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Sample records for linepithema humile hymenoptera

  1. Description of the immatures of Linepithema humile Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL R SOLIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Linepithema humile Mayr is an ant species originally native to South America that has been spread accidently throughout the globe through international trade. It is a serious urban and crop pest. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the larvae of this species apart from a brief description based on a few specimens. The present investigation is aimed at describing every immature stage of L. humile. Three larval instars were determined through the frequency distribution of the maximum width of head capsules from a sample of 525 larvae. The morphological descriptions were based on 150 eggs, 70 larvae, and 90 pupae examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Some morphological characteristics reported to be typical of Linepithema Mayr larvae were confirmed - dolichoderoid body shape, presence of dorsal protuberance, sparse simple body hairs, presence of nine pairs of spiracles and dolichoderoid mandibles. We concluded that an earlier published description was based on queen larvae, and that the protuberance is only present in worker larvae. The information provided in this study may aid ant systematics and phylogenetics, as well provide a better understanding of the biology of this species.

  2. Selección del alimento en la hormiga argentina, Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868) Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Valles-Ibáñez, Guillem de

    2009-01-01

    Asignatura: Etología de los recursos pesqueros (Licenciatura Ciencias del Mar) La hormiga argentina Linepithema humile cambia la composición relativa de carbohidratos y proteínas en su dieta en función de la estación del año. Se demuestra cómo en Gran Canaria, durante el nvierno, las obreras prefieren los alimentos ricos en carbohidratos frente a alimentos ricos en proteínas o mixtos. ABSTRACT The Argentine ant Linepithema humile changes the relative composition of carbohydrates and pro...

  3. Trail pheromone of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae.

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    Dong-Hwan Choe

    Full Text Available The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ago, studies showed that (Z-9-hexadecenal strongly attracted Argentine ant workers in a multi-choice olfactometer, suggesting that (Z-9-hexadecenal might be the trail pheromone, or a component of a trail pheromone mixture. Since then, numerous studies have considered (Z-9-hexadecenal as the key component of the Argentine ant trails. Here, we report the first chemical analyses of the trails laid by living Argentine ants and find that (Z-9-hexadecenal is not present in a detectible quantity. Instead, two iridoids, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, appear to be the primary chemical constituents of the trails. Laboratory choice tests confirmed that Argentine ants were attracted to artificial trails comprised of these two chemicals significantly more often than control trails. Although (Z-9-hexadecenal was not detected in natural trails, supplementation of artificial dolichodial+iridomyrmecin trails with an extremely low concentraion of (Z-9-hexadecenal did increase the efficacy of the trail-following behavior. In stark contrast with previous dogma, our study suggests that dolichodial and iridomyrmecin are major components of the Argentine ant trail pheromone. (Z-9-hexadecenal may act in an additive manner with these iridoids, but it does not occur in detectable quantities in Argentine ant recruitment trails.

  4. Hormiga argentina Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) y su rol como posible vector de contaminación microbiana en una lechería de cabras Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)

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    J Ipinza-Regla; D González; G Figueroa

    2015-01-01

    Se trata de establecer la acción de la hormiga argentina Linepithema humile, como potencial vector mecánico de microorganismos patógenos. Desde un plantel lechero de cabras ubicado en la comuna de Lampa, Región Metropolitana, Chile, se obtuvieron 63 muestras: 21 muestras Control A aspiradas directamente sobre el papel filtro esterilizado previo al paso de las hormigas, 21 muestras de hormigas aspiradas desde papel filtro y 21 muestras posterior al paso de las hormigas (Control B). La metodolo...

  5. Loss of Wolbachia infection during colonisation in the invasive Argentine ant Linepithema humile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, M.; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Keller, L.

    2005-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacteria, which are very common in arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia infection may affect host reproduction through feminisation, parthenogenesis, male-killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility and increased fecundity. Previous studies showing discrepancies between...... of Wolbachia were studied in three native and eight introduced populations of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. The screening shows that the symbiont is common in the three native L. humile populations analysed. In contrast, Wolbachia was detected in only one of the introduced populations. The loss...... transmission of the symbiont may be important in ants as suggested by the sequence similarity of strains in the three genera Linepithema, Acromyrmex, and Solenopsis native from South and Central America....

  6. Loss of Wolbachia infection during colonisation in the invasive Argentine ant Linepithema humile.

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    Reuter, M; Pedersen, J S; Keller, L

    2005-03-01

    WOLBACHIA are maternally inherited bacteria, which are very common in arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia infection may affect host reproduction through feminisation, parthenogenesis, male-killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility and increased fecundity. Previous studies showing discrepancies between the phylogenies of Wolbachia and its arthropod hosts indicate that infection is frequently lost, but the causes of symbiont extinction have so far remained elusive. Here, we report data showing that colonisation of new habitats is a possible mechanism leading to the loss of infection. The presence and prevalence of Wolbachia were studied in three native and eight introduced populations of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. The screening shows that the symbiont is common in the three native L. humile populations analysed. In contrast, Wolbachia was detected in only one of the introduced populations. The loss of infection associated with colonisation of new habitats may result from drift (founder effect) or altered selection pressures in the new habitat. Furthermore, a molecular phylogeny based on sequences of the Wolbachia wsp gene indicates that L. humile has been infected by a single strain. Horizontal transmission of the symbiont may be important in ants as suggested by the sequence similarity of strains in the three genera Linepithema, Acromyrmex, and Solenopsis native from South and Central America.

  7. Propagule pressure and climate contribute to the displacement of Linepithema humile by Pachycondyla chinensis.

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    Eleanor Spicer Rice

    Full Text Available Identifying mechanisms governing the establishment and spread of invasive species is a fundamental challenge in invasion biology. Because species invasions are frequently observed only after the species presents an environmental threat, research identifying the contributing agents to dispersal and subsequent spread are confined to retrograde observations. Here, we use a combination of seasonal surveys and experimental approaches to test the relative importance of behavioral and abiotic factors in determining the local co-occurrence of two invasive ant species, the established Argentine ant (Linepithema humile Mayr and the newly invasive Asian needle ant (Pachycondyla chinensis Emery. We show that the broader climatic envelope of P. chinensis enables it to establish earlier in the year than L. humile. We also demonstrate that increased P. chinensis propagule pressure during periods of L. humile scarcity contributes to successful P. chinensis early season establishment. Furthermore, we show that, although L. humile is the numerically superior and behaviorally dominant species at baits, P. chinensis is currently displacing L. humile across the invaded landscape. By identifying the features promoting the displacement of one invasive ant by another we can better understand both early determinants in the invasion process and factors limiting colony expansion and survival.

  8. Behavioural and chemical evidence for multiple colonisation of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Wossler Theresa C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, is a widespread invasive ant species that has successfully established in nearly all continents across the globe. Argentine ants are characterised by a social structure known as unicoloniality, where territorial boundaries between nests are absent and intraspecific aggression is rare. This is particularly pronounced in introduced populations and results in the formation of large and spatially expansive supercolonies. Although it is amongst the most well studied of invasive ants, very little work has been done on this ant in South Africa. In this first study, we investigate the population structure of Argentine ants in South Africa. We use behavioural (aggression tests and chemical (CHC approaches to investigate the population structure of Argentine ants within the Western Cape, identify the number of supercolonies and infer number of introductions. Results Both the aggression assays and chemical data revealed that the Western Cape Argentine ant population can be divided into two behaviourally and chemically distinct supercolonies. Intraspecific aggression was evident between the two supercolonies of Argentine ants with ants able to discriminate among conspecific non-nestmates. This discrimination is linked to the divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of ants originating from the two supercolonies. Conclusions The presence of these two distinct supercolonies is suggestive of at least two independent introductions of this ant within the Western Cape. Moreover, the pattern of colonisation observed in this study, with the two colonies interspersed, is in agreement with global patterns of Argentine ant invasions. Our findings are of interest because recent studies show that Argentine ants from South Africa are different from those identified in other introduced ranges and therefore provide an opportunity to further understand factors that determine the distributional and spread

  9. Pheromone-assisted techniques to improve the efficacy of insecticide sprays against Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

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    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Tsai, Kasumi; Lopez, Carlos M; Campbell, Kathleen

    2014-02-01

    Outdoor residual sprays are among the most common methods for targeting pestiferous ants in urban pest management programs. If impervious surfaces such as concrete are treated with these insecticides, the active ingredients can be washed from the surface by rain or irrigation. As a result, residual sprays with fipronil and pyrethroids are found in urban waterways and aquatic sediments. Given the amount of insecticides applied to urban settings for ant control and their possible impact on urban waterways, the development of alternative strategies is critical to decrease the overall amounts of insecticides applied, while still achieving effective control of target ant species. Herein we report a "pheromone-assisted technique" as an economically viable approach to maximize the efficacy of conventional sprays targeting the Argentine ant. By applying insecticide sprays supplemented with an attractive pheromone compound, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, Argentine ants were diverted from nearby trails and nest entrances and subsequently exposed to insecticide residues. Laboratory experiments with fipronil and bifenthrin sprays indicated that the overall kill of the insecticides on Argentine ant colonies was significantly improved (57-142% increase) by incorporating (Z)-9-hexadecenal in the insecticide sprays. This technique, once it is successfully implemented in practical pest management programs, has the potential of providing maximum control efficacy with reduced amount of insecticides applied in the environment.

  10. On humility.

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    Coulehan, Jack

    2010-08-03

    The new professionalism movement in medical education takes seriously the old medical virtues. Perhaps the most difficult virtue to understand and practice is humility, which seems out of place in a medical culture characterized by arrogance, assertiveness, and a sense of entitlement. Countercultural though it is, humility need not suggest weakness or lack of self-confidence. On the contrary, humility requires toughness and emotional resilience. Humility in medicine manifests itself as unflinching self-awareness; empathic openness to others; and a keen appreciation of, and gratitude for, the privilege of caring for sick persons. Justified pride in medicine's accomplishments should neither rule out nor diminish our humility as healers.

  11. Distribució i grau d’invasió de la formiga argentina (Linepithema humile Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) al Parc Natural de s’Albufera des Grau, Menorca (Illes Balears)

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    Abril, Silvia; Gómez, Crisanto

    2012-01-01

    The Argentine ant is an exotic invasive species present in all the Mediterranean and subtropical ecosystems of the world. It is closely associated to urban and human-disturbed areas, even though it can also invade natural areas causing a strong negative effect in the biodiversity of the invaded area. In Menorca, the fist record of its presence was in 1976. In 2004 it was detected for the first time invading a natural area in the island, the s’Albufera des Grau Natural Park. ...

  12. Awe and humility.

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    Stellar, Jennifer E; Gordon, Amie; Anderson, Craig L; Piff, Paul K; McNeil, Galen D; Keltner, Dacher

    2018-02-01

    Humility is a foundational virtue that counters selfish inclinations such as entitlement, arrogance, and narcissism (Tangney, 2000). We hypothesize that experiences of awe promote greater humility. Guided by an appraisal-tendency framework of emotion, we propose that when individuals encounter an entity that is vast and challenges their worldview, they feel awe, which leads to self-diminishment and subsequently humility. In support of these claims, awe-prone individuals were rated as more humble by friends (Study 1) and reported greater humility across a 2-week period (Study 2), controlling for other positive emotions. Inducing awe led participants to present a more balanced view of their strengths and weaknesses to others (Study 3) and acknowledge, to a greater degree, the contribution of outside forces in their own personal accomplishments (Study 4), compared with neutral and positive control conditions. Finally, an awe-inducing expansive view elicited greater reported humility than a neutral view (Study 5). We also elucidated the process by which awe leads to humility. Feelings of awe mediated the relationship between appraisals (perceptions of vastness and a challenge to one's world view) and humility (Study 4), and self-diminishment mediated the relationship between awe and humility (Study 5). Taken together, these results reveal that awe offers one path to greater humility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Honesty and Humility

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    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.

    2015-01-01

    Based on recent lexical studies across various languages, Honesty-Humility has been suggested as a sixth basic factor of personality. Specifically, according to the HEXACO Model of Personality, Honesty-Humility represents individual differences in active cooperativeness—operationalized via...... the facets sincerity, fairness, greed avoidance, and modesty. Herein, research corroborating Honesty-Humility as a basic personality factor is summarized and supplemented with an overview of the broad array of criteria this factor has been shown to influence. In addition, we briefly touch on aspects...... that are still understudied concerning Honesty-Humility, especially in terms of its biological basis, development, and broader societal consequences....

  14. Is humility a sentiment?

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    Weidman, Aaron C; Tracy, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    Gervais & Fessler reintroduce the concept of a sentiment as a framework for conceptualizing contempt, a construct with both attitudinal and emotional components. We propose that humility might also fit this mold. We review recent findings regarding the antecedents, phenomenology, and functional consequences of humility, and discuss why conceptualizing it as a sentiment may advance our understanding of this construct.

  15. Activity of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam against Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

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    Wiltz, B A; Suiter, D R; Gardner, W A

    2009-12-01

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined after topical treatments. Ants were immobilized most quickly by bifenthrin, followed by chlorfenapyr and thiamethoxam. After 2 h, the number of fipronil-treated ants unable to walk out of test arenas did not differ from control ants. Median lethal time (LT50) after topical treatment was lowest in the bifenthrin treatment, followed by thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and then fipronil. Mortality due to horizontal exposure was evaluated at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C, with topically treated ant corpses serving as donors. There was low to moderate horizontal activity in bifenthrin and chlorfenapyr treatments, with no temperature effect in bifenthrin treatments and a positive temperature effect in chlorfenapyr treatments. Mortality in the fipronil treatments was highest and was positively correlated with temperature. Thiamethoxam treatments did not differ from controls at 10 degrees C, but mortality increased with temperature. To evaluate contact activity, either all of 20% of the ants in a cohort were exposed to insecticide-treated pine needles. In both tests, mortality was highest in fipronil and bifenthrin treatments, followed by thiamethoxam, with lowest mortality in chlorfenapyr treatments. Effectiveness as a barrier was evaluated by providing a choice between bridges treated with insecticide or water. Although bifenthrin did not provide an impenetrable barrier, it was the only treatment having fewer ants than its paired control. Mortality data suggest that lack of recruitment rather than repellency account for this result.

  16. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

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    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  17. Influence of toxic bait type and starvation on worker and queen mortality in laboratory colonies of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

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    Mathieson, Melissa; Toft, Richard; Lester, Philip J

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of toxic baits should be judged by their ability to kill entire ant colonies, including the colony queen or queens. We studied the efficacy of four toxic baits to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). These baits were Xstinguish that has the toxicant fipronil, Exterm-an-Ant that contains both boric acid and sodium borate, and Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena that both have indoxacarb. Experimental nests contained 300 workers and 10 queen ants that were starved for either 24 or 48 h before toxic bait exposure. The efficacy of the toxic baits was strongly influenced by starvation. In no treatment with 24-h starvation did we observe 100% worker death. After 24-h starvation three of the baits did not result in any queen deaths, with only Exterm-an-Ant producing an average of 25% mortality. In contrast, 100% queen and worker mortality was observed in colonies starved for 48 h and given Xstinguish or Exterm-an-Ant. The baits Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena were not effective against Argentine ants in these trials, resulting in ants are likely to be starved. Our results suggest queen mortality must be assessed in tests for toxic bait efficacy. Our data indicate that of these four baits, Xstinguish and Exterm-an-Ant are the best options for control of Argentine ants in New Zealand.

  18. Cuticular hydrocarbons correlate with queen reproductive status in native and invasive Argentine ants (Linepithema humile, Mayr)

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    Diaz, Mireia; Lenoir, Alain; Ivon Paris, Carolina; Boulay, Raphaël; Gómez, Crisanto

    2018-01-01

    In insect societies, chemical communication plays an important role in colony reproduction and individual social status. Many studies have indicated that cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are the main chemical compounds encoding reproductive status. However, these studies have largely focused on queenless or monogynous species whose workers are capable of egg laying and have mainly explored the mechanisms underlying queen-worker or worker-worker reproductive conflicts. Less is known about what occurs in highly polygynous ant species with permanently sterile workers. Here, we used the Argentine ant as a model to examine the role of CHCs in communicating reproductive information in such insect societies. The Argentine ant is unicolonial, highly polygynous, and polydomous. We identified several CHCs whose presence and levels were correlated with queen age, reproductive status, and fertility. Our results also provide new insights into queen executions in the Argentine ant, a distinctive feature displayed by this species in its introduced range. Each spring, just before new sexuals appear, workers eliminate up to 90% of the mated queens in their colonies. We discovered that queens that survived execution had different CHC profiles from queens present before and during execution. More specifically, levels of some CHCs were higher in the survivors, suggesting that workers could eliminate queens based on their chemical profiles. In addition, queen CHC profiles differed based on season and species range (native vs. introduced). Overall, the results of this study provide new evidence that CHCs serve as queen signals and do more than just regulate worker reproduction. PMID:29470506

  19. Individual Rules for Trail Pattern Formation in Argentine Ants (Linepithema humile)

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    Perna, Andrea; Granovskiy, Boris; Garnier, Simon; Nicolis, Stamatios C.; Labédan, Marjorie; Theraulaz, Guy; Fourcassié, Vincent; Sumpter, David J. T.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the formation of trail patterns by Argentine ants exploring an empty arena. Using a novel imaging and analysis technique we estimated pheromone concentrations at all spatial positions in the experimental arena and at different times. Then we derived the response function of individual ants to pheromone concentrations by looking at correlations between concentrations and changes in speed or direction of the ants. Ants were found to turn in response to local pheromone concentrations, while their speed was largely unaffected by these concentrations. Ants did not integrate pheromone concentrations over time, with the concentration of pheromone in a 1 cm radius in front of the ant determining the turning angle. The response to pheromone was found to follow a Weber's Law, such that the difference between quantities of pheromone on the two sides of the ant divided by their sum determines the magnitude of the turning angle. This proportional response is in apparent contradiction with the well-established non-linear choice function used in the literature to model the results of binary bridge experiments in ant colonies (Deneubourg et al. 1990). However, agent based simulations implementing the Weber's Law response function led to the formation of trails and reproduced results reported in the literature. We show analytically that a sigmoidal response, analogous to that in the classical Deneubourg model for collective decision making, can be derived from the individual Weber-type response to pheromone concentrations that we have established in our experiments when directional noise around the preferred direction of movement of the ants is assumed. PMID:22829756

  20. Individual rules for trail pattern formation in Argentine ants (Linepithema humile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Perna

    Full Text Available We studied the formation of trail patterns by Argentine ants exploring an empty arena. Using a novel imaging and analysis technique we estimated pheromone concentrations at all spatial positions in the experimental arena and at different times. Then we derived the response function of individual ants to pheromone concentrations by looking at correlations between concentrations and changes in speed or direction of the ants. Ants were found to turn in response to local pheromone concentrations, while their speed was largely unaffected by these concentrations. Ants did not integrate pheromone concentrations over time, with the concentration of pheromone in a 1 cm radius in front of the ant determining the turning angle. The response to pheromone was found to follow a Weber's Law, such that the difference between quantities of pheromone on the two sides of the ant divided by their sum determines the magnitude of the turning angle. This proportional response is in apparent contradiction with the well-established non-linear choice function used in the literature to model the results of binary bridge experiments in ant colonies (Deneubourg et al. 1990. However, agent based simulations implementing the Weber's Law response function led to the formation of trails and reproduced results reported in the literature. We show analytically that a sigmoidal response, analogous to that in the classical Deneubourg model for collective decision making, can be derived from the individual Weber-type response to pheromone concentrations that we have established in our experiments when directional noise around the preferred direction of movement of the ants is assumed.

  1. Individual Rules for Trail Pattern Formation in Argentine Ants (Linepithema humile)

    OpenAIRE

    Perna, Andrea; Granovskiy, Boris; Garnier, Simon; Nicolis, Stamatios C.; Labédan, Marjorie; Theraulaz, Guy; Fourcassié, Vincent; Sumpter, David J. T.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the formation of trail patterns by Argentine ants exploring an empty arena. Using a novel imaging and analysis technique we estimated pheromone concentrations at all spatial positions in the experimental arena and at different times. Then we derived the response function of individual ants to pheromone concentrations by looking at correlations between concentrations and changes in speed or direction of the ants. Ants were found to turn in response to local pheromone concentrations,...

  2. Relational humility: conceptualizing and measuring humility as a personality judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don E; Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Gartner, Aubrey L; Jennings, David J; Emmons, Robert A

    2011-05-01

    The study of humility has progressed slowly due to measurement problems. We describe a model of relational humility that conceptualizes humility as a personality judgment. In this set of 5 studies, we developed the 16-item Relational Humility Scale (RHS) and offered initial evidence for the theoretical model. In Study 1 (N = 300), we developed the RHS and its subscales--Global Humility, Superiority, and Accurate View of Self. In Study 2, we confirmed the factor structure of the scale in an independent sample (N = 196). In Study 3, we provided initial evidence supporting construct validity using an experimental design (N = 200). In Study 4 (N = 150), we provided additional evidence of construct validity by examining the relationships between humility and empathy, forgiveness, and other virtues. In Study 5 (N = 163), we adduced evidence of discriminant and incremental validity of the RHS compared with the Honesty-Humility subscale of the HEXACO-PI (Lee & Ashton, 2004).

  3. The psychological structure of humility.

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    Weidman, Aaron C; Cheng, Joey T; Tracy, Jessica L

    2018-01-01

    Psychological inquiry into humility has advanced considerably over the past decade, yet this literature suffers from 2 notable limitations. First, there is no clear consensus among researchers about what humility is, and conceptualizations vary considerably across studies. Second, researchers have uniformly operationalized humility as a positive, socially desirable construct, while dismissing evidence from lay opinion and theological and philosophical traditions suggesting that humility may also have a darker side. To redress these issues, we conducted the first comprehensive, bottom-up analysis of the psychological structure of humility. Here we report 5 studies (total N = 1,479) that involve: (a) cluster analysis and categorization of humility-related words, generated by both lay persons and academic experts; (b) exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of momentary and dispositional humility experiences; and (c) experimental induction of a momentary humility experience. Across these studies, we found converging evidence that humility can take 2 distinct forms, which we labeled "appreciative" and "self-abasing" humility. Appreciative humility tends to be elicited by personal success, involve action tendencies oriented toward celebrating others, and is positively associated with dispositions such as authentic pride, guilt, and prestige-based status. In contrast, self-abasing humility tends to be elicited by personal failure, involves negative self-evaluations and action tendencies oriented toward hiding from others' evaluations, and is associated with dispositions such as shame, low self-esteem, and submissiveness. Together, these findings provide a systematic and empirically grounded understanding of humility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Humility in medicine.

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    Arnold, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Becoming a physician comes with privilege and exciting opportunities. The rigor of academic medicine can be challenging. The ability to have humility as a physician is not only a sign of a good doctor, but it can be one of the most challenging attributes to maintain. My surgeon, Dr. Steven Kopits, embodied what it means to be a humble, yet accomplished physician. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cultural Humility in Psychotherapy Supervision.

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    Hook, Joshua N; Watkins, C Edward; Davis, Don E; Owen, Jesse; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Ramos, Marciana J

    2016-01-01

    As a core component of multicultural orientation, cultural humility can be considered an important attitude for clinical supervisees to adopt and practically implement. How can cultural humility be most meaningfully incorporated in supervision? In what ways can supervisors stimulate the development of a culturally humble attitude in our supervisees? We consider those questions in this paper and present a model for addressing cultural humility in clinical supervision. The primary focus is given to two areas: (a) modeling and teaching of cultural humility through interpersonal interactions in supervision, and (b) teaching cultural humility through outside activities and experiences. Two case studies illustrating the model are presented, and a research agenda for work in this area is outlined.

  6. Humility in Learning: A Confucian Perspective

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    Li, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Little research exists on humility in human learning and from a cultural perspective. This article reviews current research and conceptualizes humility as a basic human potential that can become a virtue when cultivated. But the cultivation depends on the cultural values placed on humility. Although humility is recognized in the West, ambivalence…

  7. New record and re-description of a gall-forming aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae, commonly confused in the north of South America, associated with an ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Simbaqueba-Cortés

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The gall-forming aphid Tetraneura fusiformis is recorded for the first time for Northern South America. Its identity is clarified, and descriptions of this species and that of T. nigriabdominalis, with which it is commonly confused, are offered. The association of this sap sucking insect with the ant Linepithema angulatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is recorded for the first time as well

  8. Cultural Humility: A Concept Analysis.

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    Foronda, Cynthia; Baptiste, Diana-Lyn; Reinholdt, Maren M; Ousman, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Diversity is being increasingly recognized as an area of emphasis in health care. The term cultural humility is used frequently but society's understanding of the term is unclear. The aim of this article was to provide a concept analysis and a current definition for the term cultural humility. Cultural humility was used in a variety of contexts from individuals having ethnic and racial differences, to differences in sexual preference, social status, interprofessional roles, to health care provider/patient relationships. The attributes were openness, self-awareness, egoless, supportive interactions, and self-reflection and critique. The antecedents were diversity and power imbalance. The consequences were mutual empowerment, partnerships, respect, optimal care, and lifelong learning. Cultural humility was described as a lifelong process. With a firm understanding of the term, individuals and communities will be better equipped to understand and accomplish an inclusive environment with mutual benefit and optimal care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Cognitive and Interpersonal Features of Intellectual Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Diebels, Kate J; Davisson, Erin K; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Raimi, Kaitlin T; Deffler, Samantha A; Hoyle, Rick H

    2017-06-01

    Four studies examined intellectual humility-the degree to which people recognize that their beliefs might be wrong. Using a new Intellectual Humility (IH) Scale, Study 1 showed that intellectual humility was associated with variables related to openness, curiosity, tolerance of ambiguity, and low dogmatism. Study 2 revealed that participants high in intellectual humility were less certain that their beliefs about religion were correct and judged people less on the basis of their religious opinions. In Study 3, participants high in intellectual humility were less inclined to think that politicians who changed their attitudes were "flip-flopping," and Study 4 showed that people high in intellectual humility were more attuned to the strength of persuasive arguments than those who were low. In addition to extending our understanding of intellectual humility, this research demonstrates that the IH Scale is a valid measure of the degree to which people recognize that their beliefs are fallible.

  10. Measuring dispositional humility: a first approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, R Eric

    2011-02-01

    Humility is a psychological construct that has not received much empirical attention until recently. This new emphasis on positive psychology and humility has been both conceptual and empirical. The present study had two objectives: to review the literature briefly to verify the importance of humility and its positive perception by others, and to begin to develop a preliminary measure of humility. Results indicated that humility is held in high regard by others. Two factors emerged from exploratory factor analysis that appear to converge on measuring humility, with acceptable convergent and divergent validity and internal consistency reliability. These results are discussed in terms of the expected relationships among humility and other constructs (e.g., social desirability, narcissism, self-esteem).

  11. The slow growth of humility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Tobias; Bolton, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Galileo's stunning discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter forced the over throw of the Earth-centered cosmology that had dominated astronomy for centuries. Such a fundamental transformation of the Western World's view of its importance in the cosmos could be expected to produce some humility in society. However, the deep desire for our uniqueness continues to struggle with the astronomical evidence.

  12. Inevitability, contingency, and epistemic humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Ian James

    2016-02-01

    This paper offers an epistemological framework for the debate about whether the results of scientific enquiry are inevitable or contingent. I argue in Sections 2 and 3 that inevitabilist stances are doubly guilty of epistemic hubris--a lack of epistemic humility--and that the real question concerns the scope and strength of our contingentism. The latter stages of the paper-Sections 4 and 5-address some epistemological and historiographical worries and sketch some examples of deep contingencies to guide further debate. I conclude by affirming that the concept of epistemic humility can usefully inform critical reflection on the contingency of the sciences and the practice of history of science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lockean superaddition and Lockean humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Patrick J

    2015-06-01

    This paper offers a new approach to an old debate about superaddition in Locke. Did Locke claim that some objects have powers that are unrelated to their natures or real essences? The question has split commentators. Some (Wilson, Stuart, Langton) claim the answer is yes and others (Ayers, Downing, Ott) claim the answer is no. This paper argues that both of these positions may be mistaken. I show that Locke embraced a robust epistemic humility. This epistemic humility includes ignorance of the real essences of bodies, of the causal processes underlying the production of natural phenomena, and of God's method of creation. I show how this epistemic humility offers strong support for an agnostic response to the question of superaddition. Locke did not intend to claim that bodies either do or do not have properties unrelated to their real essences. Instead, his primary goal in discussing the topic was to emphasize the strict limits to human knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Humble beginnings: Current trends, state perspectives, and hallmarks of humility

    OpenAIRE

    Chancellor, J; Lyubomirsky, S

    2013-01-01

    After decades of neglect, research in humility is finally turning a corner. Within the past few years, investigators have articulated two promising strategies to overcome methodological concerns - namely, using personality judgments and designing humility "stress tests" to elicit humility-relevant behavior. We also highlight an alternative perspective of humility that has not yet gained much attention: the investigation of humility as a state, which helps to understand what humility actually ...

  15. Cultural humility: essential foundation for clinical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Katherine A; Bauer-Wu, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Cultural humility is a process of self-reflection and discovery in order to build honest and trustworthy relationships. It offers promise for researchers to understand and eliminate health disparities, a continual and disturbing problem necessitating attention and action on many levels. This paper presents a discussion of the process of cultural humility and its important role in research to better understand the perspectives and context of the researcher and the research participant. We discern cultural humility from similar concepts, specifically cultural competence and reflexivity. We will also explore ways to cultivate cultural humility in the context of human subjects research. Mindfulness is one approach that can be helpful in enhancing awareness of self and others in this process. With a foundation in cultural humility, nurse researchers and other investigators can implement meaningful and ethical projects to better address health disparities. © 2013.

  16. Teaching Humility in First-Grade Christian School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Julie E.; Wielard, Cassie J.; Vos, Carolyn L.; Tudder, Ashley M.

    2017-01-01

    Four classes of first-grade children at a Christian school took pre- and post-tests measuring humility. Two intervention classes had devotional lessons on humility and two comparison classes did not. For one week, devotional lessons featured humility-related children's literature, cognitively appropriate discussions, writing about humility, and…

  17. Cultural Humility and Hospital Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Boan, David; Davis, Don E; Aten, Jamie D; Ruiz, John M; Maryon, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Hospital safety culture is an integral part of providing high quality care for patients, as well as promoting a safe and healthy environment for healthcare workers. In this article, we explore the extent to which cultural humility, which involves openness to cultural diverse individuals and groups, is related to hospital safety culture. A sample of 2011 hospital employees from four hospitals completed measures of organizational cultural humility and hospital safety culture. Higher perceptions of organizational cultural humility were associated with higher levels of general perceptions of hospital safety, as well as more positive ratings on non-punitive response to error (i.e., mistakes of staff are not held against them), handoffs and transitions, and organizational learning. The cultural humility of one's organization may be an important factor to help improve hospital safety culture. We conclude by discussing potential directions for future research.

  18. Abstract: Cultural Humility in Nursing Practice | Nkurunziza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Cultural Humility in Nursing Practice. ... For example, Rwandan colleagues work from a collectivist viewpoint. ... In contrast, the U.S. healthcare system is based on individualism, rooted in a belief in the separation and autonomy of ...

  19. Enter as an outsider: Teaching organizational humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabby, John F

    2017-05-01

    The concept of cultural humility acknowledges the enormous task of becoming culturally competent by encouraging curiosity about the context within which others live. For physicians, this includes curiosity about the organizations in which they work as Outsiders in settings such as a new hospital or patients' homes. However, efforts to train healthcare professionals in cultural competence are often de-emphasized due to the pressure learners feel to acquire Medical Knowledge and clinical skills. Little time is devoted to address the significance of cultural humility for fully appreciating the experiences of others. Efforts to educate physicians-in-training about the cultural aspects of care require innovative approaches that help them recognize bias without provoking defensiveness. Enter as an Outsider is a highly focused activity which fosters a culturally humble approach to an often neglected problem, organizational bias. This article describes how cultural humility is explained to learners and small group activities are used to explore the thoughts and feelings of an organization's Insiders and Outsiders. This program relies on instructor self-disclosure to facilitate learning and on a video vignette from popular-culture media to illustrate being an Outsider in a healthcare setting. Participants in this training have improved their ability to recognize when they are Outsiders where they provide care. They have developed a better understanding that cultural humility in organizations is a gateway to providing quality care. They have begun the process of committing to respectfully learn from the organization's Insiders.

  20. Reputation and Humility in Corporate Management

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Although virtue ethics has gained a firm presence in the theory and practice of corporate management, humility is not ranked as one the chief virtues in the business world. This is probably due to an incomplete or incorrectly focused view of what it means to be a humble person, why a good manager must be humble and how a modest outlook can contribute to both the firm's and the manager's success and reputation.

  1. Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-05-15

    May 15, 1990 ... Supplemental Library User's Guide 1983 Edition. pp. 131-144. (Ed.) S. Ioyner. SAS Institute Incorporated, Cary,. North Carolina. CORBARA, B., LACHAUD, I. & FRESNEAU, D. 1989. Individual variability, social structure and division of labour in the ponerine ant, Ectatommo. ruidum Roger (Hymenoptera,.

  2. Development of an Online Humility-Boosting Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ruberton, Peter Michael

    2017-01-01

    Humility is a quality marked by a secure, accurate self-concept and high focus on others relative to oneself. Although humility is socially valued and has been linked with positive interpersonal outcomes (e.g., generosity), little research to date has examined ways to make people sustainably more humble. However, at least three activities have been found to provide short-term increases in humility: experiencing awe, affirming self-relevant values (i.e., self-affirmation), and expressing grati...

  3. Evaluation of the possible role of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae as mechanical vectors of nematodes and protists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Villani

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes and protists can be transmitted to humans in many ways and little concern has been given to the mechanical transmission by ants. This study aimed at analysing how the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and cysts of Entamoeba coli could be mechanically transmitted to the man by Formicidae. Through the experiments using nests of Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile and Monomorium pharaonis reared in the laboratory allied to observations of some 17 ant species in an urban park area in Mogi das Cruzes (SP, it was found that L. humile was capable of carrying eggs of A. lumbricoides both in the field and laboratory conditions (1 worker, as well as was Camponotus rufipes (2, Solenopsis saevissima (1 and Acromyrmex niger (1. The cysts of Escherichia coli were found over three workers of C. rufipes. Although the frequency of the workers found transporting pathogens was low, the capacity of common household species in carrying pathogens like nematodes and protists was demonstrated.Os Nematoda e Protista podem ser transmitidos ao homem de diversas maneiras, mas pouca ênfase é dada para a transmissão mecânica por intermédio de formigas. Assim, esse trabalho procurou investigar a transmissão mecânica de ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides e cistos de Entamoeba coli pelos Formicidae. Através de experimentos com espécies mantidas em ninhos no laboratório (Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile e Monomorium pharaonis e com 17 espécies de formigas de uma área antropizada na região de Mogi as Cruzes (SP, foi possível constar que os ovos A. lumbricoides foram transportados por L. humile, tanto no campo (1 operária como no laboratório (1 operária, por Camponotus rufipes (2, por Solenopsis saevissima (1 e por Acromyrmrex niger (1. Em três operárias de C. rufipes foram encontrados cistos de E. coli. Apesar da baixa incidência de transporte, as três primeiras espécies pelo fato de viverem muito próximas ao ser humano, podem levar para

  4. "A gentle and humane temper": humility in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulehan, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Humility is the medical virtue most difficult to understand and practice. This is especially true in contemporary medicine, which has developed a culture more characterized by arrogance and entitlement than by self-effacement and moderation. In such a culture, humility suggests weakness, indecisiveness, or even deception, as in false modesty. Nonetheless, an operational definition of medical humility includes four distinct but closely related personal characteristics that are central to good doctoring: unpretentious openness, honest self-disclosure, avoidance of arrogance, and modulation of self-interest. Humility, like other virtues, is best taught by means of narrative and role modeling. We may rightly be proud of contemporary medical advances, while at the same time experiencing gratitude and humility as healers.

  5. Humility, Forgiveness, and Emerging Adult Female Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Chance A; Fincham, Frank D

    2017-10-26

    Among a sample of emerging adult females (N = 152) we empirically examined the role of humility and forgiveness in romantic relationships. We specifically tested a model linking perceived humility to relationship satisfaction with self-forgiveness and partner-forgiveness. Participants in a romantic relationship completed measures of self-reported humility, self-forgiveness, partner-forgiveness, and relationship satisfaction. Serial mediation analyses were conducted using path analysis to test the following sequence, humility self-forgiveness partner-forgiveness relationship satisfaction. Findings indicate that humility was related to relationship satisfaction via a serially mediated path of self-forgiveness and partner-forgiveness, which was not reducible to impression management. We consider implications for research and clinical practice. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  6. Cultural humility and racial microaggressions in counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Farrell, Jennifer E; Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Utsey, Shawn O

    2016-04-01

    Racial microaggressions may contribute to poor counseling outcomes in racial/ethnic minority clients. The present study examined the occurrence of racial microaggressions in counseling using a large and diverse sample and explored the association between perceived cultural humility of the counselor and racial microaggressions. Racial/ethnic minority participants (N = 2,212) answered questions about the frequency and impact of racial microaggressions in counseling and the characteristics of their counselor. The majority of clients (81%) reported experiencing at least 1 racial microaggression in counseling. Participants most commonly reported racial microaggressions involving denial or lack of awareness of stereotypes and bias and avoidance of discussing cultural issues. There were few differences in racial microaggression frequency or impact based on client race/ethnicity and counselor race/ethnicity. Racially matched clients viewed racial microaggressions as more impactful than did clients who were not racially matched. Client-perceived cultural humility of the counselor was associated with fewer microaggressions experienced in counseling. We conclude by discussing limitations, areas for future research, and implications for counseling. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Cultural humility: measuring openness to culturally diverse clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Davis, Don E; Owen, Jesse; Worthington, Everett L; Utsey, Shawn O

    2013-07-01

    Building on recent theory stressing multicultural orientation, as well as the development of virtues and dispositions associated with multicultural values, we introduce the construct of cultural humility, defined as having an interpersonal stance that is other-oriented rather than self-focused, characterized by respect and lack of superiority toward an individual's cultural background and experience. In 4 studies, we provide evidence for the estimated reliability and construct validity of a client-rated measure of a therapist's cultural humility, and we demonstrate that client perceptions of their therapist's cultural humility are positively associated with developing a strong working alliance. Furthermore, client perceptions of their therapist's cultural humility were positively associated with improvement in therapy, and this relationship was mediated by a strong working alliance. We consider implications for research, practice, and training. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Clarifying concepts: cultural humility or competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Cultural competency in the delivery of health care to diverse population groups has become an urgent need in the United States. Yet, despite the incorporation of cultural competency education into nursing curricula, inequities in health care remain. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to identify if differences in perceptions of cultural competence were present in senior nursing students (N = 11) before and after cultural immersion experiences on an Indian reservation. Preimmersion results revealed that the majority considered themselves culturally competent, whereas after immersion, there was a downward shift in scores. Triangulation of the quantitative results alongside a hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of the students' reflective journals revealed a paradox. Students perceived themselves as culturally competent, yet their journals demonstrated many negative stereotypes. Three common themes emerged: seeing with closed eyes, seeing through a fused horizon, and disruption to reshaping. These combined results revealed the misperceptions regarding the concept of cultural competency. Efforts must be made in nursing education to teach students the importance of adopting an ethic of cultural humility, where we emphasize attentive listening and openness to other cultures, and stress the importance of self-reflection and self-critique in our interactions with others. © 2014.

  9. The Relationship between Forgiveness and Humility: A Case Study for University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardak, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships between humility and forgiveness. The participants were 346 university students. The Heartland Forgiveness Scale and Humility Scale were used as measures. Humility has four dimensions; openness, self-forgetfulness, modest self-assessment, focus on others. The relationships between…

  10. Humus and humility in ecosystem model design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ed

    2015-04-01

    Prediction is central to science. Empirical scientists couch their predictions as hypotheses and tend to deal with simple models such as regressions, but are modellers as much as are those who combine mechanistic hypotheses into more complex models. There are two main challenges for both groups: to strive for accurate predictions, and to ensure that the work is relevant to wider society. There is a role for blue-sky research, but the multiple environmental changes that characterise the 21st century place an onus on ecosystem scientists to develop tools for understanding environmental change and planning responses. Authors such as Funtowicz and Ravetz (1990) have argued that this situation represents "post-normal" science and that scientists should see themselves more humbly as actors within a societal process rather than as arbiters of truth. Modellers aim for generality, e.g. to accurately simulate the responses of a variety of ecosystems to several different environmental drivers. More accurate predictions can usually be achieved by including more explanatory factors or mechanisms in a model, even though this often results in a less efficient, less parsimonious model. This drives models towards ever-increasing complexity, and many models grow until they are effectively unusable beyond their development team. An alternative way forward is to focus on developing component models. Technologies for integrating dynamic models emphasise the removal of the model engine (algorithms) from code which handles time-stepping and the user interface. Developing components also requires some humility on the part of modellers, since collaboration will be needed to represent the whole system, and also because the idea that a simple component can or should represent the entire understanding of a scientific discipline is often difficult to accept. Policy-makers and land managers typically have questions different to those posed by scientists working within a specialism, and models

  11. Reflective journaling and development of cultural humility in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Jenny B; Wilder, Barbara; Byrd, Linda W

    2012-01-01

    Cultural humility requires self-evaluation and the awareness that one's own culture is not the only or best one. Teaching health care providers to become culturally humble includes the development of critical thinking skills and the ability to reflect on practice. Journaling as a teaching strategy helps students develop these skills. This article describes the use of reflective journaling as students progressed through four semesters of a community clinical experience. This qualitative, descriptive study was based on the principles of naturalistic inquiry with person-centered written reflections.Two hundred journal entries from 50 students were reviewed, and II themes were identified. Cultural humility cannot be learned merely in the classroom with traditional teaching methods. Reflection on experiences over time leads to the development of cultural humility.

  12. The Development and Validation of the Comprehensive Intellectual Humility Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei-Mancuso, Elizabeth J; Rouse, Steven V

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies was conducted to create the 22-item Comprehensive Intellectual Humility Scale on the basis of theoretical descriptions of intellectual humility, expert reviews, pilot studies, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The scale measures 4 distinct but intercorrelated aspects of intellectual humility, including independence of intellect and ego, openness to revising one's viewpoint, respect for others' viewpoints, and lack of intellectual overconfidence. Internal consistency and test-retest analyses provided reliable scale and subscale scores within numerous independent samples. Validation data were obtained from multiple, independent samples, supporting appropriate levels of convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. The analyses suggest that the scale has utility as a self-report measure for future research.

  13. Cultivating Humility and Diagnostic Openness in Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, John R

    2017-10-01

    In this case, a physician rejects a patient's concerns that tainted water is harming the patient and her community. Stereotypes and biases regarding socioeconomic class and race/ethnicity, constraining diagnostic frameworks, and fixed first impressions could skew the physician's judgment. This paper narratively illustrates how cultivating humility could help the physician truly hear the patient's suggestions. The discussion builds on the multifaceted concept of cultural humility as a lifelong journey that addresses not only stereotypes and biases but also power inequalities and community inequities. Insurgent multiculturalism is a complementary concept. Through epistemic humility-which includes both intellectual and emotional components-and admitting uncertainty, physicians can enhance patients' and families' epistemic authority and health agency. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Learning Cultural Humility Through Stories and Global Service-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew, Stephanie; Hockett, Eloise; Samek, Linda

    Service-learning experiences are utilized by nursing programs to increase cultural learning for students. Through storytelling, the concept of cultural humility can be explained to students preparing for upcoming intercultural experiences. This case study describes the experience of nursing students and educators on their first service-learning trip to Kenya, and how intercultural issues were navigated as students developed cultural humility. The story now is shared in preparation for subsequent international student nursing trips. The utilization of storytelling can be a model for others preparing for service-learning experiences.

  15. Humility, Relational Spirituality, and Well-being among Religious Leaders: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Peter J; Sandage, Steven J; Bell, Chance A; Ruffing, Elizabeth G; Adams, Chris

    2018-02-06

    Prior research has demonstrated positive associations between general humility and well-being, and posited a protective effect for intellectual humility against maladjustment among religious leaders. We tested a model that extended findings on general humility to include intellectual humility among religious leaders (N = 258; M age = 42.31; 43% female; 63.7% White; 91.9% Christian affiliation). We observed a positive general humility-well-being association. Contrary to expectations, we observed risk effects for religion-specific intellectual humility. Our findings also point to the possibility that these risk effects might be attenuated by the integration of high levels of general and intellectual humility.

  16. Humility and Forgiveness as Predictors of Teacher Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Ferudun; Erdogan, Onur

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the predictive influence of teachers' humility and forgiveness on their self-efficacy perceptions. The population of this research consists of teachers who work at public primary and secondary schools located in the central districts of Ankara, Turkey. The sample of the study is composed of 303 primary and secondary school…

  17. A Harvest of Humility: Agrarian Practice and Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppe, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Humility, the keystone of the virtues in the Christian spiritual tradition, has been dismissed by modern philosophers, critiqued by feminist theologians, and overpowered by our industrial and technological culture. The incorporation of agricultural experience in Christian higher education presents the opportunity to cultivate anew the virtue of…

  18. Intellectual Humility and Morality as Consultee-Centered Consultation Epistemologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Stephen D.; Kearney, Moriah A.; Davis, Don E.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    Little research examines how epistemological constructs affect the consultation process in schools. We consider how the epistemological constructs of (a) intellectual humility and (b) moral foundations may moderate the effectiveness of consultee-centered consultation. We define the constructs and provide examples of their potential influences on…

  19. Cultural Humility: An Active Concept to Drive Correctional Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steefel, Lorraine

    Correctional nursing practice is focused on a unique patient population: inmates who present with their own ethnicities and have an imposed culture from the prison structure. As such, culture must be considered to provide holistic care. Madeleine Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, which maintains that care is the essence of nursing (without inclusion of culture, there is no care), suggests three nursing actions: to maintain the patient's culture, make accommodations for it, and/or repattern cultural ways that may be unhealthful. Given that correctional nurses work within the context (and culture) of custody, Leininger's nursing actions may not always be feasible; however, showing an underlying attitude of cultural humility is. In this article, cultural humility, the basis of culturally competent care, is described in a manner that can drive nursing practice in corrections.

  20. Occupation, well-being, and culture: Theory and cultural humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.

  1. Honesty-humility under threat: Self-uncertainty destroys trust among the nice guys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Böhm, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Recent research on humans' prosociality has highlighted the crucial role of Honesty-Humility, a basic trait in the HEXACO personality model. There is overwhelming evidence that Honesty-Humility predicts prosocial behavior across a vast variety of situations. In the present contribution, we cloud this rosy picture, examining a condition under which individuals high in Honesty-Humility reduce prosocial behavior. Specifically, we propose that under self-uncertainty, it is particularly those individuals high in Honesty-Humility who reduce trust in unknown others and become less prosocial. In 5 studies, we assessed Honesty-Humility, manipulated self-uncertainty, and measured interpersonal trust or trust in social institutions using behavioral or questionnaire measures. In Study 1, individuals high (vs. low) in Honesty-Humility showed higher levels of trust. This relation was mediated by their positive social expectations about the trustworthiness of others. Inducing self-uncertainty decreased trust, particularly in individuals high in Honesty-Humility (Studies 2-5). Making use of measuring the mediator (Studies 2 and 3) and applying a causal chain design (Studies 4a and 4b), it is shown that individuals high in Honesty-Humility reduced trust because self-uncertainty decreased positive social expectations about others. We end with an applied perspective, showing that Honesty-Humility is predictive of trust in social institutions (e.g., trust in the police; Study 5a), and that self-uncertainty undermined trust in the police especially for individuals high in Honesty-Humility (Study 5b). By these means, the present research shows that individuals high in Honesty-Humility are not unconditionally prosocial. Further implications for Honesty-Humility as well as for research on self-uncertainty and trust are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Comparison of Teaching Strategies for Cultural Humility in Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparella-Pitzel, Susan; Eubanks, Robin; Kaplan, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    Cultural competence and cultural humility are ongoing processes that healthcare professionals should continually strive for in order to provide effective and comprehensive plans of care for patients. This 2-year, longitudinal, educational pilot study describes the levels of competency in second-year entry-level physical therapy students and compares the outcomes of three teaching strategies for cultural competence and cultural humility. All students received a standard 2-hour lecture; study volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two enriched educational groups, involving a standardized patient or a paper case enrichment. Students shifted from initial levels of "culturally incompetent" and/or "culturally aware" to "culturally competent" as measured by the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among Healthcare Professionals-Revised. This shift was maintained after 1.5 yrs following the exposure. Because the enriched educational groups were underpowered, preliminary quantitative data are inconclusive, but qualitative feedback from students is strongly positive. A minimal dose of a structured 2-hr lecture with a skilled instructor, who creates a safe environment for cultural learning, produced positive shifts toward greater cultural competence. Five processes emerged for teaching cultural humility that may assist in designing comprehensive educational experiences on this topic. A framework for organizing course content is presented.

  3. Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in an urban ecosystem near the Atlantic Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM. Kamura

    Full Text Available The relationships between an urban ecosystem located near the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil and ant communities were studied with the objective of quantifying the ant richness and abundance in the household environment and its surroundings. Eighty residences were sampled, where 58 species and 28 genera pertaining to 7 sub-families were found to be present. Inside the residences, the species richness was found to be lower (26, although the abundance was greater (10,670, with the wash area and kitchen being the locales that contributed with the greatest number of hits. The opposite was true in the areas outside the residences, where 54 species and 3,747 ants were observed. Inside houses, the species known as Tramp ants were found, in the following order of importance: Solenopsis -saevissima, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile, Paratrechina fulva, Wasmannia -auropunctata, P. -longicornis, Pheidole megacephala, Monomorium pharaonis and M. floricola. Externally, mainly in the yards and gardens, species such as Octostruma rugifera, Heteroponera dolo, Hypoponera sp.1 and sp.6, Gnamptogenys sp. 4, G. striatula, Odontomachus meinerti, Pachycondyla constricta and P. striata were found. In general, a greater number of species and lower abundance of individuals were observed in the neighborhoods nearer the mountains than in those closer to the urban center.

  4. Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Baits Against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Michael K; Soeprono, Andrew; Wright, Sarajean; Greenberg, Les; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Boser, Christina L; Cory, Coleen; Hanna, Cause

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective baits to control the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has been problematic because foragers prefer sweet liquids, while many toxicants are insoluble in water and liquid baits are generally difficult to deliver. The incorporation of thiamethoxam and sucrose solutions into a water-absorbing polyacrylamide hydrogel provides a unique and novel carrier and method of application for liquid baits. Formulations of thiamethoxam affected the size of the hydrogels, and sucrose solutions containing 0.0003% technical thiamethoxam provided hydrogels as large as those made with 25% sucrose solution or deionized water. Concentrations of thiamethoxam as low as 0.000075% in the hydrogels provided 50% kill of workers within 3 d in a laboratory setting. In small colony studies, baiting with 0.00015 and 0.000075% thiamethoxam hydrogels provided 100% mortality of workers and queens within 8 d. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that thiamethoxam was absorbed into the interior of the polyacrylamide matrix. The water loss rates of the hydrogels were dependent upon the relative humidity. Polyacrylamide hydrogels with >50% water loss were less attractive to ants. Field studies in highly infested areas indicated that concentrations of 0.0006 or 0.0018% thiamethoxam were more effective than 0.00015%. Hydrogels may provide a cost-effective alternative to providing aqueous baits to control Argentine ants. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Humility and respect: core values in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D

    2014-01-01

    Many of the values and behaviours described in the original Hippocratic Oath are relevant to medical education. In particular, the values of intellectual humility and respect for one's colleagues are essential in all scientific disciplines. There are three contexts within medical education from which to consider humility and respect: uncertainty; theory, and colleagues. As medical education grows in scope and participation, we will be required to acknowledge that we 'know not' with increasing frequency. The uncertainty of what we do and do not know is compounded by uncertainty about whether ignorance is individual or corporate. As difficult as it is to admit that we 'know not', it is dangerous NOT to recognise the limits of our knowledge and experience. Theories are critical tools in understanding complex phenomena. They identify constructs and relationships that are important and those that are irrelevant. We tend to forget that theories are models or simplified representations of reality and not in themselves 'truths'. Viewing problems from other theoretical perspectives can widen our horizons by allowing us to identify possibly important concepts and relationships that we have not considered. Colleagues are invaluable for helping us respond to our 'knowing not' and for providing alternative perspectives when our theories lead us astray. However, colleagues come in many guises and include close colleagues, as well as those in distant fields. As obviously desirable as humility and respect seem to be, there are conflicts that prevent us from being humble and respectful. Such conflicts include other salient professional values, such as critical scepticism, competition and confidence. Adoption of the values of humility and respect in medical education can be fostered through intentional behaviours, both as individuals and as a discipline. We can deliberately seek to broaden our horizons to promote intellectual humility. We can foster collaboration among colleagues

  6. A quiet ego quiets death anxiety: humility as an existential anxiety buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Pelin

    2014-04-01

    Five studies tested the hypothesis that a quiet ego, as exemplified by humility, would buffer death anxiety. Humility is characterized by a willingness to accept the self and life without comforting illusions, and by low levels of self-focus. As a consequence, it was expected to render mortality thoughts less threatening and less likely to evoke potentially destructive behavior patterns. In line with this reasoning, Study 1 found that people high in humility do not engage in self-serving moral disengagement following mortality reminders, whereas people low in humility do. Study 2 showed that only people low in humility respond to death reminders with increased fear of death, and established that this effect was driven uniquely by humility and not by some other related personality trait. In Study 3, a low sense of psychological entitlement decreased cultural worldview defense in response to death thoughts, whereas a high sense of entitlement tended to increase it. Study 4 demonstrated that priming humility reduces self-reported death anxiety relative to both a baseline and a pride priming condition. Finally, in Study 5, experimentally induced feelings of humility prevented mortality reminders from leading to depleted self-control. As a whole, these findings obtained from relatively diverse Internet samples illustrate that the dark side of death anxiety is brought about by a noisy ego only and not by a quiet ego, revealing self-transcendence as a sturdier, healthier anxiety buffer than self-enhancement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Broadening Rehabilitation Education and Research through Cultural Humility: A Conceptual Framework for Rehabilitation Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Nan Zhang; Guillermo, Mari S.; Tucker, Mark; Nichols, Tayler

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this conceptual article is to present a framework that incorporates the concept of culture humility into effective rehabilitation services. Method: Based on a comprehensive literature review and theoretical integration, this article provides the reader with the basic concept of cultural humility, similarities and…

  8. Humility as an Educational Paradigm in Leadership Development Programmes: The Singapore Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Hean, Lim; Guat Tin, Low

    2008-01-01

    Background: The concept of humility invariably emerges as part of serendipitous findings in the limited research conducted in Singapore that pertains to this area. There has not been subsequent significant academic research in the local context since the nineties with regard to the seemingly insignificant notion of humility. It is under such a…

  9. The relationship between physician humility, physician-patient communication, and patient health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberton, Peter M; Huynh, Ho P; Miller, Tricia A; Kruse, Elliott; Chancellor, Joseph; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2016-07-01

    Cultural portrayals of physicians suggest an unclear and even contradictory role for humility in the physician-patient relationship. Despite the social importance of humility, however, little empirical research has linked humility in physicians with patient outcomes or the characteristics of the doctor-patient visit. The present study investigated the relationship between physician humility, physician-patient communication, and patients' perceptions of their health during a planned medical visit. Primary care physician-patient interactions (297 patients across 100 physicians) were rated for the physician's humility and the effectiveness of the physician-patient communication. Additionally, patients reported their overall health and physicians and patients reported their satisfaction with the interaction. Within-physician fluctuations in physician humility and self-reported patient health positively predicted one another, and mean-level differences in physician humility predicted effective physician-patient communication, even when controlling for the patient's and physician's satisfaction with the visit and the physician's frustration with the patient. The results suggest that humble, rather than paternalistic or arrogant, physicians are most effective at working with their patients. Interventions to improve physician humility may promote better communication between health care providers and patients, and, in turn, better patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relationship between Principals' Confidence, Humility, and Effectiveness: A Study of Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyer, Brenda J.

    2011-01-01

    Humility in leadership has received growing attention in both the popular press and academic journals in recent years. A number of studies have asserted, based on theoretical or conceptual analyses, that humility plays an important role in effective leadership. However, there is a paucity of empirical research on the relationship between humility…

  11. Humility pills: building an ethics of cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Rob

    2014-06-01

    The use of cognition-enhancing drugs (CEDs) appears to be increasingly common in both academic and workplace settings. But many universities and businesses have not yet engaged with the ethical challenges raised by CED use. This paper considers criticisms of CED use with a particular focus on the Accomplishment Argument: an influential set of claims holding that enhanced work is less dignified, valuable, or authentic, and that cognitive enhancement damages our characters. While the Accomplishment Argument assumes a view of authorship based on individual credit-taking, an impersonal or collaborative view is just as possible. This paper considers the benefits of this view-including humility, a value often claimed by critics of enhancement-and argues that such a view is consistent with open CED use. It proposes an ethics of cognitive enhancement based on toleration, transparency, and humility, and it discusses how institutions and individuals can build a culture of open cognitive enhancement. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Antecedents of Interview faking: Honesty-Humility and Warning instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Law

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the antecedents and processes that impact job interviewees’ decisions to engage in deceptive impression management (i.e. interview faking. Willingness and capacity to engage in faking were found to be the processes underlying the decision to use deceptive impression management in the interview. We also examined a personality antecedent to this behaviour, Honesty-Humility, which was negatively related to the use of deceptive impression management through increased willingness to engage in these behaviours. We also tested a possible intervention to reduce IM. In particular, we found that warnings against faking – specifically, an identification warning - reduced both the perceived capacity to engage in interview faking, and subsequent use of several faking behaviors. Moreover, this warning reduced faking without adversely impacting applicant reactions.

  13. Level 5 leadership. The triumph of humility and fierce resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J

    2001-01-01

    Boards of directors typically believe that transforming a company from merely good to truly great requires a larger-than-life personality--an egocentric chief to lead the corporate charge. Think "Chainsaw" Al Dunlap or Lee Iacocca. In fact, that's not the case, says author and leadership expert Jim Collins. The essential ingredient for taking a company to greatness is having a "Level 5" leader at the helm--an executive in whom extreme personal humility blends paradoxically with intense professional will. Collins paints a compelling and counter-intuitive portrait of the skills and personality traits necessary for effective leadership. He identifies the characteristics common to Level 5 leaders: humility, will, ferocious resolve, and the tendency to give credit to others while assigning blame to themselves. Collins fleshes out his Level 5 theory by telling colorful tales about 11 such leaders from recent business history. He contrasts the turnaround successes of outwardly humble, even shy, executives like Gillette's Colman M. Mockler and Kimberly-Clark's Darwin E. Smith with those of larger-than-life business leaders like Dunlap and Iacocca, who courted personal celebrity. The jury is still out on how to cultivate Level 5 leaders and whether it's even possible to do so, Collins admits. Some leaders have the Level 5 seed within; some don't. But Collins suggests using the findings from his research to strive for Level 5--for instance, getting the right people on board and creating a culture of discipline. "Our own lives and all that we touch will be better for the effort," he concludes.

  14. Development and validation of a multi-dimensional measure of intellectual humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Mark; Iurino, Kathryn; Stey, Paul; Robinson, Brian; Christen, Markus; Yu, Feng; Lapsley, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents five studies on the development and validation of a scale of intellectual humility. This scale captures cognitive, affective, behavioral, and motivational components of the construct that have been identified by various philosophers in their conceptual analyses of intellectual humility. We find that intellectual humility has four core dimensions: Open-mindedness (versus Arrogance), Intellectual Modesty (versus Vanity), Corrigibility (versus Fragility), and Engagement (versus Boredom). These dimensions display adequate self-informant agreement, and adequate convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity. In particular, Open-mindedness adds predictive power beyond the Big Six for an objective behavioral measure of intellectual humility, and Intellectual Modesty is uniquely related to Narcissism. We find that a similar factor structure emerges in Germanophone participants, giving initial evidence for the model's cross-cultural generalizability.

  15. Explaining workplace delinquency : The role of Honesty–Humility, ethical culture, and employee surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Reinout E.; van Gelder, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    In this research the effects of personality and organizational characteristics on workplace delinquency were investigated. In a sample of 455 respondents from a wide variety of organizations, two personality traits, HEXACO Honesty–Humility and Conscientiousness, and two organizational

  16. Explaining Workplace Delinquency: The role of Honesty-Humility, ethical culture, and employee surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.E.; van Gelder, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    In this research the effects of personality and organizational characteristics on workplace delinquency were investigated. In a sample of 455 respondents from a wide variety of organizations, two personality traits, HEXACO Honesty-Humility and Conscientiousness, and two organizational

  17. Honesty-humility in contemporary students: manipulations of self-image by inflated IQ estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, P J

    2014-08-01

    The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance, and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r = -.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students' self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  18. Honesty-humility and a person-situation interaction at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Person-situation interactions have attracted researchers' attention for decades. Likewise, the current work focuses on the interaction of honesty-humility and situational conditions in bringing about counterproductive work behaviour (CWB). As such, we introduce perceptions of organizational...... politics as a situational construct representing an opportunity for CWB. In a sample of N = 148 employees we found that particularly individuals low in honesty-humility were affected by situational circumstances. By contrast, those high in honesty-humility reported practically the same (lower) amount...... of CWB independent of the level of perceptions of organizational politics. In other words, employees low in honesty-humility were especially likely to condition their behaviour on environmental factors, a result that mirrors previous findings....

  19. Humility when responding to the abuse of adults with mental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Paul

    Legal theorists often reduce the ethics of responding to the abuse of another person to a clash between the principles of autonomy and protection. This reduction is a problem. Responding to suspected abuse requires humility - the potential responder must be aware of and respect their own limits - but humility cannot be usefully reduced to protection and autonomy. Using examples from the Court of Protection of England and Wales, this article examines the different ways that someone responding to abuse should respect their own limits, and suggests that a failure to do so will disproportionately affect people with mental disabilities. It is therefore necessary to attend to whether the law fosters humility among those who respond to abuse, although this must be tempered by humility about legal reform itself. Finally, the article shows how attention to humility can assist the interpretation of Article 16 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; and suggests that, so interpreted, the Convention may help to promote humility when responding to abuse. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lucky, Competent, or Just a Cheat? Interactive Effects of Honesty-Humility and Moral Cues on Cheating Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinlogel, Emmanuelle P; Dietz, Joerg; Antonakis, John

    2018-02-01

    Despite substantial research on cheating, how and when individual predispositions figure into cheating behavior remains unclear. In Study 1, we investigated to what extent Honesty-Humility predicted cheating behavior. As expected, individuals high on Honesty-Humility were less likely to cheat than were individuals low on this trait. In Study 2, integrating arguments from personality research about traits with arguments from behavioral ethics about moral primes, we examined how Honesty-Humility and situational primes interacted to affect cheating. We found an interaction indicating that individuals high on Honesty-Humility consistently did not cheat much across situational primes, whereas individuals low on Honesty-Humility cheated more when exposed to immoral primes than when exposed to moral primes. Our research invites reflection about the interplay of individual differences in Honesty-Humility and situational cues in predicting cheating, including the design of anti-cheating systems and the context in which these person and situation factors interact.

  1. Leader Humility and Team Innovation: Investigating the Substituting Role of Task Interdependence and the Mediating Role of Team Voice Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxing; Mao, Jianghua; Chen, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Leadership has been found to be linked with team innovation. Based on social information processing theory and substitutes for leadership theory, this paper examines the influence of leader humility on team innovation. Results from 90 teams showed that leader humility will enhance team innovation by fostering team voice climate. Further, task interdependence substitutes the effect of leader humility on team innovation through an indirect way via team voice climate. This study discussed the theoretical and practical implementations of these observations.

  2. Leader Humility and Team Innovation: Investigating the Substituting Role of Task Interdependence and the Mediating Role of Team Voice Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Leadership has been found to be linked with team innovation. Based on social information processing theory and substitutes for leadership theory, this paper examines the influence of leader humility on team innovation. Results from 90 teams showed that leader humility will enhance team innovation by fostering team voice climate. Further, task interdependence substitutes the effect of leader humility on team innovation through an indirect way via team voice climate. This study discussed the theoretical and practical implementations of these observations.

  3. Leader Humility and Team Innovation: Investigating the Substituting Role of Task Interdependence and the Mediating Role of Team Voice Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wenxing; Mao, Jianghua; Chen, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Leadership has been found to be linked with team innovation. Based on social information processing theory and substitutes for leadership theory, this paper examines the influence of leader humility on team innovation. Results from 90 teams showed that leader humility will enhance team innovation by fostering team voice climate. Further, task interdependence substitutes the effect of leader humility on team innovation through an indirect way via team voice climate. This study discussed the th...

  4. Exploring the relationships among humility, negative interaction in the church, and depressed affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test three hypotheses involving humility. The first hypothesis specifies that people who are more deeply involved in religion will be more humble than individuals who are not as involved in religion. The second hypothesis predicts that humility will offset the effects of negative interaction in the church on depressed affect scores. The third hypothesis specifies that there will be a positive relationship between age and humility. The data come from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, a nationwide survey of middle-aged and older Christians who attend church on a regular basis (N = 1154). The findings suggest that people who are more committed to their faith tend to be more humble. The results also reveal that negative interaction in the church is greater for people with lower humility scores than individuals with higher humility scores. In contrast, the data indicate that older adults are not more humble than middle-aged people. The findings are noteworthy because they identify a source of resilience that may help middle-aged and older adults cope more effectively with the effects of stress.

  5. Pillars of cooperation: Honesty-Humility, social value orientations, and economic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbig, B.E.; Zettler, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    The current work explores the predictive power of the recently proposed sixth personality dimension, Honesty-Humility, with respect to economic and cooperative behavior. It was expected that this factor should explain how decision makers allocate a valued good to themselves vs. another in the dic......The current work explores the predictive power of the recently proposed sixth personality dimension, Honesty-Humility, with respect to economic and cooperative behavior. It was expected that this factor should explain how decision makers allocate a valued good to themselves vs. another...... in the dictator and the ultimatum game. More importantly, we predicted that Honesty-Humility would explain differences between these games in which the power of the recipient to retaliate is varied. Both conjectures were corroborated in a semi-experimental study with N = 134 participants: individuals low...... in Honesty-Humility made more selfish decisions and only shifted towards a more fair allocation whenever the other was empowered to punish defection. Those high in Honesty-Humility, on the other hand, displayed a stable tendency for choosing a more fair solution - even when they could have defected without...

  6. On the impact of honesty-humility and a cue of being watched on cheating behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon; Nockur, Laila

    2018-01-01

    The present contribution examines two factors, as well as their interplay, prominently discussed in the literature on cheating: The basic personality trait of Honesty-Humility from the HEXACO personality model and cues of being watched when given the possibility to cheat. In two studies (Study 1 N...... = 192, Study 2 N = 957), we applied economically incentivized cheating paradigms (a dice-rolling paradigm and a coin-toss paradigm) and replicated the previously found negative relation between Honesty-Humility and cheating behavior. We further demonstrated that this relation holds beyond the dark...... personality traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism (i.e., the Dark Tetrad). In fact, Honesty-Humility fully absorbed the positive correlations of Dark Tetrad dimensions and cheating. However, we failed to obtain statistically significant results with respect to the other analyzed...

  7. Toxicidade do extrato aquoso das folhas de Anacardium humile para Bemisia tuberculata Toxicity of aqueous extract of Anacardium humile leaves on Bemisia tuberculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nézio Nery de Andrade Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923 (Hem.: Aleyrodidae é uma das principais pragas da cultura da mandioca no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; no entanto, não há produtos registrados para seu controle. Produtos vegetais podem constituir em alternativa viável de controle de insetos e, por sua fotodegradabilidade, diminuir os riscos ao ambiente e ao homem. Objetivou-se, por meio deste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do extrato aquoso do "cajuzinho-do-cerrado" Anacardium humile St Hill (Anacardeaceae, nas concentrações de 2,0; 0,8; 0,4 e 0,05%, sobre a biologia de B. tuberculata, bem como identificar a classe de metabólitos secundários presentes no referido extrato. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, sob temperatura de 26±4°C. O extrato aquoso de A. humile causou aumento da duração da fase larval e mortalidade significativamente superior à testemunha em todas as concentrações testadas. Concluiu-se que o extrato aquoso de folhas de A. humile provoca mortalidade em ninfas de B. tuberculata e alongamento da fase das ninfas sobreviventes. O extrato aquoso de folhas de A. humile apresenta taninos, açúcares redutores e saponinas, e o seu índice de espuma (Índice Afrosimétrico é de 1250.The whitefly Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923 (Hem.: Aleyrodidae is the main pest of cassava crops in Mato Grosso do Sul state, however there are no products registered for its control. Plant products may represent a viable alternative for insect pest control and, due to their photo-degradability, they may reduce risks to the environment and to man. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of "cajuzinho-do-cerrado" Anacardium humile St Hill (Anacardeaceae aqueous leaf extract on the biology of B. tuberculata at the concentrations 2.0; 0.8; 0.4; 0.05%, as well as to identify the class of secondary metabolites present in the referred extract. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at a temperature of 26±4°C. The

  8. Leader humility and team creativity: The role of team information sharing, psychological safety, and power distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Erdogan, Berrin; Jiang, Kaifeng; Bauer, Talya N; Liu, Songbo

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we identify leader humility, characterized by being open to admitting one's limitations, shortcomings, and mistakes, and showing appreciation and giving credit to followers, as a critical leader characteristic relevant for team creativity. Integrating the literatures on creativity and leadership, we explore the relationship between leader humility and team creativity, treating team psychological safety and team information sharing as mediators. Further, we hypothesize and examine team power distance as a moderator of the relationship. We tested our hypotheses using data gathered from 72 work teams and 354 individual members from 11 information and technology firms in China using a multiple-source, time-lagged research design. We found that the positive relationship between leader humility and team information sharing was significant and positive only within teams with a low power distance value. In addition, leader humility was negatively related to team psychological safety in teams with a high power distance value, whereas the relationship was positive yet nonsignificant in teams with low power distance. Furthermore, team information sharing and psychological safety were both significantly related to team creativity. We discuss theoretical and practical implications for leadership and work teams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Development and validation of a multi-dimensional measure of intellectual humility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfano, M.R.; Iurino, Kathryn; Stey, Paul; Robinson, Brian; Christen, Markus; Yu, Feng; Lapsley, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents five studies on the development and validation of a scale of intellectual humility. This scale captures cognitive, affective, behavioral, and motivational components of the construct that have been identified by various philosophers in their conceptual analyses of intellectual

  10. Reconciling Forms of Asian Humility with Assessment Practices and Character Education Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    When assessing North American students' oral participation in classes, should all students be subject to the same evaluation criteria or should teachers make reasonable allowances for Asian students practicing humility? How do we weigh the promotion of "courage" through character education initiatives with traditional Asian dispositions?…

  11. Broad versus narrow traits: Conscientiousness and Honesty-Humility as predictors of academic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.; de Vries, R.E.; Born, M.Ph.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the six-dimensional personality model, and especially the dimension Honesty-Humility/Integrity, adds incremental validity to the prediction of important criteria. We expected both this dimension and the dimension Conscientiousness to explain incremental variance in

  12. Delivering Effective Blended Learning: Managing the Dichotomy of Humility and Hubris in Executive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, James; McKee, Dorothy; Donnelly, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    The dichotomy of humility and hubris among participants in Executive Education courses presents faculty with a source of heterogeneity not disclosed through the common descriptive statistics of sex, age, education and employment. This article discusses the impact of this dichotomy on the design and delivery of effective executive education. In…

  13. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, BM; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude Elberink, JNG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula

  14. Sex determination in the Hymenoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimpel, George E.; de Boer, Jetske G.

    2008-01-01

    The dominant and ancestral mode of sex determination in the Hymenoptera is arrhenotokous parthenogenesis, in which diploid females develop from fertilized eggs and haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs. We discuss recent progress in the understanding of the genetic and cytoplasmic mechanisms

  15. Enkele bijzondere bijenwaarnemingen (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, I.P.

    2000-01-01

    Some interesting records on Dutch bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) The publication of the preliminary atlas of Dutch bees (Peeters et al. 1999) has stimulated many specialists in their mapping activity. The author reports several interesting new distribution records on ten bee-species in 1999. The Dutch

  16. Religious and Spiritual Salience, Well-Being, and Psychosocial Functioning Among Psychotherapy Clients: Moderator Effects for Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, David R; Sandage, Steven J; Ruffing, Elizabeth G; Hill, Peter C

    2018-04-21

    A number of studies have examined the mediating factors in the relationship between religion and spirituality (R/S) and psychological health. Humility is a virtue that has been positively correlated with R/S variables, measures of well-being, and indicators of psychosocial functioning. In this study, we investigate dispositional humility as a potential moderator in the relationship between religious and spiritual salience and (1) well-being and (2) psychosocial functioning outcomes in a clinical sample. Results indicated that dispositional humility significantly moderated the relationships tested. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  17. Initiating and utilizing shared leadership in teams: The role of leader humility, team proactive personality, and team performance capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chia-Yen Chad; Owens, Bradley P; Tesluk, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to produce novel theoretical insight regarding how leader humility and team member characteristics foster the conditions that promote shared leadership and when shared leadership relates to team effectiveness. Drawing on social information processing theory and adaptive leadership theory, we propose that leader humility facilitates shared leadership by promoting leadership-claiming and leadership-granting interactions among team members. We also apply dominance complementary theory to propose that team proactive personality strengthens the impact of leader humility on shared leadership. Finally, we predict that shared leadership will be most strongly related to team performance when team members have high levels of task-related competence. Using a sample composed of 62 Taiwanese professional work teams, we find support for our proposed hypothesized model. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for team leadership, humility, team composition, and shared leadership are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Power that Builds Others and Power that Breaks: Effects of Power and Humility on Altruism and Incivility in Female Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, David J; Farmer, Steven M

    2018-01-02

    Building on the approach/inhibition theory of power and the situated focus theory of power, we examine the roles of positional and personal power on altruism and incivility in workplace dyads. Results from a field study in daycare centers showed that legitimate power (a dimension of positional power) was positively associated with incivility. In contrast, personal power-referent power and expert power-was positively associated altruism and was negatively associated with incivility. Referent power was a stronger predictor of both altruism and incivility for individuals with low humility than those with high humility. Coercive power was a stronger predictor of incivility for individuals with high humility than those with low humility.

  19. Humility and 12-Step Recovery: A Prolegomenon for the Empirical Investigation of a Cardinal Virtue in Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Stephen G; Pagano, Maria E; Lee, Matthew T; Johnson, Byron R

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) offers a live stage to study how humility is worn by thousands for another day of sobriety and more freedom from the bondage of self. It has been the coauthors' intent to emphasize the significance of humility as a cardinal virtue across the 12-Step program and as essential to all its key elements. The coauthors have placed this emphasis in the context of a wider theological history of thought as this converged on Bill W. and AA. In addition, the coauthors have offered a constructive developmental interpretation of the 12 Steps that relies on a model of four modulations of humility. Finally, the coauthors have reviewed in brief some approaches to the measurement of humility in this context, and suggest several aims for future research.

  20. The Impact of Job Insecurity on Counterproductive Work Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Honesty-Humility Personality Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The detrimental effects of job insecurity on individual and organizational well-being are well documented in recent literature. Job insecurity as a stressor is generally associated with a higher presence of negative attitudes toward the organization. In this article, the moderating role of Honesty-Humility personality trait was investigated. It was assumed that Honesty-Humility would function as a psychological moderator of the job insecurity impact on counterproductive work behaviors. Participants were 203 workers who were administered a self-reported questionnaire. Results confirmed that job insecurity was positively related to counterproductive work behaviors whereas Honesty-Humility was negatively associated to them. More importantly, Honesty-Humility moderated this relationship, even after controlling for gender, age, type of contract, and the other HEXACO personality traits. For individuals with low Honesty-Humility, job insecurity was positively related to counterproductive work behaviors, whereas for individuals with high Honesty-Humility, job insecurity turned out to be unrelated to counterproductive work behaviors.

  1. Assessing the relationships among race, religion, humility, and self-forgiveness: A longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2015-06-01

    Social and behavioral scientists have shown a growing interest in the study of virtues due, in part, to the influence of positive psychology. The underlying premise in this research is that adopting key virtues promotes a better quality of life. Consistent with this orientation, the purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between humility and self-forgiveness over time. The analyses are organized around three issues. First, it is proposed that older Blacks will be more humble than older Whites and older Blacks will be more likely to forgive themselves than older Whites. Second, it is hypothesized that, over time, more humble older people are more likely to forgive themselves than individuals who are less humble. Third, it is proposed that greater involvement in religion is associated with greater humility and greater self-forgiveness. Data from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults provides support for all these hypotheses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recovery and the role of humility: insights from a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Walter, Garry; Hungerford, Catherine L

    2014-02-01

    When the individuals comprising a profession are focused more on competition rather than service to others, and when holding a significant place on the world stage is held in higher esteem than meaningful collaboration with the disempowered, is it possible to be truly consumer-centred? This article considers the notion of humility in the context of recovery and the challenges to the effective implementation of recovery-oriented services that have been identified. Insights are drawn from a case study analysis of the implementation of recovery approaches to health care into a publicly-funded mental health service located in Australia. While challenges to the operationalization of recovery are complex, we argue that the professional quality of humility provides an important means by which genuine and meaningful collaboration can be achieved among health professionals, consumers, carers, and other stakeholders.

  3. Cultural humility and the importance of long-term relationships in international partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an education, leadership, and health professional interchange project in the Dominican Republic. It emphasizes the importance of long-term relationships and explores how over time, dialogue has led to cultural humility, self-reflection, and empowerment among nursing colleagues across national boundaries, despite differences in assumptions. The project is an example of a north-south collaboration encouraged by the World Health Organization to strengthen nursing and midwifery globally.

  4. Are dishonest extraverts more harmful than dishonest introverts? The interaction effects of honesty-humility and extraversion in predicting workplace deviance

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, I.S.; Lee, K.; Ashton, M.C.; de Vries, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Honesty-Humility, one of the six major personality dimensions included in the HEXACO model of personality structure, has previously been found to show negative correlations with workplace deviance. In this study, we hypothesised that Extraversion would moderate the relationship between Honesty-Humility and workplace deviance. In particular, we posited that the relation between Honesty-Humility and workplace deviance would be stronger among employees who are high on Extraversion than among tho...

  5. Leader narcissism and follower outcomes: The counterbalancing effect of leader humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Bradley P; Wallace, Angela S; Walker, Angela S; Waldman, David A

    2015-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(4) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-29666-001). The last name of the second author was misspelled in the Online First version of the article. All versions of this article have been corrected.] In response to recent calls to theorize and examine how multiple leader characteristics may work together in their effects, the current research examines how leader narcissism and humility interact to predict perceived leader effectiveness and follower (i.e., direct-report) job engagement and performance. Although an examination of leaders who are narcissistic yet humble may seem oxymoronic and even paradoxical, researchers have suggested that seemingly contradictory personal attributes may exist simultaneously and may actually work together to produce positive outcomes. Results from survey data from followers and leaders working for a large health insurance organization showed that the interaction of leader narcissism and leader humility is associated with perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower job engagement, and subjective and objective follower job performance. Together, these results suggest that narcissistic leaders can have positive effects on followers when their narcissism is tempered by humility. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Rethinking trait conceptions of social desirability scales: impression management as an expression of honesty-humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Reinout E; Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2014-06-01

    Numerous researchers have noted that, instead of response sets or styles, most social desirability scales seem to measure personality traits instead. In two studies, we investigated the substantive interpretation of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding in terms of the HEXACO model of personality. Because of its focus on honesty and integrity, the Impression Management (IM) scale was hypothesized to be mainly related to HEXACO Honesty-Humility. In the main study among 1,106 students and well-acquainted others (friends, family, or partners), positive self-other agreement correlations were found for both IM (r = .45) and Self-Deceptive Enhancement (SDE; r = .34), supporting a trait conception of IM and SDE. In both self- and other ratings, the most important predictors of SDE were (low) Emotionality, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. IM was associated with Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, but Honesty-Humility was by far its most important predictor. In a subsample (n = 465), Honesty-Humility and IM were unrelated to GPA. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Polyacrylamide hydrogels: an effective tool for delivering liquid baits to pest ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Roper, Elray; Chin, Darren

    2014-04-01

    Ant management in urban and natural areas often relies on toxic baits. Liquid baits are highly attractive to pest ants because they mimic natural food sources such as honeydew and nectar, the principal dietary components of many ants. However, liquid bait use has been limited owing to the lack of bait dispensers that are effective, inexpensive, and easy to service. The current study evaluated the potential of water-storing crystals (polyacrylamide spheres) to effectively deliver liquid thiamethoxam baits to laboratory colonies of Argentine ants, Linepithema humile Mayr. Results of laboratory trials show that bait crystals saturated in 25% sucrose solution containing 0.007% thiamethoxam are highly attractive to Argentine ants and highly effective against all castes and life stages, including workers, queens, and brood. Fresh bait crystals were highly effective and required approximately 2 d to kill all workers and approximately 6 d to achieve complete mortality in queens and brood. Results of bait aging tests show that the crystals lose approximately 70% of moisture in 8 h and the duration of outdoor exposure has a significant effect on moisture loss and subsequently bait acceptance and bait efficacy. A gradual decrease in mortality was observed for all castes and life stages as bait age increased. In general, fresh baits and those aged for ants that obtain thiamethoxam by feeding on bait crystals effectively transfer it to untreated recipient ants. The level of secondary mortality depended on the donor:recipient ratio, with approximately 40% recipient worker mortality with the 1:5 ratio and 15% recipient worker mortality with 1:10 or 1:20 ratios. However, no queens died in any transfer tests, suggesting that multiple feedings from multiple donors may be necessary to produce queen mortality. The results of the transfer tests demonstrate the role of trophallaxis in the distribution of thiamethoxam and confirm that thiamethoxam is effectively transferred in Argentine

  8. Biodiversity and global health—hubris, humility and the unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    generations. There is much to be learnt from the indigenous and local communities who depend directly on, value spiritually, and fight for, their biodiverse ecosystems. And perhaps the most difficult thing to learn is the humility that these communities have—they do not assume that they know enough about the ecosystem to be able to decide which species the planet needs and which it does not. They do not hold a model that sees human beings as separate from their global ecosystem in all its complex biological and cultural diversity. They do not see themselves as owners of the planet, but as guardians of it for the future. 2012 will see a plethora of UN and government meetings devoted to the Rio +20 summit and its theme of a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication. Biodiversity and climate change should be key concerns of this meeting. But it will not be global summits that protect biodiversity or reduce the emissions that produce climate change—and it will not be scientists arguing for and against the utilitarian concept of ecosystem services. The real decision-makers will be every human on the planet and their resource needs and their choices. We have some evidence of what the global population 'needs', in terms of food, water and shelter [36], but we do not know for sure what they will 'choose'. More worryingly, even if the global population chooses to change their view of the planet and their place in it, and to reduce resource consumption to sustainable levels, we do not know if we will be in time. ERL focus issue on biodiversity, human health and well-being ERL is contributing to Rio + 20 through a special issue devoted to the issues of biodiversity, human health and well-being. We particularly welcome papers from scientists and community groups working on biodiversity from the perspective of a broad understanding of health and well-being, including spiritual, cultural and intergenerational aspects; urban groups working on

  9. Humility, lifetime trauma, and change in religious doubt among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R David

    2012-12-01

    Compared to research on the positive or beneficial effects of religion on health, far fewer studies have been designed to examine the potentially negative aspects of religion. The purpose of this study is to examine a potentially negative part of leading a religious life--religious doubt. More specifically, the current study was designed to assess the relationships among humility, exposure to lifetime trauma, and change in religious doubt over time. Two hypotheses were developed to explore the relationships among these constructs. The first hypothesis predicts that greater exposure to traumatic events at any point in the life course will be associated with greater doubts about religion over time. The second hypothesis proposes that the potentially deleterious effects of exposure to lifetime trauma will be buffered or offset for individuals who are more humble. Findings from a nationwide, longitudinal survey of older adults provide support for both hypotheses. This appears to be the first time that the relationship among humility, lifetime trauma, and change in religious doubt has been evaluated empirically.

  10. "A Word can become a Seed": A Lesson Learned about Cultural Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward Kangsuhp

    2016-12-01

    Culturally competent cancer care approaches are necessary to effectively engage ethnic and racial minorities. This reflection shares personal insights on this subject gained throughout my journey from a young immigrant to a medical and public health student in the USA. The death of a friend prompted me to explore what I had deemed as my family's taboo subjects: discussing illness, cancer, and death in the family. However, I eventually realized that it was I who perceived it as taboo subjects. When I inquired earnestly about their health beliefs and values and asked questions in a way that respected those beliefs and values, my family was quite willing to talk about these uncomfortable topics. Subsequent encounters with minority patients and the process of synthesizing this reflection helped me recognize that the way I successfully addressed what I had erroneously assumed to be taboo subjects embodied the idea of cultural humility and can also be applied to issues with other minority patients and families. This recognition will not only make me a better physician but also allow me to become a strong advocate of cultural humility, especially in cancer care and education.

  11. Servant Leadership and the Effect of the Interaction Between Humility, Action, and Hierarchical Power on Follower Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sousa (Milton); D. van Dierendonck (Dirk)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractServant leadership has been theorized as a model where the moral virtue of humility co-exists with action-driven behavior. This article provides an empirical study that tests how these two apparently paradoxical aspects of servant leadership interact in generating follower engagement,

  12. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Chaves, Bárbara Aparecida; Murta, Felipe Leão Gomes; Sachett, Jacqueline Almeida Gonçalves; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Silva, Vanessa Costa; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015). RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrate...

  13. Hubris to humility: Tonal volume and the fundamentality of psychophysical quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Alistair M C

    Psychophysics measures the attributes of perceptual experience. The question of whether some of these attributes should be interpreted as more fundamental, or "real," than others has been answered differently throughout its history. The operationism of Stevens and Boring answers "no," reacting to the perceived vacuity of earlier debates about fundamentality. The subsequent rise of multidimensional scaling (MDS) implicitly answers "yes" in its insistence that psychophysical data be represented in spaces of low dimensionality. I argue the return of fundamentality follows from a trend toward increasing epistemic humility. Operationism exhibited a kind of hubris in the constitutive role it assigned to the experimenter's presuppositions that is abandoned by the algorithmic methods of MDS. This broad epistemic trend is illustrated by following the trajectory of research on a particular candidate attribute: tonal volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The HEXACO Honesty-Humility, Agreeableness, and Emotionality factors: a review of research and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom; de Vries, Reinout E

    2014-05-01

    We review research and theory on the HEXACO personality dimensions of Honesty-Humility (H), Agreeableness (A), and Emotionality (E), with particular attention to the following topics: (1) the origins of the HEXACO model in lexical studies of personality structure, and the content of the H, A, and E factors in those studies; (2) the operationalization of the H, A, and E factors in the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised; (3) the construct validity of self-reports on scales measuring the H factor; (4) the theoretical distinction between H and A; (5) similarity and assumed similarity between social partners in personality, with a focus on H and A; (6) the extent to which H (and A and E) variance is represented in instruments assessing the "Five-Factor Model" of personality; and (7) the relative validity of scales assessing the HEXACO and Five-Factor Model dimensions in predicting criteria conceptually relevant to H, A, and E.

  15. The Power of Being Vulnerable in Christian Soul Care: Common Humanity and Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyubo

    2017-02-01

    Soul caregivers often hesitate to be vulnerable in their pastoral practices. Jesus, however, embraced his vulnerabilities as a human to redeem humanity even though he was the Son of God. This paper first explores the dynamics of shame and power that make soul caregivers reluctant to accept their vulnerabilities and then describes the contributions of sharing caregiver's vulnerabilities in a soul care practice. This article argues that being vulnerable allows a soul caregiver to imitate Jesus by sharing in the client's common humanity, initiating an authentic relationship between the client and the soul caregiver; it is also a practice of humility, inviting God's cure in soul care. This study proposes the necessity of embracing vulnerability in soul care ministry, instead of hiding it.

  16. Use of Simulation to Integrate Cultural Humility Into Advanced Health Assessment for Nurse Practitioner Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiwane, Abraham N; Baker, Nancy C; Makosky, Antonia; Reidy, Patricia; Guarino, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    Increasing cultural humility among nursing students requires the application of knowledge and skills. The integration of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) offered nurse practitioner students practice in simulation. This learning activity included pre- and postassessments of knowledge regarding cultural issues and level of student satisfaction. Course content included an exemplar video and a simulation interview with an African American standardized patient. Of the 65 students enrolled, 97% completed OSCE interviews and 81% completed pre- and postsurveys. A 2-domain 3 × 2-time within-subjects ANOVA indicated a statistically significant interaction effect, reinforced by descriptive statistics. Follow-up paired t tests detected a significantly large knowledge increase. Standardized patient scenarios scored highest for satisfaction, followed by critical thinking, and with self-confidence scoring lowest. The favorable knowledge outcomes from this teaching intervention support future applications of OSCE methodology for teaching sensitive cross-cultural content. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(9):567-571.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Intelligence and Neurophysiological Markers of Error Monitoring Relate to Children's Intellectual Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Judith H; Fisher, Megan; Schroder, Hans; Hambrick, David Z; Moser, Jason

    2017-09-18

    This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6-8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error-related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error-monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self-assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greater IH than younger children. Greater IH was associated with higher intelligence but not with social cognition or motivational framework. ERN related to self-assessment, whereas Pe related to question delegation. Thus, children show separable epistemic and social components of IH that may differentially contribute to metacognition and learning. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Hymenoptera Stings and the Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashad Dongol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are a health concern. Apidae (bees, Vespidae (hornets, yellow jackets and wasps and Formicidae (ants are medically-important stinging insects under the order Hymenoptera. Clinical features from simple skin manifestations to severe and fatal organ injury are due to the hypersensitivity reactions and/ or the toxic effects of the venom inoculated. Here we discuss on Hymenoptera stings involving apids (honey bees and vespids (wasps, hornets and yellow jackets and their effect on renal function and associated morphological changes in the kidney. Despite the differences in venom composition and quantity released per sting in two insect groups, both lead to similar medical consequences, such as localised normal allergic reactions, mild to severe anaphylaxis and shock and multiple organ and tissue injury leading to multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI is one of the unusual complications of Hymenoptera stings and has the basis of both immune-mediated and toxic effects. Evidence has proven that supportive therapy along with the standard medication is very efficient in completely restoring the kidney function without any recurrence.

  19. HYMENOPTERA ALLERGENS: FROM VENOM TO VENOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edzard eSpillner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Western Europe hymenoptera venom allergy primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of hymenoptera venom allergy research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire venome as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of IgE reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in hymenoptera venom allergy and may serve for monitoring, reevaluation and improvement of current therapeutic strategies.

  20. De wespbijen (Nomada) van Nederland (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.

    2004-01-01

    The wasp bees (Nomada) of the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Apidae) In the Netherlands 44 species of Nomada are known to occur. The name wasp bee is derived from the often yellow and black colour, which give the insects a wasplike appearance. Nomada bees are cleptoparasites mostly with Andrena species.

  1. Basophil-activation tests in hymenoptera allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Anthony E. J.; van der Heide, Sicco

    The measurement of basophil-activation markers may be useful in detecting IgIE-mediated sensitization but the relevance for application of the basophil-activation test in prediction of clinical reactivity in Hymenoptera allergy is very limited. For this reason, this test currently has no established

  2. Determination of biological activities and total phenolic contents of flowers of jasminum humile and roots of dorema aucheri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Farooq, U.; Ullah, F.; Iqbal, J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate in vitro antioxidant, NO scavenging, and antibacterial activities as well as total phenolic contents of different extracts of flowers of Jasminum humile and roots of Dorema aucheri. The plant extracts showed significant antioxidant activity, having IC50 values comparable to those of references used in each assay and also inhibited accumulation of nitrite in vitro. The plant extracts yielded phenolic contents and showed significant antibacterial activity. The observed antioxidant potential and phenolic contents of the extracts showed that flowers of J. humile and roots of D. aucheri are potential source of natural antioxidants that may help to retard oxidative degradation and microbial growth in food industry. (author)

  3. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera : an "unintelligent" design?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilgenburg, Ellen van; Driessen, Gerard; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2006-01-01

    The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid) has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding,

  4. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgenburg, E.; Driessen, G.J.J.; Beukeboom, L.W.

    2006-01-01

    The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid) has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding,

  5. On Measuring the Sixth Basic Personality Dimension: A Comparison Between HEXACO Honesty-Humility and Big Six Honesty-Propriety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, Isabel; Hilbig, Benjamin E; Zettler, Ingo; Moshagen, Morten

    2017-12-01

    Recent developments in personality research led to the proposition of two alternative six-factor trait models, the HEXACO model and the Big Six model. However, given the lack of direct comparisons, it is unclear whether the HEXACO and Big Six factors are distinct or essentially equivalent, that is, whether corresponding inventories measure similar or distinct personality traits. Using Structural Equation Modeling (Study 1), we found substantial differences between the traits as measured via the HEXACO-60 and the 30-item Questionnaire Big Six (30QB6), particularly for Honesty-Humility and Honesty-Propriety (both model's critical difference to the Big Five approach). This distinction was further supported by Study 2, showing differential capabilities of the HEXACO-60 and the 30QB6 to account for several criteria representing the theoretical core of Honesty-Humility and/or Honesty-Propriety. Specifically, unlike the indicator of Honesty-Humility, the indicator of Honesty-Propriety showed low predictive power for some conceptually relevant criteria, suggesting a limited validity of the 30QB6.

  6. Situation-Based Contingencies Underlying Wisdom-Content Manifestations: Examining Intellectual Humility in Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachry, Corinne E; Phan, Le Vy; Blackie, Laura E R; Jayawickreme, Eranda

    2018-02-21

    Existing assessments of intellectual humility (IH)-a key component of wisdom-do not examine its manifestation in daily life while sufficiently focusing on the core idea of the construct: owning up to one's intellectual shortcomings. The present research sought to examine situational contingencies underlying daily manifestations of IH-relevant characteristics. We developed a trait version of the State-Trait IH Scale in two studies and subsequently examined daily manifestations of IH-relevant characteristics utilizing a contextualized state version of the State-Trait IH Scale in a 21-day experience sampling study. Here we tested how specific situational contingencies (associated with the context and the personality of the individual with whom participants engaged) influenced the manifestation of IH-relevant qualities. We found strong evidence for the validity of both versions of the scale. Specifically, the state measure exhibited high within-person variability, and aggregated state assessments were strongly correlated with the trait measure. Additionally, morality positively predicted manifestation of IH, while disagreeableness negatively predicted manifestation of IH. These results offer new directions for research on the expression of wisdom-related characteristics in daily life.

  7. Reconciling Patient Safety and Epistemic Humility: An Ethical Use of Opioid Treatment Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita

    2017-05-01

    In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Joshua Rager and Peter Schwartz suggest using opioid treatment agreements as public health monitoring tools to inform patients about "the requirements entailed by undergoing opioid therapy," rather than as contractual agreements to alter patients' individual behavior or to benefit them directly. Because Rager and Schwartz's argument presents suspected OTA violations as a justification to stop providing opioids yet does not highlight the broader epistemic and systemic context within which clinicians prescribe these medications, their proposal may perpetuate a climate of distrust and stigmatization without correcting systemic factors that may have placed patients and others at risk in the first place. Given the context of epistemic uncertainty regarding opioid safety and efficacy, insufficient training for opioid prescribers, and inadequate patient education, I propose replacing OTAs, which have a narrow focus on patient behaviors, with opioid treatment plans, which would promote mutual, collaborative, and shared decision-making on the most appropriate pain management program. An OTP can be ethically justified as a tool to prevent and treat iatrogenic addiction under a specific paradigm-one that adopts a default position of professional epistemic humility and holds all collaborative parties accountable in chronic pain management. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  8. Bringing home the health humanities: narrative humility, structural competency, and engaged pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevat, Rebecca K; Sinha, Anoushka A; Gutierrez, Kevin J; DasGupta, Sayantani

    2015-11-01

    As health humanities programs grow and thrive across the country, encouraging medical students to read, write, and become more reflective about their professional roles, educators must bring a sense of self-reflexivity to the discipline itself. In the health humanities, novels, patient histories, and pieces of reflective writing are often treated as architectural spaces or "homes" that one can enter and examine. Yet, narrative-based learning in health care settings does not always allow its participants to feel "at home"; when not taught with a critical attention to power and pedagogy, the health humanities can be unsettling and even dangerous. Educators can mitigate these risks by considering not only what they teach but also how they teach it.In this essay, the authors present three pedagogical pillars that educators can use to invite learners to engage more fully, develop critical awareness of medical narratives, and feel "at home" in the health humanities. These pedagogical pillars are narrative humility (an awareness of one's prejudices, expectations, and frames of listening), structural competency (attention to sources of power and privilege), and engaged pedagogy (the protection of students' security and well-being). Incorporating these concepts into pedagogical practices can create safe and productive classroom spaces for all, including those most vulnerable and at risk of being "unhomed" by conventional hierarchies and oppressive social structures. This model then can be translated through a parallel process from classroom to clinic, such that empowered, engaged, and cared-for learners become empowering, engaging, and caring clinicians.

  9. Component Resolved Diagnosis in Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsitz, D; Brockow, K

    2017-06-01

    Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. Many new insect venom allergens have been identified within the last few years. Commercially available recombinant allergens offer new diagnostic tools for detecting sensitivity to insect venoms. Additional added sensitivity to nearly 95% was introduced by spiking yellow jacket venom (YJV) extract with Ves v 5. The further value of CRD for sensitivity in YJV and honey bee venom (HBV) allergy is more controversially discussed. Recombinant allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants often help to identify the culprit venom in patients with double sensitivity to YJV and HBV. CRD identified a group of patients with predominant Api m 10 sensitization, which may be less well protected by VIT, as some treatment extracts are lacking this allergen. The diagnostic gap of previously undetected Hymenoptera allergy has been decreased via production of recombinant allergens. Knowledge of analogies in interspecies proteins and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants is necessary to distinguish relevant from irrelevant sensitizations.

  10. Hymenoptera venom review focusing on Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. de Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera venoms are complex mixtures containing simple organic molecules, proteins, peptides, and other bioactive elements. Several of these components have been isolated and characterized, and their primary structures determined by biochemical techniques. These compounds are responsible for many toxic or allergic reactions in different organisms, such as local pain, inflammation, itching, irritation, and moderate or severe allergic reactions. The most extensively characterized Hymenoptera venoms are bee venoms, mainly from the Apis genus and also from social wasps and ant species. However, there is little information about other Hymenoptera groups. The Apis venom presents high molecular weight molecules - enzymes with a molecular weight higher than 10.0 kDa - and peptides. The best studied enzymes are phospholipase A2, responsible for cleaving the membrane phospholipids, hyaluronidase, which degrades the matrix component hyaluronic acid into non-viscous segments and acid phosphatase acting on organic phosphates. The main peptide compounds of bee venom are lytic peptide melittin, apamin (neurotoxic, and mastocyte degranulating peptide (MCD.

  11. Diversity of peptidic and proteinaceous toxins from social Hymenoptera venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido; Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Lasa, Alexis Musacchio; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2018-06-15

    Among venomous animals, Hymenoptera have been suggested as a rich source of natural toxins. Due to their broad ecological diversity, venom from Hymenoptera insects (bees, wasps and ants) have evolved differentially thus widening the types and biological functions of their components. To date, insect toxinology analysis have scarcely uncovered the complex composition of bee, wasp and ant venoms which include low molecular weight compounds, highly abundant peptides and proteins, including several allergens. In Hymenoptera, these complex mixtures of toxins represent a potent arsenal of biological weapons that are used for self-defense, to repel intruders and to capture prey. Consequently, Hymenoptera venom components have a broad range of pharmacological targets and have been extensively studied, as promising sources of new drugs and biopesticides. In addition, the identification and molecular characterization of Hymenoptera venom allergens have allowed for the rational design of component-resolved diagnosis of allergy, finally improving the outcome of venom immunotherapy (VIT). Until recently, a limited number of Hymenoptera venoms had been unveiled due to the technical limitations of the approaches used to date. Nevertheless, the application of novel techniques with high dynamic range has significantly increased the number of identified peptidic and proteinaceous toxins. Considering this, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the most representative Hymenoptera venom peptides and proteins which are under study for a better understanding of the insect-caused envenoming process and the development of new drugs and biopesticides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Leaders’ Expressed Humility and Followers’ Feedback Seeking: The Mediating Effects of Perceived Image Cost and Moderating Effects of Power Distance Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed and tested a model to identify the role of leaders’ expressed humility on employees’ feedback-seeking processes. The data used in our study was from a sample of 248 employees and 57 of their immediate supervisors. The results revealed that: (1 leader’s expressed humility positively related to employees’ feedback seeking mediated by employees’ perceived image cost; and (2 power distance orientation moderated the relationship between leader’s expressed humility and employees’ perceived image costs, such that the relationship was stronger when the power distance orientation was lower rather than higher. The results offer new insight into potential managerial practices that aim at stimulating feedback seeking. We conclude with a discussion for future research.

  13. Leaders’ Expressed Humility and Followers’ Feedback Seeking: The Mediating Effects of Perceived Image Cost and Moderating Effects of Power Distance Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing; Li, Xiaoyan; Song, Baihe; Wang, Bin; Wang, Menghan; Chang, Shumeng; Xiong, Yujiao

    2018-01-01

    We developed and tested a model to identify the role of leaders’ expressed humility on employees’ feedback-seeking processes. The data used in our study was from a sample of 248 employees and 57 of their immediate supervisors. The results revealed that: (1) leader’s expressed humility positively related to employees’ feedback seeking mediated by employees’ perceived image cost; and (2) power distance orientation moderated the relationship between leader’s expressed humility and employees’ perceived image costs, such that the relationship was stronger when the power distance orientation was lower rather than higher. The results offer new insight into potential managerial practices that aim at stimulating feedback seeking. We conclude with a discussion for future research. PMID:29720956

  14. Mieren in Veluwebermen: soortenrijkdom en aanbevelingen voor beheer (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Boer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Ants in roadside verges on the Veluwe: species richness and recommendations for management (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Highway verges in the Veluwe region contain some well developed nutrient poor plant communities, like grasslands, grey hair grass vegetation and heather vegetation. These places

  15. New faunistic data on the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho An

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of the four genera in the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera are reported for the first time in Korea. These species belong to the subfamily Euphorinae (Braconidae. Faunistic and distribution data are included.

  16. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  17. Promoting cultural humility during labor and birth: putting theory into action during PRONTO obstetric and neonatal emergency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jenifer O; Cohen, Susanna R; Holme, Francesca; Buttrick, Elizabeth S; Dettinger, Julia C; Kestler, Edgar; Walker, Dilys M

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal mortality in Northern Guatemala, a region with a high percentage of indigenous people, is disproportionately high. Initiatives to improve quality of care at local health facilities equipped for births, and increasing the number of births attended at these facilities will help address this problem. PRONTO (Programa de Rescate Obstétrico y Neonatal: Tratamiento Óptimo y Oportuno) is a low-tech, high-fidelity, simulation-based, provider-to-provider training in the management of obstetric and neonatal emergencies. This program has been successfully tested and implemented in Mexico. PRONTO will now be implemented in Guatemala as part of an initiative to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality. Guatemalan health authorities have requested that the training include training on cultural humility and humanized birth. This article describes the process of curricular adaptation to satisfy this request. The PRONTO team adapted the existing program through 4 steps: (a) analysis of the problem and context through a review of qualitative data and stakeholder interviews, (b) literature review and adoption of a theoretical framework regarding cultural humility and adult learning, (c) adaptation of the curriculum and design of new activities and simulations, and (d) implementation of adapted and expanded curriculum and further refinement in response to participant response.

  18. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, J F; Maia, D P; Moura, J C M S; Costa, V A; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-02-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes.

  19. I Know You Are, But What Am I? : Anti-Individualism in the Development of Intellectual Humility and Wu-Wei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Brian; Alfano, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Virtues are acquirable, so if intellectual humility is a virtue, it’s acquirable. But there is something deeply problematic—perhaps even paradoxical—about aiming to be intellectually humble. Drawing on Edward Slingerland’s analysis of the paradoxical virtue of wu-wei in Trying Not To Try, we argue

  20. Leadership and Intellectual Humility in the Coptic Orthodox Church. Bishop Athanasius of Beni Suef (1962-2000) and the Papal Committee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn-Harder, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    This essay explores the concept of intellectual humility in the context of religious and communal leadership within the Coptic Orthodox Church, the indigenous Church of Egypt. The focus is on the strategies employed by Athanasius, the Bishop of Beni Suef and Bahnasa (1962- 2000) during a period of

  1. Are dishonest extraverts more harmful than dishonest introverts? The interaction effects of honesty-humility and extraversion in predicting workplace deviance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oh, I.S.; Lee, K.; Ashton, M.C.; de Vries, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Honesty-Humility, one of the six major personality dimensions included in the HEXACO model of personality structure, has previously been found to show negative correlations with workplace deviance. In this study, we hypothesised that Extraversion would moderate the relationship between

  2. Ovarian egg morphology in chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitizing gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vårdal, H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide morphological egg data of 26 species of 5 chalcidoid families associated with cynipid galls (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae from western Palaearctic, including the first egg data for the family Ormyridae. Adult chalcidoid species were reared from galls, and eggs obtained from dissected female ovaries were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The shape of the eggs varies from oval to elongate and tapered at both ends. Eggs of Eurytomidae as well as some Eulophidae, Eupelmidae and Pteromalidae are equipped with a peduncle at the anterior end. We found a positive correlation between long eggs and long ovipositors and confirmed the expectation that eggs of endoparasitoids are generally shorter and narrower than eggs of ectoparasitoids. We were able to locate the sperm entrance or micropyle at the anterior pole of eggs of several species. It is situated at the anterior end of the egg and at the end of the peduncle when present. In addition, the eggshells of the endoparasitoid Sycophila biguttata (Swederus, 1795 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae and the ectoparasitoid Cecidostiba fungosa (Geoffroy, 1785 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, are for the first time described.En el presente trabajo se aportan datos morfol.gicos del huevo de 26 especies del Paleártico occidental pertenecientes a 5 familias de Chalcidoidea asociadas con agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, incluyendo los primeros datos del huevo de especies de Ormyridae. Los ejemplares adultos de las especies estudiadas fueron obtenidos por emergencia de agallas en laboratorio, los ovarios de las hembras diseccionados para obtener los huevos, que fueron finalmente estudiados utilizando técnicas de microscopía electronica de barrido. La forma de los huevos estudiados varía de ovalada a alargada y ahusada en ambos extremos. Los huevos de Eurytomidae, así como algunos de Eulophidae, Eupelmidae y Pteromalidae están provistos de un pedúnculo en el extremo anterior. Se encontr

  3. Head capsule characters in the Hymenoptera and their phylogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vilhelmsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The head capsule of a taxon sample of three outgroup and 86 ingroup taxa is examined for characters of possible phylogenetic significance within Hymenoptera. 21 morphological characters are illustrated and scored, and their character evolution explored by mapping them onto a phylogeny recently produced from a large morphological data set. Many of the characters are informative and display unambiguous changes. Most of the character support demonstrated is supportive at the superfamily or family level. In contrast, only few characters corroborate deeper nodes in the phylogeny of Hymenoptera.

  4. Grit or Honesty-Humility? New Insights into the Moderating Role of Personality between the Health Impairment Process and Counterproductive Work Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschi, Andrea; Sartori, Riccardo; Dickert, Stephan; Costantini, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    It is acknowledged that chronic job demands may be depleting workers' stamina resulting in burnout conditions and ultimately causing further health problems. This relation, known as health impairment process, has recently been considered as a possible explanation for the emergence of counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The present work aims to examine the role of two personality traits (i.e., Grit and Honesty-Humility) in this process. The results, based on a sample of 208 private service sector employees, confirm the presence of a fully mediated process and show how Honesty-Humility positively moderates the relationship between job demands and exhaustion, whereas Grit has a negative effect on the relation between exhaustion and CWB. Implications for assessment procedure and hiring decisions are discussed.

  5. Grit or Honesty-Humility? New insights into the moderating role of personality between the health impairment process and counterproductive work behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ceschi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that chronic job demands may be depleting workers’ stamina resulting in burnout conditions and ultimately causing further health problems. This relation, known as health impairment process, has recently been considered as a possible explanation for the emergence of counterproductive work behavior (CWB. The present work aims to examine the role of two personality traits (i.e., Grit and Honesty–Humility in this process. The results, based on a sample of 208 private service sector employees, confirm the presence of a fully mediated process and show how Honesty–Humility positively moderates the relationship between job demands and exhaustion, whereas Grit has a negative effect on the relation between exhaustion and CWB. Implications for assessment procedure and hiring decisions are discussed.

  6. Primera cita de la Argentina de Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y su parasitoide, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A AQUINO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez de la Argentina la presencia de la avispa galí - cola exótica Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y su para - sitoide natural, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en Eucalyptus camaldulensis de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Ophelimus maskelli es una especie invasora de origen Australiano que ha sido reportada como plaga de los eucaliptos en numerosos países de Asia, Europa y América. Closterocerus chamaleon es un parasitoide exótico cuyo potencial como biocontrolador de O. maskelli está siendo evaluado en algunos países.

  7. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JF Sobczak

    Full Text Available Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae. This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes.

  8. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Guimarães Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015. RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrated in Manaus, and 13.36% of cases displayed systemic signs. Delayed medical assistance (4 to 12 hours presented four times more risk for systemic manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical observations and history of injury are critical information for prognostic improvement.

  9. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary species checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of. Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya, is presented. The species list is based on specimens sampled from 1999 until 2009, which are deposited in the ant collection of the Zoological Research Museum Koenig, Bonn, Germany, and the Natural History ...

  10. Six new genera of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Chen, X.

    2004-01-01

    Six new genera of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera) from China are described and illustrated: two genera of the subfamily Agathidinae: Facilagathis gen. nov. (type species: F. spinulata spec. nov.) and Cremnoptoides gen. nov. (type species: Cremnops pappi Sharkey, 1994); one genus of the subfamily

  11. On the Hymenoptera (exclusive of the Anthophila and Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, P.

    1913-01-01

    Our knowledge of the Hymenoptera of the Island of Waigeu hitherto has been based on the material collected by Dr. A. R. Wallace and described by Mr. Frederick Smith in the Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 1863, pp. 6—48. Omitting the bees (5 species) and the ants (27 species) Smith

  12. An anocellar polistine wasp (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae from Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Lohrmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable teratological female of Polistes (Fuscopolistes dorsalis neotropicus Bequaert, 1940 (Vespidae: Polistinae is described and illustrated. The specimen lacks all three external dorsal ocelli but is normally developed in almost every other aspect. Additionally, similar findings in other Hymenoptera are briefly discussed, as are the consequences and the reasons that might cause the random loss of ocelli.

  13. Provisional host catalogue of Fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In this catalogue — entitled "provisional" because our knowledge of the subject is still so evidently incomplete — all species of Ficus mentioned as hosts of fig wasps, are listed with the Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea reared from their receptacles. The names used for the Agaonidae are in

  14. De urntjeswesp Eumenes coronatus zoekt het hogerop (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.

    2005-01-01

    The potter wasp Eumenes coronatus on the move (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) The first record of Eumenus coronatus in the Netherlands dates back from 1954. After that the species was not recorded until 1988. Since then many specimens were collected in the southern part of the country. In 2004 a female was

  15. Effects of Apis mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Apis mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera) pollination on yields of Cucumeropsis mannii (Naudin) in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo. Boniface Posho Ndola, Yves Brostaux, Guillaume Le Goff, Marie-Lucie Susini, Eric Haubruge, Frederic Francis, Bach Kim Nguyen ...

  16. Revision of the world species of Xeris Costa (Hymenoptera: Siricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri Goulet; Caroline Boudreault; Nathan M. Schiff

    2015-01-01

    Xeris is one of ten extant genera of Siricidae known as as woodwasps or horntails. They are important wood-boring Hymenoptera from the Northern Hemisphere. Adults and larvae of Xeris are often intercepted at ports and are consequently of concern as potential alien invasive species. The genus consists of 16 species with eight in...

  17. In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueff, F.; Vos, B.; Przybilla, B.

    In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy Patients with a history of anaphylactic sting reactions require an allergological work-up (history, in-vitro tests, and skin tests) to clarify indications on venom immunotherapy and on the type of venom to be used. To demonstrate a venom

  18. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  19. KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITIKA PADA TIPE EKOSISTEM BERBEDA DI BANGKA TENGAH, KEPULAUAN BANGKA BELITUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Marta Saputra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in different ecosystem types in Central Bangka, Bangka-Belitung Islands. Hymenoptera richness is dominated by parasitic species. More than 80% of Hymenoptera play a role as parasitoid on arthropods that are mostly insects. Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera is widely studied in various types of terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystem and non-agro-ecosystem. This study aimed to invent and compare the diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in three different ecosystems, i.e., forest, oil palm plantation, and ex-tin mining. The location was located in Central Bangka Regency, Bangka Island. The study was conducted in Juli 2014 until October 2015. Parasitic Hymenoptera was collected with insect sweep net and yellow pan trap on one transect line with 1000 m length. Parasitic Hymenoptera were found on forest as much as 732 morphospecies, 326 morphospecies on oil palm plantations, and 293 morphospecies on ex-tin mining. Diversity and abundance of parasitic Hymenoptera on forest was higher than oil palm plantation and ex-tin mining area. Braconidae family was found dominant on forest, however on oil palm plantation and extin mining area the dominant family was Scelionidae.

  20. Four newly recorded species of the genus Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hye-Rin Lee; Tae-Ho An; Deok-Seo Ku; Bong-Kyu Byun

    2017-01-01

    Four species of the genus Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) are reported for the first time from Korea: Meteorus brevicauda Thomson, 1895, Meteorus colon Haliday, 1835, Meteorus kunashiricus Belokobylskij, 1995, and Meteorus vexator Haliday, 1835. Diagnosis, distribution, and host information are provided for each species. Keywords: Braconidae, Hymenoptera, Korea, Meteorus, New record

  1. Four newly recorded species of the genus Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Rin Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Four species of the genus Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae are reported for the first time from Korea: Meteorus brevicauda Thomson, 1895, Meteorus colon Haliday, 1835, Meteorus kunashiricus Belokobylskij, 1995, and Meteorus vexator Haliday, 1835. Diagnosis, distribution, and host information are provided for each species. Keywords: Braconidae, Hymenoptera, Korea, Meteorus, New record

  2. Allergen-specific immunotherapy of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiener, Maximilian; Graessel, Anke; Ollert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Stings of hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in venom-allergic patients, ranging from local up to severe systemic reactions and even fatal anaphylaxis. Allergic patients' quality of life can be mainly improved by altering their immune response to tolerate the venoms...... by injecting increasing venom doses over years. This venom-specific immunotherapy is highly effective and well tolerated. However, component-resolved information about the venoms has increased in the last years. This knowledge is not only able to improve diagnostics as basis for an accurate therapy......, but was additionally used to create tools which enable the analysis of therapeutic venom extracts on a molecular level. Therefore, during the last decade the detailed knowledge of the allergen composition of hymenoptera venoms has substantially improved diagnosis and therapy of venom allergy. This review focuses...

  3. História natural da interação entre Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) e seu hiperparasitoide Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sobczak, JF; Maia, DP; Moura, JCMS; Costa, VA; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-01-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, ...

  4. On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Gabriel A. R.

    2013-01-01

    On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Melipona marginata var. torrida Friese, 1916, described from three workers putatively collected in Costa Rica, never had its identity properly recognized. Since its original description, no additional specimens have ever been collected in Costa Rica. It is argued here that Melipona torrida was based on mislabeled specimens and corresponds to Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, a form known only from southern Brazil, Argen...

  5. Spermatogenesis in the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Lo Nostro, F.; Papeschi, A.; Cladera, J.; Bressa, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2017), s. 38-43 ISSN 0001-7272 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * modified meiosis * abortive division Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/azo.12148/pdf

  6. Cross-reacting carbohydrate determinants and hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehler, Randolf; Grundmann, Sonja; Stöcker, Benedikt

    2013-08-01

    Insect venom allergy is an important cause of anaphylaxis. Venom immunotherapy assume the clear identification of the culprit insect, but this is impeded by Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to cross reactive carbohydrate determinant (CCD) epitopes of common glycoproteins. Here we give an overview about inducers, importance, and relevance of anti-N-Glycan CCD IgE antibodies. Pollen exposure and insect stings induce anti-CCD IgE antibodies interfering with in-vitro tests for allergy diagnosis due to extensive IgE cross-reactivity. Instead of being biologically active these antibodies are irrelevant for allergic reactions due to hymenoptera stings. The general response of the immune system to the ubiquitous exposure to N-glycan containing glycoproteins is still a matter of debate. CCD specific IgG antibodies in sera of bee keepers suggest tolerance induction due to high-dose exposure. Tolerance induction by pollen and food glycoproteins has not been proved. Hymenoptera stings and pollen exposure induce anti-CCD IgE. In regard to anaphylaxis due to Hymenoptera stings these antibodies are not clinically relevant, but they are important for the specificity of in-vitro tests proving insect venom allergy. The introduction of component based diagnostic IgE testing improves the specificity of in-vitro tests if proteins devoid of CCD epitopes are used.

  7. Parasitismo entre especies (Diptera, Hymenoptera en los nidos de Stictia signata (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Genaro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available S. signata es una de las avispas de la arena más frecuentemente observada en los cayos y las costas de Cuba. Las hembras construyen los nidos en la arena y los abastecen con moscas, para alimentar a la descendencia. Se describe la conducta de dos especies: Liohippelates n. sp. circa collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae y Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae para penetrar al interior de los nidos de S. signata. Las observaciones se efectuaron durante 1989 hasta 1991, en playa Caimito, sur de la provincia de La Habana, Cuba. Liohippelates cleptoparasitó el 100% de los nidos. Sus larvas necrófagas se alimentaron de los restos de las presas dejadas por la larva de S. signata, sin afectarla. Sólo en un caso la larva mostró signos de mortalidad, porque además del número alto de cleptoparásitos inmaduros, habían 53 moscas adultas alimentándose de los fluidos corporales de las presas. Hexacola sp. fue un parasitoide de las larvas de Liohippelates, en el interior de las celdillas. A pesar del elevado cleptoparasitismo, la población del esfécido se mantuvo elevada durante los años de observación.Stictia signata is one of the most frequently observed sand wasps in the Cuban keys and coasts. Females build their nests in the sand and supply them with flies to feed offspring. Here, I describe the behavior of two species, Liohippelates n. sp. near collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae and Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae, which enter the nests of S. signata. The observations were carried out from 1989 through 1991 in Caimito beach, Southern Havana province, Cuba. Liohippelates inhabited 100% of the nests. Its necrofagous larvae fed on the remnants of prey left by the larva of S. signata, without affecting the larva. Only in one case did the larva show signs of mortality because, apart from the high number of immature cleptoparasites, there were 53 adult flies feeding on prey body fluids. Hexacola sp. parasitized the larvae of Liohippelates within the

  8. Abridged life tables for Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Parasitoids of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) reared on artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological aspects and demographic parameters of Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoids of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) were investigated usi...

  9. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  10. A new species of Chelonus (Areselonus) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from India reared from Acrocercops lysibathra (Meyrick) on Cordia latifolia Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Zubair; Ghramh, Hamed A.

    2018-01-01

    Chelonus (Areselonus) spinigaster sp. n., (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) is described from India. The new species was reared from the moth species Acrocercops lysibathra (Meyr.) on Cordia latifolia Roxb.

  11. A new species of Chelonus (Areselonus) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from India reared from Acrocercops lysibathra (Meyrick) on Cordia latifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zubair; Ghramh, Hamed A

    2018-01-01

    Chelonus (Areselonus) spinigaster sp. n. , (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) is described from India. The new species was reared from the moth species Acrocercops lysibathra (Meyr.) on Cordia latifolia Roxb.

  12. Trophobiosis in the arboricolous ant .i.Liometopum microcephalum./i. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaghamerský, J.; Kašpar, J.; Petráková, L.; Šustr, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2013), s. 231-239 ISSN 1210-5759 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * arboricolous * ants * trophobiosis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2013

  13. Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Guerrero, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands are described and illustrated: Peristenus angifemoralis spec. nov. from Tenerife, and P. gloriae spec. nov. from Gran Canaria and Tenerife.

  14. Natural history of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J; Soriano, V; Mayorga, L; Mayor, M

    2005-02-01

    The natural history of stings, the clinical reaction of the patient and in vivo and in vitro tests are necessary parameters to assess before initiating Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy. In the decision to initiate immunotherapy with Hymenoptera venom, it is not usual to evaluate the natural history of the disease, which seems to be self-limiting and therefore of variable clinical significance. Our aim was to determine the natural history of Hymenoptera hypersensitivity over 4 consecutive years in a rural Mediterranean population. An epidemiological study of Hymenoptera sting reactions and possible sensitivity was carried out in 145 randomly selected subjects out of a rural Mediterranean population of 600. Seventy-two subjects, including those with a history of anaphylaxis, completed the 4-year study. The nature of their clinical reactions, age, sex, history of atopy, profession, family history of reactions to Hymenoptera insects, time elapsed since the last sting, number of stings and specific IgE and IgG were determined (the latter, to the three most important insects in the area: Apis mellifera, Polistes dominulus, and Vespula germanica). Of the 72 subjects, four subjects had systemic reactions (SR), 23 had large local reaction (LLR) and all the others (117) was minor local reactions. None who had experienced an SR had a repeat SR when re-stung over the 4-year study. Of those with LLR, 12 subjects had the same type of reaction and 11 experienced more mild local reactions when re-stung. In the SR and local reaction groups, IgE to honey bee (Hb) increased significantly during the study period, whereas in those with only LLR, specific IgE to wasp (Polistes) decreased. Specific IgG to Polistes and Vespula (wasps) decreased significantly, whereas there was no change in the specific IgG to Hb in any of the groups. The number of stings per year decreased at the end of the study in all groups, but positive-specific IgG was higher in subjects with the greatest number of

  15. Pride Versus Humility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhanu Olana Dirbaba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first national and multilingual survey of Ethiopian journalists, resulting in, first, a comprehensive demographic profile of Ethiopian journalists; second, the overwhelming evidence of antipathy between government-employed and private-sector journalists that undermines the possibility of a collective identity or cooperative relations among Ethiopian journalists; third, the discovery of an apparent paradox between Ethiopian journalists’ pride in their country’s history as a sovereign nation and their regret at the lack of strong press traditions which is a by-product of this history and, finally, the tension that emerges in the data between Ethiopian journalists’ pride in and embarrassment about their chosen profession.

  16. Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Landscape and Hymenoptera Biodiversity at Cianjur Watershed

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    YAHERWANDI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is one of the four largest insect order (the other three are Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera. There are curerently over 115 000 described Hymenoptera species. It is clear that Hymenoptera is one of the major components of insect biodiversity. However, Hymenoptera biodiversity is affected by ecology, environment, and ecosystem management. In an agricultural areas, the spatial structure, habitat diversity, and habitat composition may vary from cleared landscapes to structurally rich landscape. Thus, it is very likely that such large-scale spatial patterns (landscape effects may influence local biodiversity and ecological functions. Therefore, the objective of this research were to study diversity and configuration elements of agricultural landscapes at Cianjur Watershed with geographical information sytems (GIS and its influence on Hymenoptera biodiversity. The structural differences between agricultural landscapes of Nyalindung, Gasol, and Selajambe were characterized by patch analyst with ArcView 3.2 of digital land use data. Results indicated that class of land uses of Cianjur Watershed landscape were housing, mixed gardens, talun and rice, vegetable, and corn fields. Landscape structure influenced the biodiversity of Hymenoptera. Species richness and the species diversity were higher in Nyalindung landscape compare to Gasol and Selajambe landscape.

  17. Pengaruh Habitat Sekitar Lahan Persawahan dan Umur Tanaman Padi terhadap Keanekaragaman Hymenoptera Parasitika

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    Nina Herlina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the largest group of biological control agents, Parasitic Hymenoptera play important role in controlling pest outbreak in agricultural habitat. Unfortunately, there is lack of information about how these parasitoids occur in agricultural habitat related to condition of surrounding habitat and phenology of crop plant. The objective of this research was to study the effect of rice field surrounding habitat and age of rice plant on the diversity of Parasitic Hymenoptera. Research area was located in Carang Pulang Village, Dramaga, Bogor. We selected four blocks which represented different of habitat condition and age of rice plant. Each block was set six yellow pan traps (with minimum distance 20 meter and one malaise trap. Sampling of insects were conducted weekly from 6 to 12 week after planting. From this research, we collected 1,833 individual of Hymenoptera (without ants belong to 9 superfamilies, 23 families, and 216 species. Parasitic Hymenoptera was more abundant (96% and species rich (84% than Aculeata. Rice field surrounding habitat (block and age of rice field significantly affect the diversity of Parasitic Hymenoptera. We found positively correlation between age of rice plant and species richness of Parasitic Hymenoptera.

  18. Taxonomic and functional responses to fire and post-fire management of a Mediterranean hymenoptera community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  19. Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  20. Breeding sites of drosophilids (Diptera in the Brazilian Savanna. I. Fallen fruits of Emmotum nitens (Icacinaceae, Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae and Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae Sítios de criação de drosofilídeos (Diptera no bioma Cerrado. I. Frutos caídos de Emmotum nitens (Icacinaceae, Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae e Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Roque

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, drosophilids that bred in fruits of three common plant species of the Brazilian Savanna were investigated: Emmotum nitens, Hancornia speciosa and Anacardium humile, along with the temporal and spatial distribution of these insects among fruits obtained from six individuals of E. nitens. Fallen fruits were collected in natural environments, placed on moist sand in individual containers and all drosophilids that emerged from these resources during 15 days were collected, counted and identified. From 3,651 fruits collected (3,435 of E. nitens, 179 of A. humile and 37 of H. speciosa 4,541 flies emerged and were classified into 19 species of Drosophilidae. Their distribution was unequal among the three resources, also over time, and among the six individuals of E. nitens. Such fluctuations probably reflect the availability of resources in time and space and probably the action of selective factors such as larval competition.Neste estudo, são investigados os drosofilídeos que se criam em frutos de três espécies de plantas comuns do Cerrado brasileiro: Emmotum nitens, Hancornia speciosa e Anacardium humile, juntamente com a distribuição temporal e espacial desses insetos entre os frutos obtidos de seis indivíduos de E. nitens. Frutos recolhidos sobre a serrapilheira, em ambientes naturais, foram mantidos no laboratório e os drosofilídeos que deles emergiram foram contados e identificados. Dos 3.651 frutos coletados (3.435 de E. nitens, 179 de A. humile e 37 de H. speciosa emergiram 4.541 drosofilídeos, classificados em 19 espécies. A distribuição dessas espécies foi desigual entre os três tipos de recursos, ao longo do tempo, e também entre os seis indivíduos de E. nitens. Essas flutuações refletem a disponibilidade dos recursos no tempo e no espaço, e provavelmente a ação de forças seletivas como a competição entre as larvas.

  1. The memorable service and monastic humility – the history of Stanisław Konarski’s heart

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    Ryszard Mączyński

    2016-12-01

    not normally apply to monks. The case of Stanisław Konarski’s heart proves that in the juxtaposition of great merit and monastic vows of humility the merit prevailed. A third question, which contemporaneous researchers could not answer, is the original destination of the box with Konarski’s heart. A confrontation of scant mentions with the situation of Warsaw Piarists in the first half of the 19th century allows us to retrace its route. In 1773 it was placed in the monastic school chapel at Collegium Nobilium, then in 1811 it was relocated to the Piarist church in Długa street; in 1834 the order was deprived of the church, so Konarski’s heart was brought to their college in Jezuicka street. It was held there until 1866, and after the dissolution of the order it was in the possession of Jakub Pik. Pik carefully stored the relic and donated it to the Piarist church in Krakow, where in 1882 it was placed in an alcove in the presbytery. The decoration of the place was designed by Tadeusz Łepkowski, the then restorer. Stanisław Konarski’s bust was sculpted by Tadeusz Błotnicki from Krakow. Facial features were reproduced on the basis of an image from the times of Stanisław August – a sculpture by André Le Brun, displayed in a gallery of people of particular merit to the Republic of Poland opened in the Knights’ Hall at the Royal Castle in Warsaw in 1786.

  2. Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: a new parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: um novo parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae is recorded as parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae é registrado como parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  3. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Gerard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding, homozygous diploid and sterile males occur which form a genetic burden for a population. We review life history and genetical traits that may overcome the disadvantages of single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD. Behavioural adaptations to avoid matings between relatives include active dispersal from natal patches and mating preferences for non-relatives. In non-social species, temporal and spatial segregation of male and female offspring reduces the burden of sl-CSD. In social species, diploid males are produced at the expense of workers and female reproductives. In some social species, diploid males and diploid male producing queens are killed by workers. Diploid male production may have played a role in the evolution or maintenance of polygyny (multiple queens and polyandry (multiple mating. Some forms of thelytoky (parthenogenetic female production increase homozygosity and are therefore incompatible with sl-CSD. We discuss a number of hypothetical adaptations to sl-CSD which should be considered in future studies of this insect order.

  4. A New Species of Vespula, and First Record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespula akrei Landolt sp. nov. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae; Vespinae) is described from Guatemala. The first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae:Vespinae) in Guatemala is given, and Vespula Inexspectata Eck (1994) from Mexico is re-described. We place Vespula akrei sp. nov. in the Vespula vulg...

  5. With or without pheromone habituation: possible differences between insect orders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Walter, Gimme H; Sullivan, Nicola; El-Sayed, Ashraf M

    2018-06-01

    Habituation to sex pheromones is one of the key mechanisms in mating disruption, an insect control tactic. Male moths often show reduced sexual response after pre-exposure to female sex pheromone. Mating disruption is relatively rare in insect orders other than Lepidoptera. As a positive control we confirmed habituation in a moth (Epiphyas postvittana) using 24 h pre-exposure to sex pheromone to reduce subsequent activation behaviour. We then tested the impact of pre-exposure to sex or trail pheromone on subsequent behavioural response with insects from three other orders. Similar pre-exposure for 24 h to either sex pheromone [Pseudococcus calceolariae (Homoptera) and apple leaf curling midge Dasineura mali (Diptera), or trail pheromone of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera)], followed by behavioural assay in clean air provided no evidence of habituation after pre-exposure in these latter cases. The moths alone were affected by pre-exposure to pheromone. For pests without habituation, sustained attraction to a point source may make lure and kill more economical. Improved knowledge of behavioural processes should lead to better success in pest management and mechanisms should be investigated further to inform studies and practical efforts generally enhancing effectiveness of pheromone-based management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITOID PADA PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT PTPN VIII CINDALI, BOGOR

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    Ichsan Luqmana Indra Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in PTPN VIII oil palm plantation Cindali, Bogor. One group of important natural enemies in oil palm plantation is parasitic Hymenoptera. The purpose of this research is to know the diversity and fluctuation of parasitic Hymenoptera PTPN VIII Cindali oil palm plantation. This research was conducted in 6 blocks of oil palm in September 2014 – June 2015. There were 5 plots in every observation blocks 39.2 x 39.2 m in size, and used direct and indirect method. Direct method done by 5 plants in every plots was taken randomized to observed and taken the herbivore insects to reared until the parasitic Hymenoptera came out. Observation of cover crops conducted by 3 subplots determined diagonally in every plots 9.8 x 9.8 m in size and herbivore insects was observed and collected. Indirect methods used sweep net and yellow pan trap. The result of this research, 26 parasitic Hymenoptera families was found, with the Braconidae was the most morphospecies found and the most individual amount was Scelionidae. The abundance of parasitoid in every month fluctuated.

  7. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  8. On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melipona marginata var. torrida Friese, 1916, described from three workers putatively collected in Costa Rica, never had its identity properly recognized. Since its original description, no additional specimens have ever been collected in Costa Rica. It is argued here that Melipona torrida was based on mislabeled specimens and corresponds to Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, a form known only from southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. A lectotype is designated for Melipona torrida and notes on the type material of Melipona marginata obscurior are provided. Other known examples of species described from mislabeled specimens in Friese's Zur Bienenfauna von Costa Rica are discussed. It is pointed out that additional names proposed in this work, based on material from Costa Rica, might turn out to correspond to South American taxa. Also, the date of publication of this Friese's paper is discussed.

  9. Cytogenetic characterization of Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera, Apidae by fluorochromes

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    Jefferson de Brito Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of the stingless bee Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional staining and the fluorochromes CMA3 e DAPI. The females have 2n = 34 chromosomes (2K=32+2. Some females, however, presented an additional large B acrocentric chromosome, to a total of 2n = 35. Chromosome B and the chromosomal pairs 2, 9 and 10 showed CMA3+ bands, indicating an excess of CG base-pairs. A clear association was verified between the P. helleri B chromosome SCAR marker and the presence of a B chromosome in P. cupira. The data obtained suggests that B chromosomes in P. helleri and P. cupira share a common origin.

  10. ABO blood groups, Rhesus factor, and anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałgan, Krzysztof; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Chrzaniecka, Elżbieta

    2017-09-21

    Numerous publications indicate that the prevalence of some infectious, neoplastic and immunological diseases are associated with ABO blood groups. The aim of this study was to verify whether ABO and Rh blood groups are associated with severe anaphylactic reactions after Hymenoptera stings. A study was undertaken of 71,441 Caucasian subjects living in the same geographic area. The study group included 353 patients with diagnosed systemic anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom. Control group included 71,088 healthy blood donors. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. No statistically significant interactions were observed between the ABO blood group and anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera.

  11. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control.

  12. A new scenario of bioprospecting of Hymenoptera venoms through proteomic approach

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    LD Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Venoms represent a huge and essentially unexplored reservoir of bioactive components that may cure diseases that do not respond to currently available therapies. This review select advances reported in the literature from 2000 to the present about the new scenario of Hymenoptera venom composition. On account of new technologies in the proteomic approach, which presents high resolution and sensitivity, the combination of developments in new instruments, fragmentation methods, strategic analysis, and mass spectrometry have become indispensable tools for interrogation of protein expression, molecule interaction, and post- translational modifications. Thus, the biochemical characterization of Hymenoptera venom has become a major subject of research in the area of allergy and immunology, in which proteomics has been an excellent alternative to assist the development of more specific extracts for diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitive patients to Hymenoptera venoms.

  13. Espécies novas de Trigonisca Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae New species of Trigonisca Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae

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    Patrícia Maia Correia de Albuquerque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Algumas espécies novas de Meliponini do gênero Trigonisca Moure, 1950 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae do Brasil e Panamá são descritas: T. roubiki sp. nov. (Panamá, T. variegatifrons sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, PA, MT, T. vitrifrons sp. nov. (Brasil: AM, PA, T. unidentata sp. nov. (Brasil: AM, T. meridionalis sp. nov. (Brasil: PA, MA, MT, MG, SP, T. bidentata sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, T. extrema sp. nov. (Brasil: AM e T. hirticornis sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, PA; e são apresentados novos registros geográficos de T. flavicans (Moure, 1950, T. intermedia Moure, 1989, T. dobzhanskyi (Moure, 1950, T. ceophloei (Schwarz, 1938, T. nataliae (Moure, 1950 e T. pediculana (Fabricius, 1804 e uma chave para identificação das espécies.Some new Meliponini species of the genus Trigonisca Moure, 1950 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae from Brazil and Panamá are described: T. roubiki sp. nov. (Panamá, T. variegatifrons sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, PA, MT, T. vitrifrons sp. nov. (Brazil: AM, PA, T. unidentata sp. nov. (Brazil: AM, T. meridionalis sp. nov. (Brazil: PA, MA, MT, MG, SP, T. bidentata sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, T. extrema sp. nov. (Brazil: AM and T. hirticornis sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, PA; additional geographic records from T. flavicans (Moure, 1950, T. intermedia Moure, 1989, T. dobzhanskyi (Moure, 1950, T. ceophloei (Schwarz, 1938, T. nataliae (Moure, 1950 and T. pediculana (Fabricius, 1804 and an identification key for species are presented.

  14. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Hymenoptera venom allergy in mastocytosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Golden, David B K

    2014-05-01

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a typical IgE-mediated reaction caused by sensitization to 1 or more allergens of the venom, and accounts for 1.5% to 34% of all cases of anaphylaxis. Patients suffering from mastocytosis are more susceptible to the anaphylactic reactions to an insect sting. This article aims to answer the most important clinical questions raised by the diagnosis and treatment of insect venom allergy in mastocytosis patients. Total avoidance of Hymenoptera is not feasible, and there is no preventive pharmacologic treatment available, although venom immunotherapy reduces the risk of subsequent systemic reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were

  16. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  17. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessments by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard W. Mankin; Yigen Chen; Jian J. Duan; Therese M. Poland; Leah S. Bauer

    2011-01-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  18. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  19. First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde, Liliana; Berta, D. Carolina; Gomez, Marcelo Geronimo

    2012-01-01

    Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina). Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Le...

  20. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community structure on two sagebrush steppe sites in southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Cook; Sara M. Birch; Frank W. Merickel; Carrie Caselton Lowe; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Although sagebrush, Artemisia spp., does not require an insect pollinator, there are several native species of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that are present in sagebrush steppe ecosystems where they act as pollinators for various forbs and shrubs. These native pollinators contribute to plant productivity and reproduction. We captured 12 species of...

  1. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae occurring in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolívar Garcete-Barrett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae recorded from Brazil: H. arechavaletae (Brèthes and H. duckei (Bertoni comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time.

  2. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time.

  3. [Prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in veterinary medicine students from Monterey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Monsiváis Toscano, Gina; Gallardo Martínez, Gabriela; González Díaz, Sandra Nora; Galindo Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    The reported prevalence of allergic systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom occur in up to 3.3% and large local reactions occur in 17% in the general population. To investigate the prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in a group of veterinary medicine students from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A transverse and observational study was done with 64 students of veterinary medicine. We conducted a questionnaire about the students' history of insect allergy and atopy. Skin test with allergenic extracts of bee and ant were practiced to all subjects. We performed aeroallergen skin prick test to the subjets with suspected atopy. Students age ranged from 17 to 25 years (mean 20.2) and 37 were males. Twenty students (31.3%) had clinical history of atopy and positive skin tests to aeroallergens. On the other hand, 5 students (7.8%), including 2 atopic, had suffered large local reactions, but none of them had suffered systemic reactions. Bee and ant skin tests were positive in 15.6% and 31.3% of the students respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy between atopic and non atopic subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the frequency of atopy in subjects with positive skin tests for bee and ant was 50%. The prevalence of large local reactions and hymenoptera sensitization found in this group was similar to that found in other epidemiologic studies.

  4. First report of Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, a seed parasite of pistachio, in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Longo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pistachio seed wasp, Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik.(Hymenoptera, E urytomidae, is a new pest recently arrived in pistachio orchards in central-western Sicily (Italy. Information on the damaging effects of this seed wasp in the affected areas is provided.

  5. Invasive ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): A rare quest or increasingly common indoor pest in Europe?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Petr; Okrouhlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 4 (2015), s. 705-712 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Formicidae * Tapinoma Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2015/04/16.pdf

  6. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-19

    In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru.

  7. DNA characterization and karyotypic evolution in the bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini)

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, MP; Pompolo, SD; Dergam, JA; Fernandes, A; Campos, LAD

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed patterns of heterochromatic bands in the Neotropical stingless bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini). Group I species (Melipona bicolor bicolor, Melipona quadrifasciata, Melipona asilvae, Melipona marginata, Melipona subnitida) were characterized by low heterochromatic content. Group 11 species (Melipona capixaba, Melipona compressipes, Melipona crinita, Melipona seminigra fuscopilosa e Melipona scutellaris) had high heterochromatic content. All species had 2n = 18 and n = ...

  8. The Hymenopterous Poison Apparatus. X. Morphological and Behavioral Changes in Atta texana (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry R. Hermann; John C. Moser; Allen N. Hunt

    1970-01-01

    Atta texana (Buckley) and other members of this genus no longer utilize the 8th and 9th gonapophyses as part of their defensive system. Although the sclerites that comprise the stinging apparatus in most aculeate Hymenoptera are present in the species, they seem to function only in the deposition of trail pheromones. A mechanical and chemical defense...

  9. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy in Mastocytosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.; Golden, David B. K.

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a typical IgE-mediated reaction caused by sensitization to 1 or more allergens of the venom, and accounts for 1.5% to 34% of all cases of anaphylaxis. Patients suffering from mastocytosis are more susceptible to the anaphylactic reactions to an insect sting. This article

  10. Application of recombinant antigen 5 allergens from seven allergy-relevant Hymenoptera species in diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiener, Maximilian; Eberlein, Bernadette; Moreno Aguilar, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hymenoptera stings can cause severe anaphylaxis in untreated venom-allergic patients. A correct diagnosis regarding the relevant species for immunotherapy is often hampered by clinically irrelevant cross-reactivity. In vespid venom allergy, cross-reactivity between venoms of different...

  11. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  12. Revision of the subfamily Euphorinae (excluding the tribe Meteorini Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Achterberg, van C.

    1997-01-01

    The subfamily Euphorinae (excluding the tribe Meteorini Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China is revised. In total 150 species, belonging to 24 genera, are treated and keyed. One genus (Heia gen. nov.; type species: Heia robustipes spec. nov.) and 69 species are described as new to science.

  13. Stiff upper lip: Labrum deformity and functionality in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In hyper-diverse groups such as Hymenoptera, a variety of structures with different, complementary functions are used for feeding. Although the function of the parts such as the mandibles is obvious, the use of others, like the labrum, is more difficult to discern. Here, we discuss the labrum’s func...

  14. De kortsnuitbloedbij Sphecodes majalis nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, I.

    2004-01-01

    Sphecodes majalis, a new bee species for the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Apidae) A population of Sphecodes majalis was found on a limestone grassland near Maastricht (Limburg). On several occasions more than 10 female and several male specimen were observed. Sphecodes majalis is a parasite of

  15. De roodrandzandbij Andrena rosae in de Zuid-Hollandse Biesbosch (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der F.; Reemer, M.; Peeters, T.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Andrena rosae in the Zuid-Hollandse Biesbosch (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae) Andrena rosae is a fairly large, black and red mining bee. It has declined dramatically in the 20th century in northwestern Europe. In the Netherlands the species only survived in and around the Biesbosch, at the

  16. Revision of charipine aphid hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea: Figitidae) from central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferrer-Suay, M.; Starý, Petr; Selfa, J.; Pujade-Villar, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2017), s. 113-147 ISSN 0785-8760 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * central Europe * aphid Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.300, year: 2016 http://www.entomologicafennica.org/Volume28/EF_28_3/1Ferrer-Suay.pdf

  17. Sting microsculpture in the digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matushkina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sting microsculpture of the digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Fabricius, 1781 (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae is studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM for the first time. As in many other hymenopterans, the second valvifer of B. rostrata possesses two fields of styloconic sensilla (hair plates of proprioceptive function. The presence of two paired fields of campaniform sensilla on the second valvula and second valvifer is first shown in an apoid wasp. The first and the second valvulae bear scattered sensilla-like structures on the external surface, more numerous apically. The first valvula has two subapical barbs externally and a pair of valvilli on its inner surface, whereas the outer surface of the second valvula is smooth. The third valvula is sclerotized externally, consisting of proximal and distal parts, and bearing four sensilla morphotypes of mechanoreceptive and probably chemoreceptive functions. The inner surface of the valvulae and the membranous cuticle that is touching the sting have microstructures of different shapes directed distally. Functional aspects of characters studied are discussed.

  18. Function and evolution of microRNAs in eusocial Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik eSovik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of eusociality (true sociality in several insect lineages represents one of the most successful evolutionary adaptations in the animal kingdom in terms of species richness and global biomass. In contrast to solitary insects, eusocial insects evolved a set of unique behavioral and physiological traits such as reproductive division of labor and cooperative brood care, which likely played a major role in their ecological success. The molecular mechanisms that support the social regulation of behavior in eusocial insects, and their evolution, are mostly unknown. The recent whole-genome sequencing of several eusocial insect species set the stage for deciphering the molecular and genetic bases of eusociality, and the possible evolutionary modifications that led to it. Studies of mRNA expression patterns in the brains of diverse eusocial insect species have indicated that specific social behavioral states of individual workers and queens are often associated with particular tissue-specific transcriptional profiles. Here we discuss recent findings that highlight the role of non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs in modulating traits associated with reproductive and behavioral divisions of labor in eusocial insects. We provide bioinformatic and phylogenetic data, which suggest that some Hymenoptera-specific miRNA may have contributed to the evolution of traits important for the evolution of eusociality in this group.

  19. Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan D. Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Foraging activity may be limited by temperature, humidity, radiation, wind, and other abiotic factors, all of which can affect energy costs during foraging. Ectatomma vizottoi's biology has only recently been studied, and no detailed information is available on its foraging patterns or diet in the field. For this reason, and because foraging activity is an important part of the ecological success of social insects, the present study aimed to investigate E. vizottoi's foraging strategies and dietary habits. First, we determined how abiotic factors constrained E. vizottoi's foraging patterns in the field by monitoring the foraging activity of 16 colonies on eight different days across two seasons. Second, we characterized E. vizottoi's diet by monitoring another set of 26 colonies during peak foraging activity. Our results show that E. vizottoi has foraging strategies that are similar to those of congeneric species. In spite of having a low efficiency index, colonies adopted strategies that allowed them to successfully obtain food resources while avoiding adverse conditions. These strategies included preying on other ant species, a foraging tactic that could arise if a wide variety of food items are not available in the environment or if E. vizottoi simply prefers, regardless of resource availability, to prey on other invertebrates and especially on other ant species.

  20. Preservation of Domesticated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drone Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, M; Rousseau, A; Giovenazzo, P; Bailey, J L

    2017-08-01

    Preservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) sperm, coupled with instrumental insemination, is an effective strategy to protect the species and their genetic diversity. Our overall objective is to develop a method of drone semen preservation; therefore, two experiments were conducted. Hypothesis 1 was that cryopreservation (-196 °C) of drone semen is more effective for long-term storage than at 16 °C. Our results show that after 1 yr of storage, frozen sperm viability was higher than at 16 °C, showing that cryopreservation is necessary to conserve semen. However, the cryoprotectant used for drone sperm freezing, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), can harm the queen and reduce fertility after instrumental insemination. Hypothesis 2 was that centrifugation of cryopreserved semen to reduce DMSO prior to insemination optimize sperm quality. Our results indicate that centrifuging cryopreserved sperm to remove cryoprotectant does not affect queen survival, spermathecal sperm count, or sperm viability. Although these data do not indicate that centrifugation of frozen-thawed sperm improves queen health and fertility after instrumental insemination, we demonstrate that cryopreservation is achievable, and it is better for long-term sperm storage than above-freezing temperatures for duration of close to a year. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John

    2008-01-01

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  2. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  3. Epidemiological study of the prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera in a rural population in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J; Blanca, M; Soriano, V; Sanchez, J; Juarez, C

    1999-08-01

    Systemic allergic reactions to Hymenoptera venom occur in a percentage that varies from 0.4 to 3.3%. Epidemiological studies indicate that from 15 to 25% of the general population can be sensitized to different Hymenoptera venom as well as the fact that the degree of exposure may be related to the prevalence found in those studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of insect sting allergy and the venom sensitization in a rural population to three Hymenoptera previously found in the area: Polistes dominulus (Pd), Vespula germanica (Vg) and honey bee (Hb). A rural community located in the south-east of Spain, close to the Mediterranean Sea, was selected since the stinging Hymenoptera having been previously identified. A random sample of 310 subjects from the village census was studied. A questionnaire and a serum sample were obtained from every patient. The evaluation was conducted by a family doctor, who focused on the reactions to Hymenoptera sting, age, sex, occupation, atopia, previous Hymenoptera sting, stinging insect, interval to last sting and average stings per year. RAST to Hymenoptera venoms were also determined. The prevalence of systemic reactions was 2.3% (57.6% of them had a positive RAST). Large local reactions were found in 26.4% (only 28.5% of them had a positive RAST). Asymptomatic sensitization (positive RAST) was observed in 16.4% of subjects without reaction. Only a weak correlation between subjects with less than 3 years' interval to last sting exposure and positive RAST results was noted, whether they presented with a clinical reaction or not (P < 0.05). The prevalence of systemic sting reactions in our rural community is higher than other general populations in the same Mediterranean area, and similar to other rural populations studied. The degree of exposure influences not only the prevalence found but also the detection of specific serum IgE.

  4. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 were obtained from trap-nests in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest (Baixa Grande and caatinga (Ipirá, in the State of Bahia. Nesting occurred in bamboo canes and in tubes of black cardboard with 5.8 cm (= small tube and 10.5 cm (= large tube in length and 0.6 and 0.8 cm in diameter, respectively. In both areas C. tarsata nested during the wet season producing four generations in Baixa Grande and three generations in Ipirá. The immatures of one generation underwent diapause at both sites. The bees constructed their nests with a mixture of sand and oil. In general, the cells were elongated and arranged in linear series with its opening pointing towards the nest entrance. Completed nests had two to three cells in small tubes, one to seven cells in large tubes, and two to 13 cells in bamboo canes. The nest plug resembled an uncompleted cell and was externally covered with oil. The cells were provisioned with pollen, oil, and nectar. Nests were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and other not identify bee species.Ninhos de Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 foram obtidos através da utilização de ninhos-armadilha, em áreas de floresta estacional semi-decídua (Baixa Grande e de caatinga (Ipirá, no Estado da Bahia. A nidificação ocorreu em gomos de bambus e em tubos de cartolina preta, estes com comprimentos de 5,8 cm (= tubos pequenos e 10,5 cm (= tubos grandes, e diâmetro de 0,6 e 0,8 cm, respectivamente. Em ambas as áreas C. tarsata nidificou durante a estação úmida, produzindo quatro gerações anuais em Baixa Grande e três em Ipirá. Os imaturos de uma das gerações passaram por diapausa em ambos os locais. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de areia e óleo. Em geral, as células foram alongadas e arranjadas em série linear, com sua abertura dirigida para a entrada do ninho. Os ninhos completados tinham de duas a três células nos tubos pequenos

  5. Fertility signals in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramkova, A.; Schulz, C.; Twele, R.; Francke, W.; Ayasse, M.

    2008-06-01

    In eusocial Hymenoptera, queen control over workers is probably inseparable from the mechanism of queen recognition. In primitively eusocial bumblebees ( Bombus), worker reproduction is controlled not only by the presence or absence of a dominant queen but also by other dominant workers. Furthermore, it was shown that the queen dominance is maintained by pheromonal cues. We investigated whether there is a similar odor signal released by egg-laying queens and workers that may have a function as a fertility signal. We collected cuticular surface extracts from nest-searching and breeding Bombus terrestris queens and workers that were characterized by their ovarian stages. In chemical analyses, we identified 61 compounds consisting of aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, and fatty acid esters. Nest-searching queens and all groups of breeding females differed significantly in their odor bouquets. Furthermore, workers before the competition point (time point of colony development where workers start to develop ovaries and lay eggs) differed largely from queens and all other groups of workers. Breeding queens showed a unique bouquet of chemical compounds and certain queen-specific compounds, and the differences toward workers decrease with an increasing development of the workers’ ovaries, hinting the presence of a reliable fertility signal. Among the worker groups, the smallest differences were found after the competition point. Egg-laying females contained higher total amounts of chemical compounds and of relative proportions of wax-type esters and aldehydes than nest-searching queens and workers before the competition point. Therefore, these compounds may have a function as a fertility signal present in queens and workers.

  6. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P bee venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kU A /L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kU A /L) compared with adults (5.10 kU A /L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kU A /L) (P venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

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    Vladimir Gokhman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896 is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862 and L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for L. boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979 (n = 9, whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the L. heterotoma clade. Like L. boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for G. xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insect communities.

  8. Thermoperiodism Synchronizes Emergence in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, Ian S; Kemp, William P; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2016-02-01

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). M. rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the physical nature of the nest, M. rotundata brood may have limited to no exposure to photoperiodic cues in order to regulate important circadian functions. Therefore, various thermoperiod regimes were used to characterize the possible role of thermoperiodism in synchronizing M. rotundata adult emergence. Adult emergence was monitored using a microprocessor-controlled event logger. Incubating bees under constant 29°C and darkness resulted in an arhythmic adult emergence pattern. Exposing developing M. rotundata to a thermoperiod synchronized emergence to the beginning of the thermophase and decreased the total number of days required for all adults to emerge. The amplitude of the thermoperiod regulated the timing of peak emergence in relationship to the increase in temperature. A thermoperiod amplitude of only 2°C was sufficient to synchronize peak adult emergence to take place during the rise in temperature. Increasing the amplitude of the thermoperiod to 4 or 8°C caused a positively correlated shift in peak emergence to later in the thermophase. Brood stored under constant 29°C and darkness for different durations (May or June early in the growing season or July or August late in the growing season) or under a fluctuating thermal regime (base temperature of 6°C and daily 1-h pulse of 20°C until September or November) maintained their capacity for entraining emergence timing by thermoperiodism. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Los Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera asociados con agallas de Cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid

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    Gómez, J. F.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information about the chalcid wasp parasitoid community (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea associated with galls of Cynipidae in Madrid (Spain is compiled and updated. Studied material includes more than 1000 published and unpublished records from samplings in 80 sites in the Madrid region carried out over twenty three years by the research team. A check-list of 121 species, 19 of them provisionally identified, from 6 families of Chalcidoidea is provided as follows: 26 Eurytomidae, 27 Torymidae, 9 Ormyridae, 33 Pteromalidae, 9 Eupelmidae and 17 Eulophidae. Ormyrus rufimanus Mayr, 1904 and Idiomacromerus semiaeneus (Szelenyi, 1957 are recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. For each family and genus of Chalcidoidea data are given on biology, diversity and distribution in Comunidad de Madrid. The composition of the chalcid wasp parasitoid community associated with gall wasps in Comunidad de Madrid is discussed and compared to the same community data from the Iberian Peninsula and the Western Palaearctic. Species from the Iberian community of chalcid parasitoids that are missing from Madrid region, exclusive species and potentially present species are also commented upon. Finally two appendices are presented as follows: a list of the Chalcidoidea species reared from 73 different galls made by 71 cynipid species from Madrid with associated parasitoid records, and a final appendix with full record data of all studied material, including information on the sampling localities with X, Y georeferenced coordinates, host galls and host plants.

    Se compila y actualiza la información existente sobre la comunidad parasitoide de Chalcidoidea, asociada a agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid. Los datos corresponden a más de 1000 registros, tanto de datos publicados, como inéditos, correspondientes a colectas en 80 localidades de Madrid efectuadas por el equipo investigador a lo largo de 23 a

  10. Partial cytochrome b sequences for six Hymenoptera of the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A M; Gardner, L M

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have been commonly used to determine honeybee subspecies relationships. To see if these markers would also be useful for comparisons of other Hymenoptera, we collected workers of six local species: Vespa crabro, the European hornet; Bombus impatiens, a bumblebee; Vespula germanica, the German yellow jacket; Polistes fuscatus, a paper wasp; Halictus ligatus, an alkali bee; and an unspecified Megachile, a leafcutting bee. MtDNA was isolated and digested with six endonucleases (AvaI, BglII, EcoRI, HindIII, HinfI, XbaI). The digested DNA was electrophoresed and visualized on agarose gels with comparison to a standard fragment marker and similarly treated honeybee mtDNA. The fragments obtained were also purified and sequenced. Phylogenetic relationships between six wasp and bee species, Apis mellifera, and several other similar aculeate Hymenoptera were determined. Newly defined DNA sequences were posted to GenBank (AF281169-AF281174).

  11. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luciana Bueno dos Reis; Dias Filho, Manoel Martins; Fernandes, Marcelo Adorna; Penteado-Dias, Angelica Maria

    2010-01-01

    Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae). The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae) were obtained. Seven species of Ichneu...

  12. A Gynandromorph and Teratological Case in Spilomicrus sp. (Hymenoptera, Diaprioidea, Diapriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Comério

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. Este estudo relata a ocorrência de antenas com características femininas e masculinas em um exemplar fêmea de Spilomicrus sp. (Hymenoptera, Diaprioidea, Diapriidae coletado no Parque Estadual Intervales, Ribeirão Grande, São Paulo, Brasil, assim como malformações em uma das antenas, que são aqui descritas e ilustradas.

  13. Morphology and function of the ovipositor mechanism in Ceraphronoidea (Hymenoptera, Apocrita

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    Andrew Ernst

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ovipositor of apocritan Hymenoptera is an invaluable source of phylogenetically relevant characters, and our understanding of its functional morphology stands to enlighten us about parasitoid life history strategies. Although Ceraphronoidea is one of the most commonly collected Hymenoptera taxa with considerable economic importance, our knowledge about their natural history and phylogenetic relationships, both to other apocritan lineages and within the superfamily itself, is limited. As a first step towards revealing ceraphronoid natural diversity we describe the skeletomuscular system of the ceraphronoid ovipositor for the first time. Dissections and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy 3D media files were used to visualize the ovipositor complex and to develop character concepts. Morphological structures were described in natural language and then translated into a character-character state format, whose terminology was linked to phenotype-relevant ontologies. Four unique anatomical phenotypes were revealed: 1. The first valvifer (gonangulum of the genus Trassedia is composed of two articulating sclerites, a condition present only in a few basal insect taxa. The bipartition of the first valvifer in Trassedia is most likely secondary and might allow more rapid oviposition. 2. Ceraphronoids, unlike other Hymenoptera, lack the retractor muscle of the terebra; instead the egg laying device is retracted by the seventh sternite. 3. Also unlike other Hymenoptera, the cordate apodeme and the anterior flange of the second valvifer are fused and compose one ridge that serves as the site of attachment for the dorsal and ventral T9-second valvifer muscles. Overall, the ceraphronoid ovipositor system is highly variable and can be described by discrete, distinguishable character states. However, these differences, despite their discrete nature, do not reflect the present classification of the superfamily and might represent parallelisms driven by host

  14. Identification of microsatellite markers for a worldwide distibuted, highly invasive ant species Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidiae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zima, Jan; Lebrasseur, O.; Borovanská, Michaela; Janda, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, JUNE 03 (2016), s. 409-414 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant - others:Marie Curie Fellowship(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Formicidae * Tapinoma melanocephalum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2016/01/53.pdf

  15. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

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    Martin Kaltenpoth

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes. Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of

  16. Phylogeny and population genetic structure of ant genus Acropyga (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Milan; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; Borovanská, Michaela; Zima, Jan; Youngerman, E.; Pierce, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2016), s. 28-40 ISSN 1445-5226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant - others:Marie Curie Fellowship(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448; Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(CZ) CZ.1.05/3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acropyga * Hymenoptera * Papua New Guinea Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.172, year: 2016

  17. Meteorus arizonensis Muesebeck, 1923 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): nuevo registro para México

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Ramírez, A.; Robles-Bermúdez, A.; Cambero-Campos, J.; Coronado-Blanco, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Braconidae is one of the more diverse families of Hymenoptera with almost 20,000 species worldwide. Meteorus has 316 species and is almost cosmopolitan. Previously, seven species of this genus have been recorded from Mexico. In this note, Meteorus arizo-nensis Muesebeck is recorded for the first time for the country, obtained from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), with material from Santa Maria del Oro, locality in the State of Nayarit.

  18. Parasitoidism of Chalcidid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Philornis sp. (Diptera, Muscidae

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    M. S. Couri

    Full Text Available Philornis Meinert larvae are known as parasites of birds, with coprophagous, semi-hematophagous or hematophagous habits. Biological data of the larvae of the fifty described species are still scarcely known. Here we describe some aspects of the parasitism of a species of Philornis on Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin (Trochilidae and record two species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera parasitoids, Conura annulifera (Walker, 1864 and Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787, reared from Philornis puparia.

  19. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

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    Onice Teresinha Dall'Oglio

    Full Text Available The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order.

  20. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  1. Effect of entomopathogens on Africanized Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Michele Potrich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of commercially used entomopathogens on Africanized Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae. Four bioassays were performed: 1 pulverized entomopathogens on A. mellifera; 2 entomopathogens sprayed on a smooth surface; 3 entomopathogens sprayed on soy leaves; and 4 entomopathogens mixed with candy paste (sugar syrup. Five treatments were prepared: sterile distilled water (control, distilled water sterilized with Tween® 80 (0.01%, and the commercial entomopathogens Metarhizium anisopliae E9 (1.0 × 109 conidia mL−1, Beauveria bassiana PL63 (1.0 × 108 conidia mL−1 and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 (3.0 × 108 spores mL−1. Each treatment consisted of five repetitions, with 20 workers per repetition, which were stored in a plastic box and, later, in a biological oxygen demand (B.O.D. incubator (27 ± 2 °C, RH of 60% ± 10%, 12-h photophase. The mortality of the workers was evaluated from 1 h to 240 h, and the data were analyzed using Bayesian inference. The workers killed by the ingestion of candy paste contaminated with the pathogens (products were randomly separated and selected for the removal of the midgut. Each midgut was fixed in Bouin's solution and prepared for histology. B. bassiana was verified to reduce the survival of A. mellifera workers in all bioassays. Moreover, M. anisopliae reduced the survival of A. mellifera workers directly sprayed, on a smooth surface and mixed with candy. B. thuringiensis reduced A. mellifera survival on a smooth surface and mixed with candy paste. However, its effects were lower than that observed by B. bassiana. The treatments with the biological products did not induce morphometric alterations in the midgut of A. mellifera. Keywords: Bayesian statistics, Entomopathogenic fungi, Entomopathogenic bacteria, Honeybee, Selectivity

  2. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-08-29

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.

  3. Primer registro de Tremex fuscicornis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae para la Argentina en una plantación de álamos en Buenos Aires First record of Tremex fuscicornis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae in Argentina infesting a poplar plantation in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Landi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de la "avispa taladradora de las latifoliadas", Tremex fuscicornis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae, fue detectada en una plantación de álamos de la provincia de Buenos Aires, lo que constituye el primer registro de la especie para la Argentina. Se describen aspectos morfológicos y biológicos de la misma.The presence of the woodwasp Tremex fuscicornis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae was detected in a poplar plantation in Buenos Aires. This is the first record of the species in Argentina. Morphological and biological aspects of the woodwasp are described.

  4. Reciprocity and Humility in Wonderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Beth

    2011-01-01

    This article supports the perspective of Jan Valle regarding the importance of recognizing the subjectivity inherent in decisions about Learning Disabilities. The author argues that the perspectives of both parents and professionals are informed by subjective judgments that must be taken into account in decision making. A reciprocal approach to…

  5. Lessons in Contingent, Recursive Humility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagle, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that critical work in teacher education should begin with teacher educators turning a critical eye on their own practices. The author uses Lesko's conception of contingent, recursive growth and change to analyze a lesson he observed as part of a phenomenological study aimed at understanding more about what it is…

  6. Cultural Humility in Nursing Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Byumba School of Nursing and Midwifery, ... Culture is complex and it influences the development of individual beliefs, attitudes, and values. ... to notice cultural differences, and then be willing to modify their attitudes and behavior as an indication of.

  7. Diversidade de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae) ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal na Mata Atlântica

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Rodrigo Barbosa; Brandão,Carlos Roberto Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    A Mata Atlântica é um dos ambientes mais ricos e ameaçados do mundo, o que deveria ter estimulado em muito o estudo e a conservação do Bioma, mas a fauna de Hymenoptera permanece ainda relativamente pouco conhecida. Em especial, a fauna de abelhas da floresta ombrófila densa é pouco estudada em comparação à fauna das áreas abertas brasileiras. O projeto temático "Biodiversidade de Hymenoptera e Isoptera: riqueza e diversidade ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal na Mata Atlântica - a floresta...

  8. The first record of the genus Tanaostigma (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmatidae) in the Old World, with the description of a new species from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Joshi, Sunil

    2016-11-15

    Tanaostigma Howard (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmatidae) is recorded for the first time in the fauna of the Old World, with T. indica Gupta sp. n.  described and illustrated from southern India, reared from Millettia (=Pongamia) pinnata (Fabaceae).

  9. Effects of feeding frequency and sugar concentration on behavior and longevity of the adult aphid parasitoid: Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzouz, H.; Giordanengo, P.; Wäckers, F.L.; Kaiser, L.

    2004-01-01

    Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary aphid endoparasitoid. Adults feed on honeydew and possibly on other sugar sources such as nectar. Sugar sources can vary qualitatively and quantitatively according to biotic factors and environmental conditions. Experiments were

  10. Oviposition behavior and survival of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an ectoparasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), on hosts exposed to an entomopathogenic fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antagonistic interactions between the nymphal parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and the ARSEF 3581 isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) could disrupt biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina ...

  11. Notes on Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera) Species Collected by Bait Traps in OrganicVineyard and Orchards of Kemalpaşa (İzmir), Western Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÜZÜM, Ahu; TANYERİ, Rukiye; GÜLPERÇİN, Nilay; TEZCAN, Serdar; YILDIRIM, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera species collected by bait traps during the months of June-October in organic vineyard and orchards in Kemalpaşa district, (İzmir) of Western Turkey were evaluated in this study. As a result, six species belonging 2007 to two families of Hymenoptera were determined. Those were Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793), Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758, Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, Polistes dominulus (Christ, 1791) and Polistes gallicus (Linnaeus, 1767). Amon...

  12. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy

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    Naruo Yoshida

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan.

  13. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

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    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.

  14. Preliminary taxonomic study of the genus Praon (Hymenoptera:Braconidae:Aphidiinae) and its host associations in Iran

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakhshani, E.; Talebi, A. A.; Manzari, S.; Tomanovic, Ž.; Starý, Petr; Rezwani, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2007), s. 19-34 ISSN 0259-9996 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : genus Praon * Hymenoptera * Iran Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a...

  16. Biological parameters and thermal requirements of the parasitoid Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, De B.F.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the biology of Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) hosts was studied and the thermal requirements of the parasitoid were determined. Experiments were carried out at 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28

  17. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

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    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  18. Sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea) : A critical consideration of models and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Kamping, Albert; van de Zande, Louis

    Sex determining mechanisms are highly diverse. Like all Hymenoptera, the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis reproduces by haplodiploidy: males are haploid and females are diploid. Sex in Nasonia is not determined by complementary alleles at sex loci. Evidence for several alternative models is

  19. Record of the genus Arrhenophagoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae from India, description of a new species from the Andaman Islands

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    M. Hayat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arrhenophagoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is recorded for the first time from India and the Oriental region, and a new species, A. andamanica sp. Nov. is described from material collected in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. As the genus is newly recorded from the Oriental region, a brief diagnosis is also given.

  20. A new species of the Camponotus aureopilus VIEHMEYER, 1914 species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shattuck, S.; Janda, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2009), s. 251-253 ISSN 1994-4136 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR KJB612230701 Grant - others:U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : taxonomic description * Hymenoptera * Formicidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. A new species of Megischus Brullé (Hymenoptera, Stephanidae from China, with a key to the Chinese species

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    Hong Chun-dan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Megischus Brullé from China, M. aplicatus sp. n., is described and illustrated. A key to the Chinese species of Megischus is added. The holotype is deposited in the Parasitic Hymenoptera Collection of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou.

  2. Two new species of Oobius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and their phylogenetic relationship with other congeners from northeastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Xia Yao; Jian J. Duan; Jason L. Mottern; Xiao-Yi Wang; Zhong-Qi Yang; Leah S. Bauer; Michael W. Gates

    2018-01-01

    Two new species of egg parasitoids, Oobius saimaensis Yao and Mottern new species and Oobius fleischeri Yao and Duan new species (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are described from eggs of Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger, 1925 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Agrilus fleischeri is a phloemfeeding woodborer of poplar (...

  3. The parasites of cereal stem borers (Lepidoptera: Cossidae, Crambidae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae) in Africa, belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Polaszek, A.

    1996-01-01

    A review is given of the parasites (parasitoids) of the African cereal stem borers (including introduced species) belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera); 38 species belonging to 19 genera are keyed and treated. Three new species are described: Macrocentrus sesamivorus spec. nov. from

  4. New species of Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) reared from larvae of Keroplatidae fungus gnats (Diptera) in a Dutch orchid greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humala, Andrei E.; Kruidhof, Marjolein; Woelke, Joop

    2017-01-01

    A new parasitoid wasp species belonging to the genus Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) found in an orchid nursery in The Netherlands is described and illustrated: Megastylus woelkei sp. nov. It was reared from parasitized larvae of fungus gnats (Diptera: Keroplatidae). The

  5. An epidemiological survey of hymenoptera venom allergy in the Spanish paediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cañavate, A; Tabar, A I; Eseverri, J L; Martín, F; Pedemonte-Marco, C

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to hymenoptera venom are infrequent in paediatric patients. A study was made to determine the incidence of this pathology in children, based on an epidemiological survey targeted to all members of the SEICAP (Sociedad Española de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia Pediátrica/Spanish Society of Paediatric Clinical Immunology and Allergy), and designed to collect the data on patients under 17 years of age diagnosed with hymenoptera venom allergy. The data corresponding to 175 patients (135 males) were collected. The mean age was 9.9 ± 3.6 years. Seventeen percent (32 patients) were the offspring of beekeepers, and 68.9% had experienced previous stings. The causal insect was Apis melifera, implicated in 55 cases, followed by Polistes dominulus (33 cases). In 151 patients (83.9%) the condition consisted of a local reaction. The most frequent systemic response was urticaria and angio-oedema. Fourteen patients suffered anaphylactic shock. The diagnosis was based on skin test (intradermal and prick) and/or specific IgE testing. Three treatment categories were established: (a) prevention and educational measures; (b) symptomatic treatment with oral antihistamines as well as self-injectable adrenalin; and (c) immunotherapy. In this context, 135 patients underwent immunotherapy with a mean duration of 3.5 ± 1.7 years (range 2-5 years) - with excellent tolerance. The starting regimen was predominantly conventional (92 patients). The results of this survey show hypersensitivity reactions to hymenoptera venom to be infrequent in paediatrics, though with a strong impact upon patient quality of life. Copyright © 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Hymenoptera of Afghanistan and the central command area of operations: assessing the threat to deployed U.S. service members with insect venom hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbyville, Joseph C; Dunford, James C; Nelson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Insect venom hypersensitivity can pose a threat to personnel deployed to a combat zone but the exposure risk in Afghanistan is currently unknown. This study was designed to assess the threat of Hymenoptera stings and associated allergic reactions in Afghanistan. Hymenoptera species were collected during a deployment to southern Afghanistan from June 2010 through January 2011. The literature was also reviewed to determine species of medically important Hymenoptera recorded in the region. The U.S. Army theater electronic medical data system was mined for ICD-9 codes associated with insect stings to determine the number of theater medical clinic encounters addressing insect sting reactions. Three species of flying hymenoptera were commonly encountered during the study period: Vespa orientalis L., Polistes wattii Cameron, and Vespula germanica (F.). A literature review also confirms the presence of honeybees (Apidae), numerous velvet ant (Mutillidae) species, and various ant (Formicidae) species all capable of stinging. No evidence was identified to suggest that fire ants (Solenopsis ssp.) are a threat in the region. Based on electronic medical records from the U.S. Central Command area of operations over a 2-year period, roughly 1 in 500 clinic visits involved a patient with a diagnosis of insect bite or sting. Cross-reactive members of all five flying Hymenoptera species commonly assessed for in Hymenoptera allergy evaluations are present in Afghanistan. The review of in-theater medical records confirms that insect stings pose an environmental threat to deployed service members.

  7. PERBANDINGAN KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITOID PADA AGROEKOSISTEM KEDELAI DENGAN APLIKASI DAN TANPA APLIKASI INSEKTISIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrival Hendrival

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sistem pengelolaan tanaman kedelai dengan penggunaan insektisida sintetik yang intensif akan menurunkan keanekaragaman jenis Hymenoptera parasitoid. Penelitian bertujuan untuk memban-dingkan keanekaragaman Hymenoptera parasitoid pada agroekosistem kedelai dengan dan tanpa aplikasi insektisida sintetik. Pengumpulan data serangga menggunakan perangkap dari jaring serangga dan nampan kuning. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa indeks keanekaragaman jenis pada fase pertumbuhan vegetatif dan generatif kedelai dengan aplikasi insektisida lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan yang tanpa aplikasi insektisida, yang keduanya tergolong sedang. Indeks kemerataan jenis pada fase pertumbuhan vegetatif dan generatif dari kedua agroekosistem kedelai tergolong tinggi. Indeks kekayaan jenis pada fase vegetatif dari agroekosistem kedelai dengan aplikasi insektisida tergolong rendah (0<2,3955≤2,5, sedangkan pada fase generatif tergolong sedang (0<3,6118≤4. Indeks kekayaan jenis pada fase vegetatif (0<2,6229≤4 dan generatif (0<3,8287≤4 dari agroekosistem kedelai tanpa aplikasi insektisida tergolong sedang. Komunitas Hymenoptera parasitoid pada agroekosistem kedelai tanpa aplikasi insektisida memiliki kemiripan lebih rendah daripada yang dengan aplikasi insektisida. Aplikasi insektisida mempengaruhi indeks kekayaan jenis pada fase generatif dan kemiripan komunitasnya, yaitu nilainya lebih rendah daripada yang tanpa insektisida. Abstract The management system of soybean agroecosystem with an intensive use of synthetic insecticides will reduce the diversity of parasitoid Hymenoptera species. The study aimed to compare the diversity of the parasitoids in soybean agroecosystem with and without insecticide application. The collection of the parasitoid used insect net and yellow tray. The results showed that the diversity index of the parasitoids during vegetative and generative growth of the soybean with the insecticide application was lower than the one without

  8. Evolution of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the Hymenoptera: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kather, Ricarda; Martin, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Chemical communication is the oldest form of communication, spreading across all forms of life. In insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) function as chemical cues for the recognition of mates, species, and nest-mates in social insects. Although much is known about the function of individual hydrocarbons and their biosynthesis, a phylogenetic overview is lacking. Here, we review the CHC profiles of 241 species of Hymenoptera, one of the largest and most important insect orders, which includes the Symphyta (sawflies), the polyphyletic Parasitica (parasitoid wasps), and the Aculeata (wasps, bees, and ants). We investigated whether these taxonomic groups differed in the presence and absence of CHC classes and whether the sociality of a species (solitarily vs. social) had an effect on CHC profile complexity. We found that the main CHC classes (i.e., n-alkanes, alkenes, and methylalkanes) were all present early in the evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera, as evidenced by their presence in ancient Symphyta and primitive Parasitica wasps. Throughout all groups within the Hymenoptera, the more complex a CHC the fewer species that produce it, which may reflect the Occam's razor principle that insects' only biosynthesize the most simple compound that fulfil its needs. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the complexity of CHC profiles between social and solitary species, with some of the most complex CHC profiles belonging to the Parasitica. This profile complexity has been maintained in the ants, but some specialization in biosynthetic pathways has led to a simplification of profiles in the aculeate wasps and bees. The absence of CHC classes in some taxa or species may be due to gene silencing or down-regulation rather than gene loss, as demonstrated by sister species having highly divergent CHC profiles, and cannot be predicted by their phylogenetic history. The presence of highly complex CHC profiles prior to the vast radiation of the social Hymenoptera indicates a

  9. Taxonomic and faunistic study of Aulacidae (Hymenoptera, Evanioidea from Iran, with illustrated key to species

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    Mostafa Ghafouri Moghaddam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aulacidae are parasitoids of wood-boring larvae of Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, known in all zoogeographic regions of the World, except Antarctic. Two aulacids, Pristaulacus compressus (Spinola, 1808 and the rare Pristaulacus mourguesi Maneval, 1935, have been recently collected from Iran, the latter being a new record. Based on available data, the Iranian aulacid fauna includes five species within a single genus, Pristaulacus Kieffer 1900. A brief taxonomic treatment, as well as morphometric data and an illustrated key to species, are provided.

  10. Contribution to Taxonomy and Distribution of the Genus Elaphropoda (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae in Vietnam

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    Nguyen, Minh Phuong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on the genus Elaphropoda Lieftinck, 1966 (Hymenoptera: Apidae from Vietnam are presented. Two species of the genus are reported: Elaphropoda percarinata (Cockerell, 1930 was first recorded from Vietnam based on specimens collected from Ha Tinh province in 1998, and is reconfirmed with a specimens collected from Bac Kan province in the Northeastern part of the country in this study, and Elaphropoda khasiana (Schulz, 1906 is recorded from Vietnam for the first time. Redescriptions of the male of E. percarinata and the female of E. khasiana are given with illustrations.

  11. Primer registro del género Mellinus (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández C. Fernando

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los taxones menos conocidos de Sphecidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea es Mellinus Fabricius, género que en el pasado llegó a tener categoría de subfamilia (Bohart & Menke 1976, pero que ahora comprende una tribu, Mellinini, dentro de la subfamilia Nyssoninae (Menke & Fernández 1996. Al parecer,  las hembras de este género capturan moscas del estiércol cerca a excrementos de mamíferos en el campo, y hacen sus nidos en el suelo (Evans 1989.

  12. Utility of laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachová, Martina; Panzner, Petr; Malkusová, Ivana; Hanzlíková, Jana; Vlas, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    A diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy is based on clinical history and the results of skin tests and/or laboratory methods. To analyze the utility of available laboratory tests in diagnosing Hymenoptera venom allergy. Ninety-five patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy with a history of bee (35) or wasp (60) anaphylactic sting reaction and positive skin test with bee or wasp venom were included in this analysis. Specific immunoglobulin E (to bee venom extract, wasp venom extract, available recombinant molecules, and a basophil activation test with venom extracts were assessed in all the patients. Test sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using standard threshold values; then, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compute optimal threshold values. Also, statistical analysis of the utility of different combinations of laboratory tests was performed. The optimal threshold values were revealed to be the following: 1.0 kIU/L for bee venom extract (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 100%), 0.35 kIU/L for rApi m 1 (sensitivity, 68.57%; specificity, 100%), 1.22 kIU/L for wasp venom extract (sensitivity, 88.33%; specificity, 95.45%), 0.7 kIU/L for rVes v 5 (sensitivity, 86.67%; specificity, 95.45%), 1.0 kIU/L for rVes v 1 (sensitivity, 56.67%; specificity, 95.45%), 6.5% for basophil activation test with bee venom extract (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 95.45%), and 4.5% for basophil activation test with wasp venom extract (sensitivity, 91.53%; specificity, 95.45%). The best test combinations were found to be the following: bee venom extract plus rApi m 1 (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 95.45%) in bee and either wasp venom extract plus rVes v 5, or rVes v 5 plus rVes v 1 (both sensitivity, 98.33%; specificity, 95.45%) in patients with wasp venom allergy. Our analysis confirmed that currently used laboratory tests represent effective tools in diagnosing Hymenoptera venom allergy. Moreover, our probabilistic approach offered another

  13. Pollinator diversity (Hymenoptera and Diptera in semi-natural habitats in Serbia during summer

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    Mudri-Stojnić Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess species diversity and population abundance of the two main orders of pollinating insects, Hymenoptera and Diptera. The survey was conducted in 16 grassland fragments within agro-ecosystems in Vojvodina, as well as in surrounding fields with mass-flowering crops. Pollinators were identified and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to measure their diversity. Five families, 7 subfamilies, 26 genera and 63 species of insects were recorded. All four big pollinator groups investigated were recorded; hoverflies were the most abundant with 32% of the total number of individuals, followed by wild bees - 29%, honeybees - 23% and bumblebees with 16%.

  14. Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Danúncia Urban

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melostelis gen. nov. é proposto para um novo Anthidiini cleptoparasita. São descritas e ilustradas duas espécies novas: Melostelis amazonensis sp. nov. de Manaus, Amazonas e Larocanthidium chacoense sp. nov. de Porto Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul. São dados a conhecer os machos de Epanthidium bolivianum Urban, 1995 e Epanthidium araranguense Urban, 2006 e, registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil, na sub-região do chaco, Ketianthidium zanolae Urban, 2000 e Epanthidium bolivianum.

  15. A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina from northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz R. R. Faria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae from northeastern Brazil. Eufriesea pyrrhopyga sp. nov. a short-tongued Eufriesea is described as a new species. It can be easily recognized for its predominantly violet lower frons and thorax, violet tergum 1 contrasting with the strong reddish coloration on the lateral portions of terga 2 to 4 and on entire terga 5 and 6, and head pubescence with contrasting colors, white on the lower two-thirds of the face and black on upper frons and vertex. This new species, collected in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil, apparently is restricted to the Pernambuco endemic center, and seems to be highly endangered.

  16. Five new species of Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Luis Felipe Ventura; Dias, Angélica Maria Penteado

    2015-12-10

    Meteorus Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a cosmopolitan genus with around 340 species described, all koinobiont endoparasitoids of Coleoptera or Lepidoptera larvae, and several of its hosts are pest insects. Previously to this work only two species were described from Brazil, M. eaclidis Muesebeck and M. townsendi Muesebeck. Five new species of Meteorus are here described: M. atlanticus n. sp., M. ferruginosus n. sp., M. itatiaiensis n. sp., M. monoceros n. sp., and M. strigatus n. sp. Three species are recorded for the first time from Brazil: M. jerodi Aguirre & Shaw, M. laphygmae Viereck and M. megalops Zitani.

  17. Ciclo de desarrollo de Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula, Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera, Trigonini

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    María Giomar Nates Parra

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el ciclo de desarrollo de una abeja sin aguijón: Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula. Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera. Trigonini. Los resultados fueron los siguientes: El periodo comprendido entre la postura del huevo y la emergencia del imago, es, en las obreras, de 36.5 días en promedio. La duración del ciclo se hace mayor a medida que las celdas se alejan del centro del panal. Se determinaron 3 instares larvales y 5 fases pupales para obreras.

  18. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise, Coccidae (sagtedopluise en Kerriidae (lakdopluise is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhouding tussen die miere en dopluise, bekend as mirmekofilie, is fakultatief van aard. Die wipstertmier blyk ook nie spesifiek te wees wat betref die plant waarop hulle nes maak nie.

  19. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr; Bogusch, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  20. Hornets Have It: A Conserved Olfactory Subsystem for Social Recognition in Hymenoptera?

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    Antoine Couto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eusocial Hymenoptera colonies are characterized by the presence of altruistic individuals, which rear their siblings instead of their own offspring. In the course of evolution, such sterile castes are thought to have emerged through the process of kin selection, altruistic traits being transmitted to following generation if they benefit relatives. By allowing kinship recognition, the detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs might be instrumental for kin selection. In carpenter ants, a female-specific olfactory subsystem processes CHC information through antennal detection by basiconic sensilla. It is still unclear if other families of eusocial Hymenoptera use the same subsystem for sensing CHCs. Here, we examined the existence of such a subsystem in Vespidae (using the hornet Vespa velutina, a family in which eusociality emerged independently of ants. The antennae of both males and female hornets contain large basiconic sensilla. Sensory neurons from the large basiconic sensilla exclusively project to a conspicuous cluster of small glomeruli in the antennal lobe, with anatomical and immunoreactive features that are strikingly similar to those of the ant CHC-sensitive subsystem. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings further show that sensory neurons within hornet basiconic sensilla preferentially respond to CHCs. Although this subsystem is not female-specific in hornets, the observed similarities with the olfactory system of ants are striking. They suggest that the basiconic sensilla subsystem could be an ancestral trait, which may have played a key role in the advent of eusociality in these hymenopteran families by allowing kin recognition and the production of altruistic behaviors toward relatives.

  1. Genes underlying reproductive division of labor in termites, with comparisons to social Hymenoptera

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    Judith eKorb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available All social insects are characterized by a reproductive division of labor. Within a colony only a few individuals reproduce (queens and in termites, also a king while the large majority (workers and soldiers forgo reproduction, at least temporarily. The evolution of such reproductive altruism can ultimately be explained by inclusive fitness theory. Here, I will review the proximate genetic mechanisms underlying this altruism in termites. As social cockroaches they evolved eusociality independently from the social Hymenoptera, which makes them interesting test cases to look for common underlying mechanisms of eusociality and lineage specific idiosyncrasies. First, I will provide a summary of the genes and their function that have been identified to underlie reproductive division of labor - so called 'queen genes,' - in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus, an emerging model to study termite social evolution. Second, I outline how widespread these queen genes are across the termite phylogeny, using also evidence from recent genome analyses. I will provide hypotheses about the evolutionary origin of these queen genes, aiming to link proximate mechanisms with ultimate functions. Finally, I will draw comparisons to social Hymenoptera to indicate potential common underpinnings that warrant further testing.

  2. A hymenopterists’ guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

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    Katja Seltmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO and its associated applications. These resources are designed to facilitate accessible and extensible research on hymenopteran phenotypes. Outreach with the hymenopterist community is of utmost importance to the HAO project, and this paper is a direct response to questions that arised from project workshops. In a concerted attempt to surmount barriers of understanding, especially regarding the format, utility, and development of the HAO, we discuss the roles of homology, “preferred terms”, and “structural equivalency”. We also outline the use of Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs and posit that they are a key element necessary for increasing the objectivity and repeatability of science that references hymenopteran anatomy. Pragmatically, we detail a mechanism (the “URI table” by which authors can use URIs to link their published text to the HAO, and we describe an associated tool (the “Analyzer” to derive these tables. These tools, and others, are available through the HAO Portal website (http://portal.hymao.org. We conclude by discussing the future of the HAO with respect to digital publication, cross-taxon ontology alignment, the advent of semantic phenotypes, and community-based curation.

  3. The rearranged mitochondrial genome of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae, a parasitoid wasp of Drosophila

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    Daniel S. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The partial mitochondrial genome sequence of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae was characterized. Illumina sequencing was used yielding 35,999,679 reads, from which 102,482 were utilized in the assembly. The length of the sequenced region of this partial mitochondrial genome is 15,417 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 21tRNA genes (the trnaM failed to be sequenced and a partial A+T-rich region. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Eleven protein-coding genes presented TAA stop codons, whereas ND6 and COII that presented TA, and T nucleotides, respectively. The gene pattern revealed extensive rearrangements compared to the typical pattern generally observed in insects. These rearrangements involve two protein-coding and two ribosomal genes, along with the 16 tRNA genes. This gene order is different from the pattern described for Ibalia leucospoides (Ibaliidae, Cynipoidea, suggesting that this particular gene order can be variable among Cynipoidea superfamily members. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the main groups of Apocrita was performed using amino acid sequence of 13 protein-coding genes, showing monophyly for the Cynipoidea superfamily within the Hymenoptera phylogeny.

  4. Registro de nido de Camponotus rufipes (Formicidae: Hymenoptera en un armario metálico dentro de una estructura urbana | Nesting report of Camponotus rufipes (Formicidae: Hymenoptera in a metallic cabinet insight an urban structure

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    Cristina Sainz-Borgo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban ants are common and have a great importance for humans, for the effects in the houses or for being vectors of pathogens. The present paper reports the presence of a nest of Camponotus atriceps (Formicidae: Hymenoptera inside a metal cabinet in a research laboratory at Simón Bolívar University (Caracas, Venezuela. This report constitutes one of the few records for this species in metallic structures, since they usually occupy wooden structures.

  5. The origins of species richness in the Hymenoptera: insights from a family-level supertree

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    Davis Robert B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The order Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, sawflies contains about eight percent of all described species, but no analytical studies have addressed the origins of this richness at family-level or above. To investigate which major subtaxa experienced significant shifts in diversification, we assembled a family-level phylogeny of the Hymenoptera using supertree methods. We used sister-group species-richness comparisons to infer the phylogenetic position of shifts in diversification. Results The supertrees most supported by the underlying input trees are produced using matrix representation with compatibility (MRC (from an all-in and a compartmentalised analysis. Whilst relationships at the tips of the tree tend to be well supported, those along the backbone of the tree (e.g. between Parasitica superfamilies are generally not. Ten significant shifts in diversification (six positive and four negative are found common to both MRC supertrees. The Apocrita (wasps, ants, bees experienced a positive shift at their origin accounting for approximately 4,000 species. Within Apocrita other positive shifts include the Vespoidea (vespoid wasps/ants containing 24,000 spp., Anthophila + Sphecidae (bees/thread-waisted wasps; 22,000 spp., Bethylidae + Chrysididae (bethylid/cuckoo wasps; 5,200 spp., Dryinidae (dryinid wasps; 1,100 spp., and Proctotrupidae (proctotrupid wasps; 310 spp.. Four relatively species-poor families (Stenotritidae, Anaxyelidae, Blasticotomidae, Xyelidae have undergone negative shifts. There are some two-way shifts in diversification where sister taxa have undergone shifts in opposite directions. Conclusions Our results suggest that numerous phylogenetically distinctive radiations contribute to the richness of large clades. They also suggest that evolutionary events restricting the subsequent richness of large clades are common. Problematic phylogenetic issues in the Hymenoptera are identified, relating especially to

  6. Prey identification in nests of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae using DNA barcodes

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prey identification in nests of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae using DNA barcodes. Geometrid larvae are the only prey known for larvae of the Neotropical potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 was amplified from geometrid larvae collected from cells of H. andeus in the Azapa Valley, Arica Province, and used to provide taxonomic identifications. Two species, Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 and Macaria mirthae Vargas, Parra & Hausmann, 2005 were identified, while three others could be identified only at higher taxonomic levels, because the barcode reference library of geometrid moths is still incomplete for northern Chile.

  7. Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Rogéria I. R. Lara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil. A survey of the parasitoid wasp Pelecinus polyturator (Drury, 1773 (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae was carried out with five Malaise traps/area in five areas in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil, between November 2009 and October 2010. The sampling effort in each locality amounted to 1,825 trap-days. Data were obtained from a total of 317 exemplars of P. polyturator, corresponding to 108 females and 209 males. The average sex ratio of the studied population was 0.52. The highest occurrence of P. polyturator was observed between November and March with frequency peak in January; about 95% of the specimens studied were captured at altitudes close to 1,000 m above sea level.

  8. A new species of solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from caterpillars of toxic butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador.

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    Shaw, Scott R; Jones, Guinevere Z

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae.

  9. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  10. Higher-level bee classifications (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato Classificação dos grandes grupos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A higher-level classification of bees, in which the entire group is treated as a single family - the Apidae - is advocated here. A total of seven subfamilies, 51 tribes and 27 subtribes are recognized. These subfamilies correspond to the families adopted in the traditional classification. Although the proposed changes do not involve any major rearrangement, basically only changing the rank given to the main groups, the new system makes the classification of bees more consistent with that adopted for other major groups of aculeate Hymenoptera. It also departs from the 19th century practice, perpetuated in the traditional classification, of giving family-status to the main groups of bees. A correspondence table associating the taxon names used in the current traditional classification with those of the revised classification is presented. Scrapterini new tribe (type-genus Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville is proposed to accommodate the southern African genus Scrapter.Apresenta-se uma classificação para as abelhas em que o todo o grupo é tratado como uma única família - Apidae. São reconhecidas sete subfamílias, 51 tribos e 27 subtribos. As subfamílias correspondem às famílias da classificação tradicional. Apesar das mudanças propostas afetarem apenas o status dos grupos, o novo sistema torna a classificação das abelhas mais consistente com aquela adotada para os grandes grupos de Hymenoptera aculeados. Além disso, distancia-se da tradição de dar status de família aos grupos principais de abelhas, uma prática do século 19 perpetuada na classificação tradicional. É apresentada uma tabela de correspondência associando os nomes dos táxons usados na classificação tradicional corrente com aquelas da classificação sendo proposta aqui. Scrapterini tribo nova (gênero-tipo Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville é proposta para acomodar Scrapter, um gênero restrito à porção sul do continente africano.

  11. The discovery of the genus Spasskia Belokobylskij, 1989 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in China, with description of a new species.

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    Yan, Cheng-jin; He, Jun-hua; Chen, Xue-xin

    2014-01-01

    The genus Spasskia Belokobylskij, 1989 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Helconinae) is reported for the first time from China. Two species, namely Spasskia brevicarinata Yan et Chen sp. n.and Spasskia indica Singh, Belokobylskij et Chauhan, 2005 are described and illustrated. A key to the species of this genus is updated to include the new species. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  12. Temporal Activity Patterns of the Spider Wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) in a Disturbed Lower Montane Rainforest (Manizales, Colombia)

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    Restrepo-Giraldo, Carlos; Rodriguez, Juanita; Pitts, James P.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the temporal activity pattern of the spider wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) in a disturbed lower montane rainforest, which is located in the city of Manizales, Colombia, at an altitude of 2,150 m. Females of this species are diurnal with two peaks of activity: one in the morning and the other in the afternoon. During the morning, nectar foraging occurred at Baccharis latifolia. During the afternoon, females hunted for tarantulas of the genus Pamphobeteus (Aran...

  13. Risk of anaphylaxis in patients with large local reactions to hymenoptera stings: a retrospective and prospective study.

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    Pucci, Stefano; D'Alò, Simona; De Pasquale, Tiziana; Illuminati, Ilenia; Makri, Elena; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2015-01-01

    In the few studies available, the risk of developing systemic reactions (SR) to hymenoptera stings in patients with previous large local reactions (LLRs) to stings ranges from 0 to 7 %. We evaluated both retrospectively and prospectively the risk of SRs in patients with LLRs to stings. An overall number of 477 patients, 396 with an SR as the first manifestation of allergy and 81 with a history of only LLRs after hymenoptera stings, were included in the study. All patients had clinical history and allergy testing (skin tests and/or specific IgE) indicative of allergy to venom of only one kind of Hymenoptera. Of the 81 patient with LLRs, 53 were followed-up for 3 years by annual control visits, while the 396 patients with SR were evaluated retrospectively. Among the 396 patients with an SR, only 17 (4.2 %) had had a previous LLR as debut of allergy, after an history of normal local reactions to Hymenoptera stings. All the 81 patients with a history of only LLRs had previously had at least two LLRs, with an overall number of 238 stings and no SR. Among the 53 patients who were prospectively evaluated we found that 31 of them (58.3 %) were restung by the same type of insect, with an overall number of 59 stings, presenting only LLRs and no SR. Our findings confirm that patients with repeated LLRs to stings had no risk of SR, while a single LLR does not exclude such risk. This has to be considered in the management of patients with LLRs.

  14. Impact of Hymenoptera venom allergy and the effects of specific venom immunotherapy on mast cell metabolites in sensitized children

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    Ewa Cichocka-Jarosz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction and objective. Mast cells (MC are effector cells during severe systemic reactions (SR to Hymenoptera stings. Venom specific immunotherapy (VIT is the treatment of choice for prevention of SR to stings. Tryptase and prostaglandin D[sub]2[/sub] metabolites (PGD[sub]2[/sub] are the markers of MC activation. The study design was to 1. compare baseline values of serum tryptase concentration (BST and PGD[sub]2[/sub] metabolites in children with/without venom sensitization, 2. to evaluate an influence of rush VIT on MC markers in treated children. materials and methods. Sensitized group: 25 children with SR to Hymenoptera sting. Control group: 19 healthy children. Active treatment: 5-day-rush-VIT. BST was evaluated by ImmunoCAP, PGD[sub]2[/sub] metabolites in blood and urine by GC-NICI-MS. results. The baseline blood levels of MC markers were significantly higher, while urinary concentration of 9α,11β-PGF2 was significantly lower in the whole group of venom-sensitized children compared to controls. Severity of SR showed negative correlation with urinary PGD[sub]2[/sub] metabolites, while positive with plasma 9α,11β-PGF2 and BST concentration The highest sensitivity was obtained for plasma 9α,11β-PGF2 whereas the highest specificity for urinary PGD-M. conclusions. In children with IgE-mediated SR to Hymenoptera stings, elevation of baseline values of PGD2 metabolites in blood is accompanied by decreased excretion of its urinary metabolites. Assessment of stable PGD[sub]2 [/sub] metabolites might serve as an independent MC marker to identify allergic children. There is an association between urinary PGD[sub]2[/sub] metabolites and severity of the SR to Hymenoptera stings.

  15. Catalogue of Danish Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, with the description of two new species of Aspilota Foerster, 1863

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    Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a total of 153 species of Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from Denmark are catalogued. Two species are described as new for science: Aspilota leptoarticulata Munk & Peris-Felipo sp. nov. and A. grandis Munk & Peris-Felipo sp. nov. Additionally, 38 alysiine species are recorded for the first time for the Danish fauna. A faunistic list with distribution data and host records is provided.

  16. A New Species of Solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared from Caterpillars of Toxic Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Scott R.; Jones, Guinevere Z.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nympha...

  17. Evaluation of the quality of life in subjects with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to the Hymenoptera venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Natalia; Bazan-Socha, Stanisława; Pulka, Grażyna; Pełka, Karolina; Latra, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Sensitization to the Hymenoptera venom is one of the main causes of anaphylaxis in Poland. Venom immunotherapy is the only effective treatment in such cases. Comprehensive patient care includes also education. The aim of our study was to assess the state of knowledge and to evaluate the quality of life and the anxiety level in patients allergic to the Hymenoptera venom after anaphylactic reaction. The survey was carried out in the period of the insects flight in 61 adult subjects (35 wasp and 26 bee allergic), using a validated Vespid Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (VQLQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and subjective assessment of anxiety level. The majority of respondents received venom immunotherapy. Sensitized to the wasp venom had significantly impaired quality of life (VQLQ score) as compared to the bee venom allergic (p = 0.014). The intensity of anxiety decreased with the duration of immunotherapy (p = 0.01). The majority of subjects knew how to recognize and treat anaphylaxis, but only 8% employed an identification card and about 50% implemented rules of the pre-exposition prophylaxis. History of a severe anaphylaxis to the Hymenoptera venom affected the quality of life. Venom immunotherapy reduced anxiety. We hope that presented surveys and their results might be useful in qualifying for immunotherapy in clinically uncertain cases.

  18. Ten unique and charismatic new species of Microgastrinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae from North America

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    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten new species within four genera of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae are described from Canada and United States: Diolcogaster ichiroi, Diolcogaster miamensis, Glyptapanteles pseudotsugae, Microgaster archboldensis, Microgaster syntopic, Microplitis altissimus, Microplitis jorgeluisi, Microplitis juanmanueli, Microplitis julioalbertoi, and Microplitis mariamargaritae. The new taxa are significant because they represent the first North American records of a tropical group (species of the basimacula group in Diolcogaster, exemplify interesting ecological cases (niche-based host selection in Glyptapanteles, syntopic species in Microgaster, and showcase unique morphological features and/or altitudinal records (Microplitis. Most of the new species were collected in protected areas or areas with strong research programs (Archbold Biological Station and hammock forests near Miami, Florida; Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, and Mount Evans Wilderness Area, Colorado; Sapelo Island, Georgia; Tonto National Forest, Arizona, and thus are also of value and interest for conservation and research efforts.

  19. Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure 1892 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia

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    Dass, Angeline David; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure, 1829 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia was done using specimens deposited in Centre for Insects Systematics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (CIS, UKM). Type and non-type specimens were loaned from several repositories namely Zoological Museum of Amsterdam Netherlands (ZMAN), Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM), British Natural History Museum London (BMNH) and Department of Agricultural Malaysia (DOA) for identification and comparison. The specimens were identified to the species level which gives rise to five species namely Xanthopimpla conica Cushman, 1925, Xanthopimpla despinosa leipephelis Townes & Chiu, 1970, Xanthopimpla flavolineata Cameron, 1907, Xanthopimpla punctata (Fabricius, 1781) and Xanthopimpla tricapus impressa Townes & Chiu, 1970. A dichotomous key and descriptions for five Xanthopimpla spesies were provided. Photos and illustrations of carina on propodeum were also included in this paper.

  20. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand

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    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca. PMID:25992582

  1. Morphometry of the midgut of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, L C; Araújo, V A; Dolder, H; Araújo, A P A; Serrão, J E; Neves, C A

    2011-01-01

    In Hymenoptera, midgut changes begin in the last instar. At this stage, the larval epithelial digestive cells degenerate, leaving only the basal membrane and the regenerative cells which will develop into a new epithelium during the pupal stage and in the adult. Epithelium renewal is followed by changes in volume and shape of the midgut. Morphometric analysis of digestive cells and total midgut volume of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Lepeletier) were conducted to verify whether cell volume increase are sufficient to account for the total midgut volume increase that occurs during metamorphosis. An increase in midgut volume was verified in spite of the scarcity of cell proliferation found during metamorphosis. At the end of metamorphosis, the increase in cell volume was not sufficient to explain the increase in volume of the midgut, indicating that an increase in the number of digestive cells is apparently necessary. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which regenerative cells reconstitute the epithelium during metamorphosis remains unknown.

  2. Nesting sites characteristics of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    Nelky Suriawanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae is eusocial insects that live together in a colony. This research was aimed to study the nesting site characteristics of stingless bees in the settlement areas at Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The nesting sites were observed by purposive sampling method from July 2015 to January 2016. Four species belong to genus Tetragonula were found, namely T. fuscobalteata, T. biroi, T. sapiens, and T. laeviceps. Two spesies, T. biroi and T. sapiens are the new record in Sulawesi island. The highest abundance of stingless bees colony was T. fuscobalteata (92.26%, followed by T. biroi (4.17%, T. sapiens (2.98%, and T. laeviceps (0.59%. Nesting sites of T. fuscobalteata were found in the stone, brick wall, wooden wall, bamboo, and iron cavities, T. biroi in the wooden wall, stone, and brick wall cavities, T. sapiens in stone cavities, while T. laeviceps in wooden walls.

  3. A new mesoserphid wasp from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea

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    Yan Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of Mesoserphidae (Hymenoptera, Juraserphus modicus gen. et sp. nov., is described based on a well-preserved fossil specimen from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of northeastern China. It is characterized by the following forewing features: the forking of Rs+M located approximately one-third of the distance between 1m-cu and 2r-rs, both 1cu-a and 2cu-a antefurcal; 1-M more than twice as long as 1m-cu and hind wing with cells r and rm closed. In addition, it has a short ovipositor, only extending slightly beyond the metasomal apex. Its new morphological characters broaden the diversity of Mesoserphidae in the Mesozoic and provide new insights into the evolution and relationships of Mesoserphidae.

  4. Additions to the Knowledge of the Genus Phimenes (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Vietnam

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    Lien Thi Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solitary wasp genus Phimenes Giordani Soika, 1992 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae was reported to occur in Vietnam by van der Vecht (1959, represented by one taxon, Phimenes flavopictus continentalis (Zimmermann, which was synonymized under nominotypical Phimenes flavopictus (Blanchard, 1849 by Kumar (2013. A note on gender of this genus is made in the text. One more species, Phimenes indosinensis (van der Vecht, 1959 is recorded in this study from Dak Lak in the southern and Son La in the northwestern parts of Vietnam for the first time. Detailed descriptions of the female and male of the latter are provided with figures. A key to the two species from Vietnam is also provided.

  5. Insecticide toxicity to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females and effect on descendant generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Ulysses R; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Brunner, Jay; Pereira, Fabrício F; Serrão, José E

    2009-02-01

    The effect of nine insecticides used in tomato production was evaluated on adults of two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) populations from Rive and Afonso Cláudio, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experiment was developed in an acclimatized chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 14 h photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), previously immersed in insecticides solutions were offered to females of both T. pretiosum populations. Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron had lowest negative effects on parasitism and viability of individuals of these populations; however, abamectin and pyrethroids (betacyflurin 50 and 125 g/l and esfenvalerate) insecticides reduced parasitism rates. T. pretiosum emerged from A. kuehniella eggs treated with esfenvalerate but were not able to parasitize non treated eggs of this host. B. thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron may be used in integrated pest management programs to control tomato pests, because they have moderated negative effect on parasitoid wasps.

  6. Revision of the Palaearctic Gasteruption assectator aggregate, with special reference to Sweden (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae

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    Niklas Johansson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Palaearctic species of the Gasteruption assectator aggregate (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae are revised and three species are recognised. Two species are re-instated: Gasteruption boreale (Thomson, 1883, stat. n. and G. nigritarse (Thomson, 1883, stat. n., and both are excluded from the synonymy with G. assectator (Linnaeus, 1758. The general distribution of both species is given for Europe and in detail for Sweden. A key to the valid Palaearctic species of the Gasteruption assectator aggregate is given; key characters and primary types are illustrated. Four new synonyms are listed: Foenus fumipennis Thomson, 1883, Trichofoenus breviterebrae Watanabe, 1934, and Gasteruption margotae Madl, 1987, are synonymized with Gasteruption boreale (Thomson, 1883 and Gasteruption brevicauda Kieffer, 1904, with G. undulatum (Abeille de Perrin, 1879.

  7. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae from Thailand.

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    Sirikarn Sanpa

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae. Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca.

  8. Development of antennal sensilla of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Meliponini during pupation

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    V. T. Dohanik

    Full Text Available Abstract The antennal sensilla are sensory organs formed by a group of neurons and accessory cells, which allow perception of environmental cues, which play a role as mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors. This study describes the post-embryonic development of the antennal sensilla of the stingless Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera: Meliponini workers. The development of the antennal sensilla begins in the transition stage of the pre-pupae to white-eyed pupae. The sensilla are completely developed at the black-eyed pupae stage, but they are covered by the old cuticle. The sensilla are exposed to the environment only in newly emerged workers of T. angustula, but it is possible that environmental stimuli can be recognized due to the pores in the old cuticle.

  9. Lymphocyte-mediated regulation of platelet activation during desensitization in patients with hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledru, E; Pestel, J; Tsicopoulos, A; Joseph, M; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B; Capron, A

    1988-01-01

    T cells from peripheral blood of hymenoptera sensitive patients were studied before and after venom desensitization. Before treatment, T cells showed a variable but higher proliferative response to allergen than T cells of treated patients or controls. While before desensitization, T cell products, specifically released after in vitro allergen stimulation, were able to amplify the IgE-dependent platelet activity, we showed that after treatment of the same patients, T cell products strongly reduced platelet activation. Considering the modifications in platelet activation previously observed in patients treated by specific immunotherapy, the present results suggest that, through a modification of T cell reactivity to allergen, T cell functions are modulated by desensitization, and emphasize the involvement of T cell products in the desensitization mechanisms. PMID:3263227

  10. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Oliveira, Harley N. de; Oliveira, Regiane C. de; Zago, Hugo B.; Vieira, Stella M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  11. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  12. Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae wasp community in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru

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    Evelyn Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the species composition of the subfamily Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae along an altitudinal gradient in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru collected in 2009 and 2010. Eighteen species were recorded in three genera of Ophioninae: Alophophion, Enicospilus y Ophion. Five species are recorded for the first time in Peru: Ophion polyhymniae Gauld, 1988; Enicospilus cubensis (Norton, 1863; E. guatemalensis (Cameron, 1886; E. cressoni Hooker, 1912 y E. mexicanus (Cresson, 1874. Subfamily composition varies with the elevation. The highest species richness (S=11 was found at 2150 m and the lowest (S=3 at 3116 m. Enicospilus is more diverse from low to mid elevation, Ophion from mid to high elevation and Alophophion occurs predominantly at high elevation.

  13. Notes on the systematics of the orchid-bee genus Eulaema (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Notes on the systematics of the orchid-bee genus Eulaema (Hymenoptera, Apidae. The classification of the genus Eulaema is modified in order to make it congruent with recent phylogenetic hypotheses based on molecular data. The speciosa group, containing E. peruviana, E. speciosa and related species, is removed from E. (Eulaema and transferred to E. (Apeulaema. New morphological characters are presented to support the revised scope of the subgenera and their diagnostic features are revised. Six species groups are recognized herein: two in E. (Apeulaema and four in E. (Eulaema. A list of valid species in each species group and an identification key to males of each of the subgenera and species groups are provided. Finally, an older overlooked designation of a type species for Eulaema is presented in the Appendix.

  14. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

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    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  15. Epidemiology of allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings in Irish school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, Aisling

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this was to study generate the first epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy among school children in Ireland. Questionnaires, including six sting-specific questions (1), were distributed to the parents of primary school children aged 6-8 and 11-13, divided equally between rural and urban backgrounds. From 110 schools, 4112 questionnaires were returned. A total of 1544 (37.5%) children had been stung in their lifetime. Among the total, 5.8% of children stung experienced a large local reaction, 3.4% had a mild (cutaneous) systemic reaction (MSR) and 0.8% experienced a moderate\\/severe systemic reaction (SSR); these figures respectively represent 2.2%, 1.3% and 0.2% of the total study group. On logistic regression analysis, older children and rural children were at a higher risk of being stung (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.; OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8 respectively). Rural dwellers and asthma sufferers were more likely to experience an SSR (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.4-13.5 and OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.8-4.3, respectively). Hymenoptera stings are more common in rural than urban dwelling Irish children. Asthma imparted a greater risk of SSR in this study population. Severe reactions are unusual overall, occurring in <1% of those stung, a lower prevalence than in Israeli teenagers but in keeping with other European reports relating to young children.

  16. Anaphylactic Reactions After Discontinuation of Hymenoptera Venom Immunotherapy: A Clonal Mast Cell Disorder Should Be Suspected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Patrizia; Zanotti, Roberta; Pagani, Mauro; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Scaffidi, Luigi; Olivieri, Elisa; Franchini, Maurizio; Reccardini, Federico; Costantino, Maria Teresa; Roncallo, Chiara; Mauro, Marina; Boni, Elisa; Rizzini, Fabio Lodi; Bilò, Maria Beatrice; Marcarelli, Anna Rosaria; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2017-12-16

    Up to 75% of patients with severe anaphylactic reactions after Hymenoptera sting are at risk of further severe reactions if re-stung. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective in protecting individuals with ascertained Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and previous severe reactions. After a 3- to 5-year VIT course, most patients remain protected after VIT discontinuation. Otherwise, a lifelong treatment should be considered in high-risk patients (eg, in mastocytosis). Several case reports evidenced that patients with mastocytosis and HVA, although protected during VIT, can re-experience severe and sometimes fatal reactions after VIT discontinuation. To evaluate whether patients who lost protection after VIT discontinuation may suffer from clonal mast cell disorders. The survey describes the characteristics of patients who received a full course of VIT for previous severe reactions and who experienced another severe reaction at re-sting after VIT discontinuation. Those with a Red Española de Mastocitosis score of 2 or more or a serum basal tryptase level of more than 25 ng/mL underwent a hematological workup (bone marrow biopsy, KIT mutation, expression of aberrant CD25) and/or skin biopsy. Nineteen patients (mean age, 56.3 years; 89.5% males) were evaluated. All of them had received at least 4 years of VIT and were protected. After VIT discontinuation they were re-stung and developed, in all but 1 case, severe anaphylactic reactions (12 with loss of consciousness, in the absence of urticaria/angioedema). Eighteen patients (94.7%) had a clonal mast cell disorder, 8 of them with normal tryptase. Looking at this selected population, we suggest that mastocytosis should be considered in patients developing severe reactions at re-sting after VIT discontinuation and, as a speculation, patients with mastocytosis and HVA should be VIT-treated lifelong. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Added sensitivity of component-resolved diagnosis in hymenoptera venom-allergic patients with elevated serum tryptase and/or mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, J B; Brockow, K; Darsow, U

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis caused by hymenoptera venom allergy is associated with elevation of baseline serum tryptase (sBT) and/or mastocytosis in about 5% of patients. Up to now, no information has become available on single venom allergen sIgE reactivity and the usefulness of component......-resolved approaches to diagnose this high-risk patient group. To address the component-resolved sIgE sensitization pattern and diagnostic sensitivity in hymenoptera venom-allergic patients with elevated sBT levels and/or mastocytosis, a panel of yellow jacket and honeybee venom allergens was applied on a widely used...... IgE immunoassay platform. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with mastocytosis and/or elevated sBT tryptase level and systemic reactions to hymenoptera venoms were analyzed for their IgE reactivity to recombinant yellow jacket and honeybee venom allergens by Immulite3 g. RESULTS: sIgE reactivity to Ves v...

  18. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders. Mecoptera was recovered as the

  19. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

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    Shi Min

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders

  20. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitoids of Lepidoptera caterpillars feeding on Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bueno dos Reis Fernandes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae were obtained. Seven species of Ichneumonidae were reared from leaf rollers: Meniscomorpha sp. (Banchinae and Leurus caeruliventris (Cresson (Metopiinae from Dichomeris sp. (Gelechiidae; Mesochorus sp.1 (Mesochorinae [as a parasitoid of Hypomicrogaster sp. (Braconidae, Microgastrinae], Campoplex sp. (Campopleginae and Leurus sp. from Olethreutinae sp. (Tortricidae; Sphelodon annulicornis Morley (Banchinae and Eutanygaster brevipennis Cameron (Cremastinae were also reared from two unidentified species of Gelechiidae. The other eight species were reared from the larvae of exposed feeders: Diradops sp. (Banchinae from Miselia albipuncta Hampson (Noctuidae, Casinaria sp. (Campopleginae from Hymenomima conia Prout (Geometridae, Charops sp. (Campopleginae from Bagisara paulensis Schaus (Noctuidae and Oxydia vesulia (Cramer (Geometridae, two species of Hyposoter Förster (Campopleginae from Semaeopus sp. (Geometridae and H. conia, two species of Microcharops Roman (Campopleginae from B. paulensis and an unidentified species of Limacodidae and Mesochorus sp. 2 [reared from what was probably Aleiodes sp. (Braconidae, Rogadinae] from an unidentified species of Noctuidae.Parasitóides da família Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera foram obtidos durante um inventário de larvas de Lepidoptera sobre Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. As larvas de Lepidoptera foram coletadas sobre as plantas que ocorrem nas bordas de caminhos em três áreas preservadas de mata do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Quinze esp

  1. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  2. Oogenesis pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

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    Gilberto S. Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on ovigeny in parasitoids is important for basic studies on physiology and applied biological control. The ovigeny pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae were studied in newly-emerged females at seven, 14, 24 and 48 h intervals after their emergence from Tenebrio molitor L. pupae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Females of P. elaeisis presented ovaries composed by four ovarioles of the meroistic polytrophic type. The yolk accumulation and chorionogenesis in P. elaeisis were concluded 24 h after the female emergence. The 48 h-old females show a high quantity of egg ready for oviposition. These findings can help to improve the mass production of P. elaeisis and the augmentative biological control by using this natural enemy.O conhecimento da ovigenia em parasitóides é importante para estudos básicos em fisiologia e para o controle biológico aplicado. O padrão de ovigenia e OVIGENY OF Palmistichus elaeisis (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE o tipo de ovaríolo do parasitóide Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenopera: Eulophidae foram estudados em fêmeas recém-emergidas e em intervalos de sete, 14, 24 de 48 horas após a emergência em pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Fêmeas de P. elaesis apresentaram o ovário composto por quatro ovaríolos do tipo meroístico politrófico. A deposição de vitelo e corionogênese em P. elaeisis foram concluídas 24 horas após a emergência. Fêmeas com 48 horas de idade apresentam grande quantidade de ovos prontos para a oviposição. Esses resultados podem ajudar a melhoria da produção massal de P. elaeisis e o controle biológico aplicado com esse parasitóide.

  3. Two genera Foersteria Szépligeti, 1896 and Polydegmon Foerster, 1862 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Brachistinae) from China, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cheng-Jin; He, Jun-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-01-01

    The genera Foersteria Szépligeti, 1896 and Polydegmon Foerster, 1862 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Brachistinae) are recorded for the first time from China. A new species, Foersteria xinjiangensis Yan & Chen, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. A key to the Palaearctic species of Foersteria is given. In addition, Polydegmon sinuatus Foerster, 1862 is illustrated in detail for the first time.

  4. A new species of Klabonosa Bouček (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) reared from eggs of Endochus sp. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Yeshwanth, H M; Sureshan, P M

    2018-04-23

    The genus Klabonosa Bouček (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is recorded for the first time from the Oriental region, with both sexes of K. indica Gupta, Sureshan Yeshwanth sp. n. reared from eggs of the assassin bug Endochus sp. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) on Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae). The male is formally described and illustrated for the first time for the genus.

  5. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana VALVERDE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina. Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.

  6. Structural Examination of the Dufour's Gland of the Cavity-nesting Bees Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dufour’s gland of two solitary cavity-nesting bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were examined with microscopy to determine the structure and arrangement of the gland as part of the sting apparatus. The Dufour’s glands of these two bee species are similar ...

  7. Test of nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone to protect trap trees for Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) from attacks by bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Dodds; Daniel Miller

    2010-01-01

    Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an invasive woodwasp, currently established in northeastern North America. In other regions of the world, stressed trap trees are used to monitor populations of S. noctilio and to provide inoculation points for the biological control nematode Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. However, the operational use of trap trees for S....

  8. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana VALVERDE; D. Carolina BERTA; Marcelo GERONIMO GOMEZ

    2012-01-01

    Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina). Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.

  9. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  10. First record of Platygaster luteipes Buhl (Hymenoptera Platygastridae) from leaf galls on black pepper along with first report of the species from India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anjana, M.; Rajmohana, K.; Buhl, Peter Neerup

    2016-01-01

    Platygaster luteipes Buhl (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is reported for the first time from India. Several specimens of both sexes of the species were reared from the globular galls on mature leaves of black pepper. The hitherto undescribed male of the species is characterized and illustrated....

  11. First discovery of the family Tanaostigmatidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from China with a description of a new gall-making species utilizing kudzu leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Zhong-qi; Sun Jiang-hua; James P. Pitts

    2004-01-01

    A new species of Tanaostigmodes (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae) is described from China- Tanaostigmodes puerariae sp. nov. This is the first record of this family in China. This new species has potential as a biological control agent for control of kudzu, Pueraria lobate, in the U.S., because its...

  12. Comparison of the olfactory preferences of four species of filth fly pupal parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for hosts in equine and bovine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) can be purchased for biological control of these flies. ...

  13. Evidence for divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon sex pheromone between California and Mississippi (United States of America) populations of bark beetle parasitoid Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Sullivan; Nadir Erbilgin

    2014-01-01

    Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common Holarctic parasitoid of the larvae and pupae of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scotytinae). In no-choice laboratory bioassays, we found that male wasps derived either from northern California or southwestern Mississippi, United States of America more frequently displayed sexual...

  14. A New Species of Megastigmus Dalman (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) Reared from Seeds of Atlantic White Cedar (Cupressaceae), with Notes on Infestation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Turgeon; K. Kamijo; G. DeBarr

    1997-01-01

    A new species, Megastigmus thyoides Kamijo (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), which emerged from seeds of Atlantic white cedar, Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P., collected in eastern United States is described and illustrated. This is the first record of this genus exploiting seeds of Cupressaceae in the Nearctic region. An average of 7% of the seeds collected from five sites...

  15. The role of selected soil fauna as predators of Apethymus abdominalis Lep. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in oak forests in the District Caiuti, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Ciornei; N. Popa; L. Ciuca; C. Rang

    2003-01-01

    The present study was initiated in 2001 in the oak forests from Trotus valley (Forest District Caiucti - Bacau, Romania) which were heavily infested by oak sawflies Apethymus abdominalis Lep. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), in order to understand better the role of soil-inhabitating predators in population regulation of this pest.

  16. Review of the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu lato in China, with the description of a new genus and four new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Achterberg, van C.; Chen, X.-x.

    2017-01-01

    A new genus is split off the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein, 1920 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae): Maculibracon gen. n. with type species Maculibracon abruptus sp. n. The genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu stricto is redefined, a key to both genera and to their species in China, Thailand and

  17. Additions to the fauna of Braconidae from Madeira and Selvagens Islands, with the description of five new species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae, Alysiinae, Opiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Aguiar, Franquinho A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one species of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera) are added to the checklist of Braconidae from Madeira, resulting in 113 species, of which 17 species are endemic to Madeira Islands and 4 species are only known from Madeira and Canary Islands. Five species are reported new for the Selvagens

  18. The Behavioural Abilities of Meteorus versicolor Wesm. and Rogas rossicus Kok. (Hymenoptera, Branconidae) Parasitoids of Tephrina arenacearia Den. Et Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae)

    OpenAIRE

    KERIMOVA, Ilhama Gudrat Gizi

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the behavioural abilities of Meteorus versicolor Wesm. and Rogas rossicus Kok. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)-internal parasitoids of Thephrina arenacearia Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) as well. Periods of development phases and searching, ovipositional and mating behaviour of both parasitoids have been investigated.

  19. Effects of venom immunotherapy on serum level of CCL5/RANTES in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Radoslaw; Glück, Joanna; Jawor, Barbara; Rogala, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Venom immunotherapy is a recommended treatment of insect allergy with still the mechanism not being completely understood. We decided to assess the serum CCL5/RANTES level in patients who experienced severe anaphylactic reaction to Hymenoptera venom and to find out changes in the course of immunotherapy. Twenty patients (9 men, 11 women, mean age: 31.91 ± 7.63 years) with history of anaphylactic reaction after insect sting were included into the study. Diagnosis was made according to sIgE and skin tests. All of them were enrolled into rush venom immunotherapy with bee or wasp venom extracts (Pharmalgen, ALK-Abello, Horsholm, Denmark). Serum levels of CCL5/RANTES were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). CCL5/RANTES serum concentration are higher in insect venom allergic patients than in healthy controls (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 387.27 ± 85.11 pg/ml). Serum concentration of CCL5/RANTES in insect venom allergic patient was significantly reduced in the course of allergen immunotherapy already after 6 days of vaccination (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 567.32 ± 92.16 pg/ml). CCL5/RANTES serum doesn't correlate with specific IgE. Chemokine CCL5/RANTES participates in allergic inflammation induced by Hymenoptera venom allergens. Specific immunotherapy reduces chemokine CCL5/RANTES serum level already after initial days of venom immunotherapy.

  20. A Total-Evidence Approach to Dating with Fossils, Applied to the Early Radiation of the Hymenoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Schulmeister, Susanne; Murray, Debra L.; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically, we compare node dating using nine calibration points derived from the fossil record with total-evidence dating based on 343 morphological characters scored for 45 fossil (4--20 complete) and 68 extant taxa. In both cases we use molecular data from seven markers (∼5 kb) for the extant taxa. Because it is difficult to model speciation, extinction, sampling, and fossil preservation realistically, we develop a simple uniform prior for clock trees with fossils, and we use relaxed clock models to accommodate rate variation across the tree. Despite considerable uncertainty in the placement of most fossils, we find that they contribute significantly to the estimation of divergence times in the total-evidence analysis. In particular, the posterior distributions on divergence times are less sensitive to prior assumptions and tend to be more precise than in node dating. The total-evidence analysis also shows that four of the seven Hymenoptera calibration points used in node dating are likely to be based on erroneous or doubtful assumptions about the fossil placement. With respect to the early radiation of Hymenoptera, our results suggest that the crown group dates back to the Carboniferous, ∼309 Ma (95% interval: 291--347 Ma), and diversified into major extant lineages much earlier than previously thought, well before the Triassic. [Bayesian inference; fossil dating; morphological evolution; relaxed clock; statistical phylogenetics.] PMID:22723471

  1. Temporal Activity Patterns of the Spider Wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae in a Disturbed Lower Montane Rainforest (Manizales, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Restrepo-Giraldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the temporal activity pattern of the spider wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae in a disturbed lower montane rainforest, which is located in the city of Manizales, Colombia, at an altitude of 2,150 m. Females of this species are diurnal with two peaks of activity: one in the morning and the other in the afternoon. During the morning, nectar foraging occurred at Baccharis latifolia. During the afternoon, females hunted for tarantulas of the genus Pamphobeteus (Araneae: Theraphosidae, which were dragged backwards to the nest by the wasp. The nest was excavated before hunting. This is the first description of the behavior of Pepsis montezuma.

  2. Three new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with seed pods of Pithecellobium dulce (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikart, Tiago G; Costa, Valmir A; Hansson, Christer; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E

    2015-08-04

    Horismenus abnormicaulis sp. nov., H. patensis sp. nov. and H. zuleidae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), all authored by Pikart, Costa & Hansson, are described from material obtained from seed pods of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) collected in Northeastern Brazil. The seed pods were infested with larvae of Coleoptera (Chrysomelidae (Bruchinae) and Curculionidae). The associations of the Horismenus species and the beetle larvae have not been established. Morphological similarities between these new species and previously described species with host known suggest that H. patensis and H. zuleidae are primary parasitoids of Bruchinae, whereas H. abnormicaulis may act as a hyperparasitoid on other Horismenus species. The three species are compared with similar species of Horismenus.

  3. Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gustavo Hermes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Taxonomic information on Neotropical Eumeninae is provided. A new species, Pachodynerus fessatus sp. nov. is described from southeastern São Paulo, Brazil. Additional material of Pachodynerus sericeus (Fox was examined, representing the first further specimens after the original description and including the previously unknown male. The examination of new material of the genus Stenonartonia adds some new distribution records and shows some previously unrecorded individual variation for some species. The males of Stenonartonia guaraya Garcete-Barrett and Stenonartonia rejectoides Garcete-Barrett are described for the first time.

  4. Fauna de Campopleginae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) em hortas orgânicas em Araraquara e São Carlos, SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandonato, Diogo Loibel; Onody, Helena Carolina; Penteado-Dias, Angélica Maria

    2010-01-01

    Fauna de Campopleginae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) em hortas orgânicas em Araraquara e São Carlos, SP, Brasil. De março de 2006 a fevereiro 2007 foram realizadas doze amostragens utilizando armadilhas Malaise em cada uma das três áreas de cultivos orgânicos estudadas. Um total de 1773 espécimes foram identificados em dez gêneros de Campopleginae: Campoctonus Viereck, 1912, Campoletis Föster, 1869, Casinaria Holmgren, 1859, Charops Holmgren, 1859, Cryptophion Viereck, 1913, Diadegma Föster, 1...

  5. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  6. Capalictus, a new subgenus of Lasioglossum Curtis 1833 from South Africa, with description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Halictidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gibbs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Capalictus, a new subgenus of Lasioglossum Curtis, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Halic-tidae, endemic to the South African Cape Province, is described. The type species is Halictus mosselinus Cockerell, 1945. Evylaeus (Sellalictus fynbosensis (Pauly et al., 2008 is a new junior synonym of L. (C. mosselinum. Three new species are described: Lasioglossum (Capalictus hantamense sp. nov., L. (C. tigrinum sp. nov. and L. (C. timmermanni sp. nov. DNA sequence data from three nuclear genes support morphologically-determined species limits. Capalictus is a basal clade of the Hemihalictus series of Lasioglossum.

  7. Type specimens of Hymenoptera deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (excluding Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena C. Onody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper lists the type specimens of Hymenoptera, excluding Aculeata, deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We record all labels contents and also additional information from MZSP registers, published material, and other available sources. High resolution photographs of holotypes, lectotypes and syntypes are available through links to Specimage - the image database of The Ohio State University, where they are archived. The collection comprises a total of 332 type-specimens (32 holotypes, 266 paratypes, 12 syntypes, 20 paralectotypes and two lectotypes of eight superfamilies, 18 families, 31 subfamilies, 43 genera and 83 species.

  8. On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. Hermes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter. The use of vegetable matter in nest building is not widespread among the Eumeninae, and is reported for the first time for the two species of potter wasps Pirhosigma superficiale and P. limpidum. These wasps make mostly spherical mud nests over which they attach small pieces of unmasticated plant matter. Use of plant fragments in this group of wasps is interpreted as camouflage behavior.

  9. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  10. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Valverde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina. Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in soybeans crops in Tucumán province (Argentina. Biological information on habits, hosts and distribution is provided.

  11. Preference by Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) for processed meats: implications for toxic baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, G M; Hopkins, D C; Schellhorn, N A

    2006-04-01

    The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), was introduced into Australia in 1959 and has established throughout southern Australia. In urban environments, V. germanica is frequently a nuisance pest at public gatherings and to homeowners. In native environments, it has the potential to pose a threat to native invertebrates. The current practice for controlling the wasps is nest destruction with pesticide. However, locating the nest(s) is not always practical or possible. Meat baits impregnated with an insecticide that foraging wasps cut and carry back to the nest offer a means of suppressing wasps where the nest sites are unknown. The success of meat baits depends on the attractiveness and acceptance of the meat to the wasp and the mode of action of the insecticide. Our objective was to determine wasp preference and acceptance of five processed meats: canned chicken or fish and freeze-dried chicken, fish, or kangaroo. We found that more wasps visited and took freeze-dried kangaroo and canned chicken than the other baits. Canned and freeze-dried fish were similarly preferred, and freeze-dried chicken was the least attractive and accepted by foraging wasps. Our findings demonstrate that wasps prefer some processed meats and hence take more loads back to the nest. By combining a suitable insecticide with a meat bait preferred by wasps, the likelihood of effective suppression of nuisance wasp populations should be increased.

  12. Single-locus complementary sex determination in the inbreeding wasp Euodynerus foraminatus Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlhut, J K; Cowan, D P

    2004-03-01

    The Hymenoptera have arrhenotokous haplodiploidy in which males normally develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, while females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid. Multiple sex determination systems are known to underlie haplodiploidy, and the best understood is single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD) in which sex is determined at a single polymorphic locus. Individuals heterozygous at the sex locus develop as females; individuals that are hemizygous (haploid) or homozygous (diploid) at the sex locus develop as males. sl-CSD can be detected with inbreeding experiments that produce diploid males in predictable proportions as well as sex ratio shifts due to diploid male production. This sex determination system is considered incompatible with inbreeding because the ensuing increase in homozygosity increases the production of diploid males that are inviable or infertile, imposing a high cost on matings between close relatives. However, in the solitary hunting wasp Euodynerus foraminatus, a species suspected of having sl-CSD, inbreeding may be common due to a high incidence of sibling matings at natal nests. In laboratory crosses with E. foraminatus, we find that sex ratios and diploid male production (detected as microsatellite heterozygosity) are consistent with sl-CSD, but not with other sex determination systems. This is the first documented example of sl-CSD in a hymenopteran with an apparent natural history of inbreeding, and thus presents a paradox for our understanding of hymenopteran genetics.

  13. Lack of behavioural evidence for kin avoidance in mate choice in a hymenopteran parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, D; Hance, T

    2009-05-01

    Mechanisms for inbreeding avoidance should be prevalent in insects that reproduce by arrhenotokous haplodiploidy because of the higher potential production of unviable diploid males in inbred matings. Few studies have focused on mating strategies in insect parasitoids and even less on kinship relationships during mate choice. In this study we tested avoidance of kin as mate in the parasitic wasp Aphidius matricariae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using an ethological approach. Key mating parameters, such as male wing fanning, latent period before genitalia contact and duration of copulation were measured. No evidence for kin avoidance in mate choice in both A. matricariae males and females was observed in our behaviour (no choice or choice tests) tests. This lack of ethological sib mating avoidance could be due to different factors such as sex determination rule different than the single locus complementary sex determination, making lower the proportion of diploid males in case of sib matings and thus its negative consequence. The existence of other inbreeding avoidance strategies and mechanisms that reduce the probability of 2 receptive relatives meeting in nature may be common, for example, inbred mating may be rare through differential dispersal, delayed maturation, or protandry.

  14. Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae as an indicator of toxicity of herbicides registered for corn in Brazil

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    Claubert W.G de Menezes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plants in agricultural systems benefits natural enemies. Herbicides are used in weed management in corn (Zea mays L. to reduce competition and productivity losses, but they can impact natural enemies and contaminate the environment. The objective was to evaluate toxicity of herbicides on pupae parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. The treatments were represented by the host pupae Tenebrio molitor L., 1785 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and herbicides atrazine, nicosulfuron, paraquat, and tembotrione in commercial doses compared to a control treatment with water. Pupae of T. molitor were immersed in the solution of herbicides and exposed to parasitism by six females of P. elaeisis each. The herbicides atrazine and paraquat were highly toxic and, therefore, not selective to P. elaeisis. Nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of P. elaeisis (0.20 ± 0.03, which may affect subsequent generations. Moreover, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis, showing results comparable to the control. Floristic diversity of weeds can increase food source, habitat, shelter, breeding places and microclimates for insect parasitoids but herbicides formulations can be toxic and these products can affect P. elaeisis or its hosts by direct or indirect contact, showing the importance of selectivity studies for this natural enemy. However, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis and it can be recommended for programs of sustainable management of weeds in corn crop with this parasitoid.

  15. The type specimens of sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeger, Andreas; París, Mercedes; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose Luis

    2014-04-16

    The type specimens of sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) housed in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, were examined. Lectotypes are designated and illustrated for the following 32 nominal taxa (preserved in the MNCN collection if not stated otherwise): Tenthredo acutiscutis Konow, 1908; Tenthredo aericeps Konow, 1907; Allantus albipectus Konow, 1907; Athalia bolivari Dusmet, 1896; Tristactus punctatus var. candidatus Konow, 1899; Tenthredo capistrata Konow, 1907; Megalodontes capitalatus Konow 1904 (coll. SDEI); Tenthredo casta Konow, 1908; Clydostomus cestatus Konow, 1908; Miocephala chalybea Konow, 1907 (coll. SDEI); Peus cupreiceps Konow, 1907; Metallopeus cupreolus Malaise, 1945 (coll. NHRS); Allantus dusmeti Konow, 1894 (coll. SDEI); Megalodontes dusmeti Enslin, 1914 (coll. ZSM); Megalodontes escalerai Konow, 1899; Tenthredo flavitarsis Konow, 1908; Sciopteryx galerita Konow, 1907; Tenthredo habenata Konow, 1907; Allantus inguinalis Konow, 1908; Clydostomus merceti Konow, 1908; Megalodontes merceti Konow 1904 (coll. SDEI); Tenthredo mordax Konow, 1908; Megalodontes mundus Konow, 1904; Tenthredo nimbata Konow, 1906; Tenthredo oculissima Konow, 1907; Peus pannulosus Konow, 1907; Tenthredo podagrica Konow, 1907; Arge segmentaria var. rufiventris Konow, 1899; Tenthredo rugiceps Konow, 1908; Tenthredo segrega Konow, 1908; Peus splendidus Konow 1907; Tenthredo suta Konow, 1906. Peus cupreiceps Konow, 1907, is considered to be a valid species. New synonymy is proposed for Tenthredo (Metallopeus) cupreiceps (Konow, 1907), comb. nov., spec. rev. (=Metallopeus cupreolus Malaise, 1945, syn. nov.; =Metallopeus inermis Malaise, 1945, syn. nov.). 

  16. Diurnal flight behavior of Ichneumonoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera) related to environmental factors in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, A; Bordera, S; Leirana-Alcocer, J; Delfín-González, H

    2012-06-01

    The biology and behavior of insects are strongly influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation. Because some of these factors present a within day variation, they may be causing variations on insect diurnal flight activity, but scant information exists on the issue. The aim of this work was to describe the patterns on diurnal variation of the abundance of Ichneumonoidea and their relation with relative humidity, temperature, light intensity, and wind speed. The study site was a tropical dry forest at Ría Lagartos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico; where correlations between environmental factors (relative humidity, temperature, light, and wind speed) and abundance of Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) were estimated. The best regression model for explaining abundance variation was selected using the second order Akaike Information Criterion. The optimum values of temperature, humidity, and light for flight activity of both families were also estimated. Ichneumonid and braconid abundances were significantly correlated to relative humidity, temperature, and light intensity; ichneumonid also showed significant correlations to wind speed. The second order Akaike Information Criterion suggests that in tropical dry conditions, relative humidity is more important that temperature for Ichneumonoidea diurnal activity. Ichneumonid wasps selected toward intermediate values of relative humidity, temperature and the lowest wind speeds; while Braconidae selected for low values of relative humidity. For light intensity, braconids presented a positive selection for moderately high values.

  17. Diversity of Hymenoptera (Insecta) on different ages of oil palm in Lekir Plantation, Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhari, Muhammad Luqman Hakim; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the diversity of Hymenoptera on the different ages of oil palm namely plot 12, 9 and 5 years old. Sampling was carried out from November 2015 to February 2016 at Ladang Lekir, Perak using Malaise traps and Window trap. A total of 3052 individuals Hymenopteran consisting of 58 morphospecies and 35 subfamilies of 17 families were successfully collected. The most abundant species recorded was the Pimplinae.sp4 with 447 individuals (relative abundance, RA=14.51%). According to the plot, plot 9 years old have the highest reading for all three Peilou Equality Index (E'=0.983), Shannon Diversity Index (H'=3.939) and Simpson Diversity Index (D'=0.9795) with 55 species have been recorded. The t-tests showed that there were no significant difference in term of the diversity index (H') between palm plots 9 years old and 12 years old, while there were significant differences between the two plot (9 years old and 12 years old) with 5 old palm plot. The species accumulation curve showed that only 5 old palm plot nearly asymptotic. This study is expected to help the management to provide basic information for future research and as well, to develop and implement tools, methods, strategies in farm management practices of the oil palm plantations in Malaysia.

  18. SEARCHING AND PARASITISM OF Diatraea saccharalis (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE BY Trichospilus diatraeae (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE

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    Elizangela Leite Vargas

    2013-05-01

    La capacidad de Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian y Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae para buscar y parasitar las pupas de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae en los tallos de la caña de azúcar fue estudiada. Para analizar la habilidad de búsqueda y parasitismo fueron utilizados tallos de la caña de azúcar (20 cm donde se introdujo una pupa de D. saccharalis (T1; pupas y orugas (T2 o pupa y residuos fecales (T3. Cada tallo fue colocado en una botella plástica transparente con 21 hembras de T. diatraeae. Esas pupas fueron individualizadas, luego de 72 h, en tubos de vidrio a 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10 % UR y 14 h de foto período. El experimento se desarrolló en un diseño completamente al azar, con tres tratamientos y 12 repeticiones. Los porcentajes de pupas de D. saccharalis parasitados por T. diatraeae fueron del 50,00 %, 83,33 % y 16,66 % en el T1, T2 y T3, respectivamente (c2 = 3.896, p = 0,04. La presencia de D. saccharalis en los tallos de caña de azúcar favorecieron la búsqueda y parasitismo de su hospedero.

  19. Activity of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam against red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltz, B A; Suiter, D R; Gardner, W A

    2010-06-01

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined after topical treatments. Both immobilization and mortality occurred most quickly with bifenthrin, followed by thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and fipronil. Mortality due to horizontal exposure was evaluated at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C, with three ratios of topically treated donor ant corpses to live recipients (5, 10, or 20% donors). Bifenthrin had the greatest horizontal activity of the chemicals tested. For chlorfenapyr, the only treatments having higher mortality than controls were the highest percentage donors at either 10 or 30 degrees C. Horizontal activity of fipronil was temperature dependent only with the highest proportion of donors and was lower than that ofbifenthrin but higher than that of chlorfenapyr or thiamethoxam. Mean mortality due to thiamethoxam was similar to that with chlorfenapyr. Significant mortality occurred in all of the 20 and 30 degrees C thiamethoxam treatments, but none of the 10 degrees C treatments. Effectiveness as a barrier was evaluated by providing a choice between bridges treated with insecticide or water. Although bifenthrin did not provide an impenetrable barrier, it was the only treatment having fewer ants than its paired control bridge. Mortality data suggest that a reduction in recruitment rather than repellency account for this result.

  20. The evolutionary dynamics of major regulators for sexual development among Hymenoptera species

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    Matthias eBiewer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available All hymenopteran species, such as bees, wasps and ants, are characterized by the common principle of haplodiploid sex determination in which haploid males arise from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. The underlying molecular mechanism has been studied in detail in the western honey bee Apis mellifera, in which the gene complementary sex determiner (csd acts as primary signal of the sex determining pathway, initiating female development by csd-heterozygotes. Csd arose from gene duplication of the feminizer (fem gene, a transformer (tra ortholog, and mediates in conjunction with transformer2 (tra2 sex-specific splicing of fem. Comparative molecular analyses identified fem/tra and its downstream target doublesex (dsx as conserved unit within the sex determining pathway of holometabolous insects. In this study, we aim to examine evolutionary differences among these key regulators. Our main hypothesis is that sex determining key regulators in Hymenoptera species show signs of coevolution within single phylogenetic lineages. We take advantage of several newly sequenced genomes of bee species to test this hypothesis using bioinformatic approaches. We found evidences that duplications of fem are restricted to certain bee lineages and notable amino acid differences of tra2 between Apis and non-Apis species propose structural changes in Tra2 protein affecting co-regulatory function on target genes. These findings may help to gain deeper insights into the ancestral mode of hymenopteran sex determination and support the common view of the remarkable evolutionary flexibility in this regulatory pathway.

  1. Skeletal Morphology of Opius dissitus and Biosteres carbonarius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a Discussion of Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Dave; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    The Braconidae, a family of parasitic wasps, constitute a major taxonomic challenge with an estimated diversity of 40,000 to 120,000 species worldwide, only 18,000 of which have been described to date. The skeletal morphology of braconids is still not adequately understood and the terminology is partly idiosyncratic, despite the fact that anatomical features form the basis for most taxonomic work on the group. To help address this problem, we describe the external skeletal morphology of Opius dissitus Muesebeck 1963 and Biosteres carbonarius Nees 1834, two diverse representatives of one of the least known and most diverse braconid subfamilies, the Opiinae. We review the terminology used to describe skeletal features in the Ichneumonoidea in general and the Opiinae in particular, and identify a list of recommend terms, which are linked to the online Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. The morphology of the studied species is illustrated with SEM-micrographs, photos and line drawings. Based on the examined species, we discuss intraspecific and interspecific morphological variation in the Opiinae and point out character complexes that merit further study. PMID:22558068

  2. Traumatic ventriculitis following consumption of introduced insect prey (Hymenoptera) in nestling hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Rosemary J; Alley, Maurice R; Castro, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Nestling mortality in the endangered and endemic Hihi, also called Stitchbird (Notiomystis cincta), was studied over the 2008-09 breeding season at Zealandia-Karori Sanctuary, Wellington, New Zealand. Histopathology showed traumatic ventriculitis in seven of 25 (28%) dead nestlings. Single or multiple granulomas centered on chitinous insect remnants were found lodged within the gizzard mucosa, muscle layers, and ventricular or intestinal serosa. The insect remnants were confirmed as bee or wasp stings (Hymenoptera) using light and electron microscopy. Bacteria or yeasts were also found in some granulomas, and death was due to bacterial septicemia in four cases. Endemic New Zealand birds are likely to lack evolutionary adaptations required to safely consume introduced honey bees (Apis mellifera) and vespulid wasps (Vespula germanica [German wasp], and Vespula vulgaris [common wasp]). However, these insects are attracted to feeding stations used to support translocated Hihi populations. As contact between bees, wasps, and the endemic fauna of New Zealand seems inevitable, it may be necessary to minimize the numbers of these introduced insects in areas set aside for ecologic restoration.

  3. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  4. Lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on Osmia lignaria and clothianidin on Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, V A; Nadeau, J L; Higo, H A; Winston, M L

    2008-06-01

    We examined lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on Osmia lignaria (Cresson) and clothianidin on Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). We also made progress toward developing reliable methodology for testing pesticides on wild bees for use in pesticide registration by using field and laboratory experiments. Bee larvae were exposed to control, low (3 or 6 ppb), intermediate (30 ppb), or high (300 ppb) doses of either imidacloprid or clothianidin in pollen. Field experiments on both bee species involved injecting the pollen provisions with the corresponding pesticide. Only O. lignaria was used for the laboratory experiments, which entailed both injecting the bee's own pollen provisions and replacing the pollen provision with a preblended pollen mixture containing imidacloprid. Larval development, emergence, weight, and mortality were monitored and analyzed. There were no lethal effects found for either imidacloprid or clothianidin on O. lignaria and M. rotundata. Minor sublethal effects were detected on larval development for O. lignaria, with greater developmental time at the intermediate (30 ppb) and high doses (300 ppb) of imidacloprid. No similar sublethal effects were found with clothianidin on M. rotundata. We were successful in creating methodology for pesticide testing on O. lignaria and M. rotundata; however, these methods can be improved upon to create a more robust test. We also identified several parameters and developmental stages for observing sublethal effects. The detection of sublethal effects demonstrates the importance of testing new pesticides on wild pollinators before registration.

  5. Side-effects of pesticides used in irrigated rice areas on Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazini, Juliano de Bastos; Pasini, Rafael Antonio; Seidel, Enio Júnior; Rakes, Matheus; Martins, José Francisco da Silva; Grützmacher, Anderson Dionei

    2017-08-01

    Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is an important agent for the biological control of stink bug eggs in irrigated rice areas and the best strategy for its preservation is the use of selective pesticides. The aim of this study was to know the side-effects of pesticides used in Brazilian irrigated rice areas on egg parasitoid T. podisi. We evaluated, under laboratory conditions, 13 insecticides, 11 fungicides, 11 herbicides, and a control (distilled water) in choice and no-choice tests. In the no-choice tests, the pesticides were sprayed at pre and post-parasitism stages (egg and larval stages of T. podisi). In the choice tests, sprays were conducted only at pre-parasitism stages. For all tests, we prepared cards with 25 eggs of the alternative host Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) non-parasitized (pre-parasitism) and parasitized (post-parasitism), which were subjected to pesticide sprays. The parasitism and emergence rates of T. podisi were determined classifying the pesticides in terms of the reduction of parasitism or emergence rates compared to the control. The neurotoxic insecticide cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, zeta-cypermethrin, etofenprox, thiamethoxam, thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin, acetamiprid + alpha-cypermethrin, and bifenthrin + alpha-cypermethrin + carbosulfan were more harmful to T. podisi and, therefore, are less suitable for the integrated management of insect pests in irrigated rice areas.

  6. Potential of ozone as a fumigant to control pests in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R R

    2011-04-01

    Ozone is a powerful oxidant capable of killing insects and microorganisms, and eliminating odors, taste, and color. Thus, it could be useful as a fumigant to decontaminate honey comb between uses. The experiments here are intended to determine the exposure levels required to kill an insect pest and spore forming bee pathogens. Ozone was effective against greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), even on naturally infested comb. Neonates and adults were the easiest life stages to kill, requiring only a few hours of exposure, whereas eggs required a 48-h exposure (at 460-920 mg O3/m3). Two honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), pathogens, Ascosphaera apis (a fungus that causes chalkbrood) and Paenibacillus larvae (a bacterium that causes American foulbrood), also were killed with ozone. These pathogens required much higher concentrations (3200 and 8560 mg O3/m3, respectively) and longer exposure periods (3 d) than needed to control the insects. P. larvae was effectively sterilized only when these conditions were combined with high temperature (50 degrees C) and humidity (> or =75% RH). Thus, ozone shows potential as a fumigant for bee nesting materials, but further research is needed to evaluate its acceptability and efficacy in the field. The need for a reliable method to decontaminate honey bee nesting materials as part of an overall bee health management system is discussed.

  7. Function of the Dufour’s gland in solitary and social Hymenoptera

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    Aniruddha Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The poison gland and Dufour’s gland are the two glands associated with the sting apparatus in female Apocrita (Hymenoptera. While the poison gland usually functions as an integral part of the venom delivery system, the Dufour’s gland has been found to differ in its function in various hymenopteran groups. Like all exocrine glands, the function of the Dufour’s gland is to secrete chemicals, but the nature and function of the secretions varies in different taxa. Functions of the Dufour’s gland secretions range from serving as a component of material used in nest building, larval food, and pheromones involved in communicative functions that are important for both solitary and social species. This review summarizes the different functions reported for the Dufour’s gland in hymenopterans, illustrating how the Dufour’s gland secretions can be adapted to give rise to various functions in response to different challenges posed by the ways of life followed by different taxa. Aspects of development, structure, chemistry and the evolution of different functions are also touched upon briefly.

  8. Absence of complementary sex determination in the parasitoid wasp genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae.

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    Wen-Juan Ma

    Full Text Available An attractive way to improve our understanding of sex determination evolution is to study the underlying mechanisms in closely related species and in a phylogenetic perspective. Hymenopterans are well suited owing to the diverse sex determination mechanisms, including different types of Complementary Sex Determination (CSD and maternal control sex determination. We investigated different types of CSD in four species within the braconid wasp genus Asobara that exhibit diverse life-history traits. Nine to thirteen generations of inbreeding were monitored for diploid male production, brood size, offspring sex ratio, and pupal mortality as indicators for CSD. In addition, simulation models were developed to compare these observations to predicted patterns for multilocus CSD with up to ten loci. The inbreeding regime did not result in diploid male production, decreased brood sizes, substantially increased offspring sex ratios nor in increased pupal mortality. The simulations further allowed us to reject CSD with up to ten loci, which is a strong refutation of the multilocus CSD model. We discuss how the absence of CSD can be reconciled with the variation in life-history traits among Asobara species, and the ramifications for the phylogenetic distribution of sex determination mechanisms in the Hymenoptera.

  9. Colony size evolution and the origin of eusociality in corbiculate bees (Hymenoptera: Apinae.

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    Enrique Rodriguez-Serrano

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been proposed that the one of the main determinants of complex societies in Hymenoptera is colony size, since the existence of large colonies reduces the direct reproductive success of an average individual, given a decreased chance of being part of the reproductive caste. In this study, we evaluate colony size evolution in corbiculate bees and their relationship with the sociality level shown by these bees. Specifically i the correlation between colony size and level of sociality considering the phylogenetic relationship to evaluate a general evolutionary tendency, and ii the hypothetical ancestral forms of several clades within a phylogeny of corbiculate bees, to address idiosyncratic process occurring at important nodes. We found that the level of social complexity in corbiculate bees is phylogenetically correlated with colony size. Additionally, another process is invoked to propose why colony size evolved concurrently with the level of social complexity. The study of this trait improves the understanding of the evolutionary transition from simple to complex societies, and highlights the importance of explicit probabilistic models to test the evolution of other important characters involved in the origin of eusociality.

  10. The foraging behavior of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Tazerouni Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Host stage preference, functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae were investigated under defined laboratory conditions (20±1°C; 60±5% relative humidity; 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Nicholson’s model and linear regression were used to determine per capita search-efficiency and the interference coefficient, respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of parasitism on different stages of D. noxia. The highest parasitism percentage was observed on the third instar nymphs of D. noxia in both choice and no-choice preference tests. Results of logistic regression revealed a type II functional response. The estimated values of search-efficiency (a and handling time (Th were 0.072 h-1 and 0.723 h, respectively. The maximum attack rate was calculated to be 33.22. The per capita search-efficiency decreased from 0.011 to 0.004 (h-1 as parasitoid densities increased from 1 to 8. Therefore, different host-parasitoid ratios can affect the efficacy of D. rapae.

  11. Feeding preferences of the willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae for commercial Salix clones

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    Verónica LOETTI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, o la avispa sierra de los sauces, es nativa del Hemisferio Norte y se ha convertido en un serio defoliador en plantaciones de sauces (Salix spp. del Hemisferio Sur, después de su introducción a principios de 1980. Los estudios sobre las preferencias de hospedador aportan información útil para el desarrollo de estrategias, donde la avispa sierra puede producir daño a los árboles y pérdidas económicas. Se evaluó la preferencia alimentaria de las larvas de N. oligospilus, mediante ensayos de laboratorio; se ofrecieron en forma simultánea hojas de cuatro clones de sauce, usados comúnmente en plantaciones comerciales en Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13-44. Las larvas de N. oligospilus se alimentaron de las hojas de los cuatro clones. Sin embargo, consumieron una proporción significativamente mayor de las hojas de S. babylonica var sacramenta. Estos resultados indican que todos los clones utilizados en los ensayos fueron palatables para el insecto y que S. babylonica var sacramenta es el hospedador preferido para la herbivoría de las larvas.

  12. The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s. l., Scelioninae from China

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    Chen Huayan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s. l., Scelioninae from China is revised. Seventeen species are recognized based on 502 specimens, all of which are new records for China. Seven new species are described: M. carinigena sp. n. (China, M. flava sp. n. (China, M. gracilis sp. n. (China, M. salebrosa sp. n. (China, M. semicircula sp. n. (China, M. spinitibia sp. n. (China and M. striatipleuron sp. n. (China. Ten species are redescribed: M. boriviliensis Saraswat (China, India, Thailand, M. crawfordi Kiefer, stat. n. (China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, M. dolichopa Sharma (China, India, Vietnam, M. emarginata Dodd (China, Malaysia, M. indica Saraswat & Sharma (China, India, Vietnam, M. lamba Saraswat & Sharma (China, India, Thailand, Vietnam, M. livingstoni Saraswat (China, India, M. peliades Kozlov & Lê (China, Vietnam, M. rufa Szelényi (China, Egypt, Georgia, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine and M. striativentris Crawford (China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. The following five new synonyms are proposed: M. crates Kozlov & Lê syn. n. and M. demades Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. crawfordi Kieffer; M. cebes Kozlov & Lê syn. n. and M. dones Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. indica Saraswat & Sharma; M. dores Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. lamba Saraswat & Sharma. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided.

  13. Guidelines for Clinical Practice: Hymenoptera sting allergy in children: 2017 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Las picaduras por himenópteros son frecuentes en la infancia. La mayoría producen reacciones locales, consecuencia de un mecanismo inflamatorio, no alérgico, no tienen progresión y se resuelven con simples medidas terapéuticas. Las reacciones más extensas, generalmente, están asociadas a mecanismos alérgicos, mediados por inmunoglobulina E. Su máxima expresión, la anafilaxia, presenta síntomas cutáneos, respiratorios, cardiovasculares, digestivos y/o neurológicos, con riesgo de muerte. La prevalencia de anafilaxia en pacientes con mastocitosis sistémica es más alta. La familia Hymenoptera, que incluye hormigas coloradas, abejas y avispas, es la causante de las picaduras de mayor riesgo, potencialmente fatales. Los pilares del diagnóstico son la historia clínica, la identificación del insecto, y las pruebas diagnósticas cutáneas y/o in vitro interpretadas por el especialista en Alergia e Inmunología. La inmunoterapia con veneno es el tratamiento de elección para prevenir reacciones anafilácticas por picaduras de himenópteros.

  14. Reproductive biology of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae with alternative and natural hosts

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    Fabricio F. Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass rearing of parasitoids depends on choosing appropriate alternative hosts. The objective of this study was to select alternative hosts to rear the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. Pupae of the lepidopterans Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae and Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were exposed to parasitism by females of P. elaeisis. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was 21.60 ± 0.16 and 24.15 ± 0.65 days on pupae of A. gemmatalis and B. mori, respectively, with 100.0% parasitism of the pupae and 71.4 and 100.0% emergence of parasitoids from the first and second hosts, respectively. The offspring number of P. elaeisis was 511.00 ± 49.70 and 110.20 ± 19.37 individuals per pupa of B. mori and A. gemmatalis, respectively. The reproduction of P. elaeisis from pupae of T. arnobia after six generations was similar to the other hosts.

  15. Mosaicism may explain the evolution of social characters in haplodiploid Hymenoptera with female workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morpurgo, Giorgio; Babudri, Nora; Fioretti, Bernard; Catacuzzeno, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    The role of haplodiploidy in the evolution of eusocial insects and why in Hymenoptera males do not perform any work is presently unknown. We show here that within-colony conflict caused by the coexistence of individuals of the same caste expressing the same character in different ways can be fundamental in the evolution of social characters in species that have already reached the eusocial condition. Mosaic colonies, composed by individuals expressing either the wild-type or a mutant phenotype, inevitably occurs during the evolution of advantageous social traits in insects. We simulated the evolution of an advantageous social trait increasing colony fitness in haplodiploid and diplodiploid species considering all possible conditions, i.e. dominance/recessivity of the allele determining the new social character, sex of the castes, and influence of mosaicism on the colony fitness. When mosaicism lowered colony fitness below that of the colony homogeneous for the wild type allele, the fixation of an advantageous social character was possible only in haplodiploids with female castes. When mosaicism caused smaller reductions in colony fitness, reaching frequencies of 90% was much faster in haplodiploids with female castes and dominant mutations. Our results suggest that the evolution of social characters is easier in haplodiploid than in diplodiploid species, provided that workers are females.

  16. Studi berbagai jenis sarang permanen untuk mengembangbiakkan semut hitam, Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Ahmad Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Black ants, Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is one of the biological agents that can be used to control the cocoa pod borer Conopomorpha cramerella and Helopeltis sp. To effectively prevent C. cramerella infestation, high population of black ants are required. Population growth of black ants in three types of permanent nests and non permanent nest were observed during 3 months. Every month, five nests of each type were taken at random and then all stadia were calculated. The permanent nests will support ant population for some years and the black ant population per nest is higher when compared to nest made of dried cocoa leaves only. Permanent nests are made of 75 pieces of dried cocoa leaves which are placed in plastic bags with ventilation holes. In the longer term permanent black ant nests are more cost effective then ant nests which have been made from only dried leaves because frequent replacement is not required. Permanent ant nests will also ensure a stable black ant population is maintained.

  17. Toxicity of Pesticide Tank Mixtures from Rice Crops Against Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de B Pazini, J; Pasini, R A; Rakes, M; de Armas, F S; Seidel, E J; da S Martins, J F; Grützmacher, A D

    2017-08-01

    The use of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides commonly occurs in mixtures in tanks in order to control phytosanitary problems in crops. However, there is no information regarding the effects of these mixtures on non-target organisms associated to the rice agroecosystem. The aim of this study was to know the toxicity of pesticide tank mixtures from rice crops against Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Based on the methods adapted from the International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC), adults of T. podisi were exposed to residues of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, individually or in mixture commonly used by growers, in laboratory and on rice plants in a greenhouse. The mixture between fungicides tebuconazole, triclyclazole, and azoxystrobin and the mixture between herbicides cyhalofop-butyl, imazethapyr, imazapyr/imazapic, and penoxsulam are harmless to T. podisi and can be used in irrigated rice crops without harming the natural biological control. The insecticides cypermethin, thiamethoxam, and bifenthrin/carbosulfan increase the toxicity of the mixtures in tank with herbicides and fungicides, being more toxic to T. podisi and less preferred for use in phytosanitary treatments in the rice crop protection.

  18. A Landscape Analysis to Understand Orientation of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drones in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Cardona, A; Monmany, A C; Diaz, G; Giray, T

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees [Apis mellifera L. (Apidae, Hymenoptera)] show spatial learning behavior or orientation, in which animals make use of structured home ranges for their daily activities. Worker (female) orientation has been studied more extensively than drone (male) orientation. Given the extensive and large flight range of drones as part of their reproductive biology, the study of drone orientation may provide new insight on landscape features important for orientation. We report the return rate and orientation of drones released at three distances (1, 2, and 4 km) and at the four cardinal points from an apiary located in Gurabo, Puerto Rico. We used high-resolution aerial photographs to describe landscape characteristics at the releasing sites and at the apiary. Analyses of variance were used to test significance among returning times from different distances and directions. A principal components analysis was used to describe the landscape at the releasing sites and generalized linear models were used to identify landscape characteristics that influenced the returning times of drones. Our results showed for the first time that drones are able to return from as far as 4 km from the colony. Distance to drone congregation area, orientation, and tree lines were the most important landscape characteristics influencing drone return rate. We discuss the role of landscape in drone orientation. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Survival of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spermatozoa incubated at room temperature from drones exposed to miticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Lisa M; Fell, Richard D; Saacke, Richard G

    2008-08-01

    We conducted research to examine the potential impacts ofcoumaphos, fluvalinate, and Apilife VAR (Thymol) on drone honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), sperm viability over time. Drones were reared in colonies that had been treated with each miticide by using the dose recommended on the label. Drones from each miticide treatment were collected, and semen samples were pooled. The pooled samples from each treatment were subdivided and analyzed for periods of up to 6 wk. Random samples were taken from each treatment (n = 6 pools) over the 6-wk period. Sperm viability was measured using dual-fluorescent staining techniques. The exposure of drones to coumaphos during development and sexual maturation significantly reduced sperm viability for all 6 wk. Sperm viability significantly decreased from the initial sample to week 1 in control colonies, and a significant decrease in sperm viability was observed from week 5 to week 6 in all treatments and control. The potential impacts of these results on queen performance and failure are discussed.

  20. Diversity of Braconidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil

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    Sian de Souza Gadelha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Braconidae is a highly diversified family of Hymenoptera and usually known by their role in biological control both in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Despite of that, little is known about its diversity in the Amazon region. The present work inventoried the braconid fauna of an Open Ombrophylous Forest with Palm Trees of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, RO. Insects were collect from June/2008 to May/2009 using six Malaise traps in different parts of the reserve. A total of 377 wasps were captured, 17 subfamilies and 56 genera identified. Braconinae, Microgastrinae, Doryctinae and Rogadinae subfamilies were very abundant, and also the genera Aleiodes, Bracon, Capitonius, Compsobracon, Heterospilus, Hymenochaonia, Opius, Pedinotus, Rogas and Stantonia. The calculated Shannon diversity index was 2.15 and 3.3 for subfamily and genera, respectively, which were, generally, higher than the values found for other regions in Brazil. Generally, parasitoids were more abundant during the rainy season. The present work contributes with new genera records and faunistic data of Braconidae in Rondonia State, western Amazon.

  1. Go High or Go Low? Adaptive Evolution of High and Low Relatedness Societies in Social Hymenoptera

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    Peter Nonacs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative groups can increase fitness either by helping kin or interacting with unlike individuals to produce social heterosis. They cannot, however, simultaneously maximize both benefits. This tradeoff between nepotism and diversity is modeled using Hamilton's rule (rb–c > 0, by allowing benefit and cost to be dynamic functions of relatedness (i.e., social heterosis predicts b and c depend on r. Simulations show that evolutionary outcomes tend to maximize either nepotism (with high genetic relatedness, or social heterosis (with low relatedness rather than produce an intermediate outcome. Although genetic diversity can arise through multiple mating, a second possible mechanism—the exchanging of individuals across groups—is similarly effective. Such worker “drifting” is common in many species of social Hymenoptera and may be a form of indirect reciprocity. Drifting individuals increase an unrelated group's productivity by enhancing its genetic diversity, with this effect being reciprocated by other unrelated drifters entering their natal group. The benefits from social heterosis and indirect reciprocity are robust against cheating and show that it is possible to evolve stable cooperation between individuals that are genetically distant or unrelated. As drifting becomes more prevalent colony boundaries may become weakly discriminated, which may predispose toward the evolution of unicoloniality in some species.

  2. Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, M.A.; Jeyaprakash, A.; Clarke-Harris, D.

    2007-01-01

    These data indicate that the population of A. citricola in Jamaica probably originated from the Australian (Thailand), rather than from the Taiwan, population. This is consistent with what is currently known about the origin of the established Ageniaspis population in Florida (Alvarez 2000). It is not known when, or how, A. citricola arrived in Jamaica, although the CLM was detected there in 1994. The fortuitous establishment of A. citricolaon the CLM in Jamaica is not the only such establishment of a natural enemy discovered during this 2004 survey of citrus. The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) was found attacking the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Hoy et al., unpublished data), and the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia radiata Waterston was found attacking the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The fact that 3 natural enemies of 3 invasive citrus pests were found in Jamaica, none of which were purposefully imported and released, suggests that pest-infested citrus trees were imported into Jamaica without going through appropriate quarantine procedures. Because each pest arrived at different times, the parasitoids probably arrived at different times, as well. This indicates that an analysis is needed to identify the critical control points within those services in Jamaica that support border protection, and that procedures may require strengthening. (author)

  3. Compatibility of endoparasitoid Hyposoter didymator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) protected stages with five selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, P; Morales, J J; Budia, F; Adan, A; Del Estal, P; Viñuela, E

    2007-12-01

    Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid that emerges from the parasitization of economically important noctuid pests. H. didymator also is considered one of the most important native biocontrol agents of noctuids in Spain. Side effects of five insecticides with very different modes of action (fipronil, imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide, pymetrozine, and triflumuron) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain were evaluated on H. didymator parasitizing Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae and pupae of the endoparasitoid. Parasitized larvae were topically treated or ingested treated artificial diet. Parasitoid cocoons were topically treated. Host mortality when parasitized larvae were treated, as well as further development of the parasitoid surviving (e.g., percentage of cocoons spun, adult emergence, hosts attacked, and numbered progeny) were determined. Toxicity after treatment of parasitized larvae differed depending on the mode of exposure and insecticide. Fipronil was always highly toxic; imidacloprid killed all host insects by ingestion, but it was less toxic to both host and parasitoids, when administered topically; natural pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide and triflumuron showed differing degrees of toxicity, and pymetrozine was harmless. Parasitoid cocoons provided effective protection against all the insecticides, except fipronil.

  4. Sublethal Effects of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Thiamethoxam on the Transcriptome of the Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Teng-Fei; Wang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Fang; Qi, Lei; Yu, Lin-Sheng

    2017-12-05

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are now the most widely used insecticides in the world. Previous studies have indicated that sublethal doses of neonicotinoids impair learning, memory capacity, foraging, and immunocompetence in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Despite these, few studies have been carried out on the molecular effects of neonicotinoids. In this study, we focus on the second-generation neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, which is currently widely used in agriculture to protect crops. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq, we investigated the transcriptome profile of honey bees after subchronic exposure to 10 ppb thiamethoxam over 10 d. In total, 609 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 225 were upregulated and 384 were downregulated. Several genes, including vitellogenin, CSP3, defensin-1, Mrjp1, and Cyp6as5 were selected and further validated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. The functions of some DEGs were identified, and Gene Ontology-enrichment analysis showed that the enriched DEGs were mainly linked to metabolism, biosynthesis, and translation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that thiamethoxam affected biological processes including ribosomes, the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, tyrosine metabolism pathway, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, and drug metabolism. Overall, our results provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the complex interactions between neonicotinoid insecticides and honey bees. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Leucophora Satellite Flies (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) as Nest Parasites of Sweat Bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, C; Michelsen, V; Nieves-Aldrey, J L

    2015-08-01

    The biology of the 10 species of Leucophora (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) recorded in the Neotropics remains unknown. The large majority of the studied species so far are kleptoparasites of bees and wasps. Here, we report the first observations of Leucophora andicola (Bigot) and Leucophora peullae (Malloch) visiting the nests of ground-nesting sweat bees Corynura (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in Chilean Patagonia. Females of both species perch on small stones or sticks within a dense nest aggregation of the bees and then track pollen-loaded bees in flight with great precision, eventually following them into their nests. The overall behavior closely resembles that observed for many other species of the genus. Excavations of some bee nests returned only two dipteran puparia, possibly of Leucophora, suggesting a low parasitism rate. One male of L. peullae was also collected at the bee aggregation. This is the first report of host association for any Leucophora from the Neotropics and the first report of any anthomyiid fly associated with augochlorine bees.

  6. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in United States alfalfa seed fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R R; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a broad geographic survey in the northwestern United States to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata (F.), Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Viable larvae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the end of the season. Most of the rest of the cells contained pollen balls (typified by a provision but no larva; 16.7%), unknown causes of mortality (15.5%), or larvae killed by chalkbrood (8.0%). Prevalence of pollen balls was correlated positively with bee release rates and negatively with alfalfa stand age. The unknown mortality was correlated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Plant Hardiness Zone, and thus, some of the mortality may be caused by high temperature extremes, although the nesting season degree-days were not correlated with this mortality. Chalkbrood prevalence was correlated with possible nesting-resource or crowding-related factors, such as the number of bees released per hectare and the number of shelters used, but not with nesting board disinfection practices. Vapona is used to control parasitoids when the parent bees are incubated before release, and use of this fumigant was associated with an increase in both chalkbrood and diapausing offspring, although any reason for these correlations are unknown. This survey quantifies the variation in the quality of alfalfa leafcutting bee cocoons produced across much of the U.S. alfalfa seed production area.

  7. The genus Odontocynips Kieffer, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini in Panama, with redescription of Cynips championi Cameron, 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujade-Villar, J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Odontocynips Kieffer, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini is recorded for the first time in Panama, including two species, O. championi (Cameron and O. hansoni Pujade-Villar, that induce galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. and Q. lancifolia Schledl & Cham. (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus, White Oaks, respectively. Odontocynips championi (Cameron, 1833, originally described as Cynips championi Cameron based solely on galls, is redescribed including the first description of the adults, a neotype is designated and a new combination is established. The known distribution and host range of O. hansoni, recorded earlier from Costa Rica, are also expanded upon.Se cita por primera vez para Panamá el género Odontocynips Kieffer, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, incluyendo dos especies: Odontocynips championi (Cameron y O. hansoni Pujade-Villar, que inducen agallas en Quercus bumelioides Liebm. y Q. lancifolia Schledl & Cham. (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus, robles blancos, respectivamente. Se redescribe Odontocynips championi (Cameron, 1833, descrita solo a partir de sus agallas como Cynips championi Cameron, se describen por primera vez los adultos, se designa un neotipo y se establece una nueva combinación taxonómica al transferirla al género Odontocynips. Por otra parte, se amplía la distribución geográfica y rango de hospedador de O. hansoni, previamente citada sólo de Costa Rica.

  8. First successful case of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer with venom immunotherapy for hymenoptera sting allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Michael J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe immune and endocrine responses in severe hymenoptera hypersensitivity requiring venom immunotherapy (VIT during in vitro fertilization (IVF. Case presentation A 39-year old patient was referred for history of multiple miscarriage and a history of insect sting allergy. Four years earlier, she began subcutaneous injection of 100 mcg mixed vespid hymenoptera venom/venom protein every 5–6 weeks. The patient had one livebirth and three first trimester miscarriages. Allergy treatment was maintained for all pregnancies ending in miscarriage, although allergy therapy was discontinued for the pregnancy that resulted in delivery. At our institution ovulation induction incorporated venom immunotherapy (VIT during IVF, with a reduced VIT dose when pregnancy was first identified. Serum IgE was monitored with estradiol during ovulation induction and early pregnancy. Response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation was favorable while VIT was continued, with retrieval of 12 oocytes. Serum RAST (yellow jacket IgE levels fluctuated in a nonlinear fashion (range 36–54% during gonadotropin therapy and declined after hCG administration. A healthy female infant was delivered at 35 weeks gestation. The patient experienced no untoward effects from any medications during therapy. Conclusion Our case confirms the safety of VIT in pregnancy, and demonstrates RAST IgE can remain

  9. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of the Invasive Ants in Hives of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, M R; Giannotti, E; Tofolo, V C; Pizano, M A; Firmino, E L B; Antonialli-Junior, W F; Andrade, L H C; Lima, S M

    2016-02-01

    Apiculture in Brazil is quite profitable and has great potential for expansion because of the favorable climate and abundancy of plant diversity. However, the occurrence of pests, diseases, and parasites hinders the growth and profitability of beekeeping. In the interior of the state of São Paulo, apiaries are attacked by ants, especially the species Camponotus atriceps (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which use the substances produced by Apis mellifera scutellata (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), like honey, wax, pollen, and offspring as a source of nourishment for the adult and immature ants, and kill or expel the adult bees during the invasion. This study aimed to understand the invasion of C. atriceps in hives of A. m. scutellata. The individuals were classified into castes and subcastes according to morphometric analyses, and their cuticular chemical compounds were identified using Photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). The morphometric analyses were able to classify the individuals into reproductive castes (queen and gynes), workers (minor and small ants), and the soldier subcaste (medium and major ants). Identification of cuticular hydrocarbons of these individuals revealed that the eight beehives were invaded by only three colonies of C. atriceps; one of the colonies invaded only one beehive, and the other two colonies underwent a process called sociotomy and were responsible for the invasion of the other seven beehives. The lack of preventive measures and the nocturnal behavior of the ants favored the invasion and attack on the bees.

  10. Extensive gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of two egg parasitoids, Trichogramma japonicum and Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Chen, Peng-Yan; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hua, Hai-Qing; Li, Yuan-Xi; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2018-05-04

    Animal mitochondrial genomes usually exhibit conserved gene arrangement across major lineages, while those in the Hymenoptera are known to possess frequent rearrangements, as are those of several other orders of insects. Here, we sequenced two complete mitochondrial genomes of Trichogramma japonicum and Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae). In total, 37 mitochondrial genes were identified in both species. The same gene arrangement pattern was found in the two species, with extensive gene rearrangement compared with the ancestral insect mitochondrial genome. Most tRNA genes and all protein-coding genes were encoded on the minority strand. In total, 15 tRNA genes and seven protein-coding genes were rearranged. The rearrangements of cox1 and nad2 as well as most tRNA genes were novel. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of protein-coding genes and on gene arrangement patterns produced identical topologies that support the relationship of (Agaonidae + Pteromalidae) + Trichogrammatidae in Chalcidoidea. CREx analysis revealed eight rearrangement operations occurred from presumed ancestral gene order of Chalcidoidea to form the derived gene order of Trichogramma. Our study shows that gene rearrangement information in Chalcidoidea can potentially contribute to the phylogeny of Chalcidoidea when more mitochondrial genome sequences are available.

  11. Progeny Density and Nest Availability Affect Parasitism Risk and Reproduction in a Solitary Bee (Osmia lignaria) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shahla

    2018-02-08

    Gregarious nesting behavior occurs in a broad diversity of solitary bees and wasps. Despite the prevalence of aggregative nesting, the underlying drivers and fitness consequences of this behavior remain unclear. I investigated the effect of two key characteristics of nesting aggregations (cavity availability and progeny density) on reproduction and brood parasitism rates in the blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria Say) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary species that nests gregariously and appears to be attracted to nesting conspecifics. To do so, I experimentally manipulated nest cavity availability in a region of northern Utah with naturally occurring populations of O. lignaria. Nest cavity availability had a negative effect on cuckoo bee (Stelis montana Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) parasitism rates, with lower parasitism rates occurring in nest blocks with more available cavities. For both S. montana and the cleptoparasitic blister beetle Tricrania stansburyi Haldeman (Coleoptera: Meloidae), brood parasitism rate was negatively correlated with log-transformed O. lignaria progeny density. Finally, cavity availability had a positive effect on male O. lignaria body weight, with the heaviest male progeny produced in nest blocks with the most cavities. These results suggest that cavity availability and progeny density can have substantial effects on brood parasitism risk and reproduction in this solitary bee species. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The wasp larva's last supper: 100 million years of evolutionary stasis in the larval development of rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lohrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhopalosomatidae are an unusual family of wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata comprising less than 100 species found in the tropics and subtropics of all continents except Europe and Antarctica. Whereas some species resemble nocturnal Ichneumonidae, others might be mistaken for spider wasps or different groups of brachypterous Hymenoptera. Despite their varied morphology, all members of the family supposedly develop as larval ectoparasitoids of crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea. Here, we report on the first record of a fossil rhopalosomatid larva which was discovered in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (Burma. The larva is attached to the lateral side of a cricket between the metafemur and the abdomen, impacting the natural position of the hind leg, exactly as documented for modern species. Additionally, the larval gestalt is strikingly similar to those of extant forms. These observations imply that this behavioral specialization, e.g., host association and positioning on host, likely evolved in the stem of the family at least 100 million years ago.

  13. Open-Mindedness and Intellectual Humility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Among those who regard open-mindedness as a virtue, there is dispute over whether the trait is essentially an attitude toward particular beliefs or toward oneself as a believer. I defend William Hare's account of open-mindedness as a first-order attitude toward one's beliefs and critique Peter Gardner's view of open-mindedness as a non-commital…

  14. Humility Through Humiliation in Continuity Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Efrat

    2016-01-01

    For freshly minted MDs, residency represents a period of transition from being a medical student to becoming a physician. This evolution is often fraught. Continuity clinic-a mandatory component of pediatric residency training-can be a battleground for this tribulation. This essay explores the author's journey from the first days of her continuity clinic to the last. The author recounts her struggles, her fears, her certainty of being an imposter, and her steps towards becoming a pediatrician.

  15. Truth as Humility Nourishing Compassion Through Wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John L

    2018-03-01

    Among the strengths of forensic psychiatry as a profession is its ability to support lively discussion of critical questions, such as how to characterize its own essence and whether it belongs to the practice of medicine. The American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law is fortunate that Michael Norko has taken the occasion of his presidential address to describe in depth the results of the advanced stage of his probing on a truly spiritual level the fundamental place of compassion in the practice of forensic psychiatry. In so doing, he casts inevitable light on the seamless connections binding forensic psychiatry and medicine, particularly the importance for both of practicing compassion in our search for truth. © 2018 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  16. Abstract: Cultural Humility in Nursing Practice | Nkurunziza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwanda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  17. Famílias de Hymenoptera (Insecta como ferramenta avaliadora da conservação de restingas no extremo sul do Brasil

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    Cristina Maria Loyola Zardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar e comparar a diversidade e flutuação populacional das famílias de Hymenoptera em área de restinga foi realizado um levantamento faunístico em duas áreas de restinga com diferentes níveis de conservação. Foram coletados 5.518 himenópteros distribuídos em 30 famílias. Os picos populacionais na flutuação das famílias ocorreram no verão confirmando a alta correlação da temperatura com a distribuição das famílias. Constatou-se na restinga em sucessão maior riqueza, porém, com alta dominância, abrigando representantes dos três grupos ecológicos (antófilos, generalistas e parasitóides em alta abundância. A restinga preservada, com 17 famílias, verificou-se mais diversa e homogênea, onde verificou-se maior abundância dos parasitóides, devido à maior estabilidade do sistema. A riqueza de famílias de Hymenoptera em áreas de restinga pode ser utilizada como parâmetro indicativo de qualidade ambiental, para este tipo de bioma.Hymenoptera Families (Insecta as Evaluation Tool of the Conservation of Sandbanks in Southern BrazilAbstract. With aim to estimate and compare the diversity and population of the Hymenoptera families in a sandbank area was carried out a wildlife survey in two areas of sandbank with different levels of conservation. We collected 5 518 Hymenoptera distributed in 30 families. The peaks in the families fluctuation occurred in the summer confirmed the high correlation of temperature with the distribution of families. The sandbank in succession had the highest richness, however with high dominance, hosting representatives of the three ecological groups (anthophilous, generalists and parasitoids in high abundance. The sandbank preserved, with 17 families, was more diverse and homogeneous, where the parasitoids showed greater abundance due to greater system stability. The richness of Hymenoptera families in sandbanks can be used as a parameter indicative of environmental quality.

  18. Nota sobre o comportamento de agregação dos machos de Oxaea austera Gerstaecker (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Oxaeinae na caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil Notes on a male sleeping aggregation behavior of Oxaea austera Gerstaecker (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Oxaeinae in the caatinga of Bahia State, Brazil

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    Favízia Freitas de Oliveira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This note reports for the first time a "male sleeping aggregation" of the solitary bee Oxaea austera Gerstaecker, 1867 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Oxaeinae found near the town of Iaçú, Bahia, in Northeastern Brazil. This is also the first record of a species of Oxaea for the caatinga ecosystem.

  19. Optimizing Drone Fertility With Spring Nutritional Supplements to Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Andrée; Giovenazzo, Pierre

    2016-03-27

    Supplemental feeding of honey bee (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in spring is essential for colony buildup in northern apicultural regions. The impact of pollen and syrup feeding on drone production and sperm quality is not well-documented, but may improve fecundation of early-bred queens. We measured the impact of feeding sucrose syrup, and protein supplements to colonies in early spring in eastern Canada. Drones were reared under different nutritional regimes, and mature individuals were then assessed in regard to size, weight, and semen quality (semen volume, sperm count, and viability). Results showed significant increases in drone weight and abdomen size when colonies were fed sucrose and a protein supplement. Colonies receiving no additional nourishment had significantly less semen volume per drone and lower sperm viability. Our study demonstrates that feeding honey bee colonies in spring with sucrose syrup and a protein supplement is important to enhance drone reproductive quality. RÉSUMÉ: L'administration de suppléments alimentaires aux colonies de l'abeille domestique (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) au printemps est essentielle pour le bon développement des colonies dans les régions apicoles nordiques. L'impact de la supplémentation des colonies en pollen et en sirop sur la production des faux-bourdons et la qualité du sperme demeure peu documenté mais pourrait résulter en une meilleure fécondation des reines produites tôt en saison. Nous avons mesuré l'impact de la supplémentation en sirop et/ou en supplément de pollen sur les colonies d'abeilles tôt au printemps dans l'est du Canada. Les faux-bourdons ont été élevé sous différents régimes alimentaires et les individus matures ont ensuite été évalués pour leur taille, leur poids ainsi que la qualité de leur sperme (volume de sperme, nombre et viabilité des spermatozoïdes. Les résultats montrent une augmentation significative du poids et de la taille

  20. Inbreeding and building up small populations of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nogueira-Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the viability of small populations of Hymenoptera is a matter of importance to gain a better zoological, ethological, genetical and ecological knowledge of these insects, and for conservation purposes, mainly because of the consequences to the survival of colonies of many species of bees, wasps, and ants. Based on the Whiting (1943 principle, Kerr & Vencovski (1982 presented a hypothesis that states that viable populations of stingless bees (Meliponini should have at least 40 colonies to survive. This number was later extended to 44 colonies by Kerr (1985. This would be necessary to avoid any substantial amount of homozygosis in the pair of chromosomic sexual loci, by keeping at least six different sexual gene alleles in a reproductive population. In most cases this would prevent the production of useless diploid males. However, several facts weigh against considering this as a general rule. From 1990 to 2001, 287 colony divisions were made, starting with 28 foundation colonies, in the inbreeding and population experiments with the Meliponini reported here. These experiments constitute the most extensive and longest scientific research ever made with Meliponini bees. In ten different experiments presented here, seven species (one with two subspecies of Meliponini bees were inbred in five localities inside their wide-reaching native habitats, and in two localities far away from these habitats. This was done for several years. On the whole, the number of colonies increased and the loss of colonies over the years was small. In two of these experiments, although these populations were far (1,000 km and 1,200 km from their native habitat, their foundation colonies were multiplied successfuly. It was possible to build up seven strong and three expanding medium populations, starting with one, two, three or even five colonies. However, in six other cases examined here, the Whiting (1943 principle and the hypothesis of Kerr & Vencovski (1982

  1. The mitochondrial genome of the German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793) (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Hu, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zai-Fu; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) (GenBank accession no. KR703583) was sequenced in the study. It represents the first mitochondrial genome from the genus Vespula. There are totally 163 42 bp in the currently sequenced portion of the genome, containing 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 18 tRNA genes and a partial A + T-rich region. Four tRNA genes of trnI, trnQ, trnM and trnY located at the downstream of the A + T-rich region were failed to sequence. At least two rearrangement events occurred in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects, corresponding to the translocation or remote inversion of tnnY from trnW-trnC-trnY cluster to the region of trnI-trnQ-trnM cluster and translocation of trnL1 from the downstream to the upstream of nad1 gene. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Twelve and one protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on all codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes supports the monophyly of Vespidae and Formicidae. Within the Formicidae, the Myrmicinae and Formicinae form a sister group and then sister to the Dolichoderinae, while within the Vespidae, the Eumeninae sister to the lineage of Vespinae + Polistinae.

  2. Phylogeography of the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): Implications for Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesieur, Vincent; Martin, Jean-François; Weaver, David K; Hoelmer, Kim A; Smith, David R; Morrill, Wendell L; Kadiri, Nassera; Peairs, Frank B; Cockrell, Darren M; Randolph, Terri L; Waters, Debra K; Bon, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C. cinctus using two mitochondrial regions (COI and 16S). Subsequently, we characterized the structure of genetic diversity in the main wheat producing areas in North America using a combination of mtDNA marker and microsatellites in samples collected both in wheat fields and in grasses in wildlands. The strong genetic divergence observed between North American samples and Asian congeners, in particular the synonimized C. hyalinatus, did not support the hypothesis of a recent American colonization by C. cinctus. Furthermore, the relatively high genetic diversity both with mtDNA and microsatellite markers offered additional evidence in favor of the native American origin of this pest. The genetic diversity of North American populations is structured into three genetic clusters and these are highly correlated with geography. Regarding the recent southern outbreaks in North America, the results tend to exclude the hypothesis of recent movement of damaging wheat stem sawfly populations from the northern area. The shift in host plant use by local populations appears to be the most likely scenario. Finally, the significance of these findings is discussed in the context of pest management.

  3. DNA characterization and karyotypic evolution in the bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marla Piumbini; Pompolo, Silvia Das Graças; Dergam, Jorge Abdala; Fernandes, Anderson; Campos, Lucio Antonio De Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed patterns of heterochromatic bands in the Neotropical stingless bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini). Group I species (Melipona bicolor bicolor, Melipona quadrifasciata, Melipona asilvae, Melipona marginata, Melipona subnitida) were characterized by low heterochromatic content. Group II species (Melipona capixaba, Melipona compressipes, Melipona crinita, Melipona seminigra fuscopilosa e Melipona scutellaris) had high heterochromatic content. All species had 2n = 18 and n = 9. In species of Group I heterochromatin was pericentromeric and located on the short arm of acrocentric chromosomes, while in Group II species heterochromatin was distributed along most of the chromosome length. The most effective sequential staining was quinacrine mustard (QM)/distamycin (DA)/chromomycin A3(CMA3)/4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Heterochromatic and euchromatic bands varied extensively within Group I. In Group II species euchromatin was restricted to the chromosome tips and it was uniformly GC+. Patterns of restriction enzymes (EcoRI, DraI, HindIII) showed that heterochromatin was heterogeneous. In all species the first pair of homologues was of unequal size and showed heteromorphism of a GC+ pericentromeric heterochromatin. In M. asilvae (Group I) this pair bore NOR and in M. compressipes (Group II) it hybridized with a rDNA FISH probe. As for Group I species the second pair was AT+ in M. subnitida and neutral for AT and GC in the remaining species of this group. Outgroup comparison indicates that high levels of heterochromatin represent a derived condition within Melipona. The pattern of karyotypic evolution sets Melipona in an isolated position within the Meliponini.

  4. Larval development of Physocephala (Diptera, Conopidae in the bumble bee Bombus morio (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Fábio C Abdalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval development of Physocephala (Diptera, Conopidae in the bumble bee Bombus morio (Hymenoptera, Apidae. In the summer of 2012, a high incidence of conopid larvae was observed in a sample of female B. morio collected in remaining fragments of semidecidual forest and Cerrado, in the municipality of Sorocaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The larval development of conopid flies was studied, beginning at the larval instars (LO to L3 and PUP, until the emergence of the imago under laboratory conditions and inside the host. At the first instar, or LO, the microtype larvae measured less than 1 mm in length. During the transition from L1 to L3, the larvae grew in length. At L3, the larvae doubled their length (4 mm and then started to develop both in length and width, reaching the PUP stage with 10 mm in length and 7 mm in width. The main characteristic that differentiates L3 from the early instars is the larger body size and the beginning of posterior spiracle development. The development from PUP to puparium took less than 24h. The bees died ten days after the fly oviposition, or just before full PUP development. The early development stages (egg-LO to L1 were critical for larva survival. The pupa was visible between the intersegmental sternites and, 32 days after pupation, a female imago of Physocephala sp. emerged from one bee. The puparium and the fly measured approximately 10 mm in length. In a single day of collection, up to 45% of the bumble bees collected were parasitized by conopid flies.

  5. Evolution of Metapostnotum in Flat Wasps (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae: Implications for Homology Assessments in Chrysidoidea.

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    Ricardo Kawada

    Full Text Available Some authors in the past based their conclusions about the limits of the metapostnotum of Chrysidoidea based on the position of the mesophragmo-metaphragmal muscle, rather than aspects of the skeleton and musculature associated with the metapectal-propodeal complex. The latter character system suggests another interpretation of the metapostnotum delimitation. Given this scenario, the main goal of this work is to present a new perspective on the metapostnotum in Chrysidoidea, especially Bethylidae, helping to resolve questions related to the evolution of the metapostnotum. This is based on homologies established by associating of insertion points of ph2-ph3 and ph3-T2 muscles with the delimitation of the respective sclerite the muscles insert into. Our results indicate that, according the position of the metaphragmal muscles, the metapostnotum in Bethylidae is medially expanded in the propodeal disc and has different forms of configuration. Internally, the limits of the metapostnotum can be tracked by the shape of the mesopostnotum, and vice versa. Thus, the anteromedian area of the propodeal disc sensu Evans was reinterpreted in the current study as the metapostnotum. In conjunction with associated structures, we provide evidence to clarify the relationships between the families within Chrysidoidea, although certain families like Embolemidae, Dryinidae and Chrysididae exhibit extreme modifications of the condition found in Aculeata, as observed in Bethylidae. We review the terminology used to describe anatomical features on the metapectal-propodeal complex in Bethylidae in general, and provide a list of recommended terms in accordance with the online Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. The morphology of the studied subfamilies are illustrated. Studies that focus on a single structure, across a larger number of taxa, are more insightful and present specific questions that can contribute to broader issues, thus providing a better understanding of the

  6. Application of recombinant antigen 5 allergens from seven allergy-relevant Hymenoptera species in diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiener, M; Eberlein, B; Moreno-Aguilar, C; Pietsch, G; Serrano, P; McIntyre, M; Schwarze, L; Russkamp, D; Biedermann, T; Spillner, E; Darsow, U; Ollert, M; Schmidt-Weber, C B; Blank, S

    2017-01-01

    Hymenoptera stings can cause severe anaphylaxis in untreated venom-allergic patients. A correct diagnosis regarding the relevant species for immunotherapy is often hampered by clinically irrelevant cross-reactivity. In vespid venom allergy, cross-reactivity between venoms of different species can be a diagnostic challenge. To address immunological IgE cross-reactivity on molecular level, seven recombinant antigens 5 of the most important Vespoidea groups were assessed by different diagnostic setups. The antigens 5 of yellow jackets, hornets, European and American paper wasps, fire ants, white-faced hornets, and Polybia wasps were recombinantly produced in insect cells, immunologically and structurally characterized, and their sIgE reactivity assessed by ImmunoCAP, ELISA, cross-inhibition, and basophil activation test (BAT) in patients with yellow jacket or Polistes venom allergy of two European geographical areas. All recombinant allergens were correctly folded and structural models and patient reactivity profiles suggested the presence of conserved and unique B-cell epitopes. All antigens 5 showed extensive cross-reactivity in sIgE analyses, inhibition assays, and BAT. This cross-reactivity was more pronounced in ImmunoCAP measurements with venom extracts than in sIgE analyses with recombinant antigens 5. Dose-response curves with the allergens in BAT allowed a differentiated individual dissection of relevant sensitization. Due to extensive cross-reactivity in various diagnostic settings, antigens 5 are inappropriate markers for differential sIgE diagnostics in vespid venom allergy. However, the newly available antigens 5 from further vespid species and the combination of recombinant allergen-based sIgE measurements with BAT represents a practicable way to diagnose clinically relevant sensitization in vespid venom allergy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Natural history of Hymenoptera venom allergy in children not treated with immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Joanna; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Marczak, Honorata; Krauze, Agnieszka; Tarczoń, Izabela; Świebocka, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Brzyski, Piotr; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Differences in treatment approach still exist for children after systemic sting reactions. In addition, there are still some doubts about when systemic reactors should be treated with venom immunotherapy (VIT). To determine the rate of sting recurrence and natural history of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) in children not treated with VIT. A total of 219 children diagnosed as having HVA who were not treated with VIT were identified in 3 pediatric allergology centers. Survey by telephone or mail with the use of a standardized questionnaire was conducted. The number of field re-stings, subsequent symptoms, and provided treatment were analyzed. A total of 130 of the 219 patients responded to the survey, for a response rate of 59.4%. During the median follow-up period of 72 months (interquartile range, 52-85 months), 44 children (77% boys) were stung 62 times. Normal reactions were most common, occurring in 27 patients (62%). Severe systemic reactions (SSRs) occurred in 8 (18%) of those who were re-stung. The subsequent reaction was significantly milder (P insect (P insect (P = .03). In children with SSRs, median time from diagnosis to re-sting was 2 times longer than that in those with large local reactions and normal reactions (P = .007). Most children with HVA not treated with VIT reported milder reactions after a re-sting. Probability of SSR to re-sting increases along with the severity of initial reaction. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Selectivity of organic compounds to the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Plastygastridae

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    Débora Mello da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity of insecticides, bio-protective mixtures, and biofertilizers used in organic soybean production was evaluated for adults and pupae of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae under laboratory conditions in accordance with protocols proposed by the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC. The products sprayed (dosage/180L of water were: 1 Baculovírus anticarsia 140x109 cpi; 2 Bacillus thuringiensis 16.8g; 3 Azadirachtin-A, azadirachtin-B, nimbina and salamina 9.6 ppm; 4 Rotenoids 4 liters; 5 Nitrogen 1.3%, phosphorus 3.0% and total organic carbon 8.0% 3 liters; 6 Sodium silicate 2% 4 liters; 7 Copper 7% + calcium 3.3% 1.8 liters; 8 Sulfur 20% + quicklime 10% 1.8 liters; 9 Chlorpyrifos 384g (positive control; 10 Distilled H2O (negative control. The results of experiments using pupae indicate that the organic compounds were classified as harmless (Class 1, except for the copper 7% + calcium 3.3% and sulfur 20% + quicklime 10%, which were classified as slightly harmful (Class 2. The contact bioassay with adults showed that all products were classified as harmless (Class 1. Only chlorpyrifos (384g was classified as harmful (Class 4 for both stages of the parasitoid. However, the use of this product (chlorpyrifos is not permitted in organic farming, and even in conventional farming is recommended, where feasible, replacement of the product with one compatible with the preservation of T. remus in nature. Thus, the products tested and used in organic soybean production were considered compatible with the parasitoid eggs of T. remus.

  9. Thermal hygrometric requirements for the rearing and release of Tamarixia radiata (Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae

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    Mariuxi Lorena Gómez-Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal hygrometric requirements for the rearing and release of Tamarixia radiata (Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae. Tamarixia radiata is the main agent for the biological control of Diaphorina citri in Brazil with a parasitism rate ranging from 20 to 80%. This study investigated the influence of temperature on the development, fecundity and longevity of adults of T. radiata and the effect of relative humidity (RH on their parasitism capacity and survival rate in the pre-imaginal period. The effect of temperature was assessed in the range between 15 and 35 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 14-h photophase. The RH effect was evaluated in the range from 30 to 90 ± 10%, temperature at 25 ± 1ºC, and photophase of 14-h. At 25ºC, circa 166.7 nymphs were parasitized, the highest parasitism capacity observed compared to other treatments. The longest longevity of females was observed at 25ºC, although the rate did not differ in the 20-30ºC temperature range. The threshold temperature (TT was 7.2ºC, and 188.7 degrees-day were required for the development (egg-to-adult period. The parasitism rate and longevity were higher at 50 and 70% of RH. This shows that temperature and RH may affect the parasitism capacity of T. radiata on nymphs of D. citri, which can explain the great parasitism variation for D. citri observed in citrus groves in São Paulo State, Brazil.

  10. An evaluation of phylogenetic informativeness profiles and the molecular phylogeny of diplazontinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfstein, Seraina; Kropf, Christian; Quicke, Donald L J

    2010-03-01

    How to quantify the phylogenetic information content of a data set is a longstanding question in phylogenetics, influencing both the assessment of data quality in completed studies and the planning of future phylogenetic projects. Recently, a method has been developed that profiles the phylogenetic informativeness (PI) of a data set through time by linking its site-specific rates of change to its power to resolve relationships at different timescales. Here, we evaluate the performance of this method in the case of 2 standard genetic markers for phylogenetic reconstruction, 28S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) mitochondrial DNA, with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of relationships within a group of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Diplazontinae). Retrieving PI profiles of the 2 genes from our own and from 3 additional data sets, we find that the method repeatedly overestimates the performance of the more quickly evolving CO1 compared with 28S. We explore possible reasons for this bias, including phylogenetic uncertainty, violation of the molecular clock assumption, model misspecification, and nonstationary nucleotide composition. As none of these provides a sufficient explanation of the observed discrepancy, we use simulated data sets, based on an idealized setting, to show that the optimum evolutionary rate decreases with increasing number of taxa. We suggest that this relationship could explain why the formula derived from the 4-taxon case overrates the performance of higher versus lower rates of evolution in our case and that caution should be taken when the method is applied to data sets including more than 4 taxa.

  11. Monitoring hymenoptera and diptera pollinators in a sub-tropical forest of southern punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.; Sajjad, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bees (Hymenoptera) and flies (Diptera) play an essential role in natural and agricultural ecosystems as pollinators of flowering plants while pollinators are declining around the world. Colored pan traps and Malaise traps have widely been used for monitoring pollinators. However, their efficiencies may vary with landscapes and type of fauna in a particular habitat. A yearlong study was carried out during 2009 to investigate the relative efficacy of colored pan traps and Malaise traps towards sampling flies and bees for the first time in a sub-tropical wildlife sanctuary Pirowal of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Fifteen pan traps (5 each of 3 colors i.e. white, red and blue) were deployed against one Malaise trap for 7 hours (9:00-16:00 hrs) on fortnightly basis. For the comparison and confirmation of an insect as a floral visitor, collection with the hand net was also performed. It was concluded that hand net collection is essential to have a comprehensive list of floral visitors of an area as the maximum number (63) of species and their abundance (5428 individuals) were recorded with it. Malaise trap collected only 671 individuals of 48 species. Although blue, yellow and white pan traps caught 46, 51 and 35 species but the numbers of individuals (1383) were fairly higher than that of Malaise traps. Keeping in view the cost effectiveness and better performance of colored pan traps, we recommend species specific pan trap colors when targeting certain groups or species, nevertheless variety of pan colors should be used when sampling overall biodiversity. We generalize these findings for both bees and flies due to similar collection pattern i.e. the maximum abundance and diversity in hand net method followed by pan traps and Malaise traps. (author)

  12. Toxicity of some insecticides used in maize crop on Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae immature stages

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    Jander R Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize (Zea mays L. crops in Brazil. The effects of beta-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, spinosad, etofenprox, triflumuron, alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae immature stages were evaluated. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, containing immature stages of the parasitoid were dipped in water solution pesticides, to evaluate their effects on emergence and sex ratio of F1 parasitoids. For F2 parasitoids, emergence, parasitism capacity, and sex ratio were evaluated. Beta-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, and spinosad affected the emergence success of F1 T. pretiosum. Insects exposed to etofenprox and alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron during the egg-larval period and to lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam during the pupal stage also suffered reduction in the emergence. Beta-cypermethrin affected the sex ratio of F1 T. pretiosum from host eggs treated during the egg-larval period; spinosad affected it during the egg-larval period and the pupal stage, whereas chlorpyrifos did the same when applied during the pupal stage. Chlorpyrifos also affected the sex ratio of F2 parasitoids, but only when applied during the egg-larval period, whereas chlorfenapyr reduced this trait when applied during the pre-pupal phase. Chlorpyrifos and alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron affected the parasitism capacity of F1 females from eggs treated during the egg-larval period. Considering the overall effects, only etofenprox and triflumuron were selective on T. pretiosum when applied on parasitized A. kuehniella eggs. Further studies need to be carried out to verify the toxicity of the other pesticides under semi-field and field conditions.

  13. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages.

  14. Biology of Blepyrus clavicornis (Compere (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, a parasitoid of Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Vitor Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Encyrtids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae are the most important and diverse group of natural enemies of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Blepyrus clavicornis (Compere is the most common parasitoid associated with Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret in the Serra Gaúcha region, Brazil. We conducted laboratory studies to assess the development time, sex ratio, adult longevity, host stage selection for parasitism, and effect of food on the longevity of adult females of B. clavicornis. The experiments were conducted in a climate chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 12:12 L:D photoperiod. The solitary parasitoid B. clavicornis parasitized third-instar and adult female stages of P. viburni. The development time was more than 30 days (31.75 ± 0.38 for females and 30.02 ± 0.34 for males when B. clavicornis laid eggs in adult mealybug females, and 35 days (36.50 ± 0.50 for females and 34.24 ± 0.43 for males on third-instar mealybug nymphs. The wasps did not survive longer than four days when they were fed only water, while females survived for about 30 days when fed with honey. The lifespan of females is about 20 days longer than the lifespan of males. Although B. clavicornis can provide significant natural control, reducing the number of individuals in the next generation by parasitizing advanced mealybug instars, we consider it unpromising for use in applied biological-control programs. Furthermore, the predominance of males in the progeny observed here suggests that P. viburni may not be the most suitable or preferred host for B. clavicornis.

  15. Poles Apart: Comparing Trends of Alien Hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE.

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    Darren Ward

    Full Text Available Developing generalisations of invasive species is an important part of invasion biology. However, trends and generalisations from one part of the world may not necessarily hold elsewhere. We present the first inventory and analysis of all Hymenoptera alien to New Zealand, and compare patterns from New Zealand with those previously published from Europe (DAISIE. Between the two regions there was broad correlation between families with the highest number of alien species (Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae, Aphelinidae. However, major differences also existed. The number of species alien to New Zealand is higher than for Europe (334 vs 286, and major differences include: i the much lower proportion of intentionally released species in New Zealand (21% vs 63% in Europe; and ii the greater proportion of unintentionally introduced parasitoids in New Zealand (71.2% vs 22.6%. The disharmonic 'island' nature of New Zealand is shown, as a high proportion of families (36% have no native representatives, and alien species also represent >10% of the native fauna for many other families. A much larger proportion of alien species are found in urban areas in New Zealand (60% compared to Europe (~30%, and higher numbers of alien species were present earlier in New Zealand (especially <1950. Differences in the origins of alien species were also apparent. Unlike Europe, the New Zealand data reveals a change in the origins of alien species over time, with an increasing dominance of alien species from Australasia (a regional neighbour during the past 25 years. We recommend that further effort be made towards the formation, and analysis, of regional inventories of alien species. This will allow a wider range of taxa and regions to be examined for generalisations, and help assess and prioritise the risk posed by certain taxa towards the economy or environment.

  16. Characterization of Resistance to Cephus cinctus (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) in Barley Germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea C; Talbert, Luther E; Achhami, Buddhi B; Blake, Nancy K; Hofland, Megan L; Sherman, Jamie D; Lamb, Peggy F; Reddy, Gadi V P; Weaver, David K

    2018-04-02

    Most barley cultivars have some degree of resistance to the wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Damage caused by WSS is currently observed in fields of barley grown in the Northern Great Plains, but the impact of WSS damage among cultivars due to genetic differences within the barley germplasm is not known. Specifically, little is known about the mechanisms underlying WSS resistance in barley. We characterized WSS resistance in a subset of the spring barley CAP (Coordinated Agricultural Project) germplasm panel containing 193 current and historically important breeding lines from six North American breeding programs. Panel lines were grown in WSS infested fields for two consecutive years. Lines were characterized for stem solidness, stem cutting, WSS infestation (antixenosis), larval mortality (antibiosis), and parasitism (indirect plant defense). Variation in resistance to WSS in barley was compared to observations made for solid-stemmed resistant and hollow-stemmed susceptible wheat lines. Results indicate that both antibiosis and antixenosis are involved in the resistance of barley to the WSS, but antibiosis seems to be more prevalent. Almost all of the barley lines had greater larval mortality than the hollow-stemmed wheat lines, and only a few barley lines had mortality as low as that observed in the solid-stemmed wheat line. Since barley lines lack solid stems, it is apparent that barley has a different form of antibiosis. Our results provide information for use of barley in rotation to control the WSS and may provide a basis for identification of new approaches for improving WSS resistance in wheat.

  17. Effects of neonicotinoid imidacloprid exposure on bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) queen survival and nest initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Smart, Judy; Spivak, Marla

    2018-02-08

    Neonicotinoids are highly toxic to insects and may systemically translocate to nectar and pollen of plants where foraging bees may become exposed. Exposure to neonicotinoids can induce detrimental sublethal effects on individual and colonies of bees and may have long-term impacts, such as impaired foraging, reduced longevity, and reduced brood care or production. Less well-studied are the potential effects on queen bumble bees that may become exposed while foraging in the spring during colony initiation. This study assessed queen survival and nest founding in caged bumble bees [Bombus impatiens (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)] after chronic (18-d) dietary exposure of imidacloprid in syrup (1, 5, 10, and 25 ppb) and pollen (0.3, 1.7, 3.3, and 8.3 ppb), paired respectively. Here we show some mortality in queens exposed at all doses even as low as 1 ppb, and, compared with untreated queens, significantly reduced survival of treated queens at the two highest doses. Queens that survived initial imidacloprid exposure commenced nest initiation; however, they exhibited dose-dependent delay in egg-laying and emergence of worker brood. Furthermore, imidacloprid treatment affected other parameters such as nest and queen weight. This study is the first to show direct impacts of imidacloprid at field-relevant levels on individual B. impatiens queen survival and nest founding, indicating that bumble bee queens are particularly sensitive to neonicotinoids when directly exposed. This study also helps focus pesticide risk mitigation efforts and highlights the importance of reducing exposure rates in the early spring when bumble bee queens, and other wild bees are foraging and initiating nests. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Phenotypic Variation in Fitness Traits of a Managed Solitary Bee, Osmia ribifloris (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, B J; Rinehart, T A; Kirker, G T; Stringer, S J; Werle, C T

    2015-12-01

    We investigated fitness in natural populations of a managed solitary bee Osmia ribifloris Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from sites separated from 400 to 2,700 km. Parental wild bees originated in central Texas (TX), central-northern Utah (UT), and central California (CA). They were then intercrossed and raised inside a mesh enclosure in southern Mississippi (MS). Females from all possible mated pairs of O. ribifloris produced F1 broods with 30-40% female cocoons and outcrossed progeny were 30% heavier. Mitochondrial (COI) genomes of the four populations revealed three distinct clades, a TX-CA clade, a UT clade, and an MS clade, the latter (MS) representing captive progeny of CA and UT bees. Although classified as separate subspecies, TX and CA populations from 30° N to 38° N latitude shared 98% similarity in COI genomes and the greatest brood biomass per nest straw (600- to 700-mg brood). Thus, TX and CA bees show greater adaptation for southern U.S. sites. In contrast, UT-sourced bees were more distantly related to TX and CA bees and also produced ∼50% fewer brood. These results, taken together, confirm that adult O. ribifloris from all trap-nest sites are genetically compatible, but some phenotypic variation exists that could affect this species performance as a commercial blueberry pollinator. Males, their sperm, or perhaps a substance in their sperm helped stabilize our captive bee population by promoting legitimate nesting over nest usurpation. Otherwise, without insemination, 50% fewer females nested (they nested 14 d late) and 20% usurped nests, killing 33-67% of brood in affected nests. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Acute toxicities and sublethal effects of some conventional insecticides on Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Sen; He, Yu-Rong; Guo, Xiang-Ling; Luo, Yong-Li

    2012-08-01

    The acute toxicity of 10 conventional insecticides to adult of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was bioassayed by membrane method, and then their sublethal effects on the parasitoid were evaluated in the laboratory. Based on sublethal concentration (LC30) values at 8 h after treatment, we determined that adult T. chilonis were the most susceptible to chlorfenapyr, followed by fipronil, spinosad, avermectins, beta-cypermethrin, and cartap, with lethal concentration (LC)30 values of 0.3133, 0.3269, 1.5408, 3.2961, 6.1469, and 9.021 mg/liter, respectively. The field-recommended concentrations of chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, Bacillus thuringiensis, and tebufenozide caused Cartap and spinosad also reduced longevity (8 and 7.9 d) and fecundity (110.77 and 117.2) of treated adults, but cartap enhanced the female percentage of F1 offspring (61.6%), resulting a statistical higher R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. In contrast, chlorfluazuron and tebufenozide increased longevity (16.4 and 15.4 d) and fecundity (248 and 256.9) of treated adults but slightly decreased the female percentage of F1 offspring (31.4 and 38.1%). Although chlorfenapyr showed no adverse influence on longevity and fecundity, it remarkably reduced the female percentage of F1 offspring (13.5%), leading to a lower R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. Indoxacarb, B. thuringiensis, and beta-cypermethrin had no obvious sublethal effects on the longevity and fecundity of treated adults. Based on these results, we consider B. thuringienesis, chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, beta-cypermethrin, and tebufenozide safe to T. chilonis, suggesting that these insecticides are compatible with this parasitoid when being used in the field. However, fipronil, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, and avermectins were very harmful to T. chilonis. Timing of application of these insecticides was critical.

  20. Characterization of Ant Communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Twigs in the Leaf Litter of the Atlantic Rainforest and Eucalyptus Trees in the Southeast Region of Brazil

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    Debora R. de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragments of Atlantic Rainforest and extensive eucalyptus plantations are part of the landscape in the southeast region of Brazil. Many studies have been conducted on litter ant diversity in these forests, but there are few reports on the nesting sites. In the present study, we characterized the ant communities that nest in twigs in the leaf litter of dense ombrophilous forests and eucalyptus trees. The colony demographics associated with the physical structure of the nest were recorded. In the eucalyptus forests, the study examined both managed and unmanaged plantations. During five months, all undecomposed twigs between 10 and 30 cm in length containing ants found within a 16-m2 area on the surface of the leaf litter were collected. A total of 307 nests and 44 species were recorded. Pheidole, Solenopsis, and Camponotus were the most represented genera. Pheidole sp.13, Pheidole sp.43 and Linepithema neotropicum were the most populous species. The dense ombrophilous forest and a eucalyptus plantation unmanaged contained the highest number of colonized twigs; these communities were the most similar and the most species rich. Our results indicate that the twigs are important resources as they help to maintain the litter diversity of dense rain forest and abandoned eucalypt crops.

  1. Seletividade de herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho a adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of herbicides registered on corn to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Stefanello Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de 24 herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho foi avaliada a Trichogramma pretiosum em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas e luminosidade de 500 lux. Adultos de T. pretiosum foram colocados em contato com uma película seca dos herbicidas pulverizados sobre placas de vidro e avaliou-se a capacidade de parasitismo das fêmeas. A redução na capacidade de parasitismo dos tratamentos foi comparada com a da testemunha (água destilada e utilizada para classificar os herbicidas em 1, inócuo (99%. Os herbicidas Callisto, Equip Plus, Extrazin SC, Primóleo, Provence 750 WG e Siptran 500 SC são inócuos (classe 1; Agrisato 480 SL, Gesaprim GrDA, Glifos, Glyphosate Nortox, Gliz 480 SL, Polaris, Primatop SC, Sanson 40 SC, Trop e Zapp Qi, levemente nocivos (classe 2; Finale, Herbadox, Poast, Roundup Original, Roundup Transorb e Roundup WG, moderadamente nocivos (classe 3; e Gramoxone 200 e Primestra Gold, nocivos (classe 4 aos adultos de T. pretiosum, nas dosagens utilizadas. Os herbicidas nocivos (classes 2, 3 e 4 deverão passar para as etapas seguintes, que envolverão testes sobre as fases imaturas do parasitóide em condições de laboratório e adultos a campo.The selectivity of 24 herbicides registered on corn to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was assessed under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 ºC temperature, 70 ± 10% relative humidity, 14 4 photophase and brightness 500 lux. The adult parasitoids were submitted to a dry film of the herbicides applied on glass plates and the parasitism capacity of the females was evaluated. Reduced parasitism capacity in the treatments was compared with the negative control (distilled water and used to classify the herbicides into four categories: 1, harmless ( 99%. The herbicides Callisto, Equip Plus, Extrazin SC, Primóleo, Provence 750 WG and Siptran 500 SC were found to be harmless (class 1

  2. Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil

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    Alexandro Herbert dos Santos Bastos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil. Leaf-litter may be an important factor in structuring ponerine ant communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in tropical rainforests. We specifically examined how leaf-litter affects the structure of a ponerine ant community in primary Amazonian rainforest sites at the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, Pará, Brazil. A total of 53 species belonging to eight genera of three ponerine tribes were collected with mini-Winkler extractors. The amount of leaf-litter positively affected the abundance and richness of the ponerine ant community, and also influenced species composition. Nearby samples often had low species similarity, especially when adjacent samples differed in the amount of leaf-litter. Leaf-litter availability in Amazonian primary forests is a key factor for distribution of ground-dwelling ponerine species, even at small scales.

  3. Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae) of the gall-making leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Uzbekistan, with taxonomic notes on the Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the Aphelinoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), A. (Aphelinoidea) sariq Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n., is described from Uzbekistan. Both sexes were reared from eggs of the only known truly gall-making leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste), laid inside its galls on camelthorn, Alhagi maurorum Medikus; additional females were found dead inside the galls. Aphelinoidea sariq is the only known species of the nominate subgenus of Aphelinoidea whose body color is predominantly yellow. Taxonomic notes on other Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea are provided; A. scythica Fursov, syn. n. is synonymized underA. (Aphelinoidea) turanica S. Trjapitzin. Another trichogrammatid, Par-acentrobia (Paracentrobia) sp., was reared from eggs of S. viridis in much smaller numbers. Also described from the same locality and host is Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) mitjaevi Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).

  4. Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae urbanas em um hospital no município de Luz, Estado de Minas Gerais - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.5805 Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in a hospital in the city of Luz, Minas Gerais, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.5805

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bernardes Faria Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As formigas urbanas, quando presentes em ambientes hospitalares, tornam-se um perigo potencial à saúde pública, pelo fato de terem a capacidade de transportar organismos patogênicos, podendo essas estar diretamente associadas ao problema de infecção hospitalar. Durante o período de um ano, foram realizadas coletas de formigas em um hospital do município de Luz, Estado de Minas Gerais, utilizando-se iscas não-tóxicas. As mesmas foram distribuídas em 16 pontos de coleta, sendo três localizados na área externa e os demais na área interna do hospital. Foram encontradas formigas em 15 dos 16 pontos amostrados. Os gêneros mais abundantes foram Brachymyrmex e Tapinoma, sendo sua presença registrada tanto na parte externa, quanto na interna. Salienta-se, ainda, a presença do gênero Camponotus, observada, geralmente, onde há disponibilidade de alimento (como cozinha, quarto, refeitório e local de acondicionamento de lixo e falhas estruturais nas paredes. Também foram coletados, no hospital, Wasmannia, Pheidole, Linepithema, Monomorium, Dorymyrmex, Solenopsis e Paratrechina, totalizando-se dez gêneros. Nossos resultados indicam possíveis implicações da precariedade em estruturas de construção em hospitais e a importância da limpeza nesses ambientes.Urban ants, when present in hospital environments, can be a potential danger to public health, because they can carry pathogenic organisms and are possibly directly associated with the hospital cross infection problem. During a one-year period, collections were carried out, using non-toxic baits in a hospital of Luz, Minas Gerais State. The samples were distributed in 16 sites, being three outside and the others inside the hospital. Ants were found in 15 of the 16 sampled points. The most abundant genera were Brachymyrmex e Tapinoma, recorded inside and outside the hospital. The Camponotus genus was present as well, and generally collected where food was available (such as kitchen

  5. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae); Efeito da disponibilidade de hospedeiro e de alimento nas caracteristicas biologicas de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Oliveira, Harley N. de; Oliveira, Regiane C. de; Zago, Hugo B. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: dirceu@npd.ufes.br, e-mail: hnoliveira@insecta.ufv.br; Vieira, Stella M.J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2004-03-15

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  6. Molecular phylogeny of Indo-Pacific carpenter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Camponotus) reveals waves of dispersal and colonization from diverse source areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Clouse, R. M.; Janda, Milan; Blanchard, B.; Sharma, P.; Hoffmann, B. D.; Andersen, A. N.; Czekanski-Moir, J. E.; Krushelnycky, P.; Rabeling, C.; Wilson, E. O.; Economo, E. P.; Sarnat, E. M.; General, D. M.; Alpert, G. D.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2015), s. 424-437 ISSN 0748-3007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant - others:Marie Curie Felloswhip(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Camponotus * molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.952, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cla.12099/epdf

  7. Morphological and molecular characterization of common European species Adialytus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) based on mtCOI barcoding gene and geometric morphometrics of the forewings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stanković, S. S.; Petrović, A.; Milošević, M.I.; Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Žikić, V.; Tomanović, Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2015), s. 165-174 ISSN 1210-5759 Grant - others:Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development of the Republic of Serbia(RS) III43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Braconidae * Adialytus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2015/01/21.pdf

  8. Revisión taxonómica del subgénero Micrandrena (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae: Andrena) de la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Dardón Peralta, María José

    2011-01-01

    [ES]Las abejas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) han sido clasificadas por diferentes autores siguiendo distintos criterios, aunque actualmente se emplea la propuesta de Michener (2007), quien establece siete familias: Andrenidae, Colletidae, Halictidae, Melittidae, Stenotritidae, Megachilidae y Apidae. La familia Andrenidae se divide en cuatro subfamilias: Oxaeinae, Andreninae, Alocandreninae y Panurginae. La subfamilia Andreninae está conformada por los géneros Ancyladrena Cockerell, 1930, Andrena...

  9. A new genus of oak gallwasp, Cyclocynips Melika, Tang & Sinclair (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), with descriptions of two new species from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melika, George; Tang, Chang-ti; Sinclair, Frazer; Yang, Man-miao; Lohse, Konrad; Hearn, Jack; Nicholls, James A; Stone, Graham N

    2013-01-01

    A new genus of cynipid oak gallwasp-Cyclocynips Melika, Tang, & Sinclair (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), with two new species--C. uberis and C. tumorvirgae--reared from galls on oaks of the Quercus subgenus Cyclobalanopsis is described from Taiwan. Descriptions of asexual generation adults and their diagnostic characters are presented. The likelihood of yet undiscovered sexual generations and the evolution of host-plant associations in these species are discussed.

  10. A new genus and species of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae parasitoid of Euxesta eluta Loew (Diptera, Otitidae attacked Bt sweet corn in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana E. Gallardo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Euxestophaga Gallardo, a new genus of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae and Euxestophaga argentinensis Gallardo, sp. n. from Argentina, are described and illustrated. This new genus belongs to the Ganaspini and morphologically resembles Epicoela Borgmeier and Striatovertex Schick, Forshage and Nordlander. A key to differentiate these genera is given. Specimens were reared from pupae of Euxesta eluta Loew (Diptera: Otitidae, attacked Bt sweet corn in Santa Fe province and other in Tucumán province (Argentina.

  11. Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, a family new to the fauna of Saudi Arabia, with the description of the previously unknown male of Eucharis (Psilogastrellus affinis Bouček

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    Neveen S. Gadallah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Saudi Arabia based on Hydrorhoa caffra (Westwood and Eucharis (Psilogastrellus affinis Bouček. The record of H. caffra suggests that Al-Baha and Asir provinces should be considered as part of the Afrotropical rather than the Palaearctic region. The previously unknown male of E. affinis Bouček is described and figured. Macrophotographs of the species are provided.

  12. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series : Parasitoids (Hymenoptera of xylophagous beetles (Coleoptera attacking dead wood in southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India, with descriptions of two new species

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    P.M. Sureshan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of four species of Hymenoptera parasitoids probably of the wood boring beetle Clytocera chinospila Gahan (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, southern Western Ghats, Kerala. Two new hymenopteran species, Eurytoma chinnarensis (Eurytomidae and Foenatopus idukkiensis (Stephanidae are described. Solenura ania Walker (Pteromalidae is reported for the first time from Kerala and Western Ghats with a new host record, and Doryctus sp. (Braconidae is reported here.

  13. Eficiência de produtos termonebulígenos no controle de Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em plantio de eucalipto Efficiency of products for thermonebulization on the control of Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in eucalypus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Zanetti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de produtos termonebulígenos, a base de clorpirifós ou de extratos vegetais, comparativamente ao uso de isca formicida, a base de sulfluramida, no controle de Atta laevigata (F. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Foi avaliada a percentagem de paralisação das atividades de corte de folhas e de movimentação de formigas de A. laevigata aos três, 12, 36, 63 e 86 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Na última avaliação, os formigueiros foram abertos para a verificação da eficiência de controle. Todos os produtos testados apresentaram alta percentagem de paralisação das atividades de corte e de movimentação das formigas aos três e 12 dias após a aplicação, respectivamente. Os produtos a base de clorpirifós e um a base de extratos vegetais apresentaram alta eficiência no controle de A. laevigata, sendo mais efetivos que a isca formicida testada.The efficiency of products formulated with chlorpyrifos or plants extracts in thermonebuzation was evaluated and compared to the use of the granulated bait formulated with sulfluramid in the control of Atta laevigata (F. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. The cutting activity and the movement of ants on the colonies were evaluated at three, 12, 36, 63 and 86 days after the application of the treatments. The colonies of these ants were excavated in the last evaluation to obtain the efficiency of each product. All products stopped the cutting activity and movements of the individuals of A. laevigata three and 12 days after their application, respectively. Products formulated with chlorpyrifos and one with plant extracts were more efficient than granulated bait.

  14. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Primeiro registro de parasitismo social facultativo interespecífico em vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.Primeiro registro de parasitismo social facultativo interespecífico em vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitismo de colônias da vespa social Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 por fêmeas de Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 foram registrados em uma área rural no município de Dourados estado de Mato Grosso do Sul no Brasil. Em todos os casos monitorados a invasão ocorreu na fase colonial de pré-emergência, e em geral foi executado por uma única fêmea de M. consimilis. O período de estabelecimento da fêmea estrangeira na colônia hospedeira foi marcado por comportamentos antagônicos entre as fêmeas interespecíficas. Em geral, a arquitetura do ninho parasitado foi modificada em relação à arquitetura típica do ninho da espécie hospedeira.

  15. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

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    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  16. Mitochondrial sequencing reveals five separate origins of 'black' Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in eastern Australian commercial colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, P R; Oldroyd, B P

    2009-04-01

    Establishment of a closed population honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), breeding program based on 'black' strains has been proposed for eastern Australia. Long-term success of such a program requires a high level of genetic variance. To determine the likely extent of genetic variation available, 50 colonies from 11 different commercial apiaries were sequenced in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II intergenic region. Five distinct and novel mitotypes were identified. No colonies were found with the A. mellifera mellifera mitotype, which is often associated with undesirable feral strains. One group of mitotypes was consistent with a caucasica origin, two with carnica, and two with ligustica. The results suggest that there is sufficient genetic diversity to support a breeding program provided all these five sources were pooled.

  17. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Evelyze Pinheiro; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2011-04-01

    Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae) shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM), respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  18. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Evelyze Pinheiro dos Reis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM, respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  19. A new species of Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae from dry forest in Brazil and new occurrence records for other Heimbrinae

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    Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographic ranges of Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 and H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 are extended based on study of material deposited in the entomological collections of the Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brazil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae is described, illustrated and compared with S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986, the single species previously known for this genus. A key to the genera of Heimbrinae and to the species of Symbra is provided.

  20. A cuckoo in wolves' clothing? Chemical mimicry in a specialized cuckoo wasp of the European beewolf (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae and Crabronidae

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    Herzner Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should evolve mechanisms to evade detection and thus maximize their success. Females of the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae hunt exclusively honeybee workers as food for their progeny. The brood cells containing the paralyzed bees are severely threatened by a highly specialized cuckoo wasp (Hedychrum rutilans, Hymenoptera, Chrysididae. Female cuckoo wasps enter beewolf nests to oviposit on paralyzed bees that are temporarily couched in the nest burrow. The cuckoo wasp larva kills the beewolf larva and feeds on it and the bees. Here, we investigated whether H. rutilans evades detection by its host. Since chemical senses are most important in the dark nest, we hypothesized that the cuckoo wasp might employ chemical camouflage. Results Field observations suggest that cuckoo wasps are attacked by beewolves in front of their nest, most probably after being recognized visually. In contrast, beewolves seem not to detect signs of the presence of these parasitoids neither when these had visited the nest nor when directly encountered in the dark nest burrow. In a recognition bioassay in observation cages, beewolf females responded significantly less frequently to filter paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females, than to filter paper discs treated with an extract from another cuckoo wasp species (Chrysis viridula. The behavior to paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females did not differ significantly from the behavior towards filter paper discs treated with the solvent only. We hypothesized that cuckoo wasps either mimic the chemistry of their beewolf host or their host's prey. We tested this hypothesis using GC-MS analyses of the cuticles of male and

  1. First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile

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    Felipe Méndez-Abarca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile. Some aspects about the nesting biology of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 are reported for the first time. Observations were carried out at the Azapa valley, coastal desert of northern Chile. A total of sixty nests were collected and examined, each composed by 1-14 cells, most of them found attached to concrete lamp posts. The only preys recorded in the cells were Geometridae (Lepidoptera caterpillars and the presence of the parasitoid Anthrax sp. (Diptera, Bombyliidae was also recorded. A number of arthropods belonging to different groups, mainly spiders, were found occupying empty nests.

  2. Storage of Euschistus heros Eggs (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Liquid Nitrogen for Parasitization by Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

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    Favetti, B M; Butnariu, A R; Doetzer, A K

    2014-06-01

    Records in the literature with regard to the influence of freezing of pentatomid eggs on parasitism by microhymenopterans are scarce. In this research, we compared the storage of Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) eggs in liquid nitrogen for different periods with the objective of optimizing the multiplication of Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in the laboratory. Fresh eggs of E. heros were exposed (S3, S6) or not (NS3, NS6) to UV light for 30 min and stored in 1.5-mL plastic vials in liquid nitrogen either for 3 (S3, NS3) or 6 months (S6, NS6), and egg suitability to parasitoid development was compared to control eggs exposed (SC) or not (NSC) to UV treatment. Global data analysis showed that E. heros eggs stored in liquid nitrogen with or without UV treatment, for 3 or 6 months, were suitable for T. podisi parasitization.

  3. Primary and secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest.

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    Raworth, D A; Pike, K S; Tanigoshi, L K; Mathur, S; Graf, G

    2008-04-01

    Blueberry scorch virus, a commercially important Carlavirus in highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., is vectored by aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). We surveyed the aphids, primary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Braconidae), and associated secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Charipidae, Megaspilidae, Pteromalidae) on highbush blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest from 1995 to 2006, with samples concentrated in 2005 and 2006, to lay the groundwork for augmentative biological control. Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards) was the principal aphid. The dominant parasitoid species were Praon unicum Smith, Aphidius n. sp., A. sp., and Aphidius ervi Haliday. Their frequency in relation to the other primary parasitoids varied significantly with geographical area; P. unicum dominated the frequency distribution in southwestern British Columbia, A. n. sp., west of the Cascades, and A. sp. and A. ervi east of the Cascades. Among the secondary parasitoids, pteromalids dominated, and their frequency in relation to the other secondary parasitoids was lowest in southwestern British Columbia. The parasitization rate for P. unicum and A. n. sp. in southwestern British Columbia increased from May or June to a maximum of 0.080 +/- 0.024 and 0.090 +/- 0.084 (SD), respectively, in late July or early August. P. unicum emerged in the spring 4 wk before A. n. sp. The parasitization rate for P. unicum was lower in conventional than organic fields. Whereas aphid density increased monotonically, P. unicum had two spring peaks. A simulation model showed that these peaks could reflect discrete generations. Releases of insectary-reared P. unicum at 150 or 450 DD above 5.6 degrees C, summing from 1 January, may effectively augment the natural spring populations by creating overlapping generations.

  4. Morphological, chemical and developmental aspects of the Dufour gland in some eusocial bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a review

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    Fábio Camargo Abdalla

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, chemical and developmental aspects of the Dufour gland in some eusocial bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a review. The present revision focused on the more recent data about the Dufour gland in some eusocial bees, taking in account general aspects of its morphology, secretion chemical nature, bio-synthetic pathway and development. Many functions have been attributed to this gland in eusocial bees, but none are convincing. With the new data about this gland, not only the secretion chemical pathway of the Dufour gland may be reasonable understood, as its function in some eusocial bees, especially Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, which has been extensively studied in the last years.Aspectos morfológicos, químicos e do desenvolvimento da glândula de Dufour em algumas abelhas eussociais (Hymenoptera, Apidae: revisão. Esta revisão aborda os mais recentes dados sobre a glândula de Dufour em algumas abelhas eussociais, considerando aspectos gerais da sua morfologia, do seu desenvolvimento, da natureza química da sua secreção, assim como sua via bio-sintética. Muitas funções têm-se atribuído à glândula de Dufour nas abelhas eussociais, mas nenhuma suficientemente convincente. Os novos dados a respeito dessa glândula permitem não só conhecer razoavelmente bem a via bio-sintética como a função da secreção da glândula de Dufour em algumas abelhas eussociais, especialmente em Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, a qual tem sido extensivamente estudada nos últimos anos.

  5. Meliponini neotropicais: o gênero Partamona Schwarz, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Pedro Silvia R. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical Meliponini: the genus Partamona Schwarz, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Apidae. The systematics and biogeography of Partamona Schwarz, a Neotropical genus of stingless bees (Meliponini, Apinae, Apidae, are revised. Seventeen new species are described: P. epiphytophila sp. nov., P. subtilis sp. nov., P. nhambiquara sp. nov., P. batesi sp. nov., P. yungarum sp. nov., P. vitae sp. nov., P. ferreirai sp. nov., P. gregaria sp. nov., P. auripennis sp. nov., P. nigrilabris sp. nov., P. combinata sp. nov., P. chapadicola sp. nov., P. seridoensis sp. nov., P. littoralis sp. nov., P. criptica sp. nov., P. rustica sp. nov. and P. sooretamae sp. nov. Partamona pseudomusarum Camargo, 1980, is considered as junior synonym of P. vicina Camargo, 1980. Types of P. grandipennis (Schwarz, 1951, P. xanthogastra Pedro & Camargo, 1996-1997, P. pearsoni (Schwarz, 1938, P. ailyae Camargo, 1980, P. pseudomusarum, P. vicina, P. mulata Moure in Camargo, 1980, P. aequatoriana Camargo, 1980, P. mourei Camargo, 1980, P. peckolti, (Friese, 1901, P. testacea (Klug, 1807, P. helleri (Friese, 1900 and P. musarum (Cockerell, 1917 were examined. Lectotypes of P. orizabaensis (Strand, 1919, and P. cupira (Smith, 1863 are designated. An identification key for the species and drawings of morphological characters are presented. A phylogenetic hypothesis, based mainly on morphological characters is proposed. Four groups are defined, considering the shape of mandible of workers and sternum VII of males: bilineata / epiphytophila group (western Amazon to México, including P. bilineata (Say, P. grandipennis, P. xanthogastra P. orizabaensis P. peckolti P. epiphytophila sp. nov., P. subtilis sp. nov., P. nhambiquara sp. nov., P. batesi sp. nov., P. yungarum sp. nov. and P. vitae sp. nov.; musarum group (Central Brazil, north of South America to Central America, including P. musarum, P. aequatoriana, P. vicina, P. mourei, P. pearsoni, P. ferreirai sp. nov., P. gregaria sp. nov. and P

  6. The evolution of genome size in ants

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    Spagna Joseph C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the economic and ecological importance of ants, genomic tools for this family (Formicidae remain woefully scarce. Knowledge of genome size, for example, is a useful and necessary prerequisite for the development of many genomic resources, yet it has been reported for only one ant species (Solenopsis invicta, and the two published estimates for this species differ by 146.7 Mb (0.15 pg. Results Here, we report the genome size for 40 species of ants distributed across 10 of the 20 currently recognized subfamilies, thus making Formicidae the 4th most surveyed insect family and elevating the Hymenoptera to the 5th most surveyed insect order. Our analysis spans much of the ant phylogeny, from the less derived Amblyoponinae and Ponerinae to the more derived Myrmicinae, Formicinae and Dolichoderinae. We include a number of interesting and important taxa, including the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, Neotropical army ants (genera Eciton and Labidus, trapjaw ants (Odontomachus, fungus-growing ants (Apterostigma, Atta and Sericomyrmex, harvester ants (Messor, Pheidole and Pogonomyrmex, carpenter ants (Camponotus, a fire ant (Solenopsis, and a bulldog ant (Myrmecia. Our results show that ants possess small genomes relative to most other insects, yet genome size varies three-fold across this insect family. Moreover, our data suggest that two whole-genome duplications may have occurred in the ancestors of the modern Ectatomma and Apterostigma. Although some previous studies of other taxa have revealed a relationship between genome size and body size, our phylogenetically-controlled analysis of this correlation did not reveal a significant relationship. Conclusion This is the first analysis of genome size in ants (Formicidae and the first across multiple species of social insects. We show that genome size is a variable trait that can evolve gradually over long time spans, as well as rapidly, through processes that may

  7. Hymenoptera parasitoides associados às larvas de Lepidoptera em reflorestamento e sistemas agroflorestais da fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste), São Carlos, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Aline Garcia Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Estudos da flora e fauna silvestres são importantes por contribuirem para a compreensão dos processos ecológicos que ocorrem em resposta às estratégias de manejo utilizadas. Os Hymenoptera são um grupo-chave para o estabelecimento de prioridades em conservação do ambiente, pois representam alta proporção da diversidade de insetos, sendo facilmente amostrados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fauna de Hymenoptera parasitoides associada às larvas de Lepidoptera em área de refloresta...

  8. Primeiro registro de ocorrência do parasitóide Brasema sp. (hymenoptera: eupelmidae em ovos de Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, 1852 (hemiptera: coreidae no Brasil First record of occurrence of the parasitoid Brasema sp. (hymenoptera: eupelmidae in eggs of Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, 1852 (hemiptera: coreidae in Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho registra a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Brasema sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae parasitando ovos de Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae em cultivar de milho em Itumbiara, GO. A porcentagem de parasitismo foi de 4,8%. Brasema sp. constitue-se em ectoparasitóide de larvas de coleópteros e de outros hospedeiros no interior de tecidos de plantas.This work reports, for the first time, of parasitoid Brasema sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae parasitizinf eggs of Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae in maize cultivate in Itumbiara, GO, Brazil. The percentage of parasitizing was 4,8%. Brasema sp. constitutes ectoparasitoid of beetle larvae and other hosts concealed in plant tissue.

  9. Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae present in the flowers of the balsa wood Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788 = Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apidae associadas às flores do pau-de-balsa Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788

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    Carla Regina Guimarães Brighenti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The flower of balsa wood holds about 10 to 15 mL of nectar, which helps attracting pollinating agents, since the genus Ochroma is incapable of self-fertilization. However, a high mortality of bees is observed in these flowers. The present study investigated the frequency and constancy of mortality of the individuals of the familyApidae that fed on nectar from the balsa wood. Data was gathered from June to August 2008, in Lavras – Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In addition, the survival of the Africanized bees that fed on the nectar of this flower was compared to those that fed on 50% aqueous solution of honey. Forty flowers were analyzed, and 949 individuals of the orders Hymenoptera (98.1%, Hemiptera (0.95%, Coleoptera (0.74% and Diptera (0.21% were collected. Most Hymenoptera individuals were bees of the genera Partamona and Trigona (677 individuals, which were considered of constant occurrence. Flowers producing up to 16.7 nectar mL were found. The nectar diet contained 16.44% of total sugar, and resulted in low survival of the bees in laboratory (31.32 . 2.37 hours, compared to a diet of 50% aqueous solution of honey (112.32 .2.03 hours.A flor do pau-de-balsa produz cerca de 10 a 15 mL de néctar, útil na atração de polinizadores, uma vez que o gênero Ochroma é incapaz de fazer autofecundação. É observada intensa mortalidade de abelhas em suas flores. Objetivou-se realizar o levantamento da frequência e constância de mortalidade de indivíduos da família Apidae, sendo os dados levantados no período de junho a agosto de 2008 em Lavras, MinasGerais, Brasil. Além disso, avaliou-se a sobrevivência de abelhas africanizadas alimentadas com o néctar desta flor quando comparados com aquelas alimentadas com solução aquosa de mel a 50%. Foram analisadas 40 flores e coletados 949 indivíduos das Ordens: Hymenoptera (98,1%, Hemiptera (0,95%, Coleoptera (0,74% e Diptera (0,21%. Dentre os himenópteros os mais frequentes foram dos g

  10. Preferência Floral de Vespas (Hymenoptera, Vespidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As vespas integram a comunidade de visitantes florais e podem constituir uma parcela representativa dos polinizadores. Por este motivo, objetivou-se conhecer e analisar a preferência floral das espécies de Vespidae, bem como investigar o uso de recursos florais por estas vespas. Foram realizadas coletas entre o período de 2001 a 2008 em diferentes localidades do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu, entre 08:00 a 17:00 horas, utilizando redes entomológicas para a captura dos vespídeos visitando flores. Os espécimes coletados foram depositados na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (CESC. Coletou-se 1.483 indivíduos alocados em 73 espécies de vespas, sendo que 78,9% são Polistinae (30 espécies e 21,1% Eumeninae (43 espécies, visitando as flores de 33 espécies de plantas classificadas em 16 famílias botânicas; as famílias com maior número de espécies vegetais foram Asteraceae (12, Fabaceae (4 e Apiaceae (3. A planta com o maior número de vespídeos coletados foi Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (616, seguida por Eryngium pandanifolium L. (137 e Eryngium horridum Spreng (122. A análise da sobreposição de nicho trófico de 26 espécies que visitaram quatro ou mais floração, mostrou que a sobreposição foi igual ou maior que 50% em apenas seis casos.Floral Preferences of Wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae in the Rio Grande do Sul State, BrazilAbstract Wasps integrate the floral visitors’ community and they can constitute a representative portion of the pollinators. For this reason, it was aimed to know and to analyze the floral preference of the Vespidae species and to investigate the use of floral resources for these wasps. The collects were performed between 2001 and 2008 in different localities of Rio Grande do Sul state (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu between 08:00 at 17:00 hours, utilizing entomological nets to catch the

  11. Meliponini neotropicais: o gênero Ptilotrigona Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae

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    João M. F. Camargo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero neotropical de abelhas sem ferrão, Ptilotrigona Moure, 1951, é revisado. Três espécies são reconhecidas: Ptilotrigona occidentalis (Schulz, 1904, endêmica do NW da América do Sul - do NW do Equador até o sul de Darién -, e com uma população isolada na Península de Osa - Costa Rica; P. pereneae (Schwarz, 1943, endêmica do oeste da Amazônia, e P. lurida (Smith, 1854, amplamente distribuída na Amazônia. Ptilotrigona lurida e P. pereneae são as únicas abelhas sem ferrão que estocam pólen em associação com leveduras (Candida sp. e produzem pouco ou nenhum mel. Ninhos são descritos e ilustrados. Holótipos de Trigona suffragata Cockerell, 1922 (sin. de P. occidentalis e Trigona manni Cockerell, 1912, e exemplares de Trigona heideri Friese, 1900 (sins. de P. lurida, identificados por Friese, e um parátipo de Trigona (Tetragona heideri pereneae Schwarz, 1943, são estudados. Novo sinônimo: Ptilotrigona lurida (Smith, 1854 = Trigona mocsaryi lutea Friese, 1903 syn. nov. Na análise cladística, espécies de Camargoia Moure, 1989, e Tetragona Lepeletier & Serville, 1828, foram incluídas como grupos externos; a hipótese apresentada é a seguinte: ((((Ptilotrigona lurida, P. pereneae P. occidentalis((Camargoia nordestina, C. pilicornis C. camargoi Tetragona goettei. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies e outros aspectos bionômicos também são apresentados.Neotropical Meliponini: the genus Ptilotrigona Moure, (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae. The Neotropical stingless bees genus Ptilotrigona Moure, 1951 is revised. Three species are recognized: Ptilotrigona occidentalis (Schulz, 1904, endemic to NW South America - from NW Ecuador to southern Darién -, and with one isolated population in Osa Peninsula - Costa Rica; P. pereneae (Schwarz, 1943, endemic to the western Amazon; and P. lurida (Smith, 1854, largely distributed in the Amazon region. Ptilotrigona lurida and P. pereneae are the only known stingless bees

  12. Comportamento de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae inquilinas de cupins (Isoptera: Termitidae em pastagem

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    Carla Cristina Dutra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o tipo de interação entre formigas e os cupins os quais habitam o mesmo ninho. Os experimentos foram de duas maneiras: A- para testar a relação de predação, os tratamentos usados foram: três formigas e um cupim, três formigas e três cupins, e três formigas e doze cupins; B- para testar a relação de proteção os tratamentos foram: três formigas e três cupins de um mesmo ninho e três formigas de um ninho diferente. Para verificar predação foram testadas diferentes origens de formigas e cupins. Os testes foram em arenas e placas de Petri. Os comportamentos observados foram: não responde; contato e abandono; agarra o cupim e luta. As espécies estudadas foram Camponotus sp. e Cornitermes silvestrii Emerson. No experimento A, nas arenas foi observado o comportamento de contato e abandono das formigas sobre um cupim significativamente diferente para formigas que não co-habitava com o cupim, já para um grupo de cupins o comportamento foi não responde. Na placa de Petri as formigas responderam ao contato com os cupins com comportamento de contato e abandono, morder e luta com o cupim, mas não houve diferença estatística entre os comportamentos. No experimento B observou-se luta entre as formigas de ninhos diferentes. Os experimentos mostraram que as formigas que co-habitam cupinzeiros não tiveram nenhuma resposta agressiva ou de predação com relação aos cupins dos quais co-habitam, mas também não tiveram comportamento de proteção com os mesmos, sugerindo que esta interação entre formigas e cupins é de inquilinismo.Behavior of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae Co-inhabit of Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae in grassland.Abstract. The aim of this study was to verify the kind of interactions between ants and termites that habit the same nest. Two kinds of experiments were done: A- to test the relation of predation, we used three ants and one termite, three ants and three termites and

  13. Feeding preferences of the willow sawfl y Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae for commercial Salix clones Preferencias alimentarias de la avispa sierra de los sauces Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae por clones de Salix comerciales

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    Verónica Loetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae is a willow sawfly native to the Northern Hemisphere which became a serious defoliator in willow plantations (Salix spp. of the Southern Hemisphere after being introduced in the early 1980´s. Studies on host preferences provide useful information for the development of pest management strategies where the willow sawfly may produce tree damage and economic loss. Feeding preferences of N. oligospilus larvae were evaluated in laboratory trials by simultaneously offering leaves from four willow tree clones commonly used in commercial plantations in Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13-44. Larvae of N. oligospilus fed on leaves from the four clones. However, insects consumed a significantly higher proportion of S. babylonica var sacramenta leaves than of leaves from the other clones. Results indicate that all clones used in the trials were palatable to the insect, and that S. babylonica var sacramenta is the preferred host for larval herbivory.Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, o la avispa sierra de los sauces, es nativa del Hemisferio Norte y se ha convertido en un serio defoliador en plantaciones de sauces (Salix spp. del Hemisferio Sur, después de su introducción a principios de 1980. Los estudios sobre las preferencias de hospedador aportan información útil para el desarrollo de estrategias, donde la avispa sierra puede producir daño a los árboles y pérdidas económicas. Se evaluó la preferencia alimentaria de las larvas de N. oligospilus, mediante ensayos de laboratorio; se ofrecieron en forma simultánea hojas de cuatro clones de sauce, usados comúnmente en plantaciones comerciales en Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13

  14. Dinâmica populacional do parasitoide de ovos erythmelus tingitiphagus (hymenoptera: mymaridae em clone de seringueira, em Itiquira, MT Population dynamic of egg parasitoid erythmelus tingitiphagus (hymenoptera: mymaridae in rubber tree clone in Itiquira, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Souza Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo-de-renda Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae é uma das mais importantes pragas da heveicultura no Brasil, principalmente nas regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste. Devido ao seu hábito sugador, na face abaxial das folhas, esta praga leva à senescência precoce das mesmas e a reduções na produção de látex em até 30%. Dentre os inimigos naturais de L. heveae está o parasitoide de ovos Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, regulando suas populações em condições naturais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a dinâmica populacional deste parasitoide, bem como correlacioná-la com os fatores meteorológicos temperatura e pluviosidade, em plantio comercial de seringueira do clone PB 217, em Itiquira, MT. Semanalmente foram coletadas quatro folhas maduras por árvore, no terço inferior da copa de 40 árvores, totalizando 160 folhas por amostragem, no período de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. Houve correlação positiva entre a dinâmica populacional e os fatores meteorológicos, sendo o pico populacional do parasitoide observado no mês de novembro e declinando até janeiro na área estudada.The lace bug Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae is one of the most import heveiculture pests in Brazil, mainly in the southeast and central-west regions. Due to its sucking habit on the abaxial surface, this pest causes precocious senescence in leaves, and leads to the reduction in latex production in up to 30% of them. Among the natural enemies of L. heveae is the egg parasitoid Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, regulating populations of L. heveae in natural conditions. The objective of this work was to verify the population dynamics of this parasitoid, as well as to correlate it with meteorological factors such as temperature and rainfall, in a commercial plantation of rubber trees of the PB 217 clone, in Itiquira, in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Four

  15. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi, 2003 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em hospedeiros alternativos, sob diferentes temperaturas Fertility life table of Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi, 2003 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in alternative hosts, under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Bolsoni Zago

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A espécie, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae foi recentemente coletada em plantios de abacate, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae, e pode representar uma alternativa no controle biológico de lepidópteros pragas dessa cultura. Assim, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o desempenho de T. pratissolii criado em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae,sob diferentes temperaturas utilizando tabelas de vida de fertilidade. A criação de A. kuehniella foi mantida com dieta à base de farinha de trigo integral, milho e levedura de cerveja, enquanto para C. cephalonica foi utilizada dieta à base de farelo de arroz, levedura de cerveja e açúcar. T. pratissolii foi criado nos hospedeiros, utilizando-se a técnica de colagem de ovos em cartolina azul. Foram determinadas a duração média da geração (T, taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro, razão infinitesimal de aumento (r m e razão infinita de aumento (λ para as temperaturas de 15; 21; 24; 27; 30 e 33 ±1ºC, com 70±10% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 14 horas. A melhor condição térmica para desenvolvimento de T. pratissolii em A. kuehniella e C. cephalonica foi a 27ºC, enquanto o melhor hospedeiro nessa temperatura é C. cephalonica.The specie, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was recently collected in avocado plantations, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae, and therefore might be an alternative biological control agent for lepidopteran pests in this crop. Thus, this work evaluated the performance of T. pratissolii parasitizing eggs of Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, under different temperature regimes through fertility life table method. The host A. kuehniella was reared using diet constituted of whole wheat meal, corn meal and yeast, while C. cephalonica was

  16. The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

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    Marcel G. Hermes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The structure of flower-visiting social wasps' assemblages in the CPCN Pró-Mata of São Francisco de Paula and in the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, are characterized. A total of 879 polistine wasps were collected, of which 475 (11 spp. in the CPCN and 404 (21 spp. in the Green Belt, from September 1997 to April 2001 and from September 2001 to April 2004, respectively. Foraging social wasps were observed on flowers of 36 species of angiosperms (20 families in the Green Belt, and on flowers of 54 species of angiosperms (21 families in the CPCN. Asteraceae was the most visited plant family on both studied localities. A list of pant species visited by the polistines is provided.Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae visitantes de flores em duas áreas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A estrutura da assembléia de vespas sociais que visitam flores no CPCN Pró-Mata de São Francisco de Paula e no Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, são caracterizadas. Do total de 879 polistíneos, 475 (11 spp. foram coletados no CPCN, e 404 (21 spp. no Cinturão Verde entre Setembro de 1997 a Abril de 2000 e Setembro de 2001 a Abril de 2004, respectivamente. Vespas sociais foram observadas em flores de 36 espécies de angiospermas (20 famílias no Cinturão Verde, e em flores de 54 espécies de angiospermas (21 famílias no CPCN. Asteraceae foi a família de planta que mais recebeu visitas por parte das vespas nas duas localidades estudadas. Uma lista com as espécies de plantas visitadas pelos polistíneos é apresentada.

  17. Insectos asociados con flores de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, con énfasis en Hymenoptera

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    José L. Fernández T.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los insectos visitantes en flores de nueve especies de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba Oriental, durante 1993 (marzo a junio, en primavera y 1994 (enero a marzo, final del invierno y comienzo de la primavera. Se contabilizaron unas 50 horas de recolecta en tres horarios diferentes (0900-0930 hr en 1993; 0900-0930 hr, 1200-1230 hr y 1500-1530 hr en 1994. Se identificaron más de 140 especies y por lo menos 37 familias; Hymenoptera fue el orden mejor representado (con más de la mitad de los individuos rerecolectados, seguido de Diptera, Coleoptera y Lepidoptera. Dentro de Hymenoptera las abejas (Apoidea fueron mayoritarias, especialmente Apis mellifera L.; seguidas de avispas (Vespidae, Pompilidae, Sphecidae e icneumónidos (Ichneumonidae; los microhimenópteros no se recolectaron. Se comparó la himenopterofauna en cuanto a diversidad, similitud, especies dominantes y subdominantes, preferencia de horarios, eficiencia de los muestreos, etc. Cada especie de planta sustentó una fauna característica. Casi un tercio de los himenópteros visitantes fueron controles biológicos de plagas agrícolas, y la mayoría pueden considerarse polinizadores. Especies afines filogenéticamente presentaron patrones de actividad diaria semejante. El horario 0900 -0930 hr fue el de mayor biodiversidad en cuanto a número de especies visitantes. Al analizar el número de especies con relación al número de especímenes rerecolectados, así como el total de especies y número de muestreos realizados, las funciones de mejor ajuste fueron polinomiales de segundo grado (r² = 0.9734 y r² = 0.9573 respectivamente, p The insect visitors of flowers in nine weeds species were studied in the Botanical Garden of Santiago de Cuba, Eastern Cuba, during 1993 (March - June, spring season and 1994 (January - March, end of winter and beginning of spring season. About 50 hours of collecting efforts were made at three times (0900-0930 hr in

  18. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  19. Differences in the reproductive biology and diapause of two congeneric species of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae) from northeast Asia: implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...

  20. Long-term monitoring of the introduced emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) egg parasitoid, oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyridae), in Michigan, USA and evaluation of a newly developed monitoring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was introduced as a biological control agent of this pest in Michiga...

  1. Evolución de la sociabilidad en Hymenoptera: Rasgos conductuales vinculados a niveles sociales y precursores de sociabilidad en especies solitarias Evolution of sociality in Hymenoptera: Behavioural traits linked to social levels and precursors of sociality in solitary species

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    LUIS FLORES-PRADO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En Hymenoptera, los niveles de sociabilidad han sido asociados a rasgos conductuales, tales como los comportamientos de nidificación y agonísticos, y la capacidad de reconocimiento entre conespecíficos. El reconocimiento de compañeros de nido es un fenómeno de amplia difusión entre especies eusociales, y puede ser inferido por el resultado de las interacciones agonísticas entre hembras; estas son más tolerantes hacia compañeras de nido que hacia no compañeras de nido. Contrariamente, en la mayor parte de las especies solitarias las hembras son agresivas hacia otras hembras conespecíficas. En especies eusociales, la descendencia inmadura es alimentada directamente por la madre, o por obreras; así, el contacto frecuente entre progenie y hembras adultas puede contribuir a entender el reconocimiento social. En el extremo opuesto, las especies solitarias construyen nidos que no permiten interacciones entre adultos e inmaduros. A pesar de esto, estudios recientes sugieren que el aprendizaje del fenotipo propio podría explicar la capacidad de reconocimiento y, tal vez, corresponde al punto de partida en el desarrollo y evolución de la sociabilidad. La subfamilia Xylocopinae (Apidae ha emergido como un valioso modelo para estudiar la evolución de la sociabilidad pues contiene especies que presentan un amplio rango de sociabilidad. En particular, la tribu Manueliini representa un taxón interesante desde el punto de vista de la evolución de la sociabilidad en Xylocopinae pues ha sido propuesto como el grupo hermano de todos los demás Xylocopinae, es un taxón relicto que retiene rasgos morfológicos ancestrales, contiene solo especies fundamentalmente solitarias (aunque en una de estas se ha demostrado recientemente reconocimiento de compañeras de nido y de parientes y algunas especies exhiben rasgos conductuales precursores de vida social. En este trabajo se revisa en Hymenoptera los grados de sociabilidad asociados con rasgos

  2. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  3. Seletividade de inseticidas recomendados para a cultura do algodão ao parasitóide de pupas Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Wagner Faria

    2010-01-01

    Insetos pragas podem reduzir a produção do algodoeiro e o controle biológico pode reduzir o uso excessivo de inseticidas nessa cultura. O endoparasitóide gregário de pupas de lepidópteros e coleópteros Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), por ter hábito generalista e facilidade de criação em hospedeiro alternativo, pode ser utilizado no controle biológico de pragas do algodoeiro. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi estudar o impacto dos inseticidas acefato, cartape, cl...

  4. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naruo; Hirata, Hirokuni; Watanabe, Mineaki; Sugiyama, Kumiya; Arima, Masafumi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Ishii, Yoshiki

    2015-07-01

    Ves v 5 and Pol d 5, which constitute antigen 5, are recognized as the major, most potent allergens of family Vespidae. Several studies have reported the diagnostic sensitivity of the novel recombinant (r)Ves v 5 and rPol d 5 allergens in routine clinical laboratory settings by analyzing a group of Vespula and Polistes venom-allergic patients. In this study, we analyzed the sensitivity to venom specific (s)IgE by spiking with rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy. Subjects were 41 patients who had experienced systemic reactions to hornet and/or paper wasp stings. Levels of serum sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom by spiking with rVes v 5 and rPold d 5, respectively, as improvement testing, compared with hornet and paper wasp venom, as conventional testing, were measured by ImmunoCAP. Of the 41 patients, 33 (80.5%) were positive (≥0.35 UA/ml) for hornet and/or paper wasp venom in conventional sIgE testing. sIgE levels correlated significantly (P venom (R = 0.78) in improvement testing and conventional testing. To determine specificity, 20 volunteers who had never experienced a Hymenoptera sting were all negative for sIgE against these venoms in both improvement and conventional testing. Improved sensitivity was seen in 8 patients negative for sIgE against both venoms in conventional testing, while improvement testing revealed sIgE against hornet or paper wasp venom in 5 (total 38 (92.7%)) patients. The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproductive performance of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with previously refrigerated pupae of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, FF.; Zanuncio, JC.; Serrão, JE.; Pastori, PL.; Ramalho, F.S.

    2009-01-01

    The mass rearing of parasitoids represents a fundamental stage for programmes of biological control. The progeny of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were evaluated on previously refrigerated pupae of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Forty-eight to 72 hours-old pupae of B. mori were stored at 10 ºC for five, 10, 15 or 20 days and then exposed to parasitism by P. elaeisis females. This parasitoid showed shorter duration of the life cycl...

  6. Following the cold: geographical differentiation between interglacial refugia and speciation in the arcto-alpine species complex Bombus monticola (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinet, B.; Lecocq, T.; Brasero, N.; Biella, Paolo; Urbanová, Klára; Valterová, Irena; Cornalba, M.; Gjershaugh, J. O.; Michez, D.; Rasmont, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2018), s. 200-217 ISSN 0307-6970 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-10035P Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 152/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Bombus monticola * geographical differentiation * Hymenoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) OBOR OECD: Ecology; Analytical chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.474, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/syen.12268/full

  7. Diversidade dos Belytinae (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea: Diapriidae) ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal de Mata Atlântica Ombrófila Densa

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Leite Quadros

    2015-01-01

    Os principais objetivos deste trabalho foram conhecer a distribuição da riqueza dos Hymenoptera parasitoides Diapriidae Belytinae ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal da Mata Atlântica e explicar as causas do padrão de riqueza encontrado por comparação com os padrões descritos para outros grupos. Os Belytinae exercem papel chave na regulação natural de populações de muitas espécies de Mycetophilidae e Sciaridae (Diptera) e o conhecimento sobre a diversidade desta subfamília no bioma Mata Atlâ...

  8. A survey for potential biological control agents of Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae) in Brazil reveals two new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikart, Tiago G; Costa, Valmir A; Hansson, Christer; Cristo, Sandra C DE; Vitorino, Marcelo D

    2017-05-30

    This paper deals with the description of two new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Brazil, parasitoids of larvae of Adetus analis (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Both species are similar to Horismenus steirastomae (Girault), a species that also parasitizes cerambycids. Adetus analis is a pest of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae), a minor crop in Brazil, Argentina and U.S.A., but also feeds in stems of Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae), an ornamental plant that has become a problematic weed species in Africa, where it was introduced. The two new Horismenus species are described, diagnosed, and compared to H. steirastomae.

  9. Brewer’s Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enhances Attraction of Two Invasive Yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to Dried Fruit and Fruit Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Regine; Borden, John; Palmero, Luis; Mattiacci, Analía; Masciocchi, Maité; Corley, Juan; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica F., and common yellowjacket, Vespula vulgaris L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), are pests of significant economic, environmental, and medical importance in many countries. There is a need for the development and improvement of attractive baits that can be deployed in traps to capture and kill these wasps in areas where they are a problem. Yellowjackets are known to feed on fermenting fruit, but this resource is seldom considered as a bait due to its ephemeral nature and its potential attractiveness to nontarget species. We analyzed the headspace volatiles of dried fruit and fruit powder baits with and without Brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and we field tested these baits for their attractiveness to yellowjackets in Argentina. The addition of yeast to dried fruit and fruit powder changed the volatile compositions, increasing the number of alcohols and acids and decreasing the number of aldehydes. Dried fruit and fruit powder baits on their own were hardly attractive to yellowjackets, but the addition of yeast improved their attractiveness by 9- to 50-fold and surpassed the attractiveness of a commercial heptyl butyrate-based wasp lure. We suggest that further research be done to test additional varieties and species of yeasts. A dried fruit or fruit powder bait in combination with yeast could become a useful tool in the management of yellowjackets. PMID:28922898

  10. ¿Multiplicar Tetrastichus howardi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en la oruga de la seda afecta su biología?

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    Nahara Gabriela Piñeyro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La multiplicación sucesiva de parasitoides en hospederos alternativos, puede afectar las características biológicas y comprometer los sistemas de cría masiva de estos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la multiplicación de Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff, 1893 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en pupas del hospedero alternativo Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, durante tres generaciones. Y si eso afecta su desempeño reproductivo, cuando se cría, posteriormente, en pupas del hospedero natural Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae. Las informaciones obtenidas en este estudio pueden mejorar y facilitar el control biológico de plagas, principalmente, con la utilización de parasitoides, debido a que T. howardi parasita y se desarrolla en pupas de B. mori. De forma general, la multiplicación de T. howardi durante tres generaciones en pupas del hospedero alternativo B. mori no compromete las características biológicas de este parasitoide cuando se multiplica en su hospedero natural D. saccharalis a los efectos de su utilización en programas de control biológico.

  11. Incomplete Homogenization of Chemical Recognition Labels Between Formica sanguinea and Formica rufa Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Living in a Mixed Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Tomasz; Szczepaniak, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Formica sanguinea Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a slave-making species, i.e., it raids colonies of host species and pillages pupae, which are taken to develop into adult workers in a parasite colony. However, it has been unclear if the coexistence of F. sanguinea with slave workers requires uniformity of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), among which those other than n -alkanes are believed to be the principal nestmate recognition cues utilized by ants. In this study, a mixed colony (MC) of F. sanguinea and Formica rufa L. as a slave species was used to test the hypothesis that CHCs are exchanged between the species. Chemical analysis of hexane extracts from ants’ body surfaces provided evidence for interspecific exchange of alkenes and methyl-branched alkanes. This result was confirmed by behavioral tests during which ants exhibited hostility toward conspecific individuals from the MC but not toward ones from homospecific colonies of their own species. However, it seems that species-specific differences in chemical recognition labels were not eliminated completely because ants from the MC were treated differently depending on whether they were con- or allospecific to the individuals whose behavioral reactions were tested. These findings are discussed in the context of mechanisms of colony's odor formation and effective integration of slaves into parasite colony. PMID:25502026

  12. Raalin, a transcript enriched in the honey bee brain, is a remnant of genomic rearrangement in Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Y; Morpurgo, N; Cohen, M; Linial, M; Bloch, G

    2012-06-01

    We identified a predicted compact cysteine-rich sequence in the honey bee genome that we called 'Raalin'. Raalin transcripts are enriched in the brain of adult honey bee workers and drones, with only minimum expression in other tissues or in pre-adult stages. Open-reading frame (ORF) homologues of Raalin were identified in the transcriptomes of fruit flies, mosquitoes and moths. The Raalin-like gene from Drosophila melanogaster encodes for a short secreted protein that is maximally expressed in the adult brain with negligible expression in other tissues or pre-imaginal stages. Raalin-like sequences have also been found in the recently sequenced genomes of six ant species, but not in the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. As in the honey bee, the Raalin-like sequences of ants do not have an ORF. A comparison of the genome region containing Raalin in the genomes of bees, ants and the wasp provides evolutionary support for an extensive genome rearrangement in this sequence. Our analyses identify a new family of ancient cysteine-rich short sequences in insects in which insertions and genome rearrangements may have disrupted this locus in the branch leading to the Hymenoptera. The regulated expression of this transcript suggests that it has a brain-specific function. © 2012 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Expression profile of a Laccase2 encoding gene during the metamorphic molt in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera,Apidae

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    Moysés Elias-Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Expression profile of a Laccase2 encoding gene during the metamorphic molt in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Metamorphosis in holometabolous insects occurs through two subsequent molting cycles: pupation (metamorphic molt and adult differentiation (imaginal molt. The imaginal molt in Apis mellifera L. was recently investigated in both histological and physiological-molecular approaches. Although the metamorphic molt in this model bee is extremely important to development, it is not well-known yet. In the current study we used this stage as an ontogenetic scenario to investigate the transcriptional profile of the gene Amlac2, which encodes a laccase with an essential role in cuticle differentiation. Amlac2 expression in epidermis was contrasted with the hemolymph titer of ecdysteroid hormones and with the most evident morphological events occurring during cuticle renewal. RT-PCR semiquantitative analyses using integument samples revealed increased levels of Amlac2 transcripts right after apolysis and during the subsequent pharate period, and declining levels near pupal ecdysis. Compared with the expression of a cuticle protein gene, AmelCPR14, these results highlighted the importance of the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis as an ontogenetic marker of gene reactivation in epidermis for cuticle renewal. The obtained results strengthen the comprehension of metamorphosis in Apis mellifera. In addition, we reviewed the literature about the development of A. mellifera, and emphasize the importance of revising the terminology used to describe honey bee molting cycles.

  14. The Phanuromyia galeata species group (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae, Telenominae: shining a lantern into an unexplored corner of Neotropical diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Nesheim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Phanuromyia galeata species group is delineated and its species richness explored for the first time (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Telenominae. Fifteen species are described, all of which are new: Phanuromyia comata Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil, P. constellata Nesheim, sp. n. (Paraguay, P. corys Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil, P. cranos Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, P. cudo Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Panama, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, P. dissidens Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Bolivia, Brazil, French Guiana, P. galeata Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Mexico, Peru, P. galerita Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, P. hjalmr Nesheim, sp. n. (Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Paraguay, Venezuela, P. krossotos Nesheim, sp. n. (Ecuador, P. odo Nesheim, sp. n. (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, P. pauper Nesheim, sp. n. (Ecuador, Peru, P. princeps Nesheim, sp. n. (Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, P. tonsura Nesheim, sp. n. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, P. tubulifer Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil, Guyana.

  15. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  16. Side effects of some pesticides on the silverleaf whitefly’s parasitoid, Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae under laboratory conditions

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    Mustafa PORTAKALDALI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is one of major pests in greenhouses vegetable cultivation. Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae has an important role among effective parasitoids used in biological control of the silverleaf whitefly. Nondestructive or less destructive pesticides against this parasitoid should be preferred in the scope of biological control. For this goal, side effects of 8 plant protection products, including spinosad, pyriproxyfen, abamectin, emamectin benzoate, copper oxychloride, kresoxim-methyl+boscalid, dimethoate and propineb+cymoxanil on pupae and adults of E. mundus were tested in this laboratory study conducted according to IOBC standards. As a result, pesticides containing spinosad, abamectin and dimethoate were determined as highly destructive to pupae and adults of E. mundus, and pesticide containing emamectin benzoate was found as moderately harmful. As for propineb+cymoxanil, pyriproxyfen, kresoxim-methyl+boscalid and copper oxychloride, they were determined as ineffective on the parasitoid under laboratory conditions. These results obtained from experiments that were conducted under laboratory conditions also have to be supported by field or semi-field experiment’s results.

  17. Indigenous Knowledge of the Edible Weaver Ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

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    Joost Van Itterbeeck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-cultivating and farming edible insects. Such developments can draw on both western science and indigenous knowledge. Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae, of which particularly the queen brood is commonly consumed in Thailand and the Lao PDR, is believed to have the potential to act as flagship/umbrella species in forest conservation and management, to be incorporated simultaneously as biological control agent and direct source of human food in agroforestry practices, and to be (semi-cultivated. We provide a detailed account of indigenous knowledge of O. smaragdina and ant brood collection practices from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR, through focus group discussions and participant observations, and then reflect on sustainability and conservation issues, and on semi-cultivating constraints and possibilities embedded in indigenous knowledge and ant brood collection practices. 

  18. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE AND ITS PARASITOID DIADEGMA SEMICLAUSUM (HYMENOPTERA: ICHNEUMONIDAE

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    Rosma Hasibuan, Nilly Christalia, F.X. Susilo1, and Nur Yasin .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential Impact of Metarhizium anisopliae on the Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae and Its Parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae.  Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of the Metarhizium anisopliae against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid, Diadegma  semiclausum. A completely randomized design consisted of 5 treatments (4 concentrations of conidial suspension: 5 x 104, 3.5 x 105, 2.5 x 106, 1.2 x 107 conidia/ml and control was used.  The results indicated that the mortality of P. xylostella larvae were significantly induced by the fungal treatments.  A significant reduction in pupation and adult emergence of P. xylostella was also detected in all treatments when compared with that in the control. The fungus might also result in a male-biased sex ratio of the surviving P. xylostella. When applied at a concentration of 1.2 x 107 conidia/ml, M.  anisopliae might significantly reduce the survival of the parasitoid, D. semiclausum. Thus, despite its potential as a biological control agent against P. xylostella, the entomomogenous fungus M. anisopliae was also detrimental to the larvae parasitoid D. semiclausum.

  19. Brewer's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enhances Attraction of Two Invasive Yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to Dried Fruit and Fruit Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Borden, John; Palmero, Luis; Mattiacci, Analía; Masciocchi, Maité; Corley, Juan; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica F., and common yellowjacket, Vespula vulgaris L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), are pests of significant economic, environmental, and medical importance in many countries. There is a need for the development and improvement of attractive baits that can be deployed in traps to capture and kill these wasps in areas where they are a problem. Yellowjackets are known to feed on fermenting fruit, but this resource is seldom considered as a bait due to its ephemeral nature and its potential attractiveness to nontarget species. We analyzed the headspace volatiles of dried fruit and fruit powder baits with and without Brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and we field tested these baits for their attractiveness to yellowjackets in Argentina. The addition of yeast to dried fruit and fruit powder changed the volatile compositions, increasing the number of alcohols and acids and decreasing the number of aldehydes. Dried fruit and fruit powder baits on their own were hardly attractive to yellowjackets, but the addition of yeast improved their attractiveness by 9- to 50-fold and surpassed the attractiveness of a commercial heptyl butyrate-based wasp lure. We suggest that further research be done to test additional varieties and species of yeasts. A dried fruit or fruit powder bait in combination with yeast could become a useful tool in the management of yellowjackets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  20. The effect of Rickia wasmannii (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales on the aggression and boldness of Myrmica scabrinodis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Ferenc Báthori

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of ectosymbiotic Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota fungi and their hosts are rather understudied. Rickia wasmannii Cavara is a common ant-associated Laboulbeniales species that has been reported in 17 countries of Europe, and frequently infects Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, a common ant species host, in high density. These make M. scabrinodis and R. wasmannii appropriate model organisms for studies on fungal host-ectosymbiont interactions. Aggressiveness and boldness of infected and uninfected M. scabrinodis workers from northern and eastern Hungary were studied in two laboratory-established behavioural experiments. Infected workers were significantly less aggressive and less bold (i.e. less likely to leave nest shelters than the uninfected ones. These results suggest that R. wasmannii has considerable effects on the behaviour of M. scabrinodis. Our study brings an evidence that infection of ants with Laboulbeniales might negatively affect the workers’ behaviour. In special, the competitive abilities might be affected most by these fungi, since remaining inside and behaving submissively is not effective behaviour in the case of significant competition for resources among colonies.

  1. Arms race between selfishness and policing: two-trait quantitative genetic model for caste fate conflict in eusocial Hymenoptera.

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    Dobata, Shigeto

    2012-12-01

    Policing against selfishness is now regarded as the main force maintaining cooperation, by reducing costly conflict in complex social systems. Although policing has been studied extensively in social insect colonies, its coevolution against selfishness has not been fully captured by previous theories. In this study, I developed a two-trait quantitative genetic model of the conflict between selfish immature females (usually larvae) and policing workers in eusocial Hymenoptera over the immatures' propensity to develop into new queens. This model allows for the analysis of coevolution between genomes expressed in immatures and workers that collectively determine the immatures' queen caste fate. The main prediction of the model is that a higher level of polyandry leads to a smaller fraction of queens produced among new females through caste fate policing. The other main prediction of the present model is that, as a result of arms race, caste fate policing by workers coevolves with exaggerated selfishness of the immatures achieving maximum potential to develop into queens. Moreover, the model can incorporate genetic correlation between traits, which has been largely unexplored in social evolution theory. This study highlights the importance of understanding social traits as influenced by the coevolution of conflicting genomes. © 2012 The Author. Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. The influence of Lasius neoniger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on population growth and biomass of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Ezra G; Johnson, D W; Brown, G C

    2010-12-01

    In the United States, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are often tended by the aphid-tending ant, Lasius neoniger Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In this study, we examined the effects of tending by ants on the density and biomass of soybean aphids on soybeans in Kentucky. We performed cage studies that limited access by ants and/or natural enemies. We used a split-plot design with natural enemy access as the main plot and ant attendance as the sub plot. We found that natural enemy access negatively affected aphid population density in the presence of tending ants, seen as a three- to four-fold increase in aphid density when natural enemies were excluded. In addition, we found that ant tending positively affected aphid biomass, both when natural enemies were given access to aphids or when natural enemies were excluded, seen by a two-fold increase in aphid biomass when ants tended aphids, both in the presence or absence of natural enemies. Biomass accumulation is seen as an important measurement for assessing aphid performance, and we argue that aphid-tending by ants can have an influence on natural field populations of soybean aphids. Agronomic practices that affect ant abundance in soybeans may influence the performance and hence pest outbreaks for this economically important pest. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  3. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E.

    2009-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC 50 ), mean lethal time (LT 50 ), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC 50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10 7 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT 50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  4. Effect of ionizing (gamma and non-ionizing (UV radiation on the development of Trichogramma euproctidis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Tuncbilek Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using gamma and ultraviolet radiation as an alternative treatment to increase the efficiency of Trichogramma euproctidis (Girault 1911 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was investigated in the laboratory. The developmental and adult stages of T. euproctidis were exposed to gamma radiation of different doses (0-30 Gy and ultraviolet radiation of 254 nm wavelengths (UV-C for different durations (0-10 min to assess their effect on each of the instars and their potential in breaking the developmental cycle of the egg parasitoid. The LD50 values for eggs, prepupae, pupae and adults were 8.1, 10.0, 22.7 and 9.5 Gy for gamma radiation and 9.5, 0.12, 2.0 and 11.9 min for UV radiation, respectively. The pupa and adult stages were more radioresistant to both gamma and UV radiation. The most interesting and unexpected result obtained for the prepupal stage was that UV radiation has a greater effect on prepupal stages than gamma radiation.

  5. Community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

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    EP. Pires

    Full Text Available The community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina was studied at an area in the transition between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Barroso region, state of Minas Gerais, eastern Brazil. Orchid-bee males were collected with bait traps containing three different scents (cineole, eugenol and vanillin and with entomological nets for collecting bees on flowers. A total of 614 orchid-bee males were collected using aromatic traps, belonging to four genera and 15 species. Twenty-five female specimens belonging to two genera and at least three species were collected on flowers. Eulaema (Apeulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 was the most abundant species (50% of collected specimens, followed by Euglossa (Euglossa truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1996 (28%. Cineole was the most attractive compound (66.5% of males and 13 species, followed by eugenol (16% and 9 species and vanillin (13.5% and 4 species. Eulaema (Apeulaema marcii Nemésio, 2009 and Eufriesea auriceps (Friese, 1899 were attracted to all scents, whereas Euglossa species were collected only in cineole and eugenol.

  6. Review of the East Palaearctic and North Oriental Psyttalia Walker, with the description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Tan, Jiang-Li; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: Psyttalia latinervis Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n . and Psyttalia majocellata Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n . from China, and Psyttalia spectabilis van Achterberg, sp. n. from Japan. Coeloreuteus formosanus Watanabe, 1934, Opius (Lissosema) proclivis Papp, 1981, Opius (Psyttalia) subcyclogaster Tobias, 1998, Opius (Psyttalia) darasunicus Tobias, 1998, Opius (Psyttalia) cyclogastroides Tobias, 1998, Psyttalia extensa Weng & Chen, 2001, and Rhogadopsis longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, 2013, are new synonyms of Psyttalia cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895); Opius (Psyttalia) ophthalmicus Tobias, 1977, and Opius (Psyttalia) brevitemporalis Tobias, 1998, of Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895) and both Opius (Psyttalia) vacuus Tobias, 1998, and Opius (Lissosema) longurius Chen & Weng, 1995, of Rhogadopsis mediocarinata (Fischer, 1963). Phaedrotoma daghestanicum (Telenga, 1950), Rhogadopsis mediocarinata (Fischer, 1963) and Rhogadopsis mystica (Fischer, 1963) are new combinations. New records are Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895) from The Netherlands and Norway, and Psyttalia cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895) from Japan. A lectotype is designated for Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895) and Psyttalia cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895). A key to the East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker is included.

  7. Review of the East Palaearctic and North Oriental Psyttalia Walker, with the description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae

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    Qiong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: P. latinervis Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. and P. majocellata Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. from China, and P. spectabilis van Achterberg, sp. n. from Japan. Coeloreuteus formosanus Watanabe, 1934, Opius (Lissosema proclivis Papp, 1981, O. (Psyttalia subcyclogaster Tobias, 1998, O. (P. darasunicus Tobias, 1998, O. (P. cyclogastroides Tobias, 1998, Psyttalia extensa Weng & Chen, 2001, and Rhogadopsis longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, 2013, are new synonyms of Psyttalia cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895; Opius (Psyttalia ophthalmicus Tobias, 1977, and O. (P. brevitemporalis Tobias, 1998, of Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895 and both O. (P. vacuus Tobias, 1998, and O. (Lissosema longurius Chen & Weng, 1995, of Rhogadopsis mediocarinata (Fischer, 1963. Phaedrotoma daghestanicum (Telenga, 1950, Rhogadopsis mediocarinata (Fischer, 1963 and R. mystica (Fischer, 1963 are new combinations. New records are Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895 from The Netherlands and Norway, and P. cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895 from Japan. A lectotype is designated for Psyttalia carinata (Thomson, 1895 and P. cyclogaster (Thomson, 1895. A key to the East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker is included.

  8. Outdoor post-mortem bite injuries by Tapinoma nigerrimum (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on a human corpse: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Teresa; Vercillo, Vannio

    2015-07-01

    Ants are among the insects that colonize exposed human and animal corpses during the early stage of decomposition. In Calabria, Italy (as well as in other countries), Formicidae have been observed preying on immature stages of Diptera and other insects, as well as causing irregular scalloped areas of superficial skin loss on human corpses and animal carcasses. We present a case of injuries on a human corpse caused by ant feeding. The macroscopic appearance is described and the results of a histochemical investigation of the skin lesions caused by worker ants are reported for the first time. The investigation was carried out on the fresh corpse of a 53-year-old man discovered in a rural area of Cosenza province (Calabria, southern Italy). Numerous irregular areas of superficial skin loss caused by the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) were observed on the body surface, inflicted very early in the post-mortem period. Because the classification of lesions is of crucial importance for forensic investigations, the macroscopic appearance and distribution pattern of the lesions on the corpse are illustrated. The histochemical investigation of the damaged skin explains, for the first time, the mechanism of production of the lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

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    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.

  10. Effects of three-dimensional and color patterns on nest location and progeny mortality in alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédot, Christelle; Bosch, Jordi; James, Rosalind R; Kemp, William P

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT In alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., seed production where high bee densities are released, alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), females may enter several nesting holes before locating their nests. Such levels of "wrong hole" visits lead to an increase in the time spent by females locating their own nests, thereby decreasing alfalfa pollination efficiency and possibly healthy brood production. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of different nesting board configurations in commercial alfalfa leafcutting bee shelters (separating nesting boards, applying a three-dimensional pattern to the boards, applying a color contrast pattern, or applying a combination of three-dimensional and color contrast patterns) on nest location performance, on the incidence of chalkbrood disease, and on the incidence of broodless provisions. Separating the nesting boards inside shelters improved the ability of females to locate their nests. An increase in nest location performance also occurred in boards with the three-dimensional pattern and the combined three-dimensional and color contrast pattern, compared with the uniform board (a standard configuration currently used commercially). The percentage of provisioned cells that were broodless was not statistically different between treatments, but the percentage of larvae infected with chalkbrood decreased by half in the three-dimensional board design, compared with the uniform board.

  11. Comunidade de Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae das dunas litorâneas do Abaeté, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

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    Blandina Felipe Viana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Community of Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae from the coastal sand dunes of Abaeté, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The Euglossini community structure was analyzed by attracting males with the scents eucalyptol, eugenol, vanillin, benzyl benzoate and methyl salicylate, and by netting bees on flowers. The samplings took place three times a month along one year from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. The scent baits attracted 670 individuals belonging to seven species of three genus. The predominant species were Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758 (76.6% and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (21.8%. Euglossini males visited the scents along the whole year, being more abundant in May and in August. The most efficient fragrance was eucalyptol, attracting 624 individuals of five species. The males abundance fluctuated along the day, being the highest frequency observed between 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. Forty eigth Euglossini females of four species were netted visiting flowers of 14 plant species belonging to 13 families. Solanaceae and Caesalpiniaceae were the most visited. The species catched on flowers were Euglossa cordata, Eulaema nigrita, Euplusia mussitans (Fabricius, 1787 and Eulaema meriana flavescens Friese 1899. Euglossa cordata was the predominant species on flowers (64.6%, being collected during almost the whole year. Euplusia mussitans was the only species netted on flowers which males were not sampled on the scents.

  12. Nearly complete mitogenome of hairy sawfly, Corynis lateralis (Brullé, 1832) (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae): rearrangements in the IQM and ARNS1EF gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Özgül; Korkmaz, E Mahir

    2017-10-01

    The Cimbicidae is a small family of the primitive and relatively less diverse suborder Symphyta (Hymenoptera). Here, nearly complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of hairy sawfly, Corynis lateralis (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) was sequenced using next generation sequencing and comparatively analysed with the mitogenome of Trichiosoma anthracinum. The sequenced length of C. lateralis mitogenome was 14,899 bp with an A+T content of 80.60%. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons and all are terminated with TAR or T- stop codon. All tRNA genes preferred usual anticodons. Compared with the inferred insect ancestral mitogenome, two tRNA rearrangements were observed in the IQM and ARNS1EF gene clusters, representing a new event not previously reported in Symphyta. An illicit priming of replication and/or intra/inter-mitochondrial recombination and TDRL seem to be responsible mechanisms for the rearrangement events in these gene clusters. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the position of Corynis within Cimbicidae and recovered a relationship of Tenthredinoidea + (Cephoidea + Orussoidea) in Symphyta.

  13. A review of insect parasitoids associated with Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) in Italy. 1. DipteraTachinidae and HymenopteraBraconidae (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Loni, Augusto; Lucchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae) and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae). This paper deals with EGVM parasitoids of the families Tachinidae (Diptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Only two species of Tachinidae are associated to EGVM larvae in Italy, Actia pilipennis (Fallen) and Phytomyptera nigrina (Meigen), whereas the record of Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau-Desvoidy) is doubtful. Moreover, 21 species of Braconidae are reported to live on EGVM, but, unfortunately, eight of them were identified only at generic level. Bracon mellitor Say has been incorrectly listed among the parasitoids of Lobesia botrana . Records concerning Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, Meteorus sp., Microgaster rufipes Nees, and Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael) are uncertain.

  14. A review of insect parasitoids associated with Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 in Italy. 1. Diptera Tachinidae and Hymenoptera Braconidae (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae

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    Pier Luigi Scaramozzino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 (Lepidoptera Tortricidae in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae. This paper deals with EGVM parasitoids of the families Tachinidae (Diptera and Braconidae (Hymenoptera. Only two species of Tachinidae are associated to EGVM larvae in Italy, Actia pilipennis (Fallen and Phytomyptera nigrina (Meigen, whereas the record of Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau-Desvoidy is doubtful. Moreover, 21 species of Braconidae are reported to live on EGVM, but, unfortunately, eight of them were identified only at generic level. Bracon mellitor Say has been incorrectly listed among the parasitoids of L. botrana. Records concerning Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, Meteorus sp., Microgaster rufipes Nees, and Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael are uncertain.

  15. Parasitismo de Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae em hospedeiro alternativo sobre plantas de eucalipto em semi-campo Parasitism of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in alternative host on eucalypt in semi-field

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    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso de programas de controle biológico com parasitóides depende de pesquisas aplicadas e, por isso, estimouse o número ideal de fêmeas de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae para liberação em plantios de eucalipto, visando o controle de lepidópteros desfolhadores. Em cada repetição foram utilizadas trinta e seis pupas do hospedeiro alternativo Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae com 24 a 48 horas de idade que, foram individualizadas em armadilhas confeccionadas com tela de náilon e fixadas em ramos de plantas de Eucalyptus grandis nos terços superior, médio e inferior, na proporção de 33,33% (12 armadilhas. Após a fixação das armadilhas, as plantas foram cobertas individualmente, com uma gaiola de 7,0 x 7,0 x 2,5 m confeccionada com tecido organza e posteriormente liberadas, 36; 72; 144; 288; 576 ou 1.152 fêmeas de P. elaeisis, representando um, dois, quatro, oito, 16 ou 32 parasitóides por pupa e na testemunha, não houve liberação do parasitóide. Cada proporção foi considerada um tratamento, sendo instaladas seis repetições permitindo o parasitismo por 96 horas. O número de pupas de A. gemmatalis parasitadas foi crescente com o aumento do número de parasitóides liberados, independentemente do terço da planta considerado, ajustando-se a uma função quadrática com ponto de máximo próximo a 25 fêmeas por pupa. Na densidade de 32 fêmeas/pupa não houve aumento significativo no número de pupas parasitadas, sugerindo 25 fêmeas de P. elaeisis por pupa como a densidade mais próxima do ideal para liberação desse parasitóide em plantios de eucalipto.The success of programs of biological control with parasitoids depends on applied research and therefore it was estimated the optimal number of females Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae for release in eucalyptus plantations, for the control of lepidopterans

  16. Side Effects of Fungicides Used in Cucurbitaceous Crop on Trichogrammaatopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae Efectos Secundarios sobre Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae de Fungicidas usados en Cucurbitáceas

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can control Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. On the other hand, pesticides may reduce the efficiency of natural enemies. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of fungicides used in the production of cucurbitaceous crops on Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner parasitizing D. hyalinata eggs. The fungicides used in bioassays were: azoxystrobin (0.08 g active ingredient [ai] L-1, chlorothalonil (2.00 g ai L-1, mancozeb (1.60 g ai L-1, tebuconazole (0.25 g ai L-1 and thiophanate-methyl (0.49 g ai L-1. Cardboards with 30 D. hyalinata eggs previously immersedin fungicide solutions and distilled water (control were offered separately to 20 newly emerged T. atopovirilia females in glass tubes. Parasitism, parasitism reduction, emergence, sex ratio, and number of individuals per egg were evaluated. The fungicides chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced parasitism of T. atopovirilia by 43.37, 27.64 and 18.51%, respectively. However, parasitism with azoxystrobin (79.21% was higher than the control (67.37% (P ≤ 0.05. Chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced emergence by 73.77, 75.62 and 79.35% (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Azoxystrobin and thiophanate-methyl reduced the sex ratio by 0.77 and 0.76 (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Fungicides did not reduce the number of individuals per egg. The fungicides azoxystrobin and mancozeb were selective for T. atopovirilia for most studied parameters suggesting that these products must have the priority in crop disease management to allow efficient biological control of T. atopovirilia against D. hyalinata.Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae pueden controlar Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Sin embargo, los plaguicidas pueden reducir la eficiencia de los enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia de los fungicidas utilizados en la

  17. Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State; Ninhos de Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) em fragmentos de Mata Atlantica secundaria, Salvador, BA

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    Drummmont, Patricia; Viana, Blandina F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Biologia e Ecologia de Abelhas (LABEA); Silva, Fabiana O. da [Faculdade Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Faculdades Jorge Amado, Savador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-05-15

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 deg 01' W and 38 deg 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased ({chi}{sup 2} = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cell's partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants. (author)

  18. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jonathan B; Lozier, Jeffrey; Strange, James P; Ikerd, Harold; Griswold, Terry; Cordes, Nils; Solter, Leellen; Stewart, Isaac; Cameron, Sydney A

    2015-01-01

    Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus) are pollinators of wild and economically important flowering plants. However, at least four bumble bee species have declined significantly in population abundance and geographic range relative to historic estimates, and one species is possibly extinct. While a wealth of historic data is now available for many of the North American species found to be in decline in online databases, systematic survey data of stable species is still not publically available. The availability of contemporary survey data is critically important for the future monitoring of wild bumble bee populations. Without such data, the ability to ascertain the conservation status of bumble bees in the United States will remain challenging. This paper describes USBombus, a large database that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bumble bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the United States was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affinis, B. occidentalis, B. pensylvanicus, and B. terricola. Prior to our national survey of bumble bees in the United States from 2007 to 2010, there have only been regional accounts of bumble bee abundance and richness. In addition to surveying declining bumble bees, we also collected and documented a diversity of co-occuring bumble bees. However we have not yet completely reported their distribution and diversity onto a public online platform. Now, for the first time, we report the geographic distribution of bumble bees reported to be in decline (Cameron et al. 2011), as well as bumble bees that appeared to be stable on a large geographic scale in the United States (not in decline). In this database we report a total of 17,930 adult occurrence records across 397 locations and 39 species of Bombus detected in our national survey. We summarize their abundance and distribution across the United States and

  19. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

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    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.Filogenia e revisão taxonômica das abelhas do gênero Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, com comentários sobre o poliformismo cefálico das fêmeas. São apresentadas uma revisão taxonômica e filogenia para as espécies de Rhinocorynura. Seis espécies são reconhecidas, duas descritas como novas, R. brunnea sp. nov. e R. viridis sp. nov., e quatro com nomes disponíveis, R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps e R. vernoniae stat. nov., esta última removida da sinonímia com R. inflaticeps. Designam-se aqui lectótipos para Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 e Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906. Outro nome disponível incluído em

  20. MODIS imagery improves pest risk assessment: A case study of wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestina, Jordan; Cook, Maxwell; Kumar, Sunil; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Ode, Paul J.; Peirs, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) has long been a significant insect pest of spring, and more recently, winter wheat in the northern Great Plains. Wheat stem sawfly was first observed infesting winter wheat in Colorado in 2010 and, subsequently, has spread rapidly throughout wheat production regions of the state. Here, we used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to generate habitat suitability maps in order to predict the risk of crop damage as this species spreads throughout the winter wheat-growing regions of Colorado. We identified environmental variables that influence the current distribution of wheat stem sawfly in the state and evaluated whether remotely sensed variables improved model performance. We used presence localities of C. cinctus and climatic, topographic, soils, and normalized difference vegetation index and enhanced vegetation index data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery as environmental variables. All models had high performance in that they were successful in predicting suitable habitat for C. cinctus in its current distribution in eastern Colorado. The enhanced vegetation index for the month of April improved model performance and was identified as a top contributor to MaxEnt model. Soil clay percent at 0–5 cm, temperature seasonality, and precipitation seasonality were also associated with C. cinctus distribution in Colorado. The improved model performance resulting from integrating vegetation indices in our study demonstrates the ability of remote sensing technologies to enhance species distribution modeling. These risk maps generated can assist managers in planning control measures for current infestations and assess the future risk of C. cinctus establishment in currently uninfested regions.