WorldWideScience

Sample records for lines safe drinking

  1. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  2. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000060.htm Drinking water safely during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. During and right after your cancer treatment, your body may not be able to protect ...

  3. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.

  4. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    Hrudey, Steve E.; Hrudey, Elizabeth J.; Pollard, Simon J. T.

    2006-01-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that dis...

  5. Safe drinking water act: Amendments, regulations and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E.; Pastides, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book approaches the topic of safe drinking water by communicating how the EPA has responded to the mandates of Congress. Chapter 1 summarizes what is and will be involved in achieving safe drinking water. Chapter 2 describes the historical development of drinking water regulations. Chapter 3 summarizes the directives of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. Chapters 4 through 9 discuss each phase of the regulatory program in turn. Specific problems associated with volatile organic chemicals, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, and microbiological contaminants are assessed in Chapter 4 and 5. The unique characteristics of radionuclides and their regulation are treated in Chapter 6. The disinfection process and its resultant disinfection by-products are presented in Chapter 7. The contaminant selection process and the additional contaminants to be regulated by 1989 and 1991 and in future years are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. EPA's Office of Drinking Water's Health Advisory Program is explained in Chapter 10. The record of public water system compliance with the primary drinking water regulations is detailed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 offers a nongovernmental perspective on the general quality of drinking water and how this is affected by a wide range of drinking water treatment technologies. Separate abstracts are processed for 5 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  6. Drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The fact sheet describes the requirements covered under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Levels of various contaminants (including radio nuclides) are explained. Also discussed are the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Total Coliforms Rule

  7. Sunshine and saris equals safe drinking water | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 juin 2016 ... Researchers from Canada and India funded by IDRC have found that filtering water through sari-cloth before purifying it in the sun's heat makes polluted water safe to drink. ... Avec plus de 1,2 milliard d'habitants, la population de l'Inde ne cesse de croître et, par le fait même, de transformer le pays.

  8. Validation of radioactivity measurements under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, Abraham S.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements are made under the Safe Drinking Water Act to obtain information on the potential radiological hazard of water and to institute regulatory action when water quality does not meet requirements. Measurements must be both precise and accurate if these goals are to be met. Regulations issued under the act require that analyses be performed by approved (certified) laboratories, which must carry out quality assurance programs. This paper briefly describes the certification requirements and discusses the components of an effective quality assurance program. The Environmental Protection Agency has established procedures for the certification of laboratories making radioactivity measurements of drinking water. These procedures recommend minimum laboratory qualifications for personnel, facilities, equipment, and procedures; proficiency testing by analysis of samples provided by the Agency; and operation of a quality assurance program. A major function of a quality assurance program is to provide the Laboratory Director an ongoing flow of information on laboratory analytical performance. A properly designed and conducted program provides this information in a timely manner, indicates areas where discrepancies exist, and often suggests ways of correcting the discrepancies. Pertinent aspects of radioactivity measurements for drinking water are discussed, including how analyses of blanks, blind duplicates, and reference samples contribute needed information, and evaluations by control charts and statistical analyses. Examples of the usefulness of quality control in correcting both procedural and background problems are given. (author)

  9. Household's willingness to pay for arsenic safe drinking water in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Brouwer, R.; Yang, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines willingness to pay (WTP) in Bangladesh for arsenic (As) safe drinking water across different As-risk zones, applying a double bound discrete choice value elicitation approach. The study aims to provide a robust estimate of the benefits of As safe drinking water supply, which is

  10. 78 FR 28242 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Surface Water Treatment Rule, promulgated under the SDWA. Under the terms... public water system and to pay $8,000 into an escrow account to be used by the association for future... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water...

  11. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Intakes, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  12. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Springs, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  13. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Wells, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  14. What's Wrong with Bribery? An Example Utilizing Access to Safe Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooge, Lucien J.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines the role of bribery in the global marketplace through an example involving access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Parts II and III set out the objectives and methods of classroom delivery for the case study. Part IV is the background reading relating to bribery with particular emphasis on the Foreign…

  15. 76 FR 72973 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that on November 21, 2011, a proposed Consent Decree (``proposed... penalties under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-387; the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f-300j-26...

  16. Analysis of application of different approaches to secure safe drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendić Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis, the risk systems include the systems within which services sensitive to risk are executed. The complex service of population supply with safe drinking water is considered to be risky. Guidelines for drinking water quality of the World Health Organization (WHO recommends the use of effective preventive approaches to risk-based management of the safety and quality of drinking water. For example, Food Safety Law of the Republic of Serbia stipulates mandatory application of HACCP system in order to obtain safe drinking water. Different approaches to preventive risk-based management for the sake of the safety and quality of drinking water are applied nowadays. In this paper we consider the following approaches: Original Codex Alimentarius HACCP system and some of its modified versions; International standard ISO 22000: 2005 Food safety management systems - Requirements for any organization in the food chain; Water Safety Plan (WSP of the World Health Organization (WHO; Generalized HACCP system. All of these approaches are based, to a greater or lesser extent, on the original Codex Alimentarius HACCP system. The paper gives a situation analysis (SWOT analysis of considered approaches.

  17. The Dutch secret: how to provide safe drinking water without chlorine in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Medema

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands is one of the few countries where chlorine is not used at all, neither for primary disinfection nor to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution network. The Dutch approach that allows production and distribution of drinking water without the use of chlorine while not compromising microbial safety at the tap, can be summarized as follows:
    1. Use the best source available, in order of preference:
        – microbiologically safe groundwater,
        – surface water with soil passage such as artificial recharge or bank filtration,
        – direct treatment of surface water in a multiple barrier treatment;
    2. Use a preferred physical process treatment such as sedimentation, filtration and UV-disinfection. If absolutely necessary, also oxidation by means of ozone or peroxide can be used, but chlorine is avoided;
    3. Prevent ingress of contamination during distribution;
    4. Prevent microbial growth in the distribution system by production and distribution of biologically stable (biostable water and the use of biostable materials;
    5. Monitor for timely detection of any failure of the system to prevent significant health consequences.

    New developments in safe drinking water in the Netherlands include the adaptation of the Dutch drinking water decree, implementation of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA by water companies and research into source water quality, drinking water treatment efficacy, safe distribution and biostability of drinking water during distribution and Legionella. This paper summarizes how the Dutch water companies warrant the safety of the drinking water without chlorine.

  18. Household's willingness to pay for arsenic safe drinking water in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasreen Islam; Brouwer, Roy; Yang, Hong

    2014-10-01

    This study examines willingness to pay (WTP) in Bangladesh for arsenic (As) safe drinking water across different As-risk zones, applying a double bound discrete choice value elicitation approach. The study aims to provide a robust estimate of the benefits of As safe drinking water supply, which is compared to the results from a similar study published almost 10 years ago using a single bound estimation procedure. Tests show that the double bound valuation design does not suffer from anchoring or incentive incompatibility effects. Health risk awareness levels are high and households are willing to pay on average about 5 percent of their disposable average annual household income for As safe drinking water. Important factors influencing WTP include the bid amount to construct communal deep tubewell for As safe water supply, the risk zone where respondents live, household income, water consumption, awareness of water source contamination, whether household members are affected by As contamination, and whether they already take mitigation measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  20. Willingness to pay for safe drinking water: Evidence from Parral, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, William F; Mozumder, Pallab; Hernández-Arce, Jesús; Berrens, Robert P

    2009-08-01

    A referendum-format contingent valuation (CV) survey is used to elicit household willingness to pay responses for safe and reliable drinking water in Parral, Mexico. Households currently adopt a variety of averting and private investment choices (e.g., bottled water consumption, home-based water treatment, and installation of water storage facilities) to adapt to the existing water supply system. These revealed behaviors indicate the latent demand for safer and more reliable water services, which is corroborated by the CV survey evidence. Validity findings include significant scope sensitivity in WTP for water services. Further, results indicate that households are willing to pay from 1.8% to 7.55% of reported household income above their current water bill for safe and reliable drinking water services, depending upon the assumptions about response uncertainty.

  1. Arsenic-safe drinking water and antioxidants for the management of arsenicosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamat Khandker, Ranjit Kumar Dey, AZM Maidul Islam, Sheikh Akhtar Ahmad and Ifthaker-Al-Mahmud

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of arsenic-safe drinking water and antioxidants in the management of arsenicosis patients were observed. Two hundred and fifty patients of arsenicosis from an arsenic-affected area of Bangladesh were included and divided into five groups based on the source of drinking water (green- or red-marked tube well and intake of antioxidants (vitamin A, C and E. Melanosis improved in 43 patients of the group who took arsenic-safe drinking water from green-marked tube well and antioxidants regularly. Patients of the group who took green-marked tube well water regularly but not the antioxidant showed improvement in melanosis in 22 cases. The respondents who were using red-marked tube well water and antioxidants, only two of them improved; and all other respondents either deteriorated or did not improve. The respondents who were using red-marked tube well water but not the antioxidant, none did show any improvement of their illness. The respondents who took antioxidants irregularly and had irregular intake of safe water, were not considered to compare the prognosis of skin lesions. Regarding keratosis, the respondents who took green-marked tube well water regularly and antioxidant regularly, 8 of them improved, 1 case didn’t change; while the respondents who took green-marked tube well water regularly but not the antioxidant, 8 cases didn’t improve much but majority of them remain unchanged. Among the respondents of other groups, keratosis deteriorated. This study suggests that both arsenic-safe drinking water and use of antioxidants gave good result in improvement of the arsenicosis.

  2. “Is it Safe?” Risk Perception and Drinking Water in a Vulnerable Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Spence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Access to safe drinking water is a pressing social policy issue globally. Despite the milestones reached in this area of Canadian public health, marginalized and vulnerable populations, including those founded on racialized identity, such as First Nations, continue to be plagued by accessibility issues. This work sheds new perspective on the issue, arguing for a research and policy focus that is inclusive of risk perception. A model of risk perception of drinking water is developed and tested for First Nations on reserve in Canada using the 2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. It is shown that the analytical use of racialized identity advances understanding of risk perception and the environment (water. Moreover, a large degree of heterogeneity within the First Nation population across a number of social determinants of risk perception illustrates the shortcomings of framing the issue in a simplistic manner (First Nation population versus general population. Implications for risk research, including risk communication & management, and policy are provided.

  3. Acceptance and Use of Eight Arsenic-Safe Drinking Water Options in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, Jennifer; Hossain, Mohammad Mojahidul; Johnston, Richard B.; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious public health threat. In Bangladesh, eight major safe water options provide an alternative to contaminated shallow tubewells: piped water supply, deep tubewells, pond sand filters, community arsenic-removal, household arsenic removal, dug wells, well-sharing, and rainwater harvesting. However, it is uncertain how well these options are accepted and used by the at-risk population. Based on the RANAS model (risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation) this study aimed to identify the acceptance and use of available safe water options. Cross-sectional face-to-face interviews were used to survey 1,268 households in Bangladesh in November 2009 (n = 872), and December 2010 (n = 396). The questionnaire assessed water consumption, acceptance factors from the RANAS model, and socioeconomic factors. Although all respondents had access to at least one arsenic-safe drinking water option, only 62.1% of participants were currently using these alternatives. The most regularly used options were household arsenic removal filters (92.9%) and piped water supply (85.6%). However, the former result may be positively biased due to high refusal rates of household filter owners. The least used option was household rainwater harvesting (36.6%). Those who reported not using an arsenic-safe source differed in terms of numerous acceptance factors from those who reported using arsenic-safe sources: non-users were characterized by greater vulnerability; showed less preference for the taste and temperature of alternative sources; found collecting safe water quite time-consuming; had lower levels of social norms, self-efficacy, and coping planning; and demonstrated lower levels of commitment to collecting safe water. Acceptance was particularly high for piped water supplies and deep tubewells, whereas dug wells and well-sharing were the least accepted sources. Intervention strategies were derived from the results in order to

  4. User preferences and willingness to pay for safe drinking water: Experimental evidence from rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Zachary; Njee, Robert M; Mbatia, Yolanda; Msimbe, Veritas; Brown, Joe; Clasen, Thomas F; Malebo, Hamisi M; Ray, Isha

    2017-01-01

    Almost half of all deaths from drinking microbiologically unsafe water occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems, when consistently used, can provide safer drinking water and improve health. Social marketing to increase adoption and use of HWTS depends both on the prices of and preferences for these systems. This study included 556 households from rural Tanzania across two low-income districts with low-quality water sources. Over 9 months in 2012 and 2013, we experimentally evaluated consumer preferences for six "low-cost" HWTS options, including boiling, through an ordinal ranking protocol. We estimated consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for these options, using a modified auction. We allowed respondents to pay for the durable HWTS systems with cash, chickens or mobile money; a significant minority chose chickens as payment. Overall, our participants favored boiling, the ceramic pot filter and, where water was turbid, PuR™ (a combined flocculant-disinfectant). The revealed WTP for all products was far below retail prices, indicating that significant scale-up may need significant subsidies. Our work will inform programs and policies aimed at scaling up HWTS to improve the health of resource-constrained communities that must rely on poor-quality, and sometimes turbid, drinking water sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Drinking Water Management and Governance in Canada: An Innovative Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Framework for a Safe Drinking Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Rodriguez, Manuel J.; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies. This approach has seen successful implementation throughout the world and has the potential to address many of the issues with drinking water management in Canada. This paper presents a review and strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis of drinking water management and governance in Canada at the federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels. Based on this analysis, a modified water safety plan (defined as the plan-do-check-act (PDCA)-WSP framework) is proposed, established from water safety plan recommendations and the principles of PDCA for continuous performance improvement. This proposed framework is designed to strengthen current drinking water management in Canada and is designed to fit within and incorporate the existing governance structure.

  6. Drinking Water Management and Governance in Canada: An Innovative Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Framework for a Safe Drinking Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies. This approach has seen successful implementation throughout the world and has the potential to address many of the issues with drinking water management in Canada. This paper presents a review and strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis of drinking water management and governance in Canada at the federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels. Based on this analysis, a modified water safety plan (defined as the plan-do-check-act (PDCA)-WSP framework) is proposed, established from water safety plan recommendations and the principles of PDCA for continuous performance improvement. This proposed framework is designed to strengthen current drinking water management in Canada and is designed to fit within and incorporate the existing governance structure.

  7. Impact of the safe drinking water act on energy development. Final issue paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guymont, F.J.; Shore, R.; Goldberg, M.

    1977-11-01

    Energy development activities will be impacted by the Underground Injection Control Regulations that are formulated under Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The thrust of Part C of the Act is to protect groundwater that now is or in the future might be used for drinking water. A new draft of the regulations, on which this analysis is based, is currently being considered. These regulations will be either another set of proposed regulations or will be interim final which means they can be enforced immediately but EPA will still entertain comments on them and modify them if necessary. There are four possible situations in which the Underground Control Regulations would not apply. They are: If the aquifer in question can be left unprotected despite the fact that its solids level is less than 10,000 mg/1; if the aquifer is oil or mineral producing; if the aquifer is located at a depth that would made recovery of drinking water uneconomical; and if the aquifer is already contaminated. However, the individual states have to demonstrate this to the satisfaction of the EPA administrator. If none of the conditions holds, construction, monitoring operating and reporting requirements will be necessary to receive a permit. The economic impact of these requirements is uncertain but could involve significant economic and time expenditures. Permits do not have to be renewed and one permit can serve for a whole field of wells. However, the permit application requires a significant amount of information and will take a considerable amount of time and expense to fill out. Solution mining operations also will incur extra expenses establishing initial water quality profiles and maintaining monitoring wells

  8. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H; Mudasser, M; Jensen, P K

    2001-01-01

    .69-0.93). This indicates that good quality drinking water provides additional health benefits only when sufficient quantities of water and a toilet are available. In a multivariate analysis no association was found between water quality and diarrhoea but there was a significant effect of water quantity on diarrhoea which was to a large extent mediated through sanitation and hygiene behaviour. Increasing the availability of water in the house by having a household connection and a storage facility is the most important factor associated with reduced diarrhoea in this area. Safe use of canal irrigation water seems possible if households can pump seepage water to a large storage tank in their house and have a continuous water supply for sanitation and hygiene. Irrigation water management clearly has an impact on health and bridging the gap between the irrigation and drinking water supply sectors could provide important health benefits by taking into account the domestic water availability when managing irrigation water.

  9. Sustainable Supply of Safe Drinking Water for Underserved Households in Kenya: Investigating the Viability of Decentralized Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Chepchirchir Cherunya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water quality and safe water sources are pivotal aspects of consideration for domestic water. Focusing on underserved households in Kenya, this study compared user perceptions and preferences on water-service provision options, particularly investigating the viability of decentralized models, such as the Safe Water Enterprise (SWE, as sustainable safe drinking water sources. Results showed that among a number of water-service provision options available, the majority of households regularly sourced their domestic water from more than one source (86% Ngoliba/Maguguni, 98% Kangemi Gichagi. A majority of households perceived their water sources to be unsafe to drink (84% Ngoliba/Maguguni, 73% Kangemi Gichagi. For this reason, drinking water was mainly chlorinated (48% Ngoliba/Maguguni, 33% Kangemi Gichagi or boiled (42% Ngoliba/Maguguni, 67% Kangemi Gichagi. However, this study also found that households in Kenya did not apply these household water treatment methods consistently, thus indicating inconsistency in safe water consumption. The SWE concept, a community-scale decentralized safe drinking water source, was a preferred option among households who perceived it to save time and to be less cumbersome as compared to boiling and chlorination. Willingness to pay for SWE water was also a positive indicator for its preference by the underserved households. However, the long-term applicability of such decentralized water provision models needs to be further investigated within the larger water-service provision context.

  10. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A.

    2011-01-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments. PMID:21652741

  11. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  12. Safe drinking water production in rural areas: a comparison between developed and less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotruvo, J A; Trevant, C

    2000-01-01

    At the fundamental level, there are remarkable parallels between developed and less developed countries in problems of providing safe drinking water in rural areas, but of course, they differ greatly in degree and in the opportunities for resolution. Small water supplies frequently encounter difficulty accessing sufficient quantities of drinking water for all domestic uses. If the water must be treated for safety reasons, then treatment facilities and trained operating personnel and finances are always in short supply. Ideally, each solution should be sustainable within its own cultural, political and economic context, and preferably with local personnel and financial resources. Otherwise, the water supply will be continuously dependent on outside resources and thus will not be able to control its destiny, and its future will be questionable. The history of success in this regard has been inconsistent, particularly in less developed but also in some developed countries. The traditional and ideal solution in developing countries has been central water treatment and a piped distribution network, however, results have had a mixed history primarily due to high initial costs and operation and maintenance, inadequate access to training, management and finance sufficient to support a fairly complex system for the long term. These complete systems are also slow to be implemented so waterborne disease continues in the interim. Thus, non-traditional, creative, cost-effective practical solutions that can be more rapidly implemented are needed. Some of these options could involve: small package central treatment coupled with non piped distribution, e.g. community supplied bottled water; decentralized treatment for the home using basic filtration and/or disinfection; higher levels of technology to deal with chemical contaminants e.g. natural fluoride or arsenic. These technological options coupled with training, technical support and other essential elements like community

  13. Metallic iron for safe drinking water provision: Considering a lost knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakabona, Hezron T; Ndé-Tchoupé, Arnaud Igor; Njau, Karoli N; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Wydra, Kerstin D

    2017-06-15

    Around year 1890, the technology of using metallic iron (Fe 0 ) for safe drinking water provision was already established in Europe. The science and technology to manufacture suitable Fe 0 materials were known and further developed in this period. Scientists had then developed skills to (i) explore the suitability of individual Fe 0 materials (e.g. iron filling, sponge iron) for selected applications, and (ii) establish treatment processes for households and water treatment plants. The recent (1990) discovery of Fe 0 as reactive agent for environmental remediation and water treatment has not yet considered this ancient knowledge. In the present work, some key aspects of the ancient knowledge are presented together with some contemporised interpretations, in an attempt to demonstrate the scientific truth contained therein. It appears that the ancient knowledge is an independent validation of the scientific concept that in water treatment (Fe 0 /H 2 O system) Fe 0 materials are generators of contaminant collectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act on the State of Mississippi. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrard, J.H.; Gibson, P.W.

    1991-10-01

    As a result of the U.S. Congress passing the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, the number of regulated contaminants that must be monitored in public water systems has increased from 24 to 85. The economic impact of the new legislation is greater on small systems than large systems because of economies of scale. In addition, more highly trained water treatment plant operators will be needed to deal with the complex legislation and to ensure the continuous supply of safe drinking water to their communities. Because of the complexity and increased scope of the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, a detailed discussion of the requirements that must be met by each public water supply is presented as background information. The objectives of the research were to: (1) determine the economic impacts of the 1986 Amendments on water systems throughout the State of Mississippi, (2) determine the number of systems that will need new and/or upgraded treatments technology to comply with the regulations, and (3) provide an assessment of the needs of the State DWS

  15. Accounting for water quality in monitoring access to safe drinking-water as part of the Millennium Development Goals: lessons from five countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Rob ES; Wright, Jim A; Yang, Hong; Pedley, Steve; Bartram, Jamie K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine how data on water source quality affect assessments of progress towards the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target on access to safe drinking-water. Methods Data from five countries on whether drinking-water sources complied with World Health Organization water quality guidelines on contamination with thermotolerant coliform bacteria, arsenic, fluoride and nitrates in 2004 and 2005 were obtained from the Rapid Assessment of Drinking-Water Quality project. These data were used to adjust estimates of the proportion of the population with access to safe drinking-water at the MDG baseline in 1990 and in 2008 made by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, which classified all improved sources as safe. Findings Taking account of data on water source quality resulted in substantially lower estimates of the percentage of the population with access to safe drinking-water in 2008 in four of the five study countries: the absolute reduction was 11% in Ethiopia, 16% in Nicaragua, 15% in Nigeria and 7% in Tajikistan. There was only a slight reduction in Jordan. Microbial contamination was more common than chemical contamination. Conclusion The criterion used by the MDG indicator to determine whether a water source is safe can lead to substantial overestimates of the population with access to safe drinking-water and, consequently, also overestimates the progress made towards the 2015 MDG target. Monitoring drinking-water supplies by recording both access to water sources and their safety would be a substantial improvement. PMID:22461718

  16. Accounting for water quality in monitoring access to safe drinking-water as part of the Millennium Development Goals: lessons from five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Rob E S; Gundry, Stephen W; Wright, Jim A; Yang, Hong; Pedley, Steve; Bartram, Jamie K

    2012-03-01

    To determine how data on water source quality affect assessments of progress towards the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target on access to safe drinking-water. Data from five countries on whether drinking-water sources complied with World Health Organization water quality guidelines on contamination with thermotolerant coliform bacteria, arsenic, fluoride and nitrates in 2004 and 2005 were obtained from the Rapid Assessment of Drinking-Water Quality project. These data were used to adjust estimates of the proportion of the population with access to safe drinking-water at the MDG baseline in 1990 and in 2008 made by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, which classified all improved sources as safe. Taking account of data on water source quality resulted in substantially lower estimates of the percentage of the population with access to safe drinking-water in 2008 in four of the five study countries: the absolute reduction was 11% in Ethiopia, 16% in Nicaragua, 15% in Nigeria and 7% in Tajikistan. There was only a slight reduction in Jordan. Microbial contamination was more common than chemical contamination. The criterion used by the MDG indicator to determine whether a water source is safe can lead to substantial overestimates of the population with access to safe drinking-water and, consequently, also overestimates the progress made towards the 2015 MDG target. Monitoring drinking-water supplies by recording both access to water sources and their safety would be a substantial improvement.

  17. Should I drink responsibly, safely or properly? Confusing messages about reducing alcohol-related harm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Jones

    Full Text Available 'Responsible drinking' campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales. The aim of the present study was to explore the way that recent industry-developed responsible drinking campaigns are perceived and interpreted by the general public. That is, do they promote low-risk drinking, promote risky drinking, or just muddy the waters. Two sub-studies were conducted. The first, a mall intercept study with 180 adults in two Australian shopping districts, explored participants' understanding of slogans/taglines. The second, an online survey with 480 Australian adults, explored understandings and interpretations of television/online commercials. The results of the two studies revealed diversity in participants' interpretation of the 'responsible drinking' advertisements. Terminology utilised in industry-developed advertisements was found to be ambiguous; for example, what age group was being referred to in the tagline 'Kids and alcohol don't mix', and whether 'Drink Properly' meant not drinking to excess or drinking in a way that made you look more sophisticated. In Study Two, the government-developed campaign ('Know when to say when' was clearly interpreted as warning against risky consumption of alcohol; whereas the industry-developed campaigns ('How to drink properly', 'Kids absorb your drinking', 'Friends are waiting' were interpreted to have a range of different meanings, including some seemingly unrelated to alcohol. These findings are consistent with the literature evaluating anti

  18. Focus on the CSIR research in pollution waste: Safe drinking water from the sun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water for Health group at the CSIR represents South Africa in an international project to demonstrate solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water. This project is set to demonstrate that SODIS is an effective, appropriate and acceptable...

  19. Map of Water Infrastructure and Homes Without Access to Safe Drinking Water and Basic Sanitation on the Navajo Nation - October 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents the results of completed work using existing geographic information system (GIS) data to map existing water and sewer infrastructure and homes without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation on the Navajo Nation.

  20. Drinking and smoking patterns during pregnancy: Development of group-based trajectories in the Safe Passage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Kimberly; Tripp, Tara; Willinger, Marian; Odendaal, Hein; Elliott, Amy J; Kinney, Hannah C; Robinson, Fay; Petersen, Julie M; Raffo, Cheryl; Hereld, Dale; Groenewald, Coen; Angal, Jyoti; Hankins, Gary; Burd, Larry; Fifer, William P; Myers, Michael M; Hoffman, Howard J; Sullivan, Lisa

    2017-08-01

    Precise identification of drinking and smoking patterns during pregnancy is crucial to better understand the risk to the fetus. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the methodological approach used to define prenatal drinking and smoking trajectories from a large prospective pregnancy cohort, and to describe maternal characteristics associated with different exposure patterns. In the Safe Passage Study, detailed information regarding quantity, frequency, and timing of exposure was self-reported up to four times during pregnancy and at 1 month post-delivery. Exposure trajectories were developed using data from 11,692 pregnancies (9912 women) where pregnancy outcome was known. Women were from three diverse populations: white (23%) and American Indian (17%) in the Northern Plains, US, and mixed ancestry (59%) in South Africa (other/not specified [1%]). Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify 5 unique drinking trajectories (1 none/minimal, 2 quitting groups, 2 continuous groups) and 7 smoking trajectories (1 none/minimal, 2 quitting groups, 4 continuous groups). Women with pregnancies assigned to the low- or high-continuous drinking groups were less likely to have completed high school and were more likely to have enrolled in the study in the third trimester, be of mixed ancestry, or be depressed than those assigned to the none/minimal or quit-drinking groups. Results were similar when comparing continuous smokers to none/minimal and quit-smoking groups. Further, women classified as high- or low-continuous drinkers were more likely to smoke at moderate-, high-, and very high-continuous levels, as compared to women classified as non-drinkers and quitters. This is the first study of this size to utilize group-based trajectory modeling to identify unique prenatal drinking and smoking trajectories. These trajectories will be used in future analyses to determine which specific exposure patterns subsequently manifest as poor peri- and postnatal outcomes

  1. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been...... and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical...... conditions such as pollution events in drinking water....

  2. The Dutch secret : How to provide safe drinking water without chlorine in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.W.M.H.; Medema, G.J.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Netherlands is one of the few countries where chlorine is not used at all, neither for primary disinfection nor to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution network. The Dutch approach that allows production and distribution of drinking water without the use of chlorine while not

  3. 78 FR 35909 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), ACC, BCS, and CLA and the Endocrine Policy Forum (EPF)) indicated... chemicals and drinking water contaminants. G. Other Topics 1. Cost sharing. ACC, CLA, EPF, and CPDA stated... should strictly disallow CBI claims. The ACC, CLA, and EPF commented that FFDCA authorized, and EPA...

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Tribal Waters: Addressing Disparities in Safe Public Drinking Water on the Crow Reservation in Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John T; Kindness, Larry; Realbird, James; Eggers, Margaret J; Camper, Anne K

    2018-03-21

    Disparities in access to safe public drinking water are increasingly being recognized as contributing to health disparities and environmental injustice for vulnerable communities in the United States. As the Co-Directors of the Apsaálooke Water and Wastewater Authority (AWWWA) for the Crow Tribe, with our academic partners, we present here the multiple and complex challenges we have addressed in improving and maintaining tribal water and wastewater infrastructure, including the identification of diverse funding sources for infrastructure construction, the need for many kinds of specialized expertise and long-term stability of project personnel, ratepayer difficulty in paying for services, an ongoing legacy of inadequate infrastructure planning, and lack of water quality research capacity. As a tribal entity, the AWWWA faces additional challenges, including the complex jurisdictional issues affecting all phases of our work, lack of authority to create water districts, and additional legal and regulatory gaps-especially with regards to environmental protection. Despite these obstacles, the AWWWA and Crow Tribe have successfully upgraded much of the local water and wastewater infrastructure. We find that ensuring safe public drinking water for tribal and other disadvantaged U.S. communities will require comprehensive, community-engaged approaches across a broad range of stakeholders to successfully address these complex legal, regulatory, policy, community capacity, and financial challenges.

  5. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water...... households in 10 villages. Separate surveys were undertaken to collect information on hygiene behaviour, sanitary facilities, and socio-economic status. RESULTS: Seepage water was of much better quality than surface water, but this did not translate into less diarrhoea. This could only be partially explained....... The association between water quality and diarrhoea varied by the level of water availability and the presence or absence of a toilet. Among people having a high quantity of water available and a toilet, the incidence rate of diarrhoea was higher when surface water was used for drinking than when seepage water...

  6. Availability of safe drinking-water: the answer to cholera outbreak? Nabua, Camarines Sur, Philippines, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethea De Guzman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In May 2012, there were increasing diarrhoea cases and deaths reported from Nabua, Camarines Sur to the Philippines event-based surveillance system. An investigation was conducted to identify risk factors and determine transmission dynamics. Methods: A suspected case was defined as a resident of Nabua with at least three episodes of watery diarrhoea per day from 16 March to 22 June 2012. A confirmed case was defined as a suspected case positive for Vibrio cholerae. An environmental investigation was conducted and rectal swabs and water samples sent to the national reference laboratory for bacterial isolation. A 1:2 case-control study matching for age and sex was conducted. Data were analyzed using Epi Info. Results: There were 309 suspected cases with two deaths, and the most affected age group was children under five years (45%. Eight cases were positive for Vibrio cholerae Ogawa El Tor and one for Non-01. Water samples were positive for faecal coliforms and Aeromonas caviae. The case-control study showed that cases had a higher odds than controls of using unchlorinated water sources (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6–8.5 and having toilets located within 20 metres of a septic tank (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4–5.3. In multivariate analysis, the only significant factor was drinking from piped water (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.09–0.49. Discussion: In this cholera outbreak, drinking-water from unchlorinated wells was a significant risk factor. Future cholera control efforts should include not just improving water and sanitation systems but also intensified behaviour change campaigns.

  7. Availability of safe drinking-water: the answer to cholera outbreak? Nabua, Camarines Sur, Philippines, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guzman, Alethea; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    In May 2012, there were increasing diarrhoea cases and deaths reported from Nabua, Camarines Sur to the Philippines event-based surveillance system. An investigation was conducted to identify risk factors and determine transmission dynamics. A suspected case was defined as a resident of Nabua with at least three episodes of watery diarrhoea per day from 16 March to 22 June 2012. A confirmed case was defined as a suspected case positive for Vibrio cholerae. An environmental investigation was conducted and rectal swabs and water samples sent to the national reference laboratory for bacterial isolation. A 1:2 case-control study matching for age and sex was conducted. Data were analysed using Epi Info. There were 309 suspected cases with two deaths, and the most affected age group was children under five years (45%). Eight cases were positive for Vibrio cholerae Ogawa El Tor and one for Non-01. Water samples were positive for faecal coliforms and Aeromonas caviae. The case-control study showed that cases had a higher odds than controls of using unchlorinated water sources (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6-8.5) and having toilets located within 20 m of a septic tank (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.3). In multivariate analysis, the only significant factor was drinking from piped water (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.09-0.49). In this cholera outbreak, drinking-water from unchlorinated wells was a significant risk factor. Future cholera control efforts should include not just improving water and sanitation systems but also intensified behaviour change campaigns.

  8. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) to guarantee safe water reuse and drinking water production--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewettinck, T; Van Houtte, E; Geenens, D; Van Hege, K; Verstraete, W

    2001-01-01

    To obtain a sustainable water catchment in the dune area of the Flemish west coast, the integration of treated domestic wastewater in the existing potable water production process is planned. The hygienic hazards associated with the introduction of treated domestic wastewater into the water cycle are well recognised. Therefore, the concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) was used to guarantee hygienically safe drinking water production. Taking into account the literature data on the removal efficiencies of the proposed advanced treatment steps with regard to enteric viruses and protozoa and after setting high quality limits based on the recent progress in quantitative risk assessment, the critical control points (CCPs) and points of attention (POAs) were identified. Based on the HACCP analysis a specific monitoring strategy was developed which focused on the control of these CCPs and POAs.

  9. Sustainable access to safe drinking water: fundamental human right in the international and national scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Maran de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to potable water is absolutely essential to the maintenance of life, as well as to provide regular exercise of other human rights. The lack of access to water in sufficient quantity or access to non-potable water may cause serious and irreparable damage to people. This paper investigates the evolution of international and national recognition of this fundamental human right, whether implicit or explicit. This was accomplished by the study of international human rights treaties, bibliographic information on water resources and their corresponding legal systems, national and international. The results suggest that sustainable access to drinking water is a fundamental human right in the context of international relations and the State. Further, even without explicitly stating this right in the Constitution of 1988, Brazil has incorporated the main international provisions on the subject, but this right must be acknowledged according to the principles of non-typical fundamental rights and the dignity of the human person. This right should be universally guaranteed by the Government in sufficient quantity and quality, regardless of the economic resources of individuals.

  10. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smith, Christian; Dahlqvist, Mathis

    2016-04-04

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been developed. The sensor is based on 3D image recognition, and the obtained pictures are analyzed with algorithms considering 59 quantified image parameters. The sensor counts individual suspended particles and classifies them as either bacteria or abiotic particles. The technology is capable of distinguishing and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical conditions such as pollution events in drinking water.

  11. Acquisition, Maintenance and Relapse-Like Alcohol Drinking: Lessons from the UChB Rat Line

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Yedy; Karahanian, Eduardo; Ezquer, Fernando; Morales, Paola; Ezquer, Marcelo; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Quintanilla, María E.

    2017-01-01

    This review article addresses the biological factors that influence: (i) the acquisition of alcohol intake; (ii) the maintenance of chronic alcohol intake; and (iii) alcohol relapse-like drinking behavior in animals bred for their high-ethanol intake. Data from several rat strains/lines strongly suggest that catalase-mediated brain oxidation of ethanol into acetaldehyde is an absolute requirement (up 80%?95%) for rats to display ethanol?s reinforcing effects and to initiate chronic ethanol in...

  12. Linking quantitative microbial risk assessment and epidemiological data: informing safe drinking water trials in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, Kyle S; Nelson, Kara L; Clasen, Thomas; Rose, Joan B; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2012-05-01

    Intervention trials are used extensively to assess household water treatment (HWT) device efficacy against diarrheal disease in developing countries. Using these data for policy, however, requires addressing issues of generalizability (relevance of one trial in other contexts) and systematic bias associated with design and conduct of a study. To illustrate how quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) can address water safety and health issues, we analyzed a published randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the LifeStraw Family Filter in the Congo. The model accounted for bias due to (1) incomplete compliance with filtration, (2) unexpected antimicrobial activity by the placebo device, and (3) incomplete recall of diarrheal disease. Effectiveness was measured using the longitudinal prevalence ratio (LPR) of reported diarrhea. The Congo RCT observed an LPR of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.14). Our model predicted LPRs, assuming a perfect placebo, ranging from 0.50 (2.5-97.5 percentile: 0.33, 0.77) to 0.86 (2.5-97.5 percentile: 0.68, 1.09) for high (but not perfect) and low (but not zero) compliance, respectively. The calibration step provided estimates of the concentrations of three pathogen types (modeled as diarrheagenic E. coli, Giardia, and rotavirus) in drinking water, consistent with the longitudinal prevalence of reported diarrhea measured in the trial, and constrained by epidemiological data from the trial. Use of a QMRA model demonstrated the importance of compliance in HWT efficacy, the need for pathogen data from source waters, the effect of quantifying biases associated with epidemiological data, and the usefulness of generalizing the effectiveness of HWT trials to other contexts. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Can children undergoing ophthalmologic examinations under anesthesia be safely anesthetized without using an IV line?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigoda M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Michael M Vigoda, Azeema Latiff, Timothy G Murray, Jacqueline L Tutiven, Audina M Berrocal, Steven GayerBascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To document that with proper patient and procedure selection, children undergoing general inhalational anesthesia for ophthalmologic exams (with or without photos, ultrasound, laser treatment, peri-ocular injection of chemotherapy, suture removal, and/or replacement of ocular prosthesis can be safely anesthetized without the use of an intravenous (IV line. Children are rarely anesthetized without IV access placement. We performed a retrospective study to determine our incidence of IV access placement during examinations under anesthesia (EUA and the incidence of adverse events that required intraoperative IV access placement.Methods: Data collected from our operating room (OR information system includes but is not limited to diagnosis, anesthesiologist, surgeon, and location of IV catheter (if applicable, patient’s date of birth, actual procedure, and anesthesia/procedure times. We reviewed the OR and anesthetic records of children (>1 month and <10 years who underwent EUAs between January 1, 2003 and May 31, 2009. We determined the percentage of children who were anesthetized without IV access placement, as well as the incidence of any adverse events that required IV access placement, intraoperatively.Results: We analyzed data from 3196 procedures performed during a 77-month period. Patients’ ages ranged from 1 month to 9 years. Overall, 92% of procedures were performed without IV access placement. Procedure duration ranged from 1–39 minutes. Reasons for IV access placement included parental preference for antinausea medication and/or attending preference for IV access placement. No child who underwent anesthesia without an IV line had an intraoperative adverse event requiring insertion of an IV line.Conclusion: Our data suggest that for

  14. Provision of the population of Kazakhstan with qualitative drinking water by the main water lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tastanov, K.Kh; Tokmurzin, Zh.T.; Baibatyrov, E.N.; Taubaldiev, T.S.; Murinov, S.K.; But, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper the status of drinking water supply of the Kazakhstan Caspian region is revealed. It is noted, that on the Kazakhstan coast of the Caspian sea by reason of lack of local water resources suitable for economic-consumption and technical usage water-supply is generally made with the Volga waters by water line 'Astrakhan-Mangistau', flow of the Ural river with very low water quality and sea water after water preparation on the Mangistau atomic energetic plant (for technical aims). By reason of lack of proper water preparation an intensive processes of corrosion of internal uninsulated surface in pipeline is coming. Water is enriched with iron lower water sanitary-hygienic norms and gets a stagnant smell. Nowadays half of population of Caspian region uses water which does not meet standard of quality, or is faced with lack of water what negatively results in human health. Large concentration of iron in drinking water is causing of illness of liver, blood and allergy reactions. Raised content of strontium results in development of rickets and other skeletal diseases. At present plants for treatment and disinfecting of water in water-line 'Astrakhan-Mangistau' were elaborated and put into operation for supply of population of several villages of Western Kazakhstan with drinking water of quarantined quality and necessary quantity

  15. Cabergoline decreases alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors via glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; He, Dao-Yao; Nielsen, Carsten K; Bartlett, Selena E; Janak, Patricia H; Ron, Dorit

    2009-07-15

    Cabergoline is an ergotamine derivative that increases the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro. We recently showed that GDNF in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reduces the motivation to consume alcohol. We therefore set out to determine whether cabergoline administration decreases alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors via GDNF. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) were used to measure GDNF levels. Western blot analysis was used for phosphorylation experiments. Operant self-administration in rats and a two-bottle choice procedure in mice were used to assess alcohol-drinking behaviors. Instrumental performance tested during extinction was used to measure alcohol-seeking behavior. The [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay was used to assess the expression and function of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). We found that treatment of the dopaminergic-like cell line SH-SY5Y with cabergoline and systemic administration of cabergoline in rats resulted in an increase in GDNF level and in the activation of the GDNF pathway. Cabergoline treatment decreased alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors including relapse, and its action to reduce alcohol consumption was localized to the VTA. Finally, the increase in GDNF expression and the decrease in alcohol consumption by cabergoline were abolished in GDNF heterozygous knockout mice. Together, these findings suggest that cabergoline-mediated upregulation of the GDNF pathway attenuates alcohol-drinking behaviors and relapse. Alcohol abuse and addiction are devastating and costly problems worldwide. This study puts forward the possibility that cabergoline might be an effective treatment for these disorders.

  16. Safe Drinking Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-23

    Listen to this podcast to learn more about the steps that are taken to bring you clean tap water.  Created: 4/23/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/1/2008.

  17. Acquisition, Maintenance and Relapse-Like Alcohol Drinking: Lessons from the UChB Rat Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Yedy; Karahanian, Eduardo; Ezquer, Fernando; Morales, Paola; Ezquer, Marcelo; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Quintanilla, María E.

    2017-01-01

    This review article addresses the biological factors that influence: (i) the acquisition of alcohol intake; (ii) the maintenance of chronic alcohol intake; and (iii) alcohol relapse-like drinking behavior in animals bred for their high-ethanol intake. Data from several rat strains/lines strongly suggest that catalase-mediated brain oxidation of ethanol into acetaldehyde is an absolute requirement (up 80%–95%) for rats to display ethanol’s reinforcing effects and to initiate chronic ethanol intake. Acetaldehyde binds non-enzymatically to dopamine forming salsolinol, a compound that is self-administered. In UChB rats, salsolinol: (a) generates marked sensitization to the motivational effects of ethanol; and (b) strongly promotes binge-like drinking. The specificity of salsolinol actions is shown by the finding that only the R-salsolinol enantiomer but not S-salsolinol accounted for the latter effects. Inhibition of brain acetaldehyde synthesis does not influence the maintenance of chronic ethanol intake. However, a prolonged ethanol withdrawal partly returns the requirement for acetaldehyde synthesis/levels both on chronic ethanol intake and on alcohol relapse-like drinking. Chronic ethanol intake, involving the action of lipopolysaccharide diffusing from the gut, and likely oxygen radical generated upon catechol/salsolinol oxidation, leads to oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation, known to potentiate each other. Data show that the administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a strong antioxidant inhibits chronic ethanol maintenance by 60%–70%, without inhibiting its initial intake. Intra-cerebroventricular administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), known to release anti-inflammatory cytokines, to elevate superoxide dismutase levels and to reverse ethanol-induced hippocampal injury and cognitive deficits, also inhibited chronic ethanol maintenance; further, relapse-like ethanol drinking was inhibited up to 85% for 40 days following intracerebral stem cell

  18. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ... Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ...

  19. Reduction in fluoride-induced genotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells after substituting high fluoride-containing water with safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Santosh; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2011-10-01

    Treatment of mice with 15 mg l(-1) sodium fluoride (NaF) for 30 days increased the number of cell death, chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and 'cells with chromatid breaks' (aberrant cells) compared with control. The present study was intended to determine whether the fluoride (F)-induced genotoxicity could be reduced by substituting high F-containing water after 30 days with safe drinking water, containing 0.1 mg F ions l(-1). A significant fall in percentage of CAs and aberrant cells after withdrawal of F-treatment following 30 days of safe water treatment in mice was observed which was highest after 90 days, although their levels still remained significantly high compared with the control group. This observation suggests that F-induced genotoxicity could be reduced by substituting high F-containing water with safe drinking water. Further study is warranted with different doses and extended treatment of safe water to determine whether the induced damages could be completely reduced or not. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of nitrate quantification techniques for in-line analysis in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Alpizar, Laura; Coy Herrera, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The results of a study are presented to determine the potential use of four techniques for the quantification of nitrates in continuous sampling: ion chromatography, ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry; one table equipment and two mini-spectrophotometers with continuous flow sample injection are used, one for measurements in the field of visible radiation and the other optimized for measurements of ultraviolet radiation absorption. Variables that are considered: reagent and accessory consumption, waste toxicity, analyte response, detection limit (LD), quantification limit (LC), linearity in the field of interest and sensitivity. Ultraviolet absorption detection spectro photometry with continuous flow sample injection is the best of the techniques for line analysis. The response has been between 0-10 mg / L linear, data recommended by WHO for the concentration of nitrates in drinking water. Low consumption of reagents and accessories is shown. This spectrophotometry without hazardous waste generated, has had LD 0.002 mg / L and LC 0.006 mg / L and an adequate sensitivity to respond rapidly to the concentration of the analyte without signal saturation. The desirable characteristics are fulfilled for an on-line analysis system. (author) [es

  1. Seismic-safe conditions of blasting near pressure pipe-lines during power installation construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolij, N.I.; Nikitin, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Seismic-safe conditions for performing drill-blasting operations in the vicinity of underground gas pipelines when constructing thermal- or nuclear power plants are discussed. It is shown that, for the determination of seismic-safe parameters, of drill-blasting operations, the maximum permissible level of seismic loads should be specified taking into account the mechanical properties of the pipeline.metal, structural parameters of the gas pipeline and the pressure of the medium transported. Besides, the seismic effect of the blast should be considered with regard to particular conditions of blasting and rock properties. The equations and diagrams used in the calculation are given

  2. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part I: spatial and temporal patterns of contaminants, and design of screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), a common list of over 90 contaminants is analyzed nationwide using EPA-authorized laboratory procedures. National and state-level summaries of SDWA data have shown that not all contaminants occur in all places at all times. This hypothesis is confirmed and extended by showing that only a few (less than seven) contaminants are of concern in any one of 19 Iowa surface water systems studied. These systems collectively serve about 350,000 people and their sizes vary between 1,200 and 120,000. The distributions of contaminants found in these systems are positively skewed, with many non-detect measurements. A screening strategy to identify such contaminants in individual systems is presented. These findings have significant implications not only for the design of alternative monitoring programs, but also in multi-billion-dollar decisions that influence the course of future drinking water infrastructure, repair, and maintenance investments.

  3. On-line detection of Escherichia coli intrusion in a pilot-scale drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Jenni; Pitkänen, Tarja; Kosse, Pascal; Ciszek, Robert; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2017-08-01

    Improvements in microbial drinking water quality monitoring are needed for the better control of drinking water distribution systems and for public health protection. Conventional water quality monitoring programmes are not always able to detect a microbial contamination of drinking water. In the drinking water production chain, in addition to the vulnerability of source waters, the distribution networks are prone to contamination. In this study, a pilot-scale drinking-water distribution network with an on-line monitoring system was utilized for detecting bacterial intrusion. During the experimental Escherichia coli intrusions, the contaminant was measured by applying a set of on-line sensors for electric conductivity (EC), pH, temperature (T), turbidity, UV-absorbance at 254 nm (UVAS SC) and with a device for particle counting. Monitored parameters were compared with the measured E. coli counts using the integral calculations of the detected peaks. EC measurement gave the strongest signal compared with the measured baseline during the E. coli intrusion. Integral calculations showed that the peaks in the EC, pH, T, turbidity and UVAS SC data were detected corresponding to the time predicted. However, the pH and temperature peaks detected were barely above the measured baseline and could easily be mixed with the background noise. The results indicate that on-line monitoring can be utilized for the rapid detection of microbial contaminants in the drinking water distribution system although the peak interpretation has to be performed carefully to avoid being mixed up with normal variations in the measurement data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Safe and easy power injection of contrast material through a central line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogalla, P.; Meiri, N.; Hamm, M.B.; Thoeni, R.F.; Goldberg, H.I.

    1998-01-01

    Power-assisted injection of contrast material into an antecubital vein is commonly used in CT and has been proven superior to manual injection. Power-assisted injection through a central line bares the risk of rupturing the line because manual control over the pressure applied by the power injector is lacking. We present a simple safety device which allows manual control of the pressure by means of an interposed three-way stopcock combined with a small syringe for pressure equalization. (orig.)

  5. Measuring User Compliance and Cost Effectiveness of Safe Drinking Water Programs: A Cluster-Randomized Study of Household Ultraviolet Disinfection in Rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygadas, Fermín; Gruber, Joshua S; Dreizler, Lindsay; Nelson, Kara L; Ray, Isha

    2018-03-01

    Low adoption and compliance levels for household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) technologies have made it challenging for these systems to achieve measurable health benefits in the developing world. User compliance remains an inconsistently defined and poorly understood feature of HWTS programs. In this article, we develop a comprehensive approach to understanding HWTS compliance. First, our Safe Drinking Water Compliance Framework disaggregates and measures the components of compliance from initial adoption of the HWTS to exclusive consumption of treated water. We apply this framework to an ultraviolet (UV)-based safe water system in a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Mexico. Second, we evaluate a no-frills (or "Basic") variant of the program as well as an improved (or "Enhanced") variant, to test if subtle changes in the user interface of HWTS programs could improve compliance. Finally, we perform a full-cost analysis of both variants to assess their cost effectiveness (CE) in achieving compliance. We define "compliance" strictly as the habit of consuming safe water. We find that compliance was significantly higher in the groups where the UV program variants were rolled out than in the control groups. The Enhanced variant performed better immediately postintervention than the Basic, but compliance (and thus CE) degraded with time such that no effective difference remained between the two versions of the program.

  6. A stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial of a household UV-disinfection and safe storage drinking water intervention in rural Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Joshua S; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M

    2013-08-01

    In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23-62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): -19% [95% CI: -27%, -14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: -0.1% [95% CI: -1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence.

  7. Novel plasma source for safe beryllium spectral line studies in the presence of beryllium dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, B. D.; Vinić, M.; Gavrilović Božović, M. R.; Ivković, M.

    2018-05-01

    Plasma source for beryllium spectral line studies in the presence of beryllium dust particles was realised. The guideline during construction was to prevent exposure to formed dust, considering the toxicity of beryllium. Plasma source characterization through determination of optimal working conditions is described. The necessary conditions for Be spectral line appearance and optimal conditions for line shape measurements are found. It is proven experimentally that under these conditions dust appears coincidently with the second current maximum. The electron density measured after discharge current maximum is determined from the peak separation of the hydrogen Balmer beta spectral line, and the electron temperature is determined from the ratios of the relative intensities of Be spectral lines emitted from successive ionized stages of atoms. Maximum values of electron density and temperature are measured to be 9.3 × 1022 m-3 and 16 800 K, respectively. Construction details and testing of the BeO discharge tube in comparison with SiO2 and Al2O3 discharge tubes are also presented in this paper.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) 200.5, Revision 4.2. Conductivity Conductance 2510 B Cyanide Manual Distillation followed by D2036-06... 3111 B D 511-09 B Inductively Coupled Plasma 3120 B Complexation Titrimetric Methods 3500-Mg B D 511-09..., DC 20001-3710. 7 Method ME355.01, Revision 1.0. “Determination of Cyanide in Drinking Water by GC/MS...

  9. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis as pathogenic contaminants of water in Galicia, Spain: the need for safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kunal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied

  11. Alternative Options for Safe Drinking Water in Arsenic and Salinity Affected Bornal-Iliasabad Union of Kalia Upazila, Narail District, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Hasan, M. A.; Ahmed, K. M.; Nawrin, N.

    2016-12-01

    The study area, Bornal-Ilisabad union, Kalia, Narail is one of the most vulnerable areas of Bangladesh in terms of access to safe drinking water. Shallow groundwater of this area is highly arsenic contaminated (mostly >500 μg/L) and deep groundwater is saline (EC ranges 1 to 8 mS/cm). Local communities rely on rainwater for drinking and cooking purposes during the monsoon and rest of the year they use surface water from pond which are mostly polluted. In areas where surface water is not available people are compelled to use arsenic contaminated groundwater and thus exposing themselves to serious health hazard. Principal objective of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and subsurface arsenic removal (SAR) technology in mitigating groundwater salinity and arsenic, to provide alternative sources of safe water. Surface water (pond water) and rainwater collected from roof top are used as source water to be recharged into the target aquifer for the MAR system. Source water is filtered through a sand filtration unit to remove turbidity and microorganisms before recharging through infiltration wells. For SAR system, on the other hand, a certain volume (2000L) of groundwater is abstracted from the target aquifer and then aerated for about half an hour to saturate with oxygen. The oxygenated water is injected into the aquifer and kept there for 6-8 hours and then abstracted for use. The MAR system constructed in the study area is found very effective in reducing groundwater salinity. The electrical conductivity (EC) of the groundwater of MAR system has been reduced 72-81% from the initial EC value of 3.4 mS/cm. A significant improvement in groundwater arsenic and iron concentration is also observed. The system is yielding groundwater with arsenic within permissible limit of Bangladesh drinking water standard (50 μg/L) which was 100 μg/L before introduction of MAR system. The SAR system is also found effective in reducing

  12. [Comparative study of some clinical and laboratory indicators in a group of patients using wells as source of drinking water and a control group using safe water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, L; Ciochină, D A

    2011-01-01

    In time, well water, as a source of drinking and coking water, with physical-chemical, bacteriological, and biological indicators suggestive of alteration in water potability, determines complex, sometimes irreversible, metabolic disorders. Sixty individuals residing in a rural community were divided into 2 groups: study group -30 subjects using well water, and control group--30 subjects using safe water. For the study group the selection criteria were: age, sex, use of well water as drinking and cooking water, history suggestive of chronic poisoning (pregnancy course, birth weight, susceptibility to infectious agents, and current chronic diseases). In the study group, gestosis, prematurity, and altered body mass index are more frequent as compared to the subjects in the control group. The identified laboratory changes indicate moderate anemia, hepatic cytolysis, dyslipidemia, presence of nitrites in urine, and positive urine cultures. Long-term use of water with mineral constituents in excess, absent, or inadequate, the direct biological and chemical water pollution, or most frequently the indirect pollution through the soil determine, in time, complex, sometimes irreversible, metabolic disorders.

  13. ANALISIS TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE PADA LINE 8/CARBONATED SOFT DRINK PT COCA-COLA BOTTLING INDONESIA CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto Pujotomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia (CCBI Central Java merupakan salah satu perusahaan produsen minuman ringan yang terkemuka di Indonesia, dengan dua jenis kelompok produk yang dihasilkan yaitu minuman karbonasi/Carbonated Soft Drink (Coca-Cola, Sprite, dan Fanta dan non-karbonasi (Frestea dan Ades. Dalam usaha untuk mempertahankan mutu dan meningkatkan produktifitas, salah satu faktor yang harus diperhatikan adalah masalah perawatan fasilitas/mesin produksi.  Makalah ini membahas mengenai penyebab dan akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh breakdown mesin terjadi pada Line 8/Carbonated Soft Drink, khususnya pada conveyor, filler machine, dan bottle washer machine. Untuk mendapatkan mesin yang dapat terjaga keterandalannya dibutuhkan suatu konsep yang baik. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM merupakan sebuah konsep yang baik untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut. Konsep ini, selain melibatkan semua personil dalam perusahaan, juga bertujuan untuk merawat semua fasilitas produksi yang dimiliki perusahaan.Data yang digunakan merupakan data breakdown conveyor, filler machine, dan bottle washer machine dari ME Monthly Report PT.CCBI selama bulan Januari-Desember 2005 khususnya line 8. Selain itu makalah ini juga membahas performance maintenance PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia-Central Java, dengan memperhitungkan nilai Mean Time Beetwen Failure (MTBF, Mean Time To Repair (MTTR, serta Availability mesin, dengan menggunakan data record Line 8 selama bulan Mei 2006 sampai bulan Juli 2006. Sehingga nantinya akan diketahui informasi keadaan aktual dari perusahaan tentang sistem perawatannya, khususnya pada Line 8/Carbonated Soft Drink apakah baik atau buruk. Kata kunci : Total Production Maintenance, Conveyor, Filler Machine, Bottle Washer Machine, Performance Maintenance   PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia (CCBI-Central Java represent one of notable light beverage producer company in Indonesia, with two product group type yielded is carbonated beverage/Carbonated Soft

  14. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water on patients having various clinical manifestations of fluorosis in an endemic village of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal K Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS is 1.5 mg/L. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride, often leads to reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or ten days and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above permissible limit and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after consumption of safe drinking water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted from October 2010 to December 2011 in a village selected randomly in Purulia District of West Bengal which is endemic for fluorosis. Thirty-six families with 104 family members in the above village having history of taking unsafe water containing high level of fluoride were selected for the study. The occurrence of various dental, skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among the study population was assessed; the impact of taking safe water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit from a supplied community filter on these clinical manifestations was studied by follow-up examination of the above participants for six months. The data obtained is compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. Results: The prevalence of signs and symptoms of

  15. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water on patients having various clinical manifestations of fluorosis in an endemic village of west bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kunal K; Sundarraj, Shunmuga N

    2013-01-01

    Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride, often leads to reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or ten days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above permissible limit and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after consumption of safe drinking water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted from October 2010 to December 2011 in a village selected randomly in Purulia District of West Bengal which is endemic for fluorosis. Thirty-six families with 104 family members in the above village having history of taking unsafe water containing high level of fluoride were selected for the study. The occurrence of various dental, skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among the study population was assessed; the impact of taking safe water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit from a supplied community filter on these clinical manifestations was studied by follow-up examination of the above participants for six months. The data obtained is compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. The prevalence of signs and symptoms of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis was (18.26%), (18

  16. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part II: design and development of place-based monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the United States. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Part II: Several factors affect the performance of monitoring strategies, including: measurable objectives, required precision in estimates, acceptable confidence levels of such estimates, available budget for sampling. In this paper, we develop place-based monitoring strategies based on extensive analysis of available historical water quality data (1960-1994) of 19 Iowa community water systems. These systems supply potable water to over 350,000 people. In the context of drinking water, the objective is to protect public health by utilizing monitoring resources to characterize contaminants that are detectable, and are close to exceeding health standards. A place-based monitoring strategy was developed in which contaminants were selected based on their historical occurrence, rather than their appearance on the SDWA contaminant list. In a subset of the water systems, the temporal frequency of monitoring for one ubiquitous contaminant, nitrate, was tailored to patterns in its historical occurrence and concentration. Three sampling allocation models (linear, quadratic, and cubic) based on historic patterns in peak occurrence were developed and

  17. Chronic ethanol tolerance as a result of free-choice drinking in alcohol-preferring rats of the WHP line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyr, Wanda; Taracha, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The development of tolerance to alcohol with chronic consumption is an important criterion for an animal model of alcoholism and may be an important component of the genetic predisposition to alcoholism. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selectively bred Warsaw High Preferring (WHP) line of alcohol-preferring rats would develop behavioral and metabolic tolerance during the free-choice drinking of ethanol. Chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced sedation was tested. The loss of righting reflex (LRR) paradigm was used to record sleep duration in WHP rats. Ethanol (EtOH)-naive WHP rats received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.), and sleep duration was measured. Subsequently, rats had access to a 10% ethanol solution under a free-choice condition with water and food for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of the free-choice intake of ethanol, the rats received another single i.p. injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg b.w., and sleep duration was reassessed. The blood alcohol content (BAC) for each rat was determined after an i.p. injection of 5 g/kg of ethanol in naive rats and again after chronic alcohol drinking at the time of recovery of the righting reflex (RR). The results showed that the mean ethanol intake was 9.14 g/kg/24 h, and both sleep duration and BAC were decreased after chronic ethanol intake. In conclusion, WHP rats exposed to alcohol by free-choice drinking across 12 weeks exhibited increased alcohol elimination rates. Studies have demonstrated that WHP rats after chronic free-choice drinking (12 weeks) of alcohol develop metabolic tolerance. Behavioral tolerance to ethanol was demonstrated by reduced sleep duration, but this decrease in sleep duration was not significant.

  18. Fluoride Alters Serum Elemental (Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, and Zinc) Homeostasis Along with Erythrocyte Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Fluorosis Endemic Villages and Restores on Supply of Safe Drinking Water in School-Going Children of Nalgonda District, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Arjun L; Validandi, Vakdevi; Boiroju, Naveen

    2018-02-17

    The present study aimed to determine the serum trace elements (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg)) along with erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and effect of intervention with safe drinking water for 5 years in the school children of fluorosis endemic area. For this purpose, three categories of villages were selected based on drinking water fluoride (F): Category I (control, F = 1.68 mg/L), category II (affected F = 3.77 mg/L), and category III (intervention village) where initial drinking water F was 4.51 mg/L, and since the last 5 years, they were drinking water containing water for 5 years in school-going children.

  19. Uterine Artery Embolization for Retained Products of Conception with Marked Vascularity: A Safe and Efficient First-Line Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazeries, Paul; Paisant-Thouveny, Francine; Yahya, Sultan; Bouvier, Antoine; Nedelcu, Cosmina; Boussion, Francoise; Sentilhes, Loic; Willoteaux, Serge; Aubé, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    ObjectiveTo report our clinical practice regarding a case series of retained products of conception (RPOC) with marked vascularity (MV) managed with selective uterine artery embolization (UAE) as first-line treatment.MethodsThis was a monocentric, retrospective study of 31 consecutive cases of RPOC with MV diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound in the context of postpartum/postabortal bleeding. The primary outcome was the absence of rebleeding following embolization.ResultsRPOC with MV occurred after abortion in 27 out of 31 patients (87%). The time elapsed between delivery/abortion and UAE ranged from 1 to 210 days (mean 55.7 ± 45 days). Primary clinical success was achieved in 23 women (74.2%) following a single embolization. In total, 27 out of 31 women (87%) had been exclusively managed by UAE with conservative success. Although procedural success was achieved in this number, six women had a further procedure to evacuate RPOC despite procedural success. Large uterine arteriovenous (AV) shunts associated with RPOC were observed in five cases (16.1%), among which two were successfully treated after a single UAE and one after two UAEs, while hysterectomy was performed in the last two cases despite two and three UAE procedures respectively. RPOC was histologically proven in ten cases (32.2%) including four out of five cases of uterine AV shunt.ConclusionRPOC with MV can present with large uterine AV shunt, particularly in case of late management. Uterine artery embolization is an effective and safe first-line treatment, and should be evaluated for this indication in larger prospective trials.

  20. Uterine Artery Embolization for Retained Products of Conception with Marked Vascularity: A Safe and Efficient First-Line Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeries, Paul, E-mail: paul.bazeries@chu-angers.fr; Paisant-Thouveny, Francine; Yahya, Sultan; Bouvier, Antoine; Nedelcu, Cosmina [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Angers, Département d’Imagerie Diagnostique et interventionnelle (France); Boussion, Francoise; Sentilhes, Loic [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Angers, Département de Gynécologie et Obstétrique (France); Willoteaux, Serge; Aubé, Christophe [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Angers, Département d’Imagerie Diagnostique et interventionnelle (France)

    2017-04-15

    ObjectiveTo report our clinical practice regarding a case series of retained products of conception (RPOC) with marked vascularity (MV) managed with selective uterine artery embolization (UAE) as first-line treatment.MethodsThis was a monocentric, retrospective study of 31 consecutive cases of RPOC with MV diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound in the context of postpartum/postabortal bleeding. The primary outcome was the absence of rebleeding following embolization.ResultsRPOC with MV occurred after abortion in 27 out of 31 patients (87%). The time elapsed between delivery/abortion and UAE ranged from 1 to 210 days (mean 55.7 ± 45 days). Primary clinical success was achieved in 23 women (74.2%) following a single embolization. In total, 27 out of 31 women (87%) had been exclusively managed by UAE with conservative success. Although procedural success was achieved in this number, six women had a further procedure to evacuate RPOC despite procedural success. Large uterine arteriovenous (AV) shunts associated with RPOC were observed in five cases (16.1%), among which two were successfully treated after a single UAE and one after two UAEs, while hysterectomy was performed in the last two cases despite two and three UAE procedures respectively. RPOC was histologically proven in ten cases (32.2%) including four out of five cases of uterine AV shunt.ConclusionRPOC with MV can present with large uterine AV shunt, particularly in case of late management. Uterine artery embolization is an effective and safe first-line treatment, and should be evaluated for this indication in larger prospective trials.

  1. Evaluation of bank filtration as a pretreatment method for the provision of hygienically safe drinking water in Norway: results from monitoring at two full-scale sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitsand, Hanne M. L.; Myrmel, Mette; Fiksdal, Liv; Østerhus, Stein W.

    2017-08-01

    Two case studies were carried out in central Norway in order to assess the performance of bank filtration systems in cold-climate fluvial aquifers relying on recharge from humic-rich surface waters with moderate microbial contamination. Three municipal wells and two surface-water sources at operative bank filtration systems were monitored for naturally occurring bacteriophages, fecal indicators, natural organic matter (NOM) and physico-chemical water quality parameters during a 4-month period. Aquifer passage effectively reduced the microorganism and NOM concentrations at both study sites. Bacteriophages were detected in 13 of 16 (81%) surface-water samples and in 4 of 24 (17%) well-water samples, and underwent 3 ± 0.3 log10 reduction after 50-80-m filtration and 20-30 days of subsurface passage. NOM reductions (color: 74-97%; dissolved organic carbon: 54-80%; very hydrophobic acids: 70%) were similar to those achieved by conventional water-treatment processes and no further treatment was needed. Both groundwater dilution and sediment filtration contributed to the hygienic water quality improvements, but sediment filtration appeared to be the most important process with regard to microbial and NOM reductions. A strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis showed that bank filtration technology has a high potential as a pretreatment method for the provision of hygienically safe drinking water in Norway.

  2. Household water treatment systems: A solution to the production of safe drinking water by the low-income communities of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabi, J. K.; Adeyemo, F. E.; Mahlangu, T. O.; Mamba, B. B.; Brouckaert, B. M.; Swartz, C. D.; Offringa, G.; Mpenyana-Monyatsi, L.; Momba, M. N. B.

    One of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals is to reduce to half by 2015 the number of people, worldwide, who lack access to safe water. Due to the numerous deaths and illnesses caused by waterborne pathogens, various household water treatment devices and safe storage technologies have been developed to treat and manage water at the household level. The new approaches that are continually being examined need to be durable, lower in overall cost and more effective in the removal of the contaminants. In this study, an extensive literature survey was conducted to regroup various household treatment devices that are suitable for the inexpensive treatment of water on a household basis. The survey has resulted in the selection of four household treatment devices: the biosand filter (BSF), bucket filter (BF), ceramic candle filter (CCF) and the silver-impregnated porous pot filter (SIPP). The first three filters were manufactured in a Tshwane University of Technology workshop, using modified designs reported in literature. The SIPP filter is a product of the Tshwane University of Technology. The performance of the four filters was evaluated in terms of flow rate, physicochemical contaminant (turbidity, fluorides, phosphates, chlorophyll a, magnesium, calcium and nitrates) and microbial contaminant ( Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae) removals. The flow rates obtained during the study period were within the recommended limits (171 l/h, 167 l/h, 6.4 l/h and 3.5 l/h for the BSF, BF, CCF and SIPP, respectively). Using standard methods, the results of the preliminary laboratory and field studies with spiked and environmental water samples indicated that all filters decreased the concentrations of contaminants in test water sources. The most efficiently removed chemical contaminant in spiked water was fluoride (99.9%) and the poorest removal efficiency was noted for magnesium (26-56%). A higher performance in chemical

  3. Design and Development of Low Cost, Simple, Rapid and Safe, Modified Field Kits for the Visual Detection and Determination of Arsenic in Drinking Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Anjaneyulu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is naturally found in surface and ground waters and the inorganic forms of arsenic are the most toxic forms. The adverse health effects of arsenic may involve the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous, and haematopoietic systems. Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a global problem widely seen in Bangladesh and West Bengal of the Indian sub continent. As there is a great demand for field test kits due to the anticipated reduction of the US EPA arsenic standard from 50ppb to 10ppb a field kit which offers rapid, simple and safe method for precise estimation of arsenic at 10ppb in drinking water samples is developed. Field methods, based on the mercuric-bromide-stain, consist of three different major parts, which are carried out stepwise. The first part of the procedure is to remove serious interference caused by hydrogen sulphide. In commercially available kits either the sulphide is oxidized to sulphate and the excess oxidizing reagent removed prior to the hydride generation step or, the hydrogen sulphide is filtered out by passing the gas stream through a filter impregnated with lead acetate during the hydride generation step. The present method employs cupric chloride in combination with ferric chloride or Fenton’s reagent for the removal of hydrogen sulphide, which is rapid, simple and more efficient. Other interferences at this step of the analyses are normally not expected for drinking water analysis. In the second step, the generation of the arsine gas involves the classical way of using zinc metal and hydrochloric acid, which produce the ‘nascent’ hydrogen, which is the actual reducing agent. Hydrochloric acid can be replaced by sulfamic acid, which is solid and avoids a major disadvantage of having to handle a corrosive liquid in the field. The arsine gas produces a yellowish spot on the reagent paper. Depending on the arsenic content, either, Yellow – H

  4. Use of coliform bacteria for the detection of on-line leakage in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, S.; Karim, H.M.A.; Mashiatullah, A.; Sajjad, I.

    1996-01-01

    In this method, rupture or leakage in under ground water pipes is detected simply by taking the water samples from the main supply lines of the houses and incubating them at 40 deg. C for sixteen hours, colonies (developed with yellow colour) are counted with colony counter. Thirteen samples (in triplicate) collected from different houses in the congested localities during repair work of the major supply line and all of them after test showed heavy rate of pollution. The experiment was repeated for the same locality and sampling sites after completion of repair work. This time the rate of pollution decreases very much showing drastically low growth of microorganisms except for two points. For two further investigation of the nearly leakages at these points, 13 samples (in triplicate) were again collected in serial wise number of houses. Two points of the leakage were identified where the growth rate of the microorganisms was abruptly high between two consecutive houses or opposite houses depending upon the supply of water pipe lines showing the leakage of houses. Two points of the leakage were identified where the growth rate of the microorganisms was abruptly high between two consecutive houses or opposite houses depending upon the supply of water pipe lines showing the leakage of he pipes. This method is useful and causes no health hazard to the population and gives best results where the water supply is on intermittent basis. The technique is specially useful in the remote areas of the country where research facilities are not available and the Pacqualab is a field instrument. So it is handy and rapid method for the detection of leakage in underground water supplies in the remote areas of the country. (author)

  5. Urinary fluoride as a monitoring tool for assessing successful intervention in the provision of safe drinking water supply in five fluoride-affected villages in Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, R; Gautam, Anil; Jaiswal, Suresh Chandra; Singh, Pavitra

    2013-03-01

    Endemic fluorosis was detected in 31 villages in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Out of the 109 drinking water sources that were analyzed, about 67 % were found to contain high concentration of fluoride above the permissible level of 1.0 mg/l. Dental fluorosis among the primary school children in the age between 8 and 15 served as primary indicator for fluoride intoxication among the children. Urinary fluoride levels among the adults were found to be correlated with drinking water fluoride in 10 villages affected by fluoride. Intervention in the form of alternate safe water supply in five villages showed significant reduction in the urinary fluoride concentration when compared to the control village. Urinary fluoride serves as an excellent marker for assessing the effectiveness of intervention program in the fluoride-affected villages.

  6. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  7. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection for on-line enrichment in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: a sensitive method for measurement of ten haloacetic acids in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Zhu, Jiping; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2011-11-07

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are by-products of the chlorination of drinking water containing natural organic matter and bromide. A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determination of ten HAAs in drinking water. The pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI), an on-line enrichment technique, was employed to introduce the sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system (ESI-MS/MS). HAAs were monitored in selected reaction monitoring mode. With 3 min of PAEKI time, the ten major HAAs (HAA10) in drinking water were enriched up to 20,000-fold into the capillary without compromising resolution. A simple solid phase clean-up method has been developed to eliminate the influence of ionic matrices from drinking water on PAEKI. Under conditions optimized for mass spectrometry, PAEKI and capillary electrophoresis, detection limits defined as three times ratio of signal to noise have been achieved in a range of 0.013-0.12 μg L(-1) for ten HAAs in water sample. The overall recoveries for all ten HAAs in drinking water samples were between 76 and 125%. Six HAAs including monochloro- (MCAA), dichloro- (DCAA), trichloro- (TCAA), monobromo- (MBAA), bromochloro- (BCAA), and bromodichloroacetic acids (BDCAA) were found in tap water samples collected. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dose-dependent effect of fluoride on clinical and subclinical indices of fluorosis in school going children and its mitigation by supply of safe drinking water for 5 years: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Arjun L; Validandi, Vakdevi; Gourineni, Shankar Rao; Gopalan, Viswanathan; Nagalla, Balakrishna

    2018-02-02

    Fluorosis is a public health problem in India; to know its prevalence and severity along with its mitigation measures is very important. The present study has been undertaken with the aim to assess the F dose-dependent clinical and subclinical symptoms of fluorosis and reversal of the disease by providing safe drinking water. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in 1934 schoolgoing children, Nalgonda district. Study villages were categorized into control (category I, F = 0.87 mg/L), affected (category II, F = 2.53 mg/L, and category III, F = 3.77 mg/L), and intervention categories (category IV, F = water and urinary fluoride (UF) in different categories. However, there was a significant decrease in the UF levels in the intervention category IV compared to affected group (category III). Fluoride altered the clinical (dental fluorosis and stunting) and subclinical indices (urine and blood) of fluorosis in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the biochemical indices were altered in a dose-dependent manner and intervention with safe drinking water for 5 years in intervention group-mitigated clinical and subclinical symptoms of fluorosis.

  9. UV disinfection in drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, O

    2000-01-01

    UV disinfection has become a practical and safely validatable disinfection procedure by specifying the requirements for testing and monitoring in DVGW standard W 294. A standardized biodosimetric testing procedure and monitoring with standardized UV sensors is introduced and successfully applied. On-line monitoring of irradiance can be counterchecked with handheld reference sensors and makes it possible that UV systems can be used for drinking water disinfection with the same level of confidence and safety as is conventional chemical disinfection.

  10. New sorbent in the dispersive solid phase extraction step of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe for the extraction of organic contaminants in drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

    2014-04-04

    Recent studies have shown a decrease in the concentration of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) in water after treatment. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that these compounds may adhere to the sludge; however, investigation of these compounds in drinking water treatment sludge has been scarce. The sludge generated by drinking water treatment plants during flocculation and decantation steps should get some special attention not only because it has been classified as non-inert waste but also because it is a very complex matrix, consisting essentially of inorganic (sand, argil and silt) and organic (humic substances) compounds. In the first step of this study, three QuEChERS methods were used, and then compared, for the extraction of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, clomazone and tebuconazole), pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, caffeine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) and PCPs (methylparaben, propylparaben, triclocarban and bisphenol A) from drinking water treatment sludge. Afterwards, the study of different sorbents in the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) step was evaluated. Finally, a new QuEChERS method employing chitin, obtained from shrimp shell waste, was performed in the d-SPE step. After having been optimized, the method showed limits of quantification (LOQ) between 1 and 50 μg kg(-1) and the analytical curves showed r values higher than 0.98, when liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed. Recoveries ranged between 50 and 120% with RSD≤15%. The matrix effect was evaluated and compensated with matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to drinking water treatment sludge samples and methylparaben and tebuconazole were found in concentration

  11. The development of new environmental policies and processes in response to a crisis: the case of the multiple barrier approach for safe drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, Ryan; Velaniskis, Jonas; Grosbois, Danuta de; Kreutzwiser, Reid D.; Loe, Rob de

    2010-01-01

    While new environmental policies and procedures often are developed incrementally, they can also result from crises or other significant events. In situations where policies and procedures are introduced in response to a crisis, questions about the strengths and weaknesses of existing mechanisms, and the extent to which they can be used to address concerns, may be ignored. This paper explores the complexities of introducing new policies and processes where planning systems and procedures already exist. Drinking water source protection policies that are being developed in response to the tragic events in Walkerton, Ontario, Canada serve as the context for the inquiry. Three case study watersheds were selected to reflect the diversity of municipal jurisdictions and water supply systems in Ontario. A content analysis was undertaken on regulatory and non-regulatory policy documents to determine the extent to which they addressed elements of the multi-barrier approach for drinking water safety. Findings from the research reveal considerable evidence of the multi-barrier approach in the policy and guiding documents analyzed. Policy development in response to a crisis can advance progress on the issue of drinking water safety and coincide with emerging governance strategies. Policy effectiveness may be enhanced by considering existing policies as well as contextual and jurisdictional differences.

  12. Understanding standard drinks and drinking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Stockwell, Tim

    2012-03-01

    For consumers to follow drinking guidelines and limit their risk of negative consequences they need to track their ethanol consumption. This paper reviews published research on the ability of consumers to utilise information about the alcohol content of beverages when expressed in different forms, for example in standard drinks or units versus percentage alcohol content. A review of the literature on standard drink definitions and consumer understanding of these, actual drink pouring, use of standard drinks in guidelines and consumer understanding and use of these. Standard drink definitions vary across countries and typically contain less alcohol than actual drinks. Drinkers have difficulty defining and pouring standard drinks with over-pouring being the norm such that intake volume is typically underestimated. Drinkers have difficulty using percentage alcohol by volume and pour size information in calculating intake but can effectively utilise standard drink labelling to track intake. Standard drink labelling is an effective but little used strategy for enabling drinkers to track their alcohol intake and potentially conform to safe or low-risk drinking guidelines. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Water, Water Everywhere but is it Safe to Drink? Some Detrimental Health Effects Associated with Consumption of Groundwater Enriched in Naturally-Occurring Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuge, R.

    2007-05-01

    Drinking water represents a major pathway of trace elements into the human body. As such, groundwaters, the chemistry of which reflect water/rock interaction, can be a source of trace elements which will have a marked health effect on humans consuming them. Health problems associated with the consumption of groundwater enriched in various elements and compounds have been recorded for many years. For example, high-arsenic groundwaters used for public water supply were first associated with harmful health effects as early as 1917 in Córdoba Province in Argentina, where the local population suffered from skin disorders. Subsequently, in the 1960s consumption of high-arsenic groundwaters was identified as a factor in the aetiology of "black foot disease", an endemic vascular disease, in Taiwan. However, it is problems associated with the very high-arsenic groundwaters of the highly populous Ganges delta area of Bangladesh and West Bengal that has more recently highlighted the health problem of consuming high-arsenic waters. The most obvious problems of excess arsenic consumption through drinking water are arsenical skin lesions, the severity of which being generally correlated with arsenic content of the water. A high incidence of cancers of the skin, bladder and other organs has been recorded in the high-arsenic drinking water areas of the world. A high incidence of vascular disease, found in the arsenic-rich area of Taiwan, has also been shown to occur in Bangladesh. In addition, it has been suggested that high arsenic in drinking water results in increased incidence of diabetes mellitus. Fluorine is another element long recognised as having a major effect on the well-being of humans. Consumption of high-fluorine waters were first identified as having a detrimental effect on teeth in the 1920s and 30s. It was subsequently shown that where fluorine is present in drinking waters at concentrations of around 0.5 to 1 mg/L it can have beneficial effects on humans

  14. Sustainability of arsenic mitigation interventions – an evaluation of different alternative safe drinking water options provided in Matlab, an arsenic hot spot in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED eHOSSAIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread occurrence of geogenic arsenic (As in Bangladesh groundwater drastically reduced the safe water access across the country. Since its discovery in 1993, different mitigation options tested at household and community scale have resulted in limited success. In an arsenic hotspot of southeastern Bangladesh, 841 arsenic removal filter (ARF, 190 surface water filter membrane, 23 pond sand filter (PSF, 147 rain water harvester (RWH and 59 As-safe tubewell were distributed among the severely exposed population by AsMat, a Sida supported project. After three-four years of providing these safe water options, this study was carried out during 2010-2011 for performance analysis of these options, in terms of technical viability and effectiveness and thus to evaluate the preference of different options to the end users. Household and community based surveys were done to make an assessment of the current water use pattern as impact of the distributed options, overall condition of the options provided and to identify the reasons why these options are in use and/or abandoned. In total, 284 households were surveyed and information was collected for 23 PSF, 147 RWH and 59 tubewells. None of the filters was found in use. Among other options distributed, 13% of PSF, 40% RWH and 93% of tubewell were found functioning. In all cases, tubewells were found As-safe. About 89% of households are currently using tubewell water which was 58% before. Filter was abandoned for high cost and complicated maintenance. The use of RWH and PSF was not found user friendly and ensuring year round water quality is a big challenge. Arsenic-safe tubewell was found as a widely accepted option mainly because of its easy operation and availability of water, good water quality and negligible maintenance. This study validated tubewell as the most feasible option and holds significance for planning water supply projects, improving mitigation policy as well as developing awareness

  15. Challenges to Sustainable Safe Drinking Water: A Case Study of Water Quality and Use across Seasons in Rural Communities in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of microbial-contaminated water can result in diarrheal illnesses and enteropathy with the heaviest impact upon children below the age of five. We aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of water quality in a low-resource setting in Limpopo province, South Africa. Surveys were conducted in 405 households in rural communities of Limpopo province to determine their water-use practices, perceptions of water quality, and household water-treatment methods. Drinking water samples were tested from households for microbiological contamination. Water from potential natural sources were tested for physicochemical and microbiological quality in the dry and wet seasons. Most households had their primary water source piped into their yard or used an intermittent public tap. Approximately one third of caregivers perceived that they could get sick from drinking water. All natural water sources tested positive for fecal contamination at some point during each season. The treated municipal supply never tested positive for fecal contamination; however, the treated system does not reach all residents in the valley; furthermore, frequent shutdowns of the treatment systems and intermittent distribution make the treated water unreliable. The increased water quantity in the wet season correlates with increased treated water from municipal taps and a decrease in the average contaminant levels in household water. This research suggests that wet season increases in water quantity result in more treated water in the region and that is reflected in residents’ water-use practices.

  16. Hydrogeological investigation for assessment of the sustainability of low-arsenic aquifers as a safe drinking water source in regions with high-arsenic groundwater in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brömssen, Mattias; Markussen, Lars; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Hossain, Mohammed; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra; Thunvik, Roger; Hasan, M. Aziz; Islam, M. Mainul; Rahman, M. Mokhlesur

    2014-10-01

    Exploitation of groundwater from shallow, high prolific Holocene sedimentary aquifers has been a main element for achieving safe drinking water and food security in Bangladesh. However, the presence of elevated levels of geogenic arsenic (As) in these aquifers has undermined this success. Except for targeting safe aquifers through installations of tubewells to greater depth, no mitigation option has been successfully implemented on a larger scale. The objective of this study has been to characterise the hydrostratigraphy, groundwater flow patterns, the hydraulic properties to assess the vulnerability of low-arsenic aquifers at Matlab, in south-eastern Bangladesh, one of the worst arsenic-affected areas of the country. Groundwater modelling, conventional pumping test using multilevel piezometers, hydraulic head monitoring in piezometer nests, 14C dating of groundwater and assessment of groundwater abstraction were used. A model comprising of three aquifers covering the top 250 m of the model domain showed the best fit for the calibration evaluation criteria. Irrigation wells in the Matlab area are mostly installed in clusters and account for most of the groundwater abstraction. Even though the hydraulic heads are affected locally by seasonal pumping, the aquifer system is fully recharged from the monsoonal replenishment. Groundwater simulations demonstrated the presence of deep regional flow systems with recharge areas in the eastern, hilly part of Bangladesh and shallow small local flow systems driven by local topography. Based on modelling results and 14C groundwater data, it can be concluded that the natural local flow systems reach a depth of 30 m b.g.l. in the study area. A downward vertical gradient of roughly 0.01 down to 200 m b.g.l. was observed and reproduced by calibrated models. The vertical gradient is mainly the result of the aquifer system and properties rather than abstraction rate, which is too limited at depth to make an imprint. Although

  17. In the way of clean and safe drinking water : exploring limitations to improvement of the water supply in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bemspång, Josefina; Segerström, Rebecka

    2009-01-01

    Bagamoyo District, in the Pwani region in Tanzania, supplies a large part of Tanzania'sbiggest city, Dar es Salaam, with water. At the same time many people in rural villages in thedistrict do not have access to clean and safe water. This thesis aims to explore what limitationsthere are to improvement of the rural water supply in Bagamoyo District. Specific attention ispaid to the organizational structure of the water sector and how roles and responsibilities aredivided, defined and communica...

  18. Generation and characterization of a human iPSC cell line expressing inducible Cas9 in the “safe harbor” AAVS1 locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Castaño

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the generation-characterization of a fetal liver (FL B-cell progenitor (BCP-derived human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC line CRISPR/Cas9-edited to carry/express a single copy of doxycycline-inducible Cas9 gene in the “safe locus” AAVS1 (iCas9-FL-BCP-hiPSC. Gene-edited iPSCs remained pluripotent after CRISPR/Cas9 genome-edition. Correct genomic integration of a unique copy of Cas9 was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot. Cas9 was robustly and specifically expressed on doxycycline exposure. T7-endonuclease assay demonstrated that iCas9 induces robust gene-edition when gRNAs against hematopoietic transcription factors were tested. This iCas9-FL-BCP-hiPSC will facilitate gene-editing approaches for studies on developmental biology, drug screening and disease modeling.

  19. Automatic on-line pre-concentration system using a knotted reactor for the FAAS determination of lead in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Anderson S.; Brandao, Geovani C.; Santos, Walter N.L. dos; Lemos, Valfredo A.; Ganzarolli, Edgard M.; Bruns, Roy E.; Ferreira, Sergio L.C.

    2007-01-01

    An automatic on-line pre-concentration system is proposed for lead determination in drinking water using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Lead(II) ions are retained as the 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complex in the walls of a knotted reactor, followed by an elution step using 0.50 mol L -1 hydrochloric acid solution. Optimisation involving the sampling flow rate, pH and buffer concentration factors was performed using a Box-Behnken design. Other factors were established considering results of previous experiments. The procedure allows the determination of lead with a 0.43 μg L -1 detection limit (3σ/S) and precisions (expressed as relative standard deviation) of 4.84% (N = 7) and 2.9% (N = 7) for lead concentrations of 5 and 25 μg L -1 , respectively. The accuracy was confirmed by the determination of lead in the NIST SRM 1643d trace elements in natural water standard reference material. The pre-concentration factor obtained is 26.5 and the sampling frequency is 48 h -1 . The recovery achieved for lead determination in the presence of several ions demonstrated that this procedure could be applied to the analysis of drinking water samples. The method was applied for lead determination in drinking water samples collected in Jequie City, Brazil. The lead concentration found in 25 samples were always lower than the permissible maximum levels stipulated by World Health Organization

  20. RO unit for canned coffee drink processing line. Shipped to Tone Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Ltd., Ibaraki plant; Coffee line yo RO sochi. Tone Coca-Cola Bottling (kabu) Ibaraki kojo nonyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, K. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    The paper introduces an RO unit (reverse osmotic membrane equipment) for producing water holding for the canned coffee drink processing line introduced to the Ibaraki plant of Tone Coca-Cola Bottling Co. The unit aims at reducing hardness components from city water and producing water holding for the coffee drink processing line. The capacity of the unit is 25m{sup 3}/h and the recovery rate is 80%. The unit is composed of a sand filter, an heat exchanger, a pre-filter, RO modules, a treated water tank, chemicals storage tanks, and an RO cleaning unit, which are all for pretreatment. The treated water, into which chlorine is injected, is sent through the existing activated carbon tower and micro filter to the processing line. The RO unit can remove at the same time ion and trihalomethane, pathogens, organic matters which are substances other than hardness components. The continued water bottling is possible with no need for the usual reproduction process, and the maintenance is easy. Because of the high hardness of the supplied raw water, acid is injected at the primary side of the unit for pH regulation to prevent scale deposition in the RO modules. The quality of the treated water well met the specifications. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. How safe is safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.F.; Flood, M.

    1996-01-01

    60 and 70 degree convexo-concave valve. Nine hundred and one valves were implanted in Australia. Twelve strut fractures were reported. Two other patients have been explanted and have demonstrated 'single leg separation'. This particular problem was only investigated when two patients died of a fractured valve in the same hospital on the same day. A retrospective study of all known patients in Australia has shown poor follow up, lack of knowledge and indeed lack of interest in device failure modes. Consequently, the Australian and New Zealand Heart Valve Registry was established to track all implanted valves and to notify physicians of any new information. This is perhaps the first device-specific register in Australia. The safety of individual devices is often not known by manufacturers, regulators and clinicians alike. No follow up is available and large volume long term studies are yet to be implemented for the majority of devices. Without such studies and without mandatory problem reporting, the relative safety of medical devices will continue to be measured by banner headlines, sensational TV 'grabs' and protracted law suits. At present, only schemes such as the Problem Reporting Scheme can tell us (albeit vaguely) 'how safe is safe'

  2. Implementation of a safe-by-design approach in the development of new open pilot lines for the manufacture of carbon nanotube-based nano-enabled products

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Ipiña, Jesús M.; Hernan, Angel; Cenigaonaindia, Xabier; Insunza, Mario; Florez, Sonia; Seddon, Richard; Vavouliotis, Antonios; Kostopoulos, Vasilios; Latko, Paulina; Durałek, Paweł; Kchit, Nadir

    2017-06-01

    The project PLATFORM (H2020, GA 646307) aims to develop three new pilot lines (PPLs) for the manufacture of carbon nanotube-based nano-enabled products (buckypapers, treated prepregs, doped veils), for the European aeronautics and automotive industries (a Technology Readiness Level 6 - TRL6 - is expected at the end of the project). The Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC (MD) - transposed into the respective national legislations - is the European regulatory framework for the design and construction of new machinery, as the future PPLs. PPLs are not required to comply with the provisions of the MD until they are put into service - expected in 2020, after project completion - but then, the MD will be fully applicable. In this regulatory context, the project PLATFORM is aligning the design of the PPLs according to the MD requirements, in order to facilitate the CE marking in 2020 (TRL9) and avoid potential economic costs associated with future re-adaptations or modifications needed to ensure compliance with the MD. This paper discusses the methodological approach followed by the project PLATFORM to integrate all the nanosafety aspects in the design of the PPLs, in order to achieve safe designs in conformity with the relevant Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSRs) of the MD. Since machinery must be designed and constructed taking into account the results of the risk assessment (RA), this paper describes the systematic and iterative approach for RA and risk reduction followed to eliminate hazards as far practicable and to adequately reduce risks by the implementation of protective measures. This process has been guided by the harmonized standards EN ISO 12100 and EN ISO 14123, taking the relevant phases of life cycle, expected uses and operation modes of the PPLs into account. A specific tool to guide the safe design of the PPLs and facilitate the RA process has also been produced by the project (PLATFORM - SbD toolkit).

  3. Implementation of a safe-by-design approach in the development of new open pilot lines for the manufacture of carbon nanotube-based nano-enabled products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López de Ipiña, Jesús M; Hernan, Angel; Cenigaonaindia, Xabier; Insunza, Mario; Florez, Sonia; Seddon, Richard; Vavouliotis, Antonios; Kostopoulos, Vasilios; Latko, Paulina; Durałek, Paweł; Kchit, Nadir

    2017-01-01

    The project PLATFORM (H2020, GA 646307) aims to develop three new pilot lines (PPLs) for the manufacture of carbon nanotube-based nano-enabled products (buckypapers, treated prepregs, doped veils), for the European aeronautics and automotive industries (a Technology Readiness Level 6 - TRL6 - is expected at the end of the project). The Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC (MD) - transposed into the respective national legislations - is the European regulatory framework for the design and construction of new machinery, as the future PPLs. PPLs are not required to comply with the provisions of the MD until they are put into service - expected in 2020, after project completion - but then, the MD will be fully applicable. In this regulatory context, the project PLATFORM is aligning the design of the PPLs according to the MD requirements, in order to facilitate the CE marking in 2020 (TRL9) and avoid potential economic costs associated with future re-adaptations or modifications needed to ensure compliance with the MD. This paper discusses the methodological approach followed by the project PLATFORM to integrate all the nanosafety aspects in the design of the PPLs, in order to achieve safe designs in conformity with the relevant Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSRs) of the MD. Since machinery must be designed and constructed taking into account the results of the risk assessment (RA), this paper describes the systematic and iterative approach for RA and risk reduction followed to eliminate hazards as far practicable and to adequately reduce risks by the implementation of protective measures. This process has been guided by the harmonized standards EN ISO 12100 and EN ISO 14123, taking the relevant phases of life cycle, expected uses and operation modes of the PPLs into account. A specific tool to guide the safe design of the PPLs and facilitate the RA process has also been produced by the project (PLATFORM – SbD toolkit). (paper)

  4. On-line monitoring of Escherichia coli in raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant, Oslo (Norway).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Ingun; Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Braathen, Henrik; Khalaf, Goran; Sjølander, Ingrid; Fossum, Marie

    2015-02-04

    The fully automated Colifast ALARM™ has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  5. On-Line Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Raw Water at Oset Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Oslo (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingun Tryland

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fully automated Colifast ALARMTM has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  6. Responsible drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  7. Regulation Development for Drinking Water Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explain what process and information underlies regulations including how the Safe Drinking Water Act applies to regulation development i.e. how does the drinking water law translate into regulations.

  8. A novel fiber-packed column for on-line preconcentration and speciation analysis of chromium in drinking water with flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, Romina P; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Martínez, Luis D; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2009-02-15

    A novel on-line preconcentration and determination system based on a fiber-packed column was developed for speciation analysis of Cr in drinking water samples prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). All variables involved in the development of the preconcentration method including, pH, eluent type, sample and eluent flow rates, interfering effects, etc., were studied in order to achieve the best analytical performance. A preconcentration factor of 32 was obtained for Cr(VI) and Cr(III). The levels of Cr(III) species were calculated by difference of total Cr and Cr(VI) levels. Total Cr was determined after oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) with hydrogen peroxide. The calibration graph was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 at levels near the detection limit and up to at least 50 microg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 4.3% (C=5 microg L(-1) Cr(VI), n=10, sample volume=25 mL). The limit of detection (LOD) for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species was 0.3 microg L(-1). Verification of the accuracy was carried out by the analysis of a standard reference material (NIST SRM 1643e "Trace elements in natural water"). The method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species in drinking water samples.

  9. An on-line pre-concentration system for determination of cadmium in drinking water using FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Walter N.L. dos; Costa, Jorge L.O.; Araujo, Rennan G.O.; Jesus, Djane S. de; Costa, Antonio C.S.

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, a minicolumn of polyurethane foam loaded with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) is proposed as pre-concentration system for cadmium determination in drinking water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step was performed using two-level full factorial design and Doehlert matrix, involving the variables: sampling flow rate, elution concentration, buffer concentration and pH. Using the established experimental conditions in the optimization step of: pH 8.2, sampling flow rate 8.5 mL min -1 , buffer concentration 0.05 mol L -1 and elution concentration of 1.0 mol L -1 , this system allows the determination of cadmium with detection limit (LD) (3σ/S) of 20.0 ng L -1 and quantification limit (LQ) (10σ/S) of 64 ng L -1 , precision expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 5.0 and 4.7% for cadmium concentration of 5.0 and 40.0 μg L -1 , respectively, and a pre-concentration factor of 158 for a sample volume of 20.0 mL. The accuracy was confirmed by cadmium determination in the standard reference material, NIST SRM 1643d trace elements in natural water. This procedure was applied for cadmium determination in drinking water samples collected from Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil. For five samples analyzed, the achieved concentrations varied from 0.31 to 0.86 μg L -1

  10. Determination of six microcystins and nodularin in surface and drinking waters by on-line solid phase extraction-ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Eduardo; Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Hernández, Félix

    2012-11-30

    Microcystins and nodularin are cyclic peptides hepatotoxins produced by cyanobacterial genera (blue-green algae). Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are a worldwide problem, as reported in several countries, like China, Australia, or the United States. Therefore, it is necessary to develop sensitive and reliable analytical methodology to determine this type of toxins in water at parts per billion levels, or even lower. In this work, the potential of solid-phase extraction coupled on-line to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) has been investigated for the efficient quantification and confirmation of microcystins LR, RR, YR, LY, LW, LF and nodularin in surface and drinking water samples, at sub-ppb levels. The method developed involves the injection of only 1 mL of water sample into the on-line SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS system and allows the rapid determination of the compounds selected (8 min of chromatographic run), avoiding laborious sample treatment. The method was validated in surface and drinking water by means of recovery experiments at 0.25 and 1 μg L(-1). Average recoveries (n=5) ranged from 71 to 116%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 15%. For microcystins LR, RR, YR and nodularin, a third level was also assayed (0.1 μg L(-1)) obtaining satisfactory data too. Limits of detection between 0.002 and 0.0405 μg L(-1) were estimated (0.0005 μg L(-1) for nodularin). The developed method was applied to the analysis of water samples collected in the province of Castellón (Spain). The acquisition of three MS/MS transitions for each compound allowed the unequivocal confirmation of positive samples, which was supported by the accomplishment of ion intensity ratios and retention time when compared with reference standards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  12. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  13. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  14. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...

  15. SAFE Newsletter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Center of Excellence SAFE – “Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe” – is a cooperation of the Center for Financial Studies and Goethe University Frankfurt. It is funded by the LOEWE initiative of the State of Hessen (Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz). SAFE brings together more than 40 professors and just as many junior researchers who are all dedicated to conducting research in support of a sustainable financial architecture. The Center has...

  16. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    CERN’s drinking water is monitored on a regular basis. A certified independent laboratory takes and analyses samples to verify that the water complies with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the system that supplies our drinking water is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the system, the water may become cloudy or discoloured, due to traces of corrosion. For this reason, we recommend: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap and heat it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until it is clear before drinking or making your tea or coffee. If you have any questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  17. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10/17. Drinking patterns vary by age and gender As adolescents get older, they tend to drink ... in risky behavior, including drinking and driving, sexual activity (such as unprotected ... the risk of physical and sexual assault Underage youth who drink are ...

  18. Safe Haven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Discusses school libraries as safe havens for teenagers and considers elements that foster that atmosphere, including the physical environment, lack of judgments, familiarity, leisure, and a welcoming nature. Focuses on the importance of relationships, and taking the time to listen to teens and encourage them. (LRW)

  19. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  20. Meeting drinking water and sanitation targets of MDGs. Water use & competition in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek van der, Marjolijn

    2006-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation is of vital importance for human beings. Improving the access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation in developing countries is therefore one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be me

  1. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed:   Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear.   If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  2. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear. If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  3. Perceptions about energy drinks are associated with energy drink intake among U.S. youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks are growing in popularity among youth because of their stimulant properties. However, they can increase blood pressure and are associated with serious consequences such as cardiac arrest. This study examined the associations between energy drink perceptions and energy drink consumption among youth. The design was a cross-sectional study using the YouthStyles Survey 2011. The online survey was administered at home. Subjects were youths aged 12 to 17 years in the summer of 2011 (n = 779). Energy drink consumption, perceptions about energy drinks, and sociodemographic and behavioral variables were measured. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Overall, 9% of youth drank energy drinks, 19.5% agreed that energy drinks are safe drinks for teens, and 12.5% agreed that energy drinks are a type of sports drink. The proportion of youth consuming energy drinks once per week or more was highest among youth aged 16 to 17 years and among those who are physically active three to six times a week. The odds for drinking energy drinks once per week or more was higher among youth who agreed that energy drinks are safe drinks for teens (odds ratios [OR] = 7.7, 95% confidence intervals [CI] =3.6, 16.4) and among those who agreed that energy drinks are a type of sports drink (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.4, 10.7). These findings suggest that many youth may be unaware or misinformed about the potential health effects and nutritional content of energy drinks. Efforts to improve education among youth about the potential adverse effects of consuming energy drinks are needed.

  4. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  5. Home drinking-water purifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzichini, Massimo; Pozio, Alfonso; Russo, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    To salve the widespread problem of contaminated drinking water, home purifiers are now sold in Italy as well as other countries. This article describes how these devices work, how safe they are to use and how safe the water they produce, in the broad context of regulations on drinking water and mineral water. A new device being developed by ENEA to treat municipal water and ground water could provide greater chemical and bacteriological safety. However, the appearance of these new systems makes it necessary to update existing regulations [it

  6. [Microbial settlement of paint- and building-materials in the sphere of drinking water. 9. Communication: experimental examination of cement mortar for the lining with tiles (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenen, D; Thofern, E

    1981-12-01

    The observation of a microbial growth in form of macrocolonies upon the joints of a tiled drinking water reservoir caused the microbiological testing of different pure mineral and some plastic containing cement mortar. Besides the conditions allowing the growth of macrocolonies on tiled plates with a construction like in a reservoir were examined.

  7. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    . This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  8. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.

  9. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  10. How safe is safe enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnoyers, B.; Chanzy, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, were historically established with the objective to reduce the probability that persons be exposed to unacceptable doses due to normal operation or accident situations during transport of radioactive material. Based on the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (BSS), the definition, which was adopted for an unacceptable dose for an accident situation, is the excess of the maximum dose limits permissible in a single year for the occupational exposure of a worker in the BSS. Concerning the severity of accident situations, it has always be clearly stated that the objective of the tests for demonstrating ability to withstand accident conditions of transport was not to cover every accident condition, but solely most of them. The last available evaluations regarding the rate of accidents which are covered by the standardised accident conditions of transport defined in the IAEA Regulations give a range of about 80%, plus or minus 15% which depends on transport mode and studies. Consequently, slight variations in the capabilities of the packages to meet the specified performance would probably not have significant consequences on the protection level in case of accident. In the assessment of the compliance with the regulations, the tendency of experts, taking advantage of the enhanced performances of computer calculation codes, is to ask more and more calculations, with more and more accuracy, leading to more and more restrictions. Consequently, cost and delay are considerably increased without any evidence of an equivalent effect on the level of protection. This paper will initiate a reflection on the general objectives and principles when implementing the Regulations, in such a way that demonstrations remain cost effective, taking into account evolution of the techniques and a high level of safety

  11. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  12. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... period of uncontrolled overeating). Today the generally accepted definition of binge drinking in the United States is ...

  13. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organization Budget History NIH Almanac Public Involvement Outreach & Education Visitor Information RePORT ... Since Colonial times, drinking alcohol has been part of American culture and its use by young people has been accepted by many as part ...

  14. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  15. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural uses in the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja) of the Cameroon Volcanic Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Nkeng, George Elambo; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Roger, Ntankouo Njila

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater quality of the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja-Cameroon) was assessed for its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural uses. A total of 67 groundwater samples were collected from open wells, springs, and boreholes. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties, major ions, and dissolved silica. In 95% of groundwater samples, calcium is the dominant cation, while sodium dominates in 5% of the samples. Eighty percent of the samples have HCO(3) as major anion, and in 20%, NO(3) is the major anion. Main water types in the study area are CaHCO(3), CaMgHCO(3), CaNaHCO(3), and CaNaNO(3)ClHCO(3). CO(2)-driven weathering of silicate minerals followed by cation exchange seemingly controls largely the concentrations of major ions in the groundwaters of this area. Nitrate, sulfate, and chloride concentrations strongly express the impact of anthropogenic activities (agriculture and domestic activities) on groundwater quality. Sixty-four percent of the waters have nitrate concentrations higher than the drinking water limit. Also limiting groundwater use for potable and domestic purposes are contents of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and HCO(3) (-) and total hardness (TH) that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Irrigational suitability of groundwaters in the study area was also evaluated, and results show that all the samples are fit for irrigation. Groundwater quality in the Banana Plain is impeded by natural geology and anthropogenic activities, and proper groundwater management strategies are necessary to protect sustainably this valuable resource.

  16. Making Our Food Safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Full text: As civilization has progressed societies have strived to make food safer; from using fire to cook our food, and boiling our water to make it safe to drink, advances in technology have helped kill microorganisms that can make food unsafe. The FAO/IAEA Joint Division helps provide technical assistance to Member States that want to implement irradiation technology in making their food safer. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are estimated to kill roughly 2.2 million people annually, of which 1.9 million are children. Irradiating some of the foods we eat can save many of these lives by reducing the risk of food poisoning and killing the organisms that cause disease. Irradiation works by treating food with a small dose of ionizing radiation, this radiation disrupts the bacteria’s DNA and cell membranes structure stopping the organism from reproducing or functioning, but does not make the food radioactive. It can be applied to a variety of foods from spices and seasonings, to fruits and vegetables and is similar to pasteurization, but without the need for high temperatures that might impair food quality. (author)

  17. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, A.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment

  18. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  19. An On-Line Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Drinking and Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Mazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An UHPLC-MS/MS multiresidue method based on an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 perfluorinated carboxylates (from 4 to 12 carbon atoms and 3 perfluorinated sulphonates (from 4 to 8 carbon atoms. This work proposes using an on-line solid phase extraction before chromatographic separation and analysis to replace traditional methods of off-line SPE before direct injection to LC-MS/MS. Manual sample preparation was reduced to sample centrifugation and acidification, thus eliminating several procedural errors and significantly reducing time-consuming and costs. Ionization suppression between target perfluorinated analytes and their coeluting SIL-IS were detected for homologues with a number of carbon atoms less than 9, but the quantitation was not affected. Total matrix effect corrected by SIL-IS, inclusive of extraction efficacy, and of ionization efficiency, ranged between −34 and +39%. The percentage of recoveries, between 76 and 134%, calculated in different matrices (tap water and rivers impacted by different pollutions was generally satisfactory. LODs and LOQs of this on-line SPE method, which also incorporate recovery losses, ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng/L and from 1 to 20 ng/L, respectively. Validated on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method has been applied in a wide survey for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian surface and ground waters.

  20. An On-Line Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Drinking and Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Michela; Rusconi, Marianna; Valsecchi, Sara; Martins, Claudia P. B.; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    An UHPLC-MS/MS multiresidue method based on an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 perfluorinated carboxylates (from 4 to 12 carbon atoms) and 3 perfluorinated sulphonates (from 4 to 8 carbon atoms). This work proposes using an on-line solid phase extraction before chromatographic separation and analysis to replace traditional methods of off-line SPE before direct injection to LC-MS/MS. Manual sample preparation was reduced to sample centrifugation and acidification, thus eliminating several procedural errors and significantly reducing time-consuming and costs. Ionization suppression between target perfluorinated analytes and their coeluting SIL-IS were detected for homologues with a number of carbon atoms less than 9, but the quantitation was not affected. Total matrix effect corrected by SIL-IS, inclusive of extraction efficacy, and of ionization efficiency, ranged between −34 and +39%. The percentage of recoveries, between 76 and 134%, calculated in different matrices (tap water and rivers impacted by different pollutions) was generally satisfactory. LODs and LOQs of this on-line SPE method, which also incorporate recovery losses, ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng/L and from 1 to 20 ng/L, respectively. Validated on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method has been applied in a wide survey for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian surface and ground waters. PMID:25834752

  1. Determination of unfixed ammonium in cement and cement mortar used for lining drinking water pipes. Zur Bestimmung des nicht fixierten Ammoniums in Zement und Zementmoertel fuer die Innenauskleidung von Trinkwasserrohren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruins, J; Maurer, W [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie

    1989-09-01

    The reinfection of cement-lined drinking water pipes after heavy chlorine treatment may be caused by the ammonium content of the cement mortar used; the ammonia reduces the amount of chlorine available for disinfection. The chlorine depletion should therefore be reduced by using a mortar which is low in, or free from, ammonia. This article investigates the trace analysis required for determining the ammonium content. The samples were prepared by separating the ammonia from the complex matrix by an excess of alkali combined with distillation. The ammonium content was determined by ion chromatography followed by conductivity detection, or by a post-column reaction with Nesslers reagent followed by photometric detection at=425 nm. Both methods show good reproducibility (S{sub rel} approx. 2%) and recovery (approx. 96%). The results agree well with the other methods which were used in an interlaboratory test. (orig.).

  2. Chemical safety of food and drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M; Heijden, C.A. van der [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1992-07-01

    Food and drinking water are major sources of human exposure to a large number of chemicals added intentionally for technological reasons or present unintentionally due to contamination. On the other hand, there is a public demand for an essentially risk-free supply of food and drinking water. The concern over the presence of chemicals in the human diet received further emphasis through the development of toxicological and analytical methodology with increased sensitivity over the years. In order to minimize the potential health hazards to the consumers, standards have been established which indicate levels of consumption that are - according to scientific evidence - considered safe and which, consequently, permit control measures to be taken. In this context, public perception of a particular risk, may not always be in line with what might be considered a 'real' risk. Thus, while in the public opinion risk associated with smoking or over-nutrition might be accepted or underestimated, certain food chemical related risks may not be accepted and are sometimes perceived as alarmingly high.

  3. Chemical safety of food and drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.; Heijden, C.A. van der

    1992-01-01

    Food and drinking water are major sources of human exposure to a large number of chemicals added intentionally for technological reasons or present unintentionally due to contamination. On the other hand, there is a public demand for an essentially risk-free supply of food and drinking water. The concern over the presence of chemicals in the human diet received further emphasis through the development of toxicological and analytical methodology with increased sensitivity over the years. In order to minimize the potential health hazards to the consumers, standards have been established which indicate levels of consumption that are - according to scientific evidence - considered safe and which, consequently, permit control measures to be taken. In this context, public perception of a particular risk, may not always be in line with what might be considered a 'real' risk. Thus, while in the public opinion risk associated with smoking or over-nutrition might be accepted or underestimated, certain food chemical related risks may not be accepted and are sometimes perceived as alarmingly high

  4. Safe motherhood at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A

    1996-12-01

    Health professionals' negative attitudes toward clients often exacerbate the problems women face in terms of health status and access to health care. Thus, the health professionals can themselves be obstacles to women seeking the health care they need. A key challenge to midwives, in addition to providing technically competent services, is gaining insight into the people for whom they are responsible so that childbirth traditions are treated with respect and women are offered dignity. Safe motherhood requires intersectoral collaboration. Many innovative approaches to safe motherhood are based on the community's participation in planning services that meet the needs of women. Other approaches are based on decentralization of services. For example, a large university teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, set up birthing centers around the city to take the pressure off the hospital. Midwives head up these centers, which are close to the women's homes. Decentralization of delivery services has improved the physical and emotional outcomes for mothers and newborns. Midwives must be prepared to articulate concerns about inequalities and deficiencies in the health care system in order to persuade the government to change. Women, including midwives, need to form multidisciplinary alliances to work together to effect change. The front-line workers in maternity care are midwives. They should adopt the following strategies to become even more effective in their efforts to make motherhood safer. They should listen to what women say about their needs. They should scale services to a manageable, human scale. They should learn the skills to become politically active advocates. They should work with other midwives, women, leaders, and other professional groups. Motherhood can be safe when women have more control over their own decision making, the education to liberate themselves to make their own decisions, and access to skilled care.

  5. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  6. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal for drinking water treatment in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, D.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of shallow tube well drinking water is an urgent health problem in Bangladesh. Current arsenic mitigation solutions, including (household) arsenic removal options, do not always provide a sustainable alternative for safe drinking water. A novel technology, Subsurface Arsenic

  7. Report: EPA Lacks Internal Controls to Prevent Misuse of Emergency Drinking Water Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #11-P-0001, October 12, 2010. EPA cannot accurately assess the risk of public water systems delivering contaminated drinking water from emergency facilities because of limitations in Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) data management.

  8. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  9. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  10. Effects of push/pull perfusion and ultrasonication on the extraction efficiencies of phthalate esters in sports drink samples using on-line hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Ying; Lee, Chien-Hung; Chien, Tzu-Yang; Shih, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Yin-An; Kuo, Ting-Hsuan; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2013-08-28

    In previous studies, we developed a process, on-line ultrasound-assisted push/pull perfusion hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (UA-PPP-HF-LPME), combining the techniques of push/pull perfusion (PPP) and ultrasonication with hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), to achieve rapid extraction of acidic phenols from water samples. In this present study, we further evaluated three more-advanced and novel effects of PPP and ultrasonication on the extraction efficiencies of neutral high-molecular-weight phthalate esters (HPAEs) in sports drinks. First, we found that inner-fiber fluid leakage occurs only in push-only perfusion-based and pull-only perfusion-based HF-LPME, but not in the PPP mode. Second, we identified a significant negative interaction between ultrasonication and temperature. Third, we found that the extraction time of the newly proposed system could be shortened by more than 93%. From an investigation of the factors affecting UA-PPP-HF-LPME, we established optimal extraction conditions and achieved acceptable on-line enrichment factors of 92-146 for HPAEs with a sampling time of just 2 min.

  11. Management of drinking water quality in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Drinking water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants, or by anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking water has frequently resulted in high incidence of water borne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking water supplies to consumers. (author)

  12. Safe Kids Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search Menu Why It Matters Who We Are What We Do Find Your Safe Kids Safe Kids Day Main menu Keeping All Kids Safe Safety Tips Get Involved 4 Star Charity Donate Text Burns and Scalds 4 tips ...

  13. "Same Room, Safe Place".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene Woods, Nikki

    2017-04-01

    There are many different professional stances on safe sleep and then there is the reality of caring for a newborn. There is a debate among professionals regarding safe sleep recommendations. The continum of recommendations vary from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Safe Sleep Guidelines to the bed-sharing recommendations from the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory. The lack of consistent and uniform safe sleep recommendations from health professionals has been confusing for families but has more recently raised a real professional ethical dilemma. Despite years of focused safe sleep community education and interventions, sleep-related infant deaths are on the rise in many communities. This commentary calls for a united safe sleep message from all health professionals to improve health for mothers and infants most at-risk, "Same Room, Safe Place."

  14. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  15. Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming communities in Ghana. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Concentrations of these potentially toxic substances were below WHO acceptable limits for surface and groundwaters, indicating these water resources appear safe for drinking ...

  16. Trends in Nitrate Drinking Water Violations Across the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Safe drinking water is essential for the health and well-being of humans and life on Earth. Previous studies have shown that groundwater and other sources of drinking water can be contaminated with nitrate above the 10 mg nitrate-N L-1 maximum contami...

  17. Trends in Drinking Water Nitrate Violations Across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCL) are established by the U.S. EPA in order to protect human health. Since 1975, public water suppliers across the U.S. have reported violations of the MCL to the national Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS). Nitrate is on...

  18. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth / ... nutritivas: ¿Energía o mera exageración? The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

  19. Bacteriological and Physicochemical Quality of Drinking Water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Lack of safe drinking water, basic sanitation, and hygienic practices are associated with high morbidity and mortality from excreta related diseases. The aims of this study were to determine the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of drinking water and investigate the hygiene and sanitation practices ...

  20. 76 FR 7762 - Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...-9262-8] RIN 2040-AF08 Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate AGENCY: Environmental...'s) regulatory determination for perchlorate in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA... substantial likelihood that perchlorate will occur in public water systems with a frequency and at levels of...

  1. Report: EPA Is Taking Steps to Improve State Drinking Water Program Reviews and Public Water Systems Compliance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0326, July 18, 2017. The EPA is taking action to improve oversight tools used to determine whether public water systems are monitoring and reporting drinking water quality in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act.

  2. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016) Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  3. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  4. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  5. Drinking Water - National Drinking Water Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savings Septic Unsafe Disposable Wipe Woes FacebookLogo FOCUS AREAS Drinking Water Wastewater Training Security Conservation & Water Efficiency Water We Drink Source Water Protection SORA/COI EPA MOU CartIcon Links Listserv Educators Homeowners Operators Small Systems Drinking Water Read On Tap Latest

  6. 75 FR 32295 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe Drinking Water Act... methods for use in measuring the levels of contaminants in drinking water and determining compliance with... required to measure contaminants in drinking water samples. In addition, EPA Regions as well as States and...

  7. Sunshine and saris equals safe drinking water | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... ... Moringa oleifera, sari-cloth filtration and solar UV disinfection. ... Protecting food, energy, and livelihoods in Punjab through water-efficient agriculture ... India is responsible for nearly 70% of the world's mango production, ...

  8. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Daud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan.

  9. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Muhammad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Bajwa, Raees Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Deeba, Farah; Murad, Waheed; Malook, Ijaz

    2017-01-01

    Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan. PMID:28884130

  10. Small-scale hydro power plant on the main drinking water line La Rippaz in Bex, Switzerland - Feasibility study; Petite centrale hydraulique. Aduction d'eau potable La Rippaz. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapallaz, J.-M. [Jean-Marc Chapallaz, Ingenieur EPFL/SIA, Baulmes (Switzerland); Meylan, D. [Perret-Gentil et Rey et Associes SA, Ingenieurs civils et Ingenieurs Conseil EPF/SIA, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study for the replacement work of the drinking-water supply line from the location of the spring water collection to a water reservoir belonging to the rock-salt mining company 'Hotel des Salines' in Bex, Switzerland. Built 1887 and following years this water supply system has already been designed for power generation as well. However, a 40 kW micro-scale turbine has only been installed 2005 in the lower part of the water supply system (hydraulic head: 115 m). The new project includes the replacement of the existing piping by a penstock, the construction of a new water collection reservoir at the highest point, the construction of a new 300 kW hydro power plant using the upper part of the water supply system (hydraulic head: 520 m), and some improvements of the existing lower power plant. The available water flow rate lies in the range 57-70 l/s, all the year round. The question arising is whether this construction project could be financed by the benefit from the sale of electricity that could be produced by the two power plants. The authors of the study estimate the power production to be 2.5 kWh/y. If the electricity can be sold at least at CHF 0.20/kWh for 25 years this could finance the whole project that has an estimated cost of CHF 7,000,000.

  11. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth / For Teens / Are Detox Diets ... seguras las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that ...

  12. Chernobyl new safe confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, L.

    2011-01-01

    The author presents the new safe confinement that will be commissioned at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP in 2015. The confinement will ensure that Chernobyl Unit 4 will be placed in an environmentally safe condition for at least next 100 years. The article highlights the current work status, future perspectives and the feasibility of confinement concept [ru

  13. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  14. Drinking Game Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games.......The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games....

  15. The use of packed water in urban drinking water and its advantages to other methods of separating drinking water from undrinkable water (The case study : Ferdows city in south Khorasan)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Akhgari; Ahmad Mansuri; Saeed Mansuri; Sara Mirzaei

    2014-01-01

    Today,more than one billion people of the world don't have access to safe drinking water.  Therefore, due to the population increase andconsequently increasing water needs, and the reduction of drinking watersources available, separating drinking water and non-drinking water seemsnecessary. In this article, the use of packed water is compared to other methods,such as two networks (drinkable and non-drinkable) water supply, public waterstations, purifying drinking water, and transferring high ...

  16. Development and Multi-laboratory Verification of U.S. EPA Method 543 for the Analysis of Drinking Water Contaminants by On-Line Solid Phase Extraction-LC/MS/MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A drinking water method for seven pesticides and pesticide degradates was developed that addresses the occurrence monitoring needs of the U.S. Environmental...

  17. Exploring Perceptions and Behaviors about Drinking Water in Australia and New Zealand: Is It Risky to Drink Water, When and Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Crampton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumers in most developed countries, including Australia and New Zealand, presume their drinking water is safe. How social perceptions about drinking water are formed, however, remains inadequately explored in the research literature. This research contributes exploratory insights by examining factors that affect consumer perceptions and behaviors. Individual perceptions of drinking water quality and actions undertaken to mitigate perceived risks were collected during 183 face-to-face interviews conducted at six research sites. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed the majority did not consider drinking water a “risky” activity, trusted water management authorities to manage all safety issues and believed self-evaluation of drinking water’s taste and appearance were sufficient measures to ensure safe consumption. Quantitatively, significant relationships emerged between water quality perceptions and sex, employment status, drinking water treatment and trust in government to provide safe water. Expert advice was rarely sought, even by those who believed drinking tap water posed some health risks. Generational differences emerged in media usage for drinking water advice. Finally, precautionary measures taken at home and abroad often failed to meet national drinking water guidelines. Three major conclusions are drawn: a. broad lack of awareness exists about the most suitable and safe water treatment activities, as well as risks posed; b. health literacy and interest may be improved through greater consumer involvement in watershed management; and c. development of health campaigns that clearly communicate drinking water safety messages in a timely, relevant and easily understandable fashion may help mitigate actual risks and dispel myths.

  18. New England's Drinking Water | Drinking Water in New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  19. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  20. Safe operating envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, N [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs.

  1. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  2. Buying & Using Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reducers Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Medication Health Fraud Resources for You FDA Consumer Updates (Drugs) Page ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  3. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  4. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, N.

    1997-01-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs

  5. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  6. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  7. Medications: Using Them Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Safely Give Ibuprofen Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Medicines for Diabetes Complementary and Alternative Medicine How Do Pain Relievers Work? What Medicines Are and What They Do Medicines ...

  8. DroidSafe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Massachusetts Avenue, Build E19-750 Cambridge , MA 02139-4307 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...Activity objects illustrating the challenges of points-to and information flow analysis...measure how many malicious flows Droid- Safe was able to detect). As these results illustrate , DroidSafe implements an analysis of unprece- dented

  9. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sue I [Berkeley, CA; Fergenson, David P [Alamo, CA; Srivastava, Abneesh [Santa Clara, CA; Bogan, Michael J [Dublin, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA; Frank, Matthias [Oakland, CA

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  10. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  11. Drinking or Not Drinking in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating associations between prenatal exposure to low-moderate doses of alcohol and mental health development in childhood are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to compare women who drink and who do not drink alcohol in pregnancy on a number of potential confounding...

  12. Healthy Drinks for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinks (not including 100% fruit juice). If soda habits start when kids are little, chances are they ... Alternative to Water? Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A Guide to Eating for Sports ...

  13. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  14. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Not Have a Problem Because I Only Drink Wine and Beer Problem drinking is not about what ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  15. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  16. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  17. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  18. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  19. The safe home project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arphorn, Sara; Jiraniratisai, Sopaphan; Rungtakul, Rungsri; Phutta, Nikom

    2011-12-01

    The Thai Health Promotion Foundation supported the Improvement of Quality of Life of Informal Workers project in Ban Luang District, Amphur Photaram, Ratchaburi Province. There were many informal workers in Ban Luang District. Sweet-crispy fish producers in Ban Luang were the largest group among the sweet-crispy fish producers in Thailand. This project was aimed at improving living and working conditions of informal workers, with a focus on the sweet-crispy fish group. Good practices of improved living and working conditions were used to help informal workers build safe, healthy and productive work environments. These informal workers often worked in substandard conditions and were exposed to various hazards in the working area. These hazards included risk of exposure to hot work environment, ergonomics-related injuries, chemical hazards, electrical hazards etc. Ergonomics problems were commonly in the sweet-crispy fish group. Unnatural postures such as prolonged sitting were performed dominantly. One hundred and fifty informal workers participated in this project. Occupational health volunteers were selected to encourage occupational health and safety in four groups of informal workers in 2009. The occupational health volunteers trained in 2008 were farmers, beauty salon workers and doll makers. The occupational health and safety knowledge is extended to a new informal worker group: sweet-crispy fish producer, in 2009. The occupational health and safety training for sweet-crispy fish group is conducted by occupational health volunteers. The occupational health volunteers increased their skills and knowledge assist in to make safe home and safe community through participatory oriented training. The improvement of living and working condition is conducted by using a modified WISH, Work Improvement for Safe Home, checklist. The plans of improvement were recorded. The informal workers showed improvement mostly on material handling and storage. The safe uses and safe

  20. Drinking-water monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A new measuring system was developed by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf for monitoring the quality of drinking-water. It is based on the experience made with the installation of UWEDAT (registered trademark) environmental monitoring networks in several Austrian provinces and regions. The standard version of the drinking-water monitoring system comprises sensors for measuring chemical parameters in water, radioactivity in water and air, and meteorological values of the environment. Further measuring gauges, e.g. for air pollutants, can be connected at any time, according to customers' requirements. For integration into regional and supraregional networks, station computers take over the following tasks: Collection of data and status signals transmitted by the subsystem, object protection, intermediate storage and communication of data to the host or several subcentres via Datex-P postal service, permanent lines or radiotransmission

  1. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Recently the Agency redefined its policy for education and training in radiation safety. The emphasis is now on long-term strategic planning of general education and training programmes. In line with this general policy the Agency's Standing Advisory Group for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) in its 7th meeting (April 1989) agreed that increased training activity should be deployed in the area of transport. SAGSTRAM specifically recommended the development of a standard training programme on this subject area, including audio-visual aids, in order to assist Member States in the implementation of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This training programme should be substantiated by a biennial training course which is thought to be held either as an Interregional or a Regional Course depending on demand. This training manual, issued as a first publication in the Training Course Series, represents the basic text material for future training courses in transport safety. The topic areas covered by this training manual and most of the texts have been developed from the course material used for the 1987 Bristol Interregional Course on Transport Safety. The training manual is intended to give guidance to the lecturers of a course and will be provided to the participants for retention. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Evaluation of the CDC safe water-storage intervention to improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the CDC safe water-storage intervention to improve the microbiological quality of point-of-use drinking water in rural communities in South Africa. ... use of safe household water-storage devices and water treatment processes and improvement of hygiene and sanitation practices in these rural households.

  3. Drinking water-a pipe dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    Every third person deprived of clean drinking water in the world is an Indian, according to a report based on studies conducted by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur. The study further states that almost 70 per cent of our available water is polluted. This causes deaths of about 15 Iakh Indian children every year. A WHO report says that 80 per cent of the illnesses in India could be prevented if safe potable water was available to our entire population. The Union Ministry of Rural Development aims at providing at least one source of safe drinking water supply to each of 5.75 Iakh villages. Each source is expected to be about 0.5 km away from the village and will supply 70 liters of water per person everyday.

  4. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  5. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  6. National trends in drinking water quality violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Maura; Wu, Haowei; Lall, Upmanu

    2018-02-27

    Ensuring safe water supply for communities across the United States is a growing challenge in the face of aging infrastructure, impaired source water, and strained community finances. In the aftermath of the Flint lead crisis, there is an urgent need to assess the current state of US drinking water. However, no nationwide assessment has yet been conducted on trends in drinking water quality violations across several decades. Efforts to reduce violations are of national concern given that, in 2015, nearly 21 million people relied on community water systems that violated health-based quality standards. In this paper, we evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in health-related violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act using a panel dataset of 17,900 community water systems over the period 1982-2015. We also identify vulnerability factors of communities and water systems through probit regression. Increasing time trends and violation hot spots are detected in several states, particularly in the Southwest region. Repeat violations are prevalent in locations of violation hot spots, indicating that water systems in these regions struggle with recurring issues. In terms of vulnerability factors, we find that violation incidence in rural areas is substantially higher than in urbanized areas. Meanwhile, private ownership and purchased water source are associated with compliance. These findings indicate the types of underperforming systems that might benefit from assistance in achieving consistent compliance. We discuss why certain violations might be clustered in some regions and strategies for improving national drinking water quality.

  7. Safe foods for allergic people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørhede, Pia; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Bennett, L.

    Introduction Recently a 7-year-old British boy died after drinking pineapple & coconut juice drink. The boy was allergic to milk. The juice drink contained milk, which was declared in the ingredient list as required in the labelling law. The mother to the boy did not read the ingredient list......, as she did not expect to find milk in a juice drink. The juice drink had pictures of pineapple and coconut but none of milk despite that it contained greater amounts of milk than coconut. At the moment the British authorities investigate if the company behind the juice drink has broken the law. How can...... allergy in 10 different European languages. Conclusion: If the company behind the pineapple & coconut fruit juice had asked an allergy expert for advice or had thought about allergic people themselves during the development of their product, the tragic story probably could have been avoided. An expert...

  8. Problems with provision: barriers to drinking water quality and public health in rural Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Jessica J; Willis, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential to human life and wellbeing, and is a key public health issue. However, many communities in rural and regional parts of Australia are unable to access drinking water that meets national standards for protecting human health. The aim of this research was to identify the key issues in and barriers to the provision and management of safe drinking water in rural Tasmania, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key local government employees and public health officials responsible for management of drinking water in rural Tasmania. Participants were asked about their core public health duties, regulatory responsibilities, perceptions and management of risk, as well as the key barriers that may be affecting the provision of safe drinking water. This research highlights the effect of rural locality on management and safety of fresh water in protecting public health. The key issues contributing to problems with drinking water provision and quality identified by participants included: poor and inadequate water supply infrastructure; lack of resources and staffing; inadequate catchment monitoring; and the effect of competing land uses, such as forestry, on water supply quality. This research raises issues of inequity in the provision of safe drinking water in rural communities. It highlights not only the increasing need for greater funding by state and commonwealth government for basic services such as drinking water, but also the importance of an holistic and integrated approach to managing drinking water resources in rural Tasmania.

  9. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  10. Drinking-water supply system of Arbedo-Castione. Replacement of the main water supply line and installation of a small hydropower plant; Sostituzione condotta adduzione sorgenti in valle d'Arbedo e ricupero energetico. Acquedotto di Arbedo-Castione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, M.

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the comparative evaluation of variants for the replacement work of the main drinking-water supply line from the Arbedo valley to the community of Arbedo-Castione, southern Switzerland. Three variants include the installation of a small hydropower plant to take advantage of the elevation difference of 340 m between the location of water collection and the water reservoir. The base case only includes the line replacement. The feasibility study includes both a technical and an economical analysis. The average water flow rate is estimated to 12 l/s. The nominal electrical power would be 25 kW. Power production cost is calculated to about 0.09 Swiss francs/kWh. The author concludes that an optimized variant with small hydropower plant would be the best solution, also from the point of view of environmental aspects.

  11. Management of source and drinking-water quality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, J A

    2005-01-01

    Drinking-water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking-water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants or to anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking-water has frequently resulted in high incidence of waterborne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking-water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking-water supplies to consumers.

  12. [The EU drinking water recommendations: objectives and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöch, H

    2011-12-01

    Protection of our drinking water resources and provision of safe drinking water are key requirements of modern water management and health policy. Microbiological and chemical quality standards have been established in the EU water policy since 1980, and are now complemented by a comprehensive protection of water as a resource. This contribution reflects a presentation at the scientific conference of the Federal Associations of Physicians and Dentists within the Public Health Service in May 2011 and provides an overview on objectives and challenges for drinking water protection at the European level. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Energy drinks and adolescents: what's the harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R

    2015-04-01

    Concerns about potential dangers from energy drink consumption by youth have been raised by health experts, whereas energy drink manufacturers claim these products are safe and suitable for marketing to teens. This review summarizes the evidence used to support both sides of the debate. Unlike most beverage categories, sales of energy drinks and other highly caffeinated products continue to grow, and marketing is often targeted to youth under the age of 18 years. These products pose a risk of caffeine toxicity when consumed by some young people, and there is evidence of other troubling physiological and behavioral effects associated with their consumption by youth. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated it will reexamine the safety of caffeine in the food supply; however, more research is needed to better understand youth consumption of energy drinks and caffeine in general, as well as the long-term effects on health. Meanwhile, policymakers and physician groups have called on energy drink manufacturers to take voluntary action to reduce the potential harm of their products, including placing restrictions on marketing to youth under the age of 18 years. Additional regulatory and legislative options are also being discussed. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  15. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  16. Inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Anders

    1992-01-01

    A rethinking of nuclear reactor safety has created proposals for new designs based on inherent and passive safety principles. Diverging interpretations of these concepts can be found. This article reviews the key features of proposed advanced power reactors. An evaluation is made of the degree of inherent safety for four different designs: the AP-600, the PIUS, the MHTGR and the PRISM. The inherent hazards of today's most common reactor principles are used as reference for the evaluation. It is concluded that claims for the new designs being inherently, naturally or passively safe are not substantiated by experience. (author)

  17. Conjugated and Entrapped HPMA-PLA Nano-Polymeric Micelles Based Dual Delivery of First Line Anti TB Drugs: Improved and Safe Drug Delivery against Sensitive and Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Seema; Khan, Iliyas; Gothwal, Avinash; Pachouri, Praveen K; Bhaskar, N; Gupta, Umesh D; Chauhan, Devendra S; Gupta, Umesh

    2017-09-01

    First line antiTB drugs have several physical and toxic manifestations which limit their applications. RIF is a hydrophobic drug and has low water solubility and INH is hepatotoxic. The main objective of the study was to synthesize, characterize HPMA-PLA co-polymeric micelles for the effective dual delivery of INH and RIF. HPMA-PLA co-polymer and HPMA-PLA-INH (HPI) conjugates were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. Later on RIF loaded HPMA-PLA-INH co-polymeric micelles (PMRI) were formulated and characterized for size, zeta potential and surface morphology (SEM, TEM) as well as critical micellar concentration. The safety was assessed through RBC's interaction study. The prepared PMRI were evaluated through MABA assay against sensitive and resistant strains of M. Tuberculosis. Size, zeta and entrapment efficiency for RIF loaded HPMA-PLA-INH polymeric micelles (PMRI) was 87.64 ± 1.98 nm, -19 ± 1.93 mV and 97.2 ± 1.56%, respectively. In vitro release followed controlled and sustained delivery pattern. Sustained release was also supported by release kinetics. Haemolytic toxicity of HPI and PMRI was 8.57 and 7.05% (p PLA polymeric micelles (PMRI) were more effective against sensitive and resistant M tuberculosis. The developed approach can lead to improved patient compliance and reduced dosing in future, offering improved treatment of tuberculosis.

  18. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  20. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  1. Training to Increase Safe Tray Carrying Among Cocktail Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Scherrer, Megan D; Wilder, David A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of training on proper carrying techniques among 3 cocktail servers to increase safe tray carrying on the job and reduce participants' risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. As participants delivered drinks to their tables, their finger, arm, and neck positions were observed and recorded. Each participant received individual safety training that focused on proper carrying positions and techniques after baseline data were collected. A multiple baseline design acr...

  2. Patient perceptions of risky drinking: Knowledge of daily and weekly low-risk guidelines and standard drink sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Debra J; Vinson, Daniel C

    2017-01-01

    Effective intervention for risky drinking requires that clinicians and patients know low-risk daily and weekly guidelines and what constitutes a "standard drink." The authors hypothesized that most patients lack this knowledge, and that education is required. Following primary care visits, patients completed anonymous exit questionnaires that included the 3 Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questions, "How many drinks (containing alcohol) can you safely have in one day?" and questions about size, in ounces, of a standard drink of wine, beer, and liquor. Descriptive analyses were done in Stata. Of 1,331 respondents (60% female, mean age: 49.6, SD = 17.5), 21% screened positive on the AUDIT-C for risky drinking. Only 10% of those accurately estimated daily low-risk limits, with 9% accurate on weekly limits, and half estimated low-risk limits at or below guidelines. Fewer than half who checked "Yes" to "Do you know what a 'standard drink' is?" provided accurate answers for beer, wine, or liquor. Patients with a positive screen were twice as likely to say they knew what a standard drink is, but only a third gave accurate estimates. When asked about plans in the next month regarding change in drinking behavior, 23% with a positive AUDIT-C indicated they were at least considering a change. Most patients in primary care don't know specifics of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) guidelines for low-risk drinking. Exploring patient perceptions of low-risk guidelines and current drinking behavior may reveal discrepancies worth discussing. For risky drinkers, most of whom don't know daily and weekly low-risk guidelines or standard drink sizes, education can be vital in intervening. Findings suggest the need for detailed and explicit social marketing and communication on exactly what low-risk drinking entails.

  3. Predictors of awareness of standard drink labelling and drinking guidelines to reduce negative health effects among Australian drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Jones, Sandra C; Martino, Florentine; Miller, Peter G

    2017-03-01

    This study examined rates of awareness of standard drink labelling and drinking guidelines among Australian adult drinkers. Demographic predictors of these two outcomes were also explored. Online survey panel participants aged 18-45 years(n = 1061; mean age = 33.2 years) completed an online survey assessing demographics, alcohol consumption patterns, awareness of standard drink labels and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines, and support for more detailed labels. The majority (80%) of participants had seen standard drink labels on alcohol products; with younger drinkers, those from a regional/rural location and high-risk drinkers significantly more likely to have seen such labelling. Most respondents estimated at or below the maximum number of drinks stipulated in the NHMRC guidelines. However, their estimates of the levels for male drinkers were significantly higher than for female drinkers. High-risk drinkers were significantly less likely to provide accurate estimates, while those who had seen the standard drink logo were significantly more likely to provide accurate estimates of drinking levels to reduce the risk of long-term harms only. Just under three-quarters of respondents supported the inclusion of more information on labels regarding guidelines to reduce negative health effects. The current standard drink labelling approach fails to address high-risk drinkers. The inclusion of information about NHMRC guidelines on alcohol labels, and placing standard drink labelling on the front of products could improve awareness of what constitutes a standard drink and safe levels of consumption among Australian drinkers.[Kerri Coomber, Sandra C. Jones, Florentine Martino, Peter G. Miller. Predictors of awareness of standard drink labelling and drinking guidelines to reduce negative health effects among Australian drinkers. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:200-209]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Training Support Staff to Modify Fluids to Appropriate Safe Consistencies for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Dysphagia: An Efficacy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, D. D.; Stubbs, J.; Fovargue, S.; Anderson, D.; Stacey, G.; Tye, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Modifying the consistency of food and drink is a strategy commonly used in the management of dysphagia for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). People with ID often depend on others for the preparation of food and drink and therefore depend on those caregivers achieving the correct consistency to keep them safe and avoid…

  5. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  6. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…

  7. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  8. The Drinking Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  9. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.

  10. Safe pill-dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  11. A safe workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittsel, Hans; Andersson, Bengt A.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: The video 'A safe workplace' has been produced by ABB Atom in order to create a tool for showing different target audiences that ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Production Plant is a safe workplace and to 'de-mystify' nuclear fuel production. The main target audiences are visitor groups and employees of the company, but the video also qualifies for use as an information tool for other target groups who ask for a proper explanation of the way nuclear fuel is produced. The summarized content of the video is as follows: All individual steps of the production process are described with focus on the safety, quality and environmental requirements. The first part shows the delivery of UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) to the plant and the following process for the conversion to UO 2 (uranium dioxide). The conversion method used is wet conversion that includes evaporation, precipitation, filtration, washing, reduction and stabilization. The next part is a description of the fuel pellet manufacture including uranium oxide blending, pellet pressing, sintering, grinding and a final visual inspection. A separate part, describing the manufacture of fuel pellets with a burnable neutron absorber, is included. The third part shows how to produce fuel rods and complete assemblies. Some of the moments of quality supervision that support the entire manufacturing process are also shown. The last part of the video comprises a brief description of the manufacture of fuel channels and other reactor core components like control rods. The video is produced with a Swedish spoken narrative. The playing time is 15 minutes. The video will be delivered with a text printed in English and copies reproduced in the PAL/VHS system may be ordered from ABB Atom Communication Dept. telefax no +4621-11 41 90, at the price of USD 100.- or SEK 750.- each. (author)

  12. Strategies for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-02-01

    The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1988 as a global effort to halve maternal mortality and morbidity by the year 2000. The program uses a combination of health and nonhealth strategies to emphasize the need for maternal health services, extend family planning services, and improve the status of women. The maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) is 390 for the world, 20-30 for developed countries, 450 for developing countries, and 420 for Asia. This translates into 308,000 maternal deaths in Asia, of which 100,000 occur in India. The direct causes of maternal mortality include sepsis, hemorrhage, eclampsia, and ruptured uterus. Indirect causes occur when associated medical conditions, such as anemia and jaundice, are exacerbated by pregnancy. Underlying causes are ineffective health services, inadequate obstetric care, unregulated fertility, infections, illiteracy, early marriage, poverty, malnutrition, and ignorance. India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program seeks to achieve immediate improvements by improving health care. Longterm improvements will occur as nutrition, income, education, and the status of women improve. Improvements in health care will occur in through the provision of 1) essential obstetric care for all women (which will be essentially designed for low-risk women), 2) early detection of complications during pregnancy and labor, and 3) emergency services. Services will be provided to pregnant women at their door by field staff, at a first referral hospital, perhaps at maternity villages where high risk cases can be housed in the latter part of their pregnancies, and through the continual accessibility of government vehicles. In addition, family planning services will be improved so that fertility regulation can have its expected beneficial effect on the maternal mortality rate. The professional health organizations in India will also play a vital role in the success of this effort to reduce maternal mortality.

  13. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...

  14. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  15. Impact of Harmful Algal Blooms on Several Lake Erie Drinking Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent events in Ohio have demonstrated the challenge treatment facilities face in providing safe drinking water when encountering extreme harmful algal bloom (HAB) events. Over the last two years the impact of HAB-related microcystins on several drinking water treatment facilit...

  16. AN INVESTIGATION OF ARSENIC MOBILITY FROM IRON OXIDE SOLIDS PRODUCED DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arsenic Rule under the Safe Drinking Water Act will require certain drinking water suppliers to add to or modify their existing treatment in order to comply with the regulations. One of the treatment options is iron co-precipitation. This treatment is attractive because ars...

  17. How the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DWSRF was established by the 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) as a financial assistance program for systems and states to achieve the health protection objectives of the law, 42 U.S.C. §300j-12

  18. Modelling and simulation of a nitrification biofilter for drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the purification of pure and microbiologically safe drinking water, different treatment steps are necessary. One of those steps is the removal of ammonium, which can, e.g. be accomplished through nitrification in a biofilter. In this study, a model for such a nitrifying biofilter was developed and the model was ...

  19. Safe percutaneous suprapubic catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, N K; Goel, A; Sankhwar, S N

    2012-11-01

    We describe our technique of percutaneous suprapubic catheter insertion with special reference to steps that help to avoid common complications of haematuria and catheter misplacement. The procedure is performed using a stainless steel reusable trocar under local infiltrative anaesthesia, usually at the bedside. After clinical confirmation of a full bladder, the trocar is advanced into the bladder through a skin incision. Once the bladder is entered, the obturator is removed and the assistant inserts a Foley catheter followed by rapid balloon inflation. Slight traction is applied to the catheter for about five minutes. Patients with previous lower abdominal surgery, an inadequately distended bladder or acute pelvic trauma do not undergo suprapubic catheterisation using this method. The procedure was performed in 72 men (mean age: 42.4 years, range: 18-78 years) with urinary retention with a palpable bladder. The average duration of the procedure was less than five minutes. No complications were noted in any of the patients. Trocar suprapubic catheter insertion is a safe and effective bedside procedure for emergency bladder drainage and can be performed by resident surgeons. The common complications associated with the procedure can be avoided with a few careful steps.

  20. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  1. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  2. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  3. Chlorine and Solute Transport and Reactions in Drinking Water Distribution: The Role of Flow Hydrodynamics on Water Quality Changes and Multi-Criteria Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe drinking water supply is one of the most notable modern engineering achievements in the 20th century. It is a centerpiece of the U.S. environmental protection effort under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and its amendments. In this chapter, water quality changes a...

  4. Drinking water protection plan; a discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This draft document outlines the plan of action devised by the Government of British Columbia in an effort to safeguard the purity of the drinking water supply in the province, and invites British Columbians to participate in the elaboration of such a plan. This document concentrates on the assessment of the sources of the water supply (watersheds and aquifers) and on measures to ensure the integrity of the system of water treatment and distribution as the principal components of a comprehensive plan to protect drinking water. The proposed plan involves a multi-barrier approach that will use a combination of measures to ensure that water sources are properly managed and waterworks systems provide safe drinking water. New drinking water planning procedures, more effective local influence and authority, enforceable standards, better access to information and public education programs form the essence of the plan. A series of public meetings are scheduled to provide the public at large with opportunities to comment on the government's plan of action and to offer suggestions for additional measures

  5. Hydrogeochemical contrast between brown and grey sand aquifers in shallow depth of Bengal Basin: consequences for sustainable drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ashis; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K; Mandal, Ujjal; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Debashis; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Jacks, Gunnar

    2012-08-01

    Delineation of safe aquifer(s) that can be targeted by cheap drilling technology for tubewell (TW) installation becomes highly imperative to ensure access to safe and sustainable drinking water sources for the arsenic (As) affected population in Bengal Basin. This study investigates the potentiality of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as a safe drinking water source by characterizing its hydrogeochemical contrast to grey sand aquifers (GSA) within shallow depth (water guidelines, which warrants rigorous assessment of attendant health risk for Mn prior to considering mass scale exploitation of the BSA for possible sustainable drinking water supply. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Raman Spectroscopy for In-Line Water Quality Monitoring — Instrumentation and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyun; Deen, M. Jamal; Kumar, Shiva; Selvaganapathy, P. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the access to safe drinking water is a huge problem. In fact, the number of persons without safe drinking water is increasing, even though it is an essential ingredient for human health and development. The enormity of the problem also makes it a critical environmental and public health issue. Therefore, there is a critical need for easy-to-use, compact and sensitive techniques for water quality monitoring. Raman spectroscopy has been a very powerful technique to characterize chemical composition and has been applied to many areas, including chemistry, food, material science or pharmaceuticals. The development of advanced Raman techniques and improvements in instrumentation, has significantly improved the performance of modern Raman spectrometers so that it can now be used for detection of low concentrations of chemicals such as in-line monitoring of chemical and pharmaceutical contaminants in water. This paper briefly introduces the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy, reviews the development of Raman instrumentations and discusses advanced and potential Raman techniques for in-line water quality monitoring. PMID:25230309

  7. Raman Spectroscopy for In-Line Water Quality Monitoring—Instrumentation and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyun Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the access to safe drinking water is a huge problem. In fact, the number of persons without safe drinking water is increasing, even though it is an essential ingredient for human health and development. The enormity of the problem also makes it a critical environmental and public health issue. Therefore, there is a critical need for easy-to-use, compact and sensitive techniques for water quality monitoring. Raman spectroscopy has been a very powerful technique to characterize chemical composition and has been applied to many areas, including chemistry, food, material science or pharmaceuticals. The development of advanced Raman techniques and improvements in instrumentation, has significantly improved the performance of modern Raman spectrometers so that it can now be used for detection of low concentrations of chemicals such as in-line monitoring of chemical and pharmaceutical contaminants in water. This paper briefly introduces the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy, reviews the development of Raman instrumentations and discusses advanced and potential Raman techniques for in-line water quality monitoring.

  8. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 90 different contaminants in public drinking water, including E.coli , Salmonella , and Cryptosporidium species. More information regarding the ... page. Water Quality Indicators: Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms / Escherichia coli (E. coli) pH Contaminants: Nitrate Volatile Organic Compounds ( ...

  9. Disinfection of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensenauer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection. (AJ) [de

  10. Disinfection of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensenauer, P

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection.

  11. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  12. Risks of underage drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a higher risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Drinking during puberty can also change hormones in ... the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A. ...

  13. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  14. Improved but unsustainable: accounting for sachet water in post-2015 goals for global safe water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin

    2012-12-01

    The advent and rapid spread of sachet drinking water in West Africa presents a new challenge for providing sustainable access to global safe water. Sachet water has expanded drinking water access and is often of sufficient quality to serve as an improved water source for Millennium Development Goals (MDG) monitoring purposes, yet sachets are an unsustainable water delivery vehicle due to their overwhelming plastic waste burden. Monitoring of primary drinking water sources in West Africa generally ignores sachet water, despite its growing ubiquity. Sub-Saharan Africa as a region is unlikely to meet the MDG Target for drinking water provision, and post-2015 monitoring activities may depend upon rapid adaptability to local drinking water trends. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  16. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  17. Influence of a Game-Based Application on Secondary School Students' Safe Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Gürhan; Cankaya, Serkan; Yünkül, Eyup; Taylan, Ufuk; Erten, Emine; Akpinar, Sükran

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a game called Wild Web Woods (WWW) designed by the European Council for safe Internet use on secondary school students' safe Internet use. In line with this purpose, for the purpose of determining the students' awareness of safe Internet use, a total of 504 students from different…

  18. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage.

  19. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential in preventing foodborne illness. You can't see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food preparation, follow the four guidelines to keep food safe: ...

  20. More than a Safe Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  1. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.

  2. Choosing and Using Safe Water Technologies: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Luoto, Jill Emily

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the decision-making of poor rural Kenyan households with respect to the adoption of point-of-use (POU) safe water technologies designed to expand access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Low-cost POU products such as chlorine and filters substantially reduce diarrhea, which kills two million children in poor countries each year. Nevertheless, POU products remain little used in many parts of the developing world, even when they are widely available at s...

  3. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative (www.safetots.org) has been set up during the last year to focus...... on the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia. This initiative aims to provide guidance on markers of quality anesthesia care. The introduction and implementation of national regulations of 'who, where, when and how' are required and will result in an improved perioperative outcome in vulnerable children....... The improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the safetots.org initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps...

  4. Australian print news media coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic drinks sends mixed health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to analyse the contribution of Australian print news coverage to the public profile of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages. News media portrayal of health contributes to individuals' decision-making. The focus on sugar-sweetened beverages reflects their contribution to excessive energy intake. One year's coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages by major Australian newspapers was analysed using content and frame analysis. Research questions addressed which sweet drinks are most prominently covered, what makes sweet drinks newsworthy and how are the health aspects of sweet drinks framed? Fruit juice was the most widely covered sweet drink, closely followed by carbonated, sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Overall coverage was positively oriented towards sweet drinks, with fruit juice primarily portrayed as having health benefits. Some coverage mentioned risks of sweet drinks, such as obesity, tooth decay, metabolic syndrome and heart attack. Sweet drinks often enjoy positive coverage, with their health benefits and harms central to their ability to attract journalists' attention. However, the mix of coverage may be contributing to consumer confusion about whether it is safe and/or healthy to consume sweet non-alcoholic drinks. Framing of sweet drinks as healthy may undermine efforts to encourage individuals to avoid excess consumption of energy-dense drinks which offer few or minimal health benefits. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. The control of potential health risks related to drinking water in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, T A

    1981-04-01

    In the United Kingdom, potable water put into supply is required to be 'wholesome'. The term 'wholesome' is interpreted as clear, palatable and safe to drink. About 99% of potable supplies are provided by Regional Water Authorities and Water Companies (for England and Wales), Regional Councils and Island Councils (for Scotland) and the Department of the Environment (NI) (for Northern Ireland). These water authorities draw their raw water from upland surface waters, lowland surface waters (including lakes and rivers) and underground waters. Although each source provides approximately one-third of supply, the proportion varies considerably in different parts of the UK. Consequently the control of potential health risks related to drinking water also varies according to the source of supply. The paper describes briefly the treatment practice for the various sources, including disinfection practice. More specifically the paper describes current UK practice or developments in the control or investigation of plumbosolvency, fluoridation, nitrate, trihalomethanes, other organic micropollutants, sodium, asbestos and tar linings in pipes. The possibilities for the surveillance of the 1% of private supplies are also discussed.

  6. [Parasitic zoonoses transmitted by drinking water. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, M; Gornik, V

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, the parasitic zoonose organisms Giardia lamblia und Cryptosporidium spp. are among the most relevant pathogens of drinking water-associated disease outbreaks. These pathogens are transmitted via a fecal-oral route; in both cases the dose of infection is low. Apart from person-to-person or animal-to-person transmissions, the consumption of contaminated food and water are further modes of transmission. The disease is mainly characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. In industrialized countries, the prevalence rate of giardiasis is 2-5 % and of cryptosporidiosis 1-3%. Throughout the world, a large number of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with drinking water were published; in 2001 the first case in Germany was identified. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are detected in surface water and sporadically in unprotected groundwater. Use of these waters for drinking water abstraction makes high demands on the technology of the treatment process: because of the disinfectant resistance of the parasites, safe elimination methods are needed, which even at high contamination levels of source water guarantee safe drinking water. Further measures for prevention and control are implementation of the HACCP concept, which includes the whole chain of procedures of drinking water supply from catchment via treatment to tap and a quality management system.

  7. Drinking Water - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dialect)) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention French (français) Expand Section Keep Food and Water Safe After a Disaster or Emergency - English HTML Keep Food and Water Safe After a Disaster or Emergency - français (French) HTML Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Haitian ...

  8. Drinking to the Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman; Larsen, Anton Grau

    2014-01-01

    of economic, cultural and inherited capital are more responsive to alcohol-related health messages than respondents (and especially males) occupying positions low in the social space. This, however, does not mean that respondents from dominant groups have ‘safe’ drinking habits, as these are defined......The aim of this article is to analyse social status differences in alcohol norms and practices seen from the perspective of ‘health governance’. Survey data on 1442 employees in a middle-sized, Danish firm are used to construct a Bourdieu-inspired social space, tied to four forms of capital......: economic, cultural, inherited and organisational. A range of variables measuring alcohol norms, drinking practices and alcohol-related problems are then inserted into the space. This article identifies status differences in the employees’ drinking patterns indicating that respondents with large amounts...

  9. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sun is by using these tips for skin cancer prevention. Indoor tanning is not a safe way to get vitamin ... to previous findings on the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer. Only a small number of people reported ...

  10. Dukovany NPP - Safely 16 TERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this presentation increasing of power output of the Dukovany NPP is reviewed. To operate all Dukovany Units safely with the perspective of long-term operation (LTO) of 50 - 60 years it is proposed.

  11. Safe handling of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discussed the subjects related to the safe handling of radiation sources: type of radiation sources, method of use: transport within premises, transport outside premises; Disposal of Gamma Sources

  12. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  13. Drinking Water in your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people choose to filter or test the drinking water that comes out of their tap or from their private well for a variety of reasons. And whether at home, at work or while traveling, many Americans drink bottled water.

  14. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard drinks you're being served in a restaurant or bar that uses large glasses and generous ... drinking habits. For more information, see A Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk? Pace yourself: ...

  15. CHARACTERIZING THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE AND CHLORAMINES ON THE FORMATION OF BIOFILM IN A SIMULATED DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking wate treatment in the US has played a major role in protecting public health through the reduction of wateborne disease. However, carcinogenic and toxic contaminants continue to threaten the quality of surface and ground water in the US. The passage of the Safe Drinking ...

  16. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices. PMID:26258790

  17. Towards Safe Robotic Surgical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    a controller for motion compensation in beating-heart surgery, and prove that it is safe, i.e., the surgical tool is kept within an allowable distance and orientation of the heart. We solve the problem by simultaneously finding a control law and a barrier function. The motion compensation system is simulated...... from several initial conditions to demonstrate that the designed control system is safe for every admissible initial condition....

  18. Safe use of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    Based on the ''Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use'' (CIS 74-423), this handbook shows how hospital staff can avoid exposing themselves and others to these hazards. It is designed particularly for junior and student nurses. Contents: ionizing radiations, their types and characteristics; their uses and dangers; basic principles in their safe use; safe use in practice; explanation of terms.

  19. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  20. Who drinks where: youth selection of drinking contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Mair, Christina F; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J; Grube, Joel W

    2015-04-01

    Different drinkers may experience specific risks depending on where they consume alcohol. This longitudinal study examined drinking patterns, and demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with youth drinking in different contexts. We used survey data from 665 past-year alcohol-using youths (ages 13 to 16 at Wave 1) in 50 midsized California cities. Measures of drinking behaviors and drinking in 7 contexts were obtained at 3 annual time points. Other characteristics included gender, age, race, parental education, weekly disposable income, general deviance, and past-year cigarette smoking. Results of multilevel regression analyses show that more frequent past-year alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of drinking at parties and at someone else's home. Greater continued volumes of alcohol (i.e., heavier drinking) was associated with increased likelihood of drinking at parking lots or street corners. Deviance was positively associated with drinking in most contexts, and past-year cigarette smoking was positively associated with drinking at beaches or parks and someone else's home. Age and deviance were positively associated with drinking in a greater number of contexts. The likelihood of youth drinking at parties and someone else's home increased over time, whereas the likelihood of drinking at parking lots/street corners decreased. Also, deviant youths progress to drinking in their own home, beaches or parks, and restaurants/bars/nightclubs more rapidly. The contexts in which youths consume alcohol change over time. These changes vary by individual characteristics. The redistribution of drinking contexts over the early life course may contribute to specific risks associated with different drinking contexts. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Rethink Your Drink!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of drinking a lot of water.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  2. Identification of soft drinks using MEMS-IDT microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Karjathkar, Sonal; Jacesko, Stefany; Varadan, Vijay K.; Gardner, Julian W.

    2005-05-01

    Development of a taste sensor with high sensitivity, stability and selectivity is highly desirable for the food and beverage industries. The main goal of a taste sensor is to reproduce five kinds of senses of humans, which is quite difficult. The importance of knowing quality of beverages and drinking water has been recognized as a result of increase in concern in environmental pollution issues. However, no accurate measuring system appropriate for quality evaluation of beverages is available. A highly sensitive microsensor using horizontally polarized Surface Acoustic Waves (SH-SAW) for the detection and identification of soft drinks is presented in this paper. Different soft drinks were tested using this sensor and the results which could distinguish between two popular soft drinks like Pepsi and Coca cola is presented in this paper. The SH-SAW microsensors are fabricated on 36°-rotated Y cut X propagating LiTaO3 (36YX.LT) substrate. This design consists of a dual delay line configuration in which one line is free and other one is metallized and shielded. Due to high electromechanical coupling of 36YX.LT, it could detect difference in electrical properties and hence to distinguish different soft drinks. Measured electrical characteristics of these soft drinks at X-band frequency using free space system show distinguishable results. It is clear from these results that the microsensor based on 36YX.LT is an effective liquid identification system for quantifying human sensory expressions.

  3. Drinking games and contextual factors of 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Chen, Chun-Han

    2014-09-01

    21st birthday celebrations are among the highest risks for alcohol use throughout emerging adulthood and celebrants often experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. The present research considered what happens when drinking games are paired with an already high-risk event (i.e., 21st birthday celebrations) and how drinking games compare with other contextual factors on 21st birthdays. Approximately four days after turning 21, 1124 college students (55% women) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and related consequences experienced during their birthday celebrations. Participants were also asked whether drinking games and other contextual factors were associated with their celebrations. Overall, 18% of participants reported playing drinking games during their 21st birthday celebrations. These individuals reported consuming more alcohol, had higher estimated BACs, and experienced more negative consequences than those who did not play drinking games. The association between playing drinking games and alcohol use and negative consequences was stronger for men. The effect of drinking games on negative consequences was mediated through elevated BAC levels. Receiving bar specials, having drinks purchased, playing drinking games, and loud music were uniquely and significantly associated with all alcohol outcomes. Together, these results suggest that drinking games are part of a larger context of risk contributing to extreme drinking on 21st birthdays. Furthermore, these results will help to facilitate interventions that are more individually tailored to target specific contextual risks, behaviors, and events.

  4. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided.

  5. ATP measurements for monitoring microbial drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin

    Current standard methods for surveillance of microbial drinking water quality are culture based, which are laborious and time-consuming, where results not are available before one to three days after sampling. This means that the water may have been consumed before results on deteriorated water....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate various methodological features of the ATP assay for a potential implementation on a sensor platform as a real-time parameter for continuous on-line monitoring of microbial drinking water quality. Commercial reagents are commonly used to determine ATP......, microbial quality in distributed water, detection of aftergrowth, biofilm formation etc. This PhD project demonstrated that ATP levels are relatively low and fairly stable in drinking water without chlorine residual despite different sampling locations, different drinking water systems and time of year...

  6. Spent Pot Lining Characterization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Gustavo; Hassan, Mohamed I.

    2017-09-01

    Spent pot lining (SPL) management represents a major concern for aluminum smelters. There are two key elements for spent pot lining management: recycling and safe storage. Spent pot lining waste can potentially have beneficial uses in co-firing in cement plants. Also, safe storage of SPL is of utmost importance. Gas generation of SPL reaction with water and ignition sensitivity must be studied. However, determining the feasibility of SPL co-firing and developing the required procedures for safe storage rely on determining experimentally all the necessary SPL properties along with the appropriate test methods, recognized by emissions standards and fire safety design codes. The applicable regulations and relevant SPL properties for this purpose are presented along with the corresponding test methods.

  7. Inherently safe light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Takeharu

    1987-01-01

    Today's large nuclear power reactors of world-wise use have been designed based on the philosophy. It seems that recent less electricity demand rates, higher capital cost and the TMI accident let us acknowledge relative small and simplified nuclear plants with safer features, and that Chernobyl accident in 1983 underlines the needs of intrinsic and passive safety characteristics. In such background, several inherently safe reactor concepts have been presented abroad and domestically. First describing 'Can inherently safe reactors be designed,' then I introduce representative reactor concepts of inherently safe LWRs advocated abroad so far. All of these innovative reactors employ intrinsic and passive features in their design, as follows: (1) PIUS, an acronym for Process Inherent Ultimate Safety, or an integral PWR with passive heat sink and passive shutdown mechanism, advocated by ASEA-ATOM of Sweden. (2) MAP(Minimum Attention Plant), or a self-pressurized, natural circulation integral PWR, promoted by CE Inc. of the U.S. (3) TPS(TRIGA Power System), or a compact PWR with passive heat sink and inherent fuel characteristics of large prompt temperature coefficient, prompted by GA Technologies Inc. of the U.S. (4) PIUS-BWR, or an inherently safe BWR employing passively actuated fluid valves, in competition with PIUS, prompted by ORNL of the U.S. Then, I will describe the domestic trends in Japan and the innovative inherently safe LWRs presented domestically so far. (author)

  8. Radioactivity monitoring in drinking water of Zahedan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    The present research has focused on the effect of radioactivity on drinking water from five sites in the region of Zahedan city. Materials and Methods: The measurement of water activity in wells, river and spring has been used as a screening method. The determination of gamma emitters was performed by use the application of gamma spectrometry. Results: The values of Radium concentration was between less than 2 mBq/l to 3±0.4 for water wells, 5±0.4 mBq/L for river, and less than 2 mBq/L for spring. Conclusion: All values of activity in the selected water samples were lower than the permissible limit for drinking water consumption. The water was safe for drinking, washing and agricultural use

  9. Drinking water disinfection by means of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelzhaeuser, P.; Bewig, F.; Holm, K.; Kryschi, R.; Reich, G.; Steuer, W.

    1985-01-01

    The book presents all lectures held during a course at Technical Academy Esslingen, on September 10, 1985, on the subject of 'Drinking water disinfection by means of ultraviolet radiation'. The methods hitherto used for disinfection are no longer suitable because of the increasing amounts of organic pollutants found in the untreated water, and because of the necessity to make drinking water disinfection less expensive, non-polluting and thus environmentally compatible. U.V. irradiation is a method allowing technically simple and safe disinfection of the water, and also does not have any effect on the natural taste of the drinking water. The lectures presented discuss all aspects of the method, the equipment, and the performance of irradiation systems in practice. (orig./PW) [de

  10. Preliminary study for a micro-scale hydro power plant on the main drinking-water supply line connecting the municipal reservoir to the springs in Caviano, southern Switzerland; Realizzazione di una microcentrale idroelettrica sulla condotta di adduzione tra le captazioni delle sorgenti e il serbatoio di Caviano. Studio preliminare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, M.

    2008-01-15

    This report presents the comparative evaluation of two variants for the replacement/refurbishment work of the main drinking-water supply line from the location of the water collection to the water reservoirs of the community of Caviano, southern Switzerland. The question arising is whether this retrofitting work could be financed by the benefit from the sale of electricity that could be produced by a new micro-scale power plant foreseen on the supply line, to take advantage of the elevation difference of 445 m between water collection and water reservoir. From the technical point of view the project is feasible. The available water flow rate is nearly constant: about 5 l/s. The corresponding power of the electric generator would be 15 kW and the yearly power production 130,000 kWh. However, in the second variant, the power would be 9 kW and the production 80,000 kWh, as only 265 m elevation difference would be used for power generation. In this case, the upper part of the water supply line, which connects the water collection to an intermediate water reservoir supplying the upper hamlet of the community, would neither be used for power generation nor be retrofitted. According to Swiss regulations the generated electricity could be sold at CHF 0.30/kWh and CHF 0.34/kWh, respectively. In the first variant it is concluded that 76% of the total annual capital and maintenance cost for retrofitting work and power plant, CHF 52,000/y for 50 years, could be covered by electricity sales. The community would still have to finance CHF 13,000/y, compared to CHF 30,000/y if the power plant is not built. In the second variant the corresponding figures are 49% of the total of CHF 33,700/y, and CHF 6,400/y to additionally finance compared to CHF 15,400/y if the power plant is not built. However, in the second variant the community would anyway have to finance later on the retrofitting of the upper part of the water supply line.

  11. Unintended consequences of regulating drinking water in rural Canadian communities: examples from Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Megan; Castleden, Heather; Gagnon, Graham A

    2011-09-01

    Studies that explore social capital and political will [corrected] in the context of safe drinking water provision in [corrected] Canada are limited. This paper presents findings from a study that examines the capacity of rural Canadian communities to attain regulatory compliance for drinking water. Interviews were conducted with water operators and managers in ten rural communities across Atlantic Canada to identify the burden of compliance arising from the implementation of, and adherence to, drinking water regulations. This research identifies the operator as being particularly burdened by regulatory compliance, often resulting in negative consequences including job stress and a strained relationship with the community they serve. Findings indicate that while regulations are vital to ensuring safe drinking water, not all communities have the resources in place to rise to the challenge of compliance. As a result, some communities are being negatively impacted by these regulations, rather than benefit from their intended positive effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. How dogs drink water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  13. Prospects for inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    Public fears over nuclear safety have led some within the nuclear community to investigate the possibility of producing inherently safe nuclear reactors; that is, reactors that are transparently incapable of producing a core melt. While several promising designs of such reactors have been produced, support for large-scale research and development efforts has not been forthcoming. The prospects for commercialization of inherently safe reactors, therefore, are problematic; possible events such as further nuclear reactor accidents and superpower summits, could alter the present situation significantly. (author)

  14. Is nuclear power safe enough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, A F [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1979-01-01

    The lecture formed a commentary on the report of the Norwegian Government's Commission on Nuclear power Safety which was published in October 1978. It was introductorily pointed out that 'safe' and 'safety' are not in themselves meaningful terms and that the probability of an occurrence is the real measure. The main items in the Commission's report have been core meltdown, releases during reprocessing, waste disposal, plutonium diversion and environmental impacts. The 21 members of the Commission were unanimous in 7 of the 8 chapters. In chapter 2, 'Summary and Conclusions', 3 members dissented from the majority opinion, that, subject to certain conditions, nuclear power was a safe and acceptable source of energy.

  15. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  16. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  17. Cross-connection control of the potable water lines at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.M.

    1996-04-01

    A 1991 independent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) audit of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified the need for establishing a cross-connection control program for the potable and nonpotable water systems at the facility. An informal cross-connection policy had been in place for some time, but the formal implementation of a cross-connection program brought together individuals from the Quality Engineering and Inspection Section of the Office of Quality Programs and Inspection, Industrial Hygiene, Health Physics, Plant and Equipment Division, and the Atomic Trade and Labor Council. In January 1994 a Cross-Connection Control Committee was established at ORNL to identify potential and actual cross connections between potable and nonpotable water systems. Potable water is safe to drink, and nonpotable or process water (e.g., sewage, laboratory wastewater, cooling water, and tower water) is not intended for human consumption, washing of the body, or food preparation. The program is intended to conform with the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment of 1986 and with state and local regulations. Although the Occupational Safety and Health Administration addresses cross-connection functions, it does not define specific program requirements. The program at ORNL is designed to ensure that necessary recommendations are implemented to safeguard all internal and external potable water distribution lines. Program responsibilities include a thorough engineering assessment to (1) identify the potable water lines, (2) identify any existing or potential cross connections, and (3) inspect the integrity of the water lines. If any cross-connection deficiencies are found, corrective actions are initiated according to industry standards.

  18. Problematic Drinking Among Postgraduate Students: Binge Drinking, Prepartying, and Mixing Alcohol With Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F

    2016-07-02

    Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.

  19. Comparison and Cost Analysis of Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Requirements versus Practice in Seven Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country’s ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states), Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, ...

  20. Late-Life Drinking Problems: The Predictive Roles of Drinking Level vs. Drinking Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Holahan, Carole K; Hixon, J Gregory; Moos, Rudolf H

    2017-05-01

    Research on late-middle-aged and older adults has focused primarily on average level of alcohol consumption, overlooking variability in underlying drinking patterns. The purpose of the present study was to examine the independent contributions of an episodic heavy pattern of drinking versus a high average level of drinking as prospective predictors of drinking problems. The sample comprised 1,107 adults ages 55-65 years at baseline. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and drinking problems were indexed across 20 years. We used prospective negative binomial regression analyses controlling for baseline drinking problems, as well as for demographic and health factors, to predict the number of drinking problems at each of four follow-up waves (1, 4, 10, and 20 years). Across waves where the effects were significant, a high average level of drinking (coefficients of 1.56, 95% CI [1.24, 1.95]; 1.48, 95% CI [1.11, 1.98]; and 1.85, 95% CI [1.23, 2.79] at 1, 10, and 20 years) and an episodic heavy pattern of drinking (coefficients of 1.61, 95% CI [1.30, 1.99]; 1.61, 95% CI [1.28, 2.03]; and 1.43, 95% CI [1.08, 1.90] at 1, 4, and 10 years) each independently increased the number of drinking problems by more than 50%. Information based only on average consumption underestimates the risk of drinking problems among older adults. Both a high average level of drinking and an episodic heavy pattern of drinking pose prospective risks of later drinking problems among older adults.

  1. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behaviour among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviours such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. Objective. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. Design. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Results. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. Conclusion. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviours among students of various ethnic groups.

  2. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...

  3. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  4. How Safe Are Our Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Lifer, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Addresses issues of safety and security in libraries. Topics discussed include keeping library collections safe; patron behavioral problems; factoring loss into the budget; staff theft; access versus security; apathy regarding library crime; a need for a unified security apparatus; preventive measures; staff and patron safety; and a…

  5. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  6. Staying Safe on the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-05

    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  7. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow

  8. Working safely with ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A small leaflet provides information on working safely with ionizing radiation. Topics covered include the types of radiation, radiological units, external radiation, contamination and internal radiation, methods of protection form radiation, radiation monitors, protective clothing for contamination, personal dosemeters, radiation dose limits for classified workers and finally the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. (UK)

  9. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating the vulnerability, the safety aspect defined by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - ABNT norm NBR ISO/IEC 27002 which will be violated, which lines of code generate the vulnerability and what should be done to avoid it, and the threat agent used by each of them. This classification allows the identification of possible points of vulnerability, allowing the developer to correct the identified gaps.

  10. The challenge of improving boiling: lessons learned from a randomized controlled trial of water pasteurization and safe storage in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, K; Rocha, C A; Quick, R E; Montano, S M; Tilley, D H; Mock, C N; Carrasco, A J; Cabrera, R M; Hawes, S E

    2016-07-01

    Boiling is the most common method of household water treatment in developing countries; however, it is not always effectively practised. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 210 households to assess the effectiveness of water pasteurization and safe-storage interventions in reducing Escherichia coli contamination of household drinking water in a water-boiling population in rural Peru. Households were randomized to receive either a safe-storage container or a safe-storage container plus water pasteurization indicator or to a control group. During a 13-week follow-up period, households that received a safe-storage container and water pasteurization indicator did not have a significantly different prevalence of stored drinking-water contamination relative to the control group [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·92-1·52]. Similarly, receipt of a safe-storage container alone had no effect on prevalence of contamination (PR 1·02, 95% CI 0·79-1·31). Although use of water pasteurization indicators and locally available storage containers did not increase the safety of household drinking water in this study, future research could illuminate factors that facilitate the effective use of these interventions to improve water quality and reduce the risk of waterborne disease in populations that boil drinking water.

  11. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magtibay, Bonifacio; Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems - source, storage and distribution - the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster.

  12. Quality of drinking water in Italy in relation to WHO guidelines and European community and national regulations; Stato di qualita` delle acque potabili in Italia in relazione alle linee guida dell`Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanita` e alla normativa comunitaria e nazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, E [Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1995-09-01

    The causes and processes of contamination, as well as the possible human health implications for the main contaminants of drinking water are described. The quality of drinking water in Italy is defined through the comparison of the pollutant levels with the World Health Organization guidelines published in 1993 and the USEPA HAs (Health Advisories) of 1994 (annexed to the report).

  13. Book Review: Taste, color, and odor in drinking water (Introduction, Detection, and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Dobaradaran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to safe drinking water to protect human health and also for society development is necessary. With regards to population growing, industrial and economic development, serious harms on the quality and quantity of water resources are increasing. Considering the increasing pollution of water resources and the need for access to safe drinking water, understanding and knowledge of the water components in terms of planning, design and operation of water projects seems necessary. Beside this, knowledge about drinking water quality standards and its criteria in terms of health and pleasant for all people in this region (scientists, designers, engineers, operators and consultants is absolutely important. Production of drinking water in water treatment plants with considering primary health standards is of essential concern but attention to aesthetic aspects in drinking water sources must be also considered to increase public confidence about their drinking water sources. According to secondary standards for drinking water the contents of aesthetic parameters including color, odor and taste must be low and acceptable. In the present book the sources of color, odor and taste, measurement methods and removal of each cited parameter is discussed. Finally, the step by step design for removal systems of color, odor and taste in the particular circumstances are also considered with introducing case design. This book is recommended to students and researches in the field of environmental health engineering, environmental science and related sciences. This book can also be used in the design and operation of water treatment plants by designers, operators and all those involvedpublic.

  14. Talking to your teen about drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has been drinking. How Problems at Home Might Influence Children to Drink Risky drinking or alcohol use in the home can lead to the same habits in children. At an early age, children become aware of the drinking patterns of their parents. Children are more likely to drink if: Conflict ...

  15. Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    much lower, and the performance gained can dramatically reduce life -cycle costs. Validated cost data are scarce, and accurate AM cost models need to be...reduce costs, minimize obsolescence issues and improve both capability and readi- ness across the entire life cycle of naval systems—including both the...of naval weapon systems. The Navy is actively engaging its various communi- ties to align needs and ensure that AM can be safely acceler- ated and

  16. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  17. Safe affordable fission engine (SAFE 30) module conductivity test thermal model correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Jose

    2001-01-01

    The SAFE 30 is a simple, robust space fission power system that is comprised of several independent modules. Each module contains 4 fuel tubes bonded to a central heatpipe. Fission energy is conducted from the fuel tubes to the heatpipe, which in turn transfers the energy to a power conversion system. This paper benchmarks a thermal model of the SAFE 30 with actual test data from simulated SAFE 30 module tests. Two 'dummy' SAFE 30 modules were fabricated - each consisted of 4 1-inch dia. tubes (simulating the fuel tubes) bonded to a central '1' dia. tube (simulating the heatpipe). In the first module the fuel tubes were simply brazed to the heatpipe along the line of contact (leaving void space in the interstices), and in the second module the tubes and heatpipe were brazed via tri-cusps that completely fill the interstices between the tubes. In these tests, fission energy is simulated by placing resistance heaters within each of the 4 fuel tubes. The tests were conducted in a vacuum chamber in 4 configurations: tri-cusps filled with and without an outer insulation wrap, and no tri-cusps with and without an outer insulation wrap. The baseline SAFE 30 configuration uses the brazed tri-cusps. During the tests, the power applied to the heaters was varied in a stepwise fashion, until a steady-state temperature profile was reached. These temperature levels varied between 773 K and 1073 K. To benchmark the thermal model, the input energy and chamber surface temperature were used as boundary conditions for the model. The analytical results from the nodes at the same location as the test thermocouples were plotted again test data to determinate the accuracy of the analysis. The unknown variables on the analysis are the radiation emissivity of the pipe and chamber and the radiation view factor between the module and the chamber. A correlation was determined using a parametric analysis by varying the surface emissivity and view factor until a good match was reached. This

  18. Lower Colorado River GRP Drinking Water Protection Area Buffers for Non-Transient Wells, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Water Pollution Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). Buffers include community wells and non-transient non-community...

  19. Rethink Your Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Phyllis; Patton-Ku, Dana; Fidler, Cheri; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are linked to obesity; hospitals are a priority setting to reduce intake. This article describes the development, implementation, and results of a focused intervention to reduce SSB sales within a hospital setting. After a formative research process, Rethink Your Drink was launched at a children's hospital in San Diego. The initiative consisted of an educational intervention using the stoplight system to categorize beverages as red, yellow, or green based on sugar content. Beverage sales data were collected for 3 months prior, during the 12-month intervention, and for 4 months after the intervention ended. Monthly red beverage sales decreased from an average of 56% during baseline to 32% at the end of the data collection period (p sales increased from an average of 12.2% during baseline to 38% at the end of the data collection period (p Sales revenue for all drinks remained constant. The intervention resulted in a decrease in SSB sales and an increase in sales of healthier beverage choices. Such interventions can play an important role in obesity prevention and may be more feasible for smaller hospitals with limited resources.

  20. The color red reduces snack food and soft drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genschow, Oliver; Reutner, Leonie; Wänke, Michaela

    2012-04-01

    Based on evidence that the color red elicits avoidance motivation across contexts (Mehta & Zhu, 2009), two studies investigated the effect of the color red on snack food and soft drink consumption. In line with our hypothesis, participants drank less from a red labeled cup than from a blue labeled cup (Study 1), and ate less snack food from a red plate than from a blue or white plate (Study 2). The results suggest that red functions as a subtle stop signal that works outside of focused awareness and thereby reduces incidental food and drink intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hostility, drinking pattern and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Stephen H; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality.......This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality....

  2. Biofilm in drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, Pietrangela

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial growth in drinking waters is today controlled adding small and non toxic quantities of sanitising products. An innovative electrochemical biofilm monitoring system, already successfully applied in industrial waters, could be confirmed as an effective diagnostic tool of water quality also for drinking distributions systems [it

  3. How safe are nuclear plants? How safe should they be?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.

    1988-01-01

    It has become customary to think about safety of nuclear plants in terms of risk as defined by the WASH-1400 study that some of the implications for the non-specialist escape our attention. Yet it is known that a rational program to understand safety, to identify unsafe events, and to use this kind of information or analysis to improve safety, requires us to use the methods of quantitative risk assessment. How this process can be made more understandable to a broader group of nontechnical people and how can a wider acceptance of the results of the process be developed have been questions under study and are addressed in this report. These are questions that have been struggled with for some time in the world of nuclear plant safety. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission examined them for several years as it moved toward developing a position on safety goals for nuclear plants, a requirement that had been assigned it by Congress. Opinion was sought from a broad spectrum of individuals, within the field of nuclear power and outside it, on the topic that was popularly called, ''How safe is safe enough?'' Views were solicited on the answer to the question and also on the way the answer should be framed when it was adopted. This report discusses the public policy and its implementation

  4. Determination of Selected Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in Drinking Water by Solid Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) required EPA to establish a Contaminant Candidate List (CCL), that contains a list of drinking water contaminants that the Agency will consider for future regulation. EPA must make a regulatory determination on a minimum ...

  5. Small intrinsically safe reactor implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Reviewing the history of nuclear power, it is found that peaceful uses of nuclear power are children of the war-like atom. Importance of special growth in a shielded environment is emphasized to exploit fully the advantages of nuclear power. Nuclear power reactors must be safe for their assimilation into society from the points of view of both technology and social psychology. ISR/ISER is identified as a missing link in the development of nuclear power reactors from this perspective and advocated for international development and utilization, being unleashed from the concerns of politicization, safety, and proliferation

  6. Mifrenz: Safe email for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hunt

    Full Text Available Products currently available for monitoring children\\'s email usage are either considered to encourage dubious ethical behaviour or are time consuming for parents to administer. This paper describes the development of a new email client application for children called Mifrenz. This new application gives parents the ability to let their children safely use email, with the minimum of intervention. It was developed using mostly free software and also with the desire to provide real first hand programming examples to demonstrate to students.

  7. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  8. Safe and Secure Services Based on NGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Tomoo; Nisase, Takemi; Kawashima, Masahisa; Hariu, Takeo; Oshima, Yoshihito

    Next Generation Network (NGN), which has been undergoing standardization as it has developed, is expected to create new services that converge the fixed and mobile networks. This paper introduces the basic requirements for NGN in terms of security and explains the standardization activities, in particular, the requirements for the security function described in Y.2701 discussed in ITU-T SG-13. In addition to the basic NGN security function, requirements for NGN authentication are also described from three aspects: security, deployability, and service. As examples of authentication implementation, three profiles-namely, fixed, nomadic, and mobile-are defined in this paper. That is, the “fixed profile” is typically for fixed-line subscribers, the “nomadic profile” basically utilizes WiFi access points, and the “mobile profile” provides ideal NGN mobility for mobile subscribers. All three of these profiles satisfy the requirements from security aspects. The three profiles are compared from the viewpoint of requirements for deployability and service. After showing that none of the three profiles can fulfill all of the requirements, we propose that multiple profiles should be used by NGN providers. As service and application examples, two promising NGN applications are proposed. The first is a strong authentication mechanism that makes Web applications more safe and secure even against password theft. It is based on NGN ID federation function. The second provides an easy peer-to-peer broadband virtual private network service aimed at safe and secure communication for personal/SOHO (small office, home office) users, based on NGN SIP (session initiation protocol) session control.

  9. Safe Driving After Propofol Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlin-Grady, Lee; Austin, Paul N; Gabaldon, Dion A

    2017-10-01

    Propofol is a short-acting medication with fast cognitive and psychomotor recovery. However, patients are usually instructed not to drive a motor vehicle for 24 hours after receiving propofol. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence examining when it is safe to drive after receiving propofol for sedation for diagnostic and surgical procedures. This is a systematic review of the literature. A search of the literature was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for the time period 1990 to 2015. Two randomized controlled trials and two observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a simulator, investigators examined driving ability of subjects who received modest doses (about 100 mg) of propofol for endoscopic procedures and surveyed subjects who drove immediately after discharge. There were methodological concerns with the studies such as small sample sizes, modest doses of propofol, and three of the four studies were done in Japan by the same group of investigators limiting generalizability. This limited research suggests that it may be safe for patients to drive sooner than 24 hours after receiving propofol. However, large multicenter trials using heterogenous samples using a range of propofol doses are needed to support an evidence-based revision to the current discharge guidelines for patients receiving propofol. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Keeping you safe by making machine tools safe

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN’s third safety objective for 2012 concerns the safety of equipment - and machine tools in particular.   There are three prerequisites for ensuring that a machine tool can be used safely: ·      the machine tool must comply with Directive 2009/104/EC, ·      the layout of the workshop must be compliant, and ·      everyone who uses the machine tool must be trained. Provided these conditions are met, the workshop head can grant authorisation to use the machine tool. To fulfil this objective, an inventory of the machine tools must be drawn up and the people responsible for them identified. The HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service produces compliance reports for the machine tools. In order to meet the third objective set by the Director-General, the section has doubled its capacity to carry out inspections: ...

  11. 78 FR 37463 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe Drinking Water Act... page 32570, with the table entitled ``ALTERNATIVE TESTING METHODS FOR CONTAMINANTS LISTED AT 40 CFR 141... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.25(a) SM 21st Edition SM 22nd Edition Contaminant Methodology \\1\\ \\28\\ ASTM...

  12. Efficacy of ablation at the anteroseptal line for the treatment of perimitral flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Abi-Saleh, MD, FACP, FACC, FHRS

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Ablation at the left atrial anteroseptal line is safe and efficacious for the treatment of PMF. Unlike ablation at the traditional mitral isthmus line, ablation at the left atrial anteroseptal line does not require ablation in the coronary sinus.

  13. Onsite defluoridation system for drinking water treatment using calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine Y; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2018-06-15

    Fluoride in drinking water has several effects on teeth and bones. At concentrations of 1-1.5 mg/L, fluoride can strengthen enamel, improving dental health, but at concentrations above 1.5 to 4 mg/L can cause dental fluorosis. At concentrations of 4-10 mg/L, skeletal fluorosis can occur. There are many areas of the world that have excessive fluoride in drinking water, such as China, India, Sri Lanka, and the Rift Valley countries in Africa. Treatment solutions are needed, especially in poor areas where drinking water treatment plants are not available. On-site or individual treatment alternatives can be attractive if constructed from common materials and if simple enough to be constructed and maintained by users. Advanced on-site methods, such as under sink reserve osmosis units, can remove fluoride but are too expensive for developing areas. This paper investigates calcium carbonate as a cost effective sorbent for an onsite defluoridation drinking water system. Batch and column experiments were performed to characterize F - removal properties. Fluoride sorption was described by a Freundlich isotherm model, and it was found that the equilibrium time was approximately 3 h. Calcium carbonate was found to have comparable F - removal abilities as the commercial ion exchange resins and possessed higher removal effectiveness compared to calcium containing eggshells and seashells. It was also found that the anion Cl- did not compete with F - at typical drinking water concentrations, having little impact on the effectiveness of the treatment system. A fluoride removal system is proposed that can be used at home and can be maintained by users. Through this work, we can be a step closer to bringing safe drinking water to those that do not have access to it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender equality in university sportspeople's drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Hunter, Jackie; Kypri, Kypros; Ali, Ajmol

    2008-11-01

    In large population-based alcohol studies males are shown consistently to drink more, and more hazardously, than females. However, research from some countries suggests that gender differences in drinking are converging, with females drinking more than in the past. Large population-based research may miss gender-based changes in drinking behaviours that occur in sub-populations most at risk of hazardous drinking. We examine gender differences in a sub-population where hazardous drinking is common and endorsed, namely university sportspeople. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a drinking motives measure were used to assess hazardous drinking behaviours and drinking motives in 631 university sportspeople (females = 331, 52%). There were no gender differences in AUDIT scores. However, drinking motives differed between genders, with coping motives being a significant predictor of hazardous drinking in females but not males. Hazardous drinking, including binge drinking (46.3%) and frequent binge drinking (35%), in New Zealand university sportspeople is high for both males and females. New Zealand university sportspeople are one population where gender differences in drinking are not apparent and run counter to European population based research and research in US sporting populations. Gender role equality in the university systems, and endorsement of drinking in sporting culture, may account for the lack of gender differences in this New Zealand sporting population. Future research on gender differences in drinking should examine sub-populations where gender role differentiation is low, and socio-cultural/structural factors supporting gender equality are high.

  15. The LHCb VELO analogue transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bay, A.; Borel, J.; Buytaert, J.; De Laere, S.; Frei, R.; Haefeli, G.; Koppenburg, P.; Locatelli, L.; Schneider, O.; Zehr, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Vertex Locator is one of the most important sub-detectors of the LHCb experiment, which is devoted to B physics. The signals from the silicon strip sensors are multiplexed at 40 MHz and transported by 60 m copper lines to the counting stations placed in a radiation safe area. This paper describes the development of this long transmission line and its performance.

  16. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease.

  17. Family Life and Alcohol Consumption: The Transmission of "Public" and "Private" Drinking Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, Mark; Valentine, Gill; Gould, Myles

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the transmission of drinking cultures within families. In particular, we highlight the differential and discursive construction of the home as a space where parents/carers are happy to introduce children to alcohol in a "safe" environment in opposition to public spaces which they consider to be locations where…

  18. Experts’ understandings of drinking water risk management in a climate change scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Boholm

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges for society presented by climate change are complex and demanding. This paper focuses on one particular resource of utmost necessity and vulnerability to climate change: namely, the provisioning of safe drinking water. From a critical perspective on the role of expertise in risk debates, this paper looks at how Swedish experts understand risk to drinking water in a climate change scenario and how they reason about challenges to risk management and adaptation strategies. The empirical material derives from ten in-depth semi-structured interviews with experts, employed both at government agencies and at universities, and with disciplinary backgrounds in a variety of fields (water engineering, planning, geology and environmental chemistry. The experts understand risk factors affecting both drinking water quality and availability as complex and systemically interrelated. A lack of political saliency of drinking water as a public service is identified as an obstacle to the development of robust adaptation strategies. Another area of concern relates to the geographical, organizational and institutional boundaries (regulatory, political and epistemological between the plethora of public actors with partly overlapping and sometimes unclear responsibilities for the provisioning of safe drinking water. The study concludes that climate change adaptation regarding drinking water provisioning will require a new integration of the knowledge of systemic risk relations, in combination with more efficient agency collaboration based on a clear demarcation of responsibility between actors.

  19. Consideration of rainwater quality parameters for drinking purposes: A case study in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minju; Kim, Mikyeong; Kim, Yonghwan; Han, Mooyoung

    2017-09-15

    Rainwater, which is used for drinking purposes near Hanoi, Vietnam, was analysed for water quality based on 1.5 years of monitoring data. In total, 23 samples were collected from different points within two rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs). Most parameters met the standard except micro-organisms. Coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were detected when the rainwater was not treated with ultraviolet (UV) light; however, analysis of rainwater after UV sterilisation showed no trace of micro-organisms. The RWHSs appear to provide drinking water of relatively good quality compared with surface water and groundwater. The superior quality of the rainwater suggests the necessity for new drinking rainwater standards because applying all of the drinking water quality standards to rainwater is highly inefficient. The traditionally implemented standards could cause more difficulties for developing countries using RWHSs installed decentralized as a source of drinking water, particularly in areas not well supplied with testing equipment, because such countries must bear the expense and time for these measures. This paper proposes the necessity of rainwater quality guideline, which could serve as a safe and cost-effective alternative to provide an access to safe drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000031.htm Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  1. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  2. US Adults Drink 17 Billion Binge Drinks a Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in dangerous driving, risky sexual behavior, and violent behavior. Over time, binge drinking also increases the ... Am J Prev Med 2018; 54(4). Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  3. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and biking, or high-intensity exercise such as soccer, basketball, or hockey). These drinks contain carbohydrates (sugar), ... look like a quick way to fill any nutrition gaps in your child's diet, but these nutrients ...

  4. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  5. Working safely with electronics racks

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head

    2016-01-01

    Think of CERN and you’ll probably think of particle accelerators and detectors. These are the tools of the trade in particle physics, but behind them are the racks of electronics that include power supplies, control systems and data acquisition networks.   Inside an electronics rack: danger could be lurking if the rack is not powered off. In routine operation, these are no more harmful than the home entertainment system in your living room. But unscrew the cover and it’s a different matter. Even after following appropriate training, and with formal authorisation from your group leader or equivalent to carry out electrical work or any work in the vicinity of electrical hazards, and even with extensive experience of carrying out such operations, it’s important to incorporate safe working practices into your routine. At CERN, before the racks of electronics reach their operational configurations for the accelerators and detectors, they play a vital role in test set-ups ...

  6. Workshop on Developing Safe Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Workshop on Developing Safe Software was held July 22--23, 1992, at the Hotel del Coronado, San Diego, California. The purpose of the workshop was to have four world experts discuss among themselves software safety issues which are of interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These issues concern the development of software systems for use in nuclear power plant protection systems. The workshop comprised four sessions. Wednesday morning, July 22, consisted of presentations from each of the four panel members. On Wednesday afternoon, the panel members went through a list of possible software development techniques and commented on them. The Thursday morning, July 23, session consisted of an extended discussion among the panel members and the observers from the NRC. A final session on Thursday afternoon consisted of a discussion among the NRC observers as to what was learned from the workshop

  7. Workshop on developing safe software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Workshop on Developing Safe Software was held July 22--23 at the Hotel del Coronado, San Diego, California. The purpose of the workshop was to have four world experts discuss among themselves software safety issues which are of interest to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These issues concern the development of software systems for use in nuclear power plant protection systems. The workshop comprised four sessions. Wednesday morning, July 22, consisted of presentations from each of the four panel members. On Wednesday afternoon, the panel members went through a list of possible software development techniques and commented on them. The Thursday morning, July 23, session consisted of an extended discussion among the panel members and the observers from the NRC. A final session on Thursday afternoon consisted of a discussion among the NRC observers as to what was teamed from the workshop

  8. The Difference Safe Spaces Make

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendric Coleman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT students have become very visible at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs, but this visibility is not reflected in some colleges’ student programs and activities. Only a few notable HBCUs, such as Howard University and Spelman College, have made a concerted effort. Acknowledging that the LGBT community is significant and exists, and fostering such support, comes up against a steep wall of religious tradition and doctrines, and conservative administrations. It is imperative that HBCUs address LGBT issues and create and support a safe space for students to articulate their identity. Meanwhile, many LGBT students on these campuses find voice and understanding in Black scholars and writers such as Audre Lorde’s Zami: A New Spelling of My Name and Charles Michael Smith’s Fighting Words: Personal Essays by Black Gay Men.

  9. Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2011-01-01

    of projections that covers a DCR Graph that the network of synchronously communicating DCR Graphs given by the projections is bisimilar to the original global process graph. We exemplify the distribution technique on a process identified in a case study of an cross-organizational case management system carried...... process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model....... The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe.We prove that for any vector...

  10. Spark-safe power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mester, I M; Konushkin, N A; Nevozinskiy, A K; Rubinshteyn, B Sh; Serov, V I; Vasnev, M A

    1981-01-01

    A shortcoming of the known power sources is their low reliability. The purpose of the invention is to improve the reliability of the device. This is achieved because the spark-safe power source is equipped with a by-passing transistor and potentiometer, and also a generator of control interruptions in the circuit, an I-element, first separating transformer, control block, second separating transformer whose secondary winding has a relay winding whose contacts are connected to the load circuit are connected in series. The generator of control separations of the circuit is connected to the base of the by-passing transistor and to the power source outlet, the potentiometer is connected in series to the main thyristor. The middle point of the potentiometer is connected to the second inlet of the I-element.

  11. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of chemicals in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, R J

    1985-12-01

    Isolated cases of careless handling of industrial and domestic waste has lead to a wide variety of dangerous chemicals being inadvertently introduced into drinking water. However, chemicals with established carcinogenic and mutagenic properties that occur with a high frequency and in multiple locations are limited in number. To date, the chief offenders have been chemicals of relatively low carcinogenic potency. Some of the more common chemicals are formed as by-products of disinfection. The latter process is generally regarded as essential to the production of a ''microbiologically safe'' drinking water. Consequently, any reductions in what may be a relatively small carcinogenic risk must be balanced against a potential for a higher frequency of waterborne infectious disease. The results of recent toxicological investigations will be reviewed to place the potential carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards frequently associated with drinking water into perspective. First, evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride is considered. Second, the carcinogenic activity that can be ascribed to various by-products of chlorination is reviewed in some detail. Finally, recent evidence that other chemicals derived from the treatment and distribution of drinking water is highlighted as an area requiring move systematic attention. 72 references.

  12. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  13. Developing Safe Schools Partnerships with Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, John

    2009-01-01

    Safe schools are the concern of communities throughout the world. If a school is safe, and if children feel safe, students "are better able to learn. But what are the steps to make" this happen? First, it is important to understand the problem: What are the threats to school safety? These include crime-related behaviors that find their way to…

  14. Toxicological risk assessment and prioritization of drinking water relevant contaminants of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baken, Kirsten A; Sjerps, Rosa M A; Schriks, Merijn; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2018-06-13

    Cramer class I substances and 4 μg/L for Cramer class III substances in drinking water were derived based on these CEC. These levels are in line with previously reported generic drinking water target levels based on original TTC values and are shown to be protective for health effects of the majority of contaminants of emerging concern evaluated in the present study. Since the human health impact of many chemicals appearing in the water cycle has been studied insufficiently, generic drinking water target levels are useful for early warning and prioritization of CEC with unknown toxicity in drinking water and its sources for future monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  16. Responsibility for drinking water; Verantwortung fuer Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lein, Peter [Ingenieurbuero Dipl.-Ing. Peter Lein, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Planners of drinking water supply systems, implementing sanitary companies as well as building owners probably can be made liable, if the user of drinking water supply systems suffer health damages by drinking water hygienic problems. The germinating of the drinking water with legionella often is the consequence of a not professional start-up of a plant immediately after completion.

  17. Safe Handover : Safe Patients - The Electronic Handover System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; Sall, Hanish; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Failure of effective handover is a major preventable cause of patient harm. We aimed to promote accurate recording of high-quality clinical information using an Electronic Handover System (EHS) that would contribute to a sustainable improvement in effective patient care and safety. Within our hospital the human factors associated with poor communication were compromising patient care and unnecessarily increasing the workload of staff due to the poor quality of handovers. Only half of handovers were understood by the doctors expected to complete them, and more than half of our medical staff felt it posed a risk to patient safety. We created a standardised proforma for handovers that contained specific sub-headings, re-classified patient risk assessments, and aided escalation of care by adding prompts for verbal handover. Sources of miscommunication were removed, accountability for handovers provided, and tasks were re-organised to reduce the workload of staff. Long-term, three-month data showed that each sub-heading achieved at least 80% compliance (an average improvement of approximately 40% for the overall quality of handovers). This translated into 91% of handovers being subjectively clear to junior doctors. 87% of medical staff felt we had reduced a risk to patient safety and 80% felt it increased continuity of care. Without guidance, doctors omit key information required for effective handover. All organisations should consider implementing an electronic handover system as a viable, sustainable and safe solution to handover of care that allows patient safety to remain at the heart of the NHS.

  18. Radiological investigation of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, E.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is made of the report ''Radiological investigation of drinking water'' submitted by a working group of WHO to the Brussels meeting held between Nov 7 and 10, 1978. Annex II is emphasized of the WHO publication bearing the title ''The revision of WHO standards for drinking water''. It is shown that the draft of the revision does not basically differ from the revision introduced in Czechoslovakia and published in a revised standard CSN 83 0611 Drinking Water from 1978, including its harmonization with the Decree 59/72 Collect. of Laws on the protection of health from ionizing radiation, and from the standard CSN 83 0523 Radiometric analysis of drinking water. It is also shown that the text of the working group report contains some incorrect or unclear statements and views, which is explained by the misunderstanding of some ICRP recommendations. (H.S.)

  19. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for...

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... costs include health care expenses, crime, and lost productivity. Binge drinking cost federal, state, and local governments ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Division of Population Health , Alcohol and Public Health , ...

  1. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  2. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  3. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  4. The Drinking Water Disparities Framework: On the Origins and Persistence of Inequities in Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Carolina L.; Ray, Isha

    2014-01-01

    With this article, we develop the Drinking Water Disparities Framework to explain environmental injustice in the context of drinking water in the United States. The framework builds on the social epidemiology and environmental justice literatures, and is populated with 5 years of field data (2005–2010) from California’s San Joaquin Valley. We trace the mechanisms through which natural, built, and sociopolitical factors work through state, county, community, and household actors to constrain access to safe water and to financial resources for communities. These constraints and regulatory failures produce social disparities in exposure to drinking water contaminants. Water system and household coping capacities lead, at best, to partial protection against exposure. This composite burden explains the origins and persistence of social disparities in exposure to drinking water contaminants. PMID:24524500

  5. A cross-sectional ecological study of spatial scale and geographic inequality in access to drinking-water and sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Weiyu; Bain, Robert ES; Mansour, Shawky; Wright, Jim A

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionMeasuring inequality in access to safe drinking-water and sanitation is proposed as a component of international monitoring following the expiry of the Millennium Development Goals. This study aims to evaluate the utility of census data in measuring geographic inequality in access to drinking-water and sanitation.MethodsSpatially referenced census data were acquired for Colombia, South Africa, Egypt, and Uganda, whilst non-spatially referenced census data were acquired for Kenya. ...

  6. Avoiding the Use of Exhausted Drinking Water Filters: A Filter-Clock Based on Rusting Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Igor Ndé-Tchoupé

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient but affordable water treatment technologies are currently sought to solve the prevalent shortage of safe drinking water. Adsorption-based technologies are in the front-line of these efforts. Upon proper design, universally applied materials (e.g., activated carbons, bone chars, metal oxides are able to quantitatively remove inorganic and organic pollutants as well as pathogens from water. Each water filter has a defined removal capacity and must be replaced when this capacity is exhausted. Operational experience has shown that it may be difficult to convince some low-skilled users to buy new filters after a predicted service life. This communication describes the quest to develop a filter-clock to encourage all users to change their filters after the designed service life. A brief discussion on such a filter-clock based on rusting of metallic iron (Fe0 is presented. Integrating such filter-clocks in the design of water filters is regarded as essential for safeguarding public health.

  7. HealthLines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink coffee a new study suggests. Researchers compared caffeine (the stimulant in coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks) and naps to see their effect on memory and learning. Researchers taught people in the study ...

  8. Safe Handover : Safe Patients – The Electronic Handover System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; Sall, Hanish; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Failure of effective handover is a major preventable cause of patient harm. We aimed to promote accurate recording of high-quality clinical information using an Electronic Handover System (EHS) that would contribute to a sustainable improvement in effective patient care and safety. Within our hospital the human factors associated with poor communication were compromising patient care and unnecessarily increasing the workload of staff due to the poor quality of handovers. Only half of handovers were understood by the doctors expected to complete them, and more than half of our medical staff felt it posed a risk to patient safety. We created a standardised proforma for handovers that contained specific sub-headings, re-classified patient risk assessments, and aided escalation of care by adding prompts for verbal handover. Sources of miscommunication were removed, accountability for handovers provided, and tasks were re-organised to reduce the workload of staff. Long-term, three-month data showed that each sub-heading achieved at least 80% compliance (an average improvement of approximately 40% for the overall quality of handovers). This translated into 91% of handovers being subjectively clear to junior doctors. 87% of medical staff felt we had reduced a risk to patient safety and 80% felt it increased continuity of care. Without guidance, doctors omit key information required for effective handover. All organisations should consider implementing an electronic handover system as a viable, sustainable and safe solution to handover of care that allows patient safety to remain at the heart of the NHS. PMID:26734244

  9. A Model of Safe Subcontracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    This report is an excerpt from Deliverable D1.4.1.3 of EU Project iNTeg-Risk. The model presented here is the result of Task 1.4.1 of the iNTeg-Risk project that addressed safety problems related to outsourcing and subcontracting of safety-critical tasks. Concerns have been raised over the effects...... of the fragmentation of work processes associated with subcontracting and outsourcing, where safety may be affected by heterogeneous safety cultures, distributed lines of responsibility, unclear ownership of safety responsibility, and sometimes lack of local knowledge or lack of core skills....

  10. Participatory Action Research in Marginalised Communities : safe drinking water in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rammelt, Crelis

    This paper provides an example of an application of participatory action research (PAR) to the current crisis of arsenic poisoning in rural Bangladesh. The approach was used to link the author’s doctoral research with the work of the Arsenic Mitigation and Research Foundation (AMRF), a small group

  11. 75 FR 70557 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... comments by referencing a Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part or section number. iii. Explain why you... the record in accordance with section 554 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). (15 U.S.C. 2615(a... referencing by parties unfamiliar with the referenced regulation. C. When do these policies and procedures...

  12. Report: Information Security Series: Security Practices Safe Drinking Water Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2006-P-00021, March 30, 2006. We found that the Office of Water (OW) substantially complied with many of the information security controls reviewed and had implemented practices to ensure production servers are monitored.

  13. Safe drinking water still a dream in rural areas of South Africa. Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From October to November 2004, and from July to September 2005, a survey of 55 plants was conducted in five District Municipalities (Cacadu, Chris Hani, Amathola, Ukhahlamba and O.R. Tambo) of the Eastern Cape Province, with the aim of examining the disinfection practices used in small rural systems of the Eastern ...

  14. Drink lots of clean, safe water”: A food-based dietary guideline for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the literature that supports the importance of the food-based dietary guideline on water consumption. General recommendations for total daily water intake are between 2 and 3.7 l for women and men, 0.7 l for infants aged 0-6 months, 0.8 l for infants aged 7-12 months, 1.3 l for ...

  15. 78 FR 61867 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... and/or operated by the Fort Belknap Indian Community and the Prairie Mountain Utility (``PMU'') and... responsibilities of the PMU and tribal government, and implement a series of changes in operation of the PMU to...

  16. Drink lots of clean, safe water”: a food-based dietary guideline for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-11

    Apr 11, 2013 ... The World Health Organization (WHO)7 advises a total water intake of 2.2 .... in a clinical setting. Skin turgor, with ..... EFSA Journal. 2010;8(3):1459 [ ..... of International Association for Dental Research; 2006. 82. Grobler SR ...

  17. Correction to: Extreme Precipitation, Public Health Emergencies, and Safe Drinking Water in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Natalie G; Betanzo, Elin; Schwab, Kellogg J; Chen, Thomas Y J; Guikema, Seth; Harvey, David E

    2018-06-01

    Unfortunately, the original publication of this article contained mistakes. The publisher introduced an error after proofreading where the name of the co-author was mistakenly captured as "David P. E. Harvey". The correct name should be "David E. Harvey".

  18. Pregnancy Constipation: Are Stool Softeners Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lifestyle changes. For example: Drink plenty of fluids. Water is a good choice. Prune juice also can help. Include physical activity in your daily routine. Being active can help prevent pregnancy constipation. Include more fiber in your diet. Choose high- ...

  19. Drinking Water Quality Governance: A Comparative Case Study of Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Georgia L; Amjad, Urooj; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-04-01

    Human health is greatly affected by inadequate access to sufficient and safe drinking water, especially in low and middle-income countries. Drinking water governance improvements may be one way to better drinking water quality. Over the past decade, many projects and international organizations have been dedicated to water governance; however, water governance in the drinking water sector is understudied and how to improve water governance remains unclear. We analyze drinking water governance challenges in three countries-Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi-as perceived by government, service providers, and civil society organizations. A mixed methods approach was used: a clustering model was used for country selection and qualitative semi-structured interviews were used with direct observation in data collection. The clustering model integrated political, economic, social and environmental variables that impact water sector performance, to group countries. Brazil, Ecuador and Malawi were selected with the model so as to enhance the generalizability of the results. This comparative case study is important because similar challenges are identified in the drinking water sectors of each country; while, the countries represent diverse socio-economic and political contexts, and the selection process provides generalizability to our results. We find that access to safe water could be improved if certain water governance challenges were addressed: coordination and data sharing between ministries that deal with drinking water services; monitoring and enforcement of water quality laws; and sufficient technical capacity to improve administrative and technical management of water services at the local level. From an analysis of our field research, we also developed a conceptual framework that identifies policy levers that could be used to influence governance of drinking water quality on national and sub-national levels, and the relationships between these levers.

  20. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  1. Working safely with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Wynne

    1993-01-01

    In common with exposure to many other laboratory chemicals, exposure to ionising radiations and to radioactive materials carries a small risk of causing harm. Because of this, there are legal limits to the amount of exposure to ionising radiations at work and special rules for working with radioactive materials. Although radiation protection is a complex subject it is possible to simplify to 10 basic things you should do -the Golden Rules. They are: 1) understand the nature of the hazard and get practical training; 2) plan ahead to minimise time spent handling radioactivity; 3) distance yourself appropriately from sources of radiation; 4) use appropriate shielding for the radiation; 5) contain radioactive materials in defined work areas; 6) wear appropriate protective clothing and dosimeters; 7) monitor the work area frequently for contamination control; 8) follow the local rules and safe ways of working; 9) minimise accumulation of waste and dispose of it by appropriate routes, and 10) after completion of work, monitor, wash, and monitor yourself again. These rules are expanded in this article. (author)

  2. Materials for passively safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, T.

    1993-01-01

    Future nuclear power capacity will be based on reactor designs that include passive safety features if recent progress in advanced nuclear power developments is realized. There is a high potential for nuclear systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the current generation of reactors, especially when passive or intrinsic characteristics are applied to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction and to minimize the burden on equipment and operating personnel. Taylor, has listed the following common generic technical features as the most important goals for the principal reactor development systems: passive stability, simplification, ruggedness, case of operation, and modularity. Economic competitiveness also depends on standardization and assurance of licensing. The performance of passively safe reactors will be greatly influenced by the successful development of advanced fuels and materials that will provide lower fuel-cycle costs. A dozen new designs of advanced power reactors have been described recently, covering a wide spectrum of reactor types, including pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, heavy-water reactors, modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs), and fast breeder reactors. These new designs address the need for passive safety features as well as the requirement of economic competitiveness

  3. Safe and green nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Energy development plays an important role in the national economic growth. Presently the per capita consumption of energy in our country is about 750 kWh including captive power generation which is low in comparison to that in the developed countries like USA where it is about 12,000 kWh. As of now the total installed capacity of electricity generation is about 152,148 MW(e) which is drawn from Thermal (65%), Hydel (24%), Nuclear (3%) power plants and Renewables (8%). It is expected that by the end of year 2020, the required installed capacity would be more than 3,00,000 MW(e), if we assume per capita consumption of about 800-1000 kWh for Indian population of well over one billion. To meet the projected power requirement in India, suitable options need to be identified and explored for generation of electricity. For choosing better alternatives various factors such as availability of resources, potential to generate commercial power, economic viability, etc. need to be considered. Besides these factors, an important factor which must be taken into consideration is protection of environment around the operating power stations. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the nuclear power generation is an environmentally benign option for meeting the future requirement of electricity in India. It also discusses the need for creating the public awareness about the safe operations of the nuclear power plants and ionising radiation. (author)

  4. SAFE testing nuclear rockets economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M

  5. [Preliminary Study on Cognitive Determinants Influencing Argentine Youngsters towards Intensive Alcohol Consumption or Binge Drinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Raúl Ángel; Luque, Leticia Elizabeth; Tomas, María Teresa Cortés; Tort, Begoña Espejo; Giménez, José Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The current alcohol consumption pattern among youngsters and adolescents, characterized by heavy drinking during a few hours, several days a week, or binge drinking (binge drinking, concentrated drinking or long-gulp drinking) is a reality in many countries, including Spain and Argentina. To describe cognitive determinants in the behavior regarding excessive alcohol consumption (binge drinking) in 16-25 year subjects in Argentina. An ad hoc survey was conducted to assess cognitive determinants influencing heavy alcohol consumption, according to I. Ajzen's guidelines. There are significant statistic differences between the group of heavy drinkers and the group that does not reach such level of consumption in relation to behavioral beliefs, and control beliefs. Both groups recognized consumption is noxious and not safe; no differences were observed concerning normative beliefs. There is a complex interaction mong attitudinal factors, motivational and behavior control factors. Instruments require greater sensitivity and further in-depth analysis is required regardomg short, middle and long consequences generated by binge drinking and its role as a positive or negative reinforment. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Social anxiety and drinking game participation among university students: the moderating role of drinking to cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Ellen J; George, Amanda M; Brown, Patricia M

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship of social anxiety with drinking game participation. Drinking games represent a popular form of drinking in university settings. Due to their structure, games may appeal to socially anxious drinkers, particularly among those seeking to fit in or cope with the social setting. To examine the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation among a university undergraduate sample and to investigate if drinking motives moderate this association. A total of 227 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years (73% female) who had consumed alcohol in the prior year were included in the current investigation. Hierarchical regression examined the influences of social anxiety and drinking motives on frequency of drinking game participation, as well the interactions of social anxiety with drinking for coping motives and conformity motives. Social anxiety failed to emerge as a significant predictor of frequency of drinking game participation. However, drinking to cope moderated the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation. Socially anxious students who drank to cope were more likely to participate in drinking games on occasions when they consumed alcohol than those who did not endorse this drinking motive. Results demonstrated the influence of drinking to cope in the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation. Future work should examine the relationship with other indicators of drinking game activity. Intervention efforts addressing social anxiety and drinking should consider motives for drinking, as well as drinking patterns.

  7. The SafeCOP ECSEL Project: Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems Using Wireless Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Hansson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled "Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication" (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016 -- 2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...... detection of abnormal behaviour, triggering if needed a safe degraded mode. SafeCOP will also develop methods and tools, which will be used to produce safety assurance evidence needed to certify cooperative functions. SafeCOP will extend current wireless technologies to ensure safe and secure cooperation...

  8. Autoshaping of ethanol drinking: an animal model of binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; di Poce, Jason; Derenzo, Christopher C; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Pavlovian autoshaping provides an animal learning model of drug abuse, two studies evaluated the induction of ethanol drinking by autoshaping procedures. In Experiment 1, the sipper tube conditioned stimulus (CS) contained saccharin/ethanol solution and was repeatedly paired with food as an unconditioned stimulus (US). The CS-US paired group consumed more of the 0.1% saccharin-6% ethanol solution than did the CS-US random group, revealing that autoshaping conditioned responses (CR) induce ethanol drinking not attributable to pseudo-conditioning. Experiment 2 employed saccharin-fading procedures and showed that the paired vs random group differences in ethanol drinking were maintained, even as the saccharin was eliminated from the solution. The results show that Pavlovian autoshaping procedures induce high volumes of ethanol drinking when the presentation of a sipper tube containing an ethanol solution precedes the response-independent delivery of food. The high volume of ethanol consumed in a brief period of time suggests that Pavlovian autoshaping may be a model of binge drinking.

  9. Changing Drinking Styles in Denmark and Finland. Fragmentation of Male and Female Drinking Among Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Torronen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, “heroic drinking,” is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, “playful drinking,” has become more prevalent in Denmark as well......, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, "playful drinking", has become more prevalent in Denmark as well as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations where you need to play with different...... and Finland by analyzing how they discuss these two drinking styles in focus groups (N = 16).Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10826084.2011.569965 A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, "heroic drinking", is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland...

  10. Drinking water quality of Sukkur municipal corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhar, I.A.; Ansari, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    SMC (Sukkur Municipal Corporation) supply the (filtered/settled) water for domestic purpose to the consumers, through intermittent water supply, from Phases I to IV. The water supply distribution network is underground and at most places pass parallel to sewerage lines. The grab sampling technique was followed for collecting representative samples. The official US-EPA and standard methods of water analysis have been used for drinking water quality analysis. DR/2000 spectrophotometer has been used for monitoring: Nitrates, Fluorides, Sulfates, Copper, Chromium, Iron and manganese. The trace metals Cr/sup 6/, Fe/sup 2+/ and other contaminants like; Turbidity and TSS (Total Suspended Solids) have been found higher than World Health Organization (WHO-1993) guideline values. (author)

  11. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypercoagulability after energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, Matthew J; Cardenas, Jessica C; Radwan, Zayde A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Energy drink consumption in the United States has more than doubled over the last decade and has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and even sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that energy drink consumption may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events by increasing platelet aggregation, thereby resulting in a relatively hypercoagulable state and increased risk of thrombosis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers aged 18-40 y were given 16 oz of bottled water or a standardized, sugar-free energy drink on two separate occasions, 1-wk apart. Beverages were consumed after an overnight fast over a 30-min period. Coagulation parameters and platelet function were measured before and 60 min after consumption using thrombelastography and impedance aggregometry. No statistically significant differences in coagulation were detected using kaolin or rapid thrombelastography. In addition, no differences in platelet aggregation were detected using ristocetin, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, or adenosine diphosphate-induced multiple impedance aggregometry. However, compared to water controls, energy drink consumption resulted in a significant increase in platelet aggregation via arachidonic acid-induced activation (area under the aggregation curve, 72.4 U versus 66.3 U; P = 0.018). Energy drinks are associated with increased platelet activity via arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation within 1 h of consumption. Although larger clinical studies are needed to further address the safety and health concerns of these drinks, the increased platelet response may provide a mechanism by which energy drinks increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-10-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective ‘titanic’. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the ‘Seven C's’. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. PMID:22738396

  15. Risk assessment and control management of radon in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The role of risk assessment and risk management of radon in drinking water was reviewed. It is noted that risk assessments for the public health consequences of radon in drinking water require information on radon concentration in water, exposure pathways, and dose-response relationships. On the other hand, risk management involves assumptions of risk acceptance and the establishment of governmental policies in accord with society's acceptance of these assumptions. Although risk assessment for radon exposures can be reasonably qualitative, risk management is clearly judgmental. The following conclusions/recommendations were made. (1) The presence of radon in drinking water is estimated to have its greatest health impact on the 18% of the US population served by private wells. (2) Although no direct evidence exists associated radon in water with health problems, the diseases that are associated with radon in drinking water are stomach cancer from ingestion and lung cancer from inhalation of radon decay products released during household use of water. (3) Using a number of questionable assumptions, the total number of cancer deaths per year attributable to radon in water is estimated to be about 5,000 as a maximum value, with essentially all cases occurring in the population served by private wells. (4) Promulgating federal regulations to control radon levels in water under the Safe Drinking Water Act seems unwarranted, since private wells would not likely be regulated. (5) Government control programs should be limited to emphasizing an awareness of possible substantially higher than average levels of radon in water in certain geological areas. 12 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Arsenic in drinking water and adverse birth outcomes in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Kirsten S; Turyk, Mary E; Jones, Rachael M; Rankin, Kristin; Freels, Sally; Graber, Judith M; Stayner, Leslie T

    2017-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in areas with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. Less is known about the reproductive effects of arsenic at lower levels. This research examined the association between low-level arsenic in drinking water and small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (term LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), preterm birth (PTB), and very preterm birth (VPTB) in the state of Ohio. Exposure was defined as the mean annual arsenic concentration in drinking water in each county in Ohio from 2006 to 2008 using Safe Drinking Water Information System data. Birth outcomes were ascertained from the birth certificate records of 428,804 births in Ohio from the same time period. Multivariable generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between arsenic and each birth outcome separately. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the roles of private well use and prenatal care utilization in these associations. Arsenic in drinking water was associated with increased odds of VLBW (AOR 1.14 per µg/L increase; 95% CI 1.04, 1.24) and PTB (AOR 1.10; 95% CI 1.06, 1.15) among singleton births in counties where water was positively associated with VLBW and PTB in a population where nearly all (>99%) of the population was exposed under the current maximum contaminant level of 10µg/L. Current regulatory standards may not be protective against reproductive effects of prenatal exposure to arsenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SAFE/SNAP application to shipboard security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, L.M.; Walker, J.L.; Polito, J.

    1981-11-01

    An application of the combined Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation/Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SAFE/SNAP) modeling technique to a physical protection system (PPS) aboard a generic ship is described. This application was performed as an example of how the SAFE and SNAP techniques could be used. Estimates of probability of interruption and neutralization for the example shipboard PPS are provided by SAFE as well as an adversary scenario, which serves as input to SNAP. This adversary scenario is analyzed by SNAP through four cases which incorporate increasingly detailed security force tactics. Comparisons between the results of the SAFE and SNAP analyses are made and conclusions drawn on the validity of each technique. Feedback from SNAP to SAFE is described, and recommendations for upgrading the ship based on the results of the SAFE/SNAP application are also discussed

  18. Perceived peer drinking norms and responsible drinking in UK university settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Jones, Andrew; Christiansen, Paul; Field, Matt

    2014-09-01

    Heavy drinking is common among students at UK universities. US students overestimate how much their peers drink and correcting this through the use of social norm messages may promote responsible drinking. We tested whether there is an association between perceived campus drinking norms and usual drinking behavior in UK university students and whether norm messages about responsible drinking correct normative misperceptions and increase students' intentions to drink responsibly. 1,020 UK university students took part in an online study. Participants were exposed to one of five message types: a descriptive norm, an injunctive norm, a descriptive and injunctive norm, or one of two control messages. Message credibility was assessed. Afterwards participants completed measures of intentions to drink responsibly and we measured usual drinking habits and perceptions of peer drinking. Perceptions of peer drinking were associated modestly with usual drinking behavior, whereby participants who believed other students drank responsibly also drank responsibly. Norm messages changed normative perceptions, but not in the target population of participants who underestimated responsible drinking in their peers at baseline. Norm messages did not increase intentions to drink responsibly and although based on accurate data, norm messages were not seen as credible. In this UK based study, although perceived social norms about peer drinking were associated with individual differences in drinking habits, campus wide norm messages about responsible drinking did not affect students' intentions to drink more responsibly. More research is required to determine if this approach can be applied to UK settings.

  19. College factors that influence drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cheryl A; Meilman, Philip W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the aspects of collegiate environments, rather than student characteristics, that influence drinking. Unfortunately, the existing literature is scant on this topic. A literature review of articles primarily published within the last 10 years, along with some earlier "landmark" studies of collegiate drinking in the United States, was conducted to determine institutional factors that influence the consumption of alcohol. In addition, a demonstration analysis of Core Alcohol and Drug Survey research findings was conducted to further elucidate the issues. Several factors have been shown to relate to drinking: (1) organizational property variables of campuses, including affiliations (historically black institutions, women's institutions), presence of a Greek system, athletics and 2- or 4-year designation; (2) physical and behavioral property variables of campuses, including type of residence, institution size, location and quantity of heavy episodic drinking; and (3) campus community property variables, including pricing and availability and outlet density. Studies, however, tend to look at individual variables one at a time rather than in combination (multivariate analyses). Some new analyses, using Core Alcohol and Drug Survey data sets, are presented as examples of promising approaches to future research. Given the complexities of campus environments, it continues to be a challenge to the field to firmly establish the most compelling institutional and environmental factors relating to high-risk collegiate drinking.

  20. Hot Topics/New Initiatives | Drinking Water in New England ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  1. Safe Human-Robot Cooperation in an Industrial Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pedrocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard EN ISO10218 is fostering the implementation of hybrid production systems, i.e., production systems characterized by a close relationship among human operators and robots in cooperative tasks. Human-robot hybrid systems could have a big economic benefit in small and medium sized production, even if this new paradigm introduces mandatory, challenging safety aspects. Among various requirements for collaborative workspaces, safety-assurance involves two different application layers; the algorithms enabling safe space-sharing between humans and robots and the enabling technologies allowing acquisition data from sensor fusion and environmental data analysing. This paper addresses both the problems: a collision avoidance strategy allowing on-line re-planning of robot motion and a safe network of unsafe devices as a suggested infrastructure for functional safety achievement.

  2. The genetic basis of novel water utilisation and drinking behaviour traits and their relationship with biological performance in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakovica, Julija; Kremer, Valentin D; Plötz, Thomas; Rohlf, Paige; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2017-09-29

    There is increasing interest in the definition, measurement and use of traits associated with water use and drinking behaviour, mainly because water is a finite resource and its intake is an important part of animal health and well-being. Analysis of such traits has received little attention, due in part to the lack of appropriate technology to measure drinking behaviour. We exploited novel equipment to collect water intake data in two lines of turkey (A: 27,415 and B: 12,956 birds). The equipment allowed continuous recording of individual visits to the water station in a group environment. Our aim was to identify drinking behaviour traits of biological relevance, to estimate their genetic parameters and their genetic relationships with performance traits, and to identify drinking behaviour strategies among individuals. Visits to the drinkers were clustered into bouts, i.e. time intervals spent in drinking-related activity. Based on this, biologically relevant traits were defined: (1) number of visits per bout, (2) water intake per bout, (3) drinking time per bout, (4) drinking rate, (5) daily bout frequency, (6) daily bout duration, (7) daily drinking time and (8) daily water intake. Heritability estimates for most drinking behaviour traits were moderate to high and the most highly heritable traits were drinking rate (0.49 and 0.50) and daily drinking time (0.35 and 0.46 in lines A and B, respectively). Genetic correlations between drinking behaviour and performance traits were low except for moderate correlations between daily water intake and weight gain (0.46 and 0.47 in lines A and B, respectively). High estimates of breeding values for weight gain were found across the whole range of estimated breeding values for daily water intake, daily drinking time and water intake per bout. We show for the first time that drinking behaviour traits are moderately to highly heritable. Low genetic and phenotypic correlations with performance traits suggest that current

  3. Dose from drinking water Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, Ilona; Salonen, Laina; Huikuri, Pia; Arvela, Hannu

    1999-01-01

    The dose from drinking water originates almost totally from naturally occurring radionuclides in the uranium-238 series, the most important nuclide being radon-222. Second comes lead-210, and third polonium-210. The mean age-group-weighted dose received by ingestion of drinking water is 0.14 mSv per year. More than half of the total cumulative dose of 750 manSv is received by the users of private wells, forming 13% of the population. The most exposed group comprises the users of wells drilled in bedrock, who receive 320 manSv while comprising only 4% of the population. The calculated number of annual cancer incidences due to drinking water is very sensitive to the dose-conversion factors of ingested radon used, as well as to the estimated lung cancer incidences caused by radon released from water into indoor air. (au)

  4. Energy Drinks and Binge Drinking Predict College Students' Sleep Quantity, Quality, and Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Griffin, Jamie; Huntley, Edward D; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    This study examines whether energy drink use and binge drinking predict sleep quantity, sleep quality, and next-day tiredness among college students. Web-based daily data on substance use and sleep were collected across four semesters in 2009 and 2010 from 667 individuals for up to 56 days each, yielding information on 25,616 person-days. Controlling for average levels of energy drink use and binge drinking (i.e., 4+ drinks for women, 5+ drinks for men), on days when students consumed energy drinks, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not use energy drinks. Similarly, on days when students binge drank, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not binge drink. There was no significant interaction effect between binge drinking and energy drink use on the outcomes.

  5. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Household attitudes and knowledge on drinking water enhance water hazards in peri-urban communities in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimongu J. Kioko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring safe drinking water remains a big challenge in developing countries where waterborne diseases cause havoc in many communities. A major challenge is limited knowledge, misinformation and attitudes that work against ensuring that drinking water is safe. This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of peri-urban households in Kakamega Town of Western Kenya, concerning the collection, treatment and storage of drinking water. Alongside this we examined the role of solid waste disposal in water safety. Three hundred and seventy eight households from four residential regions of varying economic levels were randomly sampled in Kakamega Town. Data was collected via questionnaire interviews that incorporated attitude questions based on a Likert scale of 1−5, and administered to the households and key informants. The results showed most respondents were knowledgeable about ideal methods of water collection, treatment and storage. However, they did not practise them appropriately. Some attitudes among the respondents worked against the ideals of achieving safe drinking water. For instance, many households perceived their drinking water source as safe and did not treat it, even when obtained from open sources like rivers. Further, they preferred to store drinking water in clay pots, because the pots kept the water cold, rather than use the narrow-necked containers that limit exposure to contaminants. Also, hand washing with soap was not practised enough in their daily lives to avoid contact with waterborne hazards. We recommend that the government undertake training programmes on drinking water safety that advocate appropriate water use, hygiene and sanitation strategies.

  7. Arsenic-Safe Aquifers in Coastal Bangladesh: AN Investigation with Ordinary Kriging Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. M.; Ahamed, R.

    2017-10-01

    Spatial point pattern is one of the most suitable methods for analysing groundwater arsenic concentrations. Groundwater arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh has been one of the biggest environmental health disasters in recent times. About 85 million people are exposed to arsenic more than 50 μg/L in drinking water. The paper seeks to identify the existing suitable aquifers for arsenic-safe drinking water along with "spatial arsenic discontinuity" using GIS-based spatial geostatistical analysis in a small study site (12.69 km2) in the coastal belt of southwest Bangladesh (Dhopakhali union of Bagerhat district). The relevant spatial data were collected with Geographical Positioning Systems (GPS), arsenic data with field testing kits, tubewell attributes with observation and questionnaire survey. Geostatistics with kriging methods can design water quality monitoring in different aquifers with hydrochemical evaluation by spatial mapping. The paper presents the interpolation of the regional estimates of arsenic data for spatial discontinuity mapping with Ordinary Kriging (OK) method that overcomes the areal bias problem for administrative boundary. This paper also demonstrates the suitability of isopleth maps that is easier to read than choropleth maps. The OK method investigated that around 80 percent of the study site are contaminated following the Bangladesh Drinking Water Standards (BDWS) of 50 μg/L. The study identified a very few scattered "pockets" of arsenic-safe zone at the shallow aquifer.

  8. Estimation of uranium in drinking water samples collected from different locations across Tarapur, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusane, C.B.; Maity, Sukanta; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, drinking water samples were collected from different locations across Tarapur, India for screening uranium contents. Uranium concentrations were determined by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Uranium concentration in water samples varied in a wide range from 0.6-7.9 μg L -1 . Results were compared with the international water quality guidelines World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) and were found within the permissible limit. Results were also compared with the safe limit values for drinking water recommended by national organization like Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). (author)

  9. New Perspectives in Monitoring Drinking Water Microbial Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Borrego

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs, in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of dinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated.

  10. A Drinking Water Sensor for Lead and Other Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Chi; Li, Zhongrui; Burns, Mark A

    2017-09-05

    Leakage of lead and other heavy metals into drinking water is a significant health risk and one that is not easily detected. We have developed simple sensors containing only platinum electrodes for the detection of heavy metal contamination in drinking water. The two-electrode sensor can identify the existence of a variety of heavy metals in drinking water, and the four-electrode sensor can distinguish lead from other heavy metals in solution. No false-positive response is generated when the sensors are placed in simulated and actual tap water contaminated by heavy metals. Lead detection on the four-electrode sensor is not affected by the presence of common ions in tap water. Experimental results suggest the sensors can be embedded in water service lines for long-time use until lead or other heavy metals are detected. With its low cost (∼$0.10/sensor) and the possibility of long-term operation, the sensors are ideal for heavy metal detection of drinking water.

  11. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  12. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark; Reeves, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  13. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  14. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark [NB Power Nuclear, P.O. Box 600, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Reeves, David [Atlantic Nuclear Services Ltd., PO Box 1268 Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  15. Fire Resistant Panels for the Tunnel Linings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravit Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of studies of innovative materials in the field of experimental and theoretical research fire resistance fireproof panels Pyro-Safe Aestuver T. Owing to the assembly simplicity, materials cheapness, high ecological standard, recycling, reuse potential, are benefit. Research work is running to improve the knowledge about fireproof panels Pyro-Safe Aestuver T for tunnel lining, its basic performance, its long term behavior and in particular also its fire proof for example when used for the lining of road tunnels.

  16. REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Asgari ، F. Vaezi ، S. Nasseri ، O. Dördelmann ، A. H. Mahvi ، E. Dehghani Fard

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Removal of chromium can be accomplished by various methods but none of them is cost-effective in meeting drinking water standards. For this study, granular ferric hydroxide was used as adsorbent for removal of hexavalent chromium. Besides, the effects of changing contact time, pH and concentrations of competitive anions were determined for different amounts of granular ferric hydroxide. It was found that granular ferric hydroxide has a high capacity for adsorption of hexavalent chromium from water at pH≤7 and in 90 min contact time. Maximum adsorption capacity was determined to be 0.788 mg Cr+6/g granular ferric hydroxide. Although relatively good adsorption of sulfate and chloride had been specified in this study, the interfering effects of these two anions had not been detected in concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/L. The absorbability of hexavalent chromium by granular ferric hydroxide could be expressed by Freundlich isotherm with R2>0.968. However, the disadvantage was that the iron concentration in water was increased by the granular ferric hydroxide. Nevertheless, granular ferric hydroxide is a promising adsorbent for chromium removal, even in the presence of other interfering compounds, because granular ferric hydroxide treatment can easily be accomplished and removal of excess iron is a simple practice for conventional water treatment plants. Thus, this method could be regarded as a safe and convenient solution to the problem of chromium-polluted water resources.

  17. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate ... other partners to implement these SDWA provisions. Regulated Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table of ...

  18. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard drinks you're being served in a restaurant or bar that uses large glasses and generous ... drinking habits. For more information, see A Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk? Pace yourself: ...

  19. College Drinking: Get the Real Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environments. The walls of college sports arenas carry advertisements from alcohol industry sponsors. Alumni carry on the ... Environmental and peer influences combine to create a culture of drinking. This culture actively promotes drinking, or ...

  20. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... remove lead from my drinking water? What is lead? Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal ...

  1. Basic Information about Your Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Ground Water and Drinking Water Contact Us Share Basic Information about Your Drinking Water Infographic: How does your water system work? The ...

  2. Effect of safe water on arsenicosis: A follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal K Majumdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic pollution in groundwater, used for drinking purposes, has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. Treatment options for the management symptoms of chronic arsenicosis are limited. Mitigation option available for dealing with the health problem of ground water arsenic contamination rests mainly on supply of arsenic safe water in arsenic-endemic region of Indo-Bangladesh subcontinent. Limited information is available regarding the long-term effect of chronic arsenic toxicity after stoppage of consumption of arsenic-containing water. Objective: The current study was, therefore, done to assess, objectively, the effect of drinking arsenic safe water (<50 μg/L on disease manifestation of arsenicosis. Results: Manifestations of various skin lesions and systemic diseases associated with chronic arsenic exposure were ascertained initially by carrying on baseline study on 208 participants in Nadia (Cohort-I, with skin lesion and Cohort-II, without skin lesion using a scoring system, as developed by us, and compared objectively at the end of each year for 3 year follow-up period. All the participants who had arsenic contaminated drinking water source in their houses were supplied with arsenic removal filters for getting arsenic-free water during the follow-up period. In participants belonging to Cohort-I, the skin score was found to improve significantly at the end of each year, and it was found to be reduced significantly from 2.17 ± 1.09 to 1.23 ± 1.17; P < 0.001 at the end of 3 year′s intervention study indicating beneficial effect of safe water on skin lesions. The systemic disease symptom score was also found to improve, but less significantly, at the end of 3 years in both the cohorts. Most important observation during the follow-up study was persistence of severe symptoms of chronic lung disease and severe skin lesion including Bowen′s disease in spite of taking arsenic-safe water. Further, death could not be

  3. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  4. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrina Azlan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  5. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  6. Impact of drinking water, sanitation and handwashing with soap on childhood diarrhoeal disease: updated meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennyfer; Hunter, Paul R; Freeman, Matthew C; Cumming, Oliver; Clasen, Thomas; Bartram, Jamie; Higgins, Julian P T; Johnston, Richard; Medlicott, Kate; Boisson, Sophie; Prüss-Ustün, Annette

    2018-05-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene are protective against diarrhoeal disease; a leading cause of child mortality. The main objective was an updated assessment of the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) on childhood diarrhoeal disease. We undertook a systematic review of articles published between 1970 and February 2016. Study results were combined and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. A total of 135 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several water, sanitation and hygiene interventions were associated with lower risk of diarrhoeal morbidity. Point-of-use filter interventions with safe storage reduced diarrhoea risk by 61% (RR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.48); piped water to premises of higher quality and continuous availability by 75% and 36% (RR = 0.25 (0.09, 0.67) and 0.64 (0.42, 0.98)), respectively compared to a baseline of unimproved drinking water; sanitation interventions by 25% (RR = 0.75 (0.63, 0.88)) with evidence for greater reductions when high sanitation coverage is reached; and interventions promoting handwashing with soap by 30% (RR = 0.70 (0.64, 0.77)) vs. no intervention. Results of the analysis of sanitation and hygiene interventions are sensitive to certain differences in study methods and conditions. Correcting for non-blinding would reduce the associations with diarrhoea to some extent. Although evidence is limited, results suggest that household connections of water supply and higher levels of community coverage for sanitation appear particularly impactful which is in line with targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. © 2018 World Health Organization; licensed by WHO Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  8. Women, Girls, and Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-01

    Bob Brewer, CDC's Alcohol Program Director, goes on the air to discuss the problem of binge drinking among women and girls.  Created: 8/1/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/1/2013.

  9. 144__Olukosi_drinking wate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    and Giardia lamblia; nutrients (fertilizers), dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic and so on) and dissolved organics (WHO, 2011). The demand for drinking water in Kaduna state is supplied by ground water sources such as wells and boreholes, tap water in areas where it is available, packaged water and ...

  10. CFD in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic processes largely determine the efficacy of drinking water treatment systems, in particular disinfection systems. A lack of understanding of the hydrodynamics has resulted in suboptimal designs of these systems. The formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the energy

  11. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring for the Presence of Parasitic Protozoa and Free-living Amoebae in Drinking Water Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Saad Amer.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of drinking water by microorganisms represents a major human health hazard in many parts of the world. The main objective of drinking water treatment is to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. The conventional drinking water treatment and disinfection has proved to be one of the major public health advances in modern times. A number of processes; namely water treatment, disinfection and changes influence the quality of drinking water delivered to the customer’s tap during transport of treated water via the distribution system. At least 325 water-associated outbreaks of parasitic protozoan disease have reported. In this study, drinking water from treatment plants evaluated for the presence of parasitic protozoa. Water samples collected from two main points: (a outlet of the water treatment plants (b distribution system at different distances from the water treatment plants. Protozoa were concentrated from each water sample by adsorption and accumulation on the nitrocellulose membrane filters (0.45 μm pore size and detected by conventional staining methods.

  14. Consumer protection on the drinking water market

    OpenAIRE

    Kosová, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Bachelor thesis is marketing research on consumer preferences and knowledge in the field of drinking water and also analyze and compare the price of tap water and bottled water. The theoretical part describes how the consumer market with drinking water is protected in the Czech Republic. They compared the advantages and disadvantages of both types of drinking water.

  15. Small Drinking Water Systems Communication and Outreach ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our small drinking water systems efforts, this poster highlights several communications and outreach highlights that EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water have been undertaking in collaboration with states and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. To share information at EPA's annual small drinking water systems workshop

  16. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  17. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine...

  18. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  19. Drinking motives moderate the impact of pre-drinking on heavy drinking on a given evening and related adverse consequences-an event-level study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntsche Emmanuel; Labhart Florian

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To test whether (i) drinking motives predict the frequency of pre drinking (i.e. alcohol consumption before going out); (ii) drinking motives predict HDGE (heavy drinking on a given evening: 4+ for women 5+ for men) and related adverse consequences (hangover injuries blackouts etc.) even when pre drinking is accounted for and (iii) drinking motives moderate the impact of pre drinking on HDGE and consequences. Design: Using the internet based cellphone optimized assessment technique (ICA...

  20. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  1. Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.

    1997-01-01

    Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the burning and transmutation of actinides in MSRs can be done in a safe manner. Development is needed for the processing to handle and separate the actinides. Calculations are needed to establish the neutron economy and the fuel management. 9 refs

  2. [Spatial and seasonal characterization of the drinking water from various sources in a peri-urban town of Salta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, María S; Moraña, Liliana B; Salusso, María M; Seghezzo, Lucas

    Drinking water monitoring plans are important to characterize both treated and untreated water used for drinking purposes. Access to drinking water increased in recent years as a response to the Millennium Development Goals set for 2015. The new Sustainable Development Goals aim to ensure universal access to safe drinking water by 2030. Within the framework of these global goals, it is crucial to monitor local drinking water systems. In this paper, treated and untreated water from different sources currently consumed in a specific town in Salta, northern Argentina, was thoroughly assessed. Monitoring extended along several seasons and included the physical, chemical and microbiological variables recommended by the Argentine Food Code. On the one hand, treated water mostly complies with these standards, with some non-compliances detected during the rainy season. Untreated water, on the other hand, never meets microbiological standards and is unfit for human consumption. Monitoring seems essential to detect anomalies and help guarantee a constant provision of safe drinking water. New treatment plants are urgently needed to expand the water grid to the entire population. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamics of Biofilm Regrowth in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, I; Husband, S; Loza, V; Boxall, J

    2016-07-15

    The majority of biomass within water distribution systems is in the form of attached biofilm. This is known to be central to drinking water quality degradation following treatment, yet little understanding of the dynamics of these highly heterogeneous communities exists. This paper presents original information on such dynamics, with findings demonstrating patterns of material accumulation, seasonality, and influential factors. Rigorous flushing operations repeated over a 1-year period on an operational chlorinated system in the United Kingdom are presented here. Intensive monitoring and sampling were undertaken, including time-series turbidity and detailed microbial analysis using 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results show that bacterial dynamics were influenced by differences in the supplied water and by the material remaining attached to the pipe wall following flushing. Turbidity, metals, and phosphate were the main factors correlated with the distribution of bacteria in the samples. Coupled with the lack of inhibition of biofilm development due to residual chlorine, this suggests that limiting inorganic nutrients, rather than organic carbon, might be a viable component in treatment strategies to manage biofilms. The research also showed that repeat flushing exerted beneficial selective pressure, giving another reason for flushing being a viable advantageous biofilm management option. This work advances our understanding of microbiological processes in drinking water distribution systems and helps inform strategies to optimize asset performance. This research provides novel information regarding the dynamics of biofilm formation in real drinking water distribution systems made of different materials. This new knowledge on microbiological process in water supply systems can be used to optimize the performance of the distribution network and to guarantee safe and good-quality drinking water to consumers. Copyright © 2016 Douterelo et al.

  4. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  5. Bacteriological quality of drinks from vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, P. R.; Burge, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey on the bacteriological quality of both drinking water and flavoured drinks from coin-operated vending machines is reported. Forty-four per cent of 25 drinking water samples examined contained coliforms and 84% had viable counts of greater than 1000 organisms ml at 30 degrees C. Thirty-one flavoured drinks were examined; 6% contained coliforms and 39% had total counts greater than 1000 organisms ml. It is suggested that the D.H.S.S. code of practice on coin-operated vending machines is not being followed. It is also suggested that drinking water alone should not be dispensed from such machines. PMID:3794325

  6. Corrosion of aluminium in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruga, M; Hasenay, D

    1996-04-01

    The corrosion of aluminium (Al) in several brands of soft drinks (cola- and citrate-based drinks) has been studied, using an electrochemical method, namely potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion of Al in soft drinks is a very slow, time-dependent and complex process, strongly influenced by the passivation, complexation and adsorption processes. The corrosion of Al in these drinks occurs principally due to the presence of acids: citric acid in citrate-based drinks and orthophosphoric acid in cola-based drinks. The corrosion rate of Al rose with an increase in the acidity of soft drinks, i.e. with increase of the content of total acids. The corrosion rates are much higher in the cola-based drinks than those in citrate-based drinks, due to the facts that: (1) orthophosphoric acid is more corrosive to Al than is citric acid, (2) a quite different passive oxide layer (with different properties) is formed on Al, depending on whether the drink is cola or citrate based. The method of potentiodynamic polarization was shown as being very suitable for the study of corrosion of Al in soft drinks, especially if it is combined with some non-electrochemical method, e.g. graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS).

  7. Staying Safe on Social Network Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Security Tip (ST06-003) Staying Safe on Social Networking Sites Original release date: January 26, 2011 | Last revised: ... so you should take certain precautions. What are social networking sites? Social networking sites, sometimes referred to as "friend- ...

  8. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....

  9. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine ... L.D. For most healthy people, a high-protein diet generally isn't harmful, particularly when followed ...

  10. Safe delivery, Service utilization, Metekel Zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decision making power of subjects were found to have a statistically significant association with preference of safe delivery ... Studies that focused on maternal mortality and proportion of ...... Anna M, Hannekee M, Frank Odhiambo et.al. Use.

  11. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, W. de L.M.

    1979-02-01

    The hazards of radioactive materials in transport are surveyed. The system whereby they are safely transported between nuclear establishments in the United Kingdom and overseas is outlined. Several popular misconceptions are dealt with. (author)

  12. Layered Safe Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The major problem addressed by this research is how to plan a safe motion for autonomous vehicles in a two dimensional, rectilinear world. With given start and goal configurations, the planner performs motion planning which

  13. AFSC/REFM: Groundfish SAFE Economic Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Groundfish SAFE Economic Report, published annually as a supplement to the Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Reports for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  14. Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... I be concerned about unsafe practices, or the tattoo ink itself? Both. While you can get serious ...

  15. Safe Eats - Eating Out and Bringing In

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stay safe. What's On the Menu? When dining out: Remember that harmful bacteria can be hidden ... above the "danger zone." Remember the 2-Hour Rule : Discard any perishables (foods that can spoil or ...

  16. Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.; Grady, L.M.; Bennett, H.A.; Sasser, D.W.; Engi, D.

    1978-01-01

    The SAFE procedure is an efficient method of evaluating the physical protection system of a nuclear facility. Since the algorithms used in SAFE for path generation and evaluation are analytical, many paths can be evaluated with a modest investment in computer time. SAFE is easy to use because the information required is well-defined and the interactive nature of this procedure lends itself to straightforward operation. The modular approach that has been taken allows other functionally equivalent modules to be substituted as they become available. The SAFE procedure has broad applications in the nuclear facility safeguards field as well as in the security field in general. Any fixed facility containing valuable materials or components to be protected from theft or sabotage could be analyzed using this same automated evaluation technique

  17. SAFE users manual. Volume 4. Computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Documentation for the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) computer programs is presented. The documentation is in the form of subprogram trees, program abstracts, flowcharts, and listings. Listings are provided on microfiche

  18. Drinking Level, Drinking Pattern, and Twenty-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Holahan, Carole K; Moos, Rudolf H

    2015-07-01

    Research on moderate drinking has focused on the average level of drinking. Recently, however, investigators have begun to consider the role of the pattern of drinking, particularly heavy episodic drinking, in mortality. The present study examined the combined roles of average drinking level (moderate vs. high) and drinking pattern (regular vs. heavy episodic) in 20-year total mortality among late-life drinkers. The sample comprised 1,121 adults ages 55-65 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and total mortality was indexed across 20 years. We used multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Among individuals whose high level of drinking placed them at risk, a heavy episodic drinking pattern did not increase mortality odds compared with a regular drinking pattern. Conversely, among individuals who engage in a moderate level of drinking, prior findings showed that a heavy episodic drinking pattern did increase mortality risk compared with a regular drinking pattern. Correspondingly, a high compared with a moderate drinking level increased mortality risk among individuals maintaining a regular drinking pattern, but not among individuals engaging in a heavy episodic drinking pattern, whose pattern of consumption had already placed them at risk. Findings highlight that low-risk drinking requires that older adults drink low to moderate average levels of alcohol and avoid heavy episodic drinking. Heavy episodic drinking is frequent among late-middle-aged and older adults and needs to be addressed along with average consumption in understanding the health risks of late-life drinkers.

  19. Standards for safe operation of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The safety of research reactors is based on many factors such as suitable choice of location, design and construction according to the international standards, it also depends on well trained and qualified operational staff. These standards determine the responsibilities of all who are concerned with the research reactors safe operation, and who are responsible of all related activities in all the administrative and technical stages in a way that insures the safe operation of the reactor

  20. Influencing behaviour for safe working environments

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, de, J. (Johannes); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2011-01-01

    Safety at work The objective of the project Safety at Work is to increase safety at the workplace by applying and combining state of the art artefacts from personal protective equipment and ambient intelligence technology. In this state of the art document we focus on the developments with respect to how (persuasive) technology can help to influence behaviour in a natural, automatic way in order to make industrial environments safer. We focus on personal safety, safe environments and safe beh...

  1. Licensing issues for inherently safe fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, S.; Okrent, D.

    1986-01-01

    There has been considerable interest recently in a new generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) concepts in the US. Some significant changes in regulatory philosophy will be required if the anticipated cost advantages of inherently safe designs are to be achieved. The defense in depth philosophy will need to be significantly re-evaluated in the context of inherently safe reactors. It is the purpose of this paper to begin such a re-evaluation of this regulatory philosophy

  2. Evaluation of the sustainability of deep groundwater as an arsenic-safe resource in the Bengal Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2008-01-01

    Tens of millions of people in the Bengal Basin region of Bangladesh and India drink groundwater containing unsafe concentrations of arsenic. This high-arsenic groundwater is produced from shallow (150 m where groundwater arsenic concentrations are nearly uniformly low, and many more wells are needed, however, the sustainability of deep, arsenic-safe groundwater has not been previously assessed. Deeper pumping could induce downward migration of dissolved arsenic, permanently destroying the dee...

  3. Microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: evidence from western Kenya and southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Caitlin A; Kipkorir, Emmanuel C; Nguyen, Kien; Blatchley, E R

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, more than 2 billion people have gained access to improved drinking water sources thanks to extensive effort from governments, and public and private sector entities. Despite this progress, many water sector development interventions do not provide access to safe water or fail to be sustained for long-term use. The authors examined drinking water quality of previously implemented water improvement projects in three communities in western Kenya and three communities in southern Vietnam. The cross-sectional study of 219 households included measurements of viable Escherichia coli. High rates of E. coli prevalence in these improved water sources were found in many of the samples. These findings suggest that measures above and beyond the traditional 'improved source' definition may be necessary to ensure truly safe water throughout these regions.

  4. Uranium content measurement in drinking water samples using track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, R.K.; Walia, T.P.S.

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of uranium has been assessed in drinking water samples collected from different locations in Bathinda district, Punjab, India. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells. Uranium is determined using fission track technique. Uranium concentration in the water samples varies from 1.65±0.06 to 74.98±0.38 μg/l. These values are compared with safe limit values recommended for drinking water. Most of the water samples are found to have uranium concentration above the safe limit. Analysis of some heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) in water is also done in order to see if some correlation exists between the concentration of uranium and these heavy metals. A weak positive correlation has been observed between the concentration of uranium and heavy metals of Pb, Cd and Cu

  5. Drinking water disinfection by means of ultraviolet radiation. Desinfektion von Trinkwasser durch UV-Bestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelzhaeuser, P; Bewig, F; Holm, K; Kryschi, R; Reich, G; Steuer, W

    1985-01-01

    The book presents all lectures held during a course at Technical Academy Esslingen, on September 10, 1985, on the subject of 'Drinking water disinfection by means of ultraviolet radiation'. The methods hitherto used for disinfection are no longer suitable because of the increasing amounts of organic pollutants found in the untreated water, and because of the necessity to make drinking water disinfection less expensive, non-polluting and thus environmentally compatible. U.V. irradiation is a method allowing technically simple and safe disinfection of the water, and also does not have any effect on the natural taste of the drinking water. The lectures presented discuss all aspects of the method, the equipment, and the performance of irradiation systems in practice.

  6. Effective drinking water collaborations are not accidental: interagency relationships in the international water utility sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, D I; Cromar, N J; Pollard, S J T; Charrois, J W; Bradshaw, R; Hrudey, S E

    2014-02-01

    The role that deficient institutional relationships have played in aggravating drinking water incidents over the last 30 years has been identified in several inquiries of high profile drinking water safety events, peer-reviewed articles and media reports. These indicate that collaboration between water utilities and public health agencies (PHAs) during normal operations, and in emergencies, needs improvement. Here, critical elements of these interagency collaborations, that can be integrated within the corporate risk management structures of water utilities and PHAs alike, were identified using a grounded theory approach and 51 semi-structured interviews with utility and PHA staff. Core determinants of effective interagency relationships are discussed. Intentionally maintained functional relationships represent a key ingredient in assuring the delivery of safe, high quality drinking water. © 2013.

  7. A sub-tank water-saving drinking water station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    "Thousands of boiling water" problem has been affecting people's quality of life and good health, and now most of the drinking fountains cannot effectively solve this problem, at the same time, ordinary drinking water also has high energy consumption, there are problems such as yin and yang water. Our newly designed dispenser uses a two-tank heating system. Hot water after heating, into the insulation tank for insulation, when the water tank in the water tank below a certain water level, the cold water and then enter the heating tank heating. Through the water flow, tank volume and other data to calculate the time required for each out of water, so as to determine the best position of the water level control, summed up the optimal program, so that water can be continuously uninterrupted supply. Two cans are placed up and down the way, in the same capacity on the basis of the capacity of the container, the appropriate to reduce its size, and increase the bottom radius, reduce the height of its single tank to ensure that the overall height of two cans compared with the traditional single change. Double anti-dry design, to ensure the safety of the use of drinking water. Heating tank heating circuit on and off by the tank of the float switch control, so that the water heating time from the tank water level control, to avoid the "thousands of boiling water" generation. The entry of cold water is controlled by two solenoid valves in the inlet pipe, and the opening and closing of the solenoid valve is controlled by the float switch in the two tanks. That is, the entry of cold water is determined by the water level of the two tanks. By designing the control scheme cleverly, Yin and yang water generation. Our design completely put an end to the "thousands of boiling water", yin and yang water, greatly improving the drinking water quality, for people's drinking water safety provides a guarantee, in line with the concept of green and healthy development. And in the small

  8. Curiosity's Autonomous Surface Safing Behavior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Tracy A.; Manning, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The safing routines on all robotic deep-space vehicles are designed to put the vehicle in a power and thermally safe configuration, enabling communication with the mission operators on Earth. Achieving this goal is made a little more difficult on Curiosity because the power requirements for the core avionics and the telecommunication equipment exceed the capability of the single power source, the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. This drove the system design to create an operational mode, called "sleep mode", where the vehicle turns off most of the loads in order to charge the two Li-ion batteries. The system must keep the vehicle safe from over-heat and under-heat conditions, battery cell failures, under-voltage conditions, and clock failures, both while the computer is running and while the system is sleeping. The other goal of a safing routine is to communicate. On most spacecraft, this simply involves turning on the receiver and transmitter continuously. For Curiosity, Earth is above the horizon only a part of the day for direct communication to the Earth, and the orbiter overpass opportunities only occur a few times a day. The design must robustly place the Rover in a communicable condition at the correct time. This paper discusses Curiosity's autonomous safing behavior and describes how the vehicle remains power and thermally safe while sleeping, as well as a description of how the Rover communicates with the orbiters and Earth at specific times.

  9. Managing Cassini Safe Mode Attitude at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. In the event safe mode interrupts normal orbital operations, Cassini has flight software fault protection algorithms to detect, isolate, and recover to a thermally safe and commandable attitude and then wait for further instructions from the ground. But the Saturn environment is complex, and safety hazards change depending on where Cassini is in its orbital trajectory around Saturn. Selecting an appropriate safe mode attitude that insures safe operation in the Saturn environment, including keeping the star tracker field of view clear of bright bodies, while maintaining a quiescent, commandable attitude, is a significant challenge. This paper discusses the Cassini safe table management strategy and the key criteria that must be considered, especially during low altitude flybys of Titan, in deciding what spacecraft attitude should be used in the event of safe mode.

  10. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Continuation from 8010293: Finally, the sandwich line with the horn is placed on the ground, for the horn to be inspected and, if needed, exchanged for a new one. The whole procedure was trained with several members of the AA team, for quick and safe handling, and to share the radiation dose amongst them.

  11. Drinking Water Quality Forecast of Peshawar Valley on the Basis of Sample Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.U.; Bangash, F.K.

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological and related parameters of 75 portable water samples collected from source, distribution line and consumer tap in 25 different locations were investigated. The findings were used to forecast statistically the quality of drinking water of hole valley at all three sites and compared with WHO's standards. The study shows that the valley has good water deposits and suitable for drinking purposes however the same quality is not maintained throughout the distribution systems. The presence of total and fecal coliform in the samples collected from distribution line and consumer tap shows the mixing of wastewater through leaky joints and corroded underground supply system. The study also shows poor disinfecting practices in the study area. On the basis of this study we can say that the area got excellent subsoil water deposits but most of the consumers are supplied with water not fit for drinking purposes which is the main cause of Heath problems in the area. (author)

  12. Teen Drinking and Driving – What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the October 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. It’s illegal and dangerous for teens to drink any alcohol and then drive. Still, one in ten high school teens drank and got behind the wheel in 2011. A parent-teen driving agreement is a good way for parents to help keep young drivers safe behind the wheel.

  13. Teen Drinking and Driving – What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the October 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. It’s illegal and dangerous for teens to drink any alcohol and then drive. Still, one in ten high school teens drank and got behind the wheel in 2011. A parent-teen driving agreement is a good way for parents to help keep young drivers safe behind the wheel.

  14. Drinking Water Quality and Child Health in South Asia: The Role of Secondary Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Ercumen, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring access to safe drinking water is a key strategy for reducing waterborne illness. The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) differentiates between unimproved and improved sources to universally classify water access. This classification, however, is based on the type and location of the water source and does not take into account water quality; even sources classified as improved can have compromised water quality and pose a health risk from water...

  15. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  16. Comammox in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Ma, Liping; Mao, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaotao; Xia, Yu; Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of complete ammonia oxidizer (comammox) has fundamentally upended our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Here, we reported four metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of comammox Nitrospira that were retrieved from metagenome datasets of tap water in Singapore (SG-bin1 and SG-bin2), Hainan province, China (HN-bin3) and Stanford, CA, USA (ST-bin4). Genes of phylogenetically distinct ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (hao) were identified in these four MAGs. Phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal proteins, AmoA, hao and nitrite oxidoreductase (subunits nxrA and nxrB) sequences indicated their close relationships with published comammox Nitrospira. Canonical ammonia-oxidizing microbes (AOM) were also identified in the three tap water samples, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in Singapore's and Stanford's samples and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in Hainan's sample. The comammox amoA-like sequences were also detected from some other drinking water systems, and even outnumbered the AOA and AOB amoA-like sequences. The findings of MAGs and the occurrences of AOM in different drinking water systems provided a significant clue that comammox are widely distributed in drinking water systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-01-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you've just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. 'We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,' said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues

  18. Reported care giver strategies for improving drinking water for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D; Farrelly, Ashley

    2010-11-01

    Care givers may engage in a variety of strategies to try and improve drinking water for children. However, the pattern of these efforts is not well known, particularly for young children in high-risk situations. The objective of this study was to determine care giver-reported strategies for young children with (1) undernutrition and (2) living in an unplanned poor peri-urban community in the Dominican Republic. Practices reported by care givers of young children from a community and clinic group were extracted from interviews conducted between 2004 and 2008 (n = 563). These results were compared to two previous similar samples interviewed in 1997 (n = 341). Bottled water is currently the most prevalent reported strategy for improving drinking water for young children. Its use increased from 6% to 69% in the community samples over the last decade and from 13% to 79% in the clinic samples. Boiling water continues to be a common strategy, particularly for the youngest children, though its overall use has decreased over time. Household-level chlorination is infrequently used and has dropped over time. Care givers are increasingly turning to bottled water in an attempt to provide safe drinking water for their children. While this may represent a positive trend for protecting children from water-transmitted diseases, it may represent an inefficient approach to safe drinking water provision that may place a financial burden on low-income families.

  19. Development of California Public Health Goals (PHGs) for chemicals in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howd, R A; Brown, J P; Morry, D W; Wang, Y Y; Bankowska, J; Budroe, J D; Campbell, M; DiBartolomeis, M J; Faust, J; Jowa, L; Lewis, D; Parker, T; Polakoff, J; Rice, D W; Salmon, A G; Tomar, R S; Fan, A M

    2000-01-01

    As part of a program for evaluation of environmental contaminants in drinking water, risk assessments are being conducted to develop Public Health Goals (PHGs) for chemicals in drinking water, based solely on public health considerations. California's Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 mandated the development of PHGs for over 80 chemicals by 31 December 1999. The law allowed these levels to be set higher or lower than federal maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), including a level of zero if data are insufficient to determine a specific level. The estimated safe levels and toxicological rationale for the first 26 of these chemicals are described here. The chemicals include alachlor, antimony, benzo[a]pyrene, chlordane, copper, cyanide, dalapon, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 2,4-D, diethylhexylphthalate, dinoseb, endothall, ethylbenzene, fluoride, glyphosate, lead, nitrate, nitrite, oxamyl, pentachlorophenol, picloram, trichlorofluoromethane, trichlorotrifluoroethane, uranium and xylene(s). These risk assessments are to be considered by the State of California in revising and developing state MCLs for chemicals in drinking water (which must not exceed federal MCLs). The estimates are also notable for incorporation or consideration of newer guidelines and principles for risk assessment extrapolations.

  20. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  1. The Safe Area in the Parieto-Occipital Lobe in the Human Brain: Diffusion Tensor Tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kim, Seong Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu

    2015-06-01

    A recent study reported on the relatively safe area in the frontal lobe for performance of neurological interventions; however, no study on the posterior safe area has been reported. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography, we attempted to identify the safe area in the parieto-occipital lobe in healthy subjects. A total of 47 healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Eleven neural tracts were reconstructed in and around the parieto-occipital area of the brain using diffusion tensor tractography. The safe area, which is free from any trajectory of 10 neural tracts, was measured anteriorly and medially from the line of the most posterior and lateral margin of the brain at 5 axial levels (from the cerebral cortex to the corona radiata). The anterior boundaries of the safe area in the upper cerebral cortex, lower cerebral cortex, centrum semiovale, upper corona radiata, and lower corona radiata levels were located at 31.0, 32.6, 32.7, 35.1, and 35.2 mm anteriorly from the line of the most posterior margin of the brain, respectively, and the medial boundaries were located at an average of 34.7, 38.1, 39.2, 36.1, and 33.6 mm medially from the line of the most lateral margin of the brain, respectively. According to our findings, the safe area was located in the posterolateral portion of the parieto-occipital lobe in the shape of a triangle. However, we found no safe area in the deep white matter around the lateral ventricle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Are energy Drinks Scapegoats? Decomposing Teenagers' Caffeine intake from Energy Drinks and Soda Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir

    2018-02-22

    Energy drinks have been repeatedly blamed for contributing to caffeine intake among teenagers. This study aimed to estimate and compare the caffeine intake of US teenagers from soda drinks versus energy drinks and shots. Data were taken from a 2015 nationally representative survey (Monitoring the Future) of 8th and 10th graders in the US (47.2% 8th grade; 51.1% female). Participants reported their numbers of consumed sodas, diet sodas, energy drinks, and energy shots per day. These were converted into mg caffeine/day and were contrasted with common guidelines for healthy caffeine intake, stratified by age group and sex. Error-bar charts, ANOVA and ROC curves were used for contrasting caffeine intake from soda drinks and energy drinks, as well as their contribution to exceeding recommended caffeine intake cutoffs. First, in both sexes and grades the intake from soda drinks was significantly higher than the intake from energy drinks. The soda and energy drink intake for males was higher than the intake for females; intake for 8th graders was higher than this of 10th graders. Second, caffeine intake from soda drinks was significantly higher even in those who exceeded the recommended maximum caffeine intake. Third, caffeine intakes from soda and energy drinks were efficacious in explaining the exceeding of the recommended threshold for daily caffeine intake, but the explanatory power of soda drinks was larger. From a caffeine consumption standpoint, health professionals should emphasize reduction in both soda and energy drinks.

  3. Knowledge of sugar content of sports drinks is not associated with sports drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J; Kingsley, Beverly S; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    To examine U.S. adult knowledge of the sugar content of sports drinks and whether this knowledge and other characteristics are associated with their sports drink consumption. Nonexperimental. Nationally representative 2011 Summer ConsumerStyles survey data. 3929 U.S. adults. The outcome variable was sports drink consumption in the past 7 days. The main exposure variable was knowledge about sports drinks containing sugar. The covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, and weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for adults consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk after controlling for other characteristics. Approximately 22% of adults reported consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk. Most adults (71%) agreed that sports drinks contain sugar; however, this agreement was not significantly associated with adults' sports drink consumption. The odds of drinking sports drinks ≥1 times/wk were significantly higher among younger adults aged 18 to 64 years (OR range: 5.46-2.71), males (OR = 2.09), high-school graduates (OR = 1.52), and highly active adults (OR = 2.09). There were disparities in sports drink consumption by sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level; however, knowledge of sports drinks' sugar content was not associated with consumption. Understanding why some population groups are higher consumers may assist in the development of education, providing those groups with a better understanding of sports drinks' nutritional value and health consequences of excessive sugar consumption in any form.

  4. 76 FR 12719 - Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program; Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Safe Schools/Healthy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program; Office of Safe and Drug- Free Schools; Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program; Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Numbers: 84... priorities, requirements, and definitions under the Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) program. Since...

  5. What do we know about energy drinks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süber Dikici

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks are popular among young individuals andmarketed to college students, athletes, and active individualsbetween the ages of 21 and 35 years. In the beginningconsumption of energy drinks can significantlyimprove physical and mental performance. Energy drinkscontain a mixture of compounds, of which caffeine, guarana,and herbal supplements such as ginkgo and ginsengare major components. Unfortunately, the body ofliterature is limited and it is not known whether these improvementsare due to the caffeine other herbal ingredients.Severe clinical manifestations may occur after useof energy drinks with alcohol The aim of this article is risingawareness about the ingredients of energy drinks andclinical manifestations that may occur after usage and updateabout knowledge.Key words: Energy drinks, energy drinks ingredients,clinical manifestations

  6. Chlorinated drinking water for lightweight laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of chlorine in drinking water of laying hens on zootechnical performance, eggs shell quality, hemogasometry levels and calcium content in tibia. 144 Hy-Line laying hens, 61 weeks old, were used distributed in 24 metabolism cages. They were subjected to water diets, for a period of 28 days, using sodium hypochlorite as a chlorine source in order to obtain the following concentrations: 5ppm (control, 20ppm, 50ppm, and 100ppm. Their performance was evaluated through water consumption, feed intake, egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion. Shell quality was measured by specific gravity. At the end of the experiment, arterial blood was collected for blood gas level assessment and a poultry of each replicate was sacrificed to obtain tibia and calcium content measurement. There was a water consumption reduction from 20ppm of chlorine and feed intake reduction in poultry receiving water with 100ppm of chlorine. The regression analysis showed that the higher the level of chlorine in water, the higher the reduction in consumption. There were no differences in egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion, specific gravity, tibia calcium content, and hemogasometry levels (hydrogenionic potential, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide total concentration, anion gap and oxygen saturation. The use of levels above 5ppm of chlorine is not recommended in the water of lightweight laying hens.

  7. The U-line line balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  8. THE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBALIZATION UPON SAFE TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Mihić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, a phenomenon on the rise, is characterized by the free cross-bor- der movement of individuals, technologies, and capital. It has far- reaching consequen- ces for tourism, too, as it implies travel for leisure and business, and correspondingly, financial transfers between various nation states. Startinf from the status quo in the field, the current paper sets out to analyze the consequences and implications of globalization upon safe tourism and conduct a marketing research into the perceptions of consumers upon Serbia as a safe vacation destination for the purpose of safe tourism. Finally the research results will be presented and several solutions will be provided for improving security in tourism zones

  9. From Safe Systems to Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarts, J.; Nøhr, C.

    2010-01-01

    for the third conference with the theme: The ability to design, implement and evaluate safe, useable and effective systems within complex health care organizations. The theme for this conference was "Designing and Implementing Health IT: from safe systems to patient safety". The contributions have reflected...... and implementation of safe systems and thus contribute to the agenda of patient safety? The contributions demonstrate how the health informatics community has contributed to the performance of significant research and to translating research findings to develop health care delivery and improve patient safety......This volume presents the papers from the fourth International Conference on Information Technology in Health Care: Socio-technical Approaches held in Aalborg, Denmark in June 2010. In 2001 the first conference was held in Rotterdam, The Netherlands with the theme: Sociotechnical' approaches...

  10. Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki; Asahi, Yoshiro

    1991-01-01

    The Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER) is designed based on the principle of a process inherent ultimate safe reactor, PIUS, a so-called inherently safe reactor (ISR). ISER has been developed joingly by the members of the Kanagawa Institute of Technology, the University of Tokyo, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and several industrial firms in Japan. This paper describes the requirements for the next generation of power reactor, the safety design philosphy of ISR and ISER, the controllability of ISER and the results of analyses of some of the design-based accidents (DBA) of ISER, namely station blackout, accidents in which the pressurizer relief valve becomes jammed and stuck in open position and tube breaks in the steam generator. It is concluded that the ISER can ensure a wide range of contraollabitily and fuel integrity for all the analysed DBAs. (orig.)

  11. Inherently safe technologies-chemical and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments show an inverse relationship between the likelihood and the consequences of nuclear and chemical plant accidents, but the Bhopal accident has change public complacency about the safety of chemical plants to such an extent that public confidence is now at the same low level as with nuclear plants. The nuclear industry's response was to strengthen its institutions and improve its technologies, but the public may not be convinced. One solution is to develop reactors which do not depend upon the active intervention of humans of electromechanical devices to deal with emergencies, but which have physical properties that limit the possible temperature and power of a reactor. The Process Inherent Ultimately Safe and the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactors are two possibilities. the chemical industry needs to develop its own inherently safe design precepts that incorporate smallness, safe processes, and hardening against sabotage. 5 references

  12. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  13. Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yo-Taik

    1987-01-01

    The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

  14. Associations between LGBTQ-affirmative school climate and adolescent drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W S; Birkett, Michelle; Corliss, Heather L; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Mustanski, Brian; Stall, Ron D

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether adolescents drank alcohol less frequently if they lived in jurisdictions with school climates that were more affirmative of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) individuals. Data from the 2010 School Health Profile survey, which measured LGBTQ school climate (e.g., percentage of schools with safe spaces and gay-straight alliances), were linked with pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which measured sexual orientation identity, demographics, and alcohol use (number of drinking days, drinking days at school, and heavy episodic drinking days) in 8 jurisdictions. Two-level Poisson models tested the associations between school climate and alcohol use for each sexual-orientation subgroup. Living in jurisdictions with more (versus less) affirmative LGBTQ school climates was significantly associated with: fewer heavy episodic drinking days for gay/lesbian (incidence-rate ratio [IRR]=0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 0.87; p=0.001) and heterosexual (IRR=0.80; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.83; pLGBTQ-affirmative school climates may reduce certain drinking behaviors for gay/lesbian adolescents, heterosexual adolescents, and adolescents unsure of their sexual orientation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of radioactivity in the drinking water of state of Goias, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Eliane E.; Costa, Heliana F.; Mignote, Raquel M., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadias de Goias, GO (Brazil); Thome Filho, Jamilo J., E-mail: jamilothome@gmail.com [Geological Consultant, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Bakker, Alexandre P. de [Instituto Nacional do Semiarido (INSA/MCTI), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The demand for drinking water is supplied by surface and underground sources such as rivers and streams. However, there is an increasing worldwide concern about the quality of drinking water. As a result, it is a major goal of governments throughout the world to ensure that water is safe for human consumption through the control of microorganisms, chemicals and radioactive substances. The Brazilian Ministry of Health has issued guidelines designed to protect the quality of drinking water. The use of screening measurements for gross alpha and beta radioactivity is recommend since it maximizes cost-effectiveness of assessing the individual radionuclide content of drinking water. In order to do so tests were carried out to determine of gross alpha and beta radioactivity concentrations in drinking water samples from 44 water supply wells within the State of Goias. The technique used was thermal preconcentration and radiometric determination by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The concentrations for gross alpha ranged from < LD at 0.19 ± 0.05 Bq/L. As for gross beta they ranged from < LD at 0.2 ± 0.1 Bq/L. The results were also related with the geological and hydrological data. (author)

  16. Unintentional drinking-water contamination events of unknown origin: surrogate for terrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Gary; Leventhal, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Drinking-water is a direct conduit to many human receptors. An intentional attack (e.g. terrorism) on drinking-water systems can shock and disrupt elements of national infrastructures. We report on an unintentional drinking-water contamination event that occurred in Tel Aviv, Israel in July, 2001. Initially of unknown origin, this event involved risk management strategies used by the Ministry of Health for abating a potential public health crisis as might be envisaged of water contamination due to terrorism. In an abrupt event of unknown origin, public health officials need to be responsible for the same level of preparedness and risk communication. This is emphasized by comparison of management strategies between the Tel Aviv event and one of dire consequences that occurred in Camelford, England in 1988. From the onset of the Tel Aviv incident, the public health strategy was to employ the precautionary principle by warning residents of the affected region to not drink tap water, even if boiled. This strategy was in contrast to an earlier crisis that occurred in Camelford, England in 1988. An outcome of this event was heightened awareness that a water crisis can occur in peacetime and not only in association with terrorism. No matter how minor the contamination event or short-term the disruption of delivery of safe drinking-water, psychological, medical and public health impact could be significant.

  17. Models for predicting disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in drinking waters: a chronological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2009-07-01

    Disinfection for the supply of safe drinking water forms a variety of known and unknown byproducts through reactions between the disinfectants and natural organic matter. Chronic exposure to disinfection byproducts through the ingestion of drinking water, inhalation and dermal contact during regular indoor activities (e.g., showering, bathing, cooking) may pose cancer and non-cancer risks to human health. Since their discovery in drinking water in 1974, numerous studies have presented models to predict DBP formation in drinking water. To date, more than 48 scientific publications have reported 118 models to predict DBP formation in drinking waters. These models were developed through laboratory and field-scale experiments using raw, pretreated and synthetic waters. This paper aims to review DBP predictive models, analyze the model variables, assess the model advantages and limitations, and to determine their applicability to different water supply systems. The paper identifies the current challenges and future research needs to better control DBP formation. Finally, important directions for future research are recommended to protect human health and to follow the best management practices.

  18. Assessment of radioactivity in the drinking water of state of Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Eliane E.; Costa, Heliana F.; Mignote, Raquel M.; Thome Filho, Jamilo J.; Bakker, Alexandre P. de

    2013-01-01

    The demand for drinking water is supplied by surface and underground sources such as rivers and streams. However, there is an increasing worldwide concern about the quality of drinking water. As a result, it is a major goal of governments throughout the world to ensure that water is safe for human consumption through the control of microorganisms, chemicals and radioactive substances. The Brazilian Ministry of Health has issued guidelines designed to protect the quality of drinking water. The use of screening measurements for gross alpha and beta radioactivity is recommend since it maximizes cost-effectiveness of assessing the individual radionuclide content of drinking water. In order to do so tests were carried out to determine of gross alpha and beta radioactivity concentrations in drinking water samples from 44 water supply wells within the State of Goias. The technique used was thermal preconcentration and radiometric determination by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The concentrations for gross alpha ranged from < LD at 0.19 ± 0.05 Bq/L. As for gross beta they ranged from < LD at 0.2 ± 0.1 Bq/L. The results were also related with the geological and hydrological data. (author)

  19. Endocrine disrupting compounds in drinking water supply system and human health risk implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sze Yee; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2017-09-01

    To date, experimental and epidemiological evidence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) adversely affecting human and animal populations has been widely debated. Notably, human health risk assessment is required for risk mitigation. The lack of human health risk assessment and management may thus unreliably regulate the quality of water resources and efficiency of treatment processes. Therefore, drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) may be still unwarranted in assuring safe access to potable drinking water. Drinking water supply, such as tap water, is an additional and crucial route of human exposure to the health risks associated with EDCs. A holistic system, incorporating continuous research in DWSS monitoring and management using multi-barrier approach, is proposed as a preventive measure to reduce human exposure to the risks associated with EDCs through drinking water consumption. The occurrence of EDCs in DWSSs and corresponding human health risk implications are analyzed using the Needs, Approaches, Benefits, and Challenges (NABC) method. Therefore, this review may act as a supportive tool in protecting human health and environmental quality from EDCs, which is essential for decision-making regarding environmental monitoring and management purposes. Subsequently, the public could have sustainable access to safer and more reliable drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbiological effectiveness of locally produced ceramic filters for drinking water treatment in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D

    2010-03-01

    Low-cost options for the treatment of drinking water at the household level are being explored by the Cambodian government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Cambodia, where many lack access to improved drinking water sources and diarrhoeal diseases are the most prevalent cause of death in children under 5 years of age. The ceramic water purifier (CWP), a locally produced, low-cost ceramic filter, is now being implemented by several NGOs, and an estimated 100,000+households in the country now use them for drinking water treatment. Two candidate filters were tested for the reduction of bacterial and viral surrogates for waterborne pathogens using representative Cambodian drinking water sources (rainwater and surface water) spiked with Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Results indicate that filters were capable of reducing key microbes in the laboratory with mean reductions of E. coli of approximately 99% and mean reduction of bacteriophages of 90-99% over >600 litres throughput. Increased effectiveness was not observed in filters with an AgNO3 amendment. At under US$10 per filter, locally produced ceramic filters may be a promising option for drinking water treatment and safe storage at the household level.