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Sample records for lines contained significantly

  1. 76 FR 51367 - China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

    2011-08-18

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 11-12] China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint Service Agreement; Hanjin Shipping Co., Ltd... Maritime Commission (Commission) by China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company...

  2. Pipe line construction for reactor containment buildings

    Aoki, Masataka; Yoshinaga, Toshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the missile phenomenon caused by broken fragments due to pipe whip phenomenon in a portion of pipe lines connected to a reactor containment from prevailing to other portions. Constitution: Various pipe lines connected to the pressure vessel are disposed at the outside of the containments and they are surrounded with a plurality of protection partition walls respectively independent from each other. This can eliminate the effect of missile phenomena upon pipe rupture from prevailing to the pipe lines and instruments. Furthermore this can afford sufficient spaces for the pipe lines, as well as for earthquake-proof supports. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Real quartic surfaces containing 16 skew lines

    Isidro Nieto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that there is an open three-dimensional subvariety Ms of the Grassmannian of lines in ℙ3 which parametrizes smooth irreducible complex surfaces of degree 4 which are Heisenberg invariant, and each quartic contains 32 lines but only 16 skew lines, being determined by its configuration of lines, are called a double 16. We consider here the problem of visualizing in a computer the real Heisenberg invariant quartic surface and the real double 16. We construct a family of points l∈Ms parametrized by a two-dimensional semialgebraic variety such that under a change of coordinates of l into its Plüecker, coordinates transform into the real coordinates for a line L in ℙ3, which is then used to construct a program in Maple 7. The program allows us to draw the quartic surface and the set of transversal lines to L. Additionally, we include a table of a group of examples. For each test example we specify a parameter, the viewing angle of the image, compilation time, and other visual properties of the real surface and its real double 16. We include at the end of the paper an example showing the surface containing the double 16.

  4. Concrete as secondary containment for interior wall embedded waste lines

    Porter, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are numerous facilities that handle hazardous waste solutions. Secondary containment of tank systems and their ancillary piping is a major concern for existing facilities. The Idaho Division of Environmental Quality was petitioned in 1990 for an Equivalent Device determination regarding secondary containment of waste lines embedded in interior concrete walls. The petition was granted, however it expires in 1996. To address the secondary containment issue, additional studies were undertaken. One study verified the hypothesis that an interior wall pipe leak would follow the path of least resistance through the naturally occurring void found below a rigidly supported pipe and pass into an adjacent room where detection could occur, before any significant deterioration of the concrete takes place. Other tests demonstrated that with acidic waste solutions rebar and cold joints are not an accelerated path to the environment. The results from these latest studies confirm that the subject configuration meets all the requirements of secondary containment

  5. Buffer lining manufacturing method for radioactive waste container

    Kawakami, Susumu; Sugino, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    A recessed portion is formed on an upper surface of a filler layer made of a buffer powder filled into a container main body, the upper portion of the vessel main body is closed by a shrinkable liquid tight film. It is placed in a pressurizing container and pressed to mold a buffer lining base material integrated with the vessel main body. A flat upper surface and a containing space are formed by shaving to form a buffer lining. A disposing vessel containing radioactive wastes is inserted into the containing space, and the containing space is closed by a buffer block. The upper surface is sealed by a lid. With such a constitution, since a buffer lining integrated with the vessel main body can be formed easily inside the vessel main body, the disposing vessel can be contained in the containing vessel in a state surrounded by the buffer easily and stably without laying or piling over a large quantity of buffer blocks. (T.M.)

  6. Significant gamma-ray lines from dark matter annihilation

    Duerr, Michael [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Fileviez Perez, Pavel; Smirnov, Juri [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-ray lines from dark matter annihilation are commonly seen as a ''smoking gun'' for the particle nature of dark matter. However, in many dark matter models the continuum background from tree-level annihilations makes such a line invisible. I present two simple extensions of the Standard Model where the continuum contributions are suppressed and the gamma-ray lines are easily visible over the continuum background.

  7. Anatomicopathological basis and clinical diagnostic significance of Kerley's A line

    Wang Zhenguang; Ma Daqing; Chen Budong; He Wen; Wang Xinlian; Guan Yansheng; Zhang Yansong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study anatomic and pathological basis of Kerley's A line, and to evaluate the role of Kerley's A line in differential diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases (DLD). Methods: HRCT scans, gross specimen section(50-100 μm thickness) and histologic section(5-8 μm thickness) were performed and analyzed comparatively on 28 dry lung specimens from the patients with coal worker's pneumoconiosis and occupational exposure history to coal dusts. At the same time, HRCT images of 176 patients with DLD were retrospectively reviewed for the detection of Kerley's A line. Results: Kerley's A lines were seen in 17 of 28 lung specimens on coronal HRCT images. The anatomic basis of Kerley's A line represented the continuity of two or more thickened interlobular septa (14 eases) and incomplete fibrotic septa between segments or subsegments (3 cases). Histologically, the linear opacities represented the deposits of coal dust, fibrosis, edema, inflammation, thickened vessel wall within interlobular septa. Kerley's A lines were present in 11 of 176 patients (6.3%) including interstitial pulmonary edema (5 cases), viral pneumonia (2 cases), lymphangitic carcinomatosis (2 cases), sarcoidosis (1 cases) and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (1 cases). Conclusion: Kerley's A line has a limited usefulness in the differential diagnosis of DLD because it is seen infrequently and not discermable. (authors)

  8. NPP Krsko Containment Response Following Main Steam Line Break

    Spalj, S.; Grgic, D.; Cavlina, N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the calculation of thermohydraulic environmental parameters (pressure and temperature) inside containment of Krsko NPP after postulated Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) accident. This analysis was done as a part of the ambient parameters specification in the frame of the NPP Krsko Equipment Qualification (EQ) project. The RELAP5/mod2 computer code was used for the determination of MSLB mass and energy release and computer code GOTHIC was used to calculate pressure and temperature profiles inside NPP Krsko containment. The analysis was performed for spectrum of break sizes to account for possible steam superheating during accidents with smaller break sizes. (author)

  9. Tworty Box to Improve the Equipment Logistics of Container Lines

    Ulrich Malchow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A major share of all empty container positioning (deadheading is resulting from imbalances with regard to container sizes (20ft/40ft. In order to reduce the shipments of 'containerised air' a new type of container has been developed by the author: The Tworty Boxes can either be used as a standard 20ft or in coupled condition as a 40ft container. The outside appearance resembles any standard 20ft container. However the Tworty Box is unique in that it has an additional door at the front side that opens to the inside. This door can be fixed to the ceiling and by using of bonding elements another Tworty Box can be joined up, thereby creating the full 40ft inside space. Operated as a single 20ft box the additional door remains locked, access is only through the existing standard door. Tworty Boxes do not require any additional components and fulfil all ISO and CSC requirements.

  10. 75 FR 57826 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “On Line: Drawing Through...

    2010-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7180] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``On Line: Drawing Through the Twentieth Century'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``On Line: Drawing Through the Twentieth Century...

  11. Optimization of Container Line Networks with Flexible Demands

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    on real world problem instances of 500+ vessels and 500+ contracts. The method allows a global liner carrier to efficiently plan bunker purchases for their vessels, using a large number of bunker contracts to lower costs. Container vessels operate on tight schedules to meet the customers transit time...... is investigated and models supporting decision making is developed, with the aim of reducing costs, bunker consumption and increasing the revenue and service levels of a liner shipping company. These problems are complex, dealing with millions of containers traveling on hundreds of vessels calling hundreds...... aspects where important and relevant to include. To alleviate this a thorough description of the domain of liner shipping is given, explaining the industry in the words of an operations researcher. At the same time a set of benchmark instances LINER-LIB 2012 is introduced. It is the hope...

  12. Processes Adopted to Integrate Intangible Resources in Global Acquisitions among Container Lines: Perceptions of Acquirer and Acquired

    Indika Sigera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of strategic co-operations among container lines varies from loose-knitted slot charters, liner conferences, shipping alliances, joint services and consortia, through to mergers and acquisitions (M&As. However, these forms of strategic co-operations have not always been able to achieve the intended synergetic growth resulting from the integration of resources. The Resource Based View (RBV suggests that integrating intangible resources, which are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable (VRIN, can make a significant contribution to the performance of post strategic co-operations. This research paper investigates the contribution of intangible resources to the post acquisition success six global acquisitions among container lines. The nine senior managers attached to global container lines were the main participants of this study. Five of them represented acquired container lines, four represented acquirer container lines. The paper explains their personnel experience on the processes adopts to integrate intangible resources in acquisitions. Keywords: Merger and Acquisitions, Intangible Resources, Container Lines, Task Integration, Human Integration

  13. Expression and clinical significance of PIWIL2 in hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cell lines.

    Chen, Y J; Xiong, X F; Wen, S Q; Tian, L; Cheng, W L; Qi, Y Q

    2015-06-26

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between PIWI-like protein 2 (PIWIL2) and clinicopathological charac-teristics and prognosis after radical resection. To accomplish this, we analyzed PIWIL2 expression in hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cell lines. PIWIL2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 41 hilar cholangiocarcinoma samples and 10 control tissues. Western blotting and immunocytofluorescence were used to investigate PIWIL2 expression in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939 and the bile duct epithelial cell line HIBEpic. Univariate and multivariate surviv-al analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method for hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients who underwent radical resection. PIWIL2 expression was significantly higher in the hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and QBC939 cells than in control tissues and HIBEpic cells, respectively (P hilar cholangiocarcinoma (P hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  14. A surface containing a line and a circle through each point is a quadric

    Nilov, Fedor K.; Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    We prove that a surface in 3-dimensional Euclidean space containing a line and a circle through each point is a quadric. We also give some particular results on the classification of surfaces containing several circles through each point. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. A surface containing a line and a circle through each point is a quadric

    Nilov, Fedor K.

    2012-06-20

    We prove that a surface in 3-dimensional Euclidean space containing a line and a circle through each point is a quadric. We also give some particular results on the classification of surfaces containing several circles through each point. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Significance of fluid-structure interaction phenomena for containment response to ex-vessel steam explosions

    Almstroem, H.; Sundel, T. [National Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, W.; Engelbrektson, A.

    1998-01-01

    When studying the structural response of a containment building to ex-vessel steam explosion loads, a two-step procedure is often used. In the first step of this procedure the structures are treated as rigid and the pressure-time history generated by the explosion at the rigid wall is calculated. In the second step the calculated pressure is applied to the structures. The obvious weakness of the two-step procedure is that it does not correspond to the real dynamic behaviour of the fluid-structure system. The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relevant fluid-structure interaction phenomena. This is achieved through direct treatment of the explosion process and the structural response. The predictions of a direct and two-step treatment are compared for a BWR Mark II containment design, consisting of two concentric walls interacting with water masses in the central and annular pools. It is shown that the two-step approach leads to unrealistic energy transfer in the containment system studied, and to significant overestimation of the deflection of the containment wall. As regards the pedestal wall, the direct method analysis shows that the flexibility of this wall affects the pressure-time history considerably. Three load types have been identified for this wall namely shock load, water blow as a result of water cavitation, and hydrodynamic load. Reloading impulse due to cavitation phenomena plays an important role as it amounts to about 40% of the total impulse load. Investigation of the generality of the cavitation phenomena in the context of ex-vessel steam explosion loads was outside the scope of this work. (author)

  17. Significance of fluid-structure interaction phenomena for containment response to ex-vessel steam explosions

    Almstroem, H.; Sundel, T. (Nat. Defence Res. Establ., Tumba (Sweden)); Frid, W. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SE-10658, Stockholm (Sweden)); Engelbrektson, A. (VBB/SWECO, Box 34044, SE-10026, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1999-05-01

    When studying the structural response of a containment building to ex-vessel steam explosion loads, a two-step procedure is often used. In the first step of this procedure the structures are treated as rigid and the pressure-time history generated by the explosion, at the rigid wall, is calculated. In the second step the calculated pressure is applied to the structures. The obvious weakness of the two-step procedure is that it does not correspond to the real dynamic behaviour of the fluid-structure system. The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relevant fluid-structure interaction phenomena. This is achieved through direct treatment of the explosion process and the structural response. The predictions of a direct and two-step treatment are compared for a BWR Mark II containment design, consisting of two concentric walls interacting with water masses in the central and annular pools. It is shown that the two-step approach leads to unrealistic energy transfer in the containment system studied and to significant overestimation of the deflection of the containment wall. As regards the pedestal wall, the direct method analysis shows that the flexibility of this wall affects the pressure-time history considerably. Three load types have been identified for this wall namely shock load, water blow as a result of water cavitation, and hydrodynamic load. Reloading impulse due to cavitation phenomena plays an important role as it amounts to [approx]40% of the total impulse load. Investigation of the generality of the cavitation phenomena in the context of ex-vessel steam explosion loads was outside the scope of this work. (orig.) 5 refs.

  18. Significance of fluid-structure interaction phenomena for containment response to ex-vessel steam explosions

    Almstroem, H.; Sundel, T.; Frid, W.; Engelbrektson, A.

    1999-01-01

    When studying the structural response of a containment building to ex-vessel steam explosion loads, a two-step procedure is often used. In the first step of this procedure the structures are treated as rigid and the pressure-time history generated by the explosion, at the rigid wall, is calculated. In the second step the calculated pressure is applied to the structures. The obvious weakness of the two-step procedure is that it does not correspond to the real dynamic behaviour of the fluid-structure system. The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relevant fluid-structure interaction phenomena. This is achieved through direct treatment of the explosion process and the structural response. The predictions of a direct and two-step treatment are compared for a BWR Mark II containment design, consisting of two concentric walls interacting with water masses in the central and annular pools. It is shown that the two-step approach leads to unrealistic energy transfer in the containment system studied and to significant overestimation of the deflection of the containment wall. As regards the pedestal wall, the direct method analysis shows that the flexibility of this wall affects the pressure-time history considerably. Three load types have been identified for this wall namely shock load, water blow as a result of water cavitation, and hydrodynamic load. Reloading impulse due to cavitation phenomena plays an important role as it amounts to ∼40% of the total impulse load. Investigation of the generality of the cavitation phenomena in the context of ex-vessel steam explosion loads was outside the scope of this work. (orig.)

  19. Significance of pH-value for meat quality of broilers: Influence of breed lines

    Ristic M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For determination of poultry quality shortly after slaughtering, physical criteria (pH-value, conductivity, colour, juice retention are of importance. However, they are affected by breeding, transport, cooling and the storage period. PH-values of breast meat (genetically structured material were recorded shortly after slaughtering (15 min p.m. and differences between breeding line and gender were found (n=5109. The pH1-values ranged from 5.50 to 6.79. Male broilers showed significantly lower pH1-values than female ones (6.02:6.10. There were also significant differences concerning breeding line and gender. Meat quality (PSE, DFD of broilers can be recorded quickly and accurately determining the pH1-value of breast meat. Threshold ranges to be considered are ≤ 5.8 (PSE, 5.9-6.2 (standard meat properties and ≥ 6.3 (DFD. This classification is not to be compared to the deviation of pork.

  20. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    Sodium-reduced packaged food products are increasingly available to consumers; however, it is not clear whether they are suitable for inclusion in a potassium-reduced diet. For individuals with impaired renal potassium excretion caused by chronic kidney disease and for those taking certain medications that interfere with the rennin-angiotensin aldosterone axis, the need to limit dietary potassium is important in view of the risk for development of hyperkalemia and fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of the reduction of sodium in packaged meat and poultry products (MPPs) on the content of potassium and phosphorus from food additives. This was a cross-sectional study comparing chemically analyzed MPPs (n=38, n=19 original, n=19 sodium-reduced), selected from the top three grocery chains in Canada, based on market share sales. All MPPs with a package label containing a reduced sodium content claim together with their non-sodium-reduced packaged MPP counterparts were selected for analysis. The protein, sodium, phosphorus, and potassium contents of sodium-reduced MPPs and the non-sodium-reduced (original) MPP counterparts were chemically analyzed according to the Association of Analytical Communities official methods 992.15 and 984.27 and compared by using a paired t test. The frequency of phosphorus and potassium additives appearing on the product labels' ingredient lists were compared between groups by using McNemar's test. Sodium-reduced MPPs (n=19) contained 44% more potassium (mg/100 g) than their non-sodium-reduced counterparts (n=19) (mean difference [95% CI): 184 [90-279]; P=0.001). The potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs varied widely and ranged from 210 to 1,500 mg/100 g. Potassium-containing additives were found on the ingredient list in 63% of the sodium-reduced products and 26% of the non-sodium-reduced products (P=0.02). Sodium-reduced MPPs contained 38% less sodium (mg/100 g) than their non

  1. The Expression and Biological Significance of PD-L1 on Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Cheng CHEN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Tumor-associated PD-L1 expression was recently shown to promote T-cell apoptosis and proposed as a potential mechanism of immune evasion by tumors. On the basis of the ability of tumor-associated PD-L1 to mediate activated T-cell death, it is likely that manipulation of the PD-L1 pathway at defined time points during the development of the T-cell antitumor immune response can enhance the efficacy of T-cell-based immunotherapy. Here, the levels of expression of PD-L1 on lung cancer cell lines and its role in interaction of CTL and target cells was investigated. Methods Human PBMC derived DCs were loaded with apoptotic tumor cells and stimulated by CD40 mAb (5C11. Tumor specific CTL was generated in vitro by autologous T cells co-cultured with mature DCs. Expression of PD-L1 on lung cancer cell lines H1299 and A549 were analyzed by FCM. JAM assay was used to detect the cytolytic activity of CTL with or without blocking PD-L1 by PD-L1 mAb respectively. The concentrations of IFN-γ in supernatants from distinct groups were analyzed by ELISA. Results Tumor cells-loaded mature DCs could induce the generation of the tumor specific CTL. Expression of PD-L1 was low on A549 cell, but high on H1299 cell. Blockade of PD-L1 on A549 could not improve cytolytic effect of CTL on target cells and IFN-γ production, but fragmentation of H1299 cells and IFN-γ production were significantly enhanced by the combination of PD-L1 mAb and CTL. Conclusion Expression of PD-L1 on lung cancer cell line can decrease the cytolytic effect of CTL on target cells.

  2. Semifragile Speech Watermarking Based on Least Significant Bit Replacement of Line Spectral Frequencies

    Mohammad Ali Nematollahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various techniques for speech watermarking based on modifying the linear prediction coefficients (LPCs; however, the estimated and modified LPCs vary from each other even without attacks. Because line spectral frequency (LSF has less sensitivity to watermarking than LPC, watermark bits are embedded into the maximum number of LSFs by applying the least significant bit replacement (LSBR method. To reduce the differences between estimated and modified LPCs, a checking loop is added to minimize the watermark extraction error. Experimental results show that the proposed semifragile speech watermarking method can provide high imperceptibility and that any manipulation of the watermark signal destroys the watermark bits since manipulation changes it to a random stream of bits.

  3. Physiological significance of Fuc and Sialic acid containing glycans in the body

    Muhammad Ramzan Manwar Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex biomolecular machinery carrying diverse glycan chains are involved in a wide range of physiological activities including blood group determination, cancer recognition protein stabilization and sperm–egg interaction. Diversity of glycan chains, linked to lipids and proteins is due to isomeric and conformational modifications of various sugar residues, giving rise to unique carbohydrate structures with a wide range of anomeric linkages. This unique and significant structural diversity of naturally occurring oligosaccharide structures make them the best recognition markers for countless physiological activities. This is a challenging task to explore the relationship between biological processes and stereochemical behavior of sugar residues. Current review article is related with the physiological significance of glycans carrying fucose and/or sialic residues in complex biomolecular assemblies. Both the sugar units have a diverse range of anomery and linkages with the penultimate sugars. The existing literature and databases did not contain comprehensive information regarding structure–function relationship of glycans. Therefore, the current study is scheduled to debate on the structure–function relationship of glycans carrying Fuc and sialic acid in their backbone structures.

  4. Identification of geometric faces in hand-sketched 3D objects containing curved lines

    El-Sayed, Ahmed M.; Wahdan, A. A.; Youssif, Aliaa A. A.

    2017-07-01

    The reconstruction of 3D objects from 2D line drawings is regarded as one of the key topics in the field of computer vision. The ongoing research is mainly focusing on the reconstruction of 3D objects that are mapped only from 2D straight lines, and that are symmetric in nature. Commonly, this approach only produces basic and simple shapes that are mostly flat or rather polygonized in nature, which is normally attributed to inability to handle curves. To overcome the above-mentioned limitations, a technique capable of handling non-symmetric drawings that encompass curves is considered. This paper discusses a novel technique that can be used to reconstruct 3D objects containing curved lines. In addition, it highlights an application that has been developed in accordance with the suggested technique that can convert a freehand sketch to a 3D shape using a mobile phone.

  5. Chlorination of cooling water: a source of chlorine-containing organic compounds with possible environmental significance

    Jolley, R.L.; Gehrs, C.W.; Pitt, W.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Chlorination of cooling waters may be a source of environmentally significant pollutants. Many water-soluble chlorine-containing organic compounds of low volatility were found in a sample of cooling water chlorinated to a 2-mg/l chlorine concentration in the laboratory. The compounds were separated and detected using a coupled 36 Cl-tracer--high-resolution liquid chromatographic technique developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for determination of chlorinated organics in process effluents. For a chlorination contact time of 75 min at 25 0 C, the yield of chlorine in the form of chloro-organics amounted to 0.78% of the chlorine dosage. It is estimated that the yield is about 0.5% under typical reaction conditions in the electric power plant cooling system chosen for study. Because chlorine is commonly used to remove slime films from the cooling systems of electric power plants, as a means of maintaining high operational efficiency, it is estimated that several hundred tons of chlorinated organics are produced annually in the nation by this antifoulant process. The chromatographic elution positions of some of the separated constituents correspond to those of compounds separated and partially identified from chlorinated sewage treatment plant effluents. The results of this study indicate the formation of chloro-organics during the chlorination of cooling waters should be thoroughly examined, particularly with respect to their identification and determination of possible toxicological properties

  6. Flooding tolerance in interspecific introgression lines containing chromosome segments from teosinte (Zea nicaraguensis) in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays)

    Mano, Y.; Omori, F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Nicaraguan teosinte (Zea nicaraguensis), a species found in frequently flooded areas, provides useful germplasm for breeding flooding-tolerant maize (Z. mays subsp. mays). The objective of this study was to select flooding-tolerant lines using a library of introgression lines (ILs), each containing a chromosome segment from Z. nicaraguensis in the maize inbred line Mi29. Methods To produce the ILs, a single F1 plant derived from a cross between maize Mi29 and Z. nicaraguensis was backcrossed to Mi29 three times, self-pollinated four times and genotyped using simple sequence repeat markers. Flooding tolerance was evaluated at the seedling stage under reducing soil conditions. Key Results By backcrossing and selfing, a series of 45 ILs were developed covering nearly the entire maize genome. Five flooding-tolerant lines were identified from among the ILs by evaluating leaf injury. Among these, line IL#18, containing a Z. nicaraguensis chromosome segment on the long arm of chromosome 4, showed the greatest tolerance to flooding, suggesting the presence of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) in that region. The presence of the QTL was verified by examining flooding tolerance in a population segregating for the candidate region of chromosome 4. There was no significant relationship between the capacity to form constitutive aerenchyma and flooding tolerance in the ILs, indicating the presence of other factors related to flooding tolerance under reducing soil conditions. Conclusions A flooding-tolerant genotype, IL#18, was identified; this genotype should be useful for maize breeding. In addition, because the chromosome segments of Z. nicaraguensis in the ILs cover nearly the entire genome and Z. nicaraguensis possesses several unique traits related to flooding tolerance, the ILs should be valuable material for additional QTL detection and the development of flooding-tolerant maize lines. PMID:23877074

  7. Flooding tolerance in interspecific introgression lines containing chromosome segments from teosinte (Zea nicaraguensis) in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays).

    Mano, Y; Omori, F

    2013-10-01

    Nicaraguan teosinte (Zea nicaraguensis), a species found in frequently flooded areas, provides useful germplasm for breeding flooding-tolerant maize (Z. mays subsp. mays). The objective of this study was to select flooding-tolerant lines using a library of introgression lines (ILs), each containing a chromosome segment from Z. nicaraguensis in the maize inbred line Mi29. To produce the ILs, a single F1 plant derived from a cross between maize Mi29 and Z. nicaraguensis was backcrossed to Mi29 three times, self-pollinated four times and genotyped using simple sequence repeat markers. Flooding tolerance was evaluated at the seedling stage under reducing soil conditions. By backcrossing and selfing, a series of 45 ILs were developed covering nearly the entire maize genome. Five flooding-tolerant lines were identified from among the ILs by evaluating leaf injury. Among these, line IL#18, containing a Z. nicaraguensis chromosome segment on the long arm of chromosome 4, showed the greatest tolerance to flooding, suggesting the presence of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) in that region. The presence of the QTL was verified by examining flooding tolerance in a population segregating for the candidate region of chromosome 4. There was no significant relationship between the capacity to form constitutive aerenchyma and flooding tolerance in the ILs, indicating the presence of other factors related to flooding tolerance under reducing soil conditions. A flooding-tolerant genotype, IL#18, was identified; this genotype should be useful for maize breeding. In addition, because the chromosome segments of Z. nicaraguensis in the ILs cover nearly the entire genome and Z. nicaraguensis possesses several unique traits related to flooding tolerance, the ILs should be valuable material for additional QTL detection and the development of flooding-tolerant maize lines.

  8. Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.).

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Loon, van Y.P.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Norel, van A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds from six pairs of near-isogenic lines of Vicia faba L., each pair consisting of a tannin-free (TF) and a tannin-containing (TC) partner line, were used to study the effect of breeding for the absence of condensed tannins on the seed content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and starch

  9. CD40-mediated apoptosis in murine B-lymphoma lines containing mutated p53

    Hollmann, Annette C; Gong, Qiaoke; Owens, Trevor

    2002-01-01

    Crosslinking CD40 induces normal B-cells to proliferate and differentiate but causes many tumor cell lines to undergo apoptosis. As p53 is required for many apoptotic pathways, we analyzed the effects of CD40 ligation and their correlation with p53 function in four murine B-lymphoma lines. A20...... of detectable p21 mRNA in A20 and M12 cells. P21 mRNA was increased to detectable levels in M12 cells upon CD40 ligation; however, blocking this effect with the p53 inhibitor pifithrin had no effect on CD40-mediated apoptosis. Sequencing showed that p53 in A20 and M12 cells contained point mutations leading...... to amino acid substitutions in DNA binding regions, but was unmutated in WEHI231 and WEHI 279. These results suggest that CD40-mediated apoptosis can occur in the absence of functional p53....

  10. 21 CFR 201.303 - Labeling of drug preparations containing significant proportions of wintergreen oil.

    2010-04-01

    ... proportions of wintergreen oil. (a) Because methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) manifests no toxicity in the... poisoning. (c) This statement of interpretation in no way exempts methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) or its... provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act any drug containing more than 5 percent methyl...

  11. Neuroblastoma cell lines contain pluripotent tumor initiating cells that are susceptible to a targeted oncolytic virus.

    Yonatan Y Mahller

    Full Text Available Although disease remission can frequently be achieved for patients with neuroblastoma, relapse is common. The cancer stem cell theory suggests that rare tumorigenic cells, resistant to conventional therapy, are responsible for relapse. If true for neuroblastoma, improved cure rates may only be achieved via identification and therapeutic targeting of the neuroblastoma tumor initiating cell. Based on cues from normal stem cells, evidence for tumor populating progenitor cells has been found in a variety of cancers.Four of eight human neuroblastoma cell lines formed tumorspheres in neural stem cell media, and all contained some cells that expressed neurogenic stem cell markers including CD133, ABCG2, and nestin. Three lines tested could be induced into multi-lineage differentiation. LA-N-5 spheres were further studied and showed a verapamil-sensitive side population, relative resistance to doxorubicin, and CD133+ cells showed increased sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Oncolytic viruses, engineered to be clinically safe by genetic mutation, are emerging as next generation anticancer therapeutics. Because oncolytic viruses circumvent typical drug-resistance mechanisms, they may represent an effective therapy for chemotherapy-resistant tumor initiating cells. A Nestin-targeted oncolytic herpes simplex virus efficiently replicated within and killed neuroblastoma tumor initiating cells preventing their ability to form tumors in athymic nude mice.These results suggest that human neuroblastoma contains tumor initiating cells that may be effectively targeted by an oncolytic virus.

  12. Medial joint line bone bruising at MRI complicating acute ankle inversion injury: What is its clinical significance?

    Chan, V.O.; Moran, D.E.; Shine, S.; Eustace, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the incidence and clinical significance of medial joint line bone bruising following acute ankle inversion injury. Materials and methods: Forty-five patients who underwent ankle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 2 weeks of acute ankle inversion injury were included in this prospective study. Integrity of the lateral collateral ligament complex, presence of medial joint line bone bruising, tibio-talar joint effusion, and soft-tissue swelling were documented. Clinical follow-up at 6 months was carried out to determine the impact of injury on length of time out of work, delay in return to normal walking, delay in return to sports activity, and persistence of medial joint line pain. Results: Thirty-seven patients had tears of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL). Twenty-six patients had medial joint line bone bruising with altered marrow signal at the medial aspect of the talus and congruent surface of the medial malleolus. A complete ATFL tear was seen in 92% of the patients with medial joint line bone bruising (p = 0.05). Patients with an ATFL tear and medial joint line bone bruising had a longer delay in return to normal walking (p = 0.0002), longer delay in return to sports activity (p = 0.0001), and persistent medial joint line pain (p = 0.0003). There was no statistically significant difference in outcome for the eight patients without ATFL tears. Conclusion: Medial joint line bone bruising following an acute ankle inversion injury was significantly associated with a complete ATFL tear, longer delay in the return to normal walking and sports activity, as well as persistent medial joint line pain. Its presence should prompt detailed assessment of the lateral collateral ligament complex, particularly the ATFL

  13. Lungmen ABWR containment analyses during short-term main steam line break LOCA using GOTHIC

    Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey; Dai, Liang-Che

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The Lungmen ABWR containment responses due to the main steam line break are analyzed. ► In the Lungmen FSAR, the peak drywell temperature is greater than the designed value. ► GOTHIC is used to calculate the containment responses in this study. ► With more realistic conditions, the drywell temperature can be reasonably suppressed. - Abstract: Lungmen Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan is a GE-designed twin-unit Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) plant with rated thermal power of 3926 MWt. Both units are currently under construction. In the Lungmen Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) section 6.2, the calculated peak drywell temperature during the short-term Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) event is 176.3 °C, which is greater than the designed temperature of 171.1 °C. It resulted in a controversial issue in the FSAR review process conducted by the Atomic Energy Council in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to independently investigate the Lungmen ABWR containment pressure and temperature responses to the MSLB using the GOTHIC program. Blowdown conditions are either calculated by using a simplified reactor vessel volume in GOTHIC model, or provided by the RELAP5 transient analysis. The blowdown flow rate from the steam header side is calculated with a more reasonable pressure loss coefficient of the open main steam isolation valves, and the peak drywell temperature is then reduced. By using the RELAP5 blowdown data, the peak drywell temperature can be further reduced because of the initial liquid entrainment in the blowdown flow. The drywell space is either treated as a single volume, or separated into a upper drywell and a lower drywell to reflect the real configuration of the Lungmen containment. It is also found that a single drywell volume may not present the overheating of the upper drywell. With more realistic approaches and assumptions, the drywell temperature can be reasonably below the design value and the Lungmen containment integrity

  14. Significance of the Lateral Humeral Line for Evaluating Radiocapitellar Alignment in Children.

    Souder, Christopher D; Roocroft, Joanna H; Edmonds, Eric W

    The radiocapitellar line (RCL) was originally described for evaluation of the alignment of the RC joint on lateral images of the elbow. Although, many authors have translated the utilization of RCL into coronal imaging, previous studies have not been performed to confirm validity. The purpose of this paper was to identify an accurate way of evaluating pediatric RC alignment in the coronal plane. Thirty-seven anteroposterior (AP) radiographs of 37 children were evaluated to determine the position of the RC joint in the coronal plane. All had acceptable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies available for comparison. The lateral humeral line (LHL), consisting of a line along the lateral edge of the ossified condyle of the distal humerus parallel to the axis of the distal humeral shaft, was studied as it related to the lateral cortex of the radial neck. Three children with a confirmed diagnosis of a Bado III, lateral displaced radius, Monteggia fracture were also evaluated. The LHL passed along the edge of or lateral to the radial neck on all AP radiographs and all MRI studies. The RCL failed to intersect the capitellum on 2 AP radiographs. On MRI, the RCL also passed lateral to the capitellar ossification center in 3 patients. In addition, the RCL was seen passing through the capitellum at a mean of the lateral 30% (range, 0% to 64%) on AP radiographs and 26% (range, 0% to 48%) on MRI. For all 3 children with a Bado III Monteggia fracture, the LHL crossed the radial neck and the RCL did not intersect the capitellum. The RCL can fail to intersect the capitellar ossification center on AP radiographs and MRI in pediatric elbows without injury. The LHL consistently lies lateral to the radial neck in normal elbows and medial to the lateral aspect of the radial neck on all Bado III fracture-dislocations. It, therefore, can be used as an adjunct in evaluating the RC joint on AP imaging. The RCL most commonly intersects the lateral one third of the ossification center on

  15. Clinical significance of 2 h plasma concentrations of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs

    Prahl, Julie B; Johansen, Isik S; Cohen, Arieh S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study 2 h plasma concentrations of the first-line tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Denmark and to determine the relationship between the concentrations and the clinical outcome. METHODS: After 6......-207 days of treatment (median 34 days) 2 h blood samples were collected from 32 patients with active tuberculosis and from three patients receiving prophylactic treatment. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Normal ranges were obtained from the literature. Clinical charts were reviewed...... failure occurred more frequently when the concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin were both below the normal ranges (P = 0.013) and even more frequently when they were below the median 2 h drug concentrations obtained in the study (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: At 2 h, plasma concentrations of isoniazid...

  16. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Hungry Horse--Columbia Falls line rebuild and relocation project

    1993-09-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has identified a need to rebuild the Hungry Horse-Columbia Falls 115,000-volt (115-kV) transmission line to 230-kV. This line supplies power to customers in the area of Columbia Falls, Montana, and integrates generation at the US Bureau of Reclamation's (USBR) Hungry Horse Dam into BPA's transmission grid. There are several problems with the existing system. The Hungry Horse-Columbia Falls 1 15-kV line is 45 years old and requires excessive maintenance. The USBR has decided to replace their aging 115-kV transformers at the dam with 230-kV transformers, which also would increase their operational flexibility. With the small conductor size and voltage of the line presently being used, significant amounts of energy are lost as the power moves across the line. Transformer failure at Hungry Horse Dam has led to joint planning between BPA and the USBR. (USBR and the US Forest Service are cooperating agencies on the proposed project.) The proposal to eliminate the 115-kV equipment and convert to 230-kV operation was the least costly of the options studied. By rebuilding the line, maintenance costs (and time required for outages) would be reduced. The increased generation at the USBR dam would be safely and consistently transmitted over the improved system, and less energy would be lost from the line, a cost and energy savings

  17. A self contained Linux based data acquisition system for 2D detectors with delay line readout

    Beltran, D.; Toledo, J.; Klora, A.C.; Ramos-Lerate, I.; Martinez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a fast and self-contained data acquisition system for 2D gas-filled detectors with delay line readout. It allows the realization of time resolved experiments in the millisecond scale. The acquisition system comprises of an industrial PC running Linux, a commercial time-to-digital converter and an in-house developed histogramming PCI card. The PC provides a mass storage for images and a graphical user interface for system monitoring and control. The histogramming card builds images with a maximum count rate of 5 MHz limited by the time-to-digital converter. Histograms are transferred to the PC at 85 MB/s. This card also includes a time frame generator, a calibration channel unit and eight digital outputs for experiment control. The control software was developed for easy integration into a beamline, including scans. The system is fully operational at the Spanish beamline BM16 at the ESRF in France, the neutron beamlines Adam and Eva at the ILL in France, the Max Plank Institute in Stuttgart in Germany, the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and at the future ALBA synchrotron in Spain. Some representative collected images from synchrotron and neutron beamlines are presented

  18. Containment fan cooler heat transfer calculation during main steam line break for Maanshan PWR plant

    Yuann, Yng-Ruey, E-mail: ryyuann@iner.gov.tw; Kao, Lain-Su, E-mail: lskao@iner.gov.tw

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Evaluate component cooling water (CCW) thermal response during MSLB for Maanshan. • Using GOTHIC to calculate CCW temperature and determine time required to boil CCW. • Both convective and condensation heat transfer from the air side are considered. • Boiling will not occur since T{sub B} is sufficiently longer than CCW pump restart time. -- Abstract: A thermal analysis has been performed for the Containment Fan Cooler Unit (FCU) during Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) accident, concurrent with loss of offsite power, for Maanshan PWR plant. The analysis is performed in order to address the waterhammer and two-phase flow issues discussed in USNRC's Generic Letter 96-06 (GL 96-06). Maanshan plant is a twin-unit Westinghouse 3-loop PWR currently operated at rated core thermal power of 2822 MWt for each unit. The design basis for containment temperature is Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) accident at power of 2830.5 MWt, which results in peak vapor temperature of 387.6 °F. The design is such that when MSLB occurs concurrent with loss of offsite power (MSLB/LOOP), both the coolant pump on the secondary side and the fan on the air side of the FCU loose power and coast down. The pump has little inertia and coasts down in 2–3 s, while the FCU fan coasts down over much longer period. Before the pump is restored through emergency diesel generator, there is potential for boiling the coolant in the cooling coils by the high-temperature air/steam mixture entering the FCU. The time to boiling depends on the operating pressure of the coolant before the pump is restored. The prediction of the time to boiling is important because it determines whether there is potential for waterhammer or two-phase flow to occur before the pump is restored. If boiling occurs then there exists steam region in the pipe, which may cause the so called condensation induced waterhammer or column closure waterhammer. In either case, a great amount of effort has to be spent to

  19. [Clinical Significance of ID4 Gene Mehtylation in Demethylation-Treated MDS Cell Line and 2 MDS Patients].

    Kang, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Xin-Rong; Gao, Li; Wang, Wei; Li, Mian-Yang; Wang, Li-Li; Wang, Cheng-Bin; Yu, Li

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate significance of ID4 gene mehtylation in demethylating myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS) cell Line MUTZ1 and 2 patients with MDS. The methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were applied to identify the methylation status and gene expression of ID4 gene in MDS cell line MUTZ1, a patient with aplastic anemia(AA) and a donor with normal bone marrow (NBM). RT-PCR was applied to detect the ID4 gene expression status in MUTZ1 cell line treated with decitabine at 3 different concentrations. Then bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) was applied to detect ID4 gene methylation status in 2 MDS parients treated with decitabine. The MDS cell line MUTZ-1 displayed a complete methylation of ID4 gene promoter with little mRNA expression. Inversely, bone marrow of an AA patient and NBM showed complete unmethylation of this gene with intensity mRNA expression. With the increase of decitabine concentration, ID4 gene mRNA expression was more and more increased. After decitabine treatment, ID4 gene methylation-positive frequencies of both the 2 MDS patients were much more decreased than that of the first treatment. So, ID4 gene mRNA expression inhibited by promoter hypemethylation could be recovered by using demethylation medicine. ID4 as a new potential anti-oncogene suggests that its methylation may become a marker for selection and assessment of therapeutic schedules in patients with MDS.

  20. Containment

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  1. Analysis of containment parameters during the main steam line break with the failure of the feedwater control valves

    Fabjan, L.; Petelin, S.; Mavko, B.; Gortnar, O.; Tiselj, I.

    1992-01-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) information notice 91-69: 'Errors in Main Steam Line Break Analyses for Determining Containment Parameters' shows the possibility of an accident which could lead to beyond design containment pressure and temperature. Such accident would be caused by the continuation of feedwater flow following a main stream line break (MSLB) inside the containment. Krsko power plant already experienced problems with main feedwater control valves. For that reason, analysis of MSLB has been performed taking into account continuous feedwater addition scenario and different containment safety systems capabilities availability. Steam and water released into the containment during MSLB was calculated using RELAP5/MOD2 computer code. The containment response to MSLB was calculated using CONTEMPT-LT/028 computer code. The results indicated that the continuous feedwater flow following a MSLB could lead to beyond design containment pressure. The peak pressure and temperature depend on isolation time for main- and auxiliary-feedwater supply. In the case of low boron concentration injection, the core recriticality is characteristic for this type of accidents. It was concluded that the presented analysis of MSLB with continuous feedwater addition scenario is the worst case for containment design

  2. Canine osteosarcoma cell lines contain stem-like cancer cells: biological and pharmacological characterization.

    Gatti, Monica; Wurth, Roberto; Vito, Guendalina; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Thellung, Stefano; Maniscalco, Lorella; De Maria, Raffaella; Villa, Valentina; Corsaro, Alessandro; Nizzari, Mario; Bajetto, Adriana; Ratto, Alessandra; Ferrari, Angelo; Barbieri, Federica; Florio, Tullio

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation of cells responsible for tumor formation and progression, drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasization. CSCs have been identified in many human tumors including osteosarcoma (OSA). CSC distinctive properties are the expression of stem cell markers, sustained growth, self-renewal and tumorigenicity. Here we report the isolation of stem-like cells from two canine OSA cultures, characterized by self-renewal, evaluated by sphere formation ability, differential marker expression, and in vitro proliferation when cultured in a medium containing EGF and bFGF. Current therapies for OSA increased survival time, but prognosis remains poor, due to the development of drug resistance and metastases. Chemotherapy shrinks the tumor mass but CSCs remain unaffected, leading to tumor recurrence. Metformin, a drug for type 2 diabetes, has been shown to possess antitumor properties affecting CSC survival in different human and animal cancers. Here we show that metformin has a significant antiproliferative effect on canine OSA stem-like cells, validating this in vitro model for further pre-clinical drug evaluations. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining CSC-enriched cultures from primary canine OSA cells as a promising model for biological and pharmacological studies of canine and human OSAs.

  3. Rate and time to develop first central line-associated bloodstream infections when comparing open and closed infusion containers in a Brazilian Hospital

    Margarete Vilins

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of switching from an open (glass or semi-rigid plastic infusion container to a closed, fully collapsible plastic infusion container (Viaflex® on rate and time to onset of central lineassociated bloodstream infections (CLABSI. An open-label, prospective cohort, active healthcare-associated infection surveillance, sequential study was conducted in three intensive care units in Brazil. The CLABSI rate using open infusion containers was compared to the rate using a closed infusion container. Probability of acquiring CLABSI was assessed over time and compared between open and closed infusion container periods; three-day intervals were examined. A total of 1125 adult ICU patients were enrolled. CLABSI rate was significantly higher during the open compared with the closed infusion container period (6.5 versus 3.2 CLABSI/1000 CL days; RR=0.49, 95%CI=0.26- 0.95, p=0.031. During the closed infusion container period, the probability of acquiring a CLABSI remained relatively constant along the time of central line use (0.8% Days 2-4 to 0.7% Days 11-13 but increased in the open infusion container period (1.5% Days 2-4 to 2.3% Days 11-13. Combined across all time intervals, the chance of a patient acquiring a CLABSI was significantly lower (55% in the closed infusion container period (Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.45, p= 0.019. CLABSIs can be reduced with the use of full barrier precautions, education, and performance feedback. Our results show that switching from an open to a closed infusion container may further reduce CLABSI rate as well as delay the onset of CLABSIs. Closed infusion containers significantly reduced CLABSI rate and the probability of acquiring CLABSI.

  4. The Flooding Water Source Analysis following the Feed Line Break at the Compartment outside Containment for Nuclear Power Plant

    Song, Dong Soo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Chan [ACT, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The Periodic Safety Review(PSR) has been performing for the operating nuclear power plant in Korea. One of the PSR evaluation items is environmental qualification. Flooding issue for nuclear power plants designed and built in 1970 is extremely severe for main steam header compartment and main feed water line region of intermediate building and lower floor. This study presents to analyze flood level of feed water line breaks for the Westinghouse nuclear power plant. This analyses provides the mass and energy releases using the developed methodology for a break outside containment. For the analyses RETRAN-3D computer program is used.

  5. Temperature induces significant changes in both glycolytic reserve and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity in colorectal cancer cell lines

    Mitov, Mihail I., E-mail: m.mitov@uky.edu [Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Harris, Jennifer W. [Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Alstott, Michael C.; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y. [Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Evers, B. Mark [Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Butterfield, D. Allan [Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Thermotherapy, as a method of treating cancer, has recently attracted considerable attention from basic and clinical investigators. A number of studies and clinical trials have shown that thermotherapy can be successfully used as a therapeutic approach for various cancers. However, the effects of temperature on cancer bioenergetics have not been studied in detail with a real time, microplate based, label-free detection approach. This study investigates how changes in temperature affect the bioenergetics characteristics (mitochondrial function and glycolysis) of three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines utilizing the Seahorse XF96 technology. Experiments were performed at 32 °C, 37 °C and 42 °C using assay medium conditions and equipment settings adjusted to produce equal oxygen and pH levels ubiquitously at the beginning of all experiments. The results suggest that temperature significantly changes multiple components of glycolytic and mitochondrial function of all cell lines tested. Under hypothermia conditions (32 °C), the extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) of CRC cells were significantly lower compared to the same basal ECAR levels measured at 37 °C. Mitochondrial stress test for SW480 cells at 37 °C vs 42 °C demonstrated increased proton leak while all other OCR components remained unchanged (similar results were detected also for the patient-derived xenograft cells Pt.93). Interestingly, the FCCP dose response at 37 °C vs 42 °C show significant shifts in profiles, suggesting that single dose FCCP experiments might not be sufficient to characterize the mitochondrial metabolic potential when comparing groups, conditions or treatments. These findings provide valuable insights for the metabolic and bioenergetic changes of CRC cells under hypo- and hyperthermia conditions that could potentially lead to development of better targeted and personalized strategies for patients undergoing combined thermotherapy with chemotherapy.

  6. Temperature induces significant changes in both glycolytic reserve and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity in colorectal cancer cell lines

    Mitov, Mihail I.; Harris, Jennifer W.; Alstott, Michael C.; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y.; Evers, B. Mark; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2017-01-01

    Thermotherapy, as a method of treating cancer, has recently attracted considerable attention from basic and clinical investigators. A number of studies and clinical trials have shown that thermotherapy can be successfully used as a therapeutic approach for various cancers. However, the effects of temperature on cancer bioenergetics have not been studied in detail with a real time, microplate based, label-free detection approach. This study investigates how changes in temperature affect the bioenergetics characteristics (mitochondrial function and glycolysis) of three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines utilizing the Seahorse XF96 technology. Experiments were performed at 32 °C, 37 °C and 42 °C using assay medium conditions and equipment settings adjusted to produce equal oxygen and pH levels ubiquitously at the beginning of all experiments. The results suggest that temperature significantly changes multiple components of glycolytic and mitochondrial function of all cell lines tested. Under hypothermia conditions (32 °C), the extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) of CRC cells were significantly lower compared to the same basal ECAR levels measured at 37 °C. Mitochondrial stress test for SW480 cells at 37 °C vs 42 °C demonstrated increased proton leak while all other OCR components remained unchanged (similar results were detected also for the patient-derived xenograft cells Pt.93). Interestingly, the FCCP dose response at 37 °C vs 42 °C show significant shifts in profiles, suggesting that single dose FCCP experiments might not be sufficient to characterize the mitochondrial metabolic potential when comparing groups, conditions or treatments. These findings provide valuable insights for the metabolic and bioenergetic changes of CRC cells under hypo- and hyperthermia conditions that could potentially lead to development of better targeted and personalized strategies for patients undergoing combined thermotherapy with chemotherapy.

  7. Second Line of Defense, Port of Buenos Aires and Exolgan Container Terminal Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Roberts, Bryan W.

    2012-08-23

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports project team for Argentina will conduct operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) at Exolgan Container Terminal at the Port of Dock Sud from July 16-20, 2012; and at the Port of Buenos Aires from September 3-7, 2012. SLD is installing radiation detection equipment to screen export, import, and transshipment containers at these locations. The purpose of OT&E is to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the SLD mission and to ensure the system continues to perform as expected in an operational environment with Argentina Customs effectively adjudicating alarms.

  8. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy

    Torbica Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases and patients without CLABSI (controls were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143; 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922. The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

  9. In-Containment Signal Conditioning and Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Rate Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    Mueller, Steffen; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander [Institute for Electronics Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 9, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes [AREVA GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Signal conditioning and transmission for sensor systems and networks within the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) still poses a challenge to engineers, particularly in the case of equipment upgrades for existing plants, temporary measurements, decommissioning of plants, but also for new builds. This paper presents an innovative method for efficient and cost-effective instrumentation within high dose rate areas inside the containment. A transmitter-receiver topology is proposed that allows simultaneous, unidirectional point-to-point transmission of multiple sensor signals by superimposing them on existing AC or DC power supply cables using power line communication (PLC) technology. Thereby the need for costly installation of additional cables and containment penetrations is eliminated. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. Hardware modularity of the transmitter allows application specific tradeoffs between redundancy and channel bandwidth. At receiver side in non-radiated areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and provided either in analog or digital output format. Laboratory qualification tests and field test results within a boiling water reactor (BWR) are validating the proof of concept of the proposed system. (authors)

  10. NPP Krsko on-line low pressure containment tightness monitoring implementation

    Dudas, M.; Basic, I.

    2004-01-01

    Containment Integrated Leak Rate Test (CILRT) 1999 in NPP Krsko was completely performed following regulation of 10CFR50 Appendix J Option A and ANSI/ANS 56.8-1987 at a design pressure (3.15 kp/cm2). In 2001 NPP Krsko proposed to Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) the Technical Specification (TS) and Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR) changes that describe implementation of new test intervals for Type A, B and C tests according to 10CFR50, Appendix J, Option B. After the positive final independent review of proposed changes by Authorized Institution, NPP Krsko received the License Amendment requiring from NPP Krsko to define technical solution for surveillance of containment tightness between two 10-years CILRT. This paper intends to discuss proposed methods by NPP Krsko, test equipment, performed measurements in 2004, associated analyses and evaluation.(author)

  11. Pre-test analysis results of a PWR steel lined pre-stressed concrete containment model

    Basha, S.M.; Ghosh, Barnali; Patnaik, R.; Ramanujam, S.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2000-02-01

    Pre-stressed concrete nuclear containment serves as the ultimate barrier against the release of radioactivity to the environment. This ultimate barrier must be checked for its ultimate load carrying capacity. BARC participated in a Round Robin analysis activity which is co-sponsored by Sandia National Laboratory, USA and Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation Japan for the pre-test prediction of a 1:4 size Pre-stressed Concrete Containment Vessel. In house finite element code ULCA was used to make the test predictions of displacements and strains at the standard output locations. The present report focuses on the important landmarks of the pre-test results, in sequential terms of first crack appearance, loss of pre-stress, first through thickness crack, rebar and liner yielding and finally liner tearing at the ultimate load. Global and local failure modes of the containment have been obtained from the analysis. Finally sensitivity of the numerical results with respect to different types of liners and different constitutive models in terms of bond strength between concrete and steel and tension-stiffening parameters are examined. The report highlights the important features which could be observed during the test and guidelines are given for improving the prediction in the post test computation after the test data is available. (author)

  12. Dermal application of nitric oxide releasing acidified nitrite-containing liniments significantly reduces blood pressure in humans.

    Opländer, Christian; Volkmar, Christine M; Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Fritsch, Thomas; van Faassen, Ernst E; Mürtz, Manfred; Grieb, Gerrit; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Hemmrich, Karsten; Windolf, Joachim; Suschek, Christoph V

    2012-02-15

    Vascular ischemic diseases, hypertension, and other systemic hemodynamic and vascular disorders may be the result of impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO but also its active derivates like nitrite or nitroso compounds are important effector and signal molecules with vasodilating properties. Our previous findings point to a therapeutical potential of cutaneous administration of NO in the treatment of systemic hemodynamic disorders. Unfortunately, no reliable data are available on the mechanisms, kinetics and biological responses of dermal application of nitric oxide in humans in vivo. The aim of the study was to close this gap and to explore the therapeutical potential of dermal nitric oxide application. We characterized with human skin in vitro and in vivo the capacity of NO, applied in a NO-releasing acidified form of nitrite-containing liniments, to penetrate the epidermis and to influence local as well as systemic hemodynamic parameters. We found that dermal application of NO led to a very rapid and significant transepidermal translocation of NO into the underlying tissue. Depending on the size of treated skin area, this translocation manifests itself through a significant systemic increase of the NO derivates nitrite and nitroso compounds, respectively. In parallel, this translocation was accompanied by an increased systemic vasodilatation and blood flow as well as reduced blood pressure. We here give evidence that in humans dermal application of NO has a therapeutic potential for systemic hemodynamic disorders that might arise from local or systemic insufficient availability of NO or its bio-active NO derivates, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Second Line of Defense Megaports Initiative Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan Colon Container Terminal (CCT) Panama

    Newhouse, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    Report on the Operational Testing and Evaluation to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the Second Line of Defense (SLD) mission requirements. An SLD system is defined as the detection technology and associated equipment, the system operators from the host country, the standard operating procedures (SOPs), and other elements such as training and maintenance which support long-term system sustainment. To this end, the activities conducted during the OT&E phase must demonstrate that the Megaports System can be operated effectively in real-time by Panama Direccion General de Aduanas (DGA Panama Customs) personnel to the standards of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA).

  14. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy.

    Tarricone, Rosanna; Torbica, Aleksandra; Franzetti, Fabio; Rosenthal, Victor D

    2010-05-10

    The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass) infusion containers. A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases) and patients without CLABSI (controls) were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days) associated with the two infusion containers. A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143); 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922). The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

  15. LINES

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  16. In-line Kevlar filters for microfiltration of transuranic-containing liquid streams.

    Gonzales, G J; Beddingfield, D H; Lieberman, J L; Curtis, J M; Ficklin, A C

    1992-06-01

    The Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant has numerous ongoing efforts to minimize the generation of residue and waste and to improve safety and health. Spent polypropylene liquid filters held for plutonium recovery, known as "residue," or as transuranic mixed waste contribute to storage capacity problems and create radiation safety and health considerations. An in-line process-liquid filter made of Kevlar polymer fiber has been evaluated for its potential to: (1) minimize filter residue, (2) recover economically viable quantities of plutonium, (3) minimize liquid storage tank and process-stream radioactivity, and (4) reduce potential personnel radiation exposure associated with these sources. Kevlar filters were rated to less than or equal to 1 mu nominal filtration and are capable of reducing undissolved plutonium particles to more than 10 times below the economic discard limit, however produced high back-pressures and are not yet acid resistant. Kevlar filters performed independent of loaded particles serving as a sieve. Polypropylene filters removed molybdenum particles at efficiencies equal to Kevlar filters only after loading molybdenum during recirculation events. Kevlars' high-efficiency microfiltration of process-liquid streams for the removal of actinides has the potential to reduce personnel radiation exposure by a factor of 6 or greater, while simultaneously achieving a reduction in the generation of filter residue and waste by a factor of 7. Insoluble plutonium may be recoverable from Kevlar filters by incineration.

  17. Study of condensation heat transfer following a main steam line break inside containment

    Cho, J.H.; Elia, F.A. Jr.; Lischer, D.J. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An alternative model for calculating condensation heat transfer following a main stream line break (MSLB) accident is proposed. The proposed model predictions and the current regulatory model predictions are compared to the results of the Carolinas Virginia Tube Reactor (CVTR) test. The very conservative results predicted by the current regulatory model result from: (1) low estimate of the condensation heat transfer coefficient by the Uchida correlation and (2) neglecting the convective contribution to the overall heat transfer. Neglecting the convection overestimates the mass of steam being condensed and does not permit the calculation of additional convective heat transfer resulting from superheated conditions. In this study, the Uchida correlation is used, but correction factors for the effects of convection an superheat are derived. The proposed model uses heat and mass transfer analogy methods to estimate to convective fraction of the total heat transfer and bases the steam removal rate on the condensation heat transfer portion only. The results predicted by the proposed model are shown to be conservative and more accurate than those predicted by the current regulatory model when compared with the results of the CVTR test. Results for typical pressurized water reactors indicate that the proposed model provides a basis for lowering the equipment qualification temperature envelope, particularly at later times following the accident.

  18. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  19. In-Containment Signal Acquisition and Data Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    Mueller Steffen; Wibbing Sascha; Weigel Robert; Koelpin Alexander; Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Signal acquisition and data transmission for innovative sensor systems and networks inside the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is still a challenge with respect to safety, performance, reliability, availability, and costs. This especially applies to equipment upgrades for existing plants, special measurements, but also for new builds. This paper presents a novel method for efficient and cost-effective sensor signal acquisition and data transmission via power lines, in order to cope with the disadvantages of common system architectures that often suffer from poor signal integrity due to raw data transmissions via long cables, huge efforts and costs for installation, and low flexibility with respect to maintenance and upgrades. A transmitter-receiver architecture is proposed that allows multiplexing of multiple sensor inputs for unidirectional point-to-point transmission by superimposing information signals on existing AC or DC supply lines, but also on active and inactive sensor wires, or spare cables, using power line communication (PLC) technology. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter hardware is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. The system's modular approach allows application specific trade-offs between redundancy and throughput regarding data transmission, as well as various sensor input front-ends which are compatible with state of the art systems. PLC technology eliminates the need for costly installation of additional cables and wall penetrations, while providing a complementary and diverse communication technology for upgrades of existing systems. At the receiver side in low dose areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and de-multiplexed, in order to regain the original sensor signal information and provide it either in analog or digital output format. Successful laboratory qualification tests, field trails

  20. In-Containment Signal Acquisition and Data Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    Mueller Steffen; Wibbing Sascha; Weigel Robert; Koelpin Alexander [Institute for Electronics Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes [AREVA GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Signal acquisition and data transmission for innovative sensor systems and networks inside the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is still a challenge with respect to safety, performance, reliability, availability, and costs. This especially applies to equipment upgrades for existing plants, special measurements, but also for new builds. This paper presents a novel method for efficient and cost-effective sensor signal acquisition and data transmission via power lines, in order to cope with the disadvantages of common system architectures that often suffer from poor signal integrity due to raw data transmissions via long cables, huge efforts and costs for installation, and low flexibility with respect to maintenance and upgrades. A transmitter-receiver architecture is proposed that allows multiplexing of multiple sensor inputs for unidirectional point-to-point transmission by superimposing information signals on existing AC or DC supply lines, but also on active and inactive sensor wires, or spare cables, using power line communication (PLC) technology. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter hardware is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. The system's modular approach allows application specific trade-offs between redundancy and throughput regarding data transmission, as well as various sensor input front-ends which are compatible with state of the art systems. PLC technology eliminates the need for costly installation of additional cables and wall penetrations, while providing a complementary and diverse communication technology for upgrades of existing systems. At the receiver side in low dose areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and de-multiplexed, in order to regain the original sensor signal information and provide it either in analog or digital output format. Successful laboratory qualification tests, field trails

  1. Phosphorus Partitioning of Soybean Lines Containing Different Mutant Alleles of Two Soybean Seed-Specific Adenosine Triphosphate-Binding Cassette Phytic Acid Transporter Paralogs

    Jason D. Gillman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed phytate is a repository of P and minerals in soybean [ (L. Merr.] seeds that limits P and mineral bioavailability for monogastric animals (e.g., humans, swine [], and poultry [especially chicken, ] due to insufficient digestive tract phytase activity. We previously identified epistatic recessive mutations affecting two paralogous adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette phytic acid transporter genes (one a nonsense mutation in and the other a missense mutation in as the molecular genetic basis in the ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS-induced mutant low phytate soybean line M153. An additional mutant low phytate line, M766, contained one single nucleotide polymorphism within the ninth intron of the locus as well as a nonsense mutation in . The objectives of this research were to clarify the genetics underlying the low phytate phenotype in line M766 and to determine P partitioning in new combinations of mutant alleles from M766 and M153. Inheritance of nonsense alleles affecting both ( genes (one from M153 and one from M766 led to the production of viable seeds that contained transgressive reductions in total seed phytate and significantly higher levels of inorganic phosphate than has been reported for nontransgenic soybean material and will allow efficient molecular selection of soybeans with even greater reductions of phytate for improved quality soybean meal.

  2. Development of a novel Sinapis arvensis disomic addition line in Brassica napus containing the restorer gene for Nsa CMS and improved resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and pod shattering.

    Wei, Wenhui; Li, Yunchang; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Shengyi; Yan, Xiaohong; Mei, Desheng; Li, Yinde; Xu, Yusong; Peng, Pengfei; Hu, Qiong

    2010-04-01

    An allo-cytoplasmic male sterile line, which was developed through somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis arvensis (thus designated as Nsa CMS line), possesses high potential for hybrid production of rapeseed. In order to select for restorer lines, fertile plants derived from the same somatic hybridization combination were self-pollinated and testcrossed with the parental Nsa CMS line for six generations. A novel disomic alien addition line, B. napus-S. arvensis, has been successfully developed. GISH analysis showed that it contains one pair of chromosomes from S. arvensis and 19 pairs from B. napus, and retains stable and regular mitotic and meiotic processes. The addition line displays very strong restoration ability to Nsa CMS line, high resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and a low incidence of pod shattering. Because the addition line shares these very important agricultural characters, it is a valuable restorer to Nsa CMS line, and is named NR1 here (Nsa restorer no. 1).

  3. Further observations of the lambda 10830 He line in stars and their significance as a measure of stellar activity

    Zirin, H.

    1975-11-01

    Measurements of the lambda 10830 He line in 198 stars are given along with data on other features in that spectral range. Nearly 80% of all G and K stars show some lambda 10830; of these, half are variable and 1/4 show emission. It was confirmed that lambda 10830 is not found in M stars, is weak in F stars, and is particularly strong in close binaries. The line is found in emission in extremely late M and S stars, along with P gamma, but P gamma is not in emission in G and K stars with lambda 10830 emissions. Variable He emission and Ti I emission are found in the RV Tauri variables R Scuti and U Mon. In R Aqr the Fe XIII coronal line lambda 10747 and a line at lambda 11012, which may be singlet He or La II, are found, as well as lambda 10830 and P gamma. The nature of coronas or hot chromospheres in the various stars is discussed. It was concluded that the lambda 10830 intensity must be more or less proportional to the energy deposited in the chromosphere corona by non-thermal processes

  4. Real-world Direct Health Care Costs for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated With Cetuximab or Bevacizumab-containing Regimens in First-line or First-line Through Second-line Therapy.

    Johnston, Stephen; Wilson, Kathleen; Varker, Helen; Malangone-Monaco, Elisabetta; Juneau, Paul; Riehle, Ellen; Satram-Hoang, Sacha; Sommer, Nicolas; Ogale, Sarika

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined real-world direct health care costs for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients initiating first-line (1L) bevacizumab (BEV)- or cetuximab (CET)-containing regimen in 1L or 1L-through-second-line (1L-2L) therapy. Using a large US insurance claims database, patients with mCRC initiating 1L BEV- or 1L CET-containing regimen from January 1, 2008 to September 30, 2014 were identified. The per-patient per-month (PPPM) all-cause health care costs (2014 US dollars) were measured during 1L therapy and, for patients continuing to a 2L biologic-containing regimen, 1L-2L therapy. Multivariable regression analyses were used to compare PPPM total health care costs between patients initiating a 1L BEV- versus 1L CET-containing regimen. A total of 6095 patients initiating a 1L BEV- and 453 initiating a 1L CET-containing regimen were evaluated for 1L costs; 2218 patients initiating a 1L BEV- and 134 initiating a 1L CET-containing regimen were evaluated for 1L-2L costs. In 1L therapy, 1L CET had adjusted PPPM costs that were $3135 (95% confidence interval [CI], $1174-$5040; P < .001) greater on average than 1L BEV. In 1L-2L therapy, 1L BEV-2L CET had adjusted PPPM costs that were $1402 (95% CI, $1365-$1442; P = .010) greater than those for 1L BEV-2L BEV, and 1L CET-2L BEV had adjusted PPPM costs that were $4279 (95% CI, $4167-$4400; P = .001) greater on average than those for 1L BEV-2L BEV. The adjusted PPPM cost differences for 1L BEV-2L other biologic or 1L CET-2L other biologic agent were numerically greater but statistically insignificant. PPPM total health care costs for 1L and 2L therapy tended to be greater for patients treated with 1L CET-containing regimens than for 1L BEV-containing regimens. Also, continuing treatment with BEV-containing regimens 1L-2L was less costly than switching between BEV and CET. The cost differences between BEV and CET hold important implications for treatment decisions of mCRC patients in real-world clinical

  5. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kV Transmission Line Reroute Project, Montrose County, Colorado

    N/A

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to reroute a section of the Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line, in Montrose County, Colorado. A portion of the transmission line, situated 11 miles southeast of Montrose, Colorado, crosses Waterdog Peak, an area of significant geologic surface activity, which is causing the transmission line's lattice steel towers to shift. This increases stress to structure hardware and conductors, and poses a threat to the integrity of the transmission system. Western proposes to relocate the lattice steel towers and line to a more geologically stable area. The existing section of transmission line and the proposed relocation route cross Bureau of Land Management and private land holdings.

  6. Ability of Group IVB metallocene polyethers containing dienestrol to arrest the growth of selected cancer cell lines

    Ashida Yuki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monomeric Group IVB (Ti, Zr and Hf metallocenes represent a new class of antitumor compounds. There is literature on the general biological activities of some organotin compounds. Unfortunately, there is little information with respect to the molecular level activity of these organotin compounds. We recently started focusing on the anti-cancer activity of organotin polymers that we had made for other purposes and as part of our platinum anti-cancer effort. Methods For this study, we synthesized a new series of metallocene-containing compounds coupling the metallocene unit with dienestrol, a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen. This is part of our effort to couple known moieties that offer antitumor activity with biologically active units hoping to increase the biological activity of the combination. The materials were confirmed to be polymeric using light scattering photometry and the structural repeat unit was verified employing matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy results. Results The polymers demonstrated the ability to suppress the growth of a series of tumor cell lines originating from breast, colon, prostrate, and lung cancers at concentrations generally lower than those required for inhibition of cell growth by the commonly used antitumor drug cisplatin. Conclusion These drugs show great promise in vitro against a number of cancer cell lines and due to their polymeric nature will most likely be less toxic than currently used metal-containing drugs such as cisplatin. These drugs also offer several addition positive aspects. First, the reactants are commercially available so that additional synthetic steps are not needed. Second, synthesis of the polymer is rapid, occurring within about 15 seconds. Third, the interfacial synthetic system is already industrially employed in the synthesis of aromatic nylons and polycarbonates. Thus, the ability to synthesize large amounts of

  7. Ability of Group IVB metallocene polyethers containing dienestrol to arrest the growth of selected cancer cell lines

    Roner, Michael R; Carraher, Charles E Jr; Shahi, Kimberly; Ashida, Yuki; Barot, Girish

    2009-01-01

    Monomeric Group IVB (Ti, Zr and Hf) metallocenes represent a new class of antitumor compounds. There is literature on the general biological activities of some organotin compounds. Unfortunately, there is little information with respect to the molecular level activity of these organotin compounds. We recently started focusing on the anti-cancer activity of organotin polymers that we had made for other purposes and as part of our platinum anti-cancer effort. For this study, we synthesized a new series of metallocene-containing compounds coupling the metallocene unit with dienestrol, a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen. This is part of our effort to couple known moieties that offer antitumor activity with biologically active units hoping to increase the biological activity of the combination. The materials were confirmed to be polymeric using light scattering photometry and the structural repeat unit was verified employing matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy results. The polymers demonstrated the ability to suppress the growth of a series of tumor cell lines originating from breast, colon, prostrate, and lung cancers at concentrations generally lower than those required for inhibition of cell growth by the commonly used antitumor drug cisplatin. These drugs show great promise in vitro against a number of cancer cell lines and due to their polymeric nature will most likely be less toxic than currently used metal-containing drugs such as cisplatin. These drugs also offer several addition positive aspects. First, the reactants are commercially available so that additional synthetic steps are not needed. Second, synthesis of the polymer is rapid, occurring within about 15 seconds. Third, the interfacial synthetic system is already industrially employed in the synthesis of aromatic nylons and polycarbonates. Thus, the ability to synthesize large amounts of the drugs is straight forward

  8. 222-S radioactive liquid waste line replacement and 219-S secondary containment upgrade, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to: (1) replace the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) radioactive liquid waste drain lines to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility (219-S); (2) upgrade 219-S by replacing or upgrading the waste storage tanks and providing secondary containment and seismic restraints to the concrete cells which house the tanks; and (3) replace the transfer lines from 219-S to the 241-SY Tank Farm. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1500-1508), and the DOE Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). 222-S is used to perform analytical services on radioactive samples in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System and Hanford Site environmental restoration programs. Activities conducted at 222-S include decontamination of analytical processing and support equipment and disposal of nonarchived radioactive samples. These activities generate low-level liquid mixed waste. The liquid mixed waste is drained through pipelines in the 222-S service tunnels and underground concrete encasements, to two of three tanks in 219-S, where it is accumulated. 219-S is a treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit, and is therefore required to meet Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations, and the associated requirements for secondary containment and leak detection. The service tunnels are periodically inspected by workers and decontaminated as necessary to maintain as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation levels. Although no contamination is reaching the environment from the service tunnels, the risk of worker exposure is present and could increase. 222-S is expected to remain in use for at least the next 30 years to serve the Hanford Site environmental cleanup mission

  9. Development of cross-border transmission lines in Poland and their significance for the Central East Europeam energy market

    Andruszkiewicz, Jerzy

    2010-09-15

    This publication presents the existing cross-border transmission lines connecting Poland with neighbouring countries and their use in the currently applied mechanisms for making available the transfer capacities. The prospects and the considered options of development in cross-border interconnections were presented, taking into account their role in the integration of the European market and of the trade relations with neighbouring counties other than members of the European Community. The role of the planned interconnections in solving the problems of central European countries connected with the implementation of European strategy that reduce CO2 emissions in the area of electricity generation was discussed.

  10. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Pant, Deepanjali; Narani, Krishan Kumar; Sood, Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier. PMID:20532073

  11. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Deepanjali Pant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier.

  12. Radiation-induced germ-line mutations detected by a direct comparison of parents and children DNA sequences containing SNPs

    Morimyo, M.; Hongo, E.; Higashi, T.; Wu, J.; Matsumoto, I.; Okamoto, M.; Kawano, A.; Tsuji, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Germ-line mutation is detected in mice but not in humans. To estimate genetic risk of humans, a new approach to extrapolate from animal data to humans or to directly detect radiation-induced mutations in man is expected. We have developed a new method to detect germ-line mutations by directly comparing DNA sequences of parents and children. The nucleotide sequences among mouse strains are almost identical except SNP markers that are detected at 1/1000 frequency. When gamma-irradiated male mice are mated with female mice, heterogeneous nucleotide sequences induced in children DNA are a candidate of mutation, whose assignment can be done by SNP analysis. This system can easily detect all types of mutations such as transition, transversion, frameshift and deletion induced by radiation and can be applied to humans having genetically heterogeneous nucleotide sequences and many SNP markers. C3H male mice of 8 weeks of gestation were irradiated with gamma rays of 3 and 1 Gy and after 3 weeks, they were mated with the same aged C57BL female mice. After 3 weeks breeding, DNA was extracted from parents and children mice. The nucleotide sequences of 150 STS markers containing 300-900 bp and SNPs of parents and children DNA were determined by a direct sequencing; amplification of STS markers by Taq DNA polymerase, purification of PCR products, and DNA sequencing with a dye-terminator method. At each radiation dose, a total amount of 5 Mb DNA sequences were examined to detect radiation-induced mutations. We could find 6 deletions in 3 Gy irradiated mice but not in 1 Gy and control mice. The mutation frequency was about 4.0 x 10 -7 /bp/ Gy or 1.6 x 10 -4 /locus/Gy, and suggested the non-linear increase of mutation rate with dose

  13. Efficacy and Safety of the Triple Therapy Containing Ilaprazole, Levofloxacin, and Amoxicillin as First-Line Treatment in Helicobacter pylori Infections

    Hyo Jun Ahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. To establish the efficacy and safety of ilaprazole, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin as a first-line eradication treatment for Helicobacter pylori. Methods. Patients with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, or gastritis, as detected by esophagogastroduodenoscopy with confirmed H. pylori infection between September 2014 and November 2015, were enrolled in the study. All participants received ilaprazole (10 mg bid, levofloxacin (500 mg bid, and amoxicillin (1000 mg bid for 10 days. H. pylori eradication was confirmed by a 13C-urea breath test at 6–8 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. Of 84 patients included in the analysis, the eradication rate was 88.8% in the per protocol group (n=80. Demographic factors such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI, alcohol, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and peptic ulcer did not affect the eradication rate. However, multivariate analysis showed that overweight patients and patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA had a significantly lower eradication rate than patients with normal BMI and without CVA. Laboratory test results did not change significantly after treatment. A total of six (7.5% patients developed eight adverse reactions. Conclusions. A 10-day triple therapy containing ilaprazole, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin is a safe alternative first-line eradication treatment for H. pylori.

  14. PRESENCE OF ARCOBACTER SPP. IN IN-LINE MILK FILTERS: AN EMERGING AND SIGNIFICANT MICROBIOLOGICAL HAZARD IN FOOD

    F. Giacometti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While a study on the presence of foodborne pathogens in in-line milk filters of Italian dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk was in progress, we fortuitously detected and isolated some Arcobacter spp. during routine analysis for thermotolerant Campylobacter. This observation suggested that extraordinary and non-standardized growth conditions for detection and identification were needed to provide more information and data on this poorly known emergent zoonotic pathogen. The presence of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacacter cryaerophilus in milk filters of dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk poses a risk for public health and rather suggests that raw milk samples should also be examined for Arcobacter contamination. While the role of Arcobacter spp. in human disease awaits further evaluation, a precautionary approach is advisable and control measures to prevent or to eliminate the hazard of Arcobacter spp. in food and from the human food chain should be encouraged as well as more epidemiological studies. With this article, we review the literature of this organism in order to focus the relevant information to food safety.

  15. Significance of Dungey-cycle flows in Jupiter's and Saturn's magnetospheres, and their identification on closed equatorial field lines

    S. V. Badman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the contribution of the solar wind-driven Dungey-cycle to flux transport in Jupiter's and Saturn's magnetospheres, the associated voltages being based on estimates of the magnetopause reconnection rates recently derived from observations of the interplanetary medium in the vicinity of the corresponding planetary orbits. At Jupiter, the reconnection voltages are estimated to be ~150 kV during several-day weak-field rarefaction regions, increasing to ~1 MV during few-day strong-field compression regions. The corresponding values at Saturn are ~25 kV for rarefaction regions, increasing to ~150 kV for compressions. These values are compared with the voltages associated with the flows driven by planetary rotation. Estimates of the rotational flux transport in the "middle" and "outer" magnetosphere regions are shown to yield voltages of several MV and several hundred kV at Jupiter and Saturn respectively, thus being of the same order as the estimated peak Dungey-cycle voltages. We conclude that under such circumstances the Dungey-cycle "return" flow will make a significant contribution to the flux transport in the outer magnetospheric regions. The "return" Dungey-cycle flows are then expected to form layers which are a few planetary radii wide inside the dawn and morning magnetopause. In the absence of significant cross-field plasma diffusion, these layers will be characterized by the presence of hot light ions originating from either the planetary ionosphere or the solar wind, while the inner layers associated with the Vasyliunas-cycle and middle magnetosphere transport will be dominated by hot heavy ions originating from internal moon/ring plasma sources. The temperature of these ions is estimated to be of the order of a few keV at Saturn and a few tens of keV at Jupiter, in both layers.

  16. Mutational Correlates of Virological Failure in Individuals Receiving a WHO-Recommended Tenofovir-Containing First-Line Regimen: An International Collaboration

    Soo-Yon Rhee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF genotypic resistance defined by K65R/N and/or K70E/Q/G occurs in 20% to 60% of individuals with virological failure (VF on a WHO-recommended TDF-containing first-line regimen. However, the full spectrum of reverse transcriptase (RT mutations selected in individuals with VF on such a regimen is not known. To identify TDF regimen-associated mutations (TRAMs, we compared the proportion of each RT mutation in 2873 individuals with VF on a WHO-recommended first-line TDF-containing regimen to its proportion in a cohort of 50,803 antiretroviral-naïve individuals. To identify TRAMs specifically associated with TDF-selection pressure, we compared the proportion of each TRAM to its proportion in a cohort of 5805 individuals with VF on a first-line thymidine analog-containing regimen. We identified 83 TRAMs including 33 NRTI-associated, 40 NNRTI-associated, and 10 uncommon mutations of uncertain provenance. Of the 33 NRTI-associated TRAMs, 12 – A62V, K65R/N, S68G/N/D, K70E/Q/T, L74I, V75L, and Y115F – were more common among individuals receiving a first-line TDF-containing compared to a first-line thymidine analog-containing regimen. These 12 TDF-selected TRAMs will be important for monitoring TDF-associated transmitted drug-resistance and for determining the extent of reduced TDF susceptibility in individuals with VF on a TDF-containing regimen.

  17. Genome Wide Expression Profiling of Cancer Cell Lines Cultured in Microgravity Reveals Significant Dysregulation of Cell Cycle and MicroRNA Gene Networks.

    Prasanna Vidyasekar

    Full Text Available Zero gravity causes several changes in metabolic and functional aspects of the human body and experiments in space flight have demonstrated alterations in cancer growth and progression. This study reports the genome wide expression profiling of a colorectal cancer cell line-DLD-1, and a lymphoblast leukemic cell line-MOLT-4, under simulated microgravity in an effort to understand central processes and cellular functions that are dysregulated among both cell lines. Altered cell morphology, reduced cell viability and an aberrant cell cycle profile in comparison to their static controls were observed in both cell lines under microgravity. The process of cell cycle in DLD-1 cells was markedly affected with reduced viability, reduced colony forming ability, an apoptotic population and dysregulation of cell cycle genes, oncogenes, and cancer progression and prognostic markers. DNA microarray analysis revealed 1801 (upregulated and 2542 (downregulated genes (>2 fold in DLD-1 cultures under microgravity while MOLT-4 cultures differentially expressed 349 (upregulated and 444 (downregulated genes (>2 fold under microgravity. The loss in cell proliferative capacity was corroborated with the downregulation of the cell cycle process as demonstrated by functional clustering of DNA microarray data using gene ontology terms. The genome wide expression profile also showed significant dysregulation of post transcriptional gene silencing machinery and multiple microRNA host genes that are potential tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes including MIR22HG, MIR17HG and MIR21HG. The MIR22HG, a tumor-suppressor gene was one of the highest upregulated genes in the microarray data showing a 4.4 log fold upregulation under microgravity. Real time PCR validated the dysregulation in the host gene by demonstrating a 4.18 log fold upregulation of the miR-22 microRNA. Microarray data also showed dysregulation of direct targets of miR-22, SP1, CDK6 and CCNA2.

  18. No impact of HIV-1 protease minority resistant variants on the virological response to a first-line PI-based regimen containing darunavir or atazanavir.

    Perrier, Marine; Visseaux, Benoit; Landman, Roland; Joly, Véronique; Todesco, Eve; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Calvez, Vincent; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Descamps, Diane; Charpentier, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate, in a clinical cohort of HIV-1-infected patients, the prevalence of PI minority resistant variants (MRV) at ART baseline and their impact on the virological response to a first-line PI-based regimen. In an observational single-centre cohort, we assessed all ART-naive patients initiating a first-line regimen including two NRTI and one boosted PI, darunavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir, between January 2012 and March 2015. Ultra-deep sequencing of the pol gene was performed using Illumina® technology. Protease mutations were identified using the WHO transmitted drug resistance list and major PI resistance mutations (IAS-USA drug resistance mutations list). Ninety-four and 16 patients initiating a darunavir/ritonavir-based regimen and an atazanavir/ritonavir-based regimen, respectively, were assessed. Twenty-eight percent of the patients were HIV-1 subtype B, 39% CRF02_AG and 33% other non-B subtypes. Thirteen patients (13.8%) in the darunavir group and three patients (18.8%) in the atazanavir group experienced a virological failure (VF). Overall, 13 (11.8%) subjects had PI MRV at baseline in the median proportion of 1.3% (IQR = 1.1-1.7). The most prevalent PI MRV were G73C (n = 5) and M46I (n = 3). The proportion of patients harbouring baseline PI MRV was similar between those with virological success (10.6%) and those experiencing VF (18.8%) (P = 0.40). No difference was observed in the rate of PI MRV by viral subtype (P = 0.51) or by PI drug (P = 0.40). This study showed a prevalence of 11.8% of PI MRV among 110 ART-naive subjects, without significant impact on the virological response to a first-line PI-based regimen containing darunavir or atazanavir. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Lining materials for waste disposal containment and waste storage facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design characteristics, performance, and materials used to make liners for the waste disposal and storage industry. Liners made of concrete, polymeric materials, compacted clays, asphalt, and in-situ glass are discussed. The use of these liners to contain municipal wastes, hazardous waste liquids, and both low-level and high-level radioactive wastes is presented. Liner permeability, transport, stability, construction, and design are studied. Laboratory field measurements for specific wastes are included. (Contains a minimum of 213 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. McCoy cell line as a possible model containing CD4+ receptors for the study of HIV-1 replication

    Nogueira Yeda L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have recently shown the use of recombinant rabies virus as potential vector-viral vaccine for HIV-1. The sequence homology between gp 120 and rabies virus glycoprotein has been reported. The McCoy cell line has therefore been used to show CD4+ or CD4+ like receptors. Samples of HIV-1 were isolated, when plasma of HIV-1 positive patients was inoculated in the McCoy cell line. The virus infection was then studied during successive virus passages. The proteins released in the extra cellular medium were checked for protein activity, by exposure to SDS Electrophoresis and blotting to nitro-cellulose filter, then reacting with sera of HIV positive and negative patients. Successive passages were performed, and showed viral replication, membrane permeabilization, the syncytium formation, and the cellular lysis (cytopathic effect. Flow cytometry analysis shows clear evidence that CD4+ receptors are present in this cell line, which enhances the likelihood of easy isolation and replication of HIV. The results observed allow the use of this cell line as a possible model for isolating HIV, as well as for carrying out studies of the dynamics of viral infection in several situations, including exposure to drugs in pharmacological studies, and possibly studies and analyses of the immune response in vaccine therapies.

  1. Penetration of gas into concrete during a leakage rate test of reactor containments and its significance for the drop in pressure

    Nilsson L.-O.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the project described in the paper was to develop a simulation model that describes transient air pressure distribution in concrete in order to see if the leakage rates obtained from the Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Tests can be explained by the transient air pressurization of concrete pores inside the steel liner. A partial differential equation was derived which describes transient air pressure distribution in concrete pores. The model was validated against experimental results. The simulation model shows that there are significant air fluxes into the concrete structures that can explain the pressure drop during a leakage test.

  2. The cytoskeleton of Drosophila-derived Schneider line-1 and Kc23 cells undergoes significant changes during long-term culture

    Schatten, H.; Hedrick, J.; Chakrabarti, A.

    1998-01-01

    Insect cell cultures derived from Drosophila melanogaster are increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures, as they are amenable to genetic manipulation. Although Drosophila cells are an excellent tool for the study of genes and expression of proteins, culture conditions have to be considered in the interpretation of biochemical results. Our studies indicate that significant differences occur in cytoskeletal structure during the long-term culture of the Drosophila-derived cell lines Schneider Line-1 (S1) and Kc23. Scanning, transmission-electron, and immunofluorescence microscopy studies reveal that microfilaments, microtubules, and centrosomes become increasingly different during the culture of these cells from 24 h to 7-14 days. Significant cytoskeletal changes are observed at the cell surface where actin polymerizes into microfilaments, during the elongation of long microvilli. Additionally, long protrusions develop from the cell surface; these protrusions are microtubule-based and establish contact with neighboring cells. In contrast, the microtubule network in the interior of the cells becomes disrupted after four days of culture, resulting in altered transport of mitochondria. Microtubules and centrosomes are also affected in a small percent of cells during cell division, indicating an instability of centrosomes. Thus, the cytoskeletal network of microfilaments, microtubules, and centrosomes is affected in Drosophila cells during long-term culture. This implies that gene regulation and post-translational modifications are probably different under different culture conditions.

  3. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  4. Novel hydroxyamides and amides containing D-glucopyranose or D-fructose units: Biological assays in MCF-7 and MDST8 cell lines.

    Carreiro, Elisabete P; Costa, Ana R; Cordeiro, Maria M; Martins, Rute; Pires, Tiago O; Saraiva, Mafalda; Antunes, Célia M; Burke, Anthony J

    2016-02-01

    A novel library of 15 compounds, hydroxyamides and amides containing a β-D-glucopyranose (D-Gluc) or a β-D-fructose (D-Fruc) units was designed and synthesized for antiproliferative assays in breast (MCF-7) and colon (MDST8) cancer cell lines. Twelve of them were hydroxyamides and were successfully synthesized from β-D-glucuronic acid (D-GluA). Six of these hydroxyamides which were acetylated hydroxy-β-D-glucopyranuronamide 2a-2f (1st Family) and the other six were their respective isomers, that is, hydroxy-β-D-fructuronamide 3a-3f (2nd Family), obtained by acid-base catalyzed isomerization. These compounds have the general structure, D-Gluc-C=ONH-CHR-(CH2)n-OH and D-Fruc-C=ONH-CHR-(CH2)n-OH, where R=an aromatic, alkyl or a hydrogen substituent, with n=0 or 1. Eight of these contained a chiral aminoalcohol group. Three compounds were amides containing a D-glucopyranose unit (3rd Family). SAR studies were conducted with these compounds. Antiproliferative studies showed that compound 4a, the bromo-amide containing the β-D-glucopyranose ring, potently inhibits the proliferation of the MDST8 cells. Five compounds (2e, 2f, 3d, 3e, and 3f) were shown to potently selectively inhibit the proliferation of the MCF-7 cells. Compound 4b was the only one showing inhibition in both cell lines. In general, the more active compounds were the amides and hydroxyamides containing the β-D-fructose moiety, and containing an alkyl group or hydrogen. Half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of between 0.01 and 10 μM, were observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Helicobacter pylori second-line rescue therapy with levofloxacin- and bismuth-containing quadruple therapy, after failure of standard triple or non-bismuth quadruple treatments.

    Gisbert, J P; Romano, M; Gravina, A G; Solís-Muñoz, P; Bermejo, F; Molina-Infante, J; Castro-Fernández, M; Ortuño, J; Lucendo, A J; Herranz, M; Modolell, I; Del Castillo, F; Gómez, J; Barrio, J; Velayos, B; Gómez, B; Domínguez, J L; Miranda, A; Martorano, M; Algaba, A; Pabón, M; Angueira, T; Fernández-Salazar, L; Federico, A; Marín, A C; McNicholl, A G

    2015-04-01

    The most commonly used second-line Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens are bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and levofloxacin-containing triple therapy, both offering suboptimal results. Combining bismuth and levofloxacin may enhance the efficacy of rescue eradication regimens. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a second-line quadruple regimen containing levofloxacin and bismuth in patients whose previous H. pylori eradication treatment failed. This was a prospective multicenter study including patients in whom a standard triple therapy (PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin) or a non-bismuth quadruple therapy (PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin-metronidazole, either sequential or concomitant) had failed. Esomeprazole (40 mg b.d.), amoxicillin (1 g b.d.), levofloxacin (500 mg o.d.) and bismuth (240 mg b.d.) was prescribed for 14 days. Eradication was confirmed by (13) C-urea breath test. Compliance was determined through questioning and recovery of empty medication envelopes. Incidence of adverse effects was evaluated by questionnaires. 200 patients were included consecutively (mean age 47 years, 67% women, 13% ulcer). Previous failed therapy included: standard clarithromycin triple therapy (131 patients), sequential (32) and concomitant (37). A total of 96% took all medications correctly. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 91.1% (95%CI = 87-95%) and 90% (95%CI = 86-94%). Cure rates were similar regardless of previous (failed) treatment or country of origin. Adverse effects were reported in 46% of patients, most commonly nausea (17%) and diarrhoea (16%); 3% were intense but none was serious. Fourteen-day bismuth- and levofloxacin-containing quadruple therapy is an effective (≥90% cure rate), simple and safe second-line strategy in patients whose previous standard triple or non-bismuth quadruple (sequential or concomitant) therapies have failed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Ten-day bismuth-containing quadruple therapy is effective as first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis: a prospective randomized study in China.

    Wang, L; Lin, Z; Chen, S; Li, J; Chen, C; Huang, Z; Ye, B; Ding, J; Li, W; Wu, L; Jiang, Y; Meng, L; Du, Q; Si, J

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 10-day bismuth-containing quadruple (B-quadruple) treatment as first-line therapy in patients with Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis. A randomized controlled trial was conducted from October 2011 to December 2013 in Zhejiang, China, including patients with H. pylori-related chronic gastritis who were randomly provided either 10-day omeprazole-based triple therapy (OM-triple; omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1 g twice daily) or 10-day B-quadruple therapy (OM-triple + bismuth subcitrate 120 mg four times daily). H. pylori status, pathologic findings and dyspeptic symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. The primary outcome was H. pylori eradication rates by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. The secondary outcomes were the histologic and symptomatic benefits from H. pylori eradication. A total of 351 patients with H. pylori-related chronic gastritis were recruited. The eradication rates of the OM-triple and B-quadruple groups were 58.4% (108/185) and 86.1% (143/166) respectively according to ITT analysis (p gastritis and intestinal metaplasia did not regress in both groups (n=326). The reduction of dyspeptic symptoms score was significantly higher in the B-quadruple group than in the OM-triple group (0.59±0.057 vs. 0.39±0.046) (p gastritis in China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunocapture of CD133-positive cells from human cancer cell lines by using monodisperse magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres containing amino groups

    Kuan, Wei-Chih [Department of Chemical Engineering, Systems Biology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, National Chung Cheng University, Minhisung 621, Taiwan (China); Horák, Daniel, E-mail: horak@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Plichta, Zdeněk [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Lee, Wen-Chien [Department of Chemical Engineering, Systems Biology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, National Chung Cheng University, Minhisung 621, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-based macroporous microspheres with an average particle size of 4.2 μm were prepared using a modified multi-step swelling polymerization method and by introducing amino functionality on their surfaces. Antibody molecules were oxidized on their carbohydrate moieties and bound to the amino-containing magnetic microspheres via a site-directed procedure. CD133-positive cells could be effectively captured from human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HCT116, MCF7, and IMR-32) by using magnetic microspheres conjugated to an anti-human CD133 antibody. After further culture, the immunocaptured CD133-expressing cells from IMR-32 proliferated and gradually detached from the magnetic microspheres. Flow-cytometric analysis confirmed the enrichment of CD133-expressing cells by using the antibody-bound magnetic microspheres. Such microspheres suitable for immunocapture are very promising for cancer diagnosis because the CD133-expressing cells in cancer cell lines have been suggested to be cancer stem cells. - Highlights: • Multi-step swelling polymerization produced poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres. • Anti-human CD133 antibodies were bound to the amino-containing magnetic microspheres. • CD133-positive cells were effectively captured from human cancer cell lines. • Immunocaptured CD133-expressing cells proliferated and were detached from microspheres. • Enrichment of CD133-expressing cells was confirmed by flow-cytometric analysis.

  8. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine.

  9. Ovarian follicular dynamics and plasma steroid concentrations are not significantly different in ewes given intravaginal sponges containing either 20 or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate.

    Letelier, C A; Contreras-Solis, I; García-Fernández, R A; Ariznavarreta, C; Tresguerres, J A F; Flores, J M; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2009-03-01

    Although various progestagens are often used to induce and synchronize estrus and ovulation in ruminants, concerns regarding residues are the impetus to develop alternative approaches, including reduced doses of progestagens. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether ovarian function was affected by halving the dose of fluorogestone acetate in intravaginal sponges for synchronizing ovulation in sheep during the physiologic breeding season. Twenty Manchega ewes, 4-6-year-old, were randomly allocated to receive an intravaginal sponge containing either 20mg (P20, n=10) or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate (P40, n=10). Cloprostenol (125 microg) was given at sponge insertion, and all sponges were removed after 6d. Ovarian follicular dynamics (monitored by daily ultrasonography) and other aspects of ovarian function did not differ significantly between the two groups. Ovulatory follicles (OF) grew at a similar growth rate (r=0.62; Pprogesterone concentrations (3.8+/-0.35 ng/mL for P20 and 3.9+/-0.38 ng/mL for P40) were similar. In conclusion, reducing the dose of fluorogestone acetate from 40 to 20mg did not affect significantly ovarian follicular dynamics or other aspects of ovarian function.

  10. Genome wide analysis of inbred mouse lines identifies a locus containing Ppar-gamma as contributing to enhanced malaria survival.

    Selina E R Bopp

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The genetic background of a patient determines in part if a person develops a mild form of malaria and recovers, or develops a severe form and dies. We have used a mouse model to detect genes involved in the resistance or susceptibility to Plasmodium berghei malaria infection. To this end we first characterized 32 different mouse strains infected with P. berghei and identified survival as the best trait to discriminate between the strains. We found a locus on chromosome 6 by linking the survival phenotypes of the mouse strains to their genetic variations using genome wide analyses such as haplotype associated mapping and the efficient mixed-model for association. This new locus involved in malaria resistance contains only two genes and confirms the importance of Ppar-gamma in malaria infection.

  11. Shielding container

    Darling, K.A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A shielding container incorporates a dense shield, for example of depleted uranium, cast around a tubular member of curvilinear configuration for accommodating a radiation source capsule. A lining for the tubular member, in the form of a close-coiled flexible guide, provides easy replaceability to counter wear while the container is in service. Container life is extended, and maintenance costs are reduced. (author)

  12. On the crack propagation analysis of rock like Brazilian disc specimens containing cracks under compressive line loading

    Hadi Haeri

    Full Text Available The pre-existing cracks in the brittle substances seem to be the main cause of their failure under various loading conditions. In this study, a simultaneous analytical, experimental and numerical analysis of crack propagation, cracks coalescence and failure process of brittle materials has been performed. Brazilian disc tests are being carried out to evaluate the cracks propagation paths in rock-like Brazilian disc specimens containing single and double cracks (using rock-like specimens which are specially prepared from Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC, fine sands and water in a rock mechanics laboratory. The failure load of the pre-cracked disc specimens are measured showing the decreasing effects of the cracks and their orientation on the final failure load. The same specimens are numerically simulated by a higher order indirect boundary element method known as displacement discontinuity method. These numerical results are compared with the existing analytical and experimental results proving the accuracy and validity of the proposed numerical method. The numerical and experimental results obtained from the tested specimens are in good agreement and demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. The C. elegans TPR Containing Protein, TRD-1, Regulates Cell Fate Choice in the Developing Germ Line and Epidermis.

    Samantha Hughes

    Full Text Available Correct cell fate choice is crucial in development. In post-embryonic development of the hermaphroditic Caenorhabitis elegans, distinct cell fates must be adopted in two diverse tissues. In the germline, stem cells adopt one of three possible fates: mitotic cell cycle, or gamete formation via meiosis, producing either sperm or oocytes. In the epidermis, the stem cell-like seam cells divide asymmetrically, with the daughters taking on either a proliferative (seam or differentiated (hypodermal or neuronal fate. We have isolated a novel conserved C. elegans tetratricopeptide repeat containing protein, TRD-1, which is essential for cell fate determination in both the germline and the developing epidermis and has homologs in other species, including humans (TTC27. We show that trd-1(RNAi and mutant animals have fewer seam cells as a result of inappropriate differentiation towards the hypodermal fate. In the germline, trd-1 RNAi results in a strong masculinization phenotype, as well as defects in the mitosis to meiosis switch. Our data suggests that trd-1 acts downstream of tra-2 but upstream of fem-3 in the germline sex determination pathway, and exhibits a constellation of phenotypes in common with other Mog (masculinization of germline mutants. Thus, trd-1 is a new player in both the somatic and germline cell fate determination machinery, suggestive of a novel molecular connection between the development of these two diverse tissues.

  14. BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense variants of high and low clinical significance influence lymphoblastoid cell line post-irradiation gene expression.

    Nic Waddell

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional consequences of missense variants in disease genes are difficult to predict. We assessed if gene expression profiles could distinguish between BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic truncating and missense mutation carriers and familial breast cancer cases whose disease was not attributable to BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations (BRCAX cases. 72 cell lines from affected women in high-risk breast ovarian families were assayed after exposure to ionising irradiation, including 23 BRCA1 carriers, 22 BRCA2 carriers, and 27 BRCAX individuals. A subset of 10 BRCAX individuals carried rare BRCA1/2 sequence variants considered to be of low clinical significance (LCS. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers had similar expression profiles, with some subclustering of missense mutation carriers. The majority of BRCAX individuals formed a distinct cluster, but BRCAX individuals with LCS variants had expression profiles similar to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Gaussian Process Classifier predicted BRCA1, BRCA2 and BRCAX status, with a maximum of 62% accuracy, and prediction accuracy decreased with inclusion of BRCAX samples carrying an LCS variant, and inclusion of pathogenic missense carriers. Similarly, prediction of mutation status with gene lists derived using Support Vector Machines was good for BRCAX samples without an LCS variant (82-94%, poor for BRCAX with an LCS (40-50%, and improved for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation carriers when the gene list used for prediction was appropriate to mutation effect being tested (71-100%. This study indicates that mutation effect, and presence of rare variants possibly associated with a low risk of cancer, must be considered in the development of array-based assays of variant pathogenicity.

  15. On-line SPE-UHPLC method using fused core columns for extraction and separation of nine illegal dyes in chilli-containing spices.

    Khalikova, Maria A; Satínský, Dalibor; Smidrkalová, Tereza; Solich, Petr

    2014-12-01

    The presented work describes the development of a simple, fast and effective on-line SPE-UHPLC-UV/vis method using fused core particle columns for extraction, separation and quantitative analysis of the nine illegal dyes, most frequently found in chilli-containing spices. The red dyes Sudan I-IV, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red G, Sudan Orange G, Para Red, and Methyl Red were separated and analyzed in less than 9 min without labor-consuming pretreatment procedure. The chromatographic separation was performed on Ascentis Express RP-Amide column with gradient elution using mixture of acetonitrile and water, as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and 55°C of temperature. As SPE sorbent for cleanup and pre-concentration of illegal dyes short guard fused core column Ascentis Express F5 was used. The applicability of proposed method was proven for three different chilli-containing commercial samples. Recoveries for all compounds were between 90% and 108% and relative standard deviation ranged from 1% to 4% for within- and from 2% to 6% for between-day. Limits of detection showed lower values than required by European Union regulations and were in the range of 3.3-10.3 µg L(-1) for standard solutions, 5.6-235.6 µg kg(-1) for chilli-containing spices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling bubble condenser containment with computer code COCOSYS: post-test calculations of the main steam line break experiment at ELECTROGORSK BC V-213 test facility

    Lola, I.; Gromov, G.; Gumenyuk, D.; Pustovit, V.; Sholomitsky, S.; Wolff, H.; Arndt, S.; Blinkov, V.; Osokin, G.; Melikhov, O.; Melikhov, V.; Sokoline, A.

    2005-01-01

    Containment of the WWER-440 Model 213 nuclear power plant features a Bubble Condenser, a complex passive pressure suppression system, intended to limit pressure rise in the containment during accidents. Due to lack of experimental evidence of its successful operation in the original design documentation, the performance of this system under accidents with ruptures of large high-energy pipes of the primary and secondary sides remains a known safety concern for this containment type. Therefore, a number of research and analytical studies have been conducted by the countries operating WWER-440 reactors and their Western partners in the recent years to verify Bubble Condenser operation under accident conditions. Comprehensive experimental research studies at the Electrogorsk BC V-213 test facility, commissioned in 1999 in Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (EREC), constitute essential part of these efforts. Nowadays this is the only operating large-scale facility enabling integral tests on investigation of the Bubble Condenser performance. Several large international research projects, conducted at this facility in 1999-2003, have covered a spectrum of pipe break accidents. These experiments have substantially improved understanding of the overall system performance and thermal hydraulic phenomena in the Bubble Condenser Containment, and provided valuable information for validating containment codes against experimental results. One of the recent experiments, denoted as SLB-G02, has simulated steam line break. The results of this experiment are of especial value for the engineers working in the area of computer code application for WWER-440 containment analyses, giving an opportunity to verify validity of the code predictions and identify possibilities for model improvement. This paper describes the results of the post-test calculations of the SLB-G02 experiment, conducted as a joint effort of GRS, Germany and Ukrainian technical support organizations for

  17. Upper Triassic mafic dykes of Lake Nyos, Cameroon (West Africa) I: K-Ar age evidence within the context of Cameroon Line magmatism, and the tectonic significance

    Aka, Festus Tongwa; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Nche, Linus Anye; Asaah, Asobo Nkengmatia Elvis; Mimba, Mumbfu Ernestine; Teitchou, Isidore; Ngwa, Caroline; Miyabuchi, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Kankeu, Boniface; Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Tanyileke, Gregory; Ohba, Takeshi; Hell, Joseph Victor; Kusakabe, Minoru

    2018-05-01

    The hydrodynamic fragmentation that formed Lake Nyos in northwest Cameroon did not only make it the most unpopular lake in the world from a gas disaster perspective, it also opened a rare and formidable window through which much of the geology of Cameroon can be studied in a single locality. The Cambrian quartz monzonite cliff excavated by the maar-forming explosion and exposed in its northeastern shore is intruded by mafic dykes, two of which we dated. Even though close to one another, the dykes are different in composition. The alkaline dyke yields a slightly older (Carnian) K-Ar fedspar age of 231.1 ± 4.8 Ma, while the sub alkaline dyke yields an age of 224.8 ± 4.7 Ma (Norian). Based on radioisotopic age data available over the last 48 years (347 data) for the Cameroon Line magmatism comprising eruptives and volcano-plutonic complexes, the Nyos dykes are way older than the Cameroon Line, and even pre-date the Lower Cretaceous initiation of west Gondwana fragmentation in Equatorial Atlantic domain. They would therefore not have been directly linked to the formation of the Cameroon Line. Alternatively, they might be associated with the development of intra-continental rift systems in West Central Africa that pre-dated west Gondwana breakup to form the Atlantic Ocean.

  18. Third-line rescue therapy with bismuth-containing quadruple regimen after failure of two treatments (with clarithromycin and levofloxacin) for H. pylori infection.

    Gisbert, J P; Perez-Aisa, A; Rodrigo, L; Molina-Infante, J; Modolell, I; Bermejo, F; Castro-Fernández, M; Antón, R; Sacristán, B; Cosme, A; Barrio, J; Harb, Y; Gonzalez-Barcenas, M; Fernandez-Bermejo, M; Algaba, A; Marín, A C; McNicholl, A G

    2014-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin, and amoxicillin fails in >20 % of cases. A rescue therapy with PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin still fails in >20 % of patients. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a bismuth-containing quadruple regimen in patients with two consecutive eradication failures. Prospective multicenter study of patients in whom 1st treatment with PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin and 2nd with PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin had failed. A 3rd eradication regimen with a 7- to 14-day PPI (standard dose b.i.d.), bismuth subcitrate (120 mg q.i.d. or 240 mg b.i.d.), tetracycline (from 250 mg t.i.d. to 500 mg q.i.d.) and metronidazole (from 250 mg t.i.d. to 500 mg q.i.d.). Eradication was confirmed by (13)C-urea-breath-test 4-8 weeks after therapy. Compliance was determined through questioning and recovery of empty medication envelopes. Adverse effects were evaluated by means of a questionnaire. Two hundred patients (mean age 50 years, 55 % females, 20 % peptic ulcer/80 % uninvestigated-functional dyspepsia) were initially included, and two were lost to follow-up. In all, 97 % of patients complied with the protocol. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 67 % (95 % CI 60-74 %) and 65 % (58-72 %). Adverse effects were reported in 22 % of patients, the most common being nausea (12 %), abdominal pain (11 %), metallic taste (8.5 %), and diarrhea (8 %), none of them severe. A bismuth-containing quadruple regimen is an acceptable third-line strategy and a safe alternative after two previous H. pylori eradication failures with standard clarithromycin- and levofloxacin-containing triple therapies.

  19. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, YM529/ONO-5920 (a novel minodronic acid), inhibits RANKL expression in a cultured bone marrow stromal cell line ST2

    Nishida, Shozo; Tsubaki, Masanobu; Hoshino, Mayumi; Namimatsu, Ayumi; Uji, Hiromi; Yoshioka, Shohei; Tanimori, Yoshihiro; Yanae, Masashi; Iwaki, Masahiro; Irimajiri, Kiyohiro

    2005-01-01

    Increase in bone resorption by osteoclasts can cause metabolic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. Recent attention has been paid to the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL), an accelerator of osteoclast differentiation. RANKL is expressed on the bone marrow-derived stromal cell membrane and induces the differentiation of osteoclasts by binding to RANK expressed on the osteoclast precursor cell membrane. Since the inhibition of RANKL expression can lead to the inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption, the clinical application of RANKL inhibition could be expected to have a major effect on metabolic bone disease therapy. In this study, we investigated whether or not YM529/ONO-5920, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (a novel minodronic acid), inhibits RANKL expression in a bone marrow-derived stromal cell line (ST2 cells). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the administration of YM529/ONO-5920 to ST2 cells inhibited RANKL mRNA expression and reduced RANKL proteins as assessed by Western blot analysis. The inhibition of RANKL mRNA expression was reversed when geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), an intermediate in the mevalonate pathway, was used in combination. Furthermore, YM529/ONO-5920 reduced phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and similarly, U0126, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibitor, inhibited RANKL expression. Pretreatment with GGPP reversed the YM529/ONO-5920-induced decrease in phosphorylation of ERK. Furthermore, YM529/ONO-5920 decreased TRAP-positive cells in co-culture of ST2 cells and an osteoclast cell line, C7 cells, and this decrease was inhibited by pretreatment with GGPP. This indicates that YM529/ONO-5920 inhibits GGPP biosynthesis in the mevalonate pathway and then signal transduction in the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, thereby inhibiting RANKL expression on ST2 cells. These results suggest a newly elucidated action of bisphosphonates in

  20. A chimeric peptide of intestinal trefoil factor containing cholesteryl ester transfer protein B cell epitope significantly inhibits atherosclerosis in rabbits after oral administration.

    Qi, Gaofu; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Shengying; Xin, Shanshan; Du, Peng; Zhang, Qingye; Zhao, Xiuyun

    2011-04-01

    Vaccination against cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is proven to be effective for inhibiting atherosclerosis in animal models. In this study, the proteases-resistant intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) was used as a molecular vehicle to construct chimeric TFF3 (cTFF3) containing CETP B cell epitope and tetanus toxin helper T cell epitope. It was found that cTFF3 still preserved a trefoil structure, and can resist proteases digestion in vitro. After oral immunization with cTFF3, the CETP-specific IgA and IgG could be found in intestine lavage fluid and serum, and the anti-CETP antibodies could inhibit partial CETP activity to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and inhibit atherosclerosis in animals. Therefore, TFF3 is a potential molecular vehicle for developing oral peptide vaccines. Our research highlights a novel strategy for developing oral peptide vaccines in the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Joule-Heated Ceramic-Lined Melter to Vitrify Liquid Radioactive Wastes Containing Am241 Generated From MOX Fuel Fabrication in Russia

    Smith, E C; Bowan II, B W; Pegg, I; Jardine, L J

    2004-01-01

    contains. Silver is widely used as an additive in glass making. However, its solubility is known to be limited in borosilicate glasses. Further, silver, which is present as a nitrate salt in the waste, can be easily reduced to molten silver in the melting process. Molten silver, if formed, would be difficult to reintroduce into the glass matrix and could pose operating difficulties for the glass melter. This will place a limitation on the waste loading of the melter feed material to prevent the separation of silver from the waste within the melter. If the silver were recovered in the MOx fabrication process, which is currently under consideration, the composition of the glass would likely be limited only by the thermal heat load from the incorporated 241 Am. The resulting mass of glass used to encapsulate the waste could then be reduced by a factor of approximately three. The vitrification process used to treat the waste stream is proposed to center on a joule-heated ceramic lined slurry fed melter. Glass furnaces of this type are used in the United States to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the: Defense Waste Processing Facility, West Valley Demonstration Project, and to process the Hanford tank waste. The waste will initially be blended with glass-forming chemicals, which are primarily sand and boric acid. The resulting slurry is pumped to the melter for conversion to glass. The melter is a ceramic lined metal box that contains a molten glass pool heated by passing electric current through the glass. Molten glass from the melter is poured into canisters to cool and solidify. They are then sealed and decontaminated to form the final waste disposal package. Emissions generated in the melter from the vitrification process are treated by an off-gas system to remove radioactive contamination and destroy nitrogen oxides (NOx)

  2. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  3. Insights into significant pathways and gene interaction networks underlying breast cancer cell line MCF-7 treated with 17β-estradiol (E2).

    Huan, Jinliang; Wang, Lishan; Xing, Li; Qin, Xianju; Feng, Lingbin; Pan, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are known to regulate the proliferation of breast cancer cells and to alter their cytoarchitectural and phenotypic properties, but the gene networks and pathways by which estrogenic hormones regulate these events are only partially understood. We used global gene expression profiling by Affymetrix GeneChip microarray analysis, with KEGG pathway enrichment, PPI network construction, module analysis and text mining methods to identify patterns and time courses of genes that are either stimulated or inhibited by estradiol (E2) in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Of the genes queried on the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 plus 2.0 microarray, we identified 628 (12h), 852 (24h) and 880 (48 h) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that showed a robust pattern of regulation by E2. From pathway enrichment analysis, we found out the changes of metabolic pathways of E2 treated samples at each time point. At 12h time point, the changes of metabolic pathways were mainly focused on pathways in cancer, focal adhesion, and chemokine signaling pathway. At 24h time point, the changes were mainly enriched in neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and calcium signaling pathway. At 48 h time point, the significant pathways were pathways in cancer, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), axon guidance and ErbB signaling pathway. Of interest, our PPI network analysis and module analysis found that E2 treatment induced enhancement of PRSS23 at the three time points and PRSS23 was in the central position of each module. Text mining results showed that the important genes of DEGs have relationship with signal pathways, such as ERbB pathway (AREG), Wnt pathway (NDP), MAPK pathway (NTRK3, TH), IP3 pathway (TRA@) and some transcript factors (TCF4, MAF). Our studies highlight the diverse gene networks and metabolic and cell regulatory pathways through which E2 operates to achieve its

  4. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES CONTAINING PESTICIDES, ACIDIC/BASIC/NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILES AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GC/MS

    Data is presented on the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with GC/MS spectrometry for the single-run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of organic compounds. The system uses commercially available automated in-line 10-m...

  5. Phase III trial comparing vinflunine with docetaxel in second-line advanced non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy

    Krzakowski, Maciej; Ramlau, Rodryg; Jassem, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    To compare vinflunine (VFL) to docetaxel in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have experienced treatment failure with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.......To compare vinflunine (VFL) to docetaxel in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have experienced treatment failure with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy....

  6. On-line monitoring of the U(VI) concentration in 30 vol.% TBP/kerosene: an evaluation of real-time analysis in polyetheretherketone (PEEK) containers via Raman spectroscopy

    Xue Bai; Ding-Ming Li; Zhi-Yuan Chang; De-Jun Fan; Jin-Ping Liu; Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the practicability of Raman spectroscopy for on-line U(VI) concentration monitoring in 30 vol.% TBP/kerosene within polyetheretherketone containers, laboratory scale experiments were performed and several influencing factors for real-time determination were investigated. A method of internal standard was employed for the first time. Software developed for real-time concentration data display can give the U(VI) concentration autonomously within several seconds. The study confirmed Raman spectroscopy as a promising methodology for on-line U(VI) concentration monitoring in organic phase. (author)

  7. DianaHealth.com, an On-Line Database Containing Appraisals of the Clinical Value and Appropriateness of Healthcare Interventions: Database Development and Retrospective Analysis.

    Bonfill, Xavier; Osorio, Dimelza; Solà, Ivan; Pijoan, Jose Ignacio; Balasso, Valentina; Quintana, Maria Jesús; Puig, Teresa; Bolibar, Ignasi; Urrútia, Gerard; Zamora, Javier; Emparanza, José Ignacio; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Ferreira-González, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development of a novel on-line database aimed to serve as a source of information concerning healthcare interventions appraised for their clinical value and appropriateness by several initiatives worldwide, and to present a retrospective analysis of the appraisals already included in the database. Database development and a retrospective analysis. The database DianaHealth.com is already on-line and it is regularly updated, independent, open access and available in English and Spanish. Initiatives are identified in medical news, in article references, and by contacting experts in the field. We include appraisals in the form of clinical recommendations, expert analyses, conclusions from systematic reviews, and original research that label any health care intervention as low-value or inappropriate. We obtain the information necessary to classify the appraisals according to type of intervention, specialties involved, publication year, authoring initiative, and key words. The database is accessible through a search engine which retrieves a list of appraisals and a link to the website where they were published. DianaHealth.com also provides a brief description of the initiatives and a section where users can report new appraisals or suggest new initiatives. From January 2014 to July 2015, the on-line database included 2940 appraisals from 22 initiatives: eleven campaigns gathering clinical recommendations from scientific societies, five sets of conclusions from literature review, three sets of recommendations from guidelines, two collections of articles on low clinical value in medical journals, and an initiative of our own. We have developed an open access on-line database of appraisals about healthcare interventions considered of low clinical value or inappropriate. DianaHealth.com could help physicians and other stakeholders make better decisions concerning patient care and healthcare systems sustainability. Future efforts should be focused on

  8. DianaHealth.com, an On-Line Database Containing Appraisals of the Clinical Value and Appropriateness of Healthcare Interventions: Database Development and Retrospective Analysis.

    Xavier Bonfill

    Full Text Available To describe the development of a novel on-line database aimed to serve as a source of information concerning healthcare interventions appraised for their clinical value and appropriateness by several initiatives worldwide, and to present a retrospective analysis of the appraisals already included in the database.Database development and a retrospective analysis. The database DianaHealth.com is already on-line and it is regularly updated, independent, open access and available in English and Spanish. Initiatives are identified in medical news, in article references, and by contacting experts in the field. We include appraisals in the form of clinical recommendations, expert analyses, conclusions from systematic reviews, and original research that label any health care intervention as low-value or inappropriate. We obtain the information necessary to classify the appraisals according to type of intervention, specialties involved, publication year, authoring initiative, and key words. The database is accessible through a search engine which retrieves a list of appraisals and a link to the website where they were published. DianaHealth.com also provides a brief description of the initiatives and a section where users can report new appraisals or suggest new initiatives. From January 2014 to July 2015, the on-line database included 2940 appraisals from 22 initiatives: eleven campaigns gathering clinical recommendations from scientific societies, five sets of conclusions from literature review, three sets of recommendations from guidelines, two collections of articles on low clinical value in medical journals, and an initiative of our own.We have developed an open access on-line database of appraisals about healthcare interventions considered of low clinical value or inappropriate. DianaHealth.com could help physicians and other stakeholders make better decisions concerning patient care and healthcare systems sustainability. Future efforts should be

  9. Analytical model for computing transient pressures and forces in the safety/relief valve discharge line. Mark I Containment Program, task number 7.1.2

    Wheeler, A.J.

    1978-02-01

    An analytical model is described that computes the transient pressures, velocities and forces in the safety/relief valve discharge line immediately after safety/relief valve opening. Equations of motion are defined for the gas-flow and water-flow models. Results are not only verified by comparing them with an earlier version of the model, but also with Quad Cities and Monticello plant data. The model shows reasonable agreement with the earlier model and the plant data

  10. Water Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  11. Sewerage Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  12. First-line endoscopic treatment with over-the-scope clips significantly improves the primary failure and rebleeding rates in high-risk gastrointestinal bleeding: A single-center experience with 100 cases.

    Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen; Glatz, Torben; Walker, Christine; Fischer, Andreas; Thimme, Robert

    2016-11-07

    To evaluate rebleeding, primary failure (PF) and mortality of patients in whom over-the-scope clips (OTSCs) were used as first-line and second-line endoscopic treatment (FLET, SLET) of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB, LGIB). A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database identified all patients with UGIB and LGIB in a tertiary endoscopic referral center of the University of Freiburg, Germany, from 04-2012 to 05-2016 ( n = 93) who underwent FLET and SLET with OTSCs. The complete Rockall risk scores were calculated from patients with UGIB. The scores were categorized as < or ≥ 7 and were compared with the original Rockall data. Differences between FLET and SLET were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to evaluate the factors that influenced rebleeding after OTSC placement. Primary hemostasis and clinical success of bleeding lesions (without rebleeding) was achieved in 88/100 (88%) and 78/100 (78%), respectively. PF was significantly lower when OTSCs were applied as FLET compared to SLET (4.9% vs 23%, P = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, patients who had OTSC placement as SLET had a significantly higher rebleeding risk compared to those who had FLET (OR 5.3; P = 0.008). Patients with Rockall risk scores ≥ 7 had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared to those with scores < 7 (35% vs 10%, P = 0.034). No significant differences were observed in patients with scores < or ≥ 7 in rebleeding and rebleeding-associated mortality. Our data show for the first time that FLET with OTSC might be the best predictor to successfully prevent rebleeding of gastrointestinal bleeding compared to SLET. The type of treatment determines the success of primary hemostasis or primary failure.

  13. RiceFOX: a database of Arabidopsis mutant lines overexpressing rice full-length cDNA that contains a wide range of trait information to facilitate analysis of gene function.

    Sakurai, Tetsuya; Kondou, Youichi; Akiyama, Kenji; Kurotani, Atsushi; Higuchi, Mieko; Ichikawa, Takanari; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Kusano, Miyako; Mori, Masaki; Saitou, Tsutomu; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Sugano, Shoji; Suzuki, Makoto; Takahashi, Hideki; Takahashi, Shinya; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Yokotani, Naoki; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Saito, Kazuki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Oda, Kenji; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Matsui, Minami

    2011-02-01

    Identification of gene function is important not only for basic research but also for applied science, especially with regard to improvements in crop production. For rapid and efficient elucidation of useful traits, we developed a system named FOX hunting (Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressor gene hunting) using full-length cDNAs (fl-cDNAs). A heterologous expression approach provides a solution for the high-throughput characterization of gene functions in agricultural plant species. Since fl-cDNAs contain all the information of functional mRNAs and proteins, we introduced rice fl-cDNAs into Arabidopsis plants for systematic gain-of-function mutation. We generated >30,000 independent Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing rice fl-cDNAs (rice FOX Arabidopsis mutant lines). These rice FOX Arabidopsis lines were screened systematically for various criteria such as morphology, photosynthesis, UV resistance, element composition, plant hormone profile, metabolite profile/fingerprinting, bacterial resistance, and heat and salt tolerance. The information obtained from these screenings was compiled into a database named 'RiceFOX'. This database contains around 18,000 records of rice FOX Arabidopsis lines and allows users to search against all the observed results, ranging from morphological to invisible traits. The number of searchable items is approximately 100; moreover, the rice FOX Arabidopsis lines can be searched by rice and Arabidopsis gene/protein identifiers, sequence similarity to the introduced rice fl-cDNA and traits. The RiceFOX database is available at http://ricefox.psc.riken.jp/.

  14. Experimental study of population inversion and spectral line broadening in a plasma containing a mixture of high Z and low Z ions

    Griem, H.R.

    1988-10-01

    In our work this past year at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics we have studied laser-produced plasmas using spherical targets continuing layers of high Z and low Z materials. Our emphasis was on quantitative spectroscopy of ions in a very dense, recombining plasma. The targets used consisted of carbon-copper, carbon-gold, and aluminum-gold mixtures, instead of the originally proposed Fe or Mo mixtures with carbon. The thickness of the Cu and the Au layers were varied in order to study the effect of higher Z ions cooling the plasma. Indeed a pronounced cooling effect was observed by increasing the thickness of the Au layer in targets with Al-Au layers. Electron temperatures were studied by measuring the 1s-2p/1s 2 -1s2p line ratio of Al XIII to Al XII. Our experimental measurements, together with a collisional-radiative model and a 1-D hydrodynamic code, indicate that the electron temperature falls from 1500 eV with no gold to 950 eV with a 500 angstrom layer of gold. A detailed discussion of our results with Al-Au targets can be found in the enclosed preprint entitled Radiation Cooling in Laser-Produced Plasmas Due to High-Z Layers

  15. Preparation and characterization of PLGA-β-CD polymeric nanoparticles containing methotrexate and evaluation of their effects on T47D cell line.

    Gorjikhah, Fatemeh; Azizi Jalalian, Farid; Salehi, Roya; Panahi, Yunes; Hasanzadeh, Arash; Alizadeh, Effat; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2017-05-01

    Among all cancers that affect women, breast cancer has most mortality rate. It is essential to attain more safe and efficient anticancer drugs. Recent advances in medical nanotechnology and biotechnology have caused in novel improvements in breast and other cancer drug delivery. Methotrexate is an anticancer drug that prevents the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, which inhibits in the formation of DNA, RNA and proteins which have poor water-solubility. For enhancing the solubility and stability of drugs in delivery systems, we used methotrexate-loaded PLGA- beta-cyclodextrin nanoparticles. The PLGA- beta-cyclodextrin nanoparticles were synthesized by a double emulsion method and characterized with FT-IR and SEM. T47D breast cancer cell lines were treated with equal concentrations of methotrexate-loaded PLGA- beta-cyclodextrin nanoparticles and free methotrexate. MTT assay confirmed that methotrexate-loaded PLGA- beta-cyclodextrin nanoparticles enhanced cytotoxicity and drug delivery in T47D breast cancer cells. These results indicate that encapsulated drugs could be effective in controlled drug release for a sustained period would serve the purpose for long-term treatment of many diseases such as breast cancer.

  16. 含银抗菌液处理义齿软衬表面的初步研究%A Preliminary Study of Application of the Antibacterial Solution Containing Silver Ion to the Surface of Soft Lining Material

    周密; 杜莉; 杨准; 廖运茂

    2011-01-01

    We tried to find the effects of the application of the antibacterial solution containing silver ions on the surface of the denture soft lining material. We selected the right concentraiion of the silver-containing solution and coated a soft limng material with the solution so that the soft lining material could be antibacterial. The antibacterial solution containing silver ions was prepared by sol-gel method. MIC of C. a and S. a were tested by broth dilution test.The surface property and thickness were tested after coated. The in vitro antibacterial ratio against C. a and S. a were demonstrated by the method of plate-counting. A film was formed after coating, while the adequacy was not changed. Antibacterial ratio of 0. 64 mg/ml group against C. a was 90. 82 % , and that against S. a was 94. 96% in 24 hours, respectively. It was found that the antibacterial property of the soft lining material can be acquired by coating this antibacterial solution with silver ion, without changing the adequacy.%本文采用溶胶凝胶法制备含银抗菌液,用液体稀释法测定其对白色念珠菌(C.a)和金黄色葡萄球菌(S.a)的最低抑菌浓度(MIC),将抗菌液涂层到软衬材料表面后观察膜层厚度及表面形貌;用贴膜法测定其抑菌率.结果含银抗菌液能在义齿软衬材料表面成膜,不影响义齿的适合性.0.64 mg/ml浓度的抗菌液24 h涂层的抑菌率,C.a为90.82%,S.a为94.96%,能达到较好的抑菌效果.本文制备了含银抗菌液,选择合适的浓度在义齿软衬材料表面形成抗菌涂层,含银抗菌液能赋予义齿软衬材料表面良好的抗菌性,且不影响原软衬的适合性,具有一定临床应用价值.

  17. CONTAIN calculations

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  18. Contours, 2ft Contour Information in AutoCAD & ArcInfo formats. AutoCAD contains cut line information. NAD83, Nevada State Plane, West Zone, US Foot. Broken into Township, Range, and Section Grids, Published in 2006, City of Carson City Government.

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Contours dataset current as of 2006. 2ft Contour Information in AutoCAD & ArcInfo formats. AutoCAD contains cut line information. NAD83, Nevada State Plane, West...

  19. CONTAIN calculations; CONTAIN-Rechnungen

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-08-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident `medium-sized leak in the cold leg`, especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  20. The last line effect explained

    Beller, M. (Moritz); Zaidman, A. (Andy); Karpov, A. (Andrey); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMicro-clones are tiny duplicated pieces of code; they typically comprise only few statements or lines. In this paper, we study the “Last Line Effect,” the phenomenon that the last line or statement in a micro-clone is much more likely to contain an error than the previous lines or

  1. The last line effect explained

    Beller, M.M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Karpov, Andrey; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    Micro-clones are tiny duplicated pieces of code; they typically comprise only few statements or lines. In this paper, we study the “Last Line Effect,” the phenomenon that the last line or statement in a micro-clone is much more likely to contain an error than the previous lines or statements. We do

  2. Secondary Analysis of the NCI-60 Whole Exome Sequencing Data Indicates Significant Presence of Propionibacterium acnes Genomic Material in Leukemia (RPMI-8226 and Central Nervous System (SF-295, SF-539, and SNB-19 Cell Lines.

    Mark Rojas

    Full Text Available The NCI-60 human tumor cell line panel has been used in a broad range of cancer research over the last two decades. A landmark 2013 whole exome sequencing study of this panel added an exceptional new resource for cancer biologists. The complementary analysis of the sequencing data produced by this study suggests the presence of Propionibacterium acnes genomic sequences in almost half of the datasets, with the highest abundance in the leukemia (RPMI-8226 and central nervous system (SF-295, SF-539, and SNB-19 cell lines. While the origin of these contaminating bacterial sequences remains to be determined, observed results suggest that computational control for the presence of microbial genomic material is a necessary step in the analysis of the high throughput sequencing (HTS data.

  3. Composite containment for nuclear power

    Harstead, G.A.; Soeoet, O.

    1977-01-01

    Fundamentally, a nuclear reactor containment structure provides three major functions; namely, (1), to withstand loads due to pressure and temperature increase due to Design Basis Accident (DBA) (2), to withstand environmental loads such as seismic, tornado and normal loads, and (3) act as a radiation shield. Conventional design practise is to employ either a steel vessel and concrete shield building or a steel lined concrete structure. This paper deals with a new concept in which a steel liner is employed which carries much of the primary membrane loads. This type of structure is similar in some aspects to the previously described systems: a) A mat, lined with a thin plate on its top surface, is similar to concrete containment. b) A cylinder and hemispherical dome, made up of steel plate and concrete, is about 2.5 feet thick (the minimum required for radiation shielding). Although the steel plate and concrete are in contact, as in concrete containment, the steel plate in composite containment is much thicker than the liner. There are two main advantages over present practise; namely reduction of materials and therefore reduced capital cost and even more significantly a shortened construction schedule which will permit more flexibility in overall plant construction schedule and will benefit the cash flow situation. (Auth.)

  4. DNA fragmentation: manifestation of target cell destruction mediated by cytotoxic T-cell lines, lymphotoxin-secreting helper T-cell clones, and cell-free lymphotoxin-containing supernatant

    Schmid, D.S.; Tite, J.P.; Ruddle, N.H.

    1986-01-01

    A Lyt-2 + , trinitrophenyl-specific, lymphotoxin-secreting, cytotoxic T-cell line, PCl 55, mediates the digestion of target cell DNA into discretely sized fragments. This phenomenon manifests itself within 30 min after effector cell encounter as measured by the release of 3 H counts from target cells prelabeled with [ 3 H]deoxythymidine and occurs even at very low effector to target cell ratios (0.25:1). A Lyt-1 + , ovalbumin-specific, lymphotoxin-secreting T-helper cell clone, 5.9.24, is also able to mediate fragmentation of target cell DNA over a time course essentially indistinguishable from the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated hit. Cell-free lymphotoxin-containing supernatants also cause release of DNA from targets, although they require a longer time course, on the order of 24 hr. In contrast, lysis of cells by antibody plus complement or Triton X-100 does not result in DNA release even after extended periods of incubation (24 hr). All three treatments that result in the release of DNA from cells cause fragmentation of that DNA into discretely sized pieces that are multiples of 200 base pairs. The results thus suggest that cytotoxic T cells, lymphotoxin-secreting helper clones with cytolytic activity, and lymphotoxin all effect target cell destruction by means of a similar mechanism and that observed differences in time course and the absence of target cell specificity in killing mediated by lymphotoxin may simply reflect differences in the mode of toxin delivery

  5. Containment performance improvement program

    Beckner, W.; Mitchell, J.; Soffer, L.; Chow, E.; Lane, J.; Ridgely, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Containment Performance Improvement (CPI) program has been one of the main elements in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) integrated approach to closure of severe accident issues for US nuclear power plants. During the course of the program, results from various probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies and from severe accident research programs for the five US containment types have been examined to identify significant containment challenges and to evaluate potential improvements. The five containment types considered are: the boiling water reactor (BMR) Mark I containment, the BWR Mark II containment, the BWR Mark III containment, the pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice condenser containment, and the PWR dry containments (including both subatmospheric and large subtypes). The focus of the CPI program has been containment performance and accident mitigation, however, insights are also being obtained in the areas of accident prevention and accident management

  6. Reactor container

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Human gliomas contain morphine

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  8. Reactor container

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  9. A container

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and sealing...... means (10) wherein the engagement means (7) is adapted, via the sealing means, to seal the opening when the pressure of the container assembly differs from the ambient pressure in such a way that the central portion (5) flexes in the axial direction which leads to a radial tightening of the engagement...... means (7) to the container, wherein the container further comprises locking means (12) that can be positioned so that the central portion is hindered from flexing in at least one direction....

  10. The pht4;1-3 mutant line contains a loss of function allele in the Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 gene caused by a remnant inactivated selection marker-a cautionary tale.

    Nilsson, Anders K; Andersson, Mats X

    2017-01-01

    A striking and unexpected biochemical phenotype was found in an insertion mutant line in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . One of two investigated insertion mutant lines in the gene encoding the phosphate transporter PHT4;1 demonstrated a prominent loss of trienoic fatty acids, whereas the other insertion line was indistinguishable from wild type in this aspect. We demonstrate that the loss of trienoic fatty acids was due to a remnant inactive negative selection marker gene in this particular transposon tagged line, pht4;1-3 . This constitutes a cautionary tale that warns of the importance to confirm the loss of this type of selection markers and the importance of verifying the relationship between a phenotype and genotype by more than one independent mutant line or alternatively genetic complementation.

  11. Shielded container

    Fries, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    A shielded container for transportation of radioactive materials is disclosed in which leakage from the container is minimized due to constructional features including, inter alia, forming the container of a series of telescoping members having sliding fits between adjacent side walls and having at least two of the members including machine sealed lids and at least two of the elements including hand-tightenable caps

  12. Container for liquefied gas

    Short, A J

    1967-05-18

    Containers for liquefied gases are of double-wall construction with a vacuum between the 2 walls; the upper end of the neck contains a vapor chamber and is equipped with means for withdrawing gas from the container. According to this invention, the vapor chamber is connected to a damping chamber by means of a choke line which has an internal diameter of at least 1.6 mm and a length equal to at least 52 times the diameter. The damping chamber has a volume of at least 5 cu cm and is larger than the outer part of the chamber. The interior length of the damping chamber is at least twice the diameter of the choke line. (5 claims)

  13. Reactor container

    Fukazawa, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    A system for controlling combustible gases, it has been constituted at present such that the combustible gases are controlled by exhausting them to the wet well of a reactor container. In this system, however, there has been a problem, in a reactor container having plenums in addition to the wet well and the dry well, that the combustible gases in such plenums can not be controlled. In view of the above, in the present invention, suction ports or exhaust ports of the combustible gas control system are disposed to the wet well, the dry well and the plenums to control the combustible gases in the reactor container. Since this can control the combustible gases in the entire reactor container, the integrity of the reactor container can be ensured. (T.M.)

  14. Radioactive material transporting container

    Watabe, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    As a supporting member of a sealing container for containing spent fuels, etc., a straight pipe or a cylinder has been used. However, upon dropping test, the supporting member is buckled toward the central axis of a transporting container and a shock absorber is crushed in the axial direction to prevent its pushing force to the outer side, which may possibly hinder normal shock moderating function. Then, at least more than one-half of the supporting member is protruded radially to the outer side of the sealing container beyond the fixed portion with the sealed container, so that the member has a portion extended in the radial outside of the transporting container with an angle greater than the angle formed between a line connecting the outer circumference at the bottom of an outer cylinder with the gravitational center of the transporting container and the central axis of the transporting container. As a result, buckling of the supporting member toward the central axis of the transporting container upon dropping test can be prevented and the deformation of the shock absorber is neither not prevented to exhibit normal shock absorbing effect. This can improve the reliability and reduce the amount of shock absorbers. (N.H.)

  15. Reactor containment

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  16. Sharps container

    Lee, Angelene M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

  17. Reactor container

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  18. Component nuclear containment structure

    Harstead, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described is intended for use primarily as a nuclear containment structure. Such structures are required to surround the nuclear steam supply system and to contain the effects of breaks in the nuclear steam supply system, or i.e. loss of coolant accidents. Nuclear containment structures are required to withstand internal pressure and temperatures which result from loss of coolant accidents, and to provide for radiation shielding during operation and during the loss of coolant accident, as well as to resist all other applied loads, such as earthquakes. The nuclear containment structure described herein is a composite nuclear containment structure, and is one which structurally combines two previous systems; namely, a steel vessel, and a lined concrete structure. The steel vessel provides strength to resist internal pressure and accommodate temperature increases, the lined concrete structure provides resistance to internal pressure by having a liner which will prevent leakage, and which is in contact with the concrete structure which provides the strength to resist the pressure

  19. Bellefonte primary containment structure

    Olyniec, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Construction of the reactor building primary containment structure at the Bellefonte Nuclear Plant involved several specialized construction techniques. This two unit plant is one of the nine nuclear units at six different sites now under construction by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The post-Tensioned, cast-in-place interior steel lined containment structure is unique within TVA. Problems during construction were identified at weekly planning meetings, and options were discussed. Close coordination between craft supervisors and on-site engineering personnel drew together ''hands-on''experience and technical background. Details of the construction techniques, problems, and solutions are presented

  20. High Line

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  1. Human gliomas contain morphine

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  2. World lines.

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  3. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  4. Control Point Generated PLS - lines

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Control Point Generated PLS layer contains line and polygon features to the 1/4 of 1/4 PLS section (approximately 40 acres) and government lot level. The layer...

  5. Railroad Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Railroads for the United States. The Railroads layer contains Railroad features published as lines and polylines. Attributes for this layer include the name...

  6. Reactor container

    Furukawa, Hideyasu; Oyamada, Osamu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a container for a reactor provided with a pressure suppressing chamber pool which can prevent bubble vibrating load, particularly negative pressure generated at the time of starting to release exhaust from a main steam escape-safety valve from being transmitted to a lower liner plate of the container. Constitution: This arrangement is characterized in that a safety valve exhaust pool for main steam escape, in which a pressure suppressing chamber pool is separated and intercepted from pool water in the pressure suppressing chamber pool, a safety valve exhaust pipe is open into said safety valve exhaust pool, and an isolator member, which isolates the bottom liner plate in the pressure suppressing chamber pool from the pool water, is disposed on the bottom of the safety valve exhaust pool. (Nakamura, S.)

  7. Reactor container

    Kato, Masami; Nishio, Masahide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the rupture of the dry well even when the melted reactor core drops into a reactor pedestal cavity. Constitution: In a reactor container in which a dry well disposed above the reactor pedestal cavity for containing the reactor pressure vessel and a torus type suppression chamber for containing pressure suppression water are connected with each other, the pedestal cavity and the suppression chamber are disposed such that the flow level of the pedestal cavity is lower than the level of the pressure suppression water. Further, a pressure suppression water introduction pipeway for introducing the pressure suppression water into the reactor pedestal cavity is disposed by way of an ON-OFF valve. In case if the melted reactor core should fall into the pedestal cavity, the ON-OFF valve for the pressure suppression water introduction pipeway is opened to introduce the pressure suppression water in the suppression chamber into the pedestal cavity to cool the melted reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Plasma container

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Reactor container

    Shibata, Satoru; Kawashima, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the temperature distribution of the reactor container so as to moderate the thermal stress distribution on the reactor wall of LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: A good heat conductor (made of Al or Cu) is appended on the outer side of the reactor container wall from below the liquid level to the lower face of a deck plate. Further, heat insulators are disposed to the outside of the good heat conductor. Furthermore, a gas-cooling duct is circumferentially disposed at the contact portion between the good heat conductor and the deck plate around the reactor container. This enables to flow the cold heat from the liquid metal rapidly through the good heat conductor to the cooling duct and allows to maintain the temperature distribution on the reactor wall substantially linear even with the abrupt temperature change in the liquid metal. Further, by appending the good heat conductor covered with inactive metals not only on the outer side but also on the inside of the reactor wall to introduce the heat near the liquid level to the upper portion and escape the same to the cooling layer below the roof slab, the effect can be improved further. (Ikeda, J.)

  10. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  11. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - lines

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This line theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as lines. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  12. 2008 TIGER/Line Nationwide Dataset

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset contains a nationwide build of the 2008 TIGER/Line datasets from the US Census Bureau downloaded in April 2009. The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract...

  13. Silver linings.

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Definition of containment failure

    Cybulskis, P.

    1982-01-01

    Core meltdown accidents of the types considered in probabilistic risk assessments (PRA's) have been predicted to lead to pressures that will challenge the integrity of containment structures. Review of a number of PRA's indicates considerable variation in the predicted probability of containment failure as a function of pressure. Since the results of PRA's are sensitive to the prediction of the occurrence and the timing of containment failure, better understanding of realistic containment capabilities and a more consistent approach to the definition of containment failure pressures are required. Additionally, since the size and location of the failure can also significantly influence the prediction of reactor accident risk, further understanding of likely failure modes is required. The thresholds and modes of containment failure may not be independent

  15. Reactor container

    Hidaka, Masataka; Hatamiya, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Terufumi; Fukui, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Ryuhei; Murase, Michio; Naito, Masanori.

    1990-01-01

    In order to suppress the pressure elevation in a reactor container due to high temperature and high pressure steams jetted out upon pipeway rupture accidents in the reactor container, the steams are introduced to a pressure suppression chamber for condensating them in stored coolants. However, the ability for suppressing the pressure elevation and steam coagulation are deteriorated due to the presence of inactive incondensible gases. Then, there are disposed a vent channel for introducing the steams in a dry well to a pressure suppression chamber in the reactor pressure vessel, a closed space disposed at the position lower than a usual liquid level, a first channel having an inlet in the pressure suppression chamber and an exit in the closed space and a second means connected by way of a backflow checking means for preventing the flow directing to the closed space. The first paths are present by plurality, a portion of which constitutes a syphon. The incondensible gases and the steams are discharged to the dry well at high pressure by using the difference of the water head for a long cooling time after the pipeway rupture accident. Then, safety can be improved without using dynamic equipments as driving source. (N.H.)

  16. CLO : The cell line ontology

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Meehan, Terrence F.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Vempati, Uma D.; Schuerer, Stephan C.; Pang, Chao; Malone, James; Parkinson, Helen; Liu, Yue; Takatsuki, Terue; Saijo, Kaoru; Masuya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Brush, Matthew H.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Zheng, Jie; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Peters, Bjoern; Mungall, Christopher J.; Carey, Thomas E.; States, David J.; Athey, Brian D.; He, Yongqun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO

  17. 7 CFR 58.729 - Forming containers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forming containers. 58.729 Section 58.729 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.729 Forming containers. Containers either lined or unlined shall be assembled and stored in a sanitary manner to prevent contamination. The handling of containers by filler crews should be done with...

  18. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  19. Reactor container

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)

  20. Containment vessel

    Zbirohowski-Koscia, K.F.; Roberts, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vessel for nuclear reactors is disclosed that is spherical and that has prestressing tendons disposed in first, second and third sets, the tendons of each set being all substantially concentric and centred around a respective one of the three orthogonal axes of the sphere; the tendons of the first set being anchored at each end at a first anchor rib running around a circumference of the vessel, the tendons of the second set being anchored at each end at a second anchor rib running around a circumference of the sphere and disposed at 90 0 to the first rib, and the tendons of the third set being anchored some to the first rib and the remainder to the second rib. (author)

  1. Ewald Electrostatics for Mixtures of Point and Continuous Line Charges.

    Antila, Hanne S; Tassel, Paul R Van; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Many charged macro- or supramolecular systems, such as DNA, are approximately rod-shaped and, to the lowest order, may be treated as continuous line charges. However, the standard method used to calculate electrostatics in molecular simulation, the Ewald summation, is designed to treat systems of point charges. We extend the Ewald concept to a hybrid system containing both point charges and continuous line charges. We find the calculated force between a point charge and (i) a continuous line charge and (ii) a discrete line charge consisting of uniformly spaced point charges to be numerically equivalent when the separation greatly exceeds the discretization length. At shorter separations, discretization induces deviations in the force and energy, and point charge-point charge correlation effects. Because significant computational savings are also possible, the continuous line charge Ewald method presented here offers the possibility of accurate and efficient electrostatic calculations.

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, This data set consists of digital map files containing parcel-level cadastral information obtained from property descriptions. Cadastral features contained in the data set include real property boundary lines, rights-of-way boundaries, property dimensions, Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Racine County Government.

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of unknown. This data set consists of digital map files containing parcel-level cadastral information obtained from...

  3. Saturation transfer EPR (ST-EPR) for dating biocarbonates containing large amount of Mn2+: separation of SO3- and CO2- lines and geochronology of Brazilian fish fossil

    Sastry, M.D.; Andrade, M.B.; Watanabe, Shigueo

    2003-01-01

    A method using saturation transfer EPR (ST-EPR) is shown to be feasible for detecting EPR signal of radiation-induced defects in biocarbonates containing large amount of Mn 2+ . The ST-EPR measurements conducted at room temperature on fish fossil of Brazilian origin, enabled the identification of CO 2 - and SO 3 - radical ions, by partially suppressing the intense signal from Mn 2+ when the signal are detected 90 deg. out of phase with magnetic field modulating signal and at high microwave power (50 mW). Using these signals the age of fish fossil is estimated to be (36±5) Ma

  4. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  5. Preparation of Preproinsulin Gene Construct Containing the Metallothionein2A (pBINDMTChIns and Its Expression in NIH3T3 Cell Line and Muscle Tissue of Alloxan Diabetic Rabbits

    Piri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus type 1, formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes, is one of the autoimmune diseases where insulin-producing cells are destroyed by autoimmune response via T cells. The new approaches in treatment of diabetes are using the stem cells, cell transplantation of islet β cell, gene transfer by virus based plasmids, and non-viral gene constructs. Objectives The purpose of this study was to construct glucose inducible insulin gene plasmid and use it in the muscle tissue of the rabbit. Materials and Methods To achieve this goal, the preproinsulin, metallothionein2A promoter and the response element to carbohydrate genes were cloned into pBIND plasmid by standard cloning methods, to construct pBINDMTChIns. The gene cloning products were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion template. The recombinant plasmid, containing the preproinsulin gene, was transferred into NIH3T3 cells and insulin gene expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase PCR and western blotting techniques. Plasmid naked DNA containing the preproinsulin gene was injected into the rabbits’ thigh muscles, and its expression was confirmed by western blotting method. Results This study shows the prepared gene construct is inducible by glucose. Gene expression of preproinsulin was observed in muscle tissue of rabbits. Conclusions These finding indicated that research in diabetes mellitus gene therapy could be performed on larger animals.

  6. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  7. production lines

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  8. Transmission line capital costs

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  9. A retrospective case-cohort study comparing treatment outcomes in abacavir versus stavudine containing first line antiretroviral treatment regimens in children <3yrs old, at a paediatric programme based in Soweto, South Africa

    Otwombe, Kennedy; Lazarus, Erica; Liberty, Afaaf; Gray, Glenda E.; Greeff, Oppel B. W.; Violari, Avy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The current World Health Organization guideline for first line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children recommends the use of abacavir and lamivudine as nucleoside backbones and no longer includes stavudine. We compared treatment outcomes with abacavir (ABC) versus stavudine (d4T) in a cohort of HIV-1 infected children 6 and 12 months after antiretroviral therapy was initiated. Methods This was a retrospective case-cohort study, using programmatic data from children enrolled in the Paediatric Wellness Programme at the Perinatal HIV Research Unit in Soweto, South Africa between 2005 and 2013. Children on abacavir/stavudine who had initiated ART at age 90% for ABC and d4T were similar too (95% in ABC vs. 86% in d4T, p = 0.10). The proportion of children who died over 12 months was 3.5% in the ABC and 7.9% in the d4T group (p = 0.27). Similarly, the anthropometric measures were comparable. Conclusions It is reassuring that in the short term, in this group of patients, the treatment outcomes were similar. PMID:28686654

  10. Line facilities outline

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  11. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  12. Parallel Lines

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  13. Glue-paste linings

    Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Glue-paste linings of (Western) canvas paintings have been performed with a variety of materials throughout history and are present in a very significant amount of artworks in collections in Europe and elsewhere. Cereal flours and animal glues were usually the main ingredients because they were r...

  14. Containment structure optimization

    Putman, S.; Walser, A.

    1979-01-01

    The major design features investigated are: dome shape, the prestress level provided to counteract accident pressure, the effect of diameter variation, and the design pressure used to size the containment. The optimum dome shape and optimum prestress level are used to investigate the effect of variations in diameter and design pressure on containment cost. The containment internal diameter is fixed at 150 feet for investigation of dome shape, prestress level and design prestress. A hemispherical dome containment with a prestress level of 1.25 P/sub a/ is recommended regardless of design pressure selected. A design pressure of 60 psi is recommended. No significant cost penalty is associated with diameter variation in the range of 145 to 155 feet

  15. Containment of high temperature plasmas

    Bass, R.W.; Ferguson, H.R.P.; Fletcher, H. Jr.; Gardner, J.; Harrison, B.K.; Larsen, K.M.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus is described for confining a high temperature plasma which comprises: 1) envelope means shaped to form a toroidal hollow chamber containing a plasma, 2) magnetic field line generating means for confining the plasma in a smooth toroidal shape without cusps. (R.L.)

  16. Should we use closed or open infusion containers for prevention of bloodstream infections?

    Rangel-Frausto, Manuel S; Higuera-Ramirez, Francisco; Martinez-Soto, Jose; Rosenthal, Victor D

    2010-02-02

    Hospitalized patients in critical care settings are at risk for bloodstream infections (BSI). Most BSIs originate from a central line (CL), and they increase length of stay, cost, and mortality. Open infusion containers may increase the risk of contamination and administration-related (CLAB) because they allow the entry of air into the system, thereby also providing an opportunity for microbial entry. Closed infusion containers were designed to overcome this flaw. However, open infusion containers are still widely used throughout the world.The objective of the study was to determine the effect of switching from open (glass, burettes, and semi-rigid) infusion containers to closed, fully collapsible, plastic infusion containers (Viaflex) on the rate and time to onset of central line-associated bloodstream infections CLABs. An open label, prospective cohort, active healthcare-associated infection surveillance, sequential study was conducted in four ICUs in Mexico. Centers for Disease Control National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Systems definitions were used to define device-associated infections. A total of 1,096 adult patients who had a central line in place for >24 hours were enrolled. The CLAB rate was significantly higher during the open versus the closed container period (16.1 versus 3.2 CLAB/1000 central line days; RR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.11-0.36, P container period (1.4% Days 2-4 to 0.5% Days 8-10), but increased in the open container period (4.9% Days 2-4 to 5.4% Days 8-10). The chance of acquiring a CLAB was significantly decreased (81%) in the closed container period (Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.19, P container period (23.4% versus 16.1%; RR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.54-0.88, P containers significantly reduced CLAB rate, the probability of acquiring CLAB, and mortality.

  17. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  18. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  19. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  20. The U-line line balancing problem

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  1. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  2. Characterization of seasonal reproduction in Virginia Tech Selection Line, St. Croix, and Suffolk ewes

    Jordan, Katherine Mead

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation research contained three studies. The first two studies were conducted to investigate the ability of ewes to rebreed while lactating during seasonal anestrus. Breeds studied included the Virginia Tech Out-of-season (OOS) Line, which is a wool line genetically selected to lamb in the fall, and the St. Croix, a hair breed of tropical origin thought to be lowly seasonal. When January-lambing ewes were exposed to rams while lactating in April, significantly more OOS than St. ...

  3. Materials designed for containments

    Piehl, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    The present article points out that high-tensile fine-grained steels have been used successfully in the construction of reactor containments, spherical gasometers, and pressure vessels. It has been confirmed that their use requires safety measures concerning lay out and production. Viscosity properties of high-tensile, fine-grained steels can be improved significantly by means of electroslag remelting. The extent to which this improvement influences the heat-affected zone is being examined. (orig./RW) [de

  4. Quality stabilisation of synthetic sand containing bentonite in process lines

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2010-01-01

    Stabilisation of sand quality requires the monitoring and control of sand moisture contents and its other parameters at each stage of sandprocessing, i.e. during the preparation of return sand mix and rebonding processes. Stabilisation of sand quality necessitates the use of reliable control equipment and evaluation procedures. This study outlines the scope and results of research work aimed to improve the control equipment to enhance the performance of turbine mixers. The paper reviews the m...

  5. Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells

    Tozeren Aydin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. Methods This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM. Results Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. Conclusion Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative

  6. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  7. Economic impact analysis of short line railroads.

    2014-10-01

    This research project assesses the economic role and impact of short line railroads in the state of Louisiana. While relatively small in : scope, with 11 operators and approximately 500 miles of track, short line railroads play a significant role in ...

  8. A new mathematical formulation of the line-by-line method in case of weak line overlapping

    Ishov, Alexander G.; Krymova, Natalie V.

    1994-01-01

    A rigorous mathematical proof is presented for multiline representation on the equivalent width of a molecular band which consists in the general case of n overlapping spectral lines. The multiline representation includes a principal term and terms of minor significance. The principal term is the equivalent width of the molecular band consisting of the same n nonoverlapping spectral lines. The terms of minor significance take into consideration the overlapping of two, three and more spectral lines. They are small in case of the weak overlapping of spectral lines in the molecular band. The multiline representation can be easily generalized for optically inhomogeneous gas media and holds true for combinations of molecular bands. If the band lines overlap weakly the standard formulation of line-by-line method becomes too labor-consuming. In this case the multiline representation permits line-by-line calculations to be performed more effectively. Other useful properties of the multiline representation are pointed out.

  9. Waste container and method for containing waste

    Ono, Akira; Matsushita, Mitsuhiro; Doi, Makoto; Nakatani, Seiichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a waste container, water-proof membranes and rare earth element layers are formed on the inner surface of a steel plate concrete container in which steel plates are embedded. Further, rear earth element detectors are disposed each from the inner side of the steel plate concrete container by way of a pressure pipe to the outer side of the container. As a method for actually containing wastes, when a plurality of vessels in which wastes are fixed are collectively enhoused to the waste container, cussioning materials are attached to the inner surface of the container and wastes fixing containers are stacked successively in a plurality of rows in a bag made of elastic materials. Subsequently, fixing materials are filled and tightly sealed in the waste container. When the waste container thus constituted is buried underground, even if it should be deformed to cause intrusion of rain water to the inside of the container, the rare earth elements in the container dissolved in the rain water can be detected by the detectors, the containers are exchanged before the rain water intruding to the inner side is leached to the surrounding ground, to previously prevent the leakage of radioactive nuclides. (K.M.)

  10. Significant Tsunami Events

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  11. 46 CFR 160.021-6 - Container.

    2010-10-01

    ... respect. Open the container, remove the contents, insert colored blotting paper as a lining, re-close... additional marking which might cause confusion as to the contents shall be permitted. The vessel's name... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.021-6 Section 160.021-6 Shipping COAST...

  12. Container crane for sea freight containers

    Luttekes, E.; Rijsenbrij, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to a container crane for loading and unloading seaborne containers. The container crane comprises a bridge girder (7), a jib (8), at least two crabs (11, 12) which can travel along the said bridge girder and/or jib and are provided with hoist means for lifting and lowering the

  13. Western Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent species occurrences...

  14. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    WINTEC

    Abstract. An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous re- inforcing ... every manufacturer of automotive friction materials uses phenolics as ... The resin binder is a critical compo- nent. The limits ...

  15. Columbia River ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Columbia River. Vector lines in this data set represent locations of...

  16. Virginia ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Virginia. The...

  17. Continuous containment monitoring with containment pressure fluctuation

    Dick, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of the integrity of containments particularly but not exclusively for nuclear plants is dealt with in this invention. While this application is primarily concerned with containment monitoring in the context of the single unit design, it is expected that the concepts presented will be universally applicable to any containment design, including containments for non-nuclear applications such as biological laboratories. The nuclear industry has long been interested in a means of monitoring containment integrity on a continuous basis, that is, while the reactor is operating normally. 12 refs., 2 figs

  18. Testing Significance Testing

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  19. Safety significance evaluation system

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  20. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  1. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  2. Numerical Calculation of Overhead Power Lines Dynamics

    Gogola Roman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains results of transient analysis of airflow around the ACSR power line cross-section in unsymmetric multi-span. The forces applied to the power line are obtained from CFD simulations, where the wind induced vibration is studied. Effect of these forces to the maximal displacement of the power line and the maximal mechanical forces in the points of attachment are studied and evaluated.

  3. The innominate line

    Whelan, M.A.; Myung, K.H.; Bergeron, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    The innominate line continues to be of value in evaluating the integrity of the sphenoid bone since plain skull radiographs remain a primary screening tool for metastatic disease, seizure disorder and headache. The detection of lesions involving the sphenoid bone can be difficult. The accuracy of the radionulcide scan is reduced because of confusion caused by uptake in the adjacent nasal and sinus mucosa. On computed tomography, the sections through the base of the skull and orbit can contain many artifictual densities caused by a combination of bone, soft tissue and sinus air interfaces. In addition, routine settings of window width and level on CT scan are designed to best demonstrate the soft tissues, and bony lesions can easily be missed. Thus, disruption of the ''integrity'' of this line on plain films, particularly the Caldwell projection, can be a sensitive first indicator of disease involving the sphenoid bone. Such a determination on plain film leads to more accurate CT scanning, in that attention will be given to the skull base and scans will be imaged with both soft tissue and bone windows. (orig./MG)

  4. Radiation resistant lining material

    Ouchi, Koki; Okagawa, Seigo; Tamaki, Hidehiro.

    1990-01-01

    Rigidity, viscoelasticity, flexibility, radiation resistance, leaching resistance, rust-proofness, endurance, etc. are required for the lining materials to wall surfaces and floor surfaces of facilities used under the effect of radiation rays and for the inner surface protection of vessels for radioactive wastes. The present invention provides radiation resistant lining material capable of satisfying such various requirements in a well-balanced manner. That is, the material contains (A) 100 parts by weight of rapidly curing cement, (B) 50 to 300 % by weight of aggregate, and (C) 80 to 120 parts by weight of polymer emulsion. As the specific example, the ingredient (A) is commercially available under the trade name of Jet Cement. The aggregate of the ingredient (B) has preferably from about 0.6 to 0.2 mm of size and is made of material, preferably, silicon or iron grains. As the ingredient (C), acrylic resin emulsion is preferred. As a result of example, these ingredient constitutions can satisfy each of the required performance described above. (I.S.)

  5. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  6. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  7. Line radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium

    Kamp, Inga

    Atomic and molecular line emission from protoplanetary disks contains key information of their detailed physical and chemical structures. To unravel those structures, we need to understand line radiative transfer in dusty media and the statistical equilibrium, especially of molecules. I describe

  8. Performance of laying hens fed diets containing DAS-59122-7 maize grain compared with diets containing nontransgenic maize grain.

    Jacobs, C M; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Rice, D; Smith, B; Hinds, M; Liebergesell, M; Sauber, T

    2008-03-01

    An experiment using 216 Hy-Line W-36 pullets was conducted to evaluate transgenic maize grain containing the cry34Ab1 and cry35Ab1 genes from a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strain and the phosphinothricin ace-tyltransferase (pat) gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Expression of the cry34Ab1 and cry35Ab1 genes confers resistance to corn rootworms, and the pat gene confers tolerance to herbicides containing glufosinate-ammonium. Pullets (20 wk of age) were placed in cage lots (3 hens/cage, 2 cages/lot) and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 corn-soybean meal dietary treatments (12 lots/treatment) formulated with the following maize grains: near-isogenic control (control), conventional maize, and transgenic test corn line 59122 containing event DAS-59122-7. Differences between 59122 and control group means were evaluated with statistical significance at P < 0.05. Body weight and gain, egg production, egg mass, and feed efficiency for hens fed the 59122 corn were not significantly different from the respective values for hens fed diets formulated with control maize grain. Egg component weights, Haugh unit measures, and egg weight class distribution were similar regardless of the corn source. This research indicates that performance of hens fed diets containing 59122 maize grain, as measured by egg production and egg quality, was similar to that of hens fed diets formulated with near-isogenic corn grain.

  9. Improved anchorage of steel linings at WWER nuclear power plants

    Bouda, M.; Cepicky, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three variants were tested of anchoring the steel lining of special structures of nuclear power plants with WWER reactors, such as the containment, viz.: point anchorage with pins according to a Czechoslovak design, and two methods of linear anchorage according to a Soviet design and a design by the Institute for Industrial Construction of the GDR. Graphically shown are some results of the tests of the point anchorage with pins that showed the reliability of the method with respect to deformation and strain of the lining and of the anchoring elements at a lining temperature of up to 300 degC, which significantly exceeded the design-basis accident temperature of 150 degC. The advantages of the variant include a lower content of labour and an increased quality of welding jobs thanks to the application of the Nelson semi-automatic welding technique. (Z.M.). 10 figs., 7 refs

  10. Tumor significant dose

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  11. Meaning and significance of

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  12. rf reference line for PEP

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system

  13. rf reference line for PEP

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system.

  14. APR1400 Containment Simulation with CONTAIN code

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The more realistic containment pressure variation predicted by the CONTAIN code through the coupled analysis during a large break loss of coolant accident in the nuclear power plant is expected to provide more accurate prediction for the plant behavior than a standalone MARS-KS calculation. The input deck has been generated based on the already available ARP- 1400 input for CONTEMPT code. Similarly to the CONTEMPT input deck, a simple two-cell model was adopted to model the containment behavior, one cell for the containment inner volume and another cell for the environment condition. The developed input for the CONTAIN code is to be eventually applied for the coupled code calculation of MARS-KS/CONTAIN

  15. APR1400 Containment Simulation with CONTAIN code

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong

    2010-01-01

    The more realistic containment pressure variation predicted by the CONTAIN code through the coupled analysis during a large break loss of coolant accident in the nuclear power plant is expected to provide more accurate prediction for the plant behavior than a standalone MARS-KS calculation. The input deck has been generated based on the already available ARP- 1400 input for CONTEMPT code. Similarly to the CONTEMPT input deck, a simple two-cell model was adopted to model the containment behavior, one cell for the containment inner volume and another cell for the environment condition. The developed input for the CONTAIN code is to be eventually applied for the coupled code calculation of MARS-KS/CONTAIN

  16. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  17. Numerical Study of Severe Accidents on Containment Venting Conditions

    Lee, Na Rae; Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Under severe accident, the containment integrity can be challenged due to over-pressurization by steam and non-condensable gas generation. According to Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) result, the late containment failure by over-pressurization has been identified as the most probable containment failure mode. In addition, the analyses of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reveal the necessity of the proper containment depressurization to prevent the large release of the radionuclide to environment. Containment venting has been considered as an effective approach to maintain the containment integrity from over-pressurization. Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. To ensure the containment integrity under over-pressure conditions, it is crucial to conduct the containment vent in a timely manner with a sufficient discharge flow rate. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. The purpose of this study is to identify the effective venting conditions for preventing the containment over-pressurization and investigate the vent flow characteristics to minimize the consequence of the containment ventilation.. In order that, thermodynamic behavior of the containment and the discharged flow depending on different vent strategies are analyzed and compared. The representative accident scenarios are identified by reviewing the Level 2 PSA result and the sensitivity analyses with varying conditions (i.e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) are conducted. MAAP5 model for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant has been used for severe accident simulations. Containment venting can be an effective strategy to prevent the significant failure of the containment due to over-pressurization. However, it should be carefully conducted because the vented

  18. Numerical Study of Severe Accidents on Containment Venting Conditions

    Lee, Na Rae; Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong; Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek

    2014-01-01

    Under severe accident, the containment integrity can be challenged due to over-pressurization by steam and non-condensable gas generation. According to Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) result, the late containment failure by over-pressurization has been identified as the most probable containment failure mode. In addition, the analyses of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reveal the necessity of the proper containment depressurization to prevent the large release of the radionuclide to environment. Containment venting has been considered as an effective approach to maintain the containment integrity from over-pressurization. Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. To ensure the containment integrity under over-pressure conditions, it is crucial to conduct the containment vent in a timely manner with a sufficient discharge flow rate. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. The purpose of this study is to identify the effective venting conditions for preventing the containment over-pressurization and investigate the vent flow characteristics to minimize the consequence of the containment ventilation.. In order that, thermodynamic behavior of the containment and the discharged flow depending on different vent strategies are analyzed and compared. The representative accident scenarios are identified by reviewing the Level 2 PSA result and the sensitivity analyses with varying conditions (i.e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) are conducted. MAAP5 model for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant has been used for severe accident simulations. Containment venting can be an effective strategy to prevent the significant failure of the containment due to over-pressurization. However, it should be carefully conducted because the vented

  19. Empty Container Logistics

    Jakov Karmelić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast and effective reallocation of empty containers causes high costs and often represents an obstacle affecting the efficiency of port container terminals and inland carriers.In accordance with the above issue, this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the data concerning global container capacities and the roots of container equipment imbalances, with the aim of determining the importance of empty container management and the need for empty container micro-logistic planning at the spread port area.

  20. Empty Container Logistics

    Jakov Karmelić; Čedomir Dundović; Ines Kolanović

    2012-01-01

    Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast a...

  1. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  2. FAUST/CONTAIN; FAUST/CONTAIN

    Cherdron, W.; Minges, J.; Sauter, H.; Schuetz, W.

    1995-08-01

    The FAUNA facility has been restructured after completion of the sodium fire experiments. It is now serving LWR research, cf. report II on program no. 32.21.02 concerning steam explosions. The CONTAIN code system for computing the thermodynamic, aerosol and radiological phenomena in a containment under severe accident conditions is being developed with a new to fission product release and transport. (orig.)

  3. Cable line engineering

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  4. GOSAT-2014 methane spectral line list

    Nikitin, A.V.; Lyulin, O.M.; Mikhailenko, S.N.; Perevalov, V.I.; Filippov, N.N.; Grigoriev, I.M.; Morino, I.; Yoshida, Y.; Matsunaga, T.

    2015-01-01

    The updated methane spectral line list GOSAT-2014 for the 5550–6240 cm −1 region with the intensity cutoff of 5×10 –25 cm/molecule at 296 K is presented. The line list is based on the extensive measurements of the methane spectral line parameters performed at different temperatures and pressures of methane without and with buffer gases N 2 , O 2 and air. It contains the following spectral line parameters of about 12150 transitions: line position, line intensity, energy of lower state, air-induced and self-pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients and temperature exponent of air-broadening coefficient. The accuracy of the line positions and intensities are considerably improved in comparison with the previous version GOSAT-2009. The improvement of the line list is done mainly due to the involving to the line position and intensity retrieval of six new spectra recorded with short path way (8.75 cm). The air-broadening and air-shift coefficients for the J-manifolds of the 2ν 3 (F 2 ) band are refitted using the new more precise values of the line positions and intensities. The line assignment is considerably extended. The lower state J-value was assigned to 6397 lines representing 94.4% of integrated intensity of the considering wavenumber region. The complete assignment was done for 2750 lines. - Highlights: • The upgrade of the GOSAT methane line list in the 5550–6240 cm −1 region is done. • 12,146 experimental methane line positions and intensities are retrieved. • 6376 lower energy levels for methane lines are determined

  5. Nuclear reactor container

    Ishiyama, Takenori.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a nuclear reactor container in which heat is removed from a container by external water injection. Heat is removed from the container by immersing the lower portion of the container into water and scattering spary water from above. Thus, the container can be cooled by the spray water falling down along the outer wall of the container to condensate and cool vapors filled in the container upon occurrence of accidents. Further, since the inside of the container can be cooled also during usual operation, it can also serve as a dry well cooler. Accordingly, heat is removed from the reactor container upon occurrence of accidents by the automatic operation of a spray device corresponding to the change of the internal temperature and the pressure in the reactor container. Further, since all of these devices are disposed out of container, maintenance is also facilitated. (I.S.)

  6. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  7. Container transport direct call – logistic solution to container transport via Estonia

    A. Tolli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Container transport in the world grows up to 12 % every year. Chinese container transport contributes majority of container flows in international container transport. Many world seaports compete for Chinese container flows and make eff orts to get investments and direct calls from China to their ports. Estonia has a possibility to decrease its large dependence and risks due to the transit of oil and oil products and coal with the help of container flows from China. In addition to a favorable geographical location Estonia has several other important arguments, like suffi cient land in the harbours for developing a container terminal to launch extensive container transport transit from China. Port of St. Petersburg, container transport port closest to Estonia by the Baltic Sea, is overloaded. Estonia can compete for container flows directed to Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan and Kaluga. Construction of an international high-tech container terminal in Port of Tallinn serves as one important precondition for directing Russian transit container flows through Estonia. Such a container terminal could service also larger vessels and container flows from China. Container lines and container terminals operating as alliances are jointly able to substantially increase container flows through countries.

  8. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  9. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  10. Effect of pipe rupture loads inside containment in the break exclusionary piping outside containment

    Weiss, G.

    1987-01-01

    The plant design for protection against piping failures outside containment should make sure that fluid system piping in containment penetration areas are designed to meet the break exclusionary provisions contained in the BTP MEB 3-1. According to these provisions, following a piping failure (main steam line) inside containment, the part of the flued head connected to the piping outside containment, should not exceed the ASME Code stress limits for the appropriate load combinations. A finite element analysis has been performed to evaluate the stress level in this area. (orig./HP)

  11. QSOs with narrow emission lines

    Baldwin, J.A.; Mcmahon, R.; Hazard, C.; Williams, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of two new high-redshift, narrow-lined QSOs (NLQSOs) are presented and discussed together with observations of similar objects reported in the literature. Gravitational lensing is ruled out as a possible means of amplifying the luminosity for one of these objects. It is found that the NLQSOs have broad bases on their emission lines as well as the prominent narrow cores which define this class. Thus, these are not pole-on QSOs. The FWHM of the emission lines fits onto the smoothly falling tail of the lower end of the line-width distribution for complete QSO samples. The equivalent widths of the combined broad and narrow components of the lines are normal for QSOs of the luminosity range under study. However, the NLQSOs do show ionization differences from broader-lined QSOs; most significant, the semiforbidden C III/C IV intensity ratio is unusually low. The N/C abundance ratio in these objects is found to be normal; the Al/C abundance ratio may be quite high. 38 references

  12. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-03-20

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  13. Homotopic Polygonal Line Simplification

    Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski

    This thesis presents three contributions to the area of polygonal line simplification, or simply line simplification. A polygonal path, or simply a path is a list of points with line segments between the points. A path can be simplified by morphing it in order to minimize some objective function...

  14. On quadrisecant lines of threefolds in P^5

    Emilia Mezzetti

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We study smooth threefolds of P^5 whose quadrisecant lines don't fill up the space. We give a complete classification of those threefolds X whose only quadrisecant lines are the lines contained in X . Then we prove that, if X admits "true" quadrisecant lines, but they don't fill up P^5 , then either X is contained in a cubic hypersurface, or it contains a family of dimension at least two of plane curves of degree at least four.

  15. Accident resistant transport container

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  16. Nuclear reactor containment device

    Ichiki, Tadaharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the volume of a containment shell and decrease the size of a containment equipment for BWR type reactors by connecting the containment shell and a suppression pool with slanted vent tubes to thereby shorten the vent tubes. Constitution: A pressure vessel containing a reactor core is installed at the center of a building and a containment vessel for the nuclear reactor that contains the pressure vessel forms a cabin. To a building situated below the containment shell, is provided a suppression chamber in which cooling water is charged to form a suppression pool. The suppression pool is communicated with vent tubes that pass through the partition wall of the containment vessel. The vent tubes are slanted and their lower openings are immersed in coolants. Therefore, if accident is resulted and fluid at high temperature and high pressure is jetted from the pressure vessel, the jetting fluid is injected and condensated in the cooling water. (Moriyama, K.)

  17. Accident resistant transport container

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  18. Partiality and Container Monads

    Uustalu, Tarmo; Veltri, Niccolò

    2017-01-01

    the relationship between containers and lifting monads. We show that the lifting monads usually employed in type theory can be specified in terms of containers. Moreover, we give a precise characterization of containers whose interpretations carry a lifting monad structure. We show that these conditions...

  19. Stowing the Right Containers on Container Vessels

    Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    ’s largest container vessels using standard mathematical programming techniques and off-the-shelf solvers. The presentation will provide basic insight into the domain, with pointers to further information that enable you to join in this promising new path of operations research and business....

  20. LINE FUSION GENES: a database of LINE expression in human genes

    Park Hong-Seog

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs are the most abundant retrotransposons in humans. About 79% of human genes are estimated to contain at least one segment of LINE per transcription unit. Recent studies have shown that LINE elements can affect protein sequences, splicing patterns and expression of human genes. Description We have developed a database, LINE FUSION GENES, for elucidating LINE expression throughout the human gene database. We searched the 28,171 genes listed in the NCBI database for LINE elements and analyzed their structures and expression patterns. The results show that the mRNA sequences of 1,329 genes were affected by LINE expression. The LINE expression types were classified on the basis of LINEs in the 5' UTR, exon or 3' UTR sequences of the mRNAs. Our database provides further information, such as the tissue distribution and chromosomal location of the genes, and the domain structure that is changed by LINE integration. We have linked all the accession numbers to the NCBI data bank to provide mRNA sequences for subsequent users. Conclusion We believe that our work will interest genome scientists and might help them to gain insight into the implications of LINE expression for human evolution and disease. Availability http://www.primate.or.kr/line

  1. ITER containment structures

    Sadakov, S.; Fauser, F.; Nelson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes the results and recommendations of the Containment Structures Design Unit (CSDU) on the containment structures for ITER, made in the context of the Conceptual Design Phase. The document describes the following subsystems: (1) the primary vacuum vessel (VV), (2) the attaching locks (AL) of the invessel components, (3) the plasma passive and active stabilizers, (4) the cryostat vessel, and (5) the machine gravity supports. Although for most components reference designs were selected, for some of these alternative design options were described, because unresolved problems necessitate further research and development. Conclusions and future needs are summarized for each of the above subsystems: (1) a reference VV design was selected, while most critical VV future needs are the feasibility studies of manufacturing, assembly, and the repair/disassembly/reassembly by remote handling. Alternative, thin-wall options appear attractive and should be studied further during the Engineering Design Activities; (2) no reference design solution was selected for the AL system, as AL design requirements are extremely difficult and internally contradictory, while there is no existing tokamak precedent, but instead, five different approaches will be further researched early in the Engineering Design Phase; (3) significant progress is reported on passive loops, for which the ''twin-loops'' concept is ready to be advanced into the Engineering Design Phase, and on active coils, where a new coil positioning prevents interference with the blanket removal paths, and the current joints are located in a secondary vacuum or in the atmosphere of the reactor hall, repairable by remote handling; (4) a full metallic welded cryostat design with increased toroidal resistance was chosen, but with a design based on concrete with a thin inner metallic liner as a back-up in case detailed nuclear shielding requirements would force the cryostat to act as biological shield; (5) out

  2. Passive containment system

    Kleimola, F.W.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a containment system that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is prevented from over-heating by a high containment back-pressure and a reactor vessel refill system. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high sub-atmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means. 20 claims, 14 figures

  3. Sustainable evolution of product line infrastructure code

    Patzke, T.

    2011-01-01

    A major goal in many software development organizations today is to reduce development effort and cost, while improving their products' quality and diversity by developing reusable software. An organization takes advantage of its products' similarities, exploits what they have in common and manages what varies among them by building a product line infrastructure. A product line infrastructure is a reuse repository that contains exactly those common and variable artifacts, such as requirements...

  4. Group 4. Containment

    McCauley, V.S.; Keiser, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of the Containment Working Group which met at the Workshop on Radioactive, Hazardous, and/or Mixed Waste Sludge Management. The Containment Working Group (CWG) examined the problems associated with providing adequate containment of waste forms from both short- and long-term storage. By its nature, containment encompasses a wide variety of waste forms, storage conditions, container types, containment schemes, and handling activities. A containment system can be anything from a 55-gal drum to a 100-ft-long underground vault. Because of the diverse nature of containment systems, the CWG chose to focus its limited time on broad issues that are applicable to the design of any containment system, rather than attempting to address problems specific to a particular containment system or waste-form type. Four major issues were identified by the CWG. They relate to: (1) service conditions and required system performance; (2) ultimate disposition; (3) cost and schedule; and (4) acceptance criteria, including quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) concerns. All of the issues raised by the group are similar in that they all help to define containment system requirements

  5. Fibre-concrete container

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the fibre-concrete container for radioactive wastes is described. The fibre container is made of fibre-concrete that contains cement, aggregate, sand, filter, flame-silica, super-plastificator, water and scattered metal fibres. The fibre-concrete container has a dice shape with outer dimension 1.7 x 1.7 x 1.7 m. It is mounted of a container body, a container cover and two caps. Total weight of container is 4,240 kg, maximum weight of loaded container do not must exceed 15,000 kg. The physical and mechanical properties of the fibre-concrete container are described in detail. The fibre-concrete container manufactured for storing of low and intermediate radioactive wastes. A fibre-concrete container utilization to store of radioactive wastes solves these problems: increase of stability of stored packages of radioactive waste; watertightness within 300 years at least; static stability of bearing space; better utilization of bearing spaces; insulation of radioactive waste in a case of seismic and geological event; increase of fire resistance; and transport of radioactive waste

  6. The Historical Significance of the Universal Declaration.

    Eide, Asbjorn

    1998-01-01

    Explains the historical significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Focuses on the initiative for the Declaration and its elaboration, the precursors to modern human rights, the foundation of the Declaration, the rights contained in the Universal Declaration, three modes of human rights analysis, and global governance and human…

  7. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  8. On the origin of cyclotron lines in the spectra of X-ray pulsars

    Mushtukov A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclotron resonance scattering features are observed in the spectra of some X-ray pulsars and show significant changes in the line energy with the pulsar luminosity. In a case of bright sources, the line centroid energy is anti-correlated with the luminosity. Such a behaviour is often associated with the onset and growth of the accretion column, which is believed to be the origin of the observed emission and the cyclotron lines. However, this scenario inevitably implies large gradient of the magnetic field strength within the line-forming region, and it makes the formation of the observed line-like features problematic. Moreover, the observed variation of the cyclotron line energy is much smaller than could be anticipated for the corresponding luminosity changes. We argue that a more physically realistic situation is that the cyclotron line forms when the radiation emitted by the accretion column is reflected from the neutron star surface. The idea is based on the facts that a substantial part of column luminosity is intercepted by the neutron star surface and the reflected radiation should contain absorption features. The reflection model is developed and applied to explain the observed variations of the cyclotron line energy in a bright X-ray pulsar V 0332+53 over a wide range of luminosities.

  9. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  10. Establishment and characterization of a new epithelial cell line, KC-1, from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) conjunctiva.

    Girjes, Adeeb A; Lee, Kristen E; Carrick, Frank N

    2003-01-01

    A novel, untransformed koala cell line (KC-1) was established by culturing koala conjunctival tissue in growth medium, which has permitted the study of the cell biology of this unique system. After the establishment of the KC-1 cell line, the cells were characterized by light microscopy, doubling time, and Western blot analysis. Light microscopy revealed that the cells have an epithelial morphology. Doubling times were significantly different (P koala cell line was adapted to grow continuously in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium containing 10% FCS for at least 30 passages. This unique cell line is an ideal tool for further investigation on koala cell biology and cytogenetics and for exploration of the pathophysiological mechanism of eye infections caused by different pathogens in koalas.

  11. Plasmids and packaging cell lines for use in phage display

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a novel phagemid display system for packaging phagemid DNA into phagemid particles which completely avoids the use of helper phage. The system of the invention incorporates the use of bacterial packaging cell lines which have been transformed with helper plasmids containing all required phage proteins but not the packaging signals. The absence of packaging signals in these helper plasmids prevents their DNA from being packaged in the bacterial cell, which provides a number of significant advantages over the use of both standard and modified helper phage. Packaged phagemids expressing a protein or peptide of interest, in fusion with a phage coat protein such as g3p, are generated simply by transfecting phagemid into the packaging cell line.

  12. MCBS Sites of Biodiversity Significance

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer represents areas with varying levels of native biodiversity that may contain high quality native plant communities, rare plants, rare animals, and/or...

  13. Spectral line profiles in weakly turbulent plasmas

    Capes, H.; Voslamber, D.

    1976-07-01

    The unified theory of line broadening by electron perturbers is generalized to include the case of a weakly turbulent plasma. The collision operator in the line shape expression is shown to be the sum of two terms, both containing effects arising from the non-equilibrium nature of the plasma. One of the two terms represents the influence of individual atom-particle interactions occuring via the nonequilibrium dielectric plasma medium. The other term is due to the interaction of the atom with the turbulent waves. Both terms contain damping and diffusion effects arising from the plasma turbulence

  14. Line radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium*

    Kamp Inga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic and molecular line emission from protoplanetary disks contains key information of their detailed physical and chemical structures. To unravel those structures, we need to understand line radiative transfer in dusty media and the statistical equilibrium, especially of molecules. I describe here the basic principles of statistical equilibrium and illustrate them through the two-level atom. In a second part, the fundamentals of line radiative transfer are introduced along with the various broadening mechanisms. I explain general solution methods with their drawbacks and also specific difficulties encountered in solving the line radiative transfer equation in disks (e.g. velocity gradients. I am closing with a few special cases of line emission from disks: Radiative pumping, masers and resonance scattering.

  15. In-situ rehabilitation cleans, lines, and renews pipe systems

    Munden, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses how, in the past five years, developments in coating and lining material technology have found their way into pipe line application and have yielded successful results. The thick film, high solids material often used to repair tanks, vessels and offshore structures has now been adapted for existing pipe lines. One of the most promising of these systems in successful service is an epoxy, high solids (95%) material originally developed for nuclear service as a lining for reactor containment vessels

  16. Aerosol in the containment

    Lanza, S.; Mariotti, P.

    1986-01-01

    The US program LACE (LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments), in which Italy participates together with several European countries, Canada and Japan, aims at evaluating by means of a large scale experimental activity at HEDL the retention in the pipings and primary container of the radioactive aerosol released following severe accidents in light water reactors. At the same time these experiences will make available data through which the codes used to analyse the behaviour of the aerosol in the containment and to verify whether by means of the codes of thermohydraulic computation it is possible to evaluate with sufficient accuracy variable influencing the aerosol behaviour, can be validated. This report shows and compares the results obtained by the participants in the LACE program with the aerosol containment codes NAVA 5 and CONTAIN for the pre-test computations of the test LA 1, in which an accident called containment by pass is simulated

  17. Sulfur-Containing Agrochemicals.

    Devendar, Ponnam; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2017-10-09

    Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrochemicals. In this context, the introduction of sulfur atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool in modulating the properties of new crop-protection compounds. More than 30% of today's agrochemicals contain at least one sulfur atom, mainly in fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. A number of recently developed sulfur-containing agrochemical candidates represent a novel class of chemical compounds with new modes of action, so we intend to highlight the emerging interest in commercially active sulfur-containing compounds. This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of selected leading sulfur-containing pesticidal chemical families namely: sulfonylureas, sulfonamides, sulfur-containing heterocyclics, thioureas, sulfides, sulfones, sulfoxides and sulfoximines. Also, the most suitable large-scale synthetic methods of the recently launched or provisionally approved sulfur-containing agrochemicals from respective chemical families have been highlighted.

  18. Reactor container structure

    Sato, Yoshimi; Fukuda, Yoshio.

    1993-01-01

    A main container of an FBR type reactor using liquid sodium as coolants is attached to a roof slug. The main container contains, as coolants, lower temperature sodium, and high temperature sodium above a reactor core and a partitioning plate. The main container has a structure comprising only longitudinal welded joints in parallel with axial direction in the vicinity of the liquid surface of high temperature sodium where a temperature gradient is steep and great thermal stresses are caused without disposing lateral welded joints in perpendicular to axial direction. Only the longitudinal welded joints having a great fatigue strength are thus disposed in the vicinity of the liquid surface of the high temperature sodium where axial thermal stresses are caused. This can improve reliability of strength at the welded portions of the main container against repeating thermal stresses caused in vicinity of the liquid surface of the main container from a view point of welding method. (I.N.)

  19. High security container

    Moreau, P.J.-M.; Monsterleet, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    This invention concerns containments, vessels or tanks for containing and protecting products or installations of various kinds, to be called by the general denomination 'containers'. Such products can be, inter alia, liquids such as natural gas, ammonia, vinyle chloride and hydrocarbons. Far from just forming simple means of storage, the containers used for this must now be capable of withstanding fire, sabotage for instance rocket fire, even impacts from aircraft, earthquakes and other aggressions of the same kind. The particular object of this invention is to create a container withstanding all these various agressions. It must also be considered that this container can not only be used for storing products or materials but also for enclosing particularly dangerous or delicate installations, such as nuclear or chemical reactors [fr

  20. Directed line liquids

    Kamien, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

  1. Radiological containment handbook

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to be used as a reference text. It is meant to be used by the working personnel as a guide for using temporary radiological containments. The installing group and health physics group may vary among organizations but responsibilities and duties will not change. It covers installation and inspection containments; working and operating guidelines; operating requirement; emergency procedures; and removal of containments

  2. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  3. Containment safety margins

    Von Riesemann, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Objective of the Containment Safety Margins program is the development and verification of methodologies which are capable of reliably predicting the ultimate load-carrying capability of light water reactor containment structures under accident and severe environments. The program was initiated in June 1980 at Sandia and this paper addresses the first phase of the program which is essentially a planning effort. Brief comments are made about the second phase, which will involve testing of containment models

  4. Multicusp plasma containment apparatus

    Limpaecher, R.

    1980-01-01

    It has been discovered that plasma containment by a chamber having multi-pole magnetic cusp reflecting walls in combination with electronic injection for electrostatic containment provides the means for generating magnetic field free quiescent plasmas for practical application in ion-pumps, electronic switches, and the like. 1250 ''alnico v'' magnets 1/2 '' X 1/2 '' X 1 1/2 '' provide containment in one embodiment. Electromagnets embodying toroidal funneling extend the principle to fusion apparatus

  5. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  6. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code's targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ''Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy'' that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee's recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment

  7. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  8. Reactor container cooling device

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1995-11-10

    The device of the present invention efficiently lowers pressure and temperature in a reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR-type reactor and can cool the inside of the container for a long period of time. That is, (1) pipelines on the side of an exhaustion tower of a filter portion in a filter bent device of the reactor container are in communication with pipelines on the side of a steam inlet of a static container cooling device by way of horizontal pipelines, (2) a back flow check valve is disposed to horizontal pipelines, (3) a steam discharge valve for a pressure vessel is disposed closer to the reactor container than the joint portion between the pipelines on the side of the steam inlet and the horizontal pipelines. Upon occurrence of a severe accident, when the pressure vessel should be ruptured and steams containing aerosol in the reactor core should be filled in the reactor container, the inlet valve of the static container cooling device is closed. Steams are flown into the filter bent device of the reactor container, where the aerosols can be removed. (I.S.).

  9. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  10. Lift-based up-ender and methods using same to manipulate a shipping container containing unirradiated nuclear fuel

    Nilles, Michael J.

    2017-08-01

    A shipping container containing an unirradiated nuclear fuel assembly is lifted off the ground by operating a crane to raise a lifting tool comprising a winch. The lifting tool is connected with the shipping container by a rigging line connecting with the shipping container at a lifting point located on the shipping container between the top and bottom of the shipping container, and by winch cabling connecting with the shipping container at the top of the shipping container. The shipping container is reoriented by operating the winch to adjust the length of the winch cabling so as to rotate the shipping container about the lifting point. Shortening the winch cabling rotates the shipping container about the lifting point from a horizontal orientation to a vertical orientation, while lengthening the winch cabling rotates the shipping container about the lifting point from the vertical orientation to the horizontal orientation.

  11. Concept study for a combined reinforced concrete containment

    Liersch, G.; Peter, U.; Danisch, R.; Freiman, M.; Hummer, M.; Roettinger, H.; Hansen, H.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of different steel and concrete containment types had been designed and constructed in the past. Most of the concrete containments had been prestressed offering the advantage of small displacements and certain leak tightness of the concrete itself. However, considerable stresses in concrete as well as in the tendons have to be maintained during the whole lifetime of the plant in order to guarantee the required prestressing. The long-time behaviour and the ductility in case of beyond design load cases must be verified. In contrary to a prestressed containment a reinforced containment will only significantly be loaded during test conditions or when needed in case of accidents. It offers additional margins which can be used especially for dynamic loads like impacts or for beyond design considerations. The aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of a so-called combined containment which means capable to resist both - severe internal accidents and external hazards mainly the aircraft crash impact as considered in the design of nuclear power plants in Germany. The concept is a lined reinforced containment without prestressing. The mechanical resistance function is provided by the reinforced concrete and the leak tightness function will be taken by a so called composite liner made of non-metallic materials. Some results of tests performed at SIEMENS laboratories and at the University of Karlsruhe which show the capability of a composite liner to bridge over cracks at the concrete surface will be presented in the paper. The study shows that the combined reinforced concrete containment with a composite liner offers a robust concept with high flexibility with respect to load requirements, beyond design considerations and geometrical shaping (arrangement of openings, integration with adjacent structures). The concept may be further optimized by partial prestressing at areas of high concentration of stresses such as at transition zones or at disturbances around

  12. Predictors of switch to and early outcomes on third-line antiretroviral therapy at a large public-sector clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Evans, Denise; Hirasen, Kamban; Berhanu, Rebecca; Malete, Given; Ive, Prudence; Spencer, David; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Sanne, Ian M; Fox, Matthew P

    2018-04-10

    While efficacy data exist, there are limited data on the outcomes of patients on third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa in actual practice. Being able to identify predictors of switch to third-line ART will be essential for planning for future need. We identify predictors of switch to third-line ART among patients with significant viraemia on a protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line ART regimen. Additionally, we describe characteristics of all patients on third-line at a large public sector HIV clinic and present their early outcomes. Retrospective analysis of adults (≥ 18 years) on a PI-based second-line ART regimen at Themba Lethu Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa as of 01 August 2012, when third-line treatment became available in South Africa, with significant viraemia on second-line ART (defined as at least one viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL on second-line ART after 01 August 2012) to identify predictors of switch to third-line (determined by genotype resistance testing). Third-line ART was defined as a regimen containing etravirine, raltegravir or ritonavir boosted darunavir, between August 2012 and January 2016. To assess predictors of switch to third-line ART we used Cox proportional hazards regression among those with significant viraemia on second-line ART after 01 August 2012. Then among all patients on third-line ART we describe viral load suppression, defined as a viral load third-line ART. Among 719 patients in care and on second-line ART as of August 2012 (with at least one viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL after 01 August 2012), 36 (5.0% over a median time of 54 months) switched to third-line. Time on second-line therapy (≥ 96 vs. third-line ART, 78.3% (47/60) and 83.3% (35/42) of those in care and with a viral load suppressed their viral load at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Our results show that the need for third-line is low (5%), but that patients' who switch to third-line ART have good early treatment

  13. FAUST/CONTAIN

    Cherdron, W.; Minges, J.; Sauter, H.; Schuetz, W.

    1995-01-01

    The FAUNA facility has been restructured after completion of the sodium fire experiments. It is now serving LWR research, cf. report II on program no. 32.21.02 concerning steam explosions. The CONTAIN code system for computing the thermodynamic, aerosol and radiological phenomena in a containment under severe accident conditions is being developed with a new to fission product release and transport. (orig.)

  14. Explosive composition containing water

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.

    1971-11-26

    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  15. Tougher containment design goals

    O'Farrelly, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day LWR containment design goals are reviewed, together with their potential failure modes. Rasmussen's estimates of failure probabilities are discussed and the concept of ''delayed failure'' is seen to be a valuable safety goal for hypothetical accidents. The paper investigates the inherent coremelt resistance capability of various containment designs and suggests improvements, with special emphasis on increasing the failure delay times. (author)

  16. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    Relation with the Host States

    2001-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site. The Association has informed us that 3 306 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 2000 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.

  17. Containment and surveillance devices

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  18. Nuclear reactor container

    Yamaki, Rika; Kawabe, Ryuhei.

    1989-01-01

    A venturi scrubber is connected to a nuclear reactor container. Gases containing radioactive aerosols in the container are introduced into the venturi scrubber in the form of a high speed stream under the pressure of the container. The radioactive aerosols are captured by inertia collision due to the velocity difference between the high speed gas stream and water droplets. In the case of the present invention, since the high pressure of the reactor container generated upon accident is utilized, compressor, etc. is no more required, thereby enabling to reduce the size of the aerosol removing device. Further, since no external power is used, the radioactive aerosols can be removed with no starting failure upon accidents. (T.M.)

  19. Containment vessel drain system

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  20. Characterization of aerosols containing radiopharmaceuticals

    Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Santos, Maristela Souza

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present the main lines of action of the Laboratorio de Caracterizacao de Aerossois (LCA /IRD) in the study of aerosols, the techniques available and the capability of these techniques as a tool in the biokinetics behavior study of radiopharmaceuticals and evaluating the particle exposed individuals containing these molecules. The LCA provides the following analytical techniques: spectrometry alpha, gamma and alpha counting and gross beta; PIXE (Particle Induced X rays Emission) and mass spectrometry-based flight time measurement of molecular ions ( 252 Cf-PDMS - 252 Cf-Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry). This technique is used to identify compounds mass to 10 000 a.m.u. The combination of these techniques has been applied to the study in vitro of the toxicology of the metals and radionuclides both in the respiratory tract as in the gastrointestinal

  1. Water Distribution Lines, Includes water pipes (not connections to structures, fire hydrants and other features. Capture in Microstation and does not contain attribution. Has annotation and is converted to GIS semi-anually. Only available upon permission., Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Distribution Lines dataset current as of 2011. Includes water pipes (not connections to structures, fire hydrants and other features. Capture in Microstation...

  2. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  3. Database of emission lines

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  4. Water injection device for reactor container

    Sakaki, Isao.

    1996-01-01

    A pressure vessel incorporating a reactor core is placed and secured on a pedestal in a dry well of a reactor container. A pedestal water injection line is disposed opened at one end in a pedestal cavity passing through the side wall of the pedestal and led at the other end to the outside of the reactor container. A substitution dry well spray line is connected to a spray header disposed at the upper portion of the dry well. When the pressure vessel should be damaged by a molten reactor core and the molten reactor core should drop to the dry well upon occurrence of an accident, the molten reactor core on the floor of the pedestal is cooled by water injection from the pedestal water injection line. At the same time, the elevation of the pressure and the temperature in the reactor container is suppressed by the water injection of the substitution dry well spray line. This can avoid large scaled release of radioactive materials to the environmental circumference. (I.N.)

  5. Effect of a polyethylene-lined administration set on the availability of diazepam injection.

    Hancock, B G; Black, C D

    1985-02-01

    Delivery of diazepam through a polyethylene-lined i.v. administration set and through a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) set was compared. Diazepam was prepared in concentrations of 50 mg/500 mL and 100 mg/500 mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection in glass containers. Diazepam concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at 0 through 5 hours in samples collected simultaneously from the glass solution containers and from the distal ends of a PVC administration set and a polyethylene-lined (non-PVC) set. Flow rates of 50 and 100 mL/hr were tested. For the non-PVC sets, diazepam concentration in the infusate was not significantly different from concentration in the glass container at any sampling time. The overall percentage of diazepam recovered was 100.7 +/- 6.8%. For the PVC sets, diazepam concentration in the infusate was less than in the container at all sampling times, and the overall percentage of diazepam recovered was 65.4 +/- 13.3% (significantly different from delivery for the non-PVC sets). Delivery through the non-PVC sets was not affected by flow rate, type of solution, or concentration of diazepam. For infusion periods of up to five hours, delivery of diazepam through polyethylene-lined i.v. administration sets was superior to delivery through polyvinyl chloride sets.

  6. Containment of spills from ships

    Engerer, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil escaping from a ship is contained within a limited area surrounding the ship by means of a flexible ring structure. The ring structure is stored in a collapsed state in a compartment extending around the ship. In response to an oil spill, the ring structure is dropped from the compartment and immediately surrounds the ship. A circular inflatable flotation section of the ring structure is charged with gas under pressure. The gas is supplied from a bottle cascade aboard the ship, through lines preconnected to the flotation section and paid out from free-wheeling reels. The flotation section supports a thin circumferential wall of predetermined height that submerges and assumes a vertical cylinder-like shape surrounding the escaping oil. The oil floats within the confines of the ring structure, and the ring structure is progressively expanded to a predetermined size selected to accommodate the total volume of oil carried by the ship. When the ring structure achieves its expanded state, pressure in the flotation section is raised to render the structure relatively rigid and resistant to collapse in response to wave action. Oil can be removed from the interior of the ring structure by recovery ships using suction lines or other conventional recovery methods. 12 figs

  7. Performance of containment of Indian PHWR

    Mohan, Nalini; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the various requirements and activities relevant to the testing of containment system of Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). All Indian PHWR containments are constructed from concrete either reinforced or prestressed or a combination of both and lined with polymeric coating based on Epoxy or Vinyl in order to achieve the leak tightness necessary from the radiological considerations following an accident. The current concept includes a complete double containment (except the base raft) extended to all penetrations and some of the pipings (those open to the containment atmosphere). The primary containment fitted with a passive pressure suppression system is enveloped in the secondary containment (confinement) where slight vacuum is maintained during normal operation as well as post accident condition. The Integrated leakage Rate Test (ILRT) conducted so far on the containment indicate that the overall leakages from the containment are lower than those necessary to meet the radiological limits following a postulated accident and interception of leakages by secondary containment as per design. The details of the, tests, repairs carried out and observations are given in this paper. The experience of ILRT also indicate improvement in leak tightness in many areas. (author)

  8. X-ray K-edge analysis of drain lines in Wilhelm Hall, Ames Laboratory

    Jensen, T.; Whitmore, C.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA

    1999-01-01

    From August 12--27, 1998 X-ray K-edge measurements were made on drain lines in seven rooms in Wilhelm Hall, Ames Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine the extent of thorium (and other heavy metal) contamination inside these pipes. The K-edge method is a noninvasive inspection technique that can provide accurate quantification of heavy metal contamination interior to an object. Of the seven drain lines inspected, one was found to have no significant contamination, three showed significant thorium deposits, two showed mercury contamination, and one line was found to contain mercury, thorium and uranium. The K-edge measurements were found to be consistent with readings from hand-held survey meters, and provided much greater detail on the location and amount of heavy metal contamination

  9. Altering graphene line defect properties using chemistry

    Vasudevan, Smitha; White, Carter; Gunlycke, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    First-principles calculations are presented of a fundamental topological line defect in graphene that was observed and reported in Nature Nanotech. 5, 326 (2010). These calculations show that atoms and smaller molecules can bind covalently to the surface in the vicinity of the graphene line defect. It is also shown that the chemistry at the line defect has a strong effect on its electronic and magnetic properties, e.g. the ferromagnetically aligned moments along the line defect can be quenched by some adsorbates. The strong effect of the adsorbates on the line defect properties can be understood by examining how these adsorbates affect the boundary-localized states in the vicinity of the Fermi level. We also expect that the line defect chemistry will significantly affect the scattering properties of incident low-energy particles approaching it from graphene.

  10. An advanced dispatching technology for large container inspection system

    Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Kang Kejun; Gao Wenhuan

    2001-01-01

    The author describes the transmitting and dispatching technology of large container inspection system. It introduces the structure of the double buffer graded pipe lining used in the system. Strategies of queue mechanism and waiting dispatch policy are illustrated

  11. Integrating robust timetabling in line plan optimization for railway systems

    Burggraeve, Sofie; Bull, Simon Henry; Vansteenwegen, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    We propose a heuristic algorithm to build a railway line plan from scratch that minimizes passenger travel time and operator cost and for which a feasible and robust timetable exists. A line planning module and a timetabling module work iteratively and interactively. The line planning module......, but is constrained by limited shunt capacity. While the operator and passenger cost remain close to those of the initially and (for these costs) optimally built line plan, the timetable corresponding to the finally developed robust line plan significantly improves the minimum buffer time, and thus the robustness...... creates an initial line plan. The timetabling module evaluates the line plan and identifies a critical line based on minimum buffer times between train pairs. The line planning module proposes a new line plan in which the time length of the critical line is modified in order to provide more flexibility...

  12. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    1976-01-12

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  13. Improvements in containers

    Guy, R.

    1977-01-01

    An improved container is described for transporting radioactive materials, such as irradiated Magnox fuel elements. It has a lid fixed to the container body and at the corners of the lid has shock absorbers that project from the corners and have part-spheroidal shape. The centre of curvature of the surface of the spheroid is positioned within the lid, so that impact loads on a shock absorber tend to hold it to the container rather than dislodge it. The shock absorbers may be Al-Si alloy castings. (U.K.)

  14. The Container Stowage Problem

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  15. The Container Stowage Problem

    Janstrup, Kira

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  16. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    1976-01-01

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  17. Actuator Line Modeling of Wind Turbine Wakes

    Troldborg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains a comprehensive 3D Navier-Stokes computational study of the characteristics of wakes of wind turbines operating in various flow conditions including interacting wakes between a row of turbines. The computations were carried out using the actuator line technique combined...

  18. University Autonomy: Two Fault-Lines

    Evans, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    The doctrine of university autonomy in the UK contains a least two major "fault-lines" where the structure is inherently weak and there is danger of functional breakdown. The first occurs at the junction between the institution and the state, the second within the institution, where the unity in policy-making between academic and…

  19. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to ...

  20. RNA-Mediated Gene Duplication and Retroposons: Retrogenes, LINEs, SINEs, and Sequence Specificity

    2013-01-01

    A substantial number of “retrogenes” that are derived from the mRNA of various intron-containing genes have been reported. A class of mammalian retroposons, long interspersed element-1 (LINE1, L1), has been shown to be involved in the reverse transcription of retrogenes (or processed pseudogenes) and non-autonomous short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 3′-end sequences of various SINEs originated from a corresponding LINE. As the 3′-untranslated regions of several LINEs are essential for retroposition, these LINEs presumably require “stringent” recognition of the 3′-end sequence of the RNA template. However, the 3′-ends of mammalian L1s do not exhibit any similarity to SINEs, except for the presence of 3′-poly(A) repeats. Since the 3′-poly(A) repeats of L1 and Alu SINE are critical for their retroposition, L1 probably recognizes the poly(A) repeats, thereby mobilizing not only Alu SINE but also cytosolic mRNA. Many flowering plants only harbor L1-clade LINEs and a significant number of SINEs with poly(A) repeats, but no homology to the LINEs. Moreover, processed pseudogenes have also been found in flowering plants. I propose that the ancestral L1-clade LINE in the common ancestor of green plants may have recognized a specific RNA template, with stringent recognition then becoming relaxed during the course of plant evolution. PMID:23984183

  1. Test source with container

    1981-04-01

    This standard is intended to specifiy materials, designs, identification and supply data for a frequently used line of types that serve for checking the display of radiation measuring equipment and dosemeters and may also be applied for calibration purposes. (orig./HP) [de

  2. T25 Qualification of old containers

    Hoerning, T.; Kasparek, E.M.; Voelzke, H.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste for final disposal in the repository Konrad has to be packaged in licensed containers. The qualification of containers is performed according the respective standards and BfS requirements. The latter ones differ for different container types with respect to accident resistance based on the release behavior of the waste. Usually qualification of container types is performed before series production. The qualification of already produced containers (''old containers'') is significantly more complicated. The differences of quality assurance and materials properties of the older containers have to be evaluated. A main tool for this evaluation is the numerical re-calculation of accident scenarios for estimation of the safety margins. The validation of appropriate finite element models is available. Based on these date it might be possible to abandon additional drop tests with the existing old containers to prove the structural integrity.

  3. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  4. Helical type vacuum container

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  5. Regular expression containment

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  6. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  7. Radioactive waste sealing container

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  8. Lightweight flywheel containment

    Smith, James R.

    2004-06-29

    A lightweight flywheel containment composed of a combination of layers of various material which absorb the energy of a flywheel structural failure. The various layers of material act as a vacuum barrier, momentum spreader, energy absorber, and reaction plate. The flywheel containment structure has been experimentally demonstrated to contain carbon fiber fragments with a velocity of 1,000 m/s and has an aerial density of less than 6.5 g/square centimeters. The flywheel containment, may for example, be composed of an inner high toughness structural layer, and energy absorbing layer, and an outer support layer. Optionally, a layer of impedance matching material may be utilized intermediate the flywheel rotor and the inner high toughness layer.

  9. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    Relations avec les Pays hôtes

    2000-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site.The Association has informed us that 2 530 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 1998 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.Relations with the Host StatesTel. 75152

  10. Fusion impulse containment

    Bohachevsky, I.O.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics of impact fusion energy releases are not known sufficiently well to examine in detail specific containment vessel concepts or designs. Therefore it appears appropriate to formulate the impulse containment problem in general and to derive results in the form of explicit expressions from which magnitude estimates and parametric dependencies (trends) can be inferred conveniently and rapidly. In the following presentation we carry out this task using assumptions and approximations that are required to perform the analysis

  11. Influence of Genotype Lines, Age at Slaughter and Sexes on the Composition of Rabbit Meat

    Tomaž Polak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition (water, proteins, ash, intramuscular fat, cholesterol, fatty acid composition, sensory characteristics and instrumental profiles (colour and texture of lean rabbit meat were investigated. It originated from animals of three different lines of SIKA genotype (A – mother line, C – father line, AC – hybrid of mother and father lines, two animal ages at slaughter (93 and 105 days and both sexes. Rabbits were fed a commercial diet ad libitum. The boneless muscles of the back (longissimus lumborum including muscles of abdominal wall and hind legs were sampled from thirty-six animals. On the average rabbit meat contains 71.5 % of water, 22.0 % of proteins, 1.17 % of ash, 5.4 % of intramuscular fat, 67.6 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of fresh meat, and as for fatty acid composition, 34.1 % belong to monounsaturated, 25.1 % to polyunsaturated and 40.9 % to saturated fatty acids. The P/S mass ratio (0.62, the atherogenic index (0.70, the n-6/n-3 ratio (8.1 and the cholesterol content show that the rabbit meat can and should be included into a balanced human diet. Meat of female rabbits contains more intramuscular fat and cholesterol compared to the male ones (5.7 vs. 5.2 g of intramuscular fat/100 g; p0.05; 71.5 vs. 63.7 mg of cholesterol/100 g, respectively; p0.01. Genotype line does not affect either the fatty acid profile or the content of cholesterol, but it has a significant impact on intramuscular fat (A line 5.0 g/100 g; AC line 5.9 g/100 g; C line 5.4 g/100 g; p0.05 as well as on cutting values across the fibres (Instron apparatus; A line 43 N; AC line 38 N; C line 42 N; p0.05. Meat of 105-day-old rabbits contains more intramuscular fat (5.7 vs. 5.2 g/100 g; respectively; p0.05 and shows darker and redder colour (both sensorially evaluated colour as well as instrumentally measured L* and a* values; p0.01 compared to the 93-day-old ones.

  12. Containment vessel stability analysis

    Harstead, G.A.; Morris, N.F.; Unsal, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The stability analysis for a steel containment shell is presented herein. The containment is a freestanding shell consisting of a vertical cylinder with a hemispherical dome. It is stiffened by large ring stiffeners and relatively small longitudinal stiffeners. The containment vessel is subjected to both static and dynamic loads which can cause buckling. These loads must be combined prior to their use in a stability analysis. The buckling loads were computed with the aid of the ASME Code case N-284 used in conjunction with general purpose computer codes and in-house programs. The equations contained in the Code case were used to compute the knockdown factors due to shell imperfections. After these knockdown factors were applied to the critical stress states determined by freezing the maximum dynamic stresses and combining them with other static stresses, a linear bifurcation analysis was carried out with the aid of the BOSOR4 program. Since the containment shell contained large penetrations, the Code case had to be supplemented by a local buckling analysis of the shell area surrounding the largest penetration. This analysis was carried out with the aid of the NASTRAN program. Although the factor of safety against buckling obtained in this analysis was satisfactory, it is claimed that the use of the Code case knockdown factors are unduly conservative when applied to the analysis of buckling around penetrations. (orig.)

  13. Wood pole overhead lines

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  14. Veterans Crisis Line

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  15. Product line design

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  16. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  17. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  18. SAF line powder operations

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  19. Capital Improvements Business Line

    2012-08-08

    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  20. ALFA: an automated line fitting algorithm

    Wesson, R.

    2016-03-01

    I present the automated line fitting algorithm, ALFA, a new code which can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. In contrast to traditional emission line fitting methods which require the identification of spectral features suspected to be emission lines, ALFA instead uses a list of lines which are expected to be present to construct a synthetic spectrum. The parameters used to construct the synthetic spectrum are optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. I show that the results are in excellent agreement with those measured manually for a number of spectra. Where discrepancies exist, the manually measured fluxes are found to be less accurate than those returned by ALFA. Together with the code NEAT, ALFA provides a powerful way to rapidly extract physical information from observations, an increasingly vital function in the era of highly multiplexed spectroscopy. The two codes can deliver a reliable and comprehensive analysis of very large data sets in a few hours with little or no user interaction.

  1. Nasca Lines, Peru

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Nuclear reactor containing facility

    Hidaka, Masataka; Murase, Michio.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor containing facility, a condensation means is disposed above the water level of a cooling water pool to condensate steams of the cooling water pool, and return the condensated water to the cooling water pool. Upon occurrence of a pipeline rupture accident, steams generated by after-heat of a reactor core are caused to flow into a bent tube, blown from the exit of the bent tube into a suppression pool and condensated in a suppression pool water, thereby suppressing the pressure in the reactor container. Cooling water in the cooling water pool is boiled by heat conduction due to the condensation of steams, then the steams are exhausted to the outside of the reactor container to remove the heat of the reactor container to the outside of the reactor. In addition, since cooling water is supplied to the cooling water pool quasi-permanently by gravity as a natural force, the reactor container can be cooled by the cooling water pool for a long period of time. Since the condensation means is constituted with a closed loop and interrupted from the outside, radioactive materials are never released to the outside. (N.H.)

  3. Passive cooling containment study

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  4. Transport and storage container for radioactive materials

    Engelstaedter, R.; Henning, E.; Storch, S.

    1987-01-01

    The container consists of a reinforced concrete wall, which is lined on the outsinde with a steel sheet and on the inside by a steel sheet several times thicker than this steel sheet. A front container opening can be closed by a reinforced concrete lid, which consists of a concrete core. This is surrounded by a lining, a covering and a lost shell. The cover projects beyond the reinforced concrete lid, so that bolts can be introduced in holes equally distributed over the extent of the cover, which can be turned in the threaded holes of threaded anchors, which are fixed on the steel sheet on the side towards the reinforced conrete wall. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Container for radioactive materials

    Housholder, W.R.; Greer, N.L.

    1976-01-01

    The improvement of the construction of containers for the transport of nuclear fuels is proposed where above all, the insulating mass suggested is important as it acts as a safeguard in case of an accident. The container consists of a metal casing in which there is a pressure boiler and a gamma-shielding device, spacers between the metal casing and the shielding device as well as an insulation filling the space between them. The insulating material is a water-in-resin emulsion which is hardened or cross-linked by peroxide and which can furthermore contain up to 50 wt.% solid silicious material such as vermuculite or chopped glass fibre. The construction and variations of the insulating mass composition are described in great detail. (HR) [de

  6. Subatmospheric double containment system

    Gans, D. Jr.; Noble, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    A reinforced concrete double wall nuclear containment structure with each wall including an essentially impervious membrane or liner and porous concrete filling the annulus between the two walls is described. The interior of the structure is maintained at subatmospheric pressure, and the annulus between the two walls is maintained at a subatmospheric pressure intermediate between that of the interior and the surrounding atmospheric pressure, during normal operation. In the event of an accident within the containment structure the interior pressure may exceed atmospheric pressure, but leakage from the interior to the annulus between the double walls will not result in the pressure of the annulus exceeding atmospheric pressure so that there is no net outleakage from the containment structure

  7. Advanced Containment System

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2004-10-12

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  8. Radioactive liquid containing vessel

    Sakurada, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Hironobu.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling jackets are coiled around the outer circumference of a container vessel, and the outer circumference thereof is covered with a surrounding plate. A liquid of good conductivity (for example, water) is filled between the cooling jackets and the surrounding plate. A radioactive liquid is supplied to the container vessel passing through a supply pipe and discharged passing through a discharge pipe. Cooling water at high pressure is passed through the cooling water jackets in order to remove the heat generated from the radioactive liquid. Since cooling water at high pressure is thus passed through the coiled pipes, the wall thickness of the container vessel and the cooling water jackets can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost. Further, even if the radioactive liquid is leaked, there is no worry of contaminating cooling water, to prevent contamination. (I.N.)

  9. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    Solomon, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    A container for the storage, shipping and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same which has compactness, which is safe against fracture or accident, and which is reusable is described. The container consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example, of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and will be retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  10. Steel containment buckling

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require that a dynamic capacity reduction factor be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are recommended. (orig.)

  11. Steel containment buckling

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear steel containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require a dynamic capacity reduction factor to be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are suggested

  12. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    Aitken, S.B.; Brown, R.L.; Cantrell, J.R.; Wilcox, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste

  13. Livet er en container

    Moestrup, Steffen Damkjær

    2008-01-01

    Med Container går Lukas Moodysson for alvor filmeksperimentets vej. Filmen har en række indholdsmæssige træk til fælles med Moodyssons tidligere værker, men den formmæssige tilgang skal især findes i den amerikanske avantgardefilm.......Med Container går Lukas Moodysson for alvor filmeksperimentets vej. Filmen har en række indholdsmæssige træk til fælles med Moodyssons tidligere værker, men den formmæssige tilgang skal især findes i den amerikanske avantgardefilm....

  14. Orimulsion containment and recovery

    Sommerville, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for examination of Orimulsion fuel and its spill behaviour in the light of the anticipated increase in consumption of this fuel which comprises bitumen dispersed in water with addition of a small amount of surfactant. The behaviour and fate of Orimulsion at sea, and observations from experimental and sea trials are examined. The identification of spill control techniques, spill detection, the predictive modeling of the spill and response, sub-surface plume measurement, and containment and deflection are considered. Recovery of the bitumen produced from an Orimulsion spill, combined containment and recovery, dispersed Orimulsion, and beach cleaning are addressed. The properties of Orimulsion are tabulated. (UK)

  15. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    Aitken, S.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilcox, D.P. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  16. Radioactive waste processing container

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  17. Material containment enclosure

    Carlson, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    An isolation enclosure and a group of isolation enclosures are described which are useful when a relatively large containment area is required. The enclosure is in the form of a ring having a section removed so that a technician may enter the center area of the ring. In a preferred embodiment, an access zone is located in the transparent wall of the enclosure and extends around the inner perimeter of the ring so that a technician can insert his hands into the enclosure to reach any point within. The inventive enclosures provide more containment area per unit area of floor space than conventional material isolation enclosures. 3 figures

  18. Silja Line'i müük Tallinkile otsustamisel / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Silja Line'i omanikfirma Sea Containers otsustab sel kuul, kas müüa Silja Line. Eesti Päevalehe andmeil on Tallinki ja Sea Containersi esindajate vahel olnud jutuks Silja Line'i võimalik omandamine. Lisa: Viking Line'ist võib saada Eesti firma

  19. Columbia River ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points and lines representing human-use resource data for Columbia River. In the data set, vector points represent aquaculture sites,...

  20. Basic Stand Alone Medicare DME Line Items PUF

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Durable Medical Equipment (DME) Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare DME claims. The...

  1. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent...

  2. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  3. Western Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, mining sites, area boundaries, and scenic rivers in Western Alaska. Vector points and lines in this data...

  4. Western Alaska ESI: STREAMS (River and Stream Lines)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines representing inland linear hydrography features used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western...

  5. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Long Island,...

  6. North Slope, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the North...

  7. Columbia River ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Columbia...

  8. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the Bristol...

  9. Pentacyclic triterpenoids with nitrogen- and sulfur-containing heterocycles: synthesis and medicinal significance

    Kvasnica, Miroslav; Urban, M.; Dickinson, N.J.; Sarek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 9 (2015), s. 1303-1330 ISSN 0265-0568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-08202Y; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : BETULINIC ACID-DERIVATIVES * C-LACTAM DERIVATIVES * OLEANOLIC ACID Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 10.986, year: 2015

  10. The retention of iodine in stainless steel sample lines

    Evans, G.J.; Deir, C. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Ball, J.M. [Whiteshell Laboratories, Pinawa (Canada)

    1995-02-01

    Following an accident in a multi-unit CANDU nuclear generating station, decontamination of air vented from containment would play a critical role in minimizing the release of iodine to the environment. The concentration of gas phase iodine in containment air would be measured using the post accident radiation monitoring system, requiring that air samples be passed through a considerable length of tubing to a remote location where the desired measurements could safely be made. A significant loss of iodine, due to adsorption on the sample line surfaces, could greatly distort the measurement. In this study, the retention of I{sub 2}(g) on stainless steel was evaluated in bench scale experiments in order to evaluate, and if possible minimise, the extent of any such line losses. Experiments at the University of Toronto were performed using 6 inch lengths of 1/4 inch stainless steel tubing. Air, containing I-131 labelled I{sub 2}(g), ranging in concentration from 10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}6} mol/dm{sup 3} and relative humidity (:RH) from 20 to 90 %, was passed through tubing samples maintained at temperatures ranging from 25 to 90{degrees}C. Adsorption at low gas phase iodine concentrations differed substantially from that at higher concentrations. The rate of deposition was proportional to the gas phase concentration, giving support to the concept of a first order deposition velocity. The surface loading increased with increasing relative humidity, particularly at low RH values, while the deposition rate decreased with increasing temperature. Surface water on the steel may play an important role in the deposition process. The chemisorbed iodine was located primarily in areas of corrosion. Furthermore, water used to wash the steel contained Fe, Mn and iodine in the form of iodide, suggesting that I{sub 2} reacted to form metal iodides. The deposition of I{sub 2} was also found to depend on the initial surface condition.

  11. Containment heat removal system

    Wade, G.E.; Barbanti, G.; Gou, P.F.; Rao, A.S.; Hsu, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear system of a type including a containment having a nuclear reactor therein, the nuclear reactor including a pressure vessel and a core in the pressure vessel, the system. It comprises a gravity pool of coolant disposed at an elevation sufficient to permit a flow of coolant into the nuclear reactor pressure vessel against a predetermined pressure within the nuclear reactor pressure vessel; means for reducing a pressure of steam in the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a value less than the predetermined pressure in the event of a nuclear accident, the means including a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel, the means further including steam heat dissipating means such dissipating means including a suppression pool; a supply of water in the suppression pool, there being a headspace in the suppression pool above the water supply; a substantial amount of air in the head space; means for feeding pressurized steam from the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a location under a surface of the supply of water, the supply of water being effective to absorb heat sufficient to reduce steam pressure below the predetermined pressure; and a check valve for communicating the headspace with the containment, the check valve being oriented to vent air in the headspace to the containment when a pressure in the headspace exceeds a pressure in the containment by a predetermined pressure differential

  12. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  13. Confinement contains condensates

    Brodsky, S. J.; Roberts, C. D.; Shrock, R.

    2012-01-01

    been viewed as constant empirical mass scales that fill all space-time, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical...

  14. Containers, facilitators, innovators?

    Makkonen, Teemu; Merisalo, Maria; Inkinen, Tommi

    2018-01-01

    : are they containers, facilitators or innovators? This is investigated here through empirical material derived from 27 interviews with top departmental management in three Finnish cities (Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa). The results show that local city governments (LCGs) consider cities as facilitators of innovation...

  15. Containing contraceptive costs

    April 2015, Vol. 105, No. 4. Containing contraceptive costs. There are about 7 billion people living on our planet. In many countries resources are strained and we seek to slow down the rate of population growth. There are obviously many factors that lead to rapid population growth. Contraceptive methods are an important.

  16. CONCRETE REACTOR CONTAINMENT

    Lumb, Ralph F.; Hall, William F.; Fruchtbaum, Jacob

    1963-06-15

    The results of various leak-rate tests demonstrate the practicality of concrete as primary containment for the maximum credible accident for a research reactor employing plate-type fuel and having a power in excess of one megawatt. Leak-test time was shortened substantially by measuring the relaxation time for overpressure decay, which is a function of leak rate. (auth)

  17. Reactor containing facility

    Akagawa, Katsuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    A cooling space having a predetermined capacity is formed between a reactor container and concrete walls. A circulation loop disposed to the outside of the concrete walls is connected to the top and the bottom of the cooling space. The circulation loop has a circulation pump and a heat exchanger, and a cooling water supply pipe is connected to the upstream of the circulation pump for introducing cooling water from the outside. Upon occurrence of loss of coolant accident, cooling water is introduced from the cooling water supply pipe to the cooling space between the reactor container and the concrete walls after shut-down of the reactor operation. Then, cooling water is circulated while being cooled by the heat exchanger, to cool the reactor container by cooling water flown in the cooling space. This can cool the reactor container in a short period of time upon occurrence of the loss of coolant accident. Accordingly, a repairing operation for a ruptured portion can be conducted rapidly. (I.N.)

  18. Modified Starch of Sorghum Mutant Line Zh-30 For High Fiber Muffin Products

    Santosa, D. D. S; Human, S

    2009-01-01

    Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induce sorghum genetic variation. Through selection processes in several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher grain yield than the original variety. Research on modified starch quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in food industry. Functionality of pregelatinized, hydroxypropyl and crosslinked starch of this mutant line (Mutant TexInstant 30) has been studied for its use in high fiber muffin products. Characteristics of high fiber muffins containing 1.50; 3.50 and 5.50% of Mutant Tex-Instant 30 replacement levels to wheat flour were evaluated using both sensory panel and physical test methods. With regard to the sensory parameters, the high fiber muffins containing 1.50 - 5.50 % Mutant Tex-Instant 30 in general were not significantly different compared to the standard reference muffin. Results of physical evaluations showed that all Mutant Tex-Instant 30 containing products retained more moisture during baking than the standard reference. Tenderness of all products decreased at similar rate following 24 and 48 hr of room temperature storage and seven days at freezer temperature. These results suggested that sorghum mutant line Zh-30 starch could be modified and potentially used in food industry as a subtitute of wheat flour (author)

  19. Modified Starch of Sorghum Mutant Line Zh-30 for High Fiber Muffin Products

    D.D.S. Santosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induce sorghum genetic variation. Through selection processes in several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher grain yield than the original variety. Research on modified starch quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in food industry. Functionality of pregelatinized, hydroxypropyl and crosslinked starch of this mutant line (Mutant TexInstant 30 has been studied for its use in high fiber muffin products. Characteristics of high fiber muffins containing 1.50; 3.50 and 5.50% of Mutant Tex-Instant 30 replacement levels to wheat flour were evaluated using both sensory panel and physical test methods. With regard to the sensory parameters, the high fiber muffins containing 1.50 - 5.50 % Mutant Tex-Instant 30 in general were not significantly different compared to the standard reference muffin. Results of physical evaluations showed that all Mutant Tex-Instant 30 containing products retained more moisture during baking than the standard reference. Tenderness of all products decreased at similar rate following 24 and 48 hr of room temperature storage and seven days at freezer temperature. These results suggested that sorghum mutant line Zh-30 starch could be modified and potentially used in food industry as a subtitute of wheat flour.

  20. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  1. Constancy of spectral-line bisectors

    Gray, D.F.

    1983-01-01

    Bisectors of spectral line profiles in cool stars indicate the strength of convection in the photospheres of these objects. The present investigation is concerned with the feasibility of studying time variations in line bisectors, the reality of apparent line-to-line differences within the same stellar spectrum, and bisector differences between stars of identical spectral types. The differences considered pertain to the shape of the bisector. The material used in the investigation was acquired at the McDonald Observatory using a 1728 diode Reticon array at the coudefocus of the 2.1-m telescope. Observed bisector errors are discussed. It is established that different lines in the same star show significantly different bisectors. The observed error bands are shown by the shaded regions. The slope and curvature are unique for each case

  2. A specialized bioengineering ion beam line

    Yu, L.D.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.; Sriprom, C.; Thongleurm, C.; Suwanksum, R.; Tondee, N.; Prakrajang, K.; Vilaithong, T.; Brown, I.G.; Wiedemann, H.

    2007-01-01

    A specialized bioengineering ion beam line has recently been completed at Chiang Mai University to meet rapidly growing needs of research and application development in low-energy ion beam biotechnology. This beam line possesses special features: vertical main beam line, low-energy (30 keV) ion beams, double swerve of the beam, a fast pumped target chamber, and an in-situ atomic force microscope (AFM) system chamber. The whole beam line is situated in a bioclean environment, occupying two stories. The quality of the ion beam has been studied. It has proved that this beam line has significantly contributed to our research work on low-energy ion beam biotechnology

  3. Transfection of wild type ADVP53 gene into human brain tumor cell lines has a radiosensitizing effect independent of apoptosis

    Geng, L.; Walter, S; Vaughan, A.T.M.

    1997-01-01

    mechanism of radiosensitization cells were examined for the presence of apoptosis after transfection. In both T98G and U87MG cell lines containing either βgal, Advp53, or after irradiation of control or Advβgal containing cells, a slight increase in apoptosis over base line was seen which in no case exceeded 5%. Irradiation in the presence of the Advp53 vector produced significantly greater apoptosis, 40.8 ± 1.5% after 1 day in the T98 line which returned to control levels by 4 days. In the U87MG line 10.9 ± 1.3% apoptosis was seen in the irradiated and Advp53 transfected line, not significantly different from an additive response of radiation and p53 vector effects alone. One day after irradiation all cells exhibited significant arrest in G 2 M phase. However the ability of Advp53 vector containing cells to undergo mitosis, as scored microscopically, was tenfold less than cells which were irradiated alone. Conclusion: Three conclusions can be drawn from these studies: 1) AdvP53 adenovirus vectors are cytotxic to human brain tumor cell lines through a mechanism that does not involve apoptosis 2) Irradiation of Advp53 transfected cell lines produces marked radiosensitization in both lines studied but a synergystic induction of apoptosis in the T98G line only, suggesting that apoptosis is also not the mechanism of radiosensitization in these lines. 3) The marked reduction in mitotic figures seen after irradiation of Advp53 transfected lines suggests the mechanism of radiosensitization involves an inability to successfully exit from mitosis

  4. Delay line MWPC hazard signals inspector

    Turner, D.B.; Kirsten, F.; Guiragossian, Z.G.T.; Schilling, R.

    1976-01-01

    The Hazard Inspector is a CAMAC module which divides a MWPC delay line into 8 independent signal monitor and control segments. Independent control effectively reduces delay line occupation time and cuts the number of background and non-trigger particles accepted by the 4XQT charge-time-pulse-width digitizer, a device presented in a separate communication. Only segments containing legitimate information are digitized. Non-trigger related events are gated out at the digitizer, and contaminating hits are noted for computer correction

  5. Tangent Lines without Derivatives for Quadratic and Cubic Equations

    Carroll, William J.

    2009-01-01

    In the quadratic equation, y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c, the equation y = bx + c is identified as the equation of the line tangent to the parabola at its y-intercept. This is extended to give a convenient method of graphing tangent lines at any point on the graph of a quadratic or a cubic equation. (Contains 5 figures.)

  6. Along the line

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2011-01-01

    Embarking on a work of art constitutes a reduction of information – because we grasp the diversity and plurality of the manifestations we encounter by abstracting them and transforming them into manageable concepts; as we do when we draw contour lines on the landscape – they are imaginary...... and invisible but an abstraction essential for noting a difference or marking a place on a map. In the same way, a stroke in a sketch or a line in the sand is a manifestation of our ability to draw a boundary that both includes and excludes information. Where the line makes the birth of an idea visible......, it expresses through movement our tendency to mark a difference by drawing attention to and enclosing a whole series of relations that confront our preconceived notions. It is in the process of transformation in which we reduce the complexity of how we work, and rethink our ideas anew by refining the very same...

  7. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  8. Stokes line width

    Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point

  9. Seoul's greenbelt: an experiment in urban containment

    David N. Bengston; Youn Yeo-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Urban containment policies are considered by some to be a promising approach to growth management. The greenbelt-based urban containment policy of Seoul, Republic of Korea is examined as a case study. Seoul's greenbelt has generated both significant social costs and benefits. Korea's greenbelt policy is currently being revised, largely due to pressure from...

  10. Impact of process parameters and design options on heat leaks of straight cryogenic distribution lines

    P. Duda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Future Circular Collider (FCC accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar®—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.

  11. Impact of process parameters and design options on heat leaks of straight cryogenic distribution lines

    Duda, Pawel; Chorowski, Maciej Pawel; Polinski, J

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.

  12. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  13. Sprayed concrete linings

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  14. Analysis of genetic diversity among rapeseed cultivars and breeding lines by srap and ssr molecular markers

    Channa, S.A.; Tian, H.

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity is very important for developing new rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. The genetic diversity among 77 rapeseed accessions, including 22 varieties and 55 advanced breeding lines were analyzed by 47 sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and 56 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. A total of 270 SRAP and 194 SSR polymorphic fragments were detected with an average of 5.74 and 3.46 for SRAP and SSR primer, respectively. The cluster analysis grouped the 77 accessions into five major clusters. Cluster I contained spring and winter type varieties from Czech Republic and semi-winter varieties and their respective breeding lines from China. The 16 elite breeding lines discovered in Cluster II, III, IV and V indicated higher genetic distance than accessions in Cluster I. The principal component analysis and structure analysis exhibited similar results to the cluster analysis. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that genetic diversity of the selected breeding lines was comparable to the rapeseed varieties, and variation among varieties and lines was significant. The diverse and unique group of 16 elite breeding lines detected in this study can be utilized in the future breeding program as a source for development of commercial varieties with more desirable characters. (author)

  15. Development of a metallic high integrity container

    Haelsig, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear Packaging, a Pacific Nuclear Company, developed a metallic high integrity container (HIC) for the burial of low level radioactive waste. This class of container has received the most extensive review of any burial container licensed in the United States. It is also the first container that has been licensed to meet the requirements of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations 10CFR61. The design and subsequent review considered 300 years corrosion at a depth of 55 feet with no degradation of container structural integrity. The design also included a technical requirement that the container possess a positive vent that would exclude moisture. The alloy that was selected, allows for significant flexibility in container size and configuration which is essential to accommodating the various waste forms. This allowed the development of containers in various sizes and with a variety of closures, that accommodate the internal dimensions of various shipping shields and help minimize radiation exposure during packaging operations. The material used in the metallic container is high corrosion resistant which reduces the need for strict chemical controls at the waste generating facility. This acts to ease the operational requirements in the treatment of several waste streams. The design result is a family of metallic High Integrity Containers (HIC)s that meet all the performance criteria imposed by the regulations, as well as provide a disposable waste container with good transportation efficiency and minimum operational constraints

  16. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    Dunn, K.

    2004-01-01

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container

  17. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  18. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  19. Inductive line energy storage generator

    Choi, P [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1997-12-31

    The inductive energy storage (IES) generator has long been considered to be the most efficient system for energy usage in large pulsed power system at the MA level. A number of parameters govern the efficiency of energy transfer between the storage capacitors and the load, and the level of current deliverable to the load. For high power system, the energy storage capacitors are arranged as a Marx generator. The primary constraints are the inductances in the various parts of the circuit, in particular, the upstream inductance between the Marx and the POS, and the downstream inductance between the POS and the load. This paper deals with the effect of replacing part of the upstream inductance with a transmission line and introduces the new concept of an inductive line for energy storage (ILES). Extensive parametric scans were carried out on circuit simulations to investigate the effect of this upstream transmission line. A model was developed to explain the operation of the ILES design based on the data obtained. Comparison with an existing IES generator shows that the ILES design offers a significant improvement in the maximum current and hence energy delivered to an inductive load. (author). 5 figs., 1 ref.

  20. Assessing the significance of Heidegger's Black Notebooks

    J. Malpas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The publication of Heidegger's Black Notebooks (Schwarze Hefte has provoked a storm of controversy. Much of this has centred on the pro-Nazi and anti-Semitic comments the volumes contain. But these aspects of the Notebooks are perhaps the least surprising and important. This essay offers a summary overview of the issues to which the Notebooks give rise, at the same time as it also aims to provide a preliminary assessment of their overall significance, especially in relation to what they show about the nature and development of Heidegger's thinking from the early 1930s to the late 1940s.

  1. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivaties in perfumes

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    in perfumes/aftershaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. RESULTS: 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol...... was not detected in any of the investigated products. CONCLUSIONS: Isoeugenyl acetate is present in perfumes/aftershaves, in some products in significant amounts. This may lead to elicitation of contact allergy in isoeugenol-sensitized individuals and may contribute to unchanged levels of isoeugenol sensitization....

  2. Reactor container facility

    Saito, Takashi; Nagasaka, Hideo.

    1990-01-01

    A dry-well pool for spontaneously circulating stored pool water and a suppression pool for flooding a pressure vessel by feeding water, when required, to a flooding gap by means of spontaneous falling upto the flooding position, thereby flooding the pressure vessel are contained at the inside of a reactor container. Thus, when loss of coolant accidents such as caused by main pipe rupture accidents should happen, pool water in the suppression pool is supplied to the flooding gap by spontaneously falling. Further, if the flooding water uprises exceeding a predetermined level, the flooding gap is in communication with the dry-well pool at the upper and the lower portions respectively. Accordingly, flooding water at high temperature heated by the after-heat of the reactor core is returned again into the flooding gap to cool the reactor core repeatedly. (T.M.)

  3. Nuclear reactor container

    Fujimoto, Kiyoshi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio; Fujii, Tadashi; Susuki, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    A wet well space above a pressure suppression pool is divided into a first wet well on the side in contact with the pressure suppression pool and a second wet well on the side not in contact with the pool. Cooling water is contained in the second wet well and it is in communication with the first wet well by pipelines. Since steams flown into the second well are condensed in the cooling water, they continuously transfer from the first wet well to the second wet well, thereby capable of eliminating the effects of incondensible gases in the first wet well. With such procedures, the effect of the incondensible gases can be eliminated even without cooling from the outside of the reactor. Heat accumulation can be increased in a container of any material, so that thermal load on cooling circuits for removing after-heat can be mitigated. (T.M.)

  4. Nuclear steam system containment

    Jabsen, F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved containment used for radiation shielding and pressure suppression comprising a dry well includes a pressure vessel, a plurality of concentric wall means, said plurality of concentric wall means defining at least three annular regions about said dry well. A first annular region provides the containment used for radiation shielding, a second annular region is substantially dry, a third annular region provides a wet well for relieving fluid pressure released from the pressure vessel into the dry well. Pipe connection means extend in the wet well from the dry well, a pool of liquid is disposed to partially fill said third annular region, the upper end portion of the second and third annular regions having an enclosure, and a plurality of baffle plates extending vertically downward from said enclosure in said third annular region into said pool of liquid so as to circumferentially divide the upper portion of said third annular region into a plurality of circumferential upper portions

  5. Steel containment buckling

    Bennett, J.G.; Fly, G.W.; Baker, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Steel Containment Buckling program is in its fourth phase of work directed at the evaluation of the effects of the structural failure mode of steel containments when the membrane stresses are compressive. The structural failure mode for this state of stress is instability or buckling. The program to date has investigated: (1) the effect on overall buckling capacity of the ASME area replacement method for reinforcing around circular penetrations; (2) a set of benchmark experiments on ring-stiffened shells having reinforced and framed penetrations; (3) large and small scale experiments on knuckle region buckling from internal pressure and post-buckling behavior to failure for vessel heads having torispherical geometries; and (4) buckling under time-dependent loadings (dynamic buckling). The first two investigations are complete, the knuckle buckling experimental efforts are complete with data analysis and reporting in progress, and the dynamic buckling experimental and analytical work is in progress

  6. BWR steel containment corrosion

    Tan, C.P.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes regulatory actions taken after corrosion was discovered in the drywell at the Oyster Creek Plant and in the torus at the Nine Mile Point 1 Plant. The report describes the causes of corrosion, requirements for monitoring corrosion, and measures to mitigate the corrosive environment for the two plants. The report describes the issuances of generic letters and information notices either to collect information to determine whether the problem is generic or to alert the licensees of similar plants about the existence of such a problem. Implementation of measures to enhance the containment performance under severe accident conditions is discussed. A study by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the performance of a degraded containment under severe accident conditions is summarized. The details of the BNL study are in the appendix to the report.

  7. Observations on analysis, testing and failure of prestressed concrete containments

    Murray, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper reviews the mechanics which indicate that a bursting failure with large energy release is the failure mechanism to be expected from ductile lined containment structures pressurized to failure. It reviews a study which shows that, because of leakage, this is not the case for unlined prestressed containments. It argues that current practice, since it does not specifically address the bursting failure problem for lined prestressed containments, is inadequate to ensure that this type of failure could not occur. It concludes that, in view of the inadequacy of the current state-of-the-art to predict leakage from lined structures, the logical remedy is to eliminate all possibility of bursting failure by making provision for venting of containments. (orig.)

  8. Modeling and interpretation of line observations*

    Kamp Inga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Models for the interpretation of line observations from protoplanetary disks are summarized. The spectrum ranges from 1D LTE slab models to 2D thermo-chemical radiative transfer models and their use depends largely on the type/nature of observational data that is analyzed. I discuss the various types of observational data and their interpretation in the context of disk physical and chemical properties. The most simple spatially and spectral unresolved data are line fluxes, which can be interpreted using so-called Boltzmann diagrams. The interpretation is often tricky due to optical depth and non-LTE effects and requires care. Line profiles contain kinematic information and thus indirectly the spatial origin of the emission. Using series of line profiles, we can for example deduce radial temperature gradients in disks (CO pure rotational ladder. Spectro-astrometry of e.g. CO ro-vibrational line profiles probes the disk structure in the 1–30 AU region, where planet formation through core accretion should be most efficient. Spatially and spectrally resolved line images from (submm interferometers are the richest datasets we have to date and they enable us to unravel exciting details of the radial and vertical disk structure such as winds and asymmetries.

  9. ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING in a CLOTHING COMPANY

    HASNALCACI Kubra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Assembly lines take the attention of researchers and companies because of its great effect on efficiency. Efficiency in assembly lines has an important role on cost and quality which are the basic fundamentals of competition. Assembly lines contain a number of workstations and tasks (jobs are processed in these stations and are moved from station to station. The tasks are assigned to each station regarding a cycle time. The cycle time is the maximum available time for the production of a job at any workstation. The assingning of jobs to workstations is based on the objective of minimizing the workflow among the workstations, reducing the throughput time as well as the work in progress and thus increasing productivity. If the jobs are not allocated in balance, this will cause idle workstations and waste of workforce besides the loss of overall efficiency. In this study, an assebly line balancing problem was examined for a five pocket denim trousers in a clothing company. Firstly, priority associations and standard durations of operations of denim trousers were determined. Then, assembly line balancing study was carried out by using ranked positional weights assembly line balancing method developed by Helgeson and Birnie to increase the production in a clothing company manufacturing five pocket denim trousers.

  10. Container for centrifuging blood

    Narra, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    A container is described for use in drawing patient's blood, centrifuging the blood and then labelling the separated red cells with sup(99m)Tc. It consists of a tube with a central chamber and a lower portion provided with an aperture in which a weir is supported and extends into the central chamber. The weir has a central channel. A resilient plug seals the aperture. (author)

  11. Hydrogen storage container

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  12. Nuclear reactor container

    Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1988-01-01

    Cables coverd with non-halogen covering material are used as electric wire cables wired for supplying electric power to a reactor recycling pump. Silicone rubber having specified molecular formula is used for the non-halogen covering material. As a result, formation of chlorine in a nuclear reactor container can be eliminated and increase in the deposited salts to SUS pipeways, etc. can be prevented, to avoid the occurrence of stress corrosion cracks. (H.T.)

  13. NPP Krsko containment environmental conditions during postulated accident

    Kozaric, M.; Cavlina, N.; Spalj, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents NPP Krsko containment pressure and temperature increase during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Main Steam Line Break (MSLB). Containment environmental condition calculation was performed by CONTEMPT4/MOD4 computer code. Design accident calculations were performed by RELAP4/MOD6 and RELAP5/MOD1 computer codes. Calculational abilities and application methodology of these codes are presented. The CONTEMPT code is described in more detail. The containment pressure and temperature time distribution are presented as well. (author)

  14. The Wilson-Bappu effect of the MgII k line - dependence on stellar temperature, activity and metallicity

    Elgaroy, O.; Engvold, O.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    widths around the regression lines. The sample contains slowly rotating stars of different activity levels and is suitable for investigations of a possible relation between line width and stellar activity. A difference in behavior between dwarfs and giants (and supergiants) of spectral class K seems......The Wilson-Bappu effect is investigated using accurate absolute magnitudes of 65 stars obtained through early release of data from the Hipparcos satellite together with MgII k fine widths determined from high resolution spectra observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observatory....... Stars of spectral classes F, G, K and M and luminosity classes I-V are represented in the sample. Wilson-Bappu relations for the Mg II k line for stars of different temperatures i.e. spectral classes are determined. The relation varies with spectral class and there is a significant scatter of the line...

  15. Lip line preference for variant face types.

    Anwar, Nabila; Fida, Mubassar

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effect of altered lip line on attractiveness and to find preferred lip line for vertical face types in both genders. Cross-sectional analytical study. The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from May to July 2009. Photographs of two selected subjects were altered to produce three face types for the same individual with the aim of keeping the frame of the smile constant. Lip line was then altered for both the subjects as: both dentitions visible, upper incisors visible, upper incisors and 2 mm gum and 4 mm gum visible. The pictures were rated by different professionals for attractiveness. Descriptive statistics for the raters and multiple factor ANOVA was used to find the most attractive lip line. The total number of raters was 100 with the mean age of 30.3 ± 8 years. The alterations in the smile parameters produced statistically significant difference in the attractiveness of faces, whereas the perception difference was found to be insignificant amongst raters of different professions. Preferred lip line was the one showing only the upper incisors in dolico and mesofacial male and female genders whereas 2 mm gum show was preferred in brachyfacial subjects. The variability in lip line showed significant difference in the perceived attractiveness. Preferred lip lines as the one showing only the upper incisors in dolico and mesofacial male and female genders whereas 2 mm gum show was preferred in brachyfacial subjects.

  16. Containment structure tendon investigation

    Fulton, J.F.; Murray, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation into the possible causes of lower-than-predicted tendon forces which were measured during past tendon surveillances for a concrete containment. The containment is post tensioned by vertical tendons which are anchored into a rock foundation. The tendons were originally stressed in 1969, and lift-off tests were performed on six occasions subsequent to this date over a period of 11 years. The tendon forces measured in these tests were generally lower than predicted, and by 1979 the prestress level in the containment was only marginally above the design requirement. The tendons were retensioned in 1980, and by this time an investigation into the possible causes was underway. Potential causes investigated include the rock anchors and surrounding rock, elastomeric pad creep, wire stresses, thermal effects, stressing equipment and lift-off procedures, and wire stress relaxation. The investigation activities included stress relaxation testing of wires pulled from actual tendons. The stress relaxation test program included wire specimens at several different temperature and initial stress levels and the effect of a varying temperature history on the stress relaxation property of the wires. For purpose of future force predictions of the retensioned tendons, the test program included tests to determine the effect on stress relaxation due to restressing the wires after they had relaxed for 1000 hours and 10,000 hours. (orig./GL)

  17. Nuclear reactor container

    Fukui, Tooru; Murase, Michio; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Hidaka, Masataka; Sumita, Isao; Tominaga, Kenji.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor container, a chamber in communication with a wet well of a pressure suppression chamber is disposed and situated to such a position that the temperature is lower than a chamber containing pool water upon occurrence of loss of coolant accident. In addition, the inner surface of the pressure suppression chamber is constituted with steel walls in contact with pool water, and an outer circumferential pool is disposed at the outer circumferential surface thereof. Further, a circulation channel is disposed, and a water intake port is disposed at a position higher than an exit to the pool water, and a water discharge port is opened in the pool water at a position lower than the exit to the pool water. With such a constitution, the allowable temperature of the pressure suppression pool water can be elevated to a saturated steam temperature corresponding to the resistant pressure of the container, so that the temperature difference between the pressure suppression pool and the outer side thereof is increased by so much, to improve thermal radiation performance. Accordingly, it can be utilized as a pressure suppression means for a plant of greater power. Further, thermal conduction efficiency from the pool water region of the pressure suppression chamber to the outer circumferential pool water is improved, or thermal radiation area is enlarged due to the circulation channel, to improve the heat radiation performance. (N.H.)

  18. Container for liquid metal

    Abe, Yoshihito; Imazu, Takayuki; Ueda, Sabuo; Ueya, Katsumi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To arrange a vapor trapping member of a specific structure at the inlet part of a cylindrical gap formed by the inner peripheral surface of the circular opening of a container and the outer peripheral surface of a rotary plug thereby to prevent ingress of vapor in the upper part of the cylindrical gap for a long period of time. Constitution: A sealing material receiving tray is fitted to the container side of the inlet part of a cylindrical gap, and a partition plate is fitted to the rotary plug side. The tray is filled with a sealing material consisting of a large number of steel balls, mesh wire gages and the like, and the partition plate is placed in the tray thereby to carry out sealing of the container. Liquid metal vapor evaporating from the liquid level of the liquid metal adheres to the sealing material to fill the gap, and therefore ingress of vapor to the upper part of the cylindrical gap is prevented, and there is no possibility of causing seal cutting due to the use for a long period. (Sekiya, K.)

  19. The significance of vector magnetic field measurements

    Hagyard, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of four flaring solar active regions, obtained during 1980-1986 with the NASA Marshall vector magnetograph (Hagyard et al., 1982 and 1985), are presented graphically and characterized in detail, with reference to nearly simultaneous Big Bear Solar Observatory and USAF ASW H-alpha images. It is shown that the flares occurred where local photospheric magnetic fields differed most from the potential field, with initial brightening on either side of a magnetic-neutral line near the point of maximum angular shear (rather than that of maximum magnetic-field strength, typically 1 kG or greater). Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that these significant nonpotential features were detected only by measuring all three components of the vector magnetic field.

  20. The historical significance of oak

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  1. Product line design

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  2. K-line photometry

    Henry, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is given of more than a decade of work involving measurement of the strength of the K line of calcium in A-type stars. The effects of interstellar reddening are reexamined, and an improved estimate for the range in calcium abundance among field stars is obtained. (Auth.)

  3. SAF line pellet gaging

    Jedlovec, D.R.; Bowen, W.W.; Brown, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Automated and remotely controlled pellet inspection operations will be utilized in the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. A prototypic pellet gage was designed and tested to verify conformance to the functions and requirements for measurement of diameter, surface flaws and weight-per-unit length

  4. Bike Map Lines

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...

  5. Drawing the Line

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2016-01-01

    of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...

  6. Developing Green Line Products

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  7. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-03-01

    The magnetic field line Hamiltonian and the associated canonical form for the magnetic field are important concepts both for understanding toroidal plasma physics and for practical calculations. A number of important properties of the canonical or Hamiltonian representation are derived and their importance is explained

  8. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  9. Lined canvas paintings

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely...

  10. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  11. Labelling subway lines

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  12. Subjective poverty line definitions

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  13. Building with a Line

    Hubbert, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Architecture is a versatile, multifaceted area to study in the artroom with multiple age levels. It can easily stimulate a study of basic line, shape, and various other art elements and principles. It can then be extended into a more extensive study of architectural elements, styles, specific architects, architecture of different cultures, and…

  14. Biosynthesis: Reprogramming assembly lines

    Menon, Binuraj R. K.; Jenner, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Rational engineering of biosynthetic assembly lines for production of new compounds is an attractive prospect, yet it presents many challenges. Learning from biology, some of the rules for expanding the chemical diversity of non-ribosomal peptides have been uncovered in two recent studies.

  15. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined

  16. Defining line replaceable units

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  17. Stitch and hem and line and flight

    Thorp, John Daniel

    contain is a love song with a one-note melody, no instrumentation and no meter. A love song so long as a love song marks a missing person. Each paragraph is composed from a number of radiating lines that cross and pattern as sound, as image, and as a content. Lines that, when they intersect, are triangulating the assemblage of a proliferating and shifting continent. So a line of text might contain narcotics, a desert, a(nti)theism or grass or a curtain, a child, things that no longer fly, a tower: a line can be what it says, a line can be an idea had or put down. And a line can be a stripe of letters all standing on their feet, sharing a baselines across the page; or a pen dragged across paper: a line can be an image, or part of making one. And when spelled or sounded, a line is a person's name, how that person came to that name and how that name emits or omits itself as a word from a landscape that a person is unwilling to inhabit. A line like this is an escape route that won't lead to any havens, but will hide a body.

  18. Containment Modelling with the ASTEC Code

    Sadek, Sinisa; Grgic, Davor

    2014-01-01

    ASTEC is an integral computer code jointly developed by Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN, France) and Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS, Germany) to assess the nuclear power plant behaviour during a severe accident (SA). It consists of 13 coupled modules which compute various SA phenomena in primary and secondary circuits of the nuclear power plants (NPP), and in the containment. The ASTEC code was used to model and to simulate NPP behaviour during a postulated station blackout accident in the NPP Krsko, a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant. The primary system of the plant was modelled with 110 thermal hydraulic (TH) volumes, 113 junctions and 128 heat structures. The secondary system was modelled with 76 TH volumes, 77 junctions and 87 heat structures. The containment was modelled with 10 TH volumes by taking into account containment representation as a set of distinctive compartments, connected with 23 junctions. A total of 79 heat structures were used to simulate outer containment walls and internal steel and concrete structures. Prior to the transient calculation, a steady state analysis was performed. In order to achieve correct plant initial conditions, the operation of regulation systems was modelled. Parameters which were subjected to regulation were the pressurizer pressure, the pressurizer narrow range level and steam mass flow rates in the steam lines. The accident analysis was focused on containment behaviour, however the complete integral NPP analysis was carried out in order to provide correct boundary conditions for the containment calculation. During the accident, the containment integrity was challenged by release of reactor system coolant through degraded coolant pump seals and, later in the accident following release of the corium out of the reactor pressure vessel, by the molten corium concrete interaction and direct containment heating mechanisms. Impact of those processes on relevant

  19. Quaternary Fault Lines

    Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains locations and information on faults and associated folds in the United States that are believed to be sources of M>6 earthquakes during the...

  20. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  1. Kuosheng Mark III containment analyses using GOTHIC

    Lin, Ansheng, E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw; Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Kuosheng Mark III containment model is established using GOTHIC. • Containment pressure and temperature responses due to LOCA are presented. • The calculated results are all below the design values and compared with the FSAR results. • The calculated results can be served as an analysis reference for an SPU project in the future. -- Abstract: Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan is a twin-unit BWR/6 plant, and both units utilize the Mark III containment. Currently, the plant is performing a stretch power uprate (SPU) project to increase the core thermal power to 103.7% OLTP (original licensed thermal power). However, the containment response in the Kuosheng Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was completed more than twenty-five years ago. The purpose of this study is to establish a Kuosheng Mark III containment model using the containment program GOTHIC. The containment pressure and temperature responses under the design-basis accidents, which are the main steam line break (MSLB) and the recirculation line break (RCLB) accidents, are investigated. Short-term and long-term analyses are presented in this study. The short-term analysis is to calculate the drywell peak pressure and temperature which happen in the early stage of the LOCAs. The long-term analysis is to calculate the peak pressure and temperature of the reactor building space. In the short-term analysis, the calculated peak drywell to wetwell differential pressure is 140.6 kPa for the MSLB, which is below than the design value of 189.6 kPa. The calculated peak drywell temperature is 158 °C, which is still below the design value of 165.6 °C. In addition, in the long-term analysis, the calculated peak containment pressure is 47 kPa G, which is below the design value of 103.4 kPa G. The calculated peak values of containment temperatures are 74.7 °C, which is lower than the design value of 93.3 °C. Therefore, the Kuosheng Mark III containment can maintain the integrity after

  2. Predicting for activity of second-line trastuzumab-based therapy in her2-positive advanced breast cancer

    Rottenfusser Andrea

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Her2-positive advanced breast cancer, the upfront use of trastuzumab is well established. Upon progression on first-line therapy, patients may be switched to lapatinib. Others however remain candidates for continued antibody treatment (treatment beyond progression. Here, we aimed to identify factors predicting for activity of second-line trastuzumab-based therapy. Methods Ninety-seven patients treated with > 1 line of trastuzumab-containing therapy were available for this analysis. Her2-status was determined by immunohistochemistry and re-analyzed by FISH if a score of 2+ was gained. Time to progression (TTP on second-line therapy was defined as primary study endpoint. TTP and overall survival (OS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method. Multivariate analyses (Cox proportional hazards model, multinomial logistic regression were applied in order to identify factors associated with TTP, response, OS, and incidence of brain metastases. p values Results Median TTP on second-line trastuzumab-based therapy was 7 months (95% CI 5.74-8.26, and 8 months (95% CI 6.25-9.74 on first-line, respectively (n.s.. In the multivariate models, none of the clinical or histopthological features could reliably predict for activity of second-line trastuzumab-based treatment. OS was 43 months suggesting improved survival in patients treated with trastuzumab in multiple-lines. A significant deterioration of cardiac function was observed in three patients; 40.2% developed brain metastases while on second-line trastuzumab or thereafter. Conclusion Trastuzumab beyond progression showed considerable activity. None of the variables investigated correlated with activity of second-line therapy. In order to predict for activity of second-line trastuzumab, it appears necessary to evaluate factors known to confer trastuzumab-resistance.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Solids loading evaluation for HB-line scrap recovery filters

    Crowder, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The HB-Line Scrap Recovery facility uses wire screen filters to remove solids from plutonium-containing solutions transferred from the slab tank dissolvers. At times, the accumulation of solids is large enough to cause blinding (i.e., pluggage) of the filters. If the solids contain undissolved plutonium, significant accumulation of fissile material could impact operations. To address this potential issue, experiments were performed to define the minimum solids required to completely blind a filter. The solids loading experiments were performed by arranging 25- and 10-microm HB-Line filters in series to simulate the equipment in the scrap recovery process. Separate tests were performed using coarse and fine glass frit and cerium oxide powder suspended in 35 wt% sodium nitrate solution using a small turbine mixer. The solution and solids were transferred from a reservoir through the filter housings by vacuum. In each case, the 25-microm filter blinded first and was full of wet cake. After drying and accounting for the sodium nitrate in the filter cake, the following results were obtained. The results of the solids loading tests demonstrated that at least 800 g of solids accumulated in the filter housing before flow stopped. The actual amount of collected material was dependent upon the physical properties of the solids such as density and particle size. The mass of solids collected by the blinded 25-microm filter increased when successively finer solids were used in the experiments. Based on these results, one should anticipate that filters in the HB-Line Scrap Recovery Facility have the potential to collect similar quantities of material before transfer of solution from the dissolvers is severely impacted

  7. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  8. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  9. Assessing the Attractiveness of Ports in the North European Container Transhipment Market: An Agenda for Future Research in Port Competition

    Koi Yu (Adolf) Ng

    2006-01-01

    Persistent development in global trade has significantly increased the demand for liner shipping, of which the industry is now being characterised by larger vessel size, comprehensive geographical coverage and frequent restructuring of shipping lines like transhipment. In turn, this has led to tense port competition, and port attractiveness is playing a pivotal role in this aspect. Understanding this and using container transhipment as a case study, this paper investigates the attractiveness ...

  10. Broad line regions in Seyfert-1 galaxies

    Groningen, E. van.

    1984-01-01

    To reproduce observed emission profiles of Seyfert galaxies, rotation in an accretion disk has been proposed. In this thesis, the profiles emitted by such an accretion disk are investigated. Detailed comparison with the observed profiles yields that a considerable fraction can be fitted with a power-law function, as predicted by the model. The author analyzes a series of high quality spectra of Seyfert galaxies, obtained with the 2.5m telescope at Las Campanas. He presents detailed analyses of two objects: Mkn335 and Akn120. In both cases, strong evidence is presented for the presence of two separate broad line zones. These zones are identified with an accretion disk and an outflowing wind. The disk contains gas with very high densities and emits predominantly the lower ionization lines. He reports on the discovery of very broad wings beneath the strong forbidden line 5007. (Auth.)

  11. Covariance Estimation and Autocorrelation of NORAD Two-Line Element Sets

    Osweiler, Victor P

    2006-01-01

    This thesis investigates NORAD two-line element sets (TLE) containing satellite mean orbital elements for the purpose of estimating a covariance matrix and formulating an autocorrelation relationship...

  12. Containment condensing heat transfer

    Gido, R.G.; Koestel, A.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents a mechanistic heat-transfer model that is valid for large scale containment heat sinks. The model development is based on the determination that the condensation is controlled by mass diffusion through the vapor-air boundary layer, and the application of the classic Reynolds' analogy to formulate expressions for the transfer of heat and mass based on hydrodynamic measurements of the momentum transfer. As a result, the analysis depends on the quantification of the shear stress (momentum transfer) at the interface between the condensate film and the vapor-air boundary layer. In addition, the currently used Tagami and Uchida test observations and their range of applicability are explained

  13. Containment integrity analysis for the (W) advanced AP600

    Gagnon, A.F.; Howe, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that since 1987, Westinghouse has been performing containment cooling analyses in support of the Advanced AP600 plant design. This program was intended to verify the feasibility of the passive containment cooling system features of the AP600 design. To support this design, containment analyses of the AP600 containment for a large break LOCA and a large Steam Line Break were performed. The transient results indicate the feasibility of the passive containment design by demonstrating the capability to remove sufficient heat to limit containment atmosphere conditions to within acceptable limits following these postulated accidents. These results also indicate that the PCCS can reduce containment pressure to less than one-quarter design pressure at 24 hours following the most severe accident scenario thereby minimizing containment leakage concerns

  14. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  15. New Trends in on-line Marketing

    Palkovič, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with new trend of internet marketing, it focuses especially on viral marketing. The theoretical part charasterizes the process of viral campaigns, furthermore deals with the components and aspects of on-line environment. Another separated chapter presents social networks, their place in viral marketing and at last but not least the viral video making process. The practical part contains different analyses of specific viral campaigns. The next and equally the last pa...

  16. Stoicism and politics: lines of confrontation

    José SOLANA DUESO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that there is a sharp opposition in Stoicism between two lines of polit cal thought: the opposition has its source in the abstract and utopian Zeno´s Politeia. This work would contain incentives for different and opposing developments that probably, materialize?, probably, in Persaois of Kition and Sphaerus of Borysthenes first, secondly, then in Diogenes of Babylon and Antipater of Tarsus, and, finally, in Panaetius of Rhodes and Blossius of Cumae.

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Nuclear reactor container

    Moriyama, Takeo; Ochiai, Kanehiro; Niino, Tsuyoshi; Kodama, Toyokazu; Hirako, Shizuka.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain structures suitable to a container structures for nuclear power plants used in those districts where earthquakes occur frequently, in which no local stresses are caused to the fundamental base portions and the workability for the fundamental structures is improved. Constitution: Basic stabilizers are attached to a nuclear reactor container (PCV) and a basic concrete recess for receiving a basic stabilizer is disposed in basic concretes. A top stabilizer is joined and fixed to a top stabilizer receiving plate at the inside of an outer shielding wall. On the other hand, a PCV top recess for conducting the load of PCV to the top stabilizer is attached to the top of the PCV. By disposing stabilizer structures allowing miner displacements at the two points, that is, the top and the lowermost portion of the PCV, no local stress concentrations can be generated to the extension on the axial direction of components due to the inner pressure of the PCV and to the horizontal load applied to the upper portion of the PCV upon earthquakes. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Definition of containment issues

    Walker, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Public Law 96-567 Nuclear Safety Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1980, directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide an accelerated and coordinated program for developing practical generic improvements that would enhance the capability for safe, reliable and economical operation of Light Water Nuclear Reactor Power Stations. The DOE approach to defining such a program will consist of two phases, (1) definition of program requirements and (2) implementation of the program plan. This paper summarizes the results of the program definition phase for the containment integrity function. The definition phase effort was carried out by two groups of knowledgeable technical experts from the nuclear industry, one of which addressed containment integrity. Tabulated in the paper are the issues identified by the working groups and their associated priorities. Also tabulated are those high priority issues for which ongoing programs do not appear to provide sufficient information to resolve the issue. The results of this review show that existing programs to a great extent address existing issues in a manner such that the issues should be resolved by the programs

  17. How Theories of Perception Deploy the Line: Reconfiguring Students' Bodies through Topo-Philosophy

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Elizabeth de Freitas follows Tim Ingold's groundbreaking anthropological work on lines and their cultural and material significance to argue that the line is the engine of theory, be it the drawn line of inscription or mathematical measure, the exclusionary line of delineation, or the undulating generative line of flight. De…

  18. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  19. Clinical significance of the fabella

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  20. Contact Line Dynamics

    Kreiss, Gunilla; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Ge, Anthony; Brant, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The conventional no-slip boundary condition leads to a non-integrable stress singularity at a moving contact line. This makes numerical simulations of two-phase flow challenging, especially when capillarity of the contact point is essential for the dynamics of the flow. We will describe a modeling methodology, which is suitable for numerical simulations, and present results from numerical computations. The methodology is based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact line velocity, with the similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface. The relation between angle and velocity can be determined by theoretical arguments, or from simulations using a more detailed model. In our approach we have used results from phase field simulations in a small domain, but using a molecular dynamics model should also be possible. In both cases more physics is included and the stress singularity is removed.

  1. Adaptive method of lines

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  2. Limit lines for risk

    Cox, D.C.; Baybutt, P.

    1982-01-01

    Approaches to the regulation of risk from technological systems, such as nuclear power plants or chemical process plants, in which potential accidents may result in a broad range of adverse consequences must take into account several different aspects of risk. These include overall or average risk, accidents posing high relative risks, the rate at which accident probability decreases with increasing accident consequences, and the impact of high frequency, low consequence accidents. A hypothetical complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF), with appropriately chosen parametric form, meets all these requirements. The Farmer limit line, by contrast, places limits on the risks due to individual accident sequences, and cannot adequately account for overall risk. This reduces its usefulness as a regulatory tool. In practice, the CCDF is used in the Canadian nuclear licensing process, while the Farmer limit line approach, supplemented by separate qualitative limits on overall risk, is employed in the United Kingdom

  3. Draw the Line!

    present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM......Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we....... The UPGEM research has previously been published in national reports from each of the partner countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland). In these individual national reports of universities as workplaces for male and female researchers we discuss scientific cultures in physics embedded...

  4. SLIA beam line design

    Petillo, J.; Chernin, D.; Kostas, C.; Mondelli, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Spiral Line Induction Accelerator (SLIA) is a multi-kiloampere compact electron accelerator. It uses linear induction accelerator modules on the straight sections of a racetrack spiral, with strong-focusing bends to recirculate the electrons. The strong focusing is provided by stellarator windings on the bends. Stellarator coils are used to provide the strong focusing on the bends. The matching of the electron beam from a diode through a series of accelerator modules and stellarator bends is a major issue in the design of this accelerator. The beam line design for a proof-of-concept SLIA experiment (10 kA, 7 MeV) to be carried out at Pulse Sciences, Inc. will be presented. The design will demonstrate beam matching from element to element in the focusing system, the design of an achromatic bend, and the requirements for avoiding collective instabilities

  5. 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes poster is one of two special edition posters for the Atlantic Hurricanes. This beautiful poster contains two sets of...

  6. Remote mechanical C line

    Nuttall, K.R.; Gardner, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company is developing a desk-top simulation based training program on the operation of the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line process in the Plutonium Finishing Plant on the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. Simulations display aod contioually update current values of system parameters on computer graphics of RMC line equipment. Students are able to operate a variety of controllers to maintain proper system status. Programmed faults, selectable by the course instructor, can be used to test student responses to off-normal events. Prior to operation of the simulation, students are given computer-based tutorials on the function, processes, operation, and error conditions associated with individual components. By including the capability of operating each individual component - valves, heaters, agitators, etc. - the computer-based training (CBT) lessons become an interactive training manual. From one perspective RMC represents one step in the diffusion of the well-known and well-documented simulator training activities for nuclear reactor operators to other training programs, equally critical, perhaps, but less well scrutinized in the past. Because of the slowly responding nature of the actual process, RMC can retain many of the capabilities of practice and testing in a simulated work environment while avoiding the cost of a full scale simulator and the exposure and waste developed by practice runs of the RMC line. From another perspective RMC suggests training advances even beyond the most faithful simulators. For example, by integrating CBT lessons with the simulation, RMC permits students to focus in on specific processes occurring inside chosen components. In effect, the interactive training manual is available on-line with the simulation itself. Cost are also discussed

  7. Pink-line syndrome

    Ravindran J.; Raghukumar, C.; Manikandan, B.

    , a physiological crisis in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea. Marine biology 149: 347-356 7. Ravindran J, Raghukumar C (2006a) Histological observations on the scleractinian coral Porites lutea affected by pink-line syndrome. Current science... handbook: guidelines for assessment and monitoring. Currie Communications, Melbourne, Australia, 94p+App 10. Vargas-Angel B, Wheeler B (2009) Coral health and disease assessment in the US Pacific territories and affiliated states. Proc. 11th Coral Reef...

  8. Line managers as marketers.

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.

  9. Gross Containment Leakage Monitoring System (GCLM) applied to accidental impairment of containment integrity determination

    Dinu, Camelia; Talpalariu, A.; Constantinescu, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues (NUREG-0933 of October 2006), section 1 task II.E.4 item II.E.4.3 recommends that a method of periodic or continuous testing has to be available, in order to detect unknown gross openings in the nuclear power plants containment structure. The Palisades incident and three other incidents are exemplified, when the reactor was operated for about 1.5 years, while the containment isolation valves in a purge system bypass line were unknowingly locked in the open position. It was estimated that the presence of a GCLM system could identify an unknown breach and reduce the expected unavailability of containment due to containment integrity breach events, to a 1.6x10 -3 /year demand. (authors)

  10. Ice condenser containment analysis with the GOTHIC code

    Yadon, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Analytical methodologies have recently been developed by Duke Power Company (Duke) to calculate the thermodynamic response of the ice condenser containment buildings at the McGuire and Catawba Nuclear Stations to high-energy line breaks. The GOTHIC computer code (Version 4.0) was utilized for these analyses. In the ice condenser containment design, a large mass of ice stored within the containment building is used to absorb the energy released from high-energy line breaks, thereby limiting the peak pressure and temperature in the containment building to within design limits. The McGuire and Catawba Nuclear Stations (both two-unit, 3411 MWth four-loop Westinghouse plants) are of the ice condenser containment design

  11. The significance of small streams

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  12. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  13. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  14. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  15. Analysis of large scale tests for AP-600 passive containment cooling system

    Sha, W.T.; Chien, T.H.; Sun, J.G.; Chao, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    One unique feature of the AP-600 is its passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is designed to maintain containment pressure below the design limit for 72 hours without action by the reactor operator. During a design-basis accident, i.e., either a loss-of-coolant or a main steam-line break accident, steam escapes and comes in contact with the much cooler containment vessel wall. Heat is transferred to the inside surface of the steel containment wall by convection and condensation of steam and through the containment steel wall by conduction. Heat is then transferred from the outside of the containment surface by heating and evaporation of a thin liquid film that is formed by applying water at the top of the containment vessel dome. Air in the annual space is heated by both convection and injection of steam from the evaporating liquid film. The heated air and vapor rise as a result of natural circulation and exit the shield building through the outlets above the containment shell. All of the analytical models that are developed for and used in the COMMIX-ID code for predicting performance of the PCCS will be described. These models cover governing conservation equations for multicomponents single phase flow, transport equations for the κ-ε two-equation turbulence model, auxiliary equations, liquid-film tracking model for both inside (condensate) and outside (evaporating liquid film) surfaces of the containment vessel wall, thermal coupling between flow domains inside and outside the containment vessel, and heat and mass transfer models. Various key parameters of the COMMIX-ID results and corresponding AP-600 PCCS experimental data are compared and the agreement is good. Significant findings from this study are summarized

  16. Nuclear reactor container

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1989-01-01

    Aerosol filters considered so far for nuclear reactor containers in conventional BWR type nuclear power plants make the facility larger and involve a risk of clogging. In view of the above, in the present invention, the diameter of a flow channel of gases entering from a bent pipe to a suppression pool is made smaller thereby decreasing the diameter of gas bubbles in the supperssional pool. Since this reduces the force of surface tension, the diameter of resulted gas bubbles is made remarkably smaller as compared with the case where the gases are released from the lower end of the bent pipe. Since the absorption velocity of bubble-entrained aerosols into water is in proportion to the square of the bubble diameter, the absorption efficiency can be increased remarkably by reducing the diameter of the gas bubbles. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the efficiency of eliminating radioactivity of released gases. (K.M.)

  17. AKAVI containment data report

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-08-01

    The AKAVI event was detonated in hole U2es of the Nevada Test Site as indicated. The device had a depth-of-burial (DOB) of 494 m in the Paintbrush Tuff of area 2, about 90 m above the standing water level and 300 m above the Paleozoic formation. Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver. Detonation time was 07:00 PST on December 3, 1981 and 103 minutes later a surface collapse occurred leaving a crater with mean radius of 90.5 m and maximum depth of 19.5 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the AKAVI containment was considered successful.

  18. AKAVI containment data report

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-08-01

    The AKAVI event was detonated in hole U2es of the Nevada Test Site as indicated. The device had a depth-of-burial (DOB) of 494 m in the Paintbrush Tuff of area 2, about 90 m above the standing water level and 300 m above the Paleozoic formation. Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes ampersand Narver. Detonation time was 07:00 PST on December 3, 1981 and 103 minutes later a surface collapse occurred leaving a crater with mean radius of 90.5 m and maximum depth of 19.5 m. No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the AKAVI containment was considered successful

  19. Plutonium waste container identification

    Schmierer, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the parameters of a method for identifying plutonium waste containers. This information will form the basis for a permanent committee to develop a complete identification program for use throughout the world. Although a large portion of the information will be on handwritten notebooks and may not be as extensive as is desired, it will all be helpful. The final information will be programmed into computer language and be available to all interested parties as well as a central control committee which will have the expertise to provide each government with advice on the packaging, storage, and measurement of the waste for which it is responsible. As time progresses, this central control committee should develop permanent storage sites and establish a system of records which will last for hundreds of years

  20. Reactor containment vessel

    Ochiai, Kanehiro; Hayagumo, Sunao; Morikawa, Matsuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To safety and simplify the structure in a reactor containment vessel. Constitution: Steam flow channels with steam jetting ports communicating to coolants are provided between a communication channel and coolants in a pressure suppression chamber. Upon loss of coolant accidents, pressure in a dry well will increase, then force downwards water in an annulus portion and further flow out the water through steam jetting ports into a suppression pool. Thus, the steam flow channel is filled with steams or airs present in the dry well, which are released through the steam jetting ports into the pressure suppression chamber. Even though water is violently vibrated owing to the upward movement of air bubbles and condensation of steam bubbles, the annular portion and the steam jetting ports are filled with steams or the like, direct dynamic loads onto the structures such as communication channels can be avoided. (J.P.N.)

  1. Container for irradiated fuel

    Guy, R.

    1978-01-01

    The transport container for irradiated or used nuclear fuel is provided with an identical heat shield against fires on the top and bottom sides. Each heat shield consists of two inner nickel plates, whose contact surfaces are polished to a mirror finish and an outer plate of stainless steel. The nickel plate on the box is spot welded to it while the second nickel plate is spot welded to the steel plate. Both together are in turn welded so as to be leaktight to the edges of the box. For extreme heat effects and based on the different (bimetal) coefficients of expansion, the steel plate with the nickel plate attached to it bulges away from the box. The second nickel plate remains at the box, so that a subpressure space is formed with the mirror nickel surfaces. The heat radiation and heat conduction to the box are greatly reduced by this. (DG) [de

  2. Phosphate glasses, containing nitrogen

    Lisitsyna, E.A.; Khalilev, V.D.; Koryavin, A.A.; Goncharova, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of nitrogen-containing glass synthesis by the introduction into the charge of ammonium salts, as well as aluminium nitride, are studied. Zinc alumoyttrium phosphate glass (mol. %) Zn(PO 3 ) 2 - 4O, Al(PO 3 ) 3 - 3O, Y(PO 3 ) 3 -3O is suggested as a matrix. It is shown that the effect of amide and imide groups on the properties of the glass is less noticeable than the effect of nitride groups. Direct introduction of nitride constituent was realized using AlN, but aluminium introduction was taken into account so that the oxide was subtracted. The attempt to introduce more than 2.5 mass % of nitrogen into initial matrix by aluminium nitride has failed due to repeated restoration of glass with amorphous phosphorus isolation

  3. An ultrafast line-by-line algorithm for calculating spectral transmittance and radiance

    Tan, X.

    2013-01-01

    An ultrafast line-by-line algorithm for calculating spectral transmittance and radiance of gases is presented. The algorithm is based on fast convolution of the Voigt line profile using Fourier transform and a binning technique. The algorithm breaks a radiative transfer calculation into two steps: a one-time pre-computation step in which a set of pressure independent coefficients are computed using the spectral line information; a normal calculation step in which the Fourier transform coefficients of the optical depth are calculated using the line of sight information and the coefficients pre-computed in the first step, the optical depth is then calculated using an inverse Fourier transform and the spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated. The algorithm is significantly faster than line-by-line algorithms that do not employ special speedup techniques by a factor of 10 3 –10 6 . A case study of the 2.7 μm band of H 2 O vapor is presented. -- Highlights: •An ultrafast line-by-line model based on FFT and a binning technique is presented. •Computationally expensive calculations are factored out into a pre-computation step. •It is 10 3 –10 8 times faster than LBL algorithms that do not employ speedup techniques. •Good agreement with experimental data for the 2.7 μm band of H 2 O

  4. Significance of apoptotic cell death after γ-irradiation

    Wu, H.G.; Kim, I.H.; Ha, S.W.; Park, C.I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objectives of this study are to investigate the significance of apoptotic death compared to total cell death after γ-ray irradiation in human Hand N cancer cell lines and to find out correlation between apoptosis and radiation sensitivity. Materials and Method: Head and neck cancer cell lines (PCI-1, PCI-13, and SNU-1066), leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM), and fibroblast cell line (LM217) as a normal control were used for this study. Cells were irradiated using Cs-137 animal experiment irradiator. Total cell death was measured by clonogenic assay. Annexin-V staining was used to detect the fraction of apoptotic death. The resulting data was analyzed with two parameters, apoptotic index (AI) and apoptotic fraction(AF). AI is ratio of apoptotic cells to total cells, and AF is ration of apoptotic cell death to mutant frequencytion ex(Number of apoptotic cells) / (Number of total cells counted) AF = {(AI) / (1-survival fraction)} x 100 (%) Results. Surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) were 0.741, 0.544, 0.313, 0.302, and 0.100 for PCI-1, PCI-13, SNU-1066, CCRF-CEM, and LM217 cell lines, respectively. Apoptosis was detected in all cell lines. Apoptotic index reached peak value at 72 hours after irradiation in head and neck cancer cell lines, and that was at 24 hours in CCRF-CEM and LM217. Total cell death increased exponentially with increasing radiation dose from 0 Gy to 8 Gy, but the change was minimal in apoptotic index (Fig. 1.). Apoptotic fractions at 2 Gy were 46%, 48%, 46%, 24%, and 19% and at 6 Gy were 20%, 33%, 35%, 17%, and 20% for PCI-1, PCI-13, SNU-1066, CCRF-CEM, and LM217, respectively. The radioresistant cell lines showed more higher apoptotic fraction at 2 Gy (Table 1.), but there was not such correlation at 6 Gy. Conclusion: All cell lines used in this study showed apoptosis after irradiation, but time course of apoptosis was different from that of leukemia cell line and normal fibroblast cell line. Reproductive cell death was more important

  5. PCCS model development for SBWR using the CONTAIN code

    Tills, J.; Murata, K.K.; Washington, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    The General Electric Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) employs a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) to maintain long-term containment gas pressure and temperature below design limits during accidents. This system consists of a steam supply line that connects the upper portion of the drywell with a vertical shell-and-tube single pass heat exchanger located in an open water pool outside of the containment safety envelope. The heat exchanger tube outlet is connected to a vent line that is submerged below the suppression pool surface but above the main suppression pool horizontal vents. Steam generated in the post-shutdown period flows into the heat exchanger tubes as the result of suction and/or a low pressure differential between the drywell and suppression chamber. Operation of the PCCS is complicated by the presence of noncondensables in the flow stream. Build-up of noncondensables in the exchanger and vent line for the periods when the vent is not cleared causes a reduction in the exchanger heat removal capacity. As flow to the exchanger is reduced due to the noncondensable gas build-up, the drywell pressure increases until the vent line is cleared and the noncondensables are purged into the suppression chamber, restoring the heat removal capability of the PCCS. This paper reports on progress made in modeling SBWR containment loads using the CONTAIN code. As a central part of this effort, a PCCS model development effort has recently been undertaken to implement an appropriate model in CONTAIN. The CONTAIN PCCS modeling approach is discussed and validated. A full SBWR containment input deck has also been developed for CONTAIN. The plant response to a postulated design basis accident (DBA) has been calculated with the CONTAIN PCCS model and plant deck, and the preliminary results are discussed

  6. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    Postolati V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL, appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced achievements in design solutions, including towers and insulation, together with interconnection schemes and control systems. Results of comprehensive research and development in relation to 110–500kV compact controlled power transmission lines together with theoretical basis, substantiation, and methodological approaches to their practical application are presented in the present paper.

  7. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  8. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  9. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  10. Biologic assessment of copper-containing amalgams.

    Mjor, I A; Eriksen, H M; Haugen, E; Skogedal, O

    1977-12-01

    In order to reduce creep and avoid marginal fractures in amalgam restorations, new alloys containing higher proportions of copper have been introduced. Fillings of these materials were placed in cavities prepared in the deciduous teeth of monkeys or placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted subcutaneously in rats. Conventional silver/tin alloys and zinc oxide eugenol cement were used as reference materials. Despite limitations due to the varying depths of cavities and the small number of animals involved it was concluded that the high copper alloys caused more severe pulp damage than the other materials studied. In the implantation studies many of the high copper specimens were exfoliated before the end of the experimental period. It is concluded that in deep cavities these materials require the use of a non-toxic base or lining material although as they are commonly used in young children's teeth the placement of linings and the isolation of the cavity pose problems.

  11. Radio recombination lines from H II regions

    Silverglate, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Radio recombination lines have been observed from forty-six H II regions. The Arecibo 1000-foot radio telescope was used to provide high sensitivity and high angular resolution at 1400 MHz (gain approx. 7.7 0 K/Jy, HPBW = 3:2) and 2372 MHZ (gain approx. 6.3 0 K/Jy, HPBW = 2'). Observations were made at 1400 MHz in the frequency switching mode, and at 2372 MHz in the total power mode. Gaussians were fit to be observed lines to derive velocities, line widths, and line temperatures. From the velocities kinematic distances were derived. For eleven sources H I absorption measurements were also made. The absorption spectra enabled the kinematic distance ambiguity to be resolved for some sources. The absorption spectra themselves were found to have extremely sharp, non-gaussian edges. One explanation for these is a model where the interstellar medium contains many H I cloudlets with T/sub s/less than or equal to 100 0 K and turbulent velocities less than or equal to 3 km/s. The H I absorption spectrum is then a superposition of many narrow gaussian profiles. It was also found from a comparison of H I absorption velocities with radio recombination line velocities that peculiar motions exist in the interstellar medium with velocities of up to 10 km/s. Using the measured line temperatures and continuum temperatures, estimates were desired of emission measures, electron temperatures, and electron densities, using a non-LTE analysis. Non-LTE effects were important only for the hottest and densest H II regions. The non-LTE calculations were checked through a comparison derivation of electron temperatures using hydrogen beta lines

  12. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effect of pentoxifylline on P-glycoprotein mediated vincristine resistance of L1210 mouse leukemic cell line

    Breier, A.; Uhrik, B.; Barancik, M.; Stefankova, Z.; Tribulova, N.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on vincristine (VCR) resistance of multidrug resistant L1210/VCR mouse leukemic cell line was studied. Reversal effect of PTX (in concentration 50-150 mg dm -3 ) on vincristine resistance, i.e. potentiation of vincristine cytotoxicity on L1210/VCR cells by PTX was found. PTX alone in the above concentration did not exert any significant effect on sensitive or resistant cell lines in the absence of vincristine. Resistance of L1210/VCR cell line was found previously to be accompanied with overexpression of drug transporting P-glycoprotein. Indeed, lower level of 3 H-vincristine accumulation by resistant L1210/VCR cell line in comparison with sensitive L1210 cell line was observed. Accumulation of 3 H-vincristine by L1210/VCR cell line was significantly increased in the presence of PTX. PTX in the same condition did not exert any considerable effect on accumulation of 3 H-vincristine by nonresistant L1210 cells. Observable morphological damage was observed in 1210/VCR cells cultivated in medium containing vincristine (0.2 mg dm -3 ) and pentoxifylline (100 mg dm -3 ) in comparison with the non-damaged cells in the presence of vincristine or pentoxifylline alone. The results obtained indicate that pentoxifylline may be considered as a reversal agent in multidrug resistance. (author)

  14. Modeling of hydrogen behaviour in a PWR nuclear power plant containment with the CONTAIN code

    Bobovnik, G.; Kljenak, I.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen behavior in the containment during a severe accident in a two-loop Westinghouse-type PWR nuclear power plant was simulated with the CONTAIN code. The accident was initiated with a cold-leg break of the reactor coolant system in a steam generator compartment. In the input model, the containment is represented with 34 cells. Beside hydrogen concentration, the containment atmosphere temperature and pressure and the carbon monoxide concentration were observed as well. Simulations were carried out for two different scenarios: with and without successful actuation of the containment spray system. The highest hydrogen concentration occurs in the containment dome and near the hydrogen release location in the early stages of the accident. Containment sprays do not have a significant effect on hydrogen stratification.(author)

  15. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.

    1981-09-01

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr

  16. α-line systematics

    Caurier, E.; Zuker, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    A study of the α-line, defined as a set of differences (D α ) characterized binding energies of (N,Z) nuclei, is presented. The 2p2n-separation energies for even-even nuclei, odd-odd nuclei, even(Z)-odd(N) nuclei, odd(Z)-even(N) nuclei are presented. Trends and details in even-even nuclei, magic numbers of even-even and odd-odd nuclei are discussed. (G.P.) 1 ref.; 8 figs

  17. Adiabatic equilibrium models for direct containment heating

    Pilch, M.; Allen, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies are being extended to include a wider spectrum of reactor plants than was considered in NUREG-1150. There is a need for simple direct containment heating (DCH) models that can be used for screening studies aimed at identifying potentially significant contributors to overall risk in individual nuclear power plants. This paper presents two adiabatic equilibrium models suitable for the task. The first, a single-cell model, places a true upper bound on DCH loads. This upper bound, however, often far exceeds reasonable expectations of containment loads based on CONTAIN calculations and experiment observations. In this paper, a two cell model is developed that captures the major mitigating feature of containment compartmentalization, thus providing more reasonable estimates of the containment load

  18. From containment to ... syzygy

    Carr, H.M.

    1995-04-18

    The U S. is at an historic crossroads following the end of the Cold War. The old twin themes of containment and deterrence must now give way to a newer vision of the U.S. role as we approach the 21st century. This paper follows a visioning process requiring development of alternatives based on signposts, values and frameworks. Signposts are current domestic and global environments revealing a U.S. in economic trouble with budget and trade defidts, a falling dollar and multiplying peace operations at a time when Europe and Japan are becoming economic superpowers. Although U.S. values must be protected, economic competition requires increased emphasis on realpolitik. A balanced framework of internationalism and reduced multilateralism will suit the current environment and U.S. purposes. Recognizing that the U.S. must retain leadership to protect national interests, the vision unfolds as an alignment of major powers-a syzygy of purpose-with Europe, Japan, and the U.S. in a concert of power, sharing economic, political and military burdens to ensure world stability. Thus, the new U.S. role could be primus inter pares of a Pax Consortis with common interests and goals, allowing the U.S. time to restore its economic vitality.

  19. Do pyrotechnics contain radium?

    Steinhauser, Georg; Musilek, Andreas, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@ati.ac.a [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-15

    Many pyrotechnic devices contain barium nitrate which is used as an oxidizer and colouring agent primarily for green-coloured fireworks. Similarly, strontium nitrate is used for red-coloured pyrotechnic effects. Due to their chemical similarities to radium, barium and strontium ores can accumulate radium, causing a remarkable activity in these minerals. Radium in such contaminated raw materials can be processed together with the barium or strontium, unless extensive purification of the ores was undertaken. For example, the utilization of 'radiobarite' for the production of pyrotechnic ingredients can therefore cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols when the firework is displayed, resulting in negative health effects upon inhalation of these aerosols. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of gamma-photon-emitting radionuclides in several pyrotechnic devices. The highest specific activities were due to K-40 (up to 20 Bq g{sup -1}, average value 14 Bq g{sup -1}). Radium-226 activities were in the range of 16-260 mBq g{sup -1} (average value 81 mBq g{sup -1}). Since no uranium was found in any of the samples, indeed, a slight enrichment of Ra-226 in coloured pyrotechnics can be observed. Radioactive impurities stemming from the Th-232 decay chain were found in many samples as well. In the course of novel developments aiming at the 'greening' of pyrotechnics, the potential radioactive hazard should be considered as well.

  20. Containment and release management

    Lehner, J.R.; Pratt, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Reducing the risk from potentially severe accidents by appropriate accident management strategies is receiving increased attention from the international reactor safety community. Considerable uncertainty still surrounds some of the physical phenomena likely to occur during a severe accident. The USNRC, in developing its research plan for accident management, wants to ensure that both the developers and implementers of accident management strategies are aware of the uncertainty associated with the plant operators' ability to correctly diagnose an accident, as well as the uncertainties associated with various preventive and mitigative strategies. The use of a particular accident management strategy can have both positive and negative effects on the status of a plant and these effects must be carefully weighed before a particular course of action is chosen and implemented. By using examples of severe accident scenarios, initial insights are presented here regarding the indications plant operators may have to alert them to particular accident states. Insights are also offered on the various management actions operators and plant technical staff might pursue for particular accident situations and the pros and cons associated with such actions. The examples given are taken for the most part from the containment and release phase of accident management, since this is the current focus of the effort in the accident management area at Brookhaven National Laboratory. 2 refs