euthanasia. Viral shedding data indicate that detectable viral genome in blood diminishes rapidly with anti-VSV neutralizing antibodies detectable in blood as early as day 5 postintravenous virus administration. While low levels of viral genome copies were detectable in plasma, urine, and buccal swabs of dogs treated at the MTD, no infectious virus was detectable in plasma, urine, or buccal swabs at any of the doses tested. These studies confirm that VSV can be safely administered systemically in dogs, justifying the use of oncolytic VSV as a novel therapy for the treatment of canine cancer.

  17. Spotlight on crizotinib in the first-line treatment of ALK-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: patients selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giroux Leprieur E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Etienne Giroux Leprieur,1,2 Vincent Fallet,3,4 Jacques Cadranel,3,4 Marie Wislez3,4 1Respiratory Diseases and Thoracic Oncology Department, APHP-Ambroise Paré Hospital, Boulogne-Billancourt, France; 2EA4340 Laboratory, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, France; 3Respiratory Diseases Department, APHP – Tenon Hospital, Paris, France; 4Sorbonne University, GRC 04, UPMC Univ Paris 06, France Abstract: Around 4% of advanced non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs have an ALK rearrangement at the time of diagnosis. This molecular feature is more frequent in young patients, with no/light smoking habit and with adenocarcinoma pathological subtype. Crizotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, targeting ALK, ROS1, RON, and MET. The preclinical efficacy results led to a fast-track clinical development. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval was achieved after the Phase I clinical trial in 2011 in ALK-rearranged advanced NSCLC progressing after a first-line treatment. In 2013, the randomized Phase III trial PROFILE-1007 confirmed the efficacy of crizotinib in ALK-rearranged NSCLC, compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, in second-line setting or more. In 2014, the PROFILE-1014 trial showed the superiority of crizotinib in the first-line setting compared to the pemetrexed platinum doublet chemotherapy. The response rate was 74%, and the progression-free survival was 10.9 months with crizotinib. Based on these results, crizotinib received approval from the FDA and European Medicines Agency for first-line treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC. The various molecular mechanisms at the time of the progression (ALK mutations or amplification, ALK-independent mechanisms encourage performing re-biopsy at the time of progression under crizotinib. The best treatment strategy at the progression (crizotinib continuation beyond progression, switch to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or cytotoxic chemotherapy depends on the phenotype of the progression, the

  18. The study of selective emission lines from plasma, obtained by evaporating as sample by laser radiation in air and argon media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufian, A.; Dimitrov, G.

    1993-01-01

    Ultra violet visible emission spectroscopic analysis of a plasma produced through laser interaction with a solid probe in different gaseous atmospheres is conducted. Reported are the effects of air and argon, as enveloping media, on the spectral intensities of some lines. The temperature gradient of the plasma, in different atmosphere, is also plotted. In order to improve the detection limits of individual elements, suggested are the possible areas of illuminating the slit of the spectroscopic from the plasma, in respect of the height, above the sample, when working in different gaseous media. (author)

  19. Evaluation of yield and forage quality in main and ratoon crops of different sorghum lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Vinutha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the yield and quality of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor forage for livestock feeding is a major breeding objective, because of sorghum’s inherently high biomass accumulation, high productivity per unit water utilized and its ability to produce a ratoon crop after harvesting of the plant crop. Newly bred sorghum lines, including 36 lines falling in 5 different categories, i.e. 12 experimental dual-purpose lines, 6 germplasm accessions from the ICRISAT collection, 11 commercial varieties and hybrids, 6 forage varieties and 1 bmr mutant line, were evaluated in terms of fodder yield, quality and ratooning ability. The main crop produced more dry biomass (P<0.05 at 80 days after planting (mean 22.87 t DM/ha; range 17.32‒33.82 t DM/ha than the ratoon crop (mean 8.47 t DM/ha; range 3.2‒17.42 t DM/ha after a further 80 days of growth. Mean nitrogen concentration in forage did not differ greatly between main and ratoon crops (2.56 vs. 2.40%, respectively but there was wide variation between lines (2.06‒2.89%. The line N 610 recorded highest N percentage of 2.89%, followed by SSG 59 3 (2.86% and SX 17 (2.81%. Highest acid detergent fiber % was recorded by ICSV 12008 (42.1%, closely followed by CO 31 and IS 34638 (40.0%. The least acid detergent lignin % was observed in MLSH-296 Gold (3.59%, ICSV 700 (3.75% and ICSSH 28 (3.83%. Metabolizable energy concentration was highest in N 610, Phule Yashodha and SX 17 (mean 8.34 MJ/kg DM, while in vitro organic matter digestibility ranged from 52.5 to 62.6%. The main crop contained much higher mean concentrations of the cyanogenic glycoside, dhurrin, than the ratoon (639 vs. 233 ppm, respectively with ranges of 38 to 2,298 ppm and 7 to 767 ppm, respectively. There was no significant correlation between dhurrin concentration and dry biomass yield so breeding and selection for low dhurrin concentrations should not jeopardize yields. Hence, breeding for sorghum can target simultaneously both quality and

  20. Differential ultrasonic indices of separation distress in the presence and absence of maternal cues in infant rats bred for high and low positive social affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobucci, Paolo; Colonnello, Valentina; Fuchs, Thomas; D'Antuono, Laura; Panksepp, Jaak

    2013-10-01

    Preclinical models of human mood disorders commonly focus on the study of negative affectivity, without comparably stressing the role of positive affects and their ability to promote resilient coping styles. We evaluated the role of background constitutional affect of rats by studying the separation and reunion responses of infants from low and high positive affect genetic lines (i.e., differentially selected for High and Low 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs). Infants from Low and High 50 kHz USV breeding lines were isolated from mothers and exposed to either social (familiar or unfamiliar bedding) or neutral (clean bedding) odour cues between two short isolation periods, and tested in homeothermic and hypothermic ambient temperatures. Negative affect was estimated by monitoring separation distress calls (35-45 kHz USVs). Low Line pups called at higher rates than High Line, and their rates were stable regardless of odour cue. In contrast, High Line pups increased vocalisations during the second compared with the first isolation periods and during exposure to both familiar and unfamiliar odour cues, but not to neutral odour. Furthermore, the greatest increase in USV emission was seen in the second isolation period following exposure to the unfamiliar odour. However, both lines showed comparable elevated distress USVs to the thermal stressor. High Line animals, selected for a positive affective phenotype (50 kHz USVs), exhibited reduced separation anxiety responses in infancy, making this a promising animal model for the role of constitutional affective states in emotional responsivity and potential resilience against emotional disorders.

  1. Lentiviral vectors and protocols for creation of stable hESC lines for fluorescent tracking and drug resistance selection of cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kita-Matsuo

    Full Text Available Developmental, physiological and tissue engineering studies critical to the development of successful myocardial regeneration therapies require new ways to effectively visualize and isolate large numbers of fluorescently labeled, functional cardiomyocytes.Here we describe methods for the clonal expansion of engineered hESCs and make available a suite of lentiviral vectors for that combine Blasticidin, Neomycin and Puromycin resistance based drug selection of pure populations of stem cells and cardiomyocytes with ubiquitous or lineage-specific promoters that direct expression of fluorescent proteins to visualize and track cardiomyocytes and their progenitors. The phospho-glycerate kinase (PGK promoter was used to ubiquitously direct expression of histone-2B fused eGFP and mCherry proteins to the nucleus to monitor DNA content and enable tracking of cell migration and lineage. Vectors with T/Brachyury and alpha-myosin heavy chain (alphaMHC promoters targeted fluorescent or drug-resistance proteins to early mesoderm and cardiomyocytes. The drug selection protocol yielded 96% pure cardiomyocytes that could be cultured for over 4 months. Puromycin-selected cardiomyocytes exhibited a gene expression profile similar to that of adult human cardiomyocytes and generated force and action potentials consistent with normal fetal cardiomyocytes, documenting these parameters in hESC-derived cardiomyocytes and validating that the selected cells retained normal differentiation and function.The protocols, vectors and gene expression data comprise tools to enhance cardiomyocyte production for large-scale applications.

  2. Induction of DNA breakage in X-irradiated nucleoids selectively stripped of nuclear proteins in two mouse lymphoma cell lines differing in radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszewski, M.; Iwanenko, T.

    1998-01-01

    The role of nuclear proteins in protection of DNA against ionizing radiation and their contribution to the radiation sensitivity was examined by an alkaline version of comet assay in two L5178Y (LY) mouse lymphoma cell lines differing in sensitivity t o ionizing radiation. LY-S cells are twice more sensitive to ionizing radiation than LY-R cells (D 0 values of survival curves are 0.5 Gy and 1 Gy, respectively). Sequential removal of nuclear proteins by extraction with NaCl of different concentrations increased the X-ray induced DNA damage in LY-R nucleoids. In contrast, in the radiation sensitive LY-S cell line, depletion of nuclear proteins practically did not affect DNA damage. Although there is no doubt that the main cause of LY-S cells' sensitivity to ionizing radiation is a defect in the repair of double-strand breaks, our data support the concept that nuclear matrix organization may contribute to the cellular susceptibility to DNA damaging agents. (author)

  3. Studying the ability of mutation and selection of promising lines of Brassia Verrucosa Lindl. by gamma irradiation in combination with in vitro technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thi Thuy Linh; Le Van Thuc; Dang Thi Dien; Han Huynh Dien; Le Thi Bich Thy

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to induce mutation in Warty Brassia (Brassia verrucosa Lindl.) through in vitro mutagenesis by treating the bud clusters with gamma irradiation, aiming to select the valuable varieties of Warty Brassia. The following contents were conducted: detecting of genetic polymorphism of the variants by applying RAPD analysis; evaluating the growth of variation forms of Warty Brassia obtaining after irradiation in the nursery stage; selecting desired variations. The results revealed that 9 variants were examined genetic diversity, 8 variants there were genetic differences among 8 variants and original variety. There were differences in the growth potential among morphological variants under nursery condition. The mutants having large pseudobulb, dark green leaves and the mutants having pseudobulb round in shape, short leaves promise to develop mutants strains. Types of mutation were selected and multiply rapidly from generation M_1V_1 - M_1V_3, they retained 100% morphological features of their parents. The study is being conducting to assess the flower color and shape of the mutants derived from Warty Brassia. (author)

  4. Selective Flow-Injection Quantification of Ultra-trace Amounts of Cr(VI) via On-line Complexation and Preconcentration with APDC Followed by Determination by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1998-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective time-based flow injection (FI) preconcentration procedure is described for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of Cr(VI) via on-line reaction with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) and formation of the Cr(VI)-PDC complex. The preconcentration...... to direct introduction of 55 mu l samples, yielding a detection limit (3 sigma) of 4.2 ng l(-1). The sample frequency was 21.2 samples per hour. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing drinking water, a NIST Cr(VI)-reference material and synthetic sea water. A major contribution to successful...

  5. Walk the Line: The Development of Route Selection Standards for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste in the United States - 13519

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, Fred [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 80906 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Although storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) are widely dispersed throughout the United States, these materials are also relatively concentrated in terms of geographic area. That is, the impacts of storage occur in a very small geographic space. Once shipments begin to a national repository or centralized interim storage facility, the impacts of SNF and HLRW will become more geographically distributed, more publicly visible, and almost certainly more contentious. The selection of shipping routes will likely be a major source of controversy. This paper describes the development of procedures, regulations, and standards for the selection of routes used to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The paper begins by reviewing the circumstances around the development of HM-164 routing guidelines. The paper discusses the significance of New York City versus the Department of Transportation and application of HM-164. The paper describes the methods used to implement those regulations. The paper will also describe the current HM-164 designated routes and will provide a summary data analysis of their characteristics. This analysis will reveal the relatively small spatial scale of the effects of HM 164. The paper will then describe subsequent developments that have affected route selection for these materials. These developments include the use of 'representative routes' found in the Department of Energy (DOE) 2008 Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the formerly proposed Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The paper will describe recommendations related to route selection found in the National Academy of Sciences 2006 report Going the Distance, as well as recommendations found in the 2012 Final Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. The paper will examine recently promulgated federal regulations (HM-232) for selection of rail

  6. Índice baseado em RFLPs para seleção de linhagens visando sintéticos de milho RFLP marker index for selection of inbred lines aimed at synthetic maize populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauce Cristina Ricardo Rumin

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Marcadores moleculares têm sido sugeridos como ferramentas úteis em programas de melhoramento de plantas. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo propor um índice de seleção de linhagens visando a geração de populações sintéticas de milho, baseado em marcadores moleculares e dados de campo. Para tanto foram utilizados valores fenotípicos e genotípicos, oriundos de experimentos convencionais de campo e através da genotipagem das plantas-mãe das linhagens por marcadores RFLP, respectivamente. O índice foi examinado quanto à sua capacidade de originar sintéticos com alta freqüência de alelos favoráveis, em comparação com os obtidos baseando-se na seleção convencional. Utilizaram-se inicialmente 157 locos marcadores com distância média de 15,30 cM entre eles. Sessenta e oito linhagens S2, provenientes da geração F2 do cruzamento entre duas linhagens homozigóticas foram cruzadas em topcross e avaliadas em quatro locais de Iowa, EUA, em 1996. Dos 157 locos foram selecionados 18 que explicaram 74,70% da variância genética entre progênies, na média dos locais. O índice proposto leva em conta o comportamento próprio (per se das linhagens e a complementaridade genotípica entre elas, o que não é conseguido utilizando-se apenas dados dos topcrosses. O uso do índice proposto permite obter homólogo de tabela dialélica tendo-se apenas dados de médias de topcrosses. O índice levou à seleção de sintéticos com propriedades superiores às esperadas pela seleção baseada apenas nas médias das progênies topcross. Essa conclusão, no entanto, só é válida para os QTL's abrangidos pelas marcas. A metodologia proposta permite monitoramento muito adequado e útil das propriedades genéticas dos sintéticos a serem obtidos.Molecular markers have been suggested as useful tools in breeding programmes. The purpose of this work was to propose and apply an index for inbred line selection to be used for generating synthetic

  7. Case Study: Polycystic Livers in a Transgenic Mouse Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Artwohl, James E.; Ward, Christopher J.; Diekwisch, Thomas G. H.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2014-04-01

    Three mice (2 male, 1 female; age, 5 to 16 mo) from a mouse line transgenic for keratin 14 (K14)-driven LacZ expression and on an outbred Crl:CD1(ICR) background, were identified as having distended abdomens and livers that were diffusely enlarged by numerous cysts (diameter, 0.1 to 2.0 cm). Histopathology revealed hepatic cysts lined by biliary type epithelium and mild chronic inflammation, and confirmed the absence of parasites. Among 21 related mice, 5 additional affected mice were identified via laparotomy. Breeding of these 5 mice (after 5 mo of age) did not result in any offspring; the K14 mice with olycystic livers failed to reproduce. Affected male mice had degenerative testicular lesions, and their sperm was immotile. Nonpolycystic K14 control male mice bred well, had no testicular lesions, and had appropriate sperm motility. Genetic analysis did not identify an association of this phenotype with the transgene or insertion site.

  8. The Naples High- and Low-Excitability rats: selective breeding, behavioral profile, morphometry, and molecular biology of the mesocortical dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Davide; Vallone, Daniela; Welzl, Hans; Sadile, Adolfo G

    2002-09-01

    The Naples High- (NHE) and Low-Excitability (NLE) rat lines have been selected since 1976 on the basis of behavioral arousal to novelty (Làt-maze). Selective breeding has been conducted under continuous genetic pressure, with no brother-sister mating. The behavioral analyses presented here deal with (1) activity in environments of different complexity, i.e., holeboard and Làt maze; (2) maze learning in hexagonal tunnel, Olton, and Morris water mazes and; (3) two-way active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion tests. Morphometric analyses deal with central dopaminergic systems at their origin and target sites, as well as the density of dopamine transporter immunoreactivity. Molecular biology analyses are also presented, dealing with recent experiments on the prefrontal cortex (PFc), cloning and identifying differentially expressed genes using subtractive libraries and RNAase protection. The divergence between NLE and NHE rats varies as a function of the complexity level of the environment, with an impaired working and reference memory in both lines compared to random bred (NRB) controls. Moreover, data from the PFc of NHE rats show a hyperdopaminergic innervation, with overexpression of mRNA species involved in basal metabolism, and down-regulation of dopamine D1 receptors. Altogether, the evidence gathered so far supports a hyperfunctioning mesocorticolimbic system that makes NHE rats a useful tool for the study of hyperactivity and attention deficit, learning and memory disabilities, and drug abuse.

  9. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  10. Phase II Trial of Atezolizumab As First-Line or Subsequent Therapy for Patients With Programmed Death-Ligand 1-Selected Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (BIRCH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Solange; Gettinger, Scott; Johnson, Melissa L; Jänne, Pasi A; Garassino, Marina C; Christoph, Daniel; Toh, Chee Keong; Rizvi, Naiyer A; Chaft, Jamie E; Carcereny Costa, Enric; Patel, Jyoti D; Chow, Laura Q M; Koczywas, Marianna; Ho, Cheryl; Früh, Martin; van den Heuvel, Michel; Rothenstein, Jeffrey; Reck, Martin; Paz-Ares, Luis; Shepherd, Frances A; Kurata, Takayasu; Li, Zhengrong; Qiu, Jiaheng; Kowanetz, Marcin; Mocci, Simonetta; Shankar, Geetha; Sandler, Alan; Felip, Enriqueta

    2017-08-20

    Purpose BIRCH was designed to examine the efficacy of atezolizumab, a humanized anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody, in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) across lines of therapy. Patients were selected on the basis of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TC) or tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC). Patients and Methods Eligible patients had advanced-stage NSCLC, no CNS metastases, and zero to two or more lines of prior chemotherapy. Patients whose tumors expressed PD-L1 using the SP142 immunohistochemistry assay on ≥ 5% of TC or IC (TC2/3 or IC2/3 [TC or IC ≥ 5% PD-L1-expressing cells, respectively]) were enrolled. Atezolizumab 1,200 mg was administered intravenously every 3 weeks. Efficacy-evaluable patients (N = 659) comprised three cohorts: first line (cohort 1; n = 139); second line (cohort 2; n = 268); and third line or higher (cohort 3; n = 252). The primary end point was independent review facility-assessed objective response rate (ORR; Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] version 1.1). Secondary end points included median duration of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival (OS). Results BIRCH met its primary objective of demonstrating a significant ORR versus historical controls. With a minimum of 12 months of follow-up, the independent review facility-assessed ORR was 18% to 22% for the three cohorts, and 26% to 31% for the TC3 or IC3 subgroup; most responses are ongoing. Responses occurred regardless of EGFR or KRAS mutation status. The median OS from an updated survival analysis (minimum of 20 month follow up) for cohort 1 was 23.5 months (26.9 months for TC3 or IC3 patients); the median OS in cohorts 2 and 3 was 15.5 and 13.2 months, respectively. The safety profile was similar across cohorts and consistent with previous atezolizumab monotherapy trials. Conclusion BIRCH demonstrated responses with atezolizumab monotherapy in patients with PD-L1-selected advanced NSCLC, with good

  11. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  12. Use of vinegar and oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng infusion for “Acriollados” bred broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chiriboga Chuchuca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at the Farm Santa Inés, belonging to the Technical University of Machala, using 160 bred broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus , stayed the same as trying to meet the highest standards of management and health, however to cause challenges no vaccines or antibiotic treatment within the farm. The aim was to determine the efficacy of vinegar and infusion of oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus in acriollados bred broilers. The research lasted 42 days, 16 were randomized groups of 10 chickens each, considering 4 treatments (T1 = vinegar, T2 = vinegar + oreganón infusion, T3 = oreganón infusion, T4 = control with 4 replicates each. Balanced administered free of antibiotics, food consumption data and daily treated water were performed, the weights of the birds weekly; stool samples were collected at the start, middle and end of the assay. In conclusion, the field variables did not obtain statistically significant differences in treatment, but in the Microbiology, the T1, T2 and T3 showed efficiencies decrease when compared to T4, but T3 at the end of the research differed from the T1, T2, and T4. Assuming oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus infusion induces a reduction in the number of CFU in both Total Flora and coliforms.

  13. Allelic variant in the anti-Müllerian hormone gene leads to autosomal and temperature-dependent sex reversal in a selected Nile tilapia line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Wessels

    Full Text Available Owing to the demand for sustainable sex-control protocols in aquaculture, research in tilapia sex determination is gaining momentum. The mutual influence of environmental and genetic factors hampers disentangling the complex sex determination mechanism in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Previous linkage analyses have demonstrated quantitative trait loci for the phenotypic sex on linkage groups 1, 3, and 23. Quantitative trait loci for temperature-dependent sex reversal similarly reside on linkage group 23. The anti-Müllerian hormone gene (amh, located in this genomic region, is important for sexual fate in higher vertebrates, and shows sexually dimorphic expression in Nile tilapia. Therefore this study aimed at detecting allelic variants and marker-sex associations in the amh gene. Sequencing identified six allelic variants. A significant effect on the phenotypic sex for SNP ss831884014 (p<0.0017 was found by stepwise logistic regression. The remaining variants were not significantly associated. Functional annotation of SNP ss831884014 revealed a non-synonymous amino acid substitution in the amh protein. Consequently, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET based genotyping assay was developed and validated with a representative sample of fish. A logistic linear model confirmed a highly significant effect of the treatment and genotype on the phenotypic sex, but not for the interaction term (treatment: p<0.0001; genotype: p<0.0025. An additive genetic model proved a linear allele substitution effect of 12% in individuals from controls and groups treated at high temperature, respectively. Moreover, the effect of the genotype on the male proportion was significantly higher in groups treated at high temperature, giving 31% more males on average of the three genotypes. In addition, the groups treated at high temperature showed a positive dominance deviation (+11.4% males. In summary, marker-assisted selection for amh variant ss831884014

  14. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-saturated fat-sucrose feeding affects lactation energetics in control mice and mice selectively bred for high wheel-running behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guidotti, Stefano; Jonas, Izabella; Schubert, Kristin A.; Garland, Theodore; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    Feeding a diet high in fat and sucrose (HFS) during pregnancy and lactation is known to increase susceptibility to develop metabolic derangements later in life. A trait for increased behavioral activity may oppose these effects, since this would drain energy from milk produced to be made available

  16. Differential Expression of Phosphorylated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (pMAPK) in the Lateral Amygdala of Mice Selectively Bred for High and Low Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    conditions, box geometry, flooring surface (smooth surface with sawdust bedding as opposed to the conducting rod floor), wall color and olfactory cues...lateral nucleus of the amygdala. Behavioral neuroscience 107:444-50 112. Romanski LM, LeDoux JE. 1992. Equipotentiality of thalamo-amygdala and

  17. Alternate Double Single Track Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga Contreras, P.; Grande Andrade, Z.; Castillo Ron, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of alternate double single track (ADST) lines with respect to double track lines for high speed lines. ADST lines consists of sequences of double and single track segments optimally selected in order to reduce the construction and maintenance costs of railway lines and to optimize the timetables used to satisfy a given demand. The single tracks are selected to coincide with expensive segments (tunnels and viaducts) and the double tracks are chosen to coincide with flat areas and only where they are necessary. At the same time, departure times are adjusted for trains to cross at the cheap double track segments. This alternative can be used for new lines and also for existing conventional lines where some new tracks are to be constructed to reduce travel time (increase speed). The ADST proposal is illustrated with some examples of both types (new lines and where conventional lines exist), including the Palencia-Santander, the Santiago-Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and the Dublin-Belfast lines, where very important reductions (90 %) are obtained, especially where a railway infrastructure already exist. (Author)

  18. Avaliação agronômica de linhagens selecionadas de guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp Agronomic evaluation of selected pigeon-pea lines (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Godoy

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de reavaliar agronomicamente 17 linhagens de guandu, originárias de acessos anteriormente selecionados por diversas características de interesse agronômico, foram instalados experimentos em cinco locais do Estado de São Paulo. A confirmação dessas características foi necessária, uma vez que as amostras de sementes dos acessos originais apresentavam mistura mecânica e segregação, razão pela qual, após serem selecionados, os acessos passaram por processo de purificação em condições controladas de polinização. Nesses experimentos, as linhagens foram submetidas a cortes para avaliação da produção de forragem, ocasião em que foram determinados o número de plantas na área útil da parcela e a altura média dessas plantas. Foi também determinado o teor de proteína bruta e de taninos de amostras da forragem produzida. Entre as linhagens testadas, g58-95 e g127-97 confirmaram ter plantas de baixa estatura, g3-94, g167-97 e g29b-94 confirmaram oferecer boas produções de forragem e g146-97 destacou-se quanto à produção inicial de matéria seca.With the purpose of re-evaluating seventeen pigeon-pea lines originated from accessions previously selected for favorable agronomic characteristics, experiments were installed in five locations of the State of São Paulo. The confirmation of those characteristics was necessary because the original accessions presented various degrees of mechanical mixtures and segregation and were submitted to purification process in pollination controlled conditions. In those trials, the lines were cut in several occasions to evaluate forage yield. Each time, it was determined the number of plants in each parcel and its average height. Also it was determined their crude protein and tannins contents. Among the tested lines, g58-95 e g127-97 confirmed to have low plants, g94, g167-97 and g29b-94, confirmed to offer good forage yields, while line g146-97 presented good initial forage

  19. Selection of common bean inbred lines with tolerance to high moisture at harvest Seleção de linhagens de feijão com tolerância a alta umidade no momento da colheita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Kely de Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of precipitation / rain in harvest bean causes damage to the product and reduces the yield. The main alternative to mitigate this problem is to obtain cultivars presenting low germination of beans in the pods under conditions of high moisture. The purpose of this study was to verify if there is genetic variability among the common bean inbred lines that are in the phase of recommendation for the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil in regard to tolerance to moisture after harvest, and identify traits that may be routinely used in selection of tolerant lines to these conditions. Ninety-five lines in the phase of recommendation by the Genetic Breeding Program from UFLA were used. After harvest, a sample of plants from each plot was removed for assessments of seed germination in the pods in a moist chamber and water absorption by pod and seed. Eight days after harvest, another sample was removed to assess seed appearance using a scoring scale. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and estimates of the Pearson phenotypic correlations were obtained among traits. Lines differ in relation to tolerance to moisture at the time of harvest, with those of higher tolerance having lighter colored seeds. The main difficulty in selection of common bean lines for tolerance to high moisture at harvest is the repeatability of the environmental conditions among crop seasons. The alternative is assessing the amount of water absorbed by pods.A ocorrência de precipitação / chuva na colheita do feijão comum provoca danos ao produto e reduz o rendimento. A principal alternativa para mitigar este problema é a obtenção de cultivares com baixa germinação de grãos nas vagens em condições de alta umidade. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se vrificar se há variabilidade genética entre as linhagens do feijoeiro que estão em fase de recomendação para o Sul de Minas Gerais quanto à tolerância à umidade após a colheita e identificar caracteres que

  20. Serum concentrations of creatine kinase and of triglycerides during lactation in gilts bred older and in multiparous sows fed ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira R.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the possible variation in blood concentrations of creatine kinase (CK and triglycerides in gilts bred older in comparison with multiparous sows. Ten primiparous and ten Camborough multiparous sows from the fourth to seventh parities were used. Breeding age and weight of gilts averaged respectively 231 days and 149.5kg. All females were moved into individual farrowing crates and were managed under the same conditions. Blood samples were collected by puncturing the coccygeal artery on day 7 before expected farrowing, and on days 2, 7, 14, 21 of lactation and 2 days after weaning. No difference in triglycerides and CK serum concentrations between groups were observed. The CK levels were low before farrowing, increased substantially on days 2 and 7 and decreased toward the end of lactation. The concentrations of triglycerides were slightly high before the parturition, diminished on days 2, 7, 14 and 21 and increased after weaning.

  1. Incorporation of Developability into Cell Line Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, J. P. J.

    2015-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under increasing pressure to deliver new medicines quickly and cost effectively; traditional small molecule product pipelines have dried up and companies are increasingly investing into biopharmaceuticals. To date, the most successful biopharmaceuticals have been monoclonal antibodies. The ability to construct common manufacturing platforms for a range of antibody products has underpinned this interest. Antibodies are most often produced as heterologous proteins...

  2. Development of a Indica rice restorer line Fuhui838 and its derivative lines with strong restoring ability and their utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Dasheng; Chen Hao; Deng Wenmin; Feng Lei; Yang Xuefeng; Ma Anlu; Liu Minghai

    2009-01-01

    Fuhui 838 and its derivative restorer lines (Fuhui 718, Fuhui 305, Zhongfu 218, Mianhui 3728, Nuoyou 1...) have the ability of strong restoring, high combining, and good resisting, which were bred and released by combined techniques of radiation-induced mutation, polymerization hybridization, and temperature tolerance screening. At present, about 43 combinations were registered and released to commercial production, the series of combinations present high seed setting rate, good tolerance to chilling and heat stress, wide adaptability, high and stable yield, the accumulated area added up to 40 million hm 2 . II you 838, which is famous one of these combinations, proved to be the best in long term and wide planting after Sanyou 63, and it is also one of the main hybrid rice for exporting in China. (authors)

  3. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  4. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  5. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of the NAC gene family under normal growth conditions, hormone treatment, and drought stress conditions in rice using near-isogenic lines (NILs) generated from crossing Aday Selection (drought tolerant) and IR64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Sharoni, Akhter Most; Satoh, Kouji; Moumeni, Ali; Venuprasad, Ramiah; Serraj, Rachid; Kumar, Arvind; Leung, Hei; Attia, Kotb; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2012-05-01

    The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) genes are plant-specific transcriptional factors known to play diverse roles in various plant developmental processes. We describe the rice (Oryza sativa) OsNAC genes expression profiles (GEPs) under normal and water-deficit treatments (WDTs). The GEPs of the OsNAC genes were analyzed in 25 tissues covering the entire life cycle of Minghui 63. High expression levels of 17 genes were demonstrated in certain tissues under normal conditions suggesting that these genes may play important roles in specific organs. We determined that 16 genes were differentially expressed under at least 1 phytohormone (NAA, GA3, KT, SA, ABA, and JA) treatment. To investigate the GEPs in the root, leaf, and panicle of three rice genotypes [e.g., 2 near-isogenic lines (NILs) and IR64], we used two NILs from a common genetic combination backcross developed by Aday Selection and IR64. WDTs were applied using the fraction of transpirable soil water at severe, mild, and control conditions. Transcriptomic analysis using a 44K oligoarray from Agilent was performed on all the tissue samples. We identified common and specific genes in all tissues from the two NILs under both WDTs, and the majority of the OsNAC genes that were activated were in the drought-tolerant IR77298-14-1-2-B-10 line compared with the drought-susceptible IR77298-14-1-2-B-13 or IR64. In IR77298-14-1-2-B-10, seventeen genes were very specific in their expression levels. Approximately 70 % of the genes from subgroups SNAC and NAM/CUC3 were activated in the leaf, but 37 % genes from subgroup SND were inactivated in the root compared with the control under severe stress conditions. These results provide a useful reference for the cloning of candidate genes from the specific subgroup for further functional analysis.

  6. Marker-assisted selection of maintainer lines within an onion tropical population Seleção assistida por marcadores de linha mantenedora dentro de uma população de cebola tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional onion (Allium cepa hybrid production requires the development of maintainer and male sterile lines and also a pollinator line with good specific combination ability. We report the identification of maintainer and male-sterile onion lines within the Brazilian 'Baia Periforme' derived population, 'Alfa São Francisco', associating random field pairing of male-fertile plants with selected male-sterile plants and PCR-based marker system monitoring S, T and N-cytoplasms. Male-sterile plants produced flowers with light green anthers which were easily detected in the field. A frequency of 2.0% of male-sterile plants was estimated in the 'Alfa São Francisco' sampled population. Male-sterile plants produced the 5'cob-marker 180-bp and the orfA501-marker 473-bp fragments, suggesting the T-cytoplasm type, while the maintainer line produced only the 5'cob-marker 180-bp. These identified lines will be important to develop tropical onion hybrids well-adapted to Brazilian low latitudes and to future comparative studies with other onion cytoplasmic genic male sterility systems.A produção tradicional de híbrido de cebola (Allium cepa requer o desenvolvimento de linhas mantenedoras e linhas macho estéreis, bem como uma linha polinizadora de boa capacidade específica de combinação. Reporta-se a identificação de linhas de cebola mantenedora e macho-estéreis numa população 'Alfa São Francisco' derivada da brasileira 'Baia Periforme', associando pareamento ao acaso no campo de plantas férteis com plantas macho-estéreis e sistema de PCR para monitoramento dos citoplasmas S, T e N. Plantas macho-estéreis produziram flores com anteras verde-claras, que foram facilmente identificadas no campo. A freqüência de 2,0% de plantas macho-estéreis foi estimada dentro de uma amostra da população 'Alfa São Francisco'. Plantas macho-estéreis produziram o marcador 5´cob de 180-pb e o marcador orfA501 de 473-pb, sugerindo que o citoplasma

  7. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  8. Development of a method based on on-line reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled by means of an adsorption-desorption interface for the analysis of selected chiral volatile compounds in methyl jasmonate treated strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña Moreno, Fernando; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema; Ruiz Del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2010-02-12

    A method based on the use of the through oven transfer adsorption-desorption (TOTAD) interface in on-line coupling between reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography (RPLC-GC) for the determination of chiral volatile compounds was developed. In particular, the method was applied to the study of the influence of methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment on the production and enantiomeric composition of selected aroma compounds in strawberry. The compounds studied were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, linalool and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (i.e. furaneol), which were examined on days 3, 6 and 9 after treatment. The method developed resulted in relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 21.6%, 8.1% and 9.8% and limits of detection (LD) of 0.04, 0.07 and 0.02mg/l for ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, linalool and furaneol, respectively. The application of the RPLC-TOTAD-GC method allowed higher levels of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, linalool and furaneol to be detected, particularly after 9 days of treatment. Besides, MJ demonstrated to affect the enantiomeric distribution of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. On the contrary, the enantiomeric composition of linalool and furaneol kept constant in both control and MJ-treated strawberries throughout the study. These results are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. YIELD CAPACITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GREEN BEANS IN CULTIVARS OF KIDNEY BEAN BRED AT OMSK AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY IN THE SOUTH FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kazydub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In  2014-2016  the  assessment of  kidney bean  cultivars bred at Omsk State Agrarian University on yield capacity, quality, and biochemical  chemical compounds  in green beans, such as proteins, zinc, iodine, iron and sucrose was carried  out  in  the  south  forest-steppe  of  Western Siberia. The technological  parameters of  green  beans: the  shape  of  cross-section  area; pulpiness,  fibrous  or non-fibrous,  and bean thickness were estimated. Threeyear study showed that all tested cultivars bred at Omsk State  Agrarian  University  surpassed  control  cultivar  in yield capacity,  chemical composition  and technological parameters of green beans. The cultivar ‘Pamiyaty Rizhovoy’ gave a highest yield: 563.4 g/m2  in 2014; 622.8 g/m2 in 2015; and 620.4 g/m2  in 2016. It is worth noticing that this cultivar is also distinguished by contents of micro and macroelements: 21.20-28.68  mg/kg  of zinc; 0.012-0.018 mg/kg of iodine; and 1.8-3.2 mg/kg of iron. In the course of the study, it was noticed the dependence of  yield  capacity  on  hydrothermal  coefficient  (HC. In 2014-2015 the yield capacity was a lowest when the moisturization was insufficient at 0.7 HC. With increase of HC the yield was higher. With sufficient moisturization at 1.0 HC the highest yield of green beans was observed in 2016.  The estimation  of  kidney  bean  cultivars  bred  at Omsk State  Agrarian University showed  that  all beans were  distinguished  by  high  quality  parameters  in  the phase  of  technical  maturity,  such  as  pulpiness,  nonfibrous, thickness 0.5 to  1.0 cm, and green and yellow colors.  The  highest  protein  content  comparing  to  the control  cultivar  ‘Zolushka’  was  detected  in  ‘Marusya’ 23.60%  in  2014,  20.94%  in  2015;  and  ‘Zoloto  Sibiry’ 19.79%  in  2016.  The  observed  results  confirmed  that contents  change of

  10. Program of telluric lines monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new observational program of telluric lines monitoring was introduced at Belgrade Astronomical Observatory. The ultimate goal of this program is to investigate the properties of Earth’s atmosphere through modeling the observed profiles of telluric lines. The program is intend to observe infrared molecular oxygen lines that were selected according to spectral sensitivity of the available CCD camera. In this paper we give the initial and the final selection criteria for spectral lines included in the program the description of equipment and procedures used for observations and reduction, a review of preliminary observational results with the estimated precision, and a short discussion on the comparison of the theoretical predictions and the measurements.

  11. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  12. Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui

    2016-05-01

    Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.

  13. Chronic ethanol tolerance as a result of free-choice drinking in alcohol-preferring rats of the WHP line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyr, Wanda; Taracha, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The development of tolerance to alcohol with chronic consumption is an important criterion for an animal model of alcoholism and may be an important component of the genetic predisposition to alcoholism. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selectively bred Warsaw High Preferring (WHP) line of alcohol-preferring rats would develop behavioral and metabolic tolerance during the free-choice drinking of ethanol. Chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced sedation was tested. The loss of righting reflex (LRR) paradigm was used to record sleep duration in WHP rats. Ethanol (EtOH)-naive WHP rats received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.), and sleep duration was measured. Subsequently, rats had access to a 10% ethanol solution under a free-choice condition with water and food for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of the free-choice intake of ethanol, the rats received another single i.p. injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg b.w., and sleep duration was reassessed. The blood alcohol content (BAC) for each rat was determined after an i.p. injection of 5 g/kg of ethanol in naive rats and again after chronic alcohol drinking at the time of recovery of the righting reflex (RR). The results showed that the mean ethanol intake was 9.14 g/kg/24 h, and both sleep duration and BAC were decreased after chronic ethanol intake. In conclusion, WHP rats exposed to alcohol by free-choice drinking across 12 weeks exhibited increased alcohol elimination rates. Studies have demonstrated that WHP rats after chronic free-choice drinking (12 weeks) of alcohol develop metabolic tolerance. Behavioral tolerance to ethanol was demonstrated by reduced sleep duration, but this decrease in sleep duration was not significant.

  14. The U-line line balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  15. Prevalence of Endoparasites in Faecal Samples of Cracids Bred in Captivity at the Parque Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. B. Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many problems arising from poor sanitation that can affect wild birds maintained in captivity, parasitic afflictions are among the most frequent, and their effects can range from subclinical infections to death. Some of the most common cases involve endoparasites, principally if the species under consideration exists at a high population density. This being so, the aim of the current work was to report on the prevalence of endoparasites in faecal samples from cracids (curassows and allies bred in captivity at the Parque Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco state in Brazil. To do this, faecal and sand samples were collected from the enclosures of birds of the family Cracidae belonging to the collection from the Parque Dois Irmãos, which originated from private collections from the Metropolitan Region and Forest Zone of the State of Pernambuco. Four lots of faecal and sand samples were collected over a 60-day period, giving a total of 84 faecal samples from 58 individuals of 21 species of cracids. The material collected was submitted for coproparasitological tests using the right method and spontaneous sedimentation. The results obtained were positive for Strongyloides sp., Ascaridia sp., Capillaria sp. and cysts of Entamoeba coli, as well as eggs belonging to the superfamily Strongyloidea.

  16. Captive breeding of the barndoor skate (Dipturus laevis) at the Montreal Biodome, with comparison notes on two other captive-bred skate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Serge; Pépin, Serge; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Misserey, Laurent; Rojas, Salvador

    2008-03-01

    In 1997, the Montreal Biodome obtained five barndoor skates (Dipturus laevis) from the waters off Boston, Massachusetts. Six years later, those specimens began reproducing, and the first egg case was collected in November 2003. Since then, 73 hatchlings have been born and raised. Egg cases were observed year round, and annual fecundity was measured for the first time: one female laid 69 eggs in 2005, 85 in 2006 and 115 in 2007. Egg incubation was longer than believed previously, ranging from 342 to 494 days. Hatching occurred throughout the year. Hatchlings averaged 193 mm total length and 128 mm disk width and weighed 32 g. They were fed krill and diced fish. All but one survived the first month. A photo identification system was useful in recognizing two groups of 10 specimens during their first year, and transponders could be inserted in the wing muscles of 1-year-old skates. Total lengths at birth and at age 2 were similar to the data reported from the wild, suggesting a similar growth pattern in captivity. The reproduction characteristics of the barndoor skate were compared with those of two other skate species currently bred at the Montreal Biodome, the winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata) and the thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata). Zoo Biol 27:145-153, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Reference intervals for hematological parameters of animals bred and kept at the vivarium of the Faculty of Medicine of the State University of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Osti Spinelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of specific hematological parameters of laboratory animals used in experiments is highly relevant to evaluate functional alterations of their vital organs. Hematological reference rates for rats, mice, rabbits and hamsters, bred in conventional healthy conditions and derived from the Vivarium of the FMUSP’s Vivarium Center are established. One hundred and twenty mice of the strains BALB/c, C57BL / 6 and Swiss, 80 Wistar rats, 80 Golden hamsters and 80 New Zealand rabbits, males and females, apparently normal and healthy, over 10-weeks-old, were employed in current experiment. The analysis was determined by flow cytometry process (CELM CC510 involving the separation of erythrocytes and leukocytes, and cell identification by the suspension method and quantification. Hematological derivatives such as hematometric indexes (application of equations and morphological quantification of leukocytes and erythrocytes were determined by scanning/differential (Panótico-commercial, whereas hemoglobin dosage was determined by spectrophotometry (CELM E210D. Results are given as means and standard deviants of hematological profiles in the blood of the animals grouped by species, strain and sex. Data are an important asset for researchers in their analysis of experimental results. CEAU Certificate n.° 251/11 HCFMUSP.

  18. Description age-3 brood rainbow trout bred in the conditions of the industral fish farm "Sloboda Banyliv"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mendryshora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of cultivation and give fish-breeding and biological characteristics of age-3 brood rainbow trout grown using industrial technology in the conditions of the trout farm "Sloboda Banyliv." Methodology. Fish cultivation was carried in tank conditions of the trout farm "Sloboda Banyliv". The material for the study were age-3 brood rainbow trout obtained from eggs of the fall-spawning form of rainbow trout. Cultivation was carried out in a 216 m2 tank, stocking density of 255 fish/m2, using standard trout culture methods. Statistical analysis of the material was performed in Microsoft Office Excel (2003. Analysis of the variables was performed in the system of absolute values. The analysis criteria were their mean values mean deviations (M±m, standard error (σ, variability coefficient (Cv. Fish were fed with specialized feed manufactured by “BioMar” (Denmark with a high protein content (more than 40%. Findings. Based on the performed selective-breeding works aimed at creating brood stocks of rainbow trout, it was found that brood fish reared in the industrial conditions of the fish farm “Sloboda Banyliv”, despite instable culture conditions, were characterized by a moderate growth rate and had high values of productive and reproductive features. Mean weight of age-3 rainbow trout females was 1282.5 g, fecundity — 3.48 thousand eggs. Mean weight of produced eggs was 239.17 g, while individual parameters were 70.4 mg for the weight and 4.58 mm for the diameter. Originality. For the first time a study aimed at the formation of brood stocks of rainbow trout with analysis of phenotypic and productive features in the conditions of a fish farm with instable temperature and water regimes has been conducted. Practical value. The results of the performed work will allow selecting and forming a brood stock with high values of productive and reproductive features.

  19. Low vagally-mediated heart rate variability and increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in rats bred for high anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Trombini, Mimosa; Graiani, Gallia; Madeddu, Denise; Quaini, Federico; Landgraf, Rainer; Neumann, Inga D; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2014-04-10

    In humans, there is a documented association between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Putative underlying mechanisms may include an impairment of the autonomic nervous system control of cardiac function. The primary objective of the present study was to characterize cardiac autonomic modulation and susceptibility to arrhythmias in genetic lines of rats that differ largely in their anxiety level. To reach this goal, electrocardiographic recordings were performed in high-anxiety behavior (HAB, n=10) and low-anxiety behavior (LAB, n=10) rats at rest, during stressful stimuli and under autonomic pharmacological manipulations, and analyzed by means of time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability. During resting conditions, HAB rats displayed a reduced heart rate variability, mostly in terms of lower parasympathetic (vagal) modulation compared to LAB rats. In HAB rats, this relatively low cardiac vagal control was associated with smaller heart rate responsiveness to acute stressors compared to LAB counterparts. In addition, beta-adrenergic pharmacological stimulation induced a larger incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in HABs compared to LABs. At sacrifice, a moderate increase in heart-body weight ratio was observed in HAB rats. We conclude that high levels of anxiety-related behavior in rats are associated with signs of i) impaired autonomic modulation of heart rate (low vagally-mediated heart rate variability), ii) poor adaptive heart rate responsiveness to stressful stimuli, iii) increased arrhythmia susceptibility, and iv) cardiac hypertrophy. These results highlight the utility of the HAB/LAB model for investigating the mechanistic basis of the comorbidity between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Selecting Cells for Bioartificial Liver Devices and the Importance of a 3D Culture Environment: A Functional Comparison between the HepaRG and C3A Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wenum, Martien; Adam, Aziza A A; Hakvoort, Theodorus B M; Hendriks, Erik J; Shevchenko, Valery; van Gulik, Thomas M; Chamuleau, Robert A F M; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first clinical trials on Bioartificial Livers (BALs) loaded with a proliferative human hepatocyte cell source have started. There are two cell lines that are currently in an advanced state of BAL development; HepaRG and HepG2/C3A. In this study we aimed to compare both cell lines on applicability in BALs and to identify possible strategies for further improvement. We tested both cell lines in monolayer- and BAL cultures on growth characteristics, hepatic differentiation, nitrogen-, carbohydrate-, amino acid- and xenobiotic metabolism. Interestingly, both cell lines adapted the hepatocyte phenotype more closely when cultured in BALs; e.g. monolayer cultures produced lactate, while BAL cultures showed diminished lactate production (C3A) or conversion to elimination (HepaRG), and urea cycle activity increased upon BAL culturing in both cell lines. HepaRG-BALs outperformed C3A-BALs on xenobiotic metabolism, ammonia elimination and lactate elimination, while protein synthesis was comparable. In BAL cultures of both cell lines ammonia elimination correlated positively with glutamine production and glutamate consumption, suggesting ammonia elimination was mainly driven by the balance between glutaminase and glutamine synthetase activity. Both cell lines lacked significant urea cycle activity and both required multiple culture weeks before reaching optimal differentiation in BALs. In conclusion, culturing in BALs enhanced hepatic functionality of both cell lines and from these, the HepaRG cells are the most promising proliferative cell source for BAL application.

  1. Selecting Cells for Bioartificial Liver Devices and the Importance of a 3D Culture Environment: A Functional Comparison between the HepaRG and C3A Cell Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wenum, Martien; Adam, Aziza A. A.; Hakvoort, Theodorus B. M.; Hendriks, Erik J.; Shevchenko, Valery; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first clinical trials on Bioartificial Livers (BALs) loaded with a proliferative human hepatocyte cell source have started. There are two cell lines that are currently in an advanced state of BAL development; HepaRG and HepG2/C3A. In this study we aimed to compare both cell lines on

  2. On-line filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)

  3. First-line selective internal radiotherapy plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer (FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global): a combined analysis of three multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasan, Harpreet S; Gibbs, Peter; Sharma, Navesh K; Taieb, Julien; Heinemann, Volker; Ricke, Jens; Peeters, Marc; Findlay, Michael; Weaver, Andrew; Mills, Jamie; Wilson, Charles; Adams, Richard; Francis, Anne; Moschandreas, Joanna; Virdee, Pradeep S; Dutton, Peter; Love, Sharon; Gebski, Val; Gray, Alastair; van Hazel, Guy; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-09-01

    Data suggest selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) in third-line or subsequent therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer has clinical benefit in patients with colorectal liver metastases with liver-dominant disease after chemotherapy. The FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global randomised studies evaluated the efficacy of combining first-line chemotherapy with SIRT using yttrium-90 resin microspheres in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with liver metastases. The studies were designed for combined analysis of overall survival. FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global were randomised, phase 3 trials done in hospitals and specialist liver centres in 14 countries worldwide (Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, Portugal, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and the USA). Chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (WHO performance status 0 or 1) with liver metastases not suitable for curative resection or ablation were randomly assigned (1:1) to either oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (FOLFOX: leucovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) or FOLFOX plus single treatment SIRT concurrent with cycle 1 or 2 of chemotherapy. In FOXFIRE, FOLFOX chemotherapy was OxMdG (oxaliplatin modified de Gramont chemotherapy; 85 mg/m 2 oxaliplatin infusion over 2 h, L-leucovorin 175 mg or D,L-leucovorin 350 mg infusion over 2 h, and 400 mg/m 2 bolus fluorouracil followed by a 2400 mg/m 2 continuous fluorouracil infusion over 46 h). In SIRFLOX and FOXFIRE-Global, FOLFOX chemotherapy was modified FOLFOX6 (85 mg/m 2 oxaliplatin infusion over 2 h, 200 mg leucovorin, and 400 mg/m 2 bolus fluorouracil followed by a 2400 mg/m 2 continuous fluorouracil infusion over 46 h). Randomisation was done by central minimisation with four factors: presence of extrahepatic metastases, tumour involvement of the liver, planned use of a biological agent, and investigational centre. Participants and investigators were not masked to treatment. The primary

  4. Remote mechanical C line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, K.R.; Gardner, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company is developing a desk-top simulation based training program on the operation of the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line process in the Plutonium Finishing Plant on the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. Simulations display aod contioually update current values of system parameters on computer graphics of RMC line equipment. Students are able to operate a variety of controllers to maintain proper system status. Programmed faults, selectable by the course instructor, can be used to test student responses to off-normal events. Prior to operation of the simulation, students are given computer-based tutorials on the function, processes, operation, and error conditions associated with individual components. By including the capability of operating each individual component - valves, heaters, agitators, etc. - the computer-based training (CBT) lessons become an interactive training manual. From one perspective RMC represents one step in the diffusion of the well-known and well-documented simulator training activities for nuclear reactor operators to other training programs, equally critical, perhaps, but less well scrutinized in the past. Because of the slowly responding nature of the actual process, RMC can retain many of the capabilities of practice and testing in a simulated work environment while avoiding the cost of a full scale simulator and the exposure and waste developed by practice runs of the RMC line. From another perspective RMC suggests training advances even beyond the most faithful simulators. For example, by integrating CBT lessons with the simulation, RMC permits students to focus in on specific processes occurring inside chosen components. In effect, the interactive training manual is available on-line with the simulation itself. Cost are also discussed

  5. Effects of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity and food consumption in mice: Results from an artificial selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Acosta, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and food consumption in mice from 4 replicate lines bred for 57 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from 4 non-selected control (C) lines. Beginning at ~24 days of age, mice were housed in standard cages or in cages with attached wheels. Wheel activity and SPA were monitored in 1-min intervals. Data from the 8th week of the experiment were analyzed because mice were sexually mature and had plateaued in body mass, weekly wheel running distance, SPA, and food consumption. Body mass, length, and masses of the retroperitoneal fat pad, liver, and heart were recorded after the 13th week. SPA of both HR and C mice decreased with wheel access, due to reductions in both duration and average intensity of SPA. However, total activity duration (SPA+wheel running; min/day) was ~1/3 greater when mice were housed with wheels, and food consumption was significantly increased. Overall, food consumption in both HR and C mice was more strongly affected by wheel running than by SPA. Duration of wheel running had a stronger effect than average speed, but the opposite was true for SPA. With body mass as a covariate, chronic wheel access significantly reduced fat pad mass and increased heart mass in both HR and C mice. Given that both HR and C mice housed with wheels had increased food consumption, the energetic cost of wheel running was not fully compensated by concomitant reductions in SPA. The experiment demonstrates that both duration and intensity of both wheel running and SPA were significant predictors of food consumption. This sort of detailed analysis of the effects of different aspects of physical activity on food consumption has not previously been reported for a non-human animal, and it sets the stage for longitudinal examination of energy balance and its components in rodent models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A new view on dam lines in Polish Arabian horses based on mtDNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sell Jerzy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polish Arabian horses are one of the oldest and the most important Arab populations in the world. The Polish Arabian Stud Book and the Genealogical Charts by Skorkowski are the main sources of information on the ancestors of Polish Arabs. Both publications were viewed as credible sources of information until the 1990s when the data regarding one of the dam lines was questioned. The aim of the current study was to check the accuracy of the pedigree data of Polish dam lines using mtDNA analysis. The analyses of a 458 bp mtDNA D-loop fragment from representatives of 15 Polish Arabian dam lines revealed 14 distinct haplotypes. The results were inconsistent with pedigree data in the case of two lines. A detailed analysis of the historical sources was performed to explain these discrepancies. Our study revealed that representatives of different lines shared the same haplotypes. We also noted a genetic identity between some lines founded by Polish mares of unknown origin and lines established by desert-bred mares.

  7. Inhibition spectrum studies of microthecin and other anhydrofructose derivatives using selected strains of Gram-positive and –negative bacteria, yeast and moulds, and investigation of the cytotoxicity of microthecin to malignant blood cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiskesund, R.; Thomas, L.V.; Schobert, M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To prepare 1,5-anhydro-d-fructose (AF) derivatives, test their microbial inhibition spectrum, and to further examine the most effective AF derivative against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and malignant blood cell lines. Methods and Results: Microthecin and nine other AF derivatives were synthesized...... both GP and GN bacteria, including Ps. aeruginosa. Further tests with three malignant blood cell lines (Mutu, Ramos, Raji) and one normal cell line indicated that microthecin was a cell toxin, with a cell mortality >85% at 50 ppm. The other nine AF derivatives demonstrated low or no antimicrobial...... activity. Conclusions: Microthecin was active 100–2000 ppm against GP and GN bacteria including Ps. aeruginosa, but was inactive against yeasts and moulds. Microthecin was also a cytotoxin to some mammalian cell lines. Significance and Impact of the Study: Microthecin might have potential for development...

  8. One-month comparative efficacy of three topical ectoparasiticides against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on mixed-bred dogs in controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and residual efficacy for 1 month of three topical ectoparasiticides on mixed-bred dogs against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adult dogs (n = 32, 10.8-18.4 kg BW) were allocated to 4 groups (n = 8) and infested with 50 adult ticks on days -8, -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Within each group, dogs were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS), Vectra 3D (DPP), Frontline Plus (FM), or K9 Advantix (IP). Ticks were enumerated on dogs 24 h after treatment and each subsequent tick infestation by in situ thumb count assessment without removal and at 48 h by combing and removal. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means for all 24 and 48 h tick count assessments. From 42 to 56% of the total, infested ticks were found on dogs 48 h post-challenge in the CS group. Therapeutic efficacy for all treatments ranged from 45.5 to 64.6% after 48 h of infestation. Residual efficacy after FM treatment was consistently lower compared to DPP or IP treatments at the 24 h assessments on days 8, 22, 23, and 29. Residual efficacy measured at this last time point was 94.8% for DPP, 83.1% for IP, and 46.9% for FM. This study demonstrates that permethrin-based formulations (DPP and IP) provided a quicker onset of residual protection against brown dog ticks compared to FM. Although DPP and IP are both permethrin-based formulations, DPP exhibited consistently higher residual acaricidal efficacies and was the only treatment that provided >90% protection for 1 month at 24 h post challenge.

  9. Rats bred for helplessness exhibit positive reinforcement learning deficits which are not alleviated by an antidepressant dose of the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela; Henn, Fritz A; Petri, David; Huston, Joseph P

    2016-08-04

    Principles of negative reinforcement learning may play a critical role in the etiology and treatment of depression. We examined the integrity of positive reinforcement learning in congenitally helpless (cH) rats, an animal model of depression, using a random ratio schedule and a devaluation-extinction procedure. Furthermore, we tested whether an antidepressant dose of the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor deprenyl would reverse any deficits in positive reinforcement learning. We found that cH rats (n=9) were impaired in the acquisition of even simple operant contingencies, such as a fixed interval (FI) 20 schedule. cH rats exhibited no apparent deficits in appetite or reward sensitivity. They reacted to the devaluation of food in a manner consistent with a dose-response relationship. Reinforcer motivation as assessed by lever pressing across sessions with progressively decreasing reward probabilities was highest in congenitally non-helpless (cNH, n=10) rats as long as the reward probabilities remained relatively high. cNH compared to wild-type (n=10) rats were also more resistant to extinction across sessions. Compared to saline (n=5), deprenyl (n=5) reduced the duration of immobility of cH rats in the forced swimming test, indicative of antidepressant effects, but did not restore any deficits in the acquisition of a FI 20 schedule. We conclude that positive reinforcement learning was impaired in rats bred for helplessness, possibly due to motivational impairments but not deficits in reward sensitivity, and that deprenyl exerted antidepressant effects but did not reverse the deficits in positive reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, A.; Parra, O.

    1999-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W 0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3- 15 N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W 0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  11. Morphometry, ultrastructure, myosin isoforms, and metabolic capacities of the "mini muscles" favoured by selection for high activity in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderley, Helga; Houle-Leroy, Philippe; Diffee, Gary M; Camp, Dana M; Garland, Theodore

    2006-07-01

    Prolonged selective breeding of mice (Mus musculus) for high levels of voluntary wheel running has favoured an unusual phenotype ("mini muscles"), apparently caused by a single Mendelian recessive allele, in which most hind-limb muscles are markedly reduced in mass, but have increased mass-specific activities of mitochondrial enzymes. We examined whether these changes reflect changes in fibre size, number or ultrastructure in normal and "mini-muscle" mice within the two (of four) selectively bred lines (lab designations L3 and L6) that exhibit the phenotype at generations 26 and 27. In both lines, the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles are smaller in mass (by >50% and 20%, respectively) in affected individuals. The mass-specific activities of mitochondrial enzymes in the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles were increased in the mini phenotype in both lines, with stronger effects in the gastrocnemius muscle. In the gastrocnemius, the % myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIb was reduced by 50% in L3 and by 30% in L6, whereas the % MHC IIa and I were higher, particularly in L3. Fibre number in the plantaris muscle did not significantly differ between mini and normal muscles, although muscle mass was a significant positive correlate of fibre number. Small fibres were more abundant in mini than normal muscles in L3. Mitochondrial volume density was significantly higher in mini than normal muscle fibres in L3, but not in L6. Microscopy revealed a surprising attribute of the mini muscles: an abundance of small, minimally differentiated, myofibril-containing cells positioned in a disorderly fashion, particularly in the surface layer. We hypothesise that these unusual cells may be satellite cells or type IIb fibres that did not complete their differentiation. Together, these observations suggest that mice with the mini phenotype have reduced numbers of type IIb fibres in many of their hind-limb muscles, leading to a decrease in mass and an increase in mass-specific aerobic capacity

  12. Establishment and characterization of CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ri-ichi; Kuramochi, Takashi; Aoyagi, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Shu; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Kasai, Noriyuki; Hakamata, Yoji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Ueda, Masatsugu

    2007-02-01

    Cell marking is a very important procedure for identifying donor cells after cell and/or organ transplantation in vivo. Transgenic animals expressing marker proteins such as enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their tissues are a powerful tool for research in fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The purpose of this study was to establish transgenic rabbit lines that ubiquitously express EGFP under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/beta-actin promoter (CAG) to provide a fluorescent transgenic animal as a bioresource. We microinjected the EGFP expression vector into 945 rabbit eggs and 4 independent transgenic candidate pups were obtained. Two of them died before sexual maturation and one was infertile. One transgenic male candidate founder rabbit was obtained and could be bred by artificial insemination. The rabbit transmitted the transgene in a Mendelian manner. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, we detected the transgene at 7q11 on chromosome 7 as a large centromeric region in two F1 offspring (one female and one male). Eventually, one transgenic line was established. Ubiquitous EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in all examined organs. There were no gender-related differences in fluorescence. The established CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit will be an important bioresource and a useful tool for various studies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  13. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After removal of dentin caries lesions, cavity lining has been advocated. Non-clinical data support this approach, but clinical data are sparse and ambiguous. We aimed at evaluating the benefits and harms of cavity lining using meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. DATA: We...... included randomized clinical trials comparing restorations without versus with cavity lining for treating primary caries lesions. Only trials reporting failure (defined as need to re-retreat) after ≥1 year follow-up were included. Trial selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted....... STUDY SELECTION: From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow...

  14. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line.

  15. Procedimento para escolha de populações de milho promissoras para extração de linhagens Procedure to select superior maize populations for inbred line extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAX WENDEL PAULA LIMA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso de um programa de melhoramento de milho visando à obtenção de híbridos está intimamente ligado à identificação da população mais promissora para a extração de linhagens. O presente trabalho objetivou identificar procedimentos para a escolha dessas populações. Para isso, foram obtidas populações segregantes S0, S1 e 196 famílias S0:1 de cada um dos quatro materiais comerciais avaliados: híbridos simples (C 333B e Z 8392, duplo (AG 1051 e variedade (BR-105. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na safra agrícola 98/99 em duas localidades na região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais: Lavras e Ijaci. Na avaliação das 196 famílias S0:1 de cada população foi empregado o delineamento látice simples 14 x 14. Adicionalmente foi instalado um experimento em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, para avaliação simultânea das gerações F1, S0 e S1 A partir dos dados de produtividade de espigas despalhadas (kg por parcela das gerações F1, S0 e S1, foram obtidas as estimativas da contribuição dos locos em homozigose (m + a e em heterozigose (d. Foram também foram estimados os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos com os experimentos das famílias S0:1. Constatou-se que houve boa associação (r = 0,81 entre a estimativa de (m + a e a média das famílias S0:1 e que população com maior potencial para a extração de linhagens, maior (m + a, foi a AG 1051. A correlação entre as estimativas de (d e h² foi baixa, indicando que a estimativa da contribuição dos locos em heterozigose não foi bom indicador da variabilidade potencial da população.The identification of the population with greatest potential for inbred line extraction is directly linked to the success of a maize hybrid breeding program. This study was carried out to identify procedures for selecting these populations. Segregant S0, S1 populations and 196 S0:1 families were obtained from each of four commercial cultivars assessed: single hybrids (C 333B and

  16. Geographic information system(GIS) applications to optimize route selection, environmental analysis and power transmission line designs; Aplicaciones en sistemas de informacion geograficos (SIG) para optimizar seleccion de ruta, analisis ambiental y diseno de lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadena Suarez, Luis Fernando; Posada Delgado, Fabio Humberto; Alvarez Davila, Esteban; Gomez Colorado, Oscar Alberto [Interconexion Electrica S.A. (ISA), Medellin (Colombia)]. E-mail: fecadena@isa.com.co

    2001-07-01

    Interconexion Eletrica s.a. (ISA) is a company of the Colombian government for electric energy transportation through the national energy transportation network, it makes part of the companies group with growing environmental conscience. The better route identifications for high voltage transmission lines do not involve just the engineering analyses, but mainly the environmental one.These integrated analysis have been largely powered through the technology applications like Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). These technologies were applied for a total of 300 kilometers between 1992 and 2000 in the largest power transmission lines whose configurations cross different geographic conditions. This current technical contribution describes the application of GIS and RS technologies for the best routes, environmental sensibility analysis and environmental impact evaluations. The applications have resulted in the integration between engineering and environmental processes, optimization of environmental evaluation, formulations of procedures handling and environmental control, as well as transmission line profile characteristics. After the project construction, GIS can be used as a useful tool for environmental monitoring in connection with power transmission lines, maintenance of servitude areas, availability conditions and quality of the high voltage transmission service.

  17. The NS1 glycoprotein can generate dramatic antibody-enhanced dengue viral replication in normal out-bred mice resulting in lethal multi-organ disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K I Falconar

    Full Text Available Antibody-enhanced replication (AER of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2 strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1 glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (<0.5 LD₅₀ of the DENV-2 NSx strain, but not the NG-C strain, they all generated dramatic and lethal DENV-2 AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD resulting from i dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human "severe dengue" cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines

  18. Associations among methane emission traits measured in the feedlot and in respiration chambers in Angus cattle bred to vary in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, R M; Velazco, J I; Arthur, P F; Hegarty, R F

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate associations among animal performance and methane emission traits under feedlot conditions and in respiration chambers in Angus cattle bred to vary in residual feed intake (RFI), which is a measure of feed efficiency. Fifty-nine cattle were tested for feedlot RFI, of which 41 had methane production recorded on an ad libitum grain-based ration in the feedlot, 59 on a restricted grain-based ration in respiration chambers, and 57 on a restricted roughage ration in respiration chambers. The cattle became older and heavier as they went through the different phases of the experiment, but their feed intake (expressed as DMI) and daily emission of enteric methane (methane production rate; MPR) did not increase proportionally, as feed offered was restricted in the respiration chamber tests. Methane emissions by individual animals relative to their DMI were calculated as methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI) and as 2 measures of residual methane production (RMP and RMP), which were calculated as the difference between measured MPR and that predicted from feed intake by 2 different equations. Within each test regime, MPR was positively correlated ( = 0.28 to 0.61) with DMI. Phenotypic correlations for MY, RMP, and RMP between the feedlot test and the restricted grain test ( = 0.40 to 0.43) and between the restricted grain test and the restricted roughage test were moderate ( = 0.36 to 0.41) and moderate to strong between the feedlot test and the restricted roughage test ( = 0.54 to 0.58). These results indicate that the rankings of animals for methane production relative to feed consumed are relatively stable over the 3 test phases. Feedlot feed conversion ratio and RFI were not correlated with MPR in the feedlot test and grain-based chamber test but were negatively correlated with MPR in the chamber roughage test ( = -0.31 and -0.37). Both were negatively correlated with MY and RMP in the feedlot test ( = -0.42 to -0.54) and subsequent

  19. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... The near isogenic lines (NILs) of non-susceptible to DNV-Z were bred through backcrossing .... bor nsd-Z and had been selected to generation next generation were ... 30400327), High Technology Research Program of.

  20. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  1. Seleção de linhagens de melancia resistentes ao Watermelon mosaic virus e ao Papaya ringspot virus Selection of resistant watermelon lines to Watermelon mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 20 linhagens de melancia, provenientes do cruzamento da cultivar comercial suscetível Crimson Sweet e da introdução PI 595201 resistente ao Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV e Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W. As linhagens, e os parentais foram inoculados com o WMV ou com o PRSV-W em casa-de-vegetação distintas. Aos 35 e 49 dias após a primeira inoculação (DAI, as plantas foram avaliadas por meio de uma escala de notas, em que 1 (ausência de sintomas a 5 (intenso mosaico e deformações foliares. Pelos resultados infere-se que, aos 35 DAI, as linhagens 1, 2 e 20 apresentaram resistência tanto para o WMV como para o PRSV-W, com médias de 1,95, 1,80 e 2,25 para o WMV, e de 2,50, 2,30 e 2,50 para o PRSV-W, respectivamente. As linhagens 5, 7 e 13 foram resistentes somente ao WMV e as plantas das linhagens 3, 10 e 18 para o PRSV-W. A reação das linhagens permaneceu em geral pouco alterada aos 49 DAI. A existência de linhagens resistentes somente ao WMV e somente ao PRSV-W, ao lado de linhagens resistentes a ambos os vírus, é indicativo de que as resistências ao WMV e ao PRSV-W não são controladas pelos mesmos genes.Twenty advanced watermelon breeding lines, derived from the cross between cv. Crimson Sweet (susceptible and PI 595201 (resistant to WMV and PRSV-W, were screened for resistance to both potyviruses. The twenty lines, among with Crimson Sweet and PI 595201, were inoculated with either WMV or PRSV-W, in two different greenhouse trials. Plants were evaluated for symptoms 35 and 49 days after the first inoculation (DAI, using a scale from 1 (no symptoms to 5 (severe mosaic and foliar distortion. Evaluations at 35 DAI indicated that lines 1, 2 and 20 had good levels of resistance to both WMV and PRSV-W, with ratings of 1,95, 1,80 and 2,25 for WMV, and of 2,50, 2,30 and 2,50 for PRSV-W, respectively. Lines 5, 7 and 13 were resistant to WMV only, whereas lines 3, 10 and 18 were resistant to PRSV-W only. The reaction of

  2. Waste management of Line Item projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zill, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    With the growing number of companies involved with today's Line Item projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), there are ever increasing problems in the handling of Radioactive Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW). The most important of these problems is who is going to do what with the waste and when are they going to do it. The who brings to mind training; the what, compliance; and the when, cost. At ORNL, the authors have found that the best way to address the challenges of waste handling where several contractors are involved is through communication, compromise and consistency. Without these elements, opportunities bred from waste handling are likely to bring the project to a halt

  3. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  4. Edge Effects in Line Intersect Sampling With

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire; Harry T. Valentine

    2005-01-01

    Transects consisting of multiple, connected segments with a prescribed configuration are commonly used in ecological applications of line intersect sampling. The transect configuration has implications for the probability with which population elements are selected and for how the selection probabilities can be modified by the boundary of the tract being sampled. As...

  5. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  6. Selective Breeding and Short-Term Access to a Running Wheel Alter Stride Characteristics in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Kay, Jarren C; Ordonez, Genesis; Hampton, Thomas G; Garland, Theodore

    Postural and kinematic aspects of running may have evolved to support high runner (HR) mice to run approximately threefold farther than control mice. Mice from four replicate HR lines selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running show many differences in locomotor behavior and morphology as compared with four nonselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that HR mice would show stride alterations that have coadapted with locomotor behavior, morphology, and physiology. More specifically, we predicted that HR mice would have stride characteristics that differed from those of C mice in ways that parallel some of the adaptations seen in highly cursorial animals. For example, we predicted that limbs of HR mice would swing closer to the parasagittal plane, resulting in a two-dimensional measurement of narrowed stance width. We also expected that some differences between HR and C mice might be amplified by 6 d of wheel access, as is used to select breeders each generation. We used the DigiGait Imaging System (Mouse Specifics) to capture high-speed videos in ventral view as mice ran on a motorized treadmill across a range of speeds and then to automatically calculate several aspects of strides. Young adults of both sexes were tested both before and after 6 d of wheel access. Stride length, stride frequency, stance width, stance time, brake time, propel time, swing time, duty factor, and paw contact area were analyzed using a nested analysis of covariance, with body mass as a covariate. As expected, body mass and treadmill speed affected nearly every analyzed metric. Six days of wheel access also affected nearly every measure, indicating pervasive training effects, in both HR and C mice. As predicted, stance width was significantly narrower in HR than C mice. Paw contact area and duty factor were significantly greater in minimuscle individuals (subset of HR mice with 50%-reduced hind limb muscle mass) than in normal-muscled HR or C mice. We conclude that

  7. Homotopic Polygonal Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski

    This thesis presents three contributions to the area of polygonal line simplification, or simply line simplification. A polygonal path, or simply a path is a list of points with line segments between the points. A path can be simplified by morphing it in order to minimize some objective function...

  8. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, Series Information File for the Current All Lines Shapefiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  9. Seleção de linhagens de feijão rosinha de boa cocção, resistentes à antracnose e mancha angular Selection of pink grain common bean lines with good cooking ability, resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Velásquez Faleiro e Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivares de feijoeiro com grão rosinha foram de grande importância, no passado, e ainda hoje, mesmo com a preferência pelo grão carioca, há nichos de mercado para feijões do grupo Rosinha. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi selecionar linhagens de feijoeiro comum com grão rosinha, alta produção de grãos, rápido cozimento e resistentes à antracnose e à mancha angular. A partir de cinco famílias F8 superiores, provenientes do cruzamento entre os genitores Rosinha Maria da Fé e ESAL 693, foram extraídas 143 linhagens as quais foram avaliadas na safra das águas de 2005/2006 em Lavras (MG. Dessas, manteve-se 99 linhagens que foram avaliadas em Lavras e Lambari (MG, na safra da seca de 2006. As 24 linhagens selecionadas foram novamente avaliadas nos dois locais, no inverno de 2006. Os caracteres avaliados foram produção e tipo de grão, tempo de cocção, reação à mancha angular e também, foi realizado o teste de resistência ao patótipo 65 de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Nas linhagens, observaram-se variabilidade genética para todos os caracteres avaliados, altas estimativas dos coeficientes de herdabilidade, assegurando elevados ganhos com a seleção. Foram selecionadas quatro linhagens com alta produção, tipo de grão ideal, com rápido tempo de cocção e resistência à mancha angular e à antracnose.Common bean cultivars with pink grain type used to be very important, although there is still some market spot for them. The objective of the research was to select common bean lines with pink grain, high grain yield with good cooking ability, and resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot. One hundred and forty three lines were selected from five F8 segregant families derived from the cross Rosinha Maria da Fé x ESAL 693. Those lines were evaluated in the rainy season of 2005/2006 at Lavras county, MG State. Ninety nine lines were kept and tested in the dry season of 2006 at Lavras and Lambari. The 24

  10. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Czerwinski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76% reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams

  11. Line outage contingency analysis including the system islanding scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D.; Bhuyan, S. [Assam Engineering College, Jalukbari, Guwahati 781013 (India); Chowdhury, S.P. [Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2006-05-15

    The paper describes an algorithm for determining the line outage contingency of a line taking into account of line over load effect in remaining lines and subsequent tripping of over loaded line(s) leading to possible system split or islanding of a power system. The optimally ordered sparse [B'], [B'] matrices for the integrated system are used for load flow analysis to determine modified values of voltage phase angles [{delta}] and bus voltages [V] to determine the over loading effect on the remaining lines due to outage of a selected line outage contingency. In case of over loading in remaining line(s), the over loaded lines are removed from the system and a topology processor is used to find the islands. A fast decoupled load flow (FDLF) analysis is carried out for finding out the system variables for the islanded (or single island) system by incorporating appropriate modification in the [B'] and [B'] matrices of the integrated system. Line outage indices based on line overload, loss of load, loss of generation and static voltage stability are computed to indicate severity of a line outage of a selected line. (author)

  12. Development of Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Sensitization and Relapse Drinking in Mice Selected for High or Low Ethanol Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F.; Grahame, Nicholas J.; Becker, Howard C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that high alcohol consumption is associated with low withdrawal susceptiblility, while at the same time, other studies have shown that exposure to ethanol vapor increases alcohol drinking in rats and mice. In the present studies, we sought to shed light on this seeming contradiction by using mice selectively bred for High- (HAP) and Low- (LAP) Alcohol Preference, first, assessing these lines for differences in signs of ethanol withdrawal and second, for differences in the efficacy of intermittent alcohol vapor exposure on elevating subsequent ethanol intake. Methods Experiment 1 examined whether these lines of mice differed in ethanol withdrawal-induced CNS hyperexcitability and the development of sensitization to this effect following intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. Adult HAP and LAP lines (replicates 1 and 2), and the C3H/HeNcr inbred strain (included as a control genotype for comparison purposes) received intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor and were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal-induced seizures assessed by scoring handling-induced convulsions (HIC). Experiment 2 examined the influence of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on voluntary ethanol drinking. Adult male and female HAP-2 and LAP-2 mice, along with male C57BL/6J (included as comparative controls) were trained to drink 10% ethanol using a limited access (2 hr/day) 2-bottle choice paradigm. After stable baseline daily intake was established, mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers. Ethanol intake sessions resumed 72 hr after final ethanol (or air) exposure for 5 consecutive days. Results Following chronic ethanol treatment, LAP mice exhibited overall greater withdrawal seizure activity compared to HAP mice. In Experiment 2, chronic ethanol exposure/withdrawal resulted in a significant increase in ethanol intake in male C57BL/6J, and modestly elevated intake in HAP-2 male mice. Ethanol intake for male control mice

  13. Directed line liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamien, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

  14. Towards a comprehensive X-ray approach for studying the photosynthetic manganese complex-XANES, K{alpha}/K{beta}/K{beta}-satellite emission lines, RIXS, and comparative computational approaches for selected model complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaharieva, I; Chernev, P; Risch, M; Gerencser, L; Haumann, M; Dau, H [Free University Berlin, FB Physik, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Berggren, G; Shevchenko, D; Anderlund, M [Dept. of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Uppsala University, Box 523, S-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Weng, T C, E-mail: holger.dau@fu-berlin.d, E-mail: michael.haumann@fu-berlin.d [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2009-11-15

    Advanced X-ray spectroscopy experiments can contribute to elucidation of the mechanism of water oxidation in biological (tetra-manganese complex of Photosystem II) and artificial systems. Although the electronic structure of the catalytic metal site is of high interest, it is experimentally not easily accessible. Therefore, we and other researchers are working towards a comprehensive approach involving a combination of methods, namely (1) quantitative analysis of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra collected at the K-edge and, in the long run, at the L-edge of manganese; (2) high-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) of K{alpha} and K{beta} lines, (3) two-dimensional resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra. Collection of these spectroscopic data sets requires state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facilities as well as experimental strategies to minimize the radiation-induced modifications of the samples. Data analysis requires the use and development of appropriate theoretical tools. Here, we present exemplary data collected for three multi-nuclear synthetic Mn complexes with the Mn ions in the oxidation states II, III, and IV, and for Mn{sup VII} of the permanganate ion. Emission spectra are calculated for the Mn{sup VII} ion using both multiple-scattering (MS) approach and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT).

  15. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  16. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general elec